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          HowTo to set appsettings during installation using WIX        
The point where most people have a hard time is remembering is to escape brackets. This to ensure WIX will not think it a property. If you forget to-do this you may end up in a situation where “config2” value will bet set on “config1” instead. See a correct example bellow [ should be [\[] […]
          Is the WTO Dispute Settlement System Fair?        
In twelve years, the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) dispute settlement system has emerged as on

          Tugas Etika Bisnis (Jurnal Etika Bisnis)        


International business ethics: strategies and responsibilities
Iraj Mahdavi,
National University
ABSTRACT

This paper examines the importance of global ethical business responsibilities. The recent public scandals of corporate malfeasance have heightened this need and organizations face numerous ethical issues. Strategies such as codes of conduct, developed by various international entities, can guide multinational corporations in this effort. The authors also analyze various ethical climate and ethical problems.  Author concludes that a global code of ethics, developed and enforced by an international agreement is the best means of bringing ethics to international businesses.

Key Words: Business Ethics, Global business, International Organizations
INTRODUCTION

Importance of ethics in the business world is superlative and global. New trends and issues arise on a daily basis which may create an important burden to organizations and endconsumers. Nowadays, the need for proper ethical behavior within organizations has become crucial to avoid possible lawsuits. The public scandals of corporate malfeasance and misleading practices, have affected the public perception of many organizations (e. g., Enron, Arthur Andersen, WorldCom etc.). It is widely known that advertising does not promote the advancement of human moral sensibility. Lasch’s contention (1978: 1) that modern advertising “Seeks to create needs, not to fulfill them: to generate new anxieties instead of allaying old ones. . . It addresses itself to the spiritual desolation of modern life and proposes consumption as the cure” seems to still be true.

The recent expansion of global business and fall of trade barriers worldwide have further underlined the interest in the topics of ethical behavior and social responsibility (See among others, Jones, 1991: 366-395). In addition, as many scholars believe, human rights and environmental conservation are gaining increasing more recognition in both academic and commercial settings.

As multinational companies expand globally and enter foreign markets, ethical conduct of the officers and employees assume added importance since the very cultural diversity associated with such expansion may undermine the much shared cultural and ethical values observable in the mores homogeneous organizations (Mahdavi, 2001). Although understanding of other cultures and recognition of differences among them will enhance the cross-cultural communication, it may not be sufficient to provide viable guidelines of proper ethical behavior in organizations. Thus, concerns about unethical behavior of corporations in other countries, are manifested in legislations such as The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, and the Sarbane- Oxley Act of 2002. In the academic arena, on the other hand, the culture-based consequentiality model is developed to explain, among other things, how cultural differences alter the ethical perception and actions of individuals engaged in making decisions with ethical overtones (Robertson and Fadil, 1999: 385-392).

Turnen-Red and Woodland (2001:61) stated:
"Through the post-World War II period international trade policy reform has seldom been absent from the mind of policy-makers. The formation of General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) as a forum for the discussion of international trade and policy issues and the resolution of disputes, and as a sponsor of regular rounds of multilateral negotiations leading to a substantial drop in the average level of tariff protection, has ensured the trade policy issues have retained currency. More recently, there has been considerable focus on bilateral and regional trade agreements with the expansion of the customs union of the European Community and the advent of organizations such as the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and Mercusor. Nevertheless, cooperative trade policy remains an important part of the international landscape”

Wimbush and Shephard (1984: 637-647) reported that businesses annually spend an estimated $40 billion on the ethical behavior problems. Thus, pointing to the fact that ethical dimension of employees’ behavior has a clear impact on the profitability of the company. In order to improve the ethical climate of an organization, management must effectively communicate proper ethical behavior throughout the organization. Training sessions, codes of ethics, reward systems, and coaching are a few methods that organizations employ in this regard (Delaney and Sockell, 1992:719-727; Laczniak and Indemeden, 1987: 297-307; Jansen and Von Glinow, 1985: 814-822).

Therefore, the problems that organizations face today are: How ethical values are communicated most effectively to employees? Which communication channel works best? American business in spite of all of its faults and weaknesses, still form a key model for much of the world. An important force in disseminating the American style of management is the role of the U.S. as the world’s largest manufacturer of contemporary culture. Moreover, many researchers have pointed to the significant role that the American business schools play in propagating the U.S. style of management throughout the world. (See Mahdavi, 2001; and Nimgade, 1989:104, among others)

Morf (1999: 265) believes: “Ethics is the moral principle that individuals inject into their decision making process and that helps temper the last outcome to conform to the norms of their society”. Moreover, ethical principles have the very profound function of making behavior predictable (Mahdavi, 2003). The truly global companies must come to grips with the legal and moral atmosphere in which they operate. But above all, they need to establish an environment that fosters ethical behavior, because in the final analysis to do otherwise cuts into their profitability.

In contrast to this view a group of scholars put forth the theory of Virtuous Ethics, which is defined as a theory that focuses mainly on an individual's moral character. According to these scholars, marketing researchers have paid little attention to virtuous ethics. Furthermore, they propose that without taking virtuous ethics into account, a comprehensive analysis of the ethical character of marketing decision makers and their strategies cannot be attained.

ETHICAL PROBLEMS IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

Getz (1990: 567-577) analyzed international codes of conduct in four entities: (1) the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which is the primary policymaker for industrialized nations, (2) the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), which is concerned with fair treatment among multinational corporations, (3) the International Labor Organization (ILO), which is concerned with direct investment in developing countries, and (4) the Center for Transnational Corporations (CTC), whose objective is to maximize the contributions of transnational corporations to economic development and growth and to minimize the negative effects of the activities of these corporations.

These various codes were developed in order to establish order among multinational corporations; although, some organizations refuse to abide by these codes, mainly because national governments have not sanctioned them completely. Without uniform and full enforcement, multinational organizations could have rampant choice in international ethical issues. Underlying this lack of consensus is the issue of national as well as corporate culture (See Hofstede, 1980: 46-47). Every nation is different and every multinational organization is in one way or another distinct in the way they do business, especially in other countries.

In addition to these codes, the moral corporation should address human rights and whistle blowing and the international ethics code under which it operates. These issues are not very new. In a survey of 300 multinational corporations, 80 percent agreed with seven items being ethical issues for business: (1) employee conflict of interest, (2) inappropriate gifts to corporate personnel, (3) sexual harassment, (4) unauthorized payments, (5) affirmative action (6) employee privacy; and (7) environmental issues (Brooks, 1989; Berenheim, 1987, 1989: 117-129).

ETHICAL CLIMATE & ETHICAL PROBLEMS

Strategies, such as these codes of ethics, are only one means of achieving the ultimate goal of having ethical international responsibility in the engagement of business worldwide. As stated above, there are many ethical responsibilities faced by multinational organizations. Theorists generally agree that situational variables such as organizational climate can affect ethical behavior of individuals (Kelly et al., 1989: 327-340). However, there have been no attempts to study the relationship of ethical climate of an organization and ethical behavior of its members.

Ethical climate, it must be emphasized, is not the same as culture is commonly perceived, but rather a broader concept of culture (Schein, 1990, pp. 109-119). Culture is believed to be more associated with deeper beliefs, values and assumptions (Denison, 1996, pp. 619-654). Therefore, just as one can value an individual’s culture by his or her actions and personal activities, ethical climate can be observed on a larger scale; in this case, the organization. Ethical climate is, in essence, the employee’s perception of the norms of an organization (Bartels et al., 1998: 799-804).

As Bartels and others have shown (1998:799-804), organizations with a strong ethical climate experienced few serious ethical problems, and were more successful coping with such problems. Their research suggests that it is imperative for managers to consider developing strong ethical climates if they aim to provide organizational members the ability to handle ethical dilemmas and to avoid any inherent liabilities. Managers must create and maintain a clear and strong set of norms to promote good ethical behavior.

In this approach, a person’s own beliefs and values and their influence on his/her perception and behavior are not taken into account. Nonetheless, ethical climate is a very potent tool in steering the behavior of an organization’s members. As Mahdavi has shown (2003, 2005), an organization’s codes of ethics and enforcement of rules go a long way to control and direct behavior of social entities.

Based on the above discussion, global corporations must recognize the need for a uniform code of business ethics since without such a code, behavior of actors in this arena remains unpredictable. Furthermore, national governments must realize that probably the most effective means of protecting their citizens, their national interests, and the global environment against the ravages of the over-reaching global business rest in the development, adoption and enforcement of such a code. Until then, it is not realistic to hope for any such international agreement to be adopted.

However, a growing momentum for such a movement is observable. As stated in previous pages, international organizations, especially those involved in international business, finance, labor, economics and environment are developing rules and policies that can be regarded as the building blocks of a universal code of business ethics. Until such a uniform body of rules is drawn, signed and enforced, global corporations and organizations will be doing well to develop their own codes of conduct, applicable to all of their officers regardless of location.

CONCLUSION

Examination of the recent development in the international trade and the far-reaching expansion of global entities lead the authors of this paper to the inevitable conclusion that ethical issues and concerns facing business entities are no longer related to the limited frameworks of national or even regional arenas. These issues have assumed global dimensions and as such require global solutions.

To that end, it is postulated that probably an international organization is the best vehicle through which a code of ethics covering all aspects of business can be developed. Once- on the basis of such a code- an international treaty is drafted, signed and ratified; it may be prudent to leave the implementation of the treaty to the member nations subject to regular audit by an independent international body. WTO may eventually take on this role.

Meanwhile, global organizations need to develop and enforce their own codes of ethics specifically directed at the issues related to a multicultural, multinational business environment.


Etika bisnis internasional: strategi dan tanggung jawab

Iraj Mahdavi,

Universitas Nasional

ABSTRAK

Makalah ini membahas pentingnya tanggung jawab global bisnis yang etis. Skandal publik baru-baru ini perusahaan telah meningkatkan penyimpangan kebutuhan ini dan organisasi menghadapi berbagai isu-isu etis. Strategi seperti kode etik, yang dikembangkan oleh berbagai badan internasional, bisa membimbing perusahaan-perusahaan multinasional dalam upaya ini. Para penulis juga menganalisis berbagai masalah etika iklim dan etika. Penulis menyimpulkan bahwa kode etik global, dikembangkan dan ditegakkan oleh perjanjian internasional adalah cara terbaik untuk membawa etika bisnis internasional.


Kata Kunci: Etika Bisnis, bisnis global, Organisasi Internasional

PENDAHULUAN

Pentingnya etika dalam dunia bisnis adalah superlatif dan global. Tren baru dan masalah timbul setiap hari yang dapat membuat beban penting untuk organisasi dan endconsumers. Saat ini, kebutuhan untuk perilaku etis dalam organisasi telah menjadi penting untuk menghindari tuntutan hukum mungkin. Skandal publik dan praktik penyimpangan perusahaan menyesatkan, telah mempengaruhi persepsi publik dari banyak organisasi (misalnya, Enron, Arthur Andersen, WorldCom dll).Hal ini secara luas diketahui bahwa iklan tidak mempromosikan kemajuan sensibilitas moral manusia. Contention Lasch (1978: 1) bahwa periklanan modern "Berusaha untuk menciptakan kebutuhan, bukan untuk memenuhi mereka: untuk menghasilkan kecemasan baru bukan yang lama menenangkan. . . Ini alamat sendiri untuk kehancuran spiritual dari kehidupan modern dan mengusulkan konsumsi sebagai obat yang "tampaknya masih benar.


Ekspansi terbaru dari bisnis global dan jatuhnya seluruh dunia hambatan perdagangan telah lebih lanjut menggarisbawahi kepentingan dalam topik perilaku etis dan tanggung jawab sosial (Lihat antara lain, Jones 1991: 366-395). Selain itu, sebagai banyak sarjana percaya, hak asasi manusia dan konservasi lingkungan yang mendapatkan pengakuan lebih meningkat dalam pengaturan baik akademis dan komersial.


Sebagai perusahaan multinasional berkembang secara global dan memasuki pasar asing, perilaku etis dari pejabat dan karyawan menganggap penting ditambahkan sejak keanekaragaman budaya yang terkait dengan ekspansi tersebut dapat merusak nilai-nilai budaya dan etika banyak berbagi diamati dalam organisasi adat istiadat homogen (Mahdavi, 2001). Meskipun pemahaman tentang budaya lain dan pengakuan perbedaan di antara mereka akan meningkatkan komunikasi lintas-budaya, hal itu mungkin tidak cukup untuk memberikan pedoman yang layak perilaku etis yang tepat dalam organisasi. Dengan demikian, kekhawatiran tentang perilaku tidak etis dari perusahaan di negara lain, yang diwujudkan dalam undang-undang seperti The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act tahun 1977, dan Sarbane-Oxley Act of 2002. Dalam arena akademis, di sisi lain, model consequentiality berbasis budaya dikembangkan untuk menjelaskan, antara lain, bagaimana perbedaan budaya mengubah persepsi etis dan tindakan-tindakan individu yang terlibat dalam membuat keputusan dengan nuansa etika (Robertson dan Fadil, 1999: 385-392).


Turnen-Merah dan Woodland (2001:61) menyatakan:

"Melalui pasca-Perang Dunia II periode Perang reformasi kebijakan perdagangan internasional jarang absen dari pikiran pembuat kebijakan Pembentukan Persetujuan Umum Tarif dan Perdagangan (GATT) sebagai forum untuk membahas perdagangan internasional dan isu-isu kebijakan dan. resolusi perselisihan, dan sebagai sponsor putaran reguler perundingan multilateral yang mengarah ke penurunan substansial dalam tingkat rata-rata proteksi tarif, telah memastikan isu-isu perdagangan kebijakan telah mempertahankan mata uang. Baru-baru ini, telah ada fokus besar pada bilateral dan regional perjanjian perdagangan dengan perluasan serikat pabean Masyarakat Eropa dan munculnya organisasi seperti Perjanjian Perdagangan Amerika Utara Gratis (NAFTA) dan Mercusor. Namun demikian, kebijakan perdagangan koperasi tetap merupakan bagian penting dari lanskap internasional "


Wimbush dan Shephard (1984: 637-647) melaporkan bahwa usaha setiap tahunnya menghabiskan sekitar $ 40 miliar pada masalah perilaku etis. Dengan demikian, menunjuk pada fakta bahwa dimensi etika perilaku karyawan 'memiliki dampak yang jelas pada profitabilitas perusahaan. Dalam rangka memperbaiki iklim etis organisasi, manajemen efektif harus berkomunikasi perilaku etis yang tepat di seluruh organisasi. Sesi pelatihan, kode etik, sistem penghargaan, dan pelatihan adalah beberapa metode yang mempekerjakan organisasi dalam hal ini (Delaney dan Sockell, 1992:719-727; Laczniak dan Indemeden, 1987: 297-307; Jansen dan Von Glinow, 1985: 814-822).


Oleh karena itu, masalah yang organisasi menghadapi hari ini adalah: Bagaimana nilai-nilai etika yang dikomunikasikan paling efektif untuk karyawan? Saluran komunikasi yang terbaik? Bisnis Amerika meskipun semua kesalahan dan kelemahan, masih berupa model kunci untuk sebagian besar dunia. Sebuah kekuatan penting dalam menyebarluaskan gaya manajemen Amerika adalah peran AS sebagai produsen terbesar di dunia budaya kontemporer. Selain itu, banyak peneliti telah menunjuk pada peran penting bahwa sekolah-sekolah bisnis Amerika bermain di US menyebarkan gaya manajemen di seluruh dunia. (Lihat Mahdavi, 2001; dan Nimgade, 1989:104, antara lain)


Morf (1999: 265) berpendapat: "Etika adalah prinsip moral bahwa individu menyuntikkan ke dalam proses pengambilan keputusan mereka dan yang membantu marah hasil terakhir untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan norma-norma masyarakat mereka". Selain itu, prinsip-prinsip etika memiliki fungsi yang sangat mendalam untuk membuat perilaku diprediksi (Mahdavi, 2003). Perusahaan-perusahaan yang benar-benar global harus datang untuk mengatasi dengan suasana hukum dan moral di mana mereka beroperasi. Tetapi di atas semua, mereka perlu membangun suatu lingkungan yang mendorong perilaku etis, karena dalam analisis akhir untuk melakukan sebaliknya pemotongan ke dalam profitabilitas mereka.

Berbeda dengan pandangan ini sekelompok ulama diajukan teori Etika budiman, yang didefinisikan sebagai sebuah teori yang berfokus terutama pada karakter moral individu. Menurut para ahli, peneliti pemasaran memiliki sedikit perhatian dengan etika berbudi luhur. Selain itu, mereka mengusulkan bahwa tanpa mengambil etika berbudi luhur ke rekening, analisis yang komprehensif dari karakter etis dari para pembuat keputusan pemasaran dan strategi mereka tidak dapat dicapai.


MASALAH ETIKA DALAM BISNIS INTERNASIONAL


Getz (1990: 567-577) menganalisis kode etik internasional dalam empat entitas: (1) Organisasi untuk Kerjasama Ekonomi dan Pembangunan (OECD), yang merupakan kebijakan utama untuk negara-negara industri, (2) International Chamber of Commerce (ICC ), yang berkaitan dengan perlakuan yang adil antara perusahaan multinasional, (3) Organisasi Buruh Internasional (ILO), yang berkaitan dengan investasi langsung di negara-negara berkembang, dan (4) Pusat Korporasi Transnasional (CTC), yang bertujuan untuk memaksimalkan kontribusi dari perusahaan-perusahaan transnasional untuk pembangunan ekonomi dan pertumbuhan dan untuk meminimalkan efek negatif dari kegiatan perusahaan-perusahaan.


Kode-kode berbagai dikembangkan dalam rangka untuk menciptakan ketertiban di antara perusahaan multinasional, meskipun beberapa organisasi menolak untuk mematuhi kode ini, terutama karena pemerintah nasional tidak direstui mereka sepenuhnya. Tanpa penegakan seragam dan penuh, organisasi multinasional bisa punya pilihan merajalela dalam isu-isu etika internasional. Mendasari kurangnya konsensus adalah masalah nasional serta budaya perusahaan (Lihat Hofstede, 1980: 46-47). Setiap bangsa berbeda dan setiap organisasi multinasional dalam satu atau lain cara yang berbeda dalam cara mereka melakukan bisnis, terutama di negara-negara lain.


Selain kode ini, korporasi moral yang harus menangani hak asasi manusia dan peluit ditiup dan kode etik internasional di mana ia beroperasi. Isu-isu ini tidak terlalu baru. Dalam sebuah survei terhadap 300 perusahaan multinasional, 80 persen setuju dengan tujuh item yang isu-isu etis bagi bisnis: (1) karyawan konflik kepentingan, (2) tidak pantas hadiah kepada personil perusahaan, (3) pelecehan seksual, (4) pembayaran yang tidak sah, ( 5) tindakan afirmatif (6) privasi karyawan, dan (7) isu-isu lingkungan (Brooks, 1989; Berenheim, 1987, 1989: 117-129).

ETIKA IKLIM dan ETIKA MASALAH


Strategi, seperti kode-kode etik, hanya satu cara untuk mencapai tujuan akhir memiliki tanggung jawab internasional etis dalam keterlibatan bisnis di seluruh dunia. Sebagaimana dinyatakan di atas, ada tanggung jawab etis yang dihadapi oleh organisasi multinasional. Teoretikus umumnya sepakat bahwa variabel situasional seperti iklim organisasi dapat mempengaruhi perilaku etis dari individu (Kelly et al, 1989:. 327-340). Namun, tidak ada upaya untuk mempelajari hubungan iklim etis organisasi dan perilaku etis dari anggotanya.


Iklim etika, harus ditekankan, tidak sama sebagai budaya yang biasa dirasakan, melainkan konsep yang lebih luas budaya (Schein, 1990, hlm 109-119). Budaya diyakini lebih dikaitkan dengan keyakinan yang lebih dalam, nilai-nilai dan asumsi (Denison, 1996, hlm 619-654). Oleh karena itu, hanya sebagai salah satu dapat nilai budaya individu dengan tindakan-nya dan kegiatan pribadi, iklim etika dapat diamati pada skala yang lebih besar, dalam hal ini, organisasi. Iklim etika, pada dasarnya, persepsi karyawan terhadap norma-norma organisasi (Bartels et al, 1998:. 799-804).


Sebagai Bartels dan lain-lain telah menunjukkan (1998:799-804), organisasi dengan iklim etika yang kuat mengalami beberapa masalah etis yang serius, dan lebih berhasil mengatasi masalah tersebut. Penelitian mereka menunjukkan bahwa sangat penting bagi manajer untuk mempertimbangkan pengembangan iklim etika yang kuat jika mereka bertujuan untuk memberikan anggota organisasi kemampuan untuk menangani dilema etika dan untuk menghindari kewajiban yang melekat.Manajer harus menciptakan dan memelihara satu set yang jelas dan kuat dari norma-norma untuk mempromosikan perilaku etika yang bagus.


Dalam pendekatan ini, kepercayaan sendiri seseorang dan nilai-nilai dan pengaruh mereka pada / persepsi dan perilaku yang tidak diperhitungkan. Meskipun demikian, iklim etika adalah alat yang sangat ampuh dalam kemudi perilaku anggota organisasi. Seperti telah menunjukkan Mahdavi (2003, 2005), kode organisasi etika dan penegakan aturan pergi jauh untuk mengontrol dan mengarahkan tingkah laku entitas sosial.


Berdasarkan pembahasan di atas, perusahaan global harus menyadari kebutuhan untuk kode seragam etika bisnis karena tanpa kode tersebut, perilaku aktor dalam arena ini tetap tak terduga. Selanjutnya, pemerintah nasional harus menyadari bahwa mungkin yang paling efektif cara melindungi warga negara mereka, kepentingan nasional mereka, dan lingkungan global terhadap kerusakan akibat sisa-mencapai bisnis melalui global dalam adopsi, pengembangan dan penegakan kode tersebut. Sampai saat itu, tidak realistis untuk berharap perjanjian internasional seperti untuk diadopsi.


Namun, sebuah momentum yang berkembang untuk gerakan semacam itu diamati.Seperti disebutkan dalam halaman-halaman sebelumnya, organisasi internasional, terutama mereka yang terlibat dalam bisnis internasional, keuangan, tenaga kerja, ekonomi dan lingkungan sedang mengembangkan aturan dan kebijakan yang dapat dianggap sebagai blok bangunan dari kode universal etika bisnis. Sampai seperti tubuh seragam aturan dibuat, ditandatangani dan diberlakukan, perusahaan global dan organisasi akan melakukan dengan baik untuk mengembangkan kode etik mereka sendiri, berlaku untuk semua perwira mereka terlepas dari lokasi.


KESIMPULAN

Pemeriksaan perkembangan terbaru dalam perdagangan internasional dan ekspansi jauh dari entitas global yang memimpin penulis kertas ini ke kesimpulan yang tak terelakkan bahwa isu-isu etika dan keprihatinan yang dihadapi entitas bisnis tidak lagi terkait dengan kerangka kerja terbatas arena nasional atau bahkan regional . Isu-isu ini telah diasumsikan dimensi global dan dengan demikian memerlukan solusi global.


Untuk itu, ia menduga bahwa mungkin sebuah organisasi internasional merupakan kendaraan terbaik melalui mana kode etik yang mencakup semua aspek bisnis dapat dikembangkan. Sekali-atas dasar seperti kode perjanjian internasional disusun, menandatangani dan meratifikasi, mungkin bijaksana untuk meninggalkan pelaksanaan perjanjian dengan subjek negara anggota untuk melakukan audit berkala oleh badan internasional yang independen. WTO akhirnya dapat mengambil peran ini.


Sementara itu, organisasi global perlu mengembangkan dan menegakkan kode etik mereka sendiri secara khusus ditujukan pada isu-isu terkait dengan lingkungan bisnis multikultural multinasional.

REFERENCES

Bartels L.K. et al.: 1998, “The Relationship between Ethical Climate and Ethical Problems within Human Resource Management”, Journal of Business Ethics 17, 799-804.
Berenheim, R.E.: 1987, “Corporate Ethics”, (The Conference Board, Inc., New York).
Berenbeim, R. E.: 1989, “Corporate Ethics”, (Random House, New York).
Brooks, L.J.: 1989, “Corporate Codes of Ethics”, Journal of Business Ethics 8, 117-129.
Delaney, J. T. and D. Sockell: 1992, “Do Company Ethics Training Programs Make a Difference? An Empirical Analysis”, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 719-727.
Denison, D. R.: 1996, “What is the Difference between Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate? A Native’s Point of View on a Decade of Paradigm Wars”, Academy of Management Review 21(3), 619-654.
Getz, K.A.: 1990, “International Codes of Conduct: An Analysis of Ethical Reasoning”, Journal of Business Ethics 9, 567-577.
Hofstede, G.: 1980, “Culture's Consequences”, (Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA).
Jansen, E. and M. A. VonGlinow: 1985, “Ethical Ambivalence and Organizational Reward Systems”, Academy of Management Review 10(4), 814-822.
Jones, T.: 1991, “Ethical Decision Making by Individuals in Organizations; An issue-contingent
Model”, Academy of Management Review 16(2), 366-395.
Kelly, S. W., S. J. Skinner and O. D. Ferrell: 1989, “Opportunistic Behavior in Marketing Research Organizations”, Journal of Business Research 18, 327-340.
Laczniak, G. R. and E. J. Inderrieden: 1987, “The Influence of Stated Organizational Concern
upon Ethical Decision Making”, Journal of Business Ethics 6, 297-307.
Lasch, C.: 1978, “The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations”, (Norton, NY).
Mahdavi, Iraj: 2001 â€œAmerican Business Education and Transfer of Culture”, Journal of American Association of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Fall 2001
Mahdavi, Iraj: 2003, “Ethical Growth: Do business Ethical Attitudes mature as individuals Get Older?” Proceedings of the International Business Association, Conference, 2003.
Mahdavi, Iraj: 2005, â€œOrigins of Business Ethical Behavior”, Proceedings of International Business Association Conference, 2005.
Morf, Duffy A., Schumacher, Michael G., and Vitell, Scott J.: “A Survey of Ethics Officers in Large Organizations”, Journal of Business Ethics 20, 265-271: 1999.
Nimgade, Ashok: “American Management as Viewed by International Professionals”, Business Horizons, November-December, 1989, Pgs. 98-105.
Robertson, C. and P. A. Fadil: 1999, “Ethical Decision Making in Multinational Organizations: A Culture-Based Model”, Journal of Business Ethics 19, 385-392.
Schein, E.: 1990, “Organizational Culture”, American Psychologist 45, 109-119.
Turnen-Red, A. and Woodland A. D. 2001, "The Anatomy of Multilateral Trade Policy Reform", Regionalism and Globalization: Theory and Practice, (Rutledge, Taylor & Francis Group, London-New York), P. 61.
Wimbush, J. C. and J. M. Shephard: 1984, “Toward an Understanding of Ethical Climate: It’s Relationship to Ethical Behavior and Supervisory Influence”, Journal of Business Ethics 13, 637-647.



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Thanks

          Great Firewall of China & the WTO        
Some folks at the European Centre for International Political Economy have written a paper suggesting that China’s use of its “Great Firewall”–which blocks pernicious web presences like, say, Google–may run contrary to some of the WTO agreements. Here’s the Ars write up: http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/news/2009/11/smashing-chinas-great-firewall-through-trade-disputes.ars Seeing my two of my favorite things combined–tech & IPE–almost made my […]
          China & the WTO        
In the spirit of the discussion about “exchange controls”, here’s a quick article about China’s restrictions on the sale of foreign goods in the domestic market. China is allowed to impose traditional “capital controls” according to the IMF and WTO agreements; but the WTO doesn’t like China trying to regulate trade & commerce. So, we […]
          HOWTO Make A Cheap Version of Muji's CD Player        
fukasawa4.jpg

Ariel Schlesinger put together a guide on how to fabricate a cheap, homemade version of the wall-mounted CD player Nato Fukasawa designed for Muji.

Per Ariel's directions, here's everything you need:

a CD-player with an access to the


          ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ð´Ð°ÑŽ BMW. X5 E 70 год 2008 на разбор        
Продаю BMW. X5 E 70 год 2008 на разбор Продаю BMW. X5 E 70 год 2008 на разбор машина в отличном состоянии не аварийная и не битая все детали и запчасти в отличном состоянии кому что нужно обращайтесь Город Ашхабад. Номер 865116429 Дима. Awto zapçast, Aşgabat
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 04-18-2014 with Nat        
Playlist:

The Silk Road Ensemble- Night Thoughts - A Playlist Without Borders
Chicago Symphony Orchestra Pierre Boulez- Ionisation - Boulez Conducts Varse Amriques Arcana Dserts Ionisation
Covenant- Leaving Babylon - Leaving Babylon
Irving Jacobson Richard Kiley- Man Of La Mancha I Don Quixote - Man Of La Mancha 1965 Original Broadway Cast Recording
- voicebreak -
Tom Waits- Misery Is The River Of The World - Blood Money
Anas Mitchell- Why We Build The Wall feat Greg Brown - Hadestown
Von Magnet- Multiplicity Of Me - El Planeta
Filastine- Circulate False Notes Suckafish P Jones Remix - Looted
Azam Ali Loga Ramin Torkian- Exaltation - Lamentation Of Swans A Journey Towards Silence
Efterklang- Falling Post - OneSided Single
Bjrk- Mutual Core Matthew Herberts Teutonic Plates Mix - Bastards
- voicebreak -
The Notwist- Kong - Close To The Glass
Belle And Sebastian- Dirty Dream Number Two - The Boy With The Arab Strap
Princess Music- Morning Song - Odobenidae
The Walker Brothers- Love Minus Zero - Take It Easy With The Walker Brothers
Link Wray- Streets Of Chicago - Streets Of Chicago Missing Links Volume 4
Paper Bird- Entre Acte Owt Ni Tuc Tuc Ni Wto Remix By Offthesky - Carry On Rmxd paper Bird Reimagined
Gang Gang Dance- Adult Goth - Eye Contact
Booka Shade- Love Inc - Eve
Gui Boratto- Beautiful Life - Chromophobia
- voicebreak -
Quantic Nidia Gngora- Muvelo Negro - Muvelo Negro anguita
Los Reyes De La Milanga- Pupos Widow - ZZK Sound Vol 3 Bonus Track Edition
Thornato- Gaita Gaita - ZZK Sound Vol 3 Bonus Track Edition
Sonido Gallo Negro- Caballito Nocturno - Cumbia Salvaje
Halden Wofford And The HiBeams- Rocky Mountain Honky Tonk - Rocky Mountain Honky Tonk
The Astronauts- Pipeline - Movin American Surf And Sand Album
The Velvet Underground Nico- Run Run Run - The Velvet Underground Nico 45th Anniversary Remastered
- voicebreak -
Nico- The Fairest Of The Seasons - Chelsea Girl
Moondog- Whats The Most Exciting Thing - Moondog
Morphine- Good - Good
Pink Mountaintops- Through All The Worry - Get Back
Thievery Corporation- Radio Retaliation - Radio Retaliation
Lowkey- Hand On Your Gun - Soundtrack To The Struggle
The Abyssinians- Declaration Of Rights - Satta Massagana
Various Artists- The Viceroys Love And Unity - Six The Hard Way
Village People- Citizens Of The World - Go West


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-04-18
          HowTo Find OutThe Truth Of A Legitimate Home Business        

Finding a realhome-based business opportunity is not as obvious as most of us would prefer it to be.

Tags:


          KR386 Schifffahrt        
Jens Alers, 50, arbeitet seit 30 Jahren in verschiedenen Positionen für die internationale Fracht-Schifffahrt. Im Küchenradio spricht er u.a. über Piraten, die Ökonomie der globalen Schifffahrt, Klimaschutz und die Schiffsverschrottung in Indien.
Jens verkaufte Lade-Kapazitäten in Hamburg und London, vermittelte den Verkauf großer Containerschiffe in Hong Kong, besorgte von der Isle of Man die technische Betreuung sensibler Flüssiggas-Tanker und gründete in Bermuda schließlich eine eigene Reederei mit aktuell neun Massengut-Frachtern. Im Gespräch mit DocPhil erklärt Jens, dass drei Schiffe seiner Arbeitgeber von Piraten entführt wurden und erläutert wie das Lösegeld über den Schiffen aus Hubschraubern abgeworfen wurde. Reeder hätten ihre Schiffe mit Stacheldraht und anderen Selbstschutzmaßnahmen aufgerüstet, sagt Jens. Zusammen mit den internationalen Militär-Patrouillen sei das sei eine der effektivsten Maßnahmen gegen Piraten bisher. Während unterbezahlte Crews eine Ausnahme seien, erklärte Jens die Schiffs-Verschrottung an indischen Küsten zu einem "schwarzen Fleck" der globalen Schifffahrt. Hier müssten sich das Verantwortungsgefühl der betroffenen Reeder, lokale Gesetze und globale Abkommen - etwa über die WTO - ändern. In diesem zweieinhalbstündigen Gespräch geht es um die Ökonomie der Schifffahrt, neue Flüssiggas-Antriebe und Schiffsfonds. Natürlich erklärt Jens auch, wie er zum deutschen Honorar-Konsul auf Bermuda geworden ist - und was man da so zu tun hat. Nachfragen und Anregungen wie immer gern in den Kommentaren. Wer möchte, kann Jens aber auch eine Email schreiben: Jens.Alers@bs-shipmanagement.com
          WTO condemns Boeing's non-compliance and new subsidies        
The United States has failed to comply with WTO rulings in the more than decade-long ongoing transatlantic battle over commercial aircraft subsidies. This was reported today by the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Compliance Panel in the DS353 dispute (EU vs U.S.), which relates to billions of dollars in subsidies granted to The Boeing Company. In March 2012, the WTO's Dispute Settlement Body ruled that a number of subsides provided by the U.S. to Boeing were illegal, and were to be withdraw...
          Brexit: An opportunity that could be wrecked by politicians        
So the UK votes to leave and the PM decides to leave, but not now.  The Chancellor of the Exchequer hides, and beyond the Bank of England printing a few billion, nothing else happens.

The EU has already decided to play tough and has its own position, which is essentially "fuck off, the walls are going up, deal with it".  Although Germany is being much more nuanced.

The Conservative Party has to find a new leader, and from that a new Cabinet and a policy on negotiations.  Labour meanwhile is going the same way.  It is likely a new Conservative leader/PM will call a General Election on a manifesto of leading the UK into a new open, free-trading world with a new free trading relationship with the EU.   Leaving the EU requires the UK to initiate it formally, which the EU is begging for, but the Government would rather delay because it changes its bargaining position.

Yet that could be problematic, not least because a key plank of those fighting to leave the EU is to end free movement of people with the EU, and all countries in the EU Single Market (including non-EU Norway and Iceland) all have signed up to free movement, and even non Single Market Switzerland has, although it does have extensive restrictions on new residents having access to any government provided services.

Meanwhile, leftwing nationalists have jumped on an opportunity.  Sinn Fein wants a referendum on Irish unification, but the Northern Ireland First Minister has said no.  Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon is flailing about wanting a second referendum on independence, but wont discuss:

1. The EU only lets non-members join, not current members split into joining and non-joining;
2. Joining the EU means joining the Euro;
3. 90% of Scottish trade is with the UK, Scotland in the EU would mean any EU trade barriers with the UK also apply to Scottish trade with the rest of the UK.

Spain, showing it really hasn't turned as far from Francoism as it would have liked, is demanding co-sovereignty over Gibraltar.

Meanwhile, the young leftwing social justice warrior types (Generation SnowFlake some have called them, for their "safe spaces", being "triggered" by hurt feelings and constantly protesting about what is offended) feel "betrayed" about the old "ruining their futures".  However, the truth is that the majority of the young didn't care enough to vote as revealed by Sky News below.

Whinging about democracy when it doesn't go your way, whilst embracing it otherwise, is beyond the pale, as are some of the hate filled attacks on older votes coming from those whose own identity politics is supposed to decry hate speech.  The truth being that the so-called liberal leftwing anti-hate, anti-violence activists are full of hate and quite happily embrace violence to get their "own way".  It's emotion laden petulance, of the kind you would have only seen from the fringes of the far-right and conspiracy theorists had the vote gone to Remain. 

So what should happen now? (notwithstanding who the PM and Government is)

1. The Government should announce the key planks of a new relationship with the EU around trade, investment, movement of people and co-operation, that it seeks to adopt.  It should clarify to the entire country that it is not going to be a UK of isolationism, but one of openness.

2. The Government should make it clear to all EU passport holders in the UK that no-one will be deported, except under existing arrangements for threats to national security or criminals.  No EU residents need fear this, nor will their property be affected or businesses, and if anyone threatens them they should go to the Police.

3. The PM should make it clear that there will be no referendum on Scottish independence this side of Brexit, but that the Government will consult with the Scottish government and parliament on the deal it seeks with the EU.  It is precipitous to talk about Scottish independence until Scotland sees the new deal negotiated with the EU.

4. The PM should make it clear that there will be no referendum on Northern Ireland joining Ireland unless the preconditions of the Good Friday Agreement are met, but that equally it cannot happen until the new deal with the EU is negotiated AND negotiations are concluded with the Republic of Ireland.

5. The PM should go to Dublin and discuss the future relationship and reassure that no border controls will be reinstated.

6. The PM should go to Germany and talk, extensively, about how to make this work, and then go to all other EU Member State capitals, and the EFTA Member States too. 

7.  The Government should go to the WTO to discussing reviving membership.

8. The PM should visit USA, China, Japan and other trading partners and say that it wants to have open, freer trading relationships and the UK will be open for business and people.

9. Finally, the PM should make it clear that there wont be a second referendum on membership and that those who want to claim it is unfair, that this is democracy and the task now is to bring the country together and work for a new relationship with the EU and the world that demonstrably proves the claims of the Remain activists wrong.

Oh and ignore Nicola Sturgeon.  The Scottish Parliament can't "veto" the British Government any more than Lambeth Borough Council can stop the UK having nuclear weapons.


          åœ°çƒã®æ­©ãæ–¹ã€€ï¼­ï¼¯ï¼¯ï¼«ã€€å°æ¹¾ã®æ­©ãæ–¹ã€€ï¼’018~2019 〔ミニ版〕        

今回の2018-2019年版には、以下の内容が収録されています。

<<特別付録は2冊つき!>>
【①エリア別詳細マップ】
●台北夜市ガイド
●台湾交通ガイド
●グルメ図鑑
●中国語会話
●スペシャル★クーポンなど

【②レトロでフォトジェニックな台南さんぽ】

<本誌>
【はじめに】
●台湾早わかりNAVI &したいこと10

【モデルプラン】
●台北3泊4日最強プラン

【巻頭特集】
●台湾ラバーがナビゲート!最新グルメTOPICS
<1>Howto Taiwan × ãƒ•ã‚©ãƒˆã‚¸ã‚§ãƒ‹ãƒƒã‚¯ï¼ç›®ã«ã‚‚ã‹ã‚ã„ã„ã‚¹ã‚¤ãƒ¼ãƒ„å·¡ã‚Š
<2>Kobashi Ikeko × é¾å±±å¯ºã‚¨ãƒªã‚¢ï¼è©±é¡Œã®ã‚¨ãƒªã‚¢ã§ç¾Žé£Ÿãƒãƒ³ãƒˆ
<more>ほかにもまだまだ台湾最新TOPICS

【グルメ】
●グルメNAVI
●編集部いち押しローカルグルメ
●小籠包BEST5
●ハズせない絶品火鍋
●一度は行きたいカフェ
●空間を楽しむ茶藝館
……など

【ショッピング】
●ショッピングNAVI
●こだわりメイド・イン・台湾雑貨
●選りすぐりのグルメみやげ
●プチ体験にトライ
●HAPPYになれる開運グッズ
●とっておきの茶器・茶葉
……など

【観光】
●観光NAVI
●最旬エリアガイド6(迪化街/温羅汀/赤峰街/康青龍/富錦街/東區)
●リノベーションスポットで買・観・食
●占い師に人生相談
●台北101を徹底解剖
●世界4大ミュージアムのひとつ國立故宮博物院
……など

【ビューティ】
●変身写真
●足裏マッサージ
●スパ&クリニック

【ステイ】
●タイプ別ホテルセレクション

【ローカルシティ】
●足を延ばして台北郊外&地方へ
<地方>
台南/高雄/台東/花蓮/台中

<台北発!日帰りプラン>
九份/平渓線/鶯歌/彰化

<台北郊外>
北投/淡水/九份 /猫空/烏来/北埔

●トラベル インフォメーション
旅の基本情報/出発前の準備/出入国の基礎知識……ほか

予告なく一部内容が変更される可能性もあります。予めご了承ください。


          åœ°çƒã®æ­©ãæ–¹ã€€ï¼­ï¼¯ï¼¯ï¼«ã€€å°æ¹¾ã®æ­©ãæ–¹ã€€ï¼’018~2019 〔ハンディ版〕        

今回の2018-2019年版には、以下の内容が収録されています。

<<特別付録は2冊つき!>>
【①エリア別詳細マップ】
●台北夜市ガイド
●台湾交通ガイド
●グルメ図鑑
●中国語会話
●スペシャル★クーポンなど

【②レトロでフォトジェニックな台南さんぽ】

<本誌>
【はじめに】
●台湾早わかりNAVI &したいこと10

【モデルプラン】
●台北3泊4日最強プラン

【巻頭特集】
●台湾ラバーがナビゲート!最新グルメTOPICS
<1>Howto Taiwan × ãƒ•ã‚©ãƒˆã‚¸ã‚§ãƒ‹ãƒƒã‚¯ï¼ç›®ã«ã‚‚ã‹ã‚ã„ã„ã‚¹ã‚¤ãƒ¼ãƒ„å·¡ã‚Š
<2>Kobashi Ikeko × é¾å±±å¯ºã‚¨ãƒªã‚¢ï¼è©±é¡Œã®ã‚¨ãƒªã‚¢ã§ç¾Žé£Ÿãƒãƒ³ãƒˆ
<more>ほかにもまだまだ台湾最新TOPICS

【グルメ】
●グルメNAVI
●編集部いち押しローカルグルメ
●小籠包BEST5
●ハズせない絶品火鍋
●一度は行きたいカフェ
●空間を楽しむ茶藝館
……など

【ショッピング】
●ショッピングNAVI
●こだわりメイド・イン・台湾雑貨
●選りすぐりのグルメみやげ
●プチ体験にトライ
●HAPPYになれる開運グッズ
●とっておきの茶器・茶葉
……など

【観光】
●観光NAVI
●最旬エリアガイド6(迪化街/温羅汀/赤峰街/康青龍/富錦街/東區)
●リノベーションスポットで買・観・食
●占い師に人生相談
●台北101を徹底解剖
●世界4大ミュージアムのひとつ國立故宮博物院
……など

【ビューティ】
●変身写真
●足裏マッサージ
●スパ&クリニック

【ステイ】
●タイプ別ホテルセレクション

【ローカルシティ】
●足を延ばして台北郊外&地方へ
<地方>
台南/高雄/台東/花蓮/台中

<台北発!日帰りプラン>
九份 /平渓線/鶯歌/彰化

<台北郊外>
北投/淡水/九份/猫空/烏来/北埔

●トラベル インフォメーション
旅の基本情報/出発前の準備/出入国の基礎知識……ほか

予告なく一部内容が変更される可能性もあります。予めご了承ください。


          Madagascar, UNWTO and ITC partner on tourism to boost economic growth        
The International Trade Centre (ITC), the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) and the Ministry of Tourism, Transport and Meteorology of Madagascar have committed to working together on an inclusive and sustainable tourism project for the...
          BB 2015-07-29 WTO Trade Policy Review: Madagascar        

WTO Trade Policy Review MADAGASCAR Note: This text provides brief description of the conditions foreign business will encounter in trade with Madagascar. It is based on a WTO Trade Policy Review for Madagascar, July 2015. Readers wishing for deeper analysis should turn to the original Trade Policy Revie


          12 Links zum erstellen von Facebook Fanpages        
    1.Facebook-Profil mit imagemaps erstellen 2. HowTo Facebook erstellen mit Shoptaps, Zusatzfunktionen usw. (eng.) 3. freie Facebook Templates 4. freie Facebook Templates 5. facebook in die website einfügen - 6. Facebook Fanpage einrichten mit Tools 7. Facebook erstellen und einstellungen 8. Facebook Fanpage PSD Template Inspiration 9. 40 Facebook Insiprationen 10. 35+ Facebook Fanpage [...]
          Asterisk 1.6.1 on openSUSE 11.1 (Part 5)        
I will explain a bit more deeper about Asterisk configuration in this post, some trick and useful configuration that I found really helpful in configuring asterisk instalation. Asterisk developer really did a good job to make a complete PBX, they give the best tools to us and now it is our job to configure it.

One thing I found really annoying is the echo if we connect asterisk to PSTN line. I use digium TDM 410P and leave the card without tune it will give annoying echo. In my earlier post (Part 2) I explain that by running /usr/sbin/dahdi_genconf dahdi will automatically create /etc/dahdi/system.conf file that already contain information about hardware echo canceller. First thing you should remember if you have the budget is buy a card with hardware echo canceller. It will let the card to manage the echo without give the processor too much task to reduce it. After that you should tune the card. Luckily Digium give the best tools to tune the card named fxotune. To tune your card first shutdown the asterisk service and then run:

# /usr/sbin/fxotune -i 0

I put 0 (zero) because to dial an outside line I set the asterisk configuration to use 0. You should change it to whatever number you use. fxotune will create /etc/fxotune.conf file to put all the configuration it creates to reduce the echo. Pleas read "man fxotune" for more explanation about the tools.

To enable Asterisk to use the card configuration every time we boot the server we need a slight modification of init script. We should call the fxotune before we call Asterisk, you can either modify the init script of Asterisk to call fxotune before it call the Asterisk or you can modify /etc/init.d/after.local (yes, I use openSUSE). I prefer to use after.local. Create /etc/init.d/after.local and fill the lines below:

# ! /bin/sh

/usr/sbin/fxotune -s
sleep 1
/etc/init.d/asterisk161 start

Also you need to remove asterisk service from init script

# insserv -r /etc/init.d/asterisk161

You can boot the server and hear the difference. If everything goes well you can hear no echo :-)

Now let's take a look back to our extension.conf that I already give in the part 3.

[recordings]
exten => 500,1,Answer
exten => 500,2,Playback(en/silakanrekamgreeting)
exten => 500,3,Record(en/mymessage:gsm)
exten => 500,4,Playback(en/pesananda)
exten => 500,5,Playback(en/mymessage)
exten => 500,6,Playback(en/tekan1)
exten => 500,7,WaitExten(3)
exten => t,1,Playback(en/maafmohonulangi)
exten => t,2,Goto(500,5)
exten => i,1,Playback(en/pesanandasalah)
exten => i,2,Goto(500,5)
exten => 1,1,System(/bin/mv /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/mymessage.gsm /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/autoattendant.gsm)
exten => 1,2,Playback(en/terimakasih)
exten => 1,3,Playback(en/tekan3)
exten => 2,1,Goto(500,1)
exten => 3,1,Goto(500,1)
exten => 4,1,Hangup
include => internal-sip

This is the context about recording that we put it in extensions.conf and also in sip.conf, that's why I put "include => internal-sip" in the bottom of the context. We create the special extension 500 to record the greeting for our system. We will put the record as greeting, when someone from outside call our lines, then Asterisk will play this greeting. I will explain it to you don't worry :-). Those lines means:

If dial 500 then answer.
Play the sound file /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/silakanrekamgreeting.gsm. You can record a custom sound file which contain something like "Please record your greeting after the beep", save it as gsm format and call it from here.
Record your message (say the greeting you want to record) and put it as /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/mymessage.gsm
Play the file /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/pesananda.gsm. You can record a custom sound file which contain something like "Your greeting is", save it as gsm format and call it from here.
Play your record greeting that just you record in step 3.
Play the sound file /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/tekan1.gsm. You can record a custom sound file which contain something like "Please press 1 to save your message", save it as gsm format and call it from here.
Wait 3 second for pressing 1
t,1 means that if 3 seconds already time-out then play the sound file /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/maafmohoulangi.gsm. You can record a custom sound file which contain something like "Please re-record your message", save it as gsm format and call it from here.
t,2 go to point 6 above and repeat the steps.
i,1 means if you press another number in step 7 (you don't record the message) then play the sound file /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/pesanandasalah.gsm. You can record a custom sound file which contain something like "Sorry I didn't get that", save it as gsm format and call it from here.
i,2 go to point 6 above and repeat the steps.
1,1 if you press 1 in step 7 then asterisk will move /bin/mv /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/mymessage.gsm to /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/autoattendant.gsm
1,2 means play the sound file /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/terimakasih.gsm. You can record a custom sound file which contain something like "thankyou", save it as gsm format and call it from here.
1,3 means play the sound file /var/lib/asterisk/sounds/en/tekan3.gsm. You can record a custom sound file which contain something like "press 3 to record another message", save it as gsm format and call it from here.
include => internal-sip, means that asterisk will see also [recording] context in [internal-sip] context, usually we manage [internal-sip] in sip.conf.
Now ti's time to configure /etc/asterisk/sip.conf. This file manage the sip for ip phone and other peripheral in our setup. I use several desk ip-phone, wireless ip-phone (Polycom Kirk DECT) and also GSM gateway (Zed, Musitel etc), all of it running well. My sip.conf looks something like:

[general]

port = 5060
bindaddr = 10.7.1.120
disallow=all
allow=all
allow=ulaw
allow=gsm
context=internal-sip

;--------------------xxxxx site ---------------------------

;Polycom IP330

[8001]
type=friend
host=dynamic
dtmfmode=rfc2833
language=en
context=internal-sip
nat=no
canreinvite=no
username=TELEPH01
userid=8001
callerid=TELEPH01 <8001>
mailbox=8001
allow=all
qualify=yes

[8002]
type=friend
host=dynamic
dtmfmode=rfc2833
language=en
context=internal-sip
nat=no
username=TELEPH02
userid=8002
callerid=TELEPH02 <8002>
mailbox=8002
allow=all
qualify=yes

[8006]
type=friend
host=dynamic
dtmfmode=rfc2833
language=en
;context=internal-sip
context=recordings
nat=no
canreinvite=no
username=TELEPH06
userid=8006
callerid=DPTELEPH06 <8006>
mailbox=8006
allow=all
qualify=yes

; KIRK DECT 3040 at site

[8020]
type=friend
host=dynamic
dtmfmode=rfc2833
language=en
context=internal-sip
nat=no
username=TELEPH20
userid=8020
callerid=TELEPH20 <8020>
mailbox=8020
allow=all
qualify=yes

;Zed GSM GATEWAY

[8031]
type=peer
insecure=very
disallow=all
allow=ulaw
allow=alaw
allow=gsm
context=internal-sip
host=10.7.1.31
username=GS8
permit=10.7.1.31/255.255.255.255
qualify=yes
canreinvite=no
call-limit=4
dtmfmode=rfc2833
nat=no

[8032]
type=peer
insecure=very
disallow=all
allow=ulaw
allow=alaw
allow=gsm
context=internal-sip
host=10.7.1.32
username=GS8
permit=10.7.1.32/255.255.255.255
qualify=yes
canreinvite=no
call-limit=4
dtmfmode=rfc2833
nat=no

[8001] and [8006] are the desk ip-phone, [8020] is wireless ip-phone, and [8031] and [8032] are Zed gsm gateway. Please pay attention to [8001] and [8006] almost all the configuration are same, except one line.context. For 8001 context=internal-sip but 8006 context=recording. This line tell us that for recording / greeting purpose we will use the phone with extension 8006. So we can only dial 500 and do the recording in that phone as we set it in /etc/asterisk/extension.conf. You cannot dial 500 and do recording in the phone with the sip configuration doesn't include the line context=recording. I hope you get it :-)

For gsm gateway, I set it up just like the other as internal-sip. But there are a lot of gsm gateways out there and every brand has their own configuration so please read the manual of your gsm gateway and set it up properly. You can use it in front of digium as fxo/fxs or you can also set it up as sip extension depend on you gsm gateway type.

Let's move to chan_dahdi.conf that I already attached several post earlier. Let me remind part of the file:

[channels]
language=en
context=internal-fxo
signalling=fxs_ks
rxwink=300
cidstart=polarity
answeronpolarityswitch=no
hanguponpolarityswitch=no
pulsedial=no
cidsignalling=dtmf
busydetect=yes
busycount=6

......

echocanceller=mg2,1-12
channel => 1-12

there is line with "context=internal-fxo". Basically it means that all the channels 1 through 12 are in the context of internal-fxo. By doing this all the lines will follow the setup we already done in extensions.conf under context [internal-fxo], please take a look extensions.conf in earlier part. You got it, don't you :-) ?

Let me finish this asterisk session, 5 part seem not enough but I'm afraid this will make my blog so bore :-). So final notes is about iax.conf. If you have several locations with asterisk server in every location you can connect the server and make conversation like you dial an extension. First of all you should setup a VPN between the site. I presume you already now how to set it up, there are a lot of howto in internet. Then you should configure the iax.conf. I already give the example in previous post, let me explain. Take attention in this part:

[general]

bindport=4569
bindaddr=10.8.1.120

.......................

register => ncpabxsv:0000@10.1.1.120:4569
register => dppabxsv:0000@10.7.1.120:4569
register => ygpabxsv:0000@10.8.1.120:4569

This server address is 10.8.1.120 and the port 4569 use for the iax. We should register all the server including this server in the 3 lines at the bottom.

Also we should make the setup for every server like below:

[ncpabxsv]
type=friend
auth=md5
secret=0000
context=local
host=dynamic
defaultip=10.1.1.120
qualify=yes
requirecalltoken=no

[dppabxsv]
type=friend
auth=md5
secret=0000
context=local
host=dynamic
defaultip=10.7.1.120
qualify=yes
requirecalltoken=no

[ygpabxsv]
type=friend
auth=md5
secret=0000
context=local
host=dynamic
defaultip=10.8.1.120
qualify=yes
requirecalltoken=no

In all site with the asterisk server we should configure iax.conf so every server can be registered with each other. By doing this you can call other site with extension. Now take a look again our extensions.conf in this section:

[internal-sip]
exten => _1.,1,Dial(IAX2/ygpabxsv:0000@10.1.1.120/${EXTEN:1}@local)
exten => _1.,2,Hangup()
exten => _2.,1,Dial(IAX2/ygpabxsv:0000@10.7.1.120/${EXTEN:1}@local)
exten => _2.,2,Hangup()

Above lines means:

_1. --> if you start a call with "pressing 1 then follow by extension then you connect to asterisk server in ip address 10.1.1.120". 10.1.1.120/${EXTEN:1} means the asterisk server in ip 10.1.1.120 will stripe the first digit.
_2. --> if you start a call with "pressing 2 then follow by extension then you connect to asterisk server in ip address 10.7.1.120". 10.7.1.120/${EXTEN:1} means the asterisk server in ip 10.7.1.120 will stripe the first digit.
I think I already explain everything that you should know about how to setup and configure an asterisk server, make a conference room, setting up extension, and even connecting between two or more asterisk server using iax. Now it is your turn :-) You can experiment with my setting until you get used to it and try another configuration that match with what you want.

Don't forget to have a lot of fun.
          Traffic Shaping - Bagian 2        
Pada bagian ini kita akan mendiskusikan bagaimana mengklasifikasikan paket dan kemudian melakukan penandaan paket (packet marking) berdasarkan TOS field paket di linux kernel. Jadi kita akan menyerahkan klasifikasi paket untuk dilakukan oleh iptables selanjutnya HTB akan melakukan queueing berdasarkan penandaan oleh iptables. Secara singkat TOS (Type of Service, kudu dimengerti oleh pengguna linux yang berminat pada networking dan Quality of Service) merupakan bagian dari paket yang menentukan prioritas dari paket. TOS terdiri dari 8 bit (octet), bit 0, 1, 2 adalah precedence, bit 3, 4, 5, 6 adalah TOS, dan bit 7 adalah bit MBZ (Must Be Zero).


Secara default nilai dari TOS bits adalah sebagai berikut:
  • 1000 (binary)      8 (decimal)       Minimize delay (md)
  • 0100 (binary)      4 (decimal)       Maximize throughput (mt)
  • 0010 (binary)      2 (decimal)       Maximize reliability (mr)
  • 0001 (binary)      1 (decimal)       Minimize monetary cost (mmc)
  • 0000 (binary)      0 (decimal)       Normal service
Untuk mengetahui lebih jauh tentang TOS silakan membaca RFC1349 dan RFC2474.

Dengan iptables kita dapat melakukan penandaan paket (packet marking) berdasarkan TOS bits dan inilah yang akan kita lakukan dengan script yang kita buat. Header dari paket akan dibongkar (mangle) oleh iptables dan disisipi tanda (mark) sesuai keinginan kita. (Thanks to Rusty Russel, Harald Welte, Patrick McHardy etc to make iptables as a nice userland for linux communites. Sekitar 2 tahun lalu Tahun 2006 kebetulan saya pernah kerja bareng dengan salah satu kontributor iptables/netfilter Fabrice Marie, dia salah satu pembuat howto nya netfilter, orangnya sangat down to earth, ramah dan mau berbagi ilmu. Saat itu saya gak tahu kalau dia salah satu kontributornya……..)

Pada script yang saya berikan (pada tulisan sebelumnya) perhatikan bagian
tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 1 handle 1 fw classid 1:10
tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 2 handle 2 fw classid 1:11
tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 3 handle 3 fw classid 1:12
tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 4 handle 4 fw classid 1:13
tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 5 handle 5 fw classid 1:14
tc filter add dev eth1 parent 1:0 protocol ip prio 6 handle 6 fw classid 1:15
Pada tulisan sebelumnya kita sudah membuat 6 class htb qdisc tetapi belum melakukan klasifikasi paket, sehingga seluruh paket upload dari network kita akan melalui class 1:15 (kita mendefinisikan tc qdisc add dev eth1 root handle 1: htb default 15). Sekarang kita harus mengklasifikasikan paket agar paket tertentu akan masuk kedalam class htb qdisc tertentu pula. Script di atas adalah filter yang akan membagi paket kedalam class tertentu berdasarkan klasifikasi paket oleh iptables. Penggunaan iptables sangat dianjurkan karena sangat fleksibel, menghitung paket untuk setiap rule dengan cepat, dan juga dengan adanya RETURN target paket tidak perlu menjelajah ke semua rule.

Perintah yang dilakukan pada script di atas adalah memberitahu kernel bahwa paket dengan nilai spesifik FWMARK (handle x fw) harus masuk ke class tertentu (classid x:xy).

Bagi anda yang belum memahami cara kerja iptables silakan download howtonya di sini, atau setidaknya pahami diagram dari Jan Engelhardt (jengelh adalah pengguna openSUSE, dia salah satu kontributor di openSUSE Build Service).

Misalkan ip lokal anda 192.168.0.0/24 dan ip public anda 202.170.1.2, maka jalankan NAT dengan iptables (untuk pengguna SuSEfirewall tidak perlu menjalankan perintah iptables ini, tetapi ikuti langkah untuk SuSEfirewall di paragraf berikutnya. Saya pengguna SuSEfirewall juga).
  • ech0 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
  • iptables – t nat -A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.0.0/255.255.255.0 -o eth1 -j SNAT –to-source 202.170.1.2
Untuk pengguna SuSEfirewall, buka file /etc/sysconfig/SuSEfirewall2 dan lengkapi bagian di bawah ini:
FW_DEV_EXT=’eth1′       ——> sesuaikan dengan eth ip publik
FW_DEV_INT=’eth2′        ——> sesuaikan dengan eth ip lokal
FW_ROUTE=”yes”
FW_MASQUERADE=”yes”
FW_MASQ_DEV=”zone:ext”
FW_MASQ_NETS=”192.168.0.0/24″
FW_CUSTOMRULES=”/etc/sysconfig/scripts/SuSEfirewall2-custom”
Kemudian mulailah menambahkan rule untuk PREROUTING chain pada tabel mangle:
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p icmp -j MARK –set-mark 0×1
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p icmp -j RETURN
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos –tos Minimize-Delay -j MARK –set-mark 0×1
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos –tos Minimize-Delay -j RETURN
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos –tos Minimize-Cost -j MARK –set-mark 0×5
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos –tos Minimize-Cost -j RETURN
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos –tos Maximize-Throughput -j MARK –set-mark 0×6
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -m tos –tos Maximize-Throughput -j RETURN
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp –sport 22 -j MARK –set-mark 0×1
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp –sport 22 -j RETURN
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp –dport 22 -j MARK –set-mark 0×1
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp –dport 22 -j RETURN
iptables -t mangle -I PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp –tcp-flags SYN,RST,ACK SYN -j MARK –set-mark 0×1
iptables -t mangle -I PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp –tcp-flags SYN,RST,ACK SYN -j RETURN
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp –dport 587 -j MARK –set-mark 0×5
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp –dport 587 -j RETURN
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp –dport 993 -j MARK –set-mark 0×5
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p tcp -m tcp –dport 993 -j RETURN
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -j MARK –set-mark 0×6
Maksud dari script di atas adalah:
  1. menandai traffic ICMP dengan FWMARK 0×1
  2. -j RETURN untuk trafik ICMP dimana ICMP tidak akan masuk ke rule lain dibawahnya
  3. menandai semua trafik TOS minimize delay sebagai FWMARK 0×1
  4. -j RETURN untuk trafik TOS minimize delay, dimana trafik TOS minimize delay tidak akan masuk ke rule lain dibawahnya
  5. menandai semua trafik TOS minimize cost sebagai FWMARK 0×5
  6. -j RETURN untuk trafik TOS minimize cost, dimana trafik TOS minimize cost tidak akan masuk ke rule lain dibawahnya
  7. menandai semua trafik TOS maximize throughput sebagai FWMARK 0×6
  8. -j RETURN untuk trafik TOS maximize throughput, dimana trafik TOS maximize throughput tidak akan masuk ke rule lain dibawahnya
  9. menandai trafik yang berasal dari port SSH dengan FWMARK  0×1
  10. -j RETURN untuk trafik yang berasal dari port SSH dimana trafik yang berasal dari port SSH tidak akan masuk ke rule lain dibawahnya
  11. menandai trafik yang menuju port SSH dengan FWMARK  0×1
  12. -j RETURN untuk trafik yang menuju port SSH dimana trafik yang menuju port SSH tidak akan masuk ke rule lain dibawahnya
  13. menandai trafik yang memiliki SYN flag dengan FWMARK  0×1
  14. -j RETURN untuk trafik yang memilik SYN flag dimana trafik yang memiliki SYN flag tidak akan masuk ke rule lain dibawahnya
  15. menandai trafik yang menuju port 587 dengan FWMARK 0×5
  16. -j RETURN untuk trafik yang menuju port 587 dimana trafik yang menuju port 587 tidak akan masuk ke rule lain dibawahnya
  17. menandai trafik yang menuju port 993 dengan FWMARK 0×5
  18. -j RETURN untuk trafik yang menuju port 993 dimana trafik yang menuju port 993 tidak akan masuk ke rule lain dibawahnya
  19. trafik yang tidak termasuk dalam klasifikasi sebelumnya akan ditandai dengan FWMARK 0×6 dan akan masuk ke class 1:15
Kemudian lakukan hal yang sama untuk OUTPUT chain. Ulangi script tabel mangle untuk PREROUTING, dan ganti semua kata PREROUTING dengan OUTPUT. Kegunaannya adalah agar semua trafik yang dihasilkan secara lokal di server tempat script ini terletak juga akan diklasifikasi. Tetapi bagian paling akhir dari script diganti dengan: iptables -t mangle -A OUTPUT -j MARK –set-mark 0×3. Hal ini membuat lokal trafik akan mempunyai prioritas lebih tinggi dan akan masuk ke class 1:12.

Masukan script OUTPUT chain dan PREROUTING chain dalam iptables script yang selama ini anda gunakan. Untuk pengguna SuSEfirewall, edit file /etc/sysconfig/scripts/SuSEfirewall2-custom, dan masukkan script tersebut pada bagian before antispoofing seperti dibawah ini

fw_custom_before_antispoofing(){
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p icmp -j MARK –set-mark 0×1
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -p icmp -j RETURN
…….. dan seterusnya
iptables -t mangle -A PREROUTING -j MARK –set-mark 0×6
iptables -t mangle -A  OUTPUT -p icmp -j MARK –set-mark 0×1
iptables -t mangle -A OUTPUT -p icmp -j RETURN
…….. dan seterusnya
iptables -t mangle -A OUTPUT -j MARK –set-mark 0×3
true
}
Jalankan script yang saya berikan dan restart SuSEfirewall atau iptables, dan coba jalankan perintah :
tc -s class show dev eth1
Sekarang perhatikan bahwa jumlah paket akan meningkat di setiap class. Jika ada class yang kosong berarti anda musti mengatur ulang priority atau FWMARK yang diberikan, karena hal ini berbeda disetiap network tergantung dari karakteristik pengunaan network oleh user. Selain itu sekiranya ada class yang penuh terus, maka perlu ditambahkan queuing dicipline lain supaya pembagian bandwidth lebih fair. Hal ini dilakukan dengan sfq (stochastic fairness queueing). Pada contoh script saya tambahkan class sebagai berikut:
tc qdisc add dev eth1 parent 1:12 handle 120: sfq perturb 10
tc qdisc add dev eth1 parent 1:13 handle 130: sfq perturb 10
tc qdisc add dev eth1 parent 1:14 handle 140: sfq perturb 10
tc qdisc add dev eth1 parent 1:15 handle 150: sfq perturb 10
Maksudnya adalah menambahkan queueing disc sfq pada class 1:12 (dan seterusnya) dengan nama handle 120 (dan seterusnya) dengan hashing dilakukan setiap 10 detik. SFQ akan mengatur bandwidth dibagi secara fair untuk setiap paket trafik. Untuk kasus di tempat anda mungkin berbeda tetapi script ini dapat dijadikan dasar untuk anda mengkonfigurasi di network anda.

Mudah-mudahan penjelasan singkat ini bisa dimengerti. Pada tulisan berikutnya akan saya jelaskan bagian script yang lain.

          UU Hak Cipta, Ketentuan Umum, Lingkup Hak Cipta, Perlindungan Hak Cipta, Perbatasan Hak Cipta Teknologi Informasi         

Hak Cipta dalam Kerangka Persaingan Pasar
Keberadaan hak cipta sebagai hak ekslusif bagi para penciptanya harus dapat dihormati dan dihargai. Penemuan baru oleh peneliti atau pencipta bukan pekerjaan dalam waktu singkat, ia membutuhkan waktu lama dan biaya besar sehingga wajar hasil cipta tersebut harus dilindungi. Hasil ciptaan tersebut bahkan dapat digunakan untuk tujuan komersial dalam kegiatan bisnis yang amat menguntungkan.
John Naisbitt dan Patricia Aburdene telah meramalkan bahwa suatu saat nanti dunia yang dihuni manusia ini akan berubah menjadi suatu perkampungan global (global village) dengan pola satu sistem perekonomian atau single economy system berdasarkan permintaan/mekanisme pasar dan persaingan bebas. Mereka yang mampu survive adalah orang atau para pengusaha yang dapat menghasilkan “produk” dengan kualitas tinggi dan harga bersaing. Artinya, manusia yang berkualitas dalam era ini adalah mereka yang dianggap memiliki produk dengan “nilai jual” yang dapat diandalkan pada persaingan global, baik di pasar nasional, regional maupun internasional dengan berlakunya pasar bebas (free market) dalam perdagangan internasional.
Berkaitan dengan era pasar bebas dengan perdagangan barang dan atau jasa, bermula pada 15 April 1994 dengan tercapainya kesepakatan internasional di Maroko melalui Agreement on Establishing the World Trade Organization (WTO) yang dikenal sebagai Marrakesh Agreement. Adanya kesepakatan yang akhirnya melahirkan organisasi perdagangan dunia (WTO) ini, maka produk dari setiap orang atau negara diatur melalui mekanisme pasar yang mengutamakan kualitas barang dan atau jasa. Produk tersebut biasanya dilindungi hukum sebagai hasil rasa, karsa dan cipta manusia yang tidak bisa begitu saja untuk dilanggar. Indonesia sebagai bagian dari masyarakat internasional ikut menandatangani kesepakatan ter-sebut melalui UU No. 7 Tahun 1994 (LN Tahun 1994 No. 95 TLN No. 3564) tanggal 2 Nopember 1994 yang berlaku sebagai ius constitutum dalam konstelasi hukum nasional yang mempunyai dampak luas pada bidang lain.
Konsekuensinya, semua kesepakatan itu harus ditaati dan diterapkan dengan konsisten. Salah satu agenda penting dari WTO adalah Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Including Trade in Counterfeit Goods. Kesepakatan ini akhirnya melahirkan TRIPs (Trade Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights) yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan perlindungan di bidang Hak Kekayaan Intelektual (HKI) dari pembajakan atas suatu karya kreatif dan inovatif seseorang/kelompok orang, baik di bidang sastra, seni, teknologi dan karya ilmiah. Suatu hal yang cukup kompleks dan perlu dilakukan upaya adaptasi (penyesuai-an) terus menerus untuk dapat mengikuti dinamika perkembangan dengan perangkat hukum yang mengatur masalah baru tersebut karena sebelumnya justru tidak diatur dalam ketentuan hukum nasional. Kevakuman ini harus ditutupi dengan adanya aturan undang-undang sebagai kepastian hukum untuk mengikuti perkembangan iptek dan masyarakat internasional.
Salah satu bidang HKI adalah hak cipta (copy rights) yang merupakan hak ekslusif (khusus) bagi pencipta atau penerima hak untuk mengumum-kan atau memperbanyak ciptaannya atau memberikan izin untuk itu dengan tidak mengurangi pembatasan-pembatasan menurut peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku (Pasal 1 LTU No. 19 Tahun 2002). Ciptaan merupakan hasil setiap karya pencipta dalam bentuk khas apapun juga dalam lapangan ilmu, seni dan sastra yang menguntungkan dari segi materil, moril dan reputasi seseorang atau kelompok orang yang menghasil-kan ciptaan berdasarkan kerja keras melalui pengamatan, kajian dan penelitian secara terus menerus. Sudah sewajarnya, hasil ciptaan orang lain harus dapat dilindungi hukum dari setiap bentuk pelanggaran hak cipta. la sebenarnya merupakan suatu perbuatan tidak terpuji dan tercela bahkan tidak “bermoral” oleh orang-orang tidak bertanggungjawab yang melakukannya, karena adanya”the morality that makes law possible.”
Pada kondisi ini, sudah pasti tidak dapat dihindarkan adanya kecen-derungan sebagian orang/kelompok orang yang menginginkan dengan berbagai cara untuk meneguk keuntungan finansial secara cepat tanpa usaha keras, mengeluarkan modal dan kejujuran dengan membajak hasil ciptaan orang lain ataupun mendompleng reputasi ciptaan pihak lain sehingga amat merugikan bagi para pencipta pertama. Tindakan ini sudah tentu tidak dapat dibenarkan, karena melanggar hukum sebab bukan hanya para pencipta yang sah saja merasa dirugikan, akan tetapi juga masyarakat luas mengalami kerugian besar karena memperoleh barang dan atau jasa tidak sesuai kualitas yang diharapkan. Keadaan ini dikhawatirkan dapat mengakibatkan terjadi degradasi moral dan etika dalam kehidupan masyarakat yang tidak mau menghargai kreasi intelektual pihak lain yang telah bersusah payah melahirkan ciptaannya.
Dalam pergaulan masyarakat internasional, negara-negara yang memproteksi atau membiarkan pelanggaran hak cipta tanpa adanya penindakan hukum dapat dimasukkan dalam priority watch list, karena tidak memberikan perlindungan HKI secara memadai bagi negara atau pemilik/pemegang izin ciptaan tersebut. Sanksi yang dijatuhkan dapat berupa pengucilan dalam pergaulan masyarakat internasional atau sanksi ekonomi dari produk negara itu pada transaksi bisnis internasional.
UU No. 19 Tahun 2002 yang berlaku efektif pada tanggal 23 Juli 2003 sebagai pengganti UU No. 6 Tahun 1982 tentang Hak Cipta sebagaimana telah diubah dengan UU No. 7 Tahun 1987 dan UU No. 12 Tahun 1997 diharapkan sekali menjadi a new legal framework atau perangkat hukum baru untuk mengantisipasi merebaknya pelanggaran hak cipta di tanah air oleh orang-orang yang tidak bertanggungjawab dengan maksud untuk memperoleh keuntungan secara “bypass” atau “potong kompas” (cepat) dengan cara tercela melanggar hukum atas hak-hak orang lain. Keadaan demikian tentu akan menimbulkan masalah terhadap upaya perlindungan hukum atas pelanggaran hak cipta mengingat tidak semua orang dapat memahami-nya dengan baik.
Perkembangan dan Pembatasan Hak Cipta
Keberadaan copyright atau hak cipta semenjak tahun 1886 telah diakui oleh masyarakat internasional sebagai hak ekslusif para pencipta. Sebagai salah satu bentuk karya intelektual yang dilindungi dalam HKI, hak cipta memiliki peran amat penting dalam rangka mendorong dan melindungi penciptaan, penyebarluasan hasil karya ilmu pengetahuan, seni dan sastra serta teknologi untuk mempercepat upaya pertumbuhan pembangunan dan kecerdasan kehidupan suatu bangsa. Keadaan ini amat disadari oleh Pemerintah Indonesia sebagaimana diamanatkan dalam UU No. 25 Tahun 2000 tentang Program Pembangunan Nasional tahun 2000-2004 pada kegiatan pembangunan pendidikan, khususnya program penelitian, peningkatan kapasitas dan pengembangan kemampuan sumber daya ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi.
Suatu ciptaan dapat memberi nilai ekonomis bagi para pencipta dan pemegang izin melalui kegiatan ekonomi, yakni penjualannya ke pasar. Upaya menghasilkan suatu ciptaan membutuhkan proses waktu, nspirasi, pemikiran dana dan kerja keras sehingga wajar hasil karya para pencipta itu harus dilindungi dari setiap bentuk pelanggaran hak cipta yang sangat merugikan para pencipta. Sebaliknya, dalam batas-batas tertentu pada ketentuan undang-undang hak cipta, hasil ciptaan seseorang dapat dibenarkan diambil orang lain dengan izin atau tanpa izin pemilik yang bersangkutan tanpa perlu takut dikategorikan sebagai pelanggaran hukum terhadap hak cipta.
Standar perlindungan atas HKI yang diterapkan dalam perjanjian adalah standar perlindungan minimal yang telah tertuang dalam perjanjian yang sudah ada sebelumnya yang dikembangkan pada perjanjian dan konvensi dalam naungan World Intellectual Property Organization (WIP0). Perlindungan terhadap hak cipta adalah berdasarkan pada kesepakatan The Beme Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works tanggal 9 September 1886 di Bern, Swiss.
Pemerintah Belanda yang menjajah Indonesia pada tanggal 1 November 1912 memberlakukan keikutsertaannya pada Konvensi Bern melalui asas konkordansi di Hindia Belanda dengan mengeluarkan suatu Auterswet 1912 berdasarkan UU Hak Cipta Belanda pada tanggal 29 Juni 1911 (Stb Belanda No. 197). Konvensi Bern 1886 terus direvisi dan diamandir oleh negara-negara anggota WIP0. Terakhir direvisi di Paris pada tahun 1971 dan 1989.
Keikutsertaan suatu negara sebagai anggota Konvensi Bern akan menimbulkan kewajiban negara peserta untuk menerapkan dalam perundang-undangan nasional di bidang hak cipta. Lima prinsip dasar dianut Konvensi Bern adalah sebagai berikut:
Pertama, prinsip perlakuan nasional (national treatment principle), yakni ciptaan yang berasal dari salah satu peserta perjanjian atau suatu ciptaan yang pertama kali diterbitkan pada salah satu negara peserta perjanjian harus mendapat perlindungan hukum hak cipta yang sama sebagaimana diperoleh ciptaan peserta warga negara itu sendiri.
Kedua, prinsip perlindungan hukum langsung/otomatis (automatic protection principle). Pemberian perlindungan hukum harus diberikan secara langsung tanpa harus memenuhi syarat apa pun (must not be conditional upon compliance with any formality).
Ketiga, prinsip perlindungan independen (independent of protection principle), yakni suatu perlindungan hukum diberikan tanpa harus bergantung kepada pengaturan perlindungan hukum negara asal pencipta.
Keempat, prinsip minimal jangka waktu hak cipta (minimum duration of copyright). Perlindungan diberikan minimal selama hidup pencipta ditambah 50 tahun setelah pencipta meninggal dunia.
Kelima, prinsip hak-hak moral (moral rights principle). Hak yang tergolong sebagai hak moral dimiliki pencipta seperti keberatan mengubah, menambah atau mengurangi keaslian ciptaan yang perlu mendapat pengaturan perlindungan-nya dalam hukum nasional negara peserta Konvensi Bern.
Pemerintah Indonesia menjadi anggota WTO sejak tahun 1994. Keikutsertaan ini juga membawa konsekuensi hukum harus memberla-kukan semua hasil dan prinsip dasar dari Konvensi Bern.
Hal, ini ditindak-lanjuti dengan mensahkannya melalui pembentukan Keppres RI No. 18 Tahun 1997 pada tanggal 7 Mei 1997 dan segera dinotifikasikan ke WIPO berdasarkan Keppres RI No. 19 Tahun 1997 tanggal 5 Juni 1997. Berlakunya hasil kesepakatan The Berne Convention di Indonesia, maka pemerintah harus mampu untuk melindungi ciptaan dari seluruh negara anggota peserta dan penandatangan The Berne Convention tersebut. Selain itu, Indonesia harus pula melindungi ciptaan bangsa asing yang ada di tanah air melalui kesepakatan pada perjanjian bilateral yang telah diratifikasi.
Adanya perjanjian bilateral tersebut akan memberi perlindungan hukum dan rasa aman hak cipta secara timbal balik antara ciptaan bangsa kita dengan bangsa lain yang sama-sama bergabung dalam WTO, terutama
dengan berlakunya pasar bebas.
Pada persetujuan TREPs, khususnya Pasal 7 menentukan konsep dasar sasaran perlindungan dan penegakan hukum (law enforcement) terhadap HKI yang ditujukan untuk memacu penemuan baru di bidang teknologi dan untuk memperlancar alih serta penyebaran teknologi dengan tetap memperhatikan kepentingan produsen dan pengguna pengetahuan tentang teknologi dan dilakukan dengan cara yang menunjang kesejahteraan sosial dan ekonomi, dan keseimbangan antara hak dan kewajiban. Perlindungan itu didasarkan pada masalah pokok ruang lingkup berlakunya hak cipta dengan dua prinsip dasar, yakni utilitarian-non utilitarian or junctional-non functional dichotomy and idea expression dichotomy. Artinya, adanya dikotomi pada kegunaan-ketidakgunaan atau berfungsi-tidak berfungsi dan munculnya gagasan dari ciptaan tersebut.
Penjabaran dari kesepakatan internasional mengenai hak cipta yang diratifikasi oleh Indonesia terdapat pada ketentuan UU No. 19 Tahun 2002. Pada Pasal 12 ayat (1) UU No. 19 Tahun 2002 menentukan ciptaan yang dapat dilindungi ialah ciptaan dalam bidang ilmu pengetahuan, sastra dan seni yang meliputi hasil karya
(a) buku, program komputer, pamplet, perwajahan karya tulis yang diterbitkan, dan semua hasil karya tulis lain,
(b) ceramah, kuliah, pidato dan ciptaan lain yang sejenis dengan itu,
(c) alat peraga yang dibuat untuk kepentingan pendidikan dan ilmu pengetahuan,
(d) lagu atau musik dengan atau tanpa teks,
(e) drama atau drama musikal, tari, koreografl, pewayangan, dan pantomim,
(f) seni rupa dalam segala bentuk seperti seni lukis, gambar, seni ukir, seni kaligrafi, seni pahat, seni patung, kolase dan seni terapan
(g) arsitektur,
(h) peta,
(i) seni batik,
(j) fotografi,
(k) sinematografi, dan
(1) terjemahan, tafsir, saduran, bunga rampai, database, dan karya lain dari hasil pengalihwujudan.

Sebaliknya, pada isi Pasal 13 menentukan pula dianggap tidak ada suatu hak cipta atas :
 (a) hasil rapat terbuka lembaga-lembaga negara,
 (b) peraturan perundang-undangan,
 (c) pidato kenegaraaan dan Pidato pejabat Pemerintah,
 (d) putusan pengadilan atau penetapan hakim, atau
 (e) keputusan badan arbitrase atau keputusan badan-badan sejenis lainnya.

Setiap ciptaan seseorang, kelompok orang ataupun korporasi (badan hukum) dilindungi oleh undang-undang karena pada ciptaan itu otomatis melekat hak cipta yang seyogianya harus dapat dihormati dan dipatuhi oleh orang lain. Perlindungan hukum itu dimaksudkan agar hak pencipta secara ekonomis dapat dinikmati dengan tenang dan aman mengingat cukup lamanya diatur undang-undang waktu perlindungan tersebut. Masa berlaku perlindungan hak cipta secara umum adalah selain hidup pencipta dan terus berlangsung hingga 50 tahun setelah penciptanya meninggal dunia yang dimulai sejak 1 Januari untuk tahun berikutnya setelah ciptaan tersebut diumumkan, diketahui oleh umum, diterbitkan, atau setelah penciptanya meninggal dunia (vide Pasal 34).
Setiap pencipta atau pemegang izin hak cipta bebas untuk dapat menggunakan hak ciptanya, akan tetapi undang-undang menentukan pula adanya pembatasan terhadap penggunaan hak cipta itu. Pembatasan tersebut dimaksudkan supaya para pencipta dalam kegiatan kreatif dan inovatifnya tidak melanggar norma-nonna atau asas kepatutan yang berlaku dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat dan bernegara, terutama di negara hukum seperti Indonesia mengingat hasil ciptaan umumnya akan dijual ke pasar (dalam dan luar negeri) untuk memperoleh keuntungan ekonomis bagi para pencipta atau pemegang izin guna dapat dinikmati oleh masyarakat luas. Oleh karena sudah ditentukan pembatasan oleh ketentuan undang-undang, maka kebebasan penggunaan hak cipta tidak boleh melanggar pembatasan tersebut. Apabila pembatasan tersebut dilanggar oleh pencipta dan pemegang izin hak cipta, maka pencipta akan memperoleh sanksi hukum.
Adapun pembatasan penggunaan hak cipta yang tidak boleh dilanggar oleh siapa pun dapat dibagi dalam tiga hal:
Pertama, kesusilaan dan ketertiban umum. Keterbatasan penggunaan hak cipta tidak boleh melanggar pada kesusilaan dan ketertiban umun. Contoh hak cipta yang melanggar kesusilaan adalah penggunaan hak untuk mengumumkan atau memper-banyak kalender bergambar wanita/pria telanjang, kebebasan seks atau pomografi, sedangkan termasuk melanggar ketertiban umum adalah memperbanyak dan menyebarkan buku yang berisi ajaran yang membolehkan wanita bersuami lebih dari satu (poliandri).
Kedua, fungsi sosial hak cipta. Kebebasan penggunaan hak cipta tidak boleh meniadakan/mengurangi fungsi sosial dari pada hak cipta. Fungsi sosial hak cipta adalah memberi kesempatan kepada masyarakat luas untuk memanfaatkan ciptaan itu guna kepentingan pendidikan dan ilmu pengetahuan, bahan pemecahan masalah, pembela-an perkara di pengadilan, bahan ceramah dengan menyebutkan sumbernya secara lengkap.
Ketiga, pemberian lisensi wajib. Kebebasan penggunaan hak cipta tidak boleh meniadakan kewenangan dari negara untuk mewajibkan pencipta/pemegang hak cipta memberikan lisensi (compulsory licensing) kepada pihak lain untuk menerjemahkan atau memperbanyak hasil ciptaannya dengan imbalan yang wajar. Pemberian lisensi wajib didasarkan pada pertimbangan tertentu, yakni bila negara meman-dang perlu atau menilai suatu ciptaan sangat penting artinya bagi kehidupan masyarakat dan negara, misalnya untuk tujuan pendidikan, pengajaran, ilmu pengetahuan, penelitian, pertahanan, keamanan, dan ketertiban masyarakat yang membutuhkan pemakaian ciptaan tersebut.
Pembatasan penggunaan hak cipta adalah sebagai upaya keseimbangan hak antara pencipta dengan kepentingan masyarakat. Artinya, penggunaan hak cipta oleh pencipta diharapkan akan mewujudkan pula keadilan dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Bentuk-bentuk Pelanggaran Hak Cipta Umumnya pelanggaran hak cipta didorong untuk mencari keuntungan finansial secara cepat dengan mengabaikan kepentingan para pencipta dan pemegang izin hak cipta. Perbuatan para pelaku jelas melanggar fatsoen hukum yang menentukan agar setiap orang dapat mematuhi, menghormati dan menghargai hak-hak orang lain dalam hubungan keperdataan termasuk penemuan baru sebagai ciptaan orang lain yang diakui sebagai hak milik oleh ketentuan hukum.
Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi warga masyarakat untuk melanggar HKI menurut Parlugutan Lubis antara lain adalah sebagai berikut:
1) pelanggaran HKI dilakukan untuk mengambil jalan pintas guna mendapatkan keun-tungan yang sebesar-besarnya dari pelanggaran tersebut;
2) para pelanggar menganggap bahwa sanksi hukum yang dijatuhkan oleh pengadilan selama ini terlalu ringan bahkan tidak ada tindakan preventif maupun represif yang dilakukan oleh para penegak hukum;
3) ada sebagian warga masyarakat sebagai pencipta yang bangga apabila hasil karyanya ditiru oleh orang lain, namun hal ini sudah mulai hilang berkat adanya peningkatan kesadaran hukum terhadap HKI;
4) dengan melakukan pelanggaran, pajak atas produk hasil pelanggaran tersebut tidak perlu dibayar kepada pemerintah; dan
5) masyarakat tidak memperhatikan apakah barang yang dibeli tersebut asli atau palsu (aspal), yang penting bagi mereka harganya murah dan terjangkau dengan kemampuan ekonomi.

Dampak dari kegiatan tindak pidana hak cipta tersebut telah sedemikian besarnya merugikan terhadap tatanan kehidupan bangsa di bidang ekonomi, hukum dan sosial budaya. Di bidang sosial budaya, misalnya dampak semakin maraknya pelanggaran hak cipta akan menimbulkan sikap dan pandangan bahwa pembajakan sudah merupakan hal yang biasa dalam kehidupan masyarakat dan tidak lagi merupakan tindakan melanggar undang-undang (wet delicten). Pelanggaran hak cipta selama ini lebih banyak terjadi pada negara-negara berkembang (developing countries) karena ia dapat memberikan keuntungan ekonomi yang tidak kecil artinya bagi para pelanggar (pembajak) dengan memanfaatkan kelemahan sistem pengawasan dan pemantauan tindak pidana hak cipta.
Harus diakui, upaya pencegahan dan penindakan terhadap pelanggaran hak cipta selama ini belum mampu membuat jera para pembajak untuk tidak mengulangi perbuatannya, karena upaya penanggulangannya tidak optimal.
Bentuk-bentuk pelanggaran hak cipta antara lain berupa pengambilan, pengutipan, perekaman, pertanyaan dan pengumuman sebagian atau seluruh ciptaan orang lain dengan cara apa pun tanpa izin pencipta/pemegang hak cipta, bertentangan dengan undang-undang atau. melanggar perjanjian.
Dilarang undang-undang artinya undang-undang hak cipta tidak memperkenan-kan perbuatan itu dilakukan oleh orang yang tidak berhak, karena tiga hal, yakni:
(1) merugikan pencipta/pemegang hak cipta, misalnya mem-foto kopi sebagian atau selurulnya ciptaan orang lain kemudian dijual/belikan kepada masyarakat luas;
(2)  merugikan kepentingan negara, misalnya mengumumkan ciptaan yang bertentangan dengan kebijakan pemerintah di bidang pertahanan dan keamanan atau;
(3) bertentangan dengan ketertiban umum dan kesusilaan, misalnya memperbanyak dan menjual video compact disc (vcd) pomo.
Melanggar perjanjian artinya memenuhi kewajiban tidak sesuai dengan isi kesepakatan yang telah disetujui oleh kedua belah pihak, misalnya dalam perjanjian penerbitan karya cipta disetujui untuk dicetak sebanyak 2.000 eksemplar, tetapi yang dicetak/diedarkan di pasar adalah 4.000 eksemplar. Pembayaran royalti kepada pencipta didasarkan pada perjanjian penerbitan, yaitu 2.000 eksemplar bukan 4.000 eksemplar. Ini sangat merugikan bagi pencipta.
Pelanggaran hak cipta menurut ketentuan Ikatan Penerbit Indonesia (Ikapi) pada tanggal 15 Pebruari 1984 dapat dibedakan dua jenis, yakni :
(1) mengutip sebagian ciptaan orang lain dan dimasukkan ke dalam ciptaan sendiri seolah-olah ciptaan sendiri atau mengakui ciptaan orang lain seolah-olah ciptaan sendiri. Perbuatan ini disebut plagiat atau penjiplakan (plagiarism) yang dapat terjadi antara lain pada karya cipta berupa buku, lagu dan notasi lagu, dan
(2) mengambil ciptaan orang lain untuk diperbanyak dan diumumkan sebagaimana yang aslinya tanpa mengubah bentuk isi, pencipta dan penerbit/perekam. Perbuatan ini disebut dengan piracy (pembajakan) yang banyak dilakukan pada ciptaan berupa buku, rekaman audio/video seperti kaset lagu dan gambar (vcd), karena menyangkut dengan masalah a commercial scale.

Pembajakan terhadap karya orang lain seperti buku dan rekaman adalah salah satu bentuk dari tindak pidana hak cipta yang dilarang dalam undang-undang hak cipta. Pekerjaannya liar, tersembunyi dan tidak diketahui orang banyak apalagi oleh petugas penegak hukum dan pajak. Pekerjaan tersembunyi ini dilakukan untuk menghindarkan diri dari penangkapan pihak kepolisian. Para pembajak tidak akan mungkin menunaikan kewajiban hukum untuk membayar pajak kepada negara sebagaimana layaknya warga negara yang baik. Pembajakan merupakan salah satu dampak negatif dari kemajuan iptek di bidang grafika dan elektronika yang dimanfaatkan secara melawan hukum (illegal) oleh mereka yang ingin mencari keuntungan dengan jalan cepat dan mudah.
Pasal 72 UU No. 19 Tahun 2002 menentukan pula bentuk perbuatan pelanggaran hak cipta sebagai delik undang-undang (wet delict) yang dibagi tiga kelompok, yakni :
(1) Dengan sengaja dan tanpa hak mengumumkan, memperbanyak suatu ciptaan atau memberi izin untuk itu. Termasuk perbuatan pelanggaran ini antara lain melanggar larangan untuk mengumumkan, memperbanyak atau memberi izin untuk itu setiap ciptaan yang bertentangan dengan kebijak-sanaan pemerintah di bidang pertahanan dan keamanan negara, kesusilaan dan ketertiban umum;
(2) Dengan sengaja memamerkan, mengedarkan atau menjual kepada umum suatu ciptaan atau barang-barang hasil pelanggaran hak cipta. Termasuk perbuatan pelanggaran ini antara lain penjualan buku dan vcd bajakan;
(3) Dengan sengaja dan tanpa hak memperbanyak penggunaan untuk kepentingan komersial suatu program komputer.
Dari ketentuan Pasal 72 tersebut, ada dua golongan pelaku pelanggaran hak cipta yang dapat diancam dengan sanksi pidana. Pertama, pelaku utama adalah perseorangan maupun badan hukum yang dengan sengaja melanggar hak cipta atau melanggar larangan undang-undang. Termasuk pelaku utama ini adalah penerbit, pembajak, penjiplak dan pencetak. Kedua, pelaku pembantu adalah pihak-pihak yang menyiarkan, memamerkan atau menjual kepada umum setiap ciptaan yang diketahuinya melanggar hak cipta atau melanggar larangan undang-undang hak cipta. Termasuk pelaku pembantu ini adalah penyiar, penyelenggara pameran, penjual dan pengedar yang menyewakan setiap ciptaan hasil kejahatan/pelanggaran hak cipta atau larangan yang diatur oleh undang-undang.
           
            Kedua golongan pelaku pelanggaran hak cipta di atas, dapat diancam dengan sanksi pidana oleh ketentuan UU No. 19 tahun 2002. Pelanggaran dilakukan dengan sengaja untuk niat meraih keuntungan sebesar-besanya, baik secara pribadi, kelompok maupun badan usaha yang sangat merugikan bagi kepentingan para pencipta. Pengaturan Perlindungan Hukum Hak Cipta
Barang-barang yang diproduksi palsu dan dijual ke pasar, selain merugikan bagi penerimaan royalti para pencipta juga mengurangi pendapatan pajak negara dan penurunan kualitas barang yang dapat dinikmati oleh masyarakat konsumen. Kerugian ini jelas harus ditanggulangi dengan melakukan penegakan hukum atas pelanggaran hak cipta tersebut sehingga dapat tercipta perlindungan yang diharapkan oleh semua pihak, terutama para pencipta/pemegang izin.
            Daya kreatif dan inovatif para pencipta akan mengalami penurunan, jika pelanggaran hak cipta terus berlangsung tanpa ada penegakan hukum yang memadai dengan menindak para pelakunya. Negara melalui aparat penegak hukum, baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung harus bertanggung jawab dengan adanya peristiwa ini dengan berupaya keras melakukan penang-gulangan merebaknya pelanggaran hak cipta. Apabila tidak ada penegakan hukum yang konsisten terhadap para pelanggar, maka akan sulit terwujudnya suatu perlindungan hukum terhadap hak cipta yang baik. Masalah ini telah menjadi tuntutan masyarakat internasional terhadap bangsa dan negara Indonesia yang dinilai masih rendah untuk menghargai HAKI.
            Pengaturan standar minimum perlindungan hukum atas ciptaan-ciptaan, hak-hak pencipta dan jangka waktu perlindungan dalam Konvensi Bern adalah sebagai berikut.
            Pertama, ciptaan yang dilindungi adalah semua ciptaan di bidang sastra, ilmu pengetahuan dan seni dalam bentuk apa pun perwujudannya.
            Kedua, kecuali jika ditentukan dengan cara reservasi, pembatasan atau pengecualian yang tergolong sebagai hak-hak ekslusif seperti
(a) hak untuk menerjemahkan,
(b) hak mempertun-jukkan di muka umum ciptaan drama musik dan ciptaan musik,
(c) hak mendeklamasikan di muka umum suatu ciptaan sastra,
(d) hak penyiaran,
(e) hak membuat reproduksi dengan cara dan bentuk perwujudan apa pun,
(f) hak menggunakan ciptaannya sebagai bahan untuk ciptaan, dan
(g)hak membuat aransemen dan adapsi dari suatu ciptaan.
            Selain hak-hak ekslusif di atas, Konvensi Bern juga mengatur sekumpulan hak yang dinamakan dengan hak-hak moral (moral rights). Hak moral adalah hak pencipta untuk mengklaim sebagai pencipta atas suatu hasil ciptaan dan hak pencipta untuk mengajukan keberatan-keberatan terhadap setiap perbuatan yang bermaksud untuk mengubah, mengurangi atau menambah keaslian ciptaan, yang akan dapat meragukan kehormatan dan reputasi pencipta pertama.
            Hak moral seorang pencipta menurut pendapat A. Komen dan D.WS Verkade mengandung empat makna. Pertama, hak untuk melakukan atau tidak melakukan pengumuman ciptaannya. Kedua, hak untuk melakukan perubahan-perubahan yang dianggap perlu atas ciptaannya, dan hak untuk menarik dari peredaran ciptaan yang telah diumumkan kepada publik.
Ketiga, hak untuk tidak menyetujui dilakukannya perubahan-perubahan atas ciptaannya oleh pihak lain. Keempat, hak untuk mencantum-kan nama pencipta, hak untuk tidak menyetujui setiap perubahan atas nama pencipta yang akan dicantumkan, dan hak untuk mengumumkan sebagai pihak pencipta setiap waktu yang diinginkan. Hak ini mempunyai kedudukan sejajar dengan hak ekonomi yang dapat dimiliki seorang pencipta atas suatu hasil ciptaannya.
            Perlindungan hukum merupakan upaya yang diatur dalam undang-undang untuk mencegah terjadinya pelanggaran hak cipta oleh orang-orang yang tidak berhak. Apabila terjadi pelanggaran, maka pelang-garan itu harus diproses secara hukum, dan bilamana terbukti melakukan pelanggaran akan dijatuhi hukuman sesuai dengan ketentuan undang-undang hak cipta. UU No. 19 Tahun 2002 mengatur jenis-jenis perbuatan pelanggaran dan ancaman hukumannya, baik secara perdata maupun pidana. UU ini memuat sistem deklaratif (first to use system), yaitu perlindungan hukum hanya diberikan kepada pemegang/pemakai pertama atas hak cipta. Apabila ada pihak lain yang mengaku sebagai pihak yang berhak atas hak cipta, maka pemegang/pemakai pertama harus membuktikan bahwa dia sebagai pemegang pemakai pertama yang berhak atas hasil ciptaan tersebut. Sistem deklaratif ini tidak mengharus-kan pendaftaran hak cipta, namun pendaftaran pada pihak yang berwenang (cq Ditjen Hak Kekayaan Intelektual Depkeh RI) merupakan bentuk perlindungan yang dapat memberikan kepastian hukum atas suatu hak cipta.
            Apakah suatu perbuatan merupakan pelanggaran hak cipta, harus dapat dipenuhi unsur-unsur yang penting berikut ini. Pertama, larangan undang-un
          Re:Politics - USA        
Asterios wrote:
Well just saw this and thought it looks like a good read, until it took a very hard turn into the twilight zone:


It was flying rodent gak from the first line, about Trump getting killed. And then it got stupid in a really sad kind of way.

The article tried made this vague kind of claim that 'socialist' Democrats had close ties with business. Which is stupid in itself - either call them corporate cronies, or call them socialists, being one means they're not the other. But then it goes it to pants on head crazy land when it claims that Trump doesn't have ties to business. Trump... the businessman. Making an argument that people should elect the businessman because he doesn't have ties to business borders on parody.

It makes the claim that Trump is self-funding his campaign. Whether this is a bald faced lie or a woeful level of ignorance I don't know. Trump self-funded his primary campaign... or rather didn't fund it at all, and instead ran a very cheap campaign driven by free media coverage. But his run in the general is all about big money, and he's now attached himself nicely to the conventional Republican machine to use their standard funding sources.

The article has no idea how congressional control of funding works. It seems to think if you control congress you can just stop funding any existing program when you want. Again, not sure if this is a lie or ignorance.

The article actually tries to make Trump's idiotic birther nonsense in to a selling point. Remember all the angry noise Trump made about something that was always stupidly wrong, and proven as such years ago? Let's pretend this is in Trump's favour! Our candidate is an idiot who's wrong about basic facts! That's different to other politicians, and we want something different!

This was also the first time I'd read anyone questioning the trade deal with Russia. The stupid complaints about the deals with China and Mexico are common and existed long before Trump became a prominent political figure, but Russia? Russia doesn't even have a bi-lateral deal with the US - they rely on the default WTO trade conditions, and they've only recently returned to that after the US was previously inflicting massive damage on the Russian economy as punishment over their actions in the Ukraine. Complaining the US has a bad deal with Russia is exactly as stupid as complaining the US has a bad deal with Atlantis.

The whole article is pretty much just pure crazy from start to finish. Which is, admittedly, not particularly surprising for something coming from the Heritage Foundation. What is surprising is that it's a complete reversal from their normal crazy. They typically spend their time making up insane nonsense about why big business needs to be given more money to job create, or alternately insane nonsense about how freedom means capitalism and that means giving big business more money. But here they've flipped entirely around, now big business is bad and the only hope is a billionaire businessman who tells lots of stupid lies.

I just hope that when the 2016 campaign is over that people remember how shamelessly political Heritage really is. I used to think there was a problem with organisations like Heritage sacrificing truth for the sake of ideology, now it's clear they don't even care about ideology - to fit Trump that had to go and so they dropped it. All we're left with is people who will say anything because they simply don't give a gak as long as they get paid.

Welcome to the Republican party circa 2016. A lot of you are voting for it to continue to be this way.
          pkgsrc 50th release interviews - Jonathan Perkin        

The pkgsrc team has prepared the 50th release of their package management system, with the 2016Q1 version. It's infrequent event, as the 100th release will be held after 50 quarters.

The NetBSD team has prepared series of interviews with the authors. The next one is with Jonathan Perkin, a developer in the Joyent team.

Hi Jonathan, please introduce yourself.

Hello! Thirty-something, married with 4 kids. Obviously this means life is usually pretty busy! I work as a Software Engineer for Joyent, where we provide SmartOS zones (also known as "containers" these days) running pkgsrc. This means I am in the privileged position of getting paid to work full-time on what for many years has been my hobby.

First of all, congratulations on the 50th release of pkgsrc! How do you feel about this anniversary?

I've been involved in pkgsrc since 2001, which was a few years before we started the quarterly releases. Back then and during the early 2000s there was a significant amount of work going into the pkgsrc infrastructure to give it all the amazing features that we have today, but that often meant the development branch had some rough edges while those features were still being integrated across the tree.

The quarterly releases gave users confidence in building from a stable release without unexpected breakages, and also helped developers to schedule any large changes at the appropriate time.

At Joyent we make heavy use of the quarterly releases, producing new SmartOS images for each branch, so for example our 16.1.x images are based on pkgsrc-2016Q1, and so on.

Reaching the 50th release makes me feel old! It also makes me feel proud that we've come a long way, yet still have people who want to be involved and continue to develop both the infrastructure and packages.

I'd also like to highlight the fantastic work of the pkgsrc releng team, who work to ensure the releases are kept up-to-date until the next one is released. They do a great job and we benefit a lot from their work.

What are the main benefits of the pkgsrc system?

For me the big one is portability. This is what sets it apart from all other package managers (and, increasingly, software in general), not just because it runs on so many platforms but because it is such a core part of the infrastructure and has been constantly developed and refined over the years. We are now up to 23 distinct platforms, not counting different distributions, and adding support for new ones is relatively easy thanks to the huge amount of work which has gone into the infrastructure.

The other main benefit for me is the buildlink infrastructure and various quality checks we have. As someone who distributes binary packages to end users, it is imperative that those packages work as expected on the target environment and don't have any embarrassing bugs. The buildlink system ensures (amongst other things) that dependencies are correct and avoids many issues around build host pollution. We then have a number of QA scripts which analyse the generated package and ensure that the contents are accurate, RPATHs are correct, etc. It's not perfect and there are more tests we could write, but these catch a lot of mistakes that would otherwise go undetected until a user submits a bug report.

Others for me are unprivileged support, signed packages, multi-version support, pbulk, and probably a lot of other things I've forgotten and take for granted!

Where and how do you use pkgsrc?

As mentioned above I work on pkgsrc for SmartOS. We are probably one of the biggest users of pkgsrc in the world, shipping over a million package downloads per year and rising to our users, not including those distributed as part of our images or delivered from mirrors. This is where I spend the majority of my time working on pkgsrc, and it is all performed remotely on a number of zones running in the Joyent Public Cloud. The packages we build are designed to run not just on SmartOS but across all illumos distributions, and so I also have an OmniOS virtual machine locally where I test new releases before announcing them.

As an OS X user, I also use pkgsrc on my MacBook. This is generally where I perform any final tests before committing changes to pkgsrc so that I'm reasonably confident they are correct, but I also install a bunch of different packages from pkgsrc (mutt, ffmpeg, nodejs, jekyll, pstree etc) for my day-to-day work. I also have a number of Mac build servers in my loft and at the Joyent offices in San Francisco where I produce the binary OS X packages we offer which are starting to become popular among users looking for an alternative to Homebrew or MacPorts.

Finally, I have a few Linux machines also running in the Joyent Public Cloud which I have configured for continuous bulk builds of pkgsrc trunk. These help me to test any infrastructure changes I'm working on to ensure that they are portable and correct.

On all of these machines I have written infrastructure to perform builds inside chroots, ensuring a consistent environment and allowing me to work on multiple things simultaneously. They all have various tools installed (git, pkgvi, pkglint, etc) to aid my personal development workflow. We then make heavy use of GitHub and Jenkins to manage automatic builds when pushing to various branches.

What are the pkgsrc projects you are currently working on?

One of my priorities over the past year has been on performance. We build a lot of packages (over 40,000 per branch, and we support up to 4 branches simultaneously), and when the latest OpenSSL vulnerability hits it's critical to get a fix out to users as quickly as possible. We're now at the stage where, with a couple of patches, we can complete a full bulk build in under 3 hours. There is still a lot of room for improvement though, so recently I've been looking at slibtool (a libtool replacement written in C) and supporting dash (a minimal POSIX shell which is faster than bash).

There are also a few features we've developed at Joyent that I continue to maintain, such as our multiarch work (which combines 32-bit and 64-bit builds into a single package), additional multi-version support for MySQL and Percona, SMF support, and a bunch of other patches which aren't yet ready to be integrated.

I'm also very keen on getting new users into pkgsrc and turning them into developers, so a lot of my time has been spent on making pkgsrc more accessible, whether that's via our pkgbuild image (which gives users a ready-made pkgsrc development environment) or the developer guides I've written, or maintaining our https://pkgsrc.joyent.com/ website. There's lots more to do in this area though to ensure users of all abilities can contribute meaningfully.

Most of my day-to-day work though is general bug fixing and updating packages, performing the quarterly release builds, and maintaining our build infrastructure.

If you analyze the current state of pkgsrc, which improvements and changes do you wish for the future?

More users and developers! I am one of only a small handful of people who are paid to work on pkgsrc, the vast majority of the work is done by our amazing volunteer community. By its very nature pkgsrc requires constant effort updating existing packages and adding new ones. This is something that will never change and if anything the demand is accelerating, so we need to ensure that we continue to train up and add new developers if we are to keep up.

We need more documentation, more HOWTO guides, simpler infrastructure, easier patch submission, faster and less onerous on-boarding of developers, more bulk builds, more development machines. Plenty to be getting on with!

Some technical changes I'd like to see are better upgrade support, launchd support, integration of a working alternative pkg backend e.g. IPS, bmake IPC (so we don't need to recompute the same variables over and over), and many more!

Do you have any practical tips to share with the pkgsrc users?

Separate your build and install environments, so e.g. build in chroots or in a VM then deploy the built packages to your target. Trying to update a live install is the source of many problems, and there are few things more frustrating than having your development environment be messed up by an upgrade which fails part-way through.

For brand new users, document your experience and tell us what works and what sucks. Many of us have been using pkgsrc for many many years, and have lost your unique ability to identify problems, inconsistencies, and bad documentation.

If you run into problems, connect to Freenode IRC #pkgsrc, and we'll try to help you out. Hang out there even if you aren't having problems!

Finally, if you like pkgsrc, tell your friends, write blog posts, post to Hacker News etc. It's amazing to me how unknown pkgsrc is despite being around for so long, and how many people love it when they discover it.

More users leads to more developers, which leads to improved pkgsrc, which leads to more users, which...

What's the best way to start contributing to pkgsrc and what needs to be done?

Pick something that interests you and just start working on it. The great thing about pkgsrc is that there are open tasks for any ability, from documentation fixes all the way through adding packages to rewriting large parts of the infrastructure.

When you have something to contribute, don't worry about whether it's perfect or how you are to deliver it. Just make it available and let us know via PR, pull request, or just mail, and we can take it from there.

Do you plan to participate in the upcoming pkgsrcCon 2016 in Kraków (1-3 July)?

I am hoping to. If so I usually give a talk on what we've been working on at Joyent over the past year, and will probably do the same.


          Howto install GNOME correctly        
1) rm -rf jhbuild garnome 2) get konstruct 3) run construct 4) alias gnome=startkde 5) run your newly great GNOME desktop and yes GNOME works
          HOWTO track down a con-artist        

Ken, a former "fed" (of some description) on the group blog Popehat, received a "toner-scam" (a scam whereby someone sends you an invoice for a service you never ordered or received in the hopes that you'll pay it without noticing) solicitation in the mail at his business. This pissed him off, so he decided to track down the scammers and document, in lavish detail, the process by which he ran them to ground. The series of posts is up to part four now, and it's fascinating reading.
For some reason, this one seriously pisses me off. Maybe its because the fraud is so blatant. Maybe it’s because the weasel-worded disclaimer designed to give them a defense to fraud claims is so perfunctory and lame. Maybe it’s because after I sent an email to the scammer’s lawyer, the scammer himself called me and tried to run a con on me. Like I’m a fucking rube.

So. I’ve decided to dedicate some time and money to investigating this scam and the people and companies responsible for it. I’ve also decided to write about the investigation, and use it as an opportunity to discuss con man culture and how anyone with an internet connection, a few bucks, and some time can investigate an attempted scam — or, preferably, conduct due diligence on a suspected scammer before they can even try to con you.

I’m going to discuss using Google, using PACER (which allows access to federal court records), using state court records, and taking effective action against scammers.

Anatomy of a Scam Investigation: Chapter One

Anatomy of a Scam Investigation: Chapter Two

Anatomy of A Scam Investigation, Chapter Three

Anatomy of A Scam Investigation, Chapter Four

(via MeFi)

          Raw Milk Cures Cancer - Raw Milk hearing in Sacramento - April 15, 2008        
part 1:



A growing number of Amercians is using raw milk for its medicinal qualities. Raw milk is known to cure cancer. The purpose of this hearing in Sacramento is to shed light on the health and political aspects of raw milk industry. Today raw milk is about to become outlawed by corrupt politicians despite the outrage of the people.

part 2:



part 3:




Aajonus Vonderplanitz had cancer, leukemia, diabetes and a handful of other diseases in his early 20-s. He turned to conventional doctors who only destroyed his health even more. Finally Aajonus started looking for alternative cures and found a few. He chose one of them, he chose raw food diet that included animal products, especially raw dairy (raw milk and raw butter). Aajonus became a health pioneer. He cured himself completely. This past summer he celebrated his 60th birthday. He has since cured many people from cancer and leukemia as well as many other diseases.

Visit his website:

http://www.wewant2live.com/

Don't forget to read testimonials:

http://www.wewant2live.com/site/811618/page/928432

http://www.wewant2live.com/site/811618/page/342117

http://wewant2live.blogspot.com/search/label/Testimonials

Here is my testimony that I sent to Aajonus Vonderplanitz (it can be found on his website along with many other testimonies):

Dear Aajonus,
my name is Gypsy Taub. I am a TV host and media activist in the Bay Area.
First of all, I would like to thank you for saving my life. I read your book on the Big Island of Hawaii when I was told that I most likely had cervical cancer. I refused the invasive diagnostic procedures that were offered to me by the hack doctors that hack your body parts off and call it a cure. They wanted to chop off half of my cervix just to see if I had cancer. So I said: "Thanks, but, no thanks!" Instead I started looking for a natural cure and found your book. I started eating a lot of raw foods and drinking a lot of raw milk. Within months the problem was gone. I can’t thank you enough! I feel that the best thing I can do to express my gratitude is to inform other people about your book.
Needless to say that I was mad to hear about the legislation against raw milk. I am familiar with the CODEX scam that the WTO is pulling on the whole world where they banned vitamins and supplements and made them prescription drugs. I remember how they were taken to court in Europe and lost the case, and since CAFTA was met with enourmous opposition in the US CAFTA was sort of abandoned (as far as I am aware), and CAFTA was supposed to be a tool to implement CODEX. So CODEX was averted for the time being. I am well aware of the conspiracy by the pharmaceutical industry to eradicate alternative medicine especially now when so many people are waking up and choosing alternative medicine.
I would like to add that even though it wasn't fully confirmed that I had cancer to begin with, I really believe I did. I found out years later that the area I was living in in Hawaii was highly contaminated with depleted uranium from the military base that was actively using it (and is to this day doing it) in their murder trainings. I was losing weight and my hair was falling out. So I think it is most likely that I did have cancer. As I mentioned earlier I was in no hurry to lose body parts just to find out if I had cancer.
          Our Shell-Shocked Civil Service Is Simply Not UP to the Job On Brexit        

This is a superb analysis by Allister Heath. I can understand why PM Theresa May did not wish to upend civil service personnel working in the EU, but she and the capable Sir David Davis should have anticipated the problem. After all, it is difficult to get someone to stop believing in something, when that person’s salary depends on them believing in it.

David Davis is Her Majesty’s Principle Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union. That is a grand title for what is currently a very small department. It should be beefed up with known Eurosceptic MPs such as John Redwood, who can work with pro-Brexit Civil Servants led by Sir Tim Barrow.

I am not suggesting that they prepare for a long negotiating war on the EU’s terms, attempting to overturn their labyrinthine obstacles. Those are intended to ensure that the EU remains a club which European countries can apply to join but once in, never leave of their own choice. That is an absurdity. The future of the UK will not be decided in Brussels.

Britain needs to seize the initiative so that it can exit from the EU quickly and cleanly. The key points are not complicated. 1) Theresa May has already said that the UK must have sole control of its immigration policies and all other forms of law making. 2) The next Brexit point should be to offer the EU free trade on a take it or leave it basis, otherwise WTO rules will apply to our trade with the EU. 3) There will be no restraints on the UK’s freedom to trade with any other nations of interest, which are outside the EU’s closed shop.


          Email of the day 2         

You make a correct point on absolute value terms, but I think it would be more relevant if the EU had first achieved fiscal union, turning it into ‘a United States of Europe’, with a central government to redistribute funds as economically required. However, the EU’s founders and subsequent national and also bureaucratic leaders knew that it could not achieve fiscal union because no country’s population supported this further loss of sovereignty. So the EU proceeded with stealth, completely ignoring repeated wise advice from so many who knew their economic history: no currency union has ever survived for long without fiscal union. This presumably remains out of reach for the 27 countries which have not yet decided to leave the EU. With the exception of Germany, most are clearly unhappy with the Euro, which has been the chief reason for their economic underperformance.

Following a clean Brexit, I do not think German automobile manufacturers will be either impressed or influenced by the EU’s absolute value relative to trade percentages with the UK, if they can only export to us on WTO terms. They would certainly pressure Angela Merkel, if she is still around.


          By: JO3RI        
Hoi, zeg als je echt meer uitleg wilt over thunderbird en lightning en hoe je een gemeenschappelijke en persoonlijke kalender opzet met een webdav share, laat het me weten he. Ik geef je al de link naar mijn howto over de webdav share. http://docs.google.com/Doc?id=dc8xcg7f_20gqff5z Ik hoop dat de link werkt, mocht het niet het geval zijn, laat zeker iets weten. Succes
          Framing debates on IP & Health - Part II        
This is part 2 of a 3 part series on "Framing debates on IP & Health". As mentioned in part I, I want to use this series to argue that the manner in which IP debates are framed in the health context, play a large role in claim-staking, even if the claims used are ones that ought to have no role in IP policy. Further, that this manner of framing is more useful to the traditional 'access' side of the debate than it is to the 'innovator' side - and that despite being more useful to one side, this can help in balancing the debate. I will do this by making two distinct claims (Part 1 and then this post) and then weave them together (third post) to explain how they can help balance this debate. There is nothing new per se about these arguments but with the recent rise in discussion over compulsory licenses, human rights, international agreements and IP standards, I thought an articulation of these arguments would be useful. Please note, these claims are distinct but are meant to be read together.
[Part 1 has argued that "human rights" based claims do not add any value to the analytical framework of patents and public health.]

[ Claim 2: Public Choice theory indicates that Corporations benefiting from IP based rents will have more influence on IP policy than others ]

Without getting into normative questions of what kind of innovation policy is best suited for a country's progress, it is hardly debateable to say that IP's role in a country's innovation policy ought to take into account several internal as well as external considerations. External considerations such as the country's technical capabilities, the economic condition of its populace, etc; and internal considerations such as the depth and breath of, as well as flexibilities and exceptions to an exclusion-rights based regime that any country would need to take into account in order to appropriately further its innovation policy. 

Needless to say, the 'take it or leave it' nature of the WTO Agreements meant that most, if not all, of these considerations were not really in focus when most nations agreed to the TRIPS Agreement - as they all wanted the trade benefits of joining the WTO. With the backbone of the TRIPS Agreement being provided by a consortium of industry executives (headed by Pfizer's CEO), the terms of the debate started off at such a high point, that negotiations after that point had little chance to bring terms to a real 'middle' position between what several of the developing countries wanted (50 of which had no food or medicine patents prior to TRIPS) and what the fewer numbered developed countries wanted. 

The interesting aspect here is the manner in which large corporate houses managed to convince their own state governments that their interests matched the states - and that these are the positions that states pushed forward as their own. This pattern has continued for the most part into today's world as well, through multilateral agreements such as the ACTA or TPP, Free Trade Agreement negotiations such as the EU-India FTA and even Bilateral Investment Treaties which deem IP to be 'investments'.

The point of this is not to say that large corporate houses necessarily have interests which conflict with the interests of the general public - I am not making that claim here - it is simply to point out that they have been extremely successful in getting their 'claims' standardized as global IP norms, despite being in the minority. For eg, in terms of sheer numbers, there are far more 'least developed' countries, developing countries, civil society NGOs, activists, academics, etc who are (and have been) opposed to more stringent IP norms. The question then is 'how is a minority able to reject the majority so successfully?

Public Choice Theory explains how this comes to be. Kapczynski puts it succinctly in her paper A2K Mobilization and the New Politics of IP
"IP rights, the argument goes, create opportunities for potentially lucrative rents. Businesses that could benefit from such rents recognize this fact and will generally be willing to spend up to the amount of their potential rents in order to secure these rights. Those most hurt by stronger IP are industries based upon copying, which do not enjoy monopoly rents, and average consumers, each of whom may be hurt in small ways and/or far in the future. In the “market” for law, then, IP industries purportedly enjoy a significant advantage."
This essentially tells us that businesses benefiting from rent through IP rights, though a minority, are incentivized into concentrating their resources towards a coordinated and concentrated purpose. At the same time, a greater majority (including competing businesses who are not dependent on rent through IP) may not be able nor want to effectively coordinate their actions in an organized manner, (if at all), due to a variety of reasons - including that individual harms from the 'bad' policy in question are usually too small to incentivize individuals into acting as a collective and expending the necessary transaction costs involved in such collective and organized actions. Now of course with the internet and digital communication, there are several instances wherein these transaction costs have been minimized greatly. Nonetheless, the point still stands that the concentrated minority is better able to effect policy change than a diluted majority.

Thus, IP centric businesses are able to play a larger role than competing stakeholder interests in influencing IP policy.

[Part I is available here. Part III is available here.] 

          Copyright Amendments: A Fair Balance?        
In a belated post (and a severely belated one at that), we bring you this special report on a conference held last year in Kolkata titled â€˜Copyright Amendments, 2012: A Fair Balance?’

The two-day event was organized by the MHRD IP Chair at National University of Juridical Sciences (NUJS) with the help of the following partners: 


i) MHRD IP Chair at Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT) 
ii) IPTLS (a student run IP and tech law society) and 
iii) NUJS Law Review 

This conference was one of the first to rigorously brainstorm the contentious 2012 copyright amendments. A detailed report on the conference can be found on the SpicyIP resource page. The report is a collective effort of a number of dedicated student volunteers who took elaborate notes throughout the conference. 

For those interested in a more audiovisual feel, we’ve uploaded most of the sessions on this Youtube link

For those with little time to read the entire conference report, here is a short version (well, not really, but as with most other things in life, I use the term in a relative sense). 

Summary of Copyright Conference

Welcome Address: 

Prof Shamnad Basheer, the MHRD IP Chair at WB NUJS opened the conference along with the student MC’s, Arun Mal and Amba Kak. 

Prof. (Dr.) Ishwara Bhat, the Vice Chancellor of WB NUJS and the Registrar, Dr. Surajit Mukhopadhyay extended a warm welcome to all present. Dr. Mukhopadhyay, a professor of social sciences, shared his insightful views on copyright norms and access to knowledge. Deploying his deep knowledge of ancient scriptures, Prof. Bhat reminded the audience of the importance of knowledge sharing/dissemination. 

Introductory Session: 

The session began with two special presentations from individuals who’d contributed significantly to the crafting of the amendments, Prof. N.S. Gopalakrishnan and Mr G.R. Raghavender. Prof. Gopalakrishnan [Part I & Part II] began the proceedings with a wonderful sweep of the social, economic and political narratives that informed the 2012 Amendments. He noted that the changes were brought in to balance three broad principles, namely; promotion of creativity, facilitation of access and the social dimensions of copyright. 

As many of you know by now, Prof NSG was thanked profusely for his services to the nation by a golden handshake meted out by his home institution (CUSAT). For those interested, our protest petition against his untimely handshake garnered 300 signatures and is open for signatures for another 3-4 days or so. So please do sign up if you wish to lend your name to this cause. 

Following Prof NSG, Mr. Raghavender, the Registrar of Copyrights piloted us through a wonderful and insightful examination of the history behind the amendments. 

Session I: Copyright & Entertainment 

The first session focused on the impact of the amendments on the entertainment industry. Voicing the interests of radio broadcasters, Prashant Pandey, CEO of Radio Mirchi welcomed the statutory licensing provisions. Tracing the evolution of private radio industry in India in a compelling narrative, he persuasively argued that the monopolistic behaviour of copyright societies and owners rendered many radio stations financially unviable. Prashant rightly noted that the newly introduced statutory licensing provisions would greatly benefit copyright owners as well as consumers. 

Arun Mohan, a practicing advocate at Madras High Court, was highly critical of the amendments dealing with mandatory royalty sharing. Noting that the drafting of the amendments left much to be desired, Arun also reflected on the fact that the amendments could have done with better homework of comparative positions in the US etc. He also rightly noted that a key solution is also to strengthen unions and collective bargaining power. 

Anjum Rajabali, who heads the Copyright Committee at the Film Writers’ Association, responded by noting that it was indeed the weak bargaining power of artists and lack of good business practices in the industry that prompted the statutory intervention. 

This was followed by a round table discussion on the on the future of entertainment in India. [Part I, Part II & Part III] The moderator, Dr. Madhukar Sinha, Professor at Centre for WTO Studies, in his opening remark noted the star-power is no longer the driving force for Indian films and asked the panelists on measures taken to improve access to entertainment. The panelists of this round table discussion were Phulak Bagchi (Vice-President, Legal & Regulatory Affairs, Star India), Anjum Rajabali (Film Writers’ Association) and Rajesh Dhupad (Jt. Secretary, South India Music Companies Association). It was a vibrant session with lots of interesting thoughts from the various panelists. 

Section II: Copyright & Technology 

The second session dealt with technological protection measures (TPMs) and intermediary liability exemption in Section 52 and its impact on the IT sector. 

Pranesh Prakash, Policy Director at the Centre for Internet and Society, questioned the need for introducing the provisions on TPMs as India was not a signatory to the WIPO agreements, namely; WCT and WPPT. Nonetheless, Pranesh hailed the provisions as being more evolved than most other pari materia provisions around the world. In the round table discussion that followed later, Prof Dr. V.C. Vivekanandan, MHRD IP Chair at NALSAR suggested that the provisions might have been inserted to placate the US. 

Praneshs’ presentation was followed by an insightful and well researched presentation on safe harbour provisions by Rajendra Kumar, Partner at K&S Partners. Kumar traced the evolution of intermediary liability jurisprudence around the world, most notably the US and EU. He noted that the Indian provisions were akin to conduit safe harbour provisions in the EU directive. He opined that Section 52(1)(c) lacked clarity in terms of not clearly spelling out as to which intermediaries were entitled to the exemption. Pranesh suggested that the provision was applicable to search engines and perhaps storage services depending on the interpretation of the word ‘incidental’ in the provision. 

Prof. Basheer, moderating the round table discussion, asked the panelists if a broad construction of the word ‘access’ in Sec. 52(1)(c) would effectively render redundant the exception provided in sub-clause (b). Prof. Gopalakrishnan suggested that the difference between both clauses rests on the ‘technical processes’ involved in the transient or incidental storage. If the incidental or transient storage is for longer duration, there is a need for checks and balances and Cl. (c) addresses these concerns. 

Session III: Copyright Limitations & Exceptions 

Pranesh Prakash spoke on the legality of parallel imports and observed that there is no statutory basis providing for an exclusive right to import copyrighted works. He went on to defend his hypothesis based on text of Section 2(m) and 51(b)(iv). Pranesh further criticized the decision of Justice Manmohan Singh of the Delhi High Court in John Wiley v. Prabhat Chandra Kumar Jain for recognizing a right to export works under the Copyright Act instead of contract law. 

Following this presentation, the copyright registrar, Mr Raghavender drew attention to a study conducted in New Zealand which demonstrated positive spillovers of parallel imports. Further, he informed the audience of an on-going study by National Commission of Applied Economic Research to determine whether or not parallel imports ought to be legalized in India. 

Abhishek Malhotra, Partner at TMT Law Partners delivered a riveting presentation on the statutory licensing scheme, noting that the amendments were prompted by demands for unreasonable royalties from music labels. Abhishek also highlighted the possibility of constitutional challenge to Section 31D. 

In a provocative presentation, Amlan explored the educational exception in the backdrop of the Delhi University photocopying row. He argued in favour of a broad interpretation as would promote access. The presentation elicited sharp reactions from the audience. One of the audience suggested that DU students have the financial means to afford a license and should therefore take a license without relying on the exception. Sheetal Chopra, representing FICCI, highlighted the loss of royalties from photocopies. 

In response, Prof. Basheer cautioned that this case was about educational course packs and that the statute provided a broad enough framework to exclude educational photocopying. Further, it was evident that a majority of academic scholars preferred enhanced readership over the paltry economic benefits through royalties. Lastly, he cautioned that while some DU students might be able to afford licenses offered today, such students are not representative of all Indian students, a large percentage of whom struggle to even pay their tuition. 

Ujwala Uppaluri, a fourth year student at NUJS, explored the impact of the amendments on public libraries in India. Ujwala welcomed the exception for storage of electronic copies by non-commercial public libraries and rightly stressed the need for digital preservation of works. Mr. Raghavender woed the fact that there was no express provision for inter-library loans, especially in the context of digital copies. Prof. Gopalakrishan observed that virtual libraries require significantly different rules and that it requires a fresh look as in when virtual libraries become a reality. 

The session ended with a passionate presentation by Prof. Sam Taraporevala, Director at Xavier’s Resource Center for the Visually Challenged, narrating the ‘unique Indian story’ in campaigning for and obtaining a special copyright exceptions for the benefit of people with disabilities. The amendments were a result of prolonged efforts from several individuals and civil society organizations. Prof. Taraporevala further noted that there is need to ensure accessible books in real time and proposed for setting up of National Library for Accessible Content in consonance with UNCRPD. 

Session IV: Copyright Enforcement, Adjudication & Governance 

Pravin Anand, one of India’s leading IP lawyers began this session by delivering a scintillating presentation on: ‘Copyright Enforcement: Will the amendments make a Difference?’. He applauded the Delhi High Court for measures aimed at making court processes quicker and more efficient and noted in particular that the collection of evidence by local commissioners had eased the pressure on regular judges who were already clogged with backlogs. He also highlighted the fact that the Delhi High Court had often taken the lead in IP jurisprudence by interalia being the first to Anton Pillar orders, Mareva injunctions etc. 

Sheetal Chopra, Joint Director at FICCI passionately advocated for more stringent antipiracy measures. She noted the significant losses made by the entertainment industry as a result of piracy and highlighted the role of camcorders in promoting piracy. 

She recorded her displeasure at the amendments to Section 52(1)(a) which allowed for reproduction for ‘personal or private use’, arguing that this effectively legitimized the use of cam-cording devices. Ms. Chopra further expressed her dissatisfaction with lack of penal action against those manufacturing devices with the sole objective of circumvention. In response, Mr. Prakash and Mr. Sinha suggested that affordable pricing is the most effective solution to piracy. (Note: we are given to believe that the government is now initiating measures to criminalise the possession of camcorders in cinema halls. This comes at the behest of concerted advocacy by several Bollywood producers, FICCI, USIBC, MPAA etc. 

The constitutional validity of the composition of the Copyright Board was challenged in the Madras High Court recently. Ananth Padmanabhan, counsel for the challenger (SIMCA) argued quite persuasively that the appointment and qualification of Board members did not conform to constitutional principles laid down by the Supreme Court recently in relation to the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT). Mr. Padmanabhan rightly noted that the amendments were a missed opportunity to cure infirmities in the Board. 

Achille Forler, Managing Director of Deep Emotions and a regular commentator at SpicyIP, was confident that the statutory licensing scheme would transform the industry. Mr. Forler opined that the mandatory licensing of music through copyright societies would be advantageous for users and also that societies would be in a better position to distribute royalties for lyricists and composers. However, Mr. Forler emphasized that IPRS in its present state required significant reforms to function effectively. 

The session ended with Dr. Anirban Mazumdar, Assistant Professor at NUJS, rightly highlighting the key administrative, adjudicatory and logistical complexities ahead of us. 

Acknowledgments: 

But for the passion, commitment and support of a number of people, this conference would never have materialized. I thank each of them below: 

i) As with most other IP events at NUJS, the most significant contributor was Sai Vinod, who worked tirelessly to make this happen. He also goaded several of his classmates and friends to work around the clock and pull off this stellar event. Our sincere gratitude to all of them: Vasudha Sharma, Nitika Gupta, Akshay Sharma, Amba Kak, Arun Mal, Pranav Narain, Aman Taneja, Abin Francis, Jaimini Vyas, Sahil Arora, Raveena Paul, Isha Narain, Siddharta Srivastava, Pranjal Singh, Sreyan Chatterjee, Shyam Gopal, Aparajita Lath, Abhinav Shrivastava, Asha Racheal Joy, Ashna Ashesh, Nidhi Rao, Nivedita Saksena, S. Varsha and Indrajeet Sircar. 

ii) The NUJS law review and in particular Smaran Shetty and Nimisha Srinivas for proposing a special issue devoted to the copyright amendments. Their prompting essentially served as the impetus for the conference. 

iii) The Ministry of HRD and in particular the Secretary, Shri Ashok Jha, the Joint Secretary, Ms Veena Ish and the Copyright Registrar, Mr Raghavender, the Registrar of Copyrights for their continuous support to all our IP activities. 

iv) Prof Ishwar Bhat for his enthusiastic encouragement of IP activities at NUJS. 

v) Prof NSG who readily agreed to combine his conference budget with ours in order to pull off this 2 day event with aplomb. 

vi) K&S Partners, a leading IP law firm and specifically Latha Nair and Rajendra Kumar, who immediately agreed to fund our conference in view of the shortfall at the last minute. I cannot thank them enough. 

vii) Sumeet Malik for his generous donation of latest versions of the Copyright Act to all present at the conference and for agreeing to publish a special issue of the NUJS law review (published and printed by EBC) as well as a book analyzing the amendments. 

viii) Arnab Roy for his wonderful magic in setting up a creativity theme based village (with Baul singers, Santhali dancers, weavers, potters and what not) to entertain the conference delegates and speakers). Thanks also to Manab Da for all his organizational work around the IP chair and the conference.

There were many others who contributed to the show,but unfortunately space constraints stand in the way of naming them: we are immensely grateful to each one of them for their time and commitment to the cause. 

NUJS Law Review Special Issue: 

We were fortunate enough to convince a number of our conference speakers to convert their presentations to papers. This special issue has just come back from the printers, thanks to a terrific team of student editors and the efforts of Sumeet Malik and his team at EBC. 

Given that the NUJS law review is an open access publication, all these articles will be available for convenient consumption on your computers soon. Stay tuned.

          The Doha Problem        
The WTO has just published the request by Qatar for consultations with the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Saudi Arabia concerning their trade restrictions. I quickly skimmed through the requests and found a few interesting points: This is the second...
          Iraq debate round 1        
What follows is a 3-round debate I had over e-mail with my friend Tyler. If you're interested, please read it and give your judgment of who you think is the winner. Feel free to comment on any of the notes, write me a personal message on Facebook, or send me an e-mail if you have questions, arguments, or complaints. This debate is available on my facebook page in a public format, so if you want your arguments to be seen by a slightly wider audience, you may want to put your comments there.


Daine:

The war in Iraq has quietly left the public debate. As the violence and turmoil of Iraq has been pushed off of the front pages, there is the danger of losing sight of the importance and costs that the war represents. In this debate, I will show that the Iraq War has, on balance, been a major and costly mistake. This debate should not be seen as an attempt to Monday-morning-quarterback the Bush administration or to convince anyone that President Bush is personally culpable of any crime or purposeful malfeasance. It is my hope, however, that as we collectively acknowledge that the Iraq War was a dreadful and preventable mistake, and as we see the reasons why and how this mistake was made, that we will be able to prevent similar mistakes from being made in the future.

I propose that we should analyze whether the Iraq war was a good decision or not based on a cost-benefit analysis. In discussions about the Iraq War, it’s common practice for one half of the partisans to accuse Bush of “trading blood for oil” and the other half to accuse the first half of hating America and apple pie. Motivation surely plays an important part of the discussion, but I have no intention of accusing Bush, the Illuminati, or any of our secret supreme overlords of a conspiracy. In point of fact, the War in Iraq has largely been a tragic string of errors, miscalculations, and ad hoc justifications that don’t hold much water. How America chooses to proceed, if it learns anything from these mistakes, or whether we ever reach a consensus on how similar situations should be handled in the future are topics for another debate; no amount of discussion can undo what has been done, unspend money that’s been spent, or resurrect the thousands of American and Iraqi dead. Regardless of whether Tyler wins this debate or I do, in a very real way we’ve both already lost the important competition: the War in Iraq.

There are three basic reasons why, in hindsight, America should not have gone to war in Iraq: the war was founded on some crucial assumptions, all of which turned out to be false, the war has cost more than it could possibly be worth, and the war has uniquely caused and exacerbated a number of problems, each of which is likely more harmful than the original problem the war was meant to fix.

I. Incorrect assumptions

1. Saddam Hussein posed a threat to the United States. Whether or not Saddam Hussein ever had a credible nuclear weapons program, our occupation failed to recover any of it. Even our unpreparedness, our lack of a long-term plan, and our inability to immediately secure Iraq post-invasion could have been excusable lapses, had they been for the purpose of capturing a weapons program. Whether or not such a weapons program ever existed, it is not in the hands of the American military.
2. We would be greeted as liberators and would be able to hand over power to a credible political force. The naivete of this assumption makes me want to cry. To say that the Bush administration should have known better doesn’t begin to explain my disappointment in our past leaders.

2a) We have had recent experience trying to do nation building and playing with puppet governments. We assumed, however, that our current governments would somehow be more credible than the ones we set up in Iran or Vietnam, and with better results.

3. The Iraqi regime had ties to international terrorism that posed a threat to America. Although this was an implicit and explicit link that helped convince us to support this war, no evidence exists or existed that such was true, Bush officials have confirmed this fact, and we’ve all got egg on our face for believing this in the absence of any credible reasons.

II. Costs

1. Thousands of American troops have died (3477 in combat since 2001). Many thousands more (31571) have been wounded. It’s hard to put a value on the costs that our troops and their families pay. Our troops sacrifice willingly, which speaks volumes to their greatness, but makes our unpreparedness and flippancy in sending them to needlessly die all the more tragic. They deserved better.
2. PTSD. In order to keep enough combat-ready troops, the military has not done nearly enough to diagnose and treat psychological effects of the war like PTSD. The effects of this are both private tragedies within the soldier’s lives and public tragedies like the ensuing suicides and murders that are committed by afflicted troops.
3. $700 billion dollars and counting. Call me crass if you will, but I’d rather have spent that money in America.
4. The war in Iraq represents an opportunity cost on any number of policies that could have actually made us safer. I don’t want to debate the war in Afghanistan here, but for those who think that we need more troops there in order to win, the war in Iraq is uniquely preventing us from winning a war which is likely more important for our safety.

III. Results of the Iraq War

1. Knocking out Iraq has caused a power vacuum in the Middle East. Iran, Hezbollah, and Hamas were all too glad to fill in that power gap.
2. We have further inflamed tensions between Muslims and the West. We no doubt helped recruit some amount of new terrorists and future enemies.
3. We made Americans easier to attack. Whereas as borders, anti-terrorist measures, and law enforcement efforts make it more difficult for terrorists to hurt and kill Americans, moving thousands of troops into a country with porous borders, embedded enemies, and a native population which includes people who hate us makes it much easier for them to inflict their revenge upon us.

Conclusion:

The war in Iraq is the unfortunate consequence of poor planning, making incorrect assumptions, and in jumping to action before all the facts were in. We could and should have been aware of the magnitude of the decision we were making, yet the rhetoric supporting the war, the results on the ground, and the fact that we still have 145,000 troops in Iraq bear witness to the fact that the action in Iraq was superbly poorly planned, devastatingly expensive, and rife with unintended consequences. In my opinion, the costs of the Iraq war far outweigh its benefits.

Tyler: How would Iraq be different today if Saddam were in power? Specifically, are you assuming he would be acting the same way he has the entire time he was Iraq's leader?

Daine: I'm not sure how to extrapolate what Saddam would be up to in 2009 had we never invaded. It's likely that he would be doing as much as we feasibly allowed him to do. More importantly, he would probably be talking a much bigger game than would actually be playing. It's important to note that there were many ways we could have handled Saddam. The choice wasn't between giving Saddam status in the WTO or invading and executing him. My argument is that, of all possible actions we could have taken with Iraq, that invading was perhaps the single worst, least intelligent option given the data.

Tyler: Without getting too specific or opening an entire Afghanistan debate, why is it a priority for us to win there? Is defeating Al Qaeda a strong priority for the United States? What is defeating Islamic terrorism worth?

Daine: I'm not exactly sure whether the war on terror was necessary or prudent. The fact remains, my candidate lost in 2000, so I must defer to the style and tactics of the Commander in Chief. While I may not have chosen the tactics that Bush did with regards to Afghanistan (I supported, at the time, a tactic similar to what Biden now advocates), I admit that there was good evidence that Al Qaeda trained in Afghanistan, that Bin Laden was living there, and that not acting could have posed a significant threat to U.S. security. What should be noted for purposes of this debate, however, is that the logic and gains from Afghanistan are completely separate from the logic and gains of going into Iraq. There may be the incorrect linking of the two wars as part of a "global war on terror," but the evidence which led us to invade Afghanistan would not have been reason to invade Iraq.

I think a fair price for defeating terrorism is anything less than we could reasonably assume we would lose by not defeating terrorism.



Tyler:

On September 12, 2001, Americans and the entire free world gasped as we tried to comprehend what had happened and how we would move forward. We faced an enemy based out of Afghanistan, a place where empires go to die. Most of all, Americans realized that we had a very real enemy in international terrorism.

On that day, if we had been told that two years later the central front of the war on terror would be moved from the mountainous wasteland and hostile population of Afghanistan to a more open and familiar terrain, I suspect we would have liked our chances.

This is exactly what happened. As side benefits, we also:

1. Removed a brutal dictator who had a long history of causing trouble for the world
2. Established a democracy in the Middle East
3. Turned most of the Arab world decidedly against Al Qaeda and Iran
4. Removed a principle financier of terrorism against Israel
5. Secured a large oil supply for the world
6. Scared Libya into giving up its nuclear ambitions
7. Exposed serious corruption and embezzlement in the United Nations



I cannot and will not argue that the Iraq war was handled perfectly – no war ever has been. However, I contend that for the above reasons, the war in Iraq has had more benefits than costs for the United States.

I will now address the benefits I listed and then answer Daine’s reasons for opposing the war.

To what extent Al Qaeda was involved in Iraq prior to our invasion is a matter for another debate; however, no one can doubt that Al Qaeda poured numerous resources and fighters into Iraq after our invasion. Osama Bin Laden and other Al Qaeda leaders labeled Iraq a must-win and made it part of their jihad.

Unlike Afghanistan, where order has never really existed, Iraqi citizens knew stability and preferred it. So, a few years into the war, when Iraq was getting stabilized, Al Qaeda began bombing Islamic edifices in order to start a “civil war.”

Now let me make a very important distinction. Until this point, rank and file Muslims had been horrified by and mostly opposed to the actions of Al Qaeda; however, leaders of Arab nations (which, in their entirety, comprise a very small minority and relatively extreme group of Muslims) had mostly either been indifferent toward or tacitly supportive of Al Qaeda’s actions. This small minority was horrified by Al Qaeda intentionally killing Muslim civilians. They turned on Al Qaeda, and though they did not and do not love the United States, they were less willing to help Al Qaeda. This, by itself, was a huge long term step in the war against Al Qaeda.

When the United States implemented a troop surge, it gave Iraqi tribal leaders the cover to begin supporting us. The truth about “the surge” is that it won the war in Iraq largely by allowing citizens of Iraq to begin reporting Al Qaeda and other terrorist groups to our soldiers, without the fear of reprisal.

The result of all this turned Iraq into a quagmire for Al Qaeda, turning the Arab world against them, and giving us a venue to fight them with the help of a population.

Now let me address the other benefits previously mentioned.

1. Nobody denies that Saddam Hussein was a problem for the world.

1. In 1981, he built a nuclear facility, which was destroyed by Israel.
2. He later used chemical weapons against the Kurds.
3. He had biological and chemical weapons programs following the Persian Gulf War. We still do not know what happened to them as he refused to account for their destruction.
4. He murdered thousands, if not millions of his own citizens, to the point that the United States was regularly flying planes over parts of his country to prevent any future attacks.

And, worst of all, he stood to leave his kingdom to his two sons – both of whom were evil enough to have caused problems for the world for years to come. What other harm Saddam would have done to the world is questionable. However, giving the kingdom to one of his psychotic sons would likely have caused serious problems in the Middle East.

2. We have also established a democracy in Iraq. While the rest of the Arab Middle East struggles under brutal dictators, Iraq now is a democracy and supports the human rights we support. There is a reason no two democracies have ever fought a war with one another. America’s greatest allies today are nations we have fought wars with. While we won’t always agree with Iraq, and they may not become as close to the United States as Japan or Germany, they certainly are not and will not be the bitter enemy they have been since the creation of Israel.

3. This was addressed throughout the initial section on Al Qaeda.

4 & 5. In addition, as a democratic nation, Iraq is less likely to clamp down on its oil supply and cause further problems for the world. They are also less likely to fund terrorism against Israel – something Saddam did often. Alan Greenspan argued at the time for the invasion purely for this reason, calling Saddam’s removal “essential.”

6. Two final benefits must quickly be addressed. The invasion of Iraq scared Gaddafi of Libya into giving up his nuclear weapons program. He was building weapons of mass destruction to oppose the west, and was frightened enough by the invasion of Iraq to stop.

7. Also, the war exposed a serious problem in our system of diplomatic sanctions. A number of world leaders, including the family of the United Nations’ Secretary General, were trading around the sanctions. This rendered them ineffective and less likely to be successful.

Now I will briefly address Daine’s arguments.

Reason 1 – Incorrect Assumptions

This is irrelevant to a cost benefit analysis of whether or not the war was worth fighting. It may serve as an indictment to Bush-Cheney and it preempts some arguments I may have chosen to make; however, none of these arguments are reasons to accept Daine’s arguments based on a cost-benefit analysis.

Let me still address some of these issues.

I will grant point 1 & 2, insofar as they do not contradict my earlier discussions of these issues

Regarding 2a.

There is no question that the government we have established in Iraq is more legitimate than those created in Vietnam & Iran. It has been legitimately elected, and the local tribes have come to embrace it. This government can and probably will be a US ally in the Middle East (a region where we really need it).

1. Granted, though Saddam was involved in terrorism against Israel, as mentioned above.

Reason 2 – Costs

Daine has me here. This is where the real debate will be decided. It is indisputable that we have spent a lot of money and lost many good soldiers fighting in Iraq. I would contend that these resources would have been lost elsewhere had we not invaded Iraq (as mentioned above).

Reason 3 – Results of the War

Responding to Daine’s arguments.

1. It is difficult to determine how much of Iran / Hamas’ ascension has been due to Saddam’s removal and how much was due to rising oil profits. Regardless, these organizations are “small potatoes” compared with Saddam and Libya. Daine’s argument presupposes that Iraq would have been an issue if it had not been removed. We removed a problem here. Will others step up? Certainly, but we still removed one problem and a prime financier of the Middle East’s problems.

2. We may have inflamed Muslims against the West, but we also inflamed them against Al Qaeda. For the first time, Arab Nations have actively opposed Al Qaeda and rank and file citizens have helped in the fight. Nobody seriously contends that Arab nations will ever like the United States so long as it supports Israel; however, they now hate our enemies as well.

3. Turn: I believe we actually made Americans less likely to be attacked for two reasons:

1. We moved much of the fight from the mountainous difficult terrain of Afghanistan to Iraq. We were going to fight Al Qaeda somewhere. We chose to fight it in a country that was easier, not harder.
2. Al Qaeda used its terrorist attacks in Iraq against our soldiers. Had they not, they would likely have spent more energy attacking civilians on our soil. Our soldiers can better defend themselves than our civilians can.

If anything, our invasion saved civilian lives and put soldiers in a more friendly environment.

Daine: What, if anything, has Iraq's contribution to the world supply of oil accomplished?

Tyler: Iraq possesses a large portion of the world's oil and could significantly influence our economy by distributing it. By invading Iraq, we secured this oil supply and protected our economy. This is what Greenspan said and I agree.
          L'uomo nuovo        
Marco Cedolin

Quando intorno alla metà del secolo scorso l'elite mondialista che di fatto gestisce le sorti del pianeta e dei suoi abitanti iniziò a strutturare le basi per la costruzione di un nuovo ordine mondiale (o comunque lo si voglia chiamare di una nuova società che potesse risultare funzionale ai propri interessi) comprese immediatamente come la globalizzazione fosse la strada migliore da percorrere per ottenere il risultato voluto. Le basi di un progetto di questo genere erano già state poste negli anni 30, quando il Council on Foreign Relations americano concepì strutture come la Banca Mondiale ed il Fondo Monetario internazionale che nacquero ufficialmente a Bretton Woods nel luglio 1944 ed ebbero senza dubbio modo di affinarsi quando a partire dal mese di maggio 1954 iniziarono le riunioni del gruppo Bilderberg, deputato a fare sintesi e delineare le strategie.......
Nello stesso periodo, ad ottobre del 1947 a Ginevra vide la luce il GATT (General Agreement on Tarifs and Trade) composto inizialmente da 18 paesi fra i quali l'Italia (che entrò a farne parte nel 1949) e destinato a comprenderne 37, che si proponeva l'obiettivo di eliminare tutto ciò che potesse in qualche misura ostacolare il commercio internazionale.
Il capitalismo fordista, inteso come modello basato sulla produzione ed il consumo, aveva ormai fatto il suo tempo, così come stavano diventando anacronistici i paletti imposti dalla presenza degli stati sovrani, delle politiche protezionistiche dei vari governi e di tutto un universo di peculiarità e differenze che di fatto ostacolava la creazione di un mercato unico globale. Nei decenni successivi sarebbe stato necessario smantellare in maniera certosina ogni ostacolo che potesse frapporsi alla costruzione di una società globalizzata, dove le merci e gli uomini (merce) potessero circolare senza alcun intralcio, per venire incontro alle esigenze di profitto e dove la finanza e le grandi banche di affari, a braccetto con le società multinazionali, acquistassero sempre più peso rispetto alla politica, fino ad arrivare a dirigerne e determinarne le scelte.
I cittadini occidentali da poco usciti dalla guerra mondiale vivevano il boom economico, lavoravano, risparmiavano, consumavano ed anelavano ad un futuro migliore. Abbandonavano le campagne per andare a lavorare in città, "modernizzavano" le propre usanze ed i propri costumi, sempre guardando all'America come al faro illuminante dal quale trarre ispirazione. Erano indirizzati sulla buona strada, ma avrebbero avuto ancora molto cammino da fare.
I cittadini del blocco sovietico vivevano racchiusi in un bozzolo, impermeabile a tutte le ingerenze esterne, fra le pieghe dell'economia pianificata. Di strada da fare ne avevano ancora tanta, ma un bel giorno sarebbero arrivati anche loro alla meta.
Quelli del "terzo mondo" vivevano soprattutto grazie all'autoproduzione, praticavano l'agricoltura e la pastorizia finalizzate alla propria sussistenza ed il loro peso sullo scacchiere del progresso, basato sulla società crescita e sviluppo risultava tutto sommato di poco conto. Al contrario di quello dei paesi in cui vivevano, spesso ricchi di risorse che per la crescita e lo sviluppo occidentale sarebbero diventate indispensabili. Comunque un giorno non così lontano anche loro avrebbero concorso alla formazione del villaggio globale.


Il processo di globalizzazione avrebbe necessitato di tempi lunghi, di strumenti tecnologici nuovi che permettessero la creazione di una non - cultura globale volta a sostituire la miriade di culture preesistenti, della collaborazione di tutti gli organismi di potere, in qualsiasi luogo ed a qualsiasi livello.


La fine del novecento


Nel gennaio del 1995, dopo 8 anni di negoziati fra i paesi aderenti al GATT, sempre a Ginevra nacque il WTO (World Trade Organisation), al quale attualmente aderiscono 161 paesi che rappresentano circa il 97% dell'intero commercio mondiale di beni e servizi. Lo scopo principale della nuova organizzazione era quello di perfezionare il lavoro fino a quel momento svolto dal GATT, nella creazione di un mercato unico globale che di fatto godesse di un potere sovranazionale e fosse in grado di determinare e gestire le politiche economiche su scala mondiale, di concerto con istituzioni come il Fondo Monetario Internazionale e la Banca Mondiale. Un altro passo importante sulla via della globalizzazione era stato compiuto, le nazioni avrebbero progressivamente ceduto sempre maggiori quote della propria sovranità, mentre gli "uomini merce" si sarebbero omologati sempre più gli uni con gli altri, abbandonando la propria identità e le proprie tradizioni, trasformandosi in soggetti interscambiali fra loro, da potere gestire e spostare a piacimento sullo scacchiere mondiale.
In Occidente la popolazione aveva raggiunto intorno alla metà degli anni 80 il maggior momento di "benessere economico", sull'asse del modello crescita e sviluppo. Le città erano densamente popolate, inquinate e vivaci, all'acme di una migrazione trentennale dalle campagne. Il livello di occupazione era alto, quello dei salari discretamente buono, i diritti dei lavoratori, dopo le "conquiste" dei decenni precedenti risultavano elevati. Ormai tutte le famiglie possedevano una o più auto, fiorivano le seconde case, le persone avevano tempo libero e risorse da dedicare ai viaggi e alle vacanze. I consumi erano estremamente elevati, l'impegno politico stava sparendo, sostituito dai nuovi modelli sociali ispirati dai media e dalla televisione. L'uomo della strada si considerava tutto sommato felice, attraverso i viaggi organizzati iniziava a sentirsi cosmopolita, lavorava, consumava ed andava a divertirsi, nella maniera in cui i nuovi modelli sociali gli suggerivano di fare.
La caduta del muro di Berlino, avvenuta nel 1989 ed il crollo dell'Unione Sovietica verificatosi a cavallo del 1990, seguito dalla disintegrazione della ex Jugoslavia, mandarono in frantumi quella sorta di bozzolo in cui vivevano i cittadini dell'Est, diventati improvvisamente permeabili e ricettivi al canto delle sirene occidentali. Entro breve tempo anche loro avrebbero potuto godere di tutti i benefici del modello crescita e sviluppo, mangiare al Mc Donald's, guardare i film americani e sentirsi cittadini del mondo.


In quegli stessi decenni, nei paesi del "terzo mondo", già pesantemente depredati delle proprie risorse durante il periodo coloniale, la Banca Mondiale ed il FMI, attraverso i vari organismi da essi controllati, hanno imposto una nuova forma di colonialismo declinata nel segno dello sviluppo.
I governi locali (spesso collusi con la stessa elite mondialista) sono stati convinti a svendere ulteriormente le proprie risorse e ad indebitarsi per cifre esorbitanti, al fine di poter costruire mega infrastrutture sul modello occidentale, il più delle volte destinate a rimanere sottoutilizzate, dopo avere determinato gravissimi danni agli equilibri ambientali. Le piccole industrie, che producevano beni di consumo semplici, destinati al consumo della popolazione locale, sono state sotituite da mega industrie inquinanti ed energivore, spesso di proprietà delle multinazionali occidentali impegnate a delocalizzare la propria produzione in paesi che potessero offrire legislazioni di comodo e manodopera a bassissimo costo.
Le colture di sussistenza che contribuivano a sfamare le polazioni locali, sono state estirpate per far posto alle monocolture intensive, in larghissima parte destinate all'esportazione. La cosidetta "rivoluzione verde", spacciata sotto le mentite spoglie della solidarietà pelosa, ha di fatto trasformato milioni di contadini che vivevano del proprio raccolto in milioni di "contadini poveri" dipendenti in tutto e per tutto dalle quotazioni della propria monocoltura di riferimento nelle borse internazionali. Dopo averli fatti indebitare per l'acquisto dei macchinari agricoli e dei pesticidi e in un secondo momento anche delle sementi ogm che erano state rese indispensabili.
La pesca tradizionale, praticata rispettando i pricipi ecologici che preservavano la riproduzione e proteggevano le riserve di pesce, finalizzata a sfamare le famiglie locali è stata sostituita dalla pesca moderna con reti a strascico (spesso finanziata da programmi di aiuto internazionali) assai più distruttiva e letale per le riserve di pesce. I pescatori tradizionali che attraverso il loro lavoro sfamavano le proprie famiglie, si sono così trasformati in pochi decenni in dipendenti sottopagati al soldo di compagnie di pesca straniere che avevano come unico scopo il profitto immediato, potendo trasferirsi altrove nel momento in cui le acque non sarebbero state più produttive. E questo sarebbe avvenuto molto presto, anche con la complicità dei pesticidi e degli scarichi velenosi determinati dalle industrie di "nuova generazione".
Le foreste tropicali, abitate dai popoli indigeni usi a praticare le coltivazioni a rotazione, sono state oggetto di una pesantissima deforestazione, conseguente all'abbattimento massiccio degli alberi da parte delle società transnazionali legate all'industria del legname e dei mobili o degli allevamenti intensivi destinati alle catene di fast foods americane. Basti pensare che solamente tra il 1900 ed il 1965 la metà della superficie occupata dalle foreste nei paesi "in via di sviluppo" è stata disboscata, mentre nei decenni successivi il ritmo della deforestazione è stato ancora superiore, con la conseguenza di aver privato milioni di persone dei propri strumenti di sussistenza, oltre ad avere causato danni ecologici incalcolabili.
Negli ultimi decenni del 900 i cittadini del terzo mondo, che per secoli avevano vissuto in comunità in gran parte autosufficienti, praticando la coltivazione e la pesca, con un'industria manifatturiera su piccola scala, basata sulle risorse locali ed in grado di rispondere alle esigenze ed ai bisogni di una società "semplice" in armonia con l'ambiente naturale, avevano visto il proprio ambiente stravolto in maniera tanto radicale quanto irreversibile. Avevano perso tutte le coordinate con le quali orientarsi, non possedevano le risorse per vivere e fare fronte ai nuovi bisogni indotti dalla propaganda dei paesi "sviluppati" ed iniziavano a sognare di trasferirsi nelle sfavillanti metropoli che vedevano in televisione.




I mass media, la TV ed internet


La creazione "dell'uomo nuovo" e più in generale l'intero processo di globalizzazione, non sarebbero stati possibili senza tutta una serie di strumenti che permettessero di superare le differenze culturali, le tradizioni, gli stili di vita, le peculiarità che ancora distinguevano profondamente gli uomini l'uno dall'altro, rendendoli un qualcosa di estremamente eterogeneo, difficilmente omologabile in uno standard globale come quello voluto.
Già subito dopo la fine della seconda guerra mondiale la musica ed il cinema "americani" iniziarono ad invadere l'Europa, contaminando culture profondamente estranee a quella statunitense, ma il vero strumento principe della globalizzazione fu senza dubbio la TV ed in un secondo tempo la TV satellitare.
La diffusione massiccia della televisione fu la vera chiave di volta che ampliò a dismisura gli orizzonti della popolazione, prima occidentale e poi mondiale, rendendo l'individuo cittadino di un mondo che fino a quel momento gli era estraneo. Attraverso la TV, a prescindere dal fatto che si trattasse di un telefilm americano, di pubblicità, di un festival della canzone, di un telegiornale, di un documentario o di un programma d'intrattenimento, le persone vennero vezzeggiate, coccolate ed istradate a nuovi usi e costumi, nuove realtà, nuovi modi di pensare, nuove mode (spesso di derivazione americana), nuove sensibilità, sempre declinati sul piano inclinato della modernità, necessaria ed uguale per tutti. Presente in ogni casa ed accesa per sempre più ore al giorno, la TV non ha tardato a manifestarsi come il migliore strumento di orientamento del pensiero, dei costumi, dei modelli sociali e delle sensibilità, consentendo a chi ne ha gestito i contenuti di plasmare prima milioni e poi miliardi di persone, prendendole per mano e portandole nella direzione voluta. Grazie a decenni di film e telefilm statunitensi per molti italiani, città come New York o Chicago risultano essere molto più "familiari" di quanto non lo siano Roma o Milano, feste come Halloween sono diventate patrimonio di culture alle quali non appartenevano, gli stravizi e le feste folli dei college americani sono riusciti a contaminare realtà scolastiche profondamente differenti rispetto a quella di oltre oceano. Per non parlare del linguaggio, ormai trasformatosi in una sorta di slang americanizzato, tanto nell'ambito dei rapporti sociali, quanto in quello professionale. Dove si organizzano
briefeng, si va a fare l'happy hour, si compra il ticket, si pubblicizza un brand, occorre fare la spending review, si scrive un abstract, si acquistano viaggi all inclusive, si crea audience, si curiosa nel backstage, si partecipa ad una convention,si usufruisce di un benefit, si fa un break, si valorizza il proprio core business, si paga cash, si prenota un catering, si va all'ospedale per un check up, si porta avnti una class actione via discorrendo. Ma la Tv non è solamente film, telefilm ed intrattenimento, bensì anche informazione, sempre più in tempo reale, destinata a portare "il mondo" in casa a tutte le ore della giornata, costruendo di fatto la realtà secondo i dettami di chi la gestisce per conto terzi, naturalmente di concerto con la carta stampata e le trasmissioni radiofoniche.
A cavallo degli anni 90 del secolo scorso la TV compie un passo decisivo, con l'avvento del satellitare che le permette di assumere una dimensione trasnazionale, raggiungendo tutti quei paesi del "terzo mondo" e dell'ex blocco sovietico dove gli abitanti, affamati di Occidente, non tardano a dotarsi degli apparecchi necessari a ricevere il segnale. Anche loro potranno gustare i telefilm americani e posare gli occhi sulle fantasmagoriche metropoli brulicanti di luce e di vita, vedere i loro connazionali giocare nei miliardari campionati di calcio europei, portare a casa qualche briciola di quel mondo "moderno", sfavillante, ricco di promesse e di prospettive come suggeriscono le immagini patinate della pubblicità. Anche loro potranno ottenere informazioni dal mondo e conoscere la realtà nella forma in cui è stato deciso che essa esista. Ma soprattutto anche loro potranno fare propri usi e costumi che gli erano completamente estranei ed assimilare una "non cultura" che possa sostituire la loro, ormai persa durante i decenni precedenti.
In concomitanza all'avvento del satellite la TV inizia a cambiare pelle anche nell'ambito dei contenuti, destinati a diventare sempre più globali e globalizzanti. Le trasmissioni d'intrattenimento vengono confezionate in format destinati ad essere venduti in decine e decine di paesi differenti, l'informazione si standardizza sempre più, non solo nel contenuto, ma anche nei tempi e nei modi in cui viene portata. La TV si fa sempre più globale, rivolgendosi ormai a miliardi di persone che ne seguono fedelmente il percorso, accettando supinamente di venire omologate.
Se la TV si è distinta come lo strumento principale della globalizzazione, non meno importante è stato l'apporto di internet alla "causa", a partire dai primi anni del nuovo secolo, in concomitanza con la diffusione sempre più massiccia del computer, non solo in Occidente, ma anche nei cosidetti "paesi in via di sviluppo". A differenza della televisione la rete è uno strumento interattivo, dove l'utente non si limita ad essere spettatore passivo, ma al contrario scrive e si rapporta con gli altri tramite il web. La creazione del mondo virtuale, senza confini ed omnicomprensivo, dove ciascuno di noi può scegliere un alias e ridisegnare un nuovo sé stesso attraverso il quale rapportarsi all'interno dei social network, sicuramente risulta essere funzionale ad una nuova visione del "mondo", deprivata dagli usi e costumi tradizionali e al tempo stesso molto vicina all'icona del villaggio globale tanto cara all'elite mondialista. Proprio i social network, con Facebook, Instagram e Twitter a tirare la cordata, incarnano meglio di ogni altro strumento lo spirito "dell'uomo nuovo", sempre connesso nel villaggio virtuale, dove non esistono confini e differenze, ma sempre più solo nel mondo reale, dove sta perdendo la propria identità, i legami familiari, la capacità di rapportarsi con gli altri in maniera costruttiva, la consapevolezza delle proprie origini e della propria umanità. Proprio sui social network sempre più spesso gli uomini politici ed i vip fanno i propri annunci, che verranno poi ripresi dalle TV e dai giornali, diventando a loro volta notizie di notizie, in un circolo vizioso dai ritmi sempre più sincopati.
Ma la rete non è solamente social network, bensì anche informazione, una valanga d'informazione di ogni genere e di ogni provenienza della quale si può fruire a proprio piacimento in qualsiasi momento della giornata. Dove accanto alla poca "buona informazione" costruita attraverso l'impegno e la fatica degli utenti, dilaga la tanta "cattiva informazione" dispensata da quegli stessi media che gestiscono le TV ed i giornali. Il risultato è quello di una massa d'individui costretti a gestire mentalmente una marea d'informazioni superficiali e spesso fuorvianti, ma totalmente incapaci di approfondire qualsiasi argomento, dal momento che proprio la superficialità e la fretta sono le parole d'ordine attraverso le quali navigare in internet. Anche in questo caso internet si presta a plasmare lo spirito "dell'uomo nuovo", forte del convincimento di essere iper informato su qualsiasi argomento e di conoscere tutto, ma totalmente incapace di comprendere come la propria onniscienza sia costituita esclusivamente da una massa di nozioni usate per costruire una realtà a suo uso e consumo che non è più reale di quanto possa esserlo un serial TV.


Le "guerre preventive", l'effetto disgregazione e le rivoluzioni colorate


La prima fu quella " del Golfo" nel 1990 contro l'Iraq di Saddam Hussein, l'ultima potrebbe essere (ma speriamo di no) quella contro la Siria di Assad, passando attraverso la guerra nella ex Jugoslavia, l'invasione dell'Afghanistan, la definitiva conquista dell'Iraq, la distruzione della Libia di Gheddafi. Tutte guerre "preventive" portate dall'elite mondialista occidentale, sotto la guida degli USA e di organismi internazionali di comodo come l'ONU e la NATO, contro stati sovrani dallo spiccato carattere nazionalista, poco propensi ad abbracciare il mito della globalizzazione. Tutti stati dagli equilibri interni particolarmente delicati a causa della convivenza di varie etnie e gruppi sociali che i governi esistenti erano riusciti a ricomporre non senza difficoltà. Tutti paesi che dopo i bombardamenti e l'invasione hanno perso ogni equilibrio, andando incontro alla completa disgregazione, degenerata in guerre tribali, terrorismo, sangue e distruzione, costituendo terreno fertile per la globalizzazione e l'emigrazione di massa della popolazione locale.
Ma non sempre per abbattere uno stato sovrano il cui governo si manifestava riluttante a collaborare con l'elite mondialista, disgregare il paese e gettarlo nel caos, prima di sostituire il leader poco collaborativo con un fantoccio di comodo, sono stati necessari bombardamenti ed invasioni. Molto spesso sono state sufficienti le "rivoluzioni colorate", inaugurate dalle rivoluzioni d'autunno nel 1989, quando Solidarnosc prese il potere in Polonia, Ceausescu fu prima deposto e poi ucciso in Romania, ed i governi preesistenti vennero rovesciati in maniera "pacifica" nella Germania Est, in Cecoslovaccia, Ungheria, Bulgaria, Estonia, Lettonia, Lituania. E poi proseguite nei decenni successivi, in Serbia nel 2000, in Georgia nel 2003, in Ucraina nel 2004, in Kirghizistan nel 2005. Per finire con la "Primavera araba" del 2011 che coinvolse fra gli altri la Tunisia, l'Egitto, la Libia di Gheddafi (poi ucciso durante l'invasione occidentale) e la Siria, dove Assad riuscì a resistere solamente grazie all'appoggio della Russia e allo stoicismo del suo popolo che si strinse intorno a lui. Ultima in ordine di tempo la rivoluzione ucraina del febbraio 2014, culminata con la cacciata del presidente in carica Yanukovich, colpevole di non avere mostrato sufficiente condiscendenza nei confronti della UE. Una rivoluzione che ha di fatto tagliato in due il paese, provocando forti attriti fra la UE, spalleggiata dagli Stati Uniti e la Russia, determinando una lunga scia di sangue tuttora in atto.
Attraverso una lunga serie di guerre preventive e rivoluzioni colorate, l'elite mondialista è riuscita dunque ad ottenere negli ultimi decenni la disgregazione di un gran numero di stati sovrani, imponendo di fatto con l'uso della forza o con il sotterfugio l'eliminazione di confini scomodi, di culture refrattarie al "cambiamento", di tradizioni in contrasto con il disegno globalizzatore e creando l'humus necessario affinché potesse realizzarsi nella sua completezza il disegno stesso.


Le crisi economiche e il fenomeno migratorio


Solamente con l'avvento del nuovo millennio, dopo tanto duro lavoro, i tempi erano maturi perché il processo di globalizzazione potesse entrare pienamente a regime, iniziando a dare i propri frutti.
Nei paesi occidentali una lunga serie di crisi economiche e finanziarie, create a tavolino, aveva privato le popolazioni di tutte le proprie certezze e anche di buona parte dei loro diritti e delle loro risorse. La disoccupazione era salita progressivamente a livelli sempre più alti, il potere di acquisto dei salari risultava in caduta libera, l'ambizione di "costruire un futuro migliore" stava lasciando il passo a quella di tentare di mantenere il proprio tenore di vita e ben presto sarebbe stata sostituita da quella di riuscire a sopravvivere con un minimo di dignità. I governi si erano ormai ridotti al ruolo di meri passacarte al servizio di banche e multinazionali e imponevano senza sosta le politiche di rigore imposte dall'elite mondialista. Tutti i punti fermi attraverso i quali le persone erano abituate ad orientarsi da sempre venivano smantellati, ad iniziare dall'istituzione della famiglia, del "posto di lavoro fisso", del rapporto di coppia uomo - donna e più in generale di tutti gli usi e costumi e le peculiarità che le differenziavano le une dalle altre.
Le metropoli e le grandi città avevano smesso di crescere, la chiusura delle industrie, molte delle quali delocalizzate nei paesi del "terzo mondo", trasformava vaste aree urbane (e talvolta perfino intere città come Detroit) in quartieri dormitorio degradati dove crollava il valore degli immobili, spesso bruciando senza pietà i risparmi di una vita. Sempre più persone "convinte" nei decenni precedenti a contrarre pesanti mutui per acquistare le proprie case si ritrovavano nell'impossibilità di fare fronte ai pagamenti. Il lavoro si trasformava sempre più da fisso a precario, allargando a dismisura la categoria dei "nuovi poveri" costretti ad arrabattarsi fra un'occupazione saltuaria e l'altra, senza alcuna ambizione che potesse prescindere dalla mera sopravvivenza.
L'uomo occidentale si scopriva sempre più solo, sempre più privo di coordinate atraverso le quali orientarsi, sempre più incapace di costruire il reddito necessario a soddisfare i bisogni indotti dai modelli di vita imposti dalla pubblicità, senza più un'identità, senza qualcosa in cui credere che non fosse il denaro e il successo, mentre anche il denaro ed il successo stavano diventando dei miraggi.
I cittadini dei paesi dell'ex blocco sovietico si sono ormai in larga parte omologati con quelli occidentali, molti di loro sono emigrati o emigrano verso ovest, molti altri hanno parzialmente migliorato il proprio tenore di vita lavorando nelle aziende delocalizzate in patria. Hanno realizzato il proprio "sogno occidentale" ma stanno anche rendendosi conto di come nei fatti si tratti di un'esperienza onirica di cartapesta.
Gli abitanti del terzo mondo hanno ormai rotto gli argini e inseguendo le promesse accattivanti portate dalla TV satellitare, decidono di emigrare in massa dentro al mondo rappresentato in quegli schermi. Con la complicità dei trafficanti di esseri umani, dei professionisti dell'accoglienza (nascosti sotto la bandiera della solidarietà pelosa) impegnati a gestire un traffico assai più redditizio di quello della droga e dell'elite mondialista che ha disperatamente bisogno di loro, si imbarcano a centinaia di migliaia su barconi fatiscenti o danno vita via terra ad un esodo disperato e disperante, durante il quale molti di loro perdono la vita.
Sono il "materiale umano" di cui la globalizzazione ha bisogno per livellare al ribasso i salari dell'Europa intera, per praticare l'eutanasia degli ultimi diritti che ancora sopravvivono, per sradicare definitivamente le identità, gli stati sovrani, le tradizioni e le differenze.


Secondo i dati forniti dall'Organizzazione internazionale per le migrazioni nei soli primi 9 mesi del 2015, sarebbero stati 432.000 i migranti arrivati in Europa dal Mediterraneo, più del doppio di quelli sbarcati nell'intero 2014. Stando ai numeri forniti da Amnesty international nella sola Grecia, nei primi 9 mesi del 2015 sarebbero sbarcati circa 200.000 migranti, con un rapporto di un migrante ogni 70 abitanti locali. Il vice-cancelliere tedesco Sigmar Gabriel ha dichiarato che nei prossimi anni la Germania dovrà farsi carico di almeno un milione di "profughi" richiedenti asilo.
Questi sono solo alcuni numeri, estrapolati dai giornali degli ultimi mesi, che dimostrano come l'esodo degli emigrati verso l'Europa stia diventando sempre più significativo, ma non ancora così significativo come l'elite mondialista vorrebbe.
L'economista
Leonid Bershidsky, in un articolo pubblicato su Bloomberg, dove vuole arrivare l'elite mondialista (della quale senza dubbio è al servizio) dimostra di averlo capito perfettamente, quando dichiara candidamente che l'Europa avrebbe bisogno di accogliere (o forse sarebbe meglio dire deportare) almeno 250milioni di migranti entro il 2060, praticamente un terzo della sua intera popolazione attuale. Bershidsky attraverso complesse calcolazioni tanto care agli economisti tenta di dimostrare come un "sacrificio" di questo genere sarebbe necessario per "salvare" le pensioni future dei cittadini europei, nell'evidente intenzione di dare di un fenomeno come quello dell'immigrazione di massa una visione positiva e per alcuni versi quasi salvifica. Mente spudoratamente sulle reali ragioni per cui è stato innescato il fenomeno, ma si dimostra assai efficace nel descrivere le dimensioni e la portata globale dello stesso in quello che è il piano della globalizzazione.
Come non domandarsi con quali prospettive un continente in profonda crisi economica, che non riesce più a fornire gli strumenti per una sopravvivenza dignitosa alla propria popolazione potrebbe mai accogliere una simile marea di profughi, permettendo loro di vivere dignitosamente? E come non domandarsi che fine faranno nel prossimo futuro i paesi dai quali i migranti provengono, privati di larga parte della propria popolazione in età lavorativa, emigrata in Occidente in cerca di fortuna?








"L'uomo nuovo" è ormai una realtà


Al termine di tutto questo percorso l'uomo nuovo è ormai diventato una realtà concreta e risulta del tutto aderente al disegno che l'elite mondialista aveva in mente quando più di mezzo secolo fa iniziò a costruirlo con pazienza. Si tratta del cittadino del mondo, una figura apolide, priva di qualsiasi senso di appartenenza, senza alcuna cultura di riferimento, senza valori e senza tradizioni, con legami familiari e affettivi in via di dissolvimento, interscambiabile con gli altri come può esserlo un pezzo di ricambio, sopravvivente all'interno di una vita ad interim, senza diritti e coordinate con le quali orientarsi, alla perenne ricerca dei mezzi economici che possano permettergli di acquistare i beni di consumo imposti dalla pubblicità e altrettanto perennemente frustrato dall'impossibilità di poterlo fare.
L'uomo nuovo potrà essere spostato a piacimento all'interno del villaggio globale, laddove risulta essere più utile la sua presenza, dal momento che in mancanza di un'identità e di una famiglia non esiste alcun senso di radicamento. Potrà essere pagato il "meno possibile", poiché la sua interscambiabilità ha pregiudicato qualsiasi capacità di contrattare il proprio salario ed è impotente di fronte all'arma del ricatto occupazionale. Potrà essere manipolato a piacimento, grazie al fatto che una persona deprivata della cultura di riferimento e delle tradizioni è come un foglio bianco sul quale i media e l'orientamento del pensiero hanno modo d'imprimere qualsiasi cosa risulti funzionale ai progetti dell'elite mondialista. Non sarà in grado di fare valere i propri diritti, di protestare e di opporsi, dal momento che l'uomo merce è una figura atomizzata, totalmente incapace di aggregarsi con gli altri, eternamente in competizione con il proprio vicino e irrimediabilmente sola anche in mezzo alla calca.
Non si opporrà alle decisioni calate dall'alto, perché convinto che vengano prese per il suo bene, accetterà supinamente il proprio destino, così come lo fa una merce che deve essere costruita, venduta, usata e poi gettata via quando risulta non essere più utile. Si mostrerà sinceramente convinto di essere libero ed informato e si professerà felice di appartenere al villaggio globale, vero simbolo della modernità, senza confini, senza differenze, senza retaggi del passato, senza inutili tradizioni e discriminazioni di sorta, ma purtroppo anche senza più una briciola di umanità, dal momento che fra la merce e l'uomo che intendesse essere tale qualche differenza dovrebbe esserci per forza.

          The WTO and the Doha Round: Walking on Two Legs         
The Doha Round of the World Trade Organization negotiations has been ongoing for 10 years, and given political cycles in major countries, there is not much hope for a rapid conclusion. The topics on the table are important, and in principle there is enough substance for all countries to gain from an agreement, but, unfortunately, too much emphasis has been placed on gains through market access alone. The Doha Round is about much more than market access. Concluding the talks arguably requires greater recognition of the value of trade policy disciplines that will be part of any agreement. The WTO is not just a market access negotiating forum; it is also a multilateral umbrella through which governments can agree on rules of the game for other trade related policies. Given the slow progress of the Round, greater emphasis could be put on leveraging existing WTO bodies to enhance the transparency of nontariff measures, address regulatory concerns that impede liberalization of trade in services, and launch a dialogue on domestic economic policies that can create negative spillover effects for trading partners.
          Î•Î»Î»Î·Î½Î¹ÎºÎ¬ Καλλιστεία 2012- Συνέντευξη Τύπου        
Ελληνικά Καλλιστεία 2012- Συνέντευξη Τύπου Ο διαγωνισμός ομορφιάς που ανέδειξε χιλιάδες όμορφες κοπέλες που καταξιώθηκαν στο χώρο της μόδας αλλά και αλλού, επιστρέφει! Το TLIFE σου παρουσίασε ζωντανά την συνέντευξη Τύπου. Διαβασε περισσότερα : http://www.tlife.gr/Article/news-omorfia/0-68-37678.html From: TlifeVideo Views: 115 2 ratings Time: 05:08 More in Howto & Style
          Howto backup cpanel via rsync        
Cpanel has a nice backup system especially in case you’ll have to restore the server. What I don’t like about it is the absence of ssh as a protocol to transfer the data to a remote server. There are two …

Read more »


          FIJI CO-CONVENES BRIEFING SESSION OF THE UNITED NATIONS HIGH LEVEL OCEANS CONFERENCE FOR GENEVA-BASED OFFICIALS        
Geneva
Tuesday, January 17, 2017
 
16 January, Geneva: Fiji’s Permanent Representative to the United Nations in Geneva Ambassador Nazhat Shameem Khan moderated at a preparatory briefing of the UN High Level Oceans Conference which will be co-hosted by Fiji in New York later this year.

This week’s briefing will raise awareness in Geneva, and in particular amongst the diplomatic community, on the high level United Nations Conference and its preparatory processes.

The meeting was co-convened by the Permanent Missions of Fiji and Sweden to the UN in Geneva. Fiji and Sweden are co-hosting the Oceans Conference in New York. The meeting was also supported by the offices of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the United Nations Department of Environment and Social Affairs (UNDESA).

Ambassador Khan moderated the session on ‘Fish Trade and the Emerging Issues’ in light of the Trade and Environment Review of 2016. In her opening remarks, she underscored the importance of the special and differential treatment as the centerpiece of any outcomes in the WTO fisheries negotiations. She highlighted the vital need for policy space for developing countries, in particular small developing countries in developing its artisanal and commercial fisheries sector. To this end she called upon members to consider the UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14.7 (Sustainable use of marine resources) in tandem with SDG 14.6 (Sustainable fishing). SDG 14.7 silhouettes the importance of the economic benefits of the fisheries sector to small island developing states.

In relation to subsidies, Ambassador Khan noted that not all forms of subsidies have negative impact on Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. Subsidies in relation to combatting IUU issues should be allowed. “Issues of management measures are integral in fisheries, however, these need to be discussed in the relevant forum of the Regional Fisheries Management Organizations”, she added. At the national level, the fisheries authorities are responsible for the management of fisheries under their respective jurisdictions.

On the issue of transparency, the importance of having a transparency mechanism has been noted to be a vital component, however, a balance has to be struck between transparency and the commercial confidentiality of information for these economies.

The contributors at the session were Ms. Victoria Chomo from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Mr. Paulo Kautoke, Director Trade Division of the Commonwealth Secretariat, Mr. Awni Behman, Honorary President of the International Oceans Institute and Mr Guillermo Valles, Director for the Division of Trade in Goods and Services and Commodities from the UNCTAD.

          July Trade Events, Publications Look at SMEs, E-commerce, Services        
A book by the Asian Development Bank Institute examines the risks and opportunities of trade opening, showcasing Asia as an example of the potential positive force that trade can have on development. An OECD-WTO publication reflects on the changes brought by digital trade. UNCTAD hosted an event that considered the role of service trade in fostering inclusive and sustainable development.
          India - Nutrition labelling a must from March 19        
Bringing India in line with the developed world, all processed food made or sold in India will have to carry nutritional labelling from March 19, health minister Anbumani Ramadoss said on Wednesday. "Apart from a list of ingredients and the weight, it will become mandatory to list nutrition information, including total calories (energy value), amounts of protein, carbohydrate, fat, sodium (salt), sugars, dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals.
Labels will also have to list the amount of trans fat," said Ramadoss at a conference. Artery-clogging trans fats are used extensively in processed food to extend shelf life and preserve flavour.
Health secretary Naresh Dayal said the food-processing industry has had time to conform to the new packaging requirements. "The manufacturers were given six months to comply with the new labelling requirements, as required by WTO regulations.
The six-month deadline gets over on March 19, so manufacturers have to comply by March 19," Dayal told Hindustan Times.
          An Unreasonable Brexit could be fatal for the UK        
The weeks pass and the position of the Conservative Brexit government grows ever more unreasonable. Many people who voted to leave the EU would still have been perfectly happy with an "economic association", indeed it was the default option for probably the majority of those who voted to leave: "we should have an economic not political union". Leaving aside the practicalities of how much economic issues require political engagement, the idea of limited economic cooperation is not unreasonable.

However the current position of the Conservative government is that Brexit means the end of British membership of any European cooperation groups, whether political or economic. Brexit means not merely withdrawal from the EU, but the outer group of European Free Trade Area (EFTA) nations that are members of the EEA. It even means the withdrawal from the EU customs union. This total withdrawal is not the majority position of the British people: 48% voted to remain full members of the EU and it is quite clear that many, possibly most of those who voted to leave still expected some kind of ongoing relationship short of membership with the EU.

Then there is the growing evidence that the Conservative position of complete exit is going to cause considerable damage to the the UK- both economic and political. The disruption in Northern Ireland could even trigger the renewal of violence in the province. The rage in Scotland at being forced into a complete severance of EU ties is bringing separatism back on the political agenda, even despite the horrendous economic mess that that particular Leave vote would bring.  Then there is the limbo into which we have placed 3 million EU citizens living in the UK, as well as a large number of our own citizens living in the continuing EU. Already UK farmers report significant issues with seasonal labour. Universities have seen a significant drop in EU applicants. The reputation of the UK as an open and tolerant society is daily being undermined by the moronic racism that the vote has ignited in its wake. It is quite likely that all of the GM plants in the UK will close after the mooted PSA acquisition, with the cost of many jobs. The City is losing thousands of jobs to Dublin, New York and Frankfurt. All of this before we even understand what kind of relationship will follow the enactment of article 50.

Yet EU governments are thinking carefully. The timeline for article 50 negotiations is too short and it is clear that without creating transitional arrangements, the Brexit on offer will be extremely disruptive. In a sense the aggressive statements by Michel Barnier on outstanding payments owed by the UK are a good thing, since there is at least something that the EU would want from the UK. Otherwise Britain begins to look like a total loser in any negotiation. There is sympathy in many quarters at the position that the UK finds itself in, but also frustration at how little the HMG is prepared to commit to. The 12 points that Mrs May has offered are simply too general to be a basis for any substantive agreement, while the threats of simple reversion to WTO rules are too weak a negotiating position to have credibility- the UK cannot negotiate separate WTO rules for itself in time, even if there was no opposition from such members as Russia. Neither are there well functioning back channels into Brussels. The UK is deeply isolated and in a very weak position.

All of this could have been avoided if a reasonable position had been adopted by Mrs. May's government, but "Brexit means Brexit" actually means an extreme and damaging Brexit. Total withdrawal will come at huge cost. 

The result is increasing rage against the Conservatives. Even if one could accept that leaving the EU would lower barriers, rather than raise them- a highly debatable point- the disruption of moving away from the largest trade block and the largest economy in the world is unlikely to create any benefit in the short or long term. Even if one believed the "Singapore without the sunshine" hype of the Tory Libertarians, the fact is that the timing is very unfortunate to say the least. The rise of Trump could bring to an end of a century of Anglo-American alliance at a time when Russian mischief making creates a huge threat to our freedom. Even if one accepts that the Tory best case scenarios are even possible, the questions of basic competence in the Cabinet room are more than enough to raise as many fears as hopes. 

The population and economic power of all the other 15 Queen's Realms: Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Jamaica (which has given notice it intends to become a Republic) plus 11 very small countries in the Caribbean and Pacific, all combined, is less than that of Germany. Furthermore the idea that Australia is going to switch away from trading with Asia to the UK is obvious nonsense. The world trades with its neighbours, which is why we trade massively more with Ireland than we do with India, and that will be true whether we have a free trade agreement with India or not. The Imperial nostalgia of such figures as Jacob Rees-Mogg is not credible as a policy either politically or economically. So the EU states continue to regard the debate in London with a growing sense of disbelief and unease.

Of course, the European Union is itself going through significant challenges: the Dutch, French and German elections not least. The wildest hopes of the UK anti Europeans rests on victories for their allies in these countries. Yet the meddling of Mr. Putin- so successful in the UK and the US- may find limits in the rest of the EU. It would make a great deal of sense for the UK to delay Article 50 until new governments are in place in these three founder states, yet Mrs. may does not seem to have a keen awareness of her own interests, and her Brexit bulldozer has no reverse gear. We can make no predictions, but the chances are high that Marine Le Pen will not be the French President, that Geert Wilders will not be the Dutch Prime Minister and that there will be no breakthrough for anti-Europeans in Germany. The British will not be waiting to see anyway. So we have to find a way to start the discussions without causing meltdown from the very beginning.

Several EU governments have reached out to the UK, but have been frustrated by the continuing internal dialogue in London: it is not that there is no running commentary, there is still no credible sense of direction, except further retreat from any position that could be considered a compromise. The UK expects nothing, but is not prepared to ask for anything anyway. 

In the face of one of the most damaging acts of policy since the 1930s, the British government has not been able to create a credible negotiating platform. It is a serious failing and one that unless remedied this year will cause a decade long crisis. The UK is on a knife edge, and one that carries huge risks not merely of damage but humiliation. It may even be a final -existential- risk. 

British pragmatism was always reasonable. Now this lack of reason may in fact finally destroy the United Kingdom. It would be a pity, but "whom the Gods would destroy, they first make mad".

It is time for the UK to find a reasonable position and a reasonable tone of voice. 

Can Theresa May deliver?
          https://youtube.com/devicesupport        
https://youtube.com/devicesupport http://m.youtube.com
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          HOWTO tronify your outfit        

Limor "Lady Ada" Fried and Becky "Lady Becky" Stern show you how to solder and sew electroluminescent wire borders to your favorite fabric accouterments and create exciting, tronesque glows: "Tote your Thinkpad and port your Apple in style with our custom TRON-inspired laptop bag tutorial. With a little soldering and sewing skills you can have your own light up satchel, sure to impress geeky friends. So grab your sewing needle and soldering iron and follow along."

Make A TRON Bag - How to use EL (Electro Luminescent) Wire (via Neatorama)


          E-commerce RCEP Chapter: Have Big Tech’s Demands Fizzled?         

Post-Mortem of Asia-Pacific regional IGF Panel Discussing Trade Rules

Over the past month, trade officials of the ASEAN group of countries and its six biggest trading partners have been frantically working to finalize the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Expected to be ratified later this year, the RCEP is the largest mega-regional trade treaty currently being negotiated, and the first to include norms and rules on e-commerce.

Despite countries such as Japan, Korea, Australia, and New Zealand pushing for a detailed chapter on e-commerce based on the model of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the latest information we have from the negotiating room is that the e-commerce chapter of RCEP will be far less ambitious, dealing mostly with familiar and uncontentious issues such as standards for electronic payments and signatures.

This will displease big tech companies that had hoped that RCEP would include rules on cutting-edge (but more contentious) topics like forced data localization. Data localization rules (such as rules requiring data about local users to be stored on servers within the country) would increase costs for tech companies and raise entry barriers for small competitors.

But some countries favor these rules because it allows them to subject overseas platforms to local privacy regulations, or for more sinister reasons such as making the servers more easily accessible to local surveillance programs. EFF’s position is that although data localization is rarely justified, if rules prohibiting it are to be included in trade agreements, it is essential that each country has adequate privacy and data protection laws to protect their citizens’ data.

Transparency Demands

So far, text specific to e-commerce have not been made publicly available and the leaked Terms of Reference for the Working Group on ecommerce (WGEC) is the only reference to what issues could make an appearance in the RCEP. EFF has been advocating for transparency in trade through the active dissemination of provisions related to digital economy being discussed or included in the RCEP.

We have also been pushing negotiating countries to open up the trade processes in order to bring them into closer alignment with the Internet community’s norms of open, multi-stakeholder governance. Unfortunately, at this late stage of negotiations and amidst intensifying pressure to conclude the agreement the opportunities for broad and meaningful public participation in the RCEP process remain limited.

To address the lack of public inputs and facilitate engagement between RCEP negotiators and affected stakeholders EFF has been organising a series of interventions. We organised a panel on Intellectual Property at the 18th Round in Manila, Philippines and another at the recently concluded 19th round in Hyderabad, India focusing on e-commerce issues. The most recent of these interventions was a panel on 'Trade Rules for the Digital Economy: Asia's Agreement at the WTO and RCEP' at Asia Pacific regional Internet Governance Forum (APrIGF) which took place in Bangkok from 26-29 July, 2017.

APrIGF Workshop Report

The discussions kicked off with an overview developments in global trade including shelving of large agreements such as TPP and TISA, the rise of regional treaties such as the NAFTA and RCEP and recent developments at the World Trade Organisation (WTO). While there is little public information on e-commerce provisions in the RCEP, issues included in the TPP as well as industry demands serve as reference for Internet governance areas that could be included.

Professor Peng Hwa, Nanyang Technological University drew upon the important linkages between trade and Internet governance. Different national contexts and agendas are guiding the negotiating parties and their strategies with regards to e-commerce. Given how nascent most issues related to digital economy are, there is need for continued dialogue and a measured approach to developing consensus based global rules.

Rajnesh Singh, Director Asia Pacific Regional Bureau Internet Society highlighted the challenges that trade committees and negotiators face - from uneven representation of nations, and resources to varying interpretation of the same issue. The push to regulate cross-border e-commerce underlines the need for concerted effort from civil society, academia and the technical community to ensure user rights are being inserted in these agreements.

Ms Duangthip Chomprang, Director for Regional Cooperation and Assistance at the International Institute for Trade and Development pointed out key factors behind  regional efforts to push ICT issues through trade. First, almost 70% of all global preferential trade agreements are in the Asia Pacific region, and there has also been a steady decoupling between developed and developing countries of the region. This has created the political will to push for provisions on the digital economy. Second an important, if often overlooked linkage is between the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) which includes provisions to ensure trade and commerce agreements contribute to the achievement of these goals.

While there is a long way to go in improving transparency of the RCEP negotiations it was encouraging to have Mr Akhuputra, Chair the Working Group on e-Commerce (WGEC) to provide insights both into the process and the challenges of including as yet unresolved technological issues. Though the RCEP negotiations are in the 19th round the WGEC has had nine meetings so far. Mr Akhuputra suggested that the next round in South Korea may be the final meeting of the e-commerce negotiators.

Although the text remains secret, the e-commerce chapter is believed to be shorter and less detailed than the chapters on goods and services. Rules and text included will be broad enough to factor for the development gaps between participating countries. A provision likely to make an appearance, since it is included in more than 40% of the 90 trade agreements that are active in the region, covers paperless trade. Provisions for the use of international standards for paperless trade would apply to electronic authentication, e-signatures and e-documents. He highlighted the tensions between push for technologies such as blockchain and smart contracts and inclusion of text in trade agreements that seek "mutual recognition" and compliance with "international standards".

Complicating the work of WGEC are traditional segregations of areas such as goods and services which are not as easy to import in the digital context. For example, rules on electronic transmissions and goods are negotiated separately in trade agreements. However there is no consensus on how to treat electronic transmissions that transform into goods. Provisions on electronic transmission and services could impact the regulation of 3D printing technologies which are expected to shape the future of medical ecosystem in developing and less developed nations.

We are far from seeing which concerns have been addressed or what the final text will look like, but the contours of RCEP on e-commerce are beginning to materialise. Even though these details are just emerging, it may already be too late for civil society to influence the drafting of specific provisions as the WGEC is attempting to freeze the text. However, there remains a small chance that the Trade Negotiating Committee may decide to extend negotiations or open up specific issues.

For now it seems that the e-commerce chapter is going to be less ambitious and contentious than that of the TPP. Nonetheless EFF will continue to maintain a close eye on e-commerce developments in the RCEP, and continue to advocate for better transparency and public access to the negotiations.

You can watch the full video of the discussions in our workshop here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpFsJjWaeB4&t=744s


          Blockaded Qatar Takes Saudi, UAE to WTO        
Of course Qatar knows the WTO. The current [?] WTO negotiations were initiated in the capital of Doha.
I am fascinated with the blockade on Qatar by fellow Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Bahrain, supposedly for supporting "terror." For the country where most 9/11 attackers came from and which has funded fundamentalist education throughout the world, Saudi Arabia is particularly noteworthy. My belief is closer in line with those who believe Qatar acts more as a neutral ground for those wary of Middle East authoritarianism--even if these folks may include Hamas and Hezbollah who have representative offices in Qatar.

There is also the not-so-small issue of broadcast network al-Jazeera, which is widely viewed not just in the region but throughout the world. Its continuous criticism of other GCC countries rankles the others, and I must also point out that Qatar is not entirely faultless in its media coverage. After all, Qatar is just like the rest of them: As yet another absolute monarchy, Qatar is hardly a bastion of democracy. As al-Jazeera viewers would note, Qatar's leaders--who set up the network in the first place--are never criticized.

Having failed so far diplomatically in resolving this dispute--the United States which has bases in Qatar but nonetheless was bashed by Trump as a state sponsor of terror has been of little use--Qatar now turns to international organizations to help its cause:
Qatar has lodged a formal complaint with the World Trade Organisation against the “illegal siege” imposed by four Arab neighbours that have accused the Gulf state of sponsoring terrorism. The complaint, lodged with the WTO’s dispute-settlement body, described the embargo as “unprecedented”, accusing Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Egypt and Bahrain of “violating the WTO’s core laws and conventions on trade of goods and services, and trade-related aspects of intellectual property,” the ministry of economy and commerce said in a statement on Monday.

On June 5, the quartet of Arab allies cut off air, sea and land links to their gas-rich neighbour, closing off airspace to Qatar-bound flights, refusing to handle goods bound for the gas-rich state and cutting diplomatic ties. While Qatar has shifted supply chains, bringing in food from Turkey and Iran and using Omani ports, its imports nonetheless slumped 40 per cent in June as the embargo hit home. “The arbitrary measures taken by the siege countries are a clear violation of the provisions and conventions of international trade law,” said Sheikh Ahmed bin Jassem bin Mohammed Al Thani, the minister of economy and commerce. “Furthermore, the illegal siege is unprecedented in the framework of economic blocs.”
The complaint at the ICAO will also mirror the WTO complaints since Qatar has had a very hard time sending and receiving Qatar Airlines and other flights with the likes of UAE closing their airspace to Qatar. While I have little doubt that Qatar's case is a fairly good one against such a wide range of sanctions without apparent cause--especially trade-related ones--you have to wonder: Given that WTO cases are usually resolved over a year's time, will there still be much of a commercial center left of Qatar if things take that long to resolve?

Ultimately, I believe that a diplomatic solution, whoever may broker it, will need to be found. Litigation will only get you so far and may leave a bad aftertaste besides.

          Shouldn't Anti-Globalization Activists [Heart] Trump?        
G-20 Hamburg protests: why the hate for anti-globalization champion Trump?
For years, anti-globalization protesters have gone out to all sorts of notable economically-related gatherings worldwide, be they G-7, G-8 or G-20 summits; World Economic Forum gatherings; World Bank and IMF meetings; WTO ministerial conferences, and so on and so forth. The boilerplate accusation is that world leaders betray the interests of the common people in favor of a faceless global capitalist class. To this, the common people must stand up for what they believe in. So far, nothing is new here.

What's interesting with the emergence of Donald Trump in world politics is that he espouses much of the same rhetoric: the [American] working class has been hurt by globalization, and therefore globalization should be rolled back to protect the common people from the ravages of world trade. As such, it's always struck me how vehemently opposed anti-globalization campaigners are to Trump when he's actually done much more to stop further economic integration than all of them combined. From single-handedly dooming the Trans-Pacific Partnership to oblivion to refusing to agree that trade protectionism is to be avoided during economic summits, he should be the man of anti-globalization writer Naomi Klein's dreams. But alas, he is not. This Canadian who likes meddling in Yanks' affairs just cannot stop blathering about how awful Trump is. (It's a form of globalization I don't appreciate when some foreigner thinks she's "active" in US domestic politics.)

There are, of course, all sorts of wrinkles here. Coming from the left, the anti-globalization vision of eliminating world trade is complemented by replacing it with folks being self-sufficient in small, sustainable communities. Meanwhile, the Trumpian vision is instead a triumph of American industry making everything that those in the United States wish for and more--to the exclusion of considering everyone else's welfare. Another line of argument is that Trump is only masquerading as a champion of the working class and is actually globalizer in disguise.

Then you also have a panoply of leftist causes that are the exact opposite of what Trump champions. These include climate change, racial tolerance, and so on. But, if you really think about it, Trump may be the one who is *really* anti-globalization in outlook here if the criteria is sheer isolationism. Consider:
  • You don't want international cooperation on climate change since, well, it involves representatives of different nations discussing things. A global elite should not be dictating what the free peoples of the world do to their piece of the planet;
  • You don't want tolerance of other people with different creeds, colors, or races. If the opposite of "globalist" is "nationalist," then you cannot have a nation-state which when it is largely indistinguishable from all others.
Abhorrent as those ideas may be, they're arguably more consistent with extricating ourselves from the rest of the world. In this sense Trump is the true anti-globalist, whereas those championing all sorts of progressive causes are not, really.

If anti-globalization means going it alone no matter what everyone else thinks, Trump is its best representative.

Anti-globalization activists should therefore celebrate Trump's arrival, full stop, wherever in the world he shows up. The attention he brings to the cause is unrivaled--especially compared to a ragtag group of anarchists and flunky writers like Klein.
          BBC: WTO strikes 'landmark' IT trade deal        

24 July 2015 BBC

Chipmakers like Japan's Renesas will benefit from the deal
The World Trade Organisation (WTO) has struck a "landmark" deal to cut tariffs on $1.3 trn (£838bn) worth of technology products.
The deal will update the 18-year-old IT Agreement and add 200 products to the zero tariff list.

It is expected to give a boost to producers of goods ranging from video games to medical equipment.

The WTO says the sum is equal to global trade in iron, steel, textiles and clothing combined.

"Today's agreement is a landmark," said WTO Director-General Roberto Azevedo.

"Eliminating tariffs on trade of this magnitude will have a huge impact," he continued.

"It will support lower prices - including in many other sectors that use IT products as inputs - it will create jobs and it will help to boost GDP growth around the world."

The final technical details will be worked out until December.

The existing 1996 IT agreement was seen by industry and policy makers as woefully out of date as it did not cover devices and products invented since then.

Products added range from advanced computer chips to GPS devices, medical equipment, printer cartridges and video-game consoles

Technology manufacturers such as General Electric, Intel, Texas Instruments, Microsoft and Nintendo are among the many companies expected to benefit from the deal.

Negotiations on updating the technology agreement began in 2012.

Analysis: Andrew Walker, BBC World Service economics correspondent
Finally, the WTO has brought its Information Technology Agreement (ITA) into the 21st century.

This was the first tariff cutting agreement the WTO has managed since ITA 1.0, as it is not officially known, was agreed.

The key political deal was done in 1996 at a WTO ministerial conference in Singapore. Sadly, you might think, I was there and am still covering the same story, though I have had very little reason to think about this one since.

Still this is an important step, and it is the second one the WTO has taken in two years - a very short period in the geological timescales of trade negotiations.

The other was an agreement on simplifying trade procedures, the one concrete achievement of the negotiations called the Doha Round launched in 2001.

So a significant step towards more liberalised trade has been taken. But the WTO has the rest of the wide ranging and complex Doha Round still to do.

          Merkel und die EU-USA Freihandelszone (TAFTA)        

Dirk Müller - im deutschsprachigen Raum kennt man ihn unter seinem Spitznamen "Mr. Dax" - wärmte vor ein paar Jahren wieder einmal eine alte Idee auf, die seiner Meinung nach zu faireren Wettkampfbedingungen für die westliche Staaten im großen Monopoly der Globalisierung führen sollte, nämlich die Etablierung einer Freihandelszone zwischen der EU und den USA. Billigproduzenten wie China und India, die nicht "unsere Werte" teilten, sollten auf diese Weise der Vorteil des günstigen Produktionsstandorts genommen, und gleichzeitig den westliche Staaten zurückgegeben werden. Unter "unseren Werten" versteht der Mann  "sozialen Errungenschaften", die sich direkt oder indirekt auf die Produktions- und Lohnnebenkosten niederschlagen. Nun, könnte eine transatlantische Freihandelszone (TAFTA) wirklich helfen, und wenn ja, wem?
"Wir bauen um unser gemeinsames Wertesystem eine Zollmauer auf. Innerhalb des Systems befinden sich all die Länder, mit denen wir zumindest annähernd die gleichen Werte und Spielregeln teilen. Die Kontrollpunkte sind die Häfen und Flughäfen. Die Länder außerhalb dürfen dennoch selbstverständlich ihre Produkte innerhalb der Freihandelszone verkaufen, aber mit Aufschlag. Die Kosten für den Umweltschutz, der in der deutschen Waschmaschine eingebaut ist und in der asiatischen fehlt, werden als Zoll draufgeschlagen. Vielleicht 15 Prozent. Kinderarbeit eingebaut? 20 Prozent! Fehlende Arbeitsschutzrichtlinien für die Arbeiter ? 7 Prozent! So wäre ein Kampf mit gleichen Waffen geschaffen. Natürlich gäbe es einen Sturm der Entrüstung bei den internationalen Konzernen. Die Waschmaschinen in Deutschland würden teurer werden. Aber vielleicht würde es sich für einen Mittelständler in Schwaben wieder lohnen, eine Waschmaschinenfabrik zu eröffnen. Mehrere tausend Arbeiter würden eingestellt. Steuern, Löhne, Sozialabgaben würden fließen, und so weiter, und so weiter. Die Unternehmen innerhalb der Freihandelszone stünden dann immer noch in Konkurrenz zueinander, aber unter gleichen Bedingungen. Man ist Konkurrent, aber auch Partner. Alle Unternehmen müssen Löhne bezahlen, von denen die Menschen auch leben können. Es herrscht ein gesellschaftlicher Konsens, dass Kinder Kinder sind und keine billigen Sklaven.
Klingt verrückt?! Vielleicht. Aber immerhin so vernünftig, daß unsere Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel schon seit Jahren hinter den Kulissen genau diesen Plan einer europäisch-amerikanischen Freihandelszone verfolgt." Dirk Müller [2010], S. 238

Müllers Bemerkung über Merkel mag so manchen überrascht haben, ist aber wahr und kein Geheimnis. Seit dem 22. November 2005 ist Angela Merkel die Bundeskanzlerin Deutschlands, einem Land, indem die Schere zwischen Arm und Reich im übrigen ähnlich weit auseinander geht, wie anderswo auf der Welt (In Deutschlands Städten wächst die Armut) und dessen Regierung ihre Statistiken schonunsglos und ungestraft schönfärbt, wie auch anderwso  (Bundesregierung schönt Armutsbericht). "Lobby-Merkel" steht zwar Putins Gegenvorschlag einer Freihandelszone von Wladiwostok bis Lissabon eher negativ gegenüber, nicht aber, was die Amerikaner betrifft. Hier eine kleine Auswahl der Merkel'schen Erwähnungen bezüglich EU-USA Freihandelszone seit Amtsantritt:

2006
Spiegel Online: Merkel für Freihandelszone mit den USA
"Ich halte die Idee für faszinierend." Ein transatlantischer Bund, der rund 60 Prozent des heutigen Weltsozialprodukts innerhalb seiner Grenzen vereinen würde, sei nicht gegen andere Weltregionen gerichtet, diene allerdings sehr wohl "der Bündelung gemeinsamer Interessen"

2007
n-TV: Merkel wirbt für TAFTA
Die Zeit Online: Auf ein altes Pferd gesetzt
"Wir haben in Europa Erfahrungen mit einem gemeinsamen Binnenmarkt, die wir transatlantisch nutzen können [..] Wir müssen aufpassen, dass wir uns nicht immer weiter voneinander entfernen, sondern uns annähern, wo es für beide Seiten Vorteile bietet [...] Es ergibt doch zum Beispiel viele Reibungsverluste, wenn das Patentrecht in Amerika anders aufgebaut ist als in Europa." Beim kommenden EU/USA-Gipfel im April wolle sie über eine engere Zusammenarbeit auf ökonomischem Gebiet reden, kündigte Merkel an. "Das ist für mich von strategischer Bedeutung. Unsere Wirtschaftssysteme haben eine gemeinsame Wertegrundlage", fügte Merkel in dem Interview hinzu, das auch in der Londoner "Financial Times" erscheint. Die USA wie auch die EU stünden in "sehr hartem Wettbewerb" mit den asiatischen und künftig auch mit den lateinamerikanischen Märkten, sagte Merkel. Es komme darauf an, die Kräfte zu bündeln und bestimmte gemeinsame Interessen, wie den Schutz des geistigen Eigentums, auch gemeinsam international durchzusetzen."

2008-2011
Aus diesem Zeitraum konnte ich keine Äußerung Merkels finden. Aufgrund der Pleite der amerikanischen Investment Bank Lehman Brothers und des Zusammenbruchs des spekulativ aufgeblähten US-Immobilienmarkts und seiner globalen Folgen wäre im selbigen Zeitraum die Erwähnung einer Freihandelszone mit einem offensichtlich maroden Partner beim deutschen Wahlpublikum wohl eher schlecht angekommen. Vielleicht war Frau Merkel auch mit der Sicherung der Gelder deutscher Investoren in Griechenland zu sehr beschäftigt.


2012
Reuters: Merkel fordert EU-Freihandelszone mit den USA
(siehe auch Der Standard)

""Wir werden gerade jetzt nach der amerikanischen Wahl noch einmal versuchen, ob wir nicht die Handels- und Wirtschaftsbeziehungen vereinfachen können, Freihandel treiben können zwischen Amerika und Europa", sagte Merkel. Davon würden beide Seiten profitieren. Hintergrund der neuen Offensive in der Bundesregierung ist eine gewisse Enttäuschung, dass sich Obama in seiner ersten Amtszeit nicht ausreichend um das Thema gekümmert hatte. Allerdings gibt es auch zwischen den EU-Staaten unterschiedliche Ansichten, wer von einem Freihandelsabkommen profitieren würde. Frankreich etwa fürchtet mehr Konkurrenz im Agrarsektor."

Ich persönlich glaube, daß Merkels Art und Weise mit vielen Worten nichts zu sagen schon immer die Deutschen günstig gestimmt hat, ihr Glauben zu schenken. Nicht daß dies für Politiker ungewöhnlich wäre, aber die deutsche Kanzlerin hat diese Kunst schon zu einer seltenen Blüte getrieben. Ihr Schweigen, das nur unterbrochen wird durch ihre dezente Phrasendrescherei, bildet die Leinwand, auf die der deutsche Bundesbürger alles das projizieren kann, was er sich von einer starken Volksmutti in unsicheren Zeiten zu erwarten wünscht. (Daß es darüber hinaus noch eine Art stillschweigender Übereinkunft in der deutschen Presse zu geben scheint, Merkel nicht ernsthaft zu kritisieren, trägt zu dieser Rollenbildung bei (vgl. meine irrige und vorschnelle Vermutung im Fall Timoshenko: Merkel ist schon Vergangenheit).
Daß die Frau sich allzuviel um die Kosten für Umwelt-, Kinder- oder Mutterschutz, Konsumenten- oder Arbeitnehmerschutz sorgte, halte ich für ein Gerücht. Ihre bisherige innenpolitische Tätigkeit bestätigt eher das Gegenteil. Ich denke, daß eine schleichende Beseitigung dieser "unserer Werte" in Deutschland  im Gange ist.  Mr. Dax träumt hier ein bißchen, wenn er ausgerechnet Merkel die Absicht unterstellt mit Hilfe des Freihandels "unsere Werte" retten zu wollen. Tatsächlich geht es den deutschen "Exportweltmeistern" wohl weit mehr um einen noch uneingeschränkteren Zugang zum amerikanischen Markt, als er ohnehin auf Basis der WTO und anderer Wirtschaftsabkommen schon existiert. Der EU-Handelskommissar Karel De Gucht spricht hier Klartext: 

2011
EU verlangt offenere Märkte von USA
"Wenn sie wirklich über ein ehrgeiziges neues transatlantisches Handelsabkommen reden wollen, müssen sie mir die Frage beantworten, warum sie ihren Markt nicht öffnen", sagte der Kommissar. Der europäische Markt sei zu 90 Prozent für fremde Unternehmen zugänglich, der US-Markt hingegen nur zu rund einem Drittel. "Wir bitten nur um eines: Gebt unseren Unternehmen eine faire Chance" , sagte De Gucht. "Wir bitten nicht um eine bevorzugte Behandlung, aber wir wollen offene Märkte." 
Weiters geht De Gucht auf "zollfreie Handelshemmnisse" ein, die also mit einer reinen Freihandelszone auch nicht gelöst werden können. (Die Probleme liegen woanders).
"Der Abbau von Zöllen zwischen den USA und der EU ist De Gucht zufolge zwar wichtig. Er hält es aber für bedeutender, nichttarifliche Handelshemnisse zu beseitigen. "Wenn wir nur die Hälfte der zollfremden Handelshemnisse aus dem Weg räumen, wäre das wirtschaftliche Ergebnis enorm", sagte er. Es werde unterschätzt, wie schwierig Fortschritt hier sei. Im US-Automobilsektor etwa gebe es eine Menge Regulierungen. Im Gegenzug könne Europa mit harten Forderungen der US-Seite rechnen. "Wir können davon ausgehen, dass zum Beispiel neue Debatten über Hormone und das Klonen aufkommen, da gibt es eine ganze Reihe saftiger Themen", sagte De Gucht. "All diese Handelshemnisse sind in der Tradition verankert, in der Kultur, in Überzeugungen - und in der natürlichen Tendenz, sich selbst zu schützen.""

Insgesamt denke ich, daß es keinen Grund gibt anzunehmen, daß mit einer Freihandelszone mit den USA soziale Errungenschaften in Europa geschützt werden könnten. Wer wirtschaftspolitische Diskussionen in den US-amerikanischen right-wing Media kennt, der muss das Gegenteil erwarten: alles was aus Europa kommt ist entweder sozialistisch, kommunistisch oder schwul - sogar Fußball. Europäische Krankenversicherungssysteme sind sozialistisch und damit gefährlich. Euthanasie ist die Angst alter Menschen in Holland, die Ketten um den Hals mit der Aufschrift "Don't euthanize me" tragen (Kein Witz!!!) Die jahrzehntelange antikommunistische Propaganda tut ihre Wirkung noch heute.
Und wenn doch (unrealistischerweise) eine TAFTA zustandekäme und die Unternehmen tatsächlich in direkter Konkurrenz stehen würden, wie Müller im Eingangszitat meint, dann käme recht schnell die Frage nach den Wettbewerbsbedingungen auf den Tisch. Ja kann man sich dann die "sozialen Errungenschaften" der Europäer noch leisten? Fünf Wochen haben diese Deutschen Urlaub, die fleißigen Amerikaner nur zwei. Wie lange wird es dauern, bis sich "Hire & Fire" (willkürliche Anstellungen und Entlassungen) auch hierzulande durchsetzt - man muß doch nach denselben Regeln spielen! Das ist dann die Frage: nach welchen Regeln? Wollen wir in Deutschland oder in Österreich (mit seiner "Sozialpartnerschaft") amerikanische Verhältnisse? 

Mag schon sein, daß die amerikanischen "Werte" den europäischen ähnlicher sind, als die letzteren den chinesischen oder indischen "Werten". Identisch sind sie allerdings auch nicht. Und über die Gewinner einer solchen Freihandelszone, da kann man lange diskutieren. Mr. Dax jedenfalls ist überzeugt, daß die großen internationalen Konzerne die Verlierer wären, und sie sich deshalb der guten Kanzlerin entgegenstellen:
"Wenn da nicht die Lobby der internationalen Industrie und des großen Geldes wäre, die einer solchen Idee natürlich gegenübersteht wie der Teufel dem Weihwasser. Denn dann könnte man ja plötzlich nicht mehr die Arbeiter Europas gegen die Arbeiter Asiens ausspielen, und diese wunderbaren „Ausgleichs“-Geschäfte, dass man in Asien billig produziert und in Deutschland teuer verkauft, gingen auch nicht mehr. (Ein besonders krasses Beispiel dafür ist die amerikanische Supermarktkette Wal-Mart: Von ihren 6000 Lieferanten kommen 5000 aus Asien.) Doch leider ist es so, dass die Lobby der Industrie und des Geldes bestimmt, was in Europa und Amerika entschieden wird und was nicht. Nicht das Wohl des Volkes, sondern das Wohl der Mächtigen steht im Vordergrund. Wenn nur die Wahlen nicht immer wären. Dann müsste man der Bevölkerung nicht ständig mit allen möglichen Tricks die Entscheidungen schmackhaft machen und könnte viel freier agieren. So aber muss man den Menschen eben langwierig eintrichtern: „Globalisierung ist gut! Globalisierung ist gut! Globalisierung ist gut!“" Dirk Müller [2010], S. 239.
Im allgemeinen kann natürlich gesagt werden, daß international aufgestellte Unternehmen vom Wegfallen von Zollbeschränkungen ungemein profitieren. Aber der Großteil des deutschen Mittelstandes wird das nicht. Dazu kommt noch, daß jedes bilaterale Abkommen mit einem anderen billig produzierenden Staat natürlich durch die TAFTA nicht verhindert werden würde. Und schon können deutsche Hersteller schon wieder günstig woanders produzieren lassen (mit Kinderarbeit natürlich) aber diesmal in Deutschland UND den USA teuer verkaufen. Fazit: eine Freihandelszone schützt die eigenen "sozialen Errungenschaften" nicht, aber sie schafft hervorragende Profitmöglichkeiten für multinationale Konzerne und Banken (siehe unten).

Wirtschaftssysteme zu vergleichen ist oft schwierig. Aber werfen wir einmal einen kurzen Blick auf die NAFTA, der Freihandelszone zwischen Kanada, den USA und Mexiko, in Kraft getreten 1994. Wie sah es 10 Jahre später aus für Mexiko? Laut Joseph Stiglitz, wies Mexiko ein schwaches durchschnittliches jährliches pro Kopf Wachstum von 1% auf (im Vergleich dazu Südkorea im selben Zeitraum trotz Asienkrise 4,3% und China gar 7%). Die Hoffnungen auf eine Verminderung der Einkommensunterschiede zwischen den USA und ihren südlichen Nachbarn waren - wie überraschend - vergeblich. Ganz im Gegenteil, in 10 Jahren NAFTA wuchsen sie um 10,3%!!! Die Reallöhne mexikanischer Arbeiter fielen um 0,2% jährlich.  Interessant auch: Alle größeren mexikanischen Banken wurden von ausländischen Banken geschluckt (mit einer Ausnahme). NAFTA machte Mexiko zu einem ausgezeichneten Billiglieferanten für US-amerikanische Firmen, verhalf aber nicht zu einer eigenständigen Wirtschaft (Siehe Stiglitz: The Broken Promise of Nafta).

Fazit: Europäische Länder werden entweder mit den USA nicht mithalten können, die sich gerade mittels Freihandel andere Länder als Billigproduzenten halten, oder sie werden es den USA gleichtun.



update 04-12-2012
Spiegel Online: "Phrasomat": Bauen Sie sich Ihre Merkel-Rede!
          La crescita esponenziale delle emissioni di CO2 della Cina        
La Cina è il principale inquinatore al mondo e come si può vedere dal Grafico, la crescita delle emissioni di anidride carbonica del gigante asiatico dal 1960 al 2008 hanno assunto una crescita esponenziale con l’entrata nel nuovo millennio (e nel WTO nel 2001). Seguono gli Stati Uniti, l’India (le cui emissioni sono andate crescendo […]
          Manejo de archivos con PHP y MySQL        
Este Howto es acerca de como subir archivos atravez de PHP y guardarlos en MySQL asi como la extracción del archivo de MySQL atravez de PHP. Requisitos: Tener instalado PHP y MySQL. Conocimientos basicos de PHP y MySQL. Muchas veces necesitamos darle a los usuarios la facilidad de poder “subir” o guardar archivos en una [...]
          Upload de archivos con PHP y Mysql        
Este Howto es acerca de como subir archivos atravez de PHP y guardarlos en MySQL asi como la extracción del archivo de MySQL atravez de PHP. Requisitos: Tener instalado PHP y MySQL. Conocimientos basicos de PHP y MySQL. Muchas veces necesitamos darle a los usuarios la facilidad de poder “subir” o guardar archivos en una [...]
          How to Figure a Rafter        

I finally put together my first howto video on framing! It explains how to figure rafter length and layout. I gotta say that it was a lot harder to do than I thought it would be. I’m going to make another video or two on the subject because I just didn’t have enough time.

http://youtu.be/7QuJYtq8MsU


          Solar Panel: China & EU Trade Allegations of Unfair Practices        
China faces accusations it's dumping solar panels in the EU. In response, it has filed a WTO complaint against the EU.
          Esteri di ven 16/01        
1-Operazioni anti-terrorismo in Francia, Germania e Belgio. Il vero pericolo, però, è rallentare l'integrazione della comunità musulmana in Europa. L'intervista di Esteri (Manlio Cinalli, direttore della ricerca Sciences Po Parigi).2–A pochi anni da Fukushima la Cina fa ripartire il suo programma nucleare. Obiettivo: tenere insieme crescita economica e rispetto dell'ambiente. Il tutto con i soliti rischi legati alla sicurezza (Gabriele Battaglia).3–Pechino cambia la sua politica africana e punta sulla presenza militare. Per la prima volta in Africa, in Sud Sudan, un contingente di caschi blu cinesi (Raffaele Masto).4–Dopo il fallimento del WTO le grandi potenze scommettono sugli accordi bilaterali. In prima fila gli Stati Uniti (Alfredo Somoza).5–Sleeper Cell, le cellule dormienti, la serie TV sui terroristi islamici cresciuti in casa nostra (Massimo Alberti).
          Esteri di mar 03/12        
..1-Stato della corruzione nel mondo: paesi nordici tra i più virtuosi. Brutta pagella per il sud d'Europa...2-Figli di immigrati ma francesi: 30 anni fa la prima marcia per l'ugualianza e contro il razzismo. ..3-Al via il vertice del Wto in indonesia. (Alfredo Somoza) ..4-GB: scoppia la polemica dopo lo scandalo del parto forzato. Sotto accusa lo smantellamento dei servizi sociali. ..5-Il mondo delle applicazioni: la mappa delle centrali ..nucleari. (Luca Gattuso) ..6-Terre agricole: l'Africa di fronte ai nuovi colonizzatori. Il caso delle multinazionali malesi in Liberia. ( Marta Gatti) ..
          How an EU-US Free Trade Agreement will Affect the Energy Sector        

 

By Energy Post | Wed, 20 November 2013 23:21

Last week the second round of negotiations for an EU-US free trade agreement took place. Energy has not been making headlines in the context of these talks, but a TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) will have far-reaching implications for the energy sector, e.g. with regard to oil sands, LNG and shale gas. NGO’s worry that the TTIP will give big business the chance to undermine Europe’s environmental legislation. Sonja van Renssen has the inside story from Brussels. (Photo: US trade representative Michael Froman, US trade mission Geneva)

The purpose of TTIP (a transatlantic trade and investment partnership) is to “liberalise trade and investment” between the EU and the US. This is significant, and not just for these two partners. Together the EU and US make up 40% of global economic output and their bilateral economic relationship is the world’s largest. Whatever they decide will set a blueprint for future free-trade agreements with other nations, from China to Brazil. Also significant is that this is a trade agreement that aims to go further than any before it: the goal is to align regulations and standards rather than simply removing trade-inhibiting tariffs (of which there are few in any case – tariffs between the EU and US average 4%).
Any decision that affects future trade in fuels is significant: EU-US trade in diesel and petrol was worth US$32 billion in 2012
The European Commission has already reeled off a list of probable benefits to Europe, from the fact that EU exports to the US could rise by 28% (equal to €187 billion extra per year for exporters) to an extra 545 euros in disposable income to a family of four living in the EU per year. In an initial position paper dedicated to raw materials and energy, it argues that World Trade Organisation (WTO) rules “do not fully reflect issues related to international production and trade in… energy”. TTIP could contribute to “a stronger set of rules in the area of energy” which “could serve as a model for subsequent negotiations involving third countries”.
What will be in these new rules? With regard to energy trade, the Commission believes they should set out the “fundamental principles of transparency, market access and non-discrimination [and] …would also contribute to developing and promoting sustainability”.  Neither side should be allowed to impose a “local content requirement” (reserving business for local companies), yet both sides “should remain fully sovereign regarding decisions… to allow the exploitation of their natural resources”. Government intervention in the pricing of energy goods “should be limited” and dual pricing – subsidising sales to industrial users – prohibited.
Oil sands: elephant in the room
There is plenty in the negotiations to debate about, but currently the overriding issue between Europe and the US is a clash over sustainability policies/red tape (depending on whom you’re speaking to) embodied in the EU’s fuel quality directive (FQD) and related plans. The FQD would effectively ban oil sands from Europe. It requires fuel suppliers in Europe to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from road fuels by 6% by 2020 relative to 2010. It opens the door to the EU assigning separate emissions values to different types of fuel to calculate compliance with the FQD. The Commission wants to assign a higher emission value to oil from oil sands and issued a proposal to that effect back in 2011. This was subsequently blocked by member states in 2012.
At this moment a new proposal – backed by a new impact assessment – is in the works, reportedly due out by the end of the year though it may well come later. The problem (for some in any case) is that this proposal reportedly largely mirrors the original one, i.e. it foresees a 107gCO2/MJ emissions value for oil sands versus 87.5 g CO2/MJ for conventional crudes (a 23% difference). The oil business on both sides of the Atlantic has long argued that this is artificial discrimination between what are essentially two versions of the same product, that it threatens Europe’s supply of oil products and that it could ultimately raise global greenhouse gas emissions because oil sands would simply be shipped elsewhere (requiring more transport).
NGOs conversely have argued that oil from oil sands requires much more energy to get out and process than conventional crude: up to 49% more and 23% more on average (matching the Commission’s proposals). Differentiated emissions values would not impose significant administrative costs on US refiners, have no effect on EU refiners (which are not equipped to process unconventional crudes), and could save up to 19 million tons of CO2 emissions per year (equivalent to removing 7 million cars from European roads) by shifting investment to lower-carbon oil sources.
Free trade vs. sustainability
How does TTIP weigh into this debate? On the one hand, it is set to apply the principles of non-discrimination, market access, etcetera; on the other hand, promote sustainability. Any decision that affects future trade in fuels is significant: EU-US trade in diesel and petrol was worth US$32 billion in 2012. Note that Canadian oil sands are expected to be largely refined in the US, hence the US’s involvement in this debate (although one NGO recently suggested Canadian oil sands might actually be exported as crude from US ports).
In future EU agreements, all submissions will be public, all hearings will be open, all decisions of the tribunal shall be public and interested parties will be able to make their views known
What is clear is that the oil business on both sides of the Atlantic believes that singling out oil sands for a separate emissions value would amount to erecting a new trade barrier. The US government has indicated it is sympathetic to this view: trade representative Michael Froman responded to concern from US senator Kevin Brady in July by saying: “I share your concerns regarding the EU’s development of proposals for amendments to the fuel quality directive… We continue to press the Commission to take the views of stakeholders, including US refiners, under consideration… We are seeking through the TTIP negotiations improvements in the EU’s overall regulatory practices.”
For NGOs, this is tantamount to acknowledging that what the US is really pursuing with TTIP is deregulation (although Froman has explicitly denied this).  Their biggest worry however is not even TTIP as a whole but one very specific mechanism that the deal is set to include: the “investor-state dispute settlement” (ISDS) mechanism. This is not new in the trade world. It is a procedure that allows foreign investors to take their host government to a special arbitration court if they feel this government has acted to undermine their investments. Both the EU and the US are keen for ISDS to be part of TTIP, just as it is part of the recent free trade deal between the EU and Canada.
Dispute over dispute settlement
So what’s the problem? The Commission does not see one and put out a factsheet to dispel “incorrect claims” about ISDS in early October. According to the Commission, ISDS “does not subvert democracy by allowing companies to go outside national legal systems”. It “does not allow companies to sue states just because they might lose profits”. And “it does not undermine public choices: the EU will negotiate in such a way to ensure that legislation reflecting legitimate public choices e.g. on the environment, cannot be undermined through ISDS.” As for the fact that ISDS cases are typically heard behind closed doors by a small circle of international lawyers who rotate from arbitrator to advocate and back again, the EU will work to change this and ensure no conflict of interest: “In future EU agreements, all submissions will be public, all hearings will be open, all decisions of the tribunal shall be public and interested parties will be able to make their views known.”
The biggest payout to date came in 2012 with a ruling for Ecuador to pay out US$1.77 billion to US oil company Occidental Petroleum for unilateral termination of its contract
This does not reassure NGOs. Their core concern is that ISDS could let companies pressure governments into tempering environmental, health and social protection regulation. “The EU negotiating mandate… reveals the European Commission’s plans to enshrine more powers for corporations,” warns Corporate Europe Observatory, an NGO working to expose and challenge business interests in policymaking. “Across the world, big business has already used ISDS provisions… to claim dizzying sums in compensation against democratically-made laws to protect the public interest.” Unlike WTO cases, ISDS cases cannot force losing governments to change their laws, but can require them to pay out compensation to make up for lost profits.
The biggest payout to date came in 2012 with a ruling for Ecuador to pay out US$1.77 billion to US oil company Occidental Petroleum for unilateral termination of its contract. Nearly a third of cases concluded by 2012 found in favour of the investor (governments won just over 40%). Far and away most of the disputes to date have been initiated by US investors, followed by investors from the Netherlands, UK and Germany.
NGOs fear the prospect of having to hand over precious taxpayers’ money to foreign investors could deter governments from ambition on environmental protection. They point to other pending cases to illustrate the threat of attack. Vattenfall is suing Germany for a reported €3.7bn over the state’s decision to phase out nuclear power (the company will have to shut two power plants). US-based Lone Pine Resources is suing the Canadian province of Quebec for US$250m over its 2011 introduction of a moratorium on fracking. What might US firms probing for shale gas in Europe do about moratoria there? How might they react to new environmental impact assessment rules brewing in Brussels?
A look to Canada and ahead
One avenue to investigate the potential implications of TTIP for oil sands specifically would be to look to the recently announced EU-Canada trade deal (CETA). Although there was officially no link between CETA and oil sands, Canada – as the main potential supplier of oil sands to Europe – has reportedly dragged the issue into the trade negotiations. What did they decide?
The problem is that the text of the agreement announced by the EU on 18 October, is not publicly available yet. (According to the Commission, “technical discussions” have yet to be completed before the legal text of the agreement can be finalised.)Nor is any mention of what it said or didn’t say about oil sands. Perhaps the whole issue was bracketed. Perhaps the parties agreed to defer to TTIP (as CETA reportedly does on several issues). One source suggests CETA has made it more difficult for the EU to regulate oil sands.
There are many energy-related issues in TTIP that will start taking form over the next months (and probably years). At the forefront is how to deal with oil sands. But even more important for Europe will be access to US-produced LNG, to benefit from its shale gas boom. The US currently has crude oil and gas export restrictions in place. Some suggest these will be automatically lifted with the signing of TTIP. Others suggest it will not be quite so straightforward and TTIP must contain provisions to make sure this is the case.
Other issues that may prove difficult to achieve are an end to local content requirements and full opening up of public procurement markets – both of them a state competence in the US and some states already enjoying exemptions under existing trade agreements e.g. with Canada.
It is still undecided whether TTIP will devote a separate chapter to energy or deal with it through horizontal provisions. The line taken by the broader talks is in any case relevant. There are tentative plans for continued regulatory alignment even after TTIP is signed. These will be just as relevant for energy as for other sectors.
For the EU, the challenge will be to align rather than unravel regulation. This is a trade agreement that will test the limits of what is possible without further alignment of more basic policy objectives, such as on climate change. It will pit businesses against NGOs. A third round of talks is scheduled for December. Watch this space.
By.  Sonja van Renssen


          WTO Ruling Could Help Open Lucrative Chinese Media Market        


          Mexico Suspends Purchases From 30 Meat Plants        

Mexico suspends meat imports from plants in 14 states after raising objections to USDA


Mexico suspended meat imports from 30 processing plants in 14 states, including some of the nation's largest, on Wednesday and Friday, according to a list posted on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Web site.
The action pushed down beef and pork futures in trading on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange Friday.
Among the plants listed on the site are the Smithfield Packing Inc. plant in Tar Heel, N.C., the world's largest pork slaughterhouse.

Another Smithfield plant in Plant City, Fla., that processes pork, beef and poultry is on the list, along with three plants operated by subsidiary John Morrell & Co., two in South Dakota and one in Iowa, a Nebraska pork run by subsidiary Farmland Foods Inc. and a Pennsylvania beef plant run by its Moyer Packing Co. unit.
Six operations run by Tyson Foods Inc. in Iowa, Texas and Nebraska are also on the list.
Other affected plants are run by food giants Cargill Inc. and Swift Foods Inc., along with Seaboard Corp. and 11 small private companies in Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Oklahoma and Utah.

USDA spokeswoman Amanda Eamich said in an e-mail that Mexico had discussions over the course of the last five business days with the agency regarding concerns about the general condition of meat products, sanitation issues and "possible pathogen findings."
"Occasional differences in shipments in trade relationships do occur and allow for the option of notifying specific plants of suspension of those shipments," she said.

Published reports, however, raised the possiblity the move could reflect Mexico's objection to a recently-enacted law that requires meat products to bear country-of-origin labels.
ConAgra Foods Inc., which formerly owned Butterball-brand turkey, sold the company in 2006 and is not affected, according to Stephanie Childs, a spokeswoman for the Omaha, Neb., company. ConAgra is incorrectly named on the USDA Web site as one of the plant operators.

Tyson spokesman Archie Schaffer III said the company had no prior warning from Mexico about the ban and only learned of it when shipments were turned aside at the border Wednesday. The ban could greatly affect the Springdale, Ark.-based company, as high feed prices have already strained its profits. Mexico represents 23 percent of its $3.8 billion of international sales in 2008, according to company statistics.
"No information or explanation was given," Schaffer said. "We're going to be working beginning Monday" to restore trade.

Attempts to reach representatives at Smithfield and Swift were unsuccessful.
According to published reports, the suspensions may be in retaliation for the U.S. putting a country-of-origin labeling law into effect on Oct. 1 in response to concerns about the safety of imports.

On Dec. 18, Mexico joined Canada in opposing the law, which involves fresh beef and pork, in a complaint to the World Trade Organization. Canada's government filed its complaint Dec. 1, saying it was concerned the U.S. rules were discriminating against Canadian agricultural exporters.
The complaints generate a 60-day consultation period between the governments, after which the WTO can step in with an investigative panel.

The country-of-origin labeling law mandates the separation of foreign cattle and pigs in U.S. feedlots and packing plants. Foreign animals are also required to have more documentation about where they come from and, in the case of cattle, must have tags that indicate they are free of mad cow disease.
Canadian farm groups say a growing number of meat plants in the U.S. are refusing to accept Canadian cattle and hogs for processing since the law went into effect.
In light trading Friday, Smithfield shares gained 91 cents, or 7.5 percent, to close at $12.98. Tyson shares added 13 cents to $8.20.

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          Anwendungen über WSUS bereitstellen        

Ab sofort gibt es die neue Kategorie Local Update Publishing auf WSUS.DE.
Eröffnet wurde die Kategorie mit einem zweiteiligen HowTo zur Installation und Konfiguration des Local Update Publisher (LUP). Auf die Erstellung des erforderlichen Client-Zertifikates und Verteilung per GPO wird genauso eingegangen, sowie auf die Verteilung einer kleinen Anwendung an Clients über den LUP und dem WSUS.

Anwendungen über WSUS bereitstellen - Teil 1
Anwendungen über WSUS bereitstellen - Teil 2

Anregungen zu neuen HowTos werden natürlich gerne angenommen, es dürfen auch neue HowTos zu diesem und anderen Themen eingereicht werden.

Viel Erfolg und Happy Patching!


          Comment on A Pinterest Before and After Hairstyle by kredit schnell bekommen        
Lehet hőbörögni, de az usákoknál nem mondhatod, hogy a sok hamburger zabálástól meghízik az ember fia, mert a megfelelő élelmiszeripari lobbik rögtön beperelnek. Sőt, a per kezdetét már a börtönben várod.A WTO is valahol hasonló elvre épül. Piaci érdek sértése kapcsán simán megbüntetnek. És hogy mi az érdeksérülés, azt ők döntik el.R*hadjon meg az összes monopólium. :) Főleg, ha véleményalkotást is kisajátít. ;-)
          Flight of Li Ka-shing Signals the Beginning of China’s Economic Meltdown        
By He Qinglian on September 29, 2015
Source article in Chinese: “李嘉诚话题”突显权力与资本关系日趋紧张
This abridged translation first appeared in the Epoch Time on October 11, 2015

After Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing, Asia’s richest man, recently moved his investments out of China, state media accused him of being unethical and ungrateful, fleeing China when the economy was slowing despite having profited handsomely in better times. He Qinglian, a noted economist, explores the tensions between power and capital in today’s China.

Li Ka-shing’s “escape” has sparked heated discussions in China. This debate should be understood as a war between power and capital; it reveals the tripartite dilemma of investing in today’s China.

The first dilemma: Hong Kong investment has always been regarded as “internal” capital with a foreign name.

From the time when Deng Xiaoping started the reform and opening policy, up until the 1990s, Hong Kong investment was the most important component of all foreign investment, followed by Taiwan. Hong Kong’s location and its special economic role were part of the political considerations that prompted the Communist Party of China (CPC) to treat Hong Kong as “foreign” investment.

Before that, when the CPC was facing a comprehensive blockade from the West, Hong Kong was China’s “international channel,” the channel of foreign capital and technology, as well as its import and export trade base.

China started reform and opening up in 1979. Hong Kong businessmen were not only the main body of investment, but also pathfinders and bridges to help China open up. At that time, Hong Kong accounted for 70 percent of foreign investment, followed by Taiwan and Japan.

After China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, Hong Kong gradually lost its status as China’s trade entrepôt. Its offshore financial business slowly weakened. Hong Kong became a base for Party officials to move their capital for further deployment abroad, their “money laundering garden.”

Between 1978 and 2001, out of political considerations, the CPC categorized Hong Kong investment as “foreign” capital as Hong Kong was yet to return to China, or had just been returned. After 2001, it was still in the CPC’s interest to treat Hong Kong investment as foreign capital in the economy. To interest groups, Hong Kong is an important channel for money laundering. Even now, top Hong Kong businessmen and Chinese investment in Hong Kong are closely tied to the Communist Party.

Money Is Allowed in, but Not Out

The Second dilemma: There are limits to capital flows. Investment capital has been allowed to come in, but not allowed to leave.

The CPC forcibly interfered in China’s stock market decline this year. In the end it arrested people on accusations of “draining China.” This was generally regarded as inappropriate government intervention in the financial market and malicious restrictions on the free flow of capital.

International capital flows refers to capital transfers between countries or regions, including investments, loans, aid, buyer credit, seller credit, foreign exchange trading, securities issuance and circulation, and so on. International cross-border capital flows can be divided into inflows and outflows. When China entered the WTO, key members of the WTO, such as the United States and European countries, requested that China open up its financial market and allow foreign capital in.

Among the WTO member countries, there is none that welcomes foreign investment while at the same time limiting capital outflows. The CPC’s regulation on capital flows has established a precedent. The WTO does not have countermeasures on this policy. This has caused one more layer of concern for international capital. What can they do if one day China restricts capital outflow? They therefore want China to implement full capital mobility rules: to not only welcome free capital to come in, but also to allow capital to leave.
The ‘Original Sin’ of Being Rich

The third dilemma: the personal safety of private investment capital owners in China is at risk.

Private capital in China has always been considered an “original sin.” There is an understanding in China that the majority of private enterprises rely on political power for backing. They grow bigger and stronger by conducting business in the “gray area” created through connections with officials. Their wealth is not clean.

The government assumes that private sector “kings” make use of gaps granted them by the government, such as tax evasion and fraudulent bookkeeping. There are lots of gaps. Usually the government is not short of money.

When private companies have good relationships with officials, these gaps do not pose an issue. But when the government is short of money, or the officials whom private companies rely on are jailed for corruption or retire, capitalists are no longer safe.

In 2014, “Guidelines to Deepen Reform of State-Owned Enterprises” was published, to mobilize private equity. Many private entrepreneurs worry that the hand of the CPC is reaching for them. They have started to leave.

They have engaged in a large number of overseas investments. This caused a sharp reduction in foreign exchange reserves in recent months. Beijing painfully felt the shrinking of its foreign exchange reserves—about $600 billion in outflows, according to a Sept. 28 article by The Economist—and has hence increased control of foreign exchange. Dozens of security brokers were arrested for “draining China.” The relationship between money and power has reached a state of hypertension.

The Dilemma Trifecta

Li Ka-shing finds himself in all three dilemmas.

Why is Li Ka-shing being ostracized as an investment escapee? It is because of the nature of his investment capital.

Of all Hong Kong businessmen, Li Ka-shing is the most successful and has the closest ties to Beijing. He has met Party leaders on numerous occasions—Deng Xiaoping twice, in 1978 and 1990. This meant that his access in China was unimpeded, and his privileges surpassed any “princeling” (son or daughter of a top Party leader).

The article that attacked Li for leaving China said: “Given the nature of Li’s profiteering in China over the past 20 years, it is not as simple as just doing business. … Real estate wealth does not come entirely from the market economy. He might not be able to leave as he wishes.”

Li Ka-shing’s capital was actually “internal” capital with a “foreign name.” It was provided by the Communist Party, with particular policies and special privileges. Therefore, Li’s money should “go down with the regime.” However, with China’s economic difficulties bursting open, Li took the money and left. This has greatly disappointed the regime.

What the Chinese media dare not say is that Li Ka-shing’s divestment signals the beginning of the collapse. Li Ka-shing is not the only Hong Kong investor leaving China. Sixty-five percent of all “foreign” investment is Chinese capital in Hong Kong. This investment capital has increased in a fashion similar to Li Ka-shing’s, with help from those in power.

Li Ka-shing’s “escape” triggered a flood of responses that demonstrates the increasingly tense relationship between investment capital and political power and signals the end of China’s economic golden age.
          VINALINES CHUYỂN ĐỘNG SÓNG ĐẠI DƯƠNG        
Tổng giám đốc và ông Lê Quang Trung Trưởng ban quản lý và phát triển dịch vụ Logistics
Nhà báo và ông Nguyễn Cảnh Việt Tổng giám Đốc Tổng Công Ty Hàng Hải Việt Nam




Góc thời sự Hoàng Dũng Huệ

VINALINES

CHUYỂN ĐỘNG SÓNG ĐẠI DƯƠNG

Năm 2010 là năm có những chuyển động lớn về tốc độ tăng trưởng kinh tế biển của Việt Nam. Tổng Công ty Hàng hải Việt Nam là một đơn vị kinh tế được Thủ tướng Chính phủ đánh giá là hoạt động kinh doanh có hiệu quả. Đơn vị có năng lực cạnh tranh cao trong công tác khai thác cảng biển, vận tải biển thực hiện được các dự án đầu tư xây dựng cảng biển trọng điểm quốc gia. Cảng trung chuyển quốc tế Vân Phong.

Những ngày đầu năm Tân Mão 2011, nhà báo đã xông đất Vinalines phỏng vấn nhanh ông Nguyễn Cảnh Việt, Thuyền trưởng Tổng Giám đốc Tổng Công ty Hàng hải Việt Nam.

* Ông nhận định gì về sự biến động trong kinh doanh, cạnh tranh thị trường cảng biển trong năm qua như thế nào ?

Ông Nguyễn Cảnh Việt : Năm 2010, bên cạnh thuận lợi tốc độ tăng trưởng kinh tế của Việt Nam được duy trì, hàng hóa xuất nhập khẩu tăng, Tổng Công ty Hàng hải Việt Nam tiếp tục phải đối mặt với nhiều khó khăn, thách thức như : việc tiếp cận, huy động vốn trung và dài hạn để thực hiện các dự án đầu tư phát triển đội tàu và cơ sở hạ tầng của Tổng Công ty thông qua kênh vay vốn thương mại gặp nhiều khó khăn; chi phí lao động, vật tư, nguyên, nhiên liệu, lãi vay tăng nhanh và khó dự báo xu hướng biến động; tỷ giá ngoại tệ so với đồng Việt Nam biến động tăng làm phát sinh các khoản chênh lệch tỷ giá trong các giao dịch thanh toán công nợ có gốc ngoại tệ. Năm 2010, thị trường vận tải biển thế giới bước đầu phục hồi nhưng kém bền vững. Chỉ số cước của tàu hàng kho BDI-6 tháng đầu năm tăng cao điểm lên đến 4.209 điểm vào cuối tháng 5/2010 rồi lại giảm xuống mức từ 2.000 – 3.000 điểm vào 6 tháng cuối năm. Giá cước cỡ tàu Capesize và Panamax có mức giảm nhanh và mạnh nhất do ảnh hưởng của hiện tượng dư thừa cung trọng tải, hiện đang dao động với mức 30.000 USD/ngày, các loại tàu Handysize hiện chỉ dao động quanh mức 10.000 – 13.000 USD/ngày. Giá cước tàu dầu tiếp tục giảm so với năm 2009, doanh thu không bù đắp đủ chi phí. Do hàng hóa vận chuyển trên các tuyến quốc tế khan hiếm, nhiều chủ tàu container phải đưa tàu về hoạt động trên tuyến nội địa, dẫn đến sự cạnh tranh gay gắt. Đặc biệt, tình trạng bất hợp lý về nguồn hàng kéo dài trong nhiều năm trên tuyến Bắc – Nam đã khiến chênh lệch giá cước hai chiều ngày càng lớn. Đối với hoạt động khai thác cảng, việc cấm xuất khẩu cát từ cuối năm 2009 đã làm sụt giảm đáng kể sản lượng thông qua của một số cảng trong năm 2010. Tại khu vực Hải Phòng, việc hình thành nhiều cảng và các kho bãi nhỏ trong khu vực làm cho thị trường hàng hóa bị phân chia, các cảng chủ yếu cạnh tranh bằng cách giảm giá. Tuy nhiên, do cơ cấu hàng hóa thay đổi theo hướng tích cực, tỷ trọng hàng hóa có giá trị cao như container, máy móc, thiết bị tăng nên mặc dù sản lượng hàng thông qua cảng giảm nhưng các chỉ tiêu về tài chính của các doanh nghiệp đều đạt kết quả khả quan so với năm 2009. Đối với hoạt động dịch vụ hàng hải, cạnh tranh ngày càng trở nên gay gắt dưới tác động của việc thực hiện cam kết của Việt Nam trong lộ trình gia nhập WTO và do suy giảm kinh tế, những khó khăn về tài chính, đơn giá và khối lượng dịch vụ giảm do khách hàng có xu hướng tiết kiệm chi phí thuê ngoài.

* Những số liệu nào tiêu biểu cho năng lực cạnh tranh của Vinalines trong hoạt động dự án kinh doanh vận tải cảng biển theo ông ?

Ông Nguyễn Cảnh Việt : Tổng sản lượng vận tải biển ước đạt 37,1 triệu tấn (và 144 tỷ Tkm), tăng 9% (và 10%) so với thực hiện năm 2009, bằng 103% và (105%) kế hoạch năm 2010 ; Tổng sản lượng hàng thông qua cảng ước đạt 64,3 triệu tấn, bằng 91% so với thực hiện năm 2009, bằng 101% kế hoạch năm 2010 ; Tổng doanh thu ước đạt 20.934 tỷ đồng, tăng 16% so với thực hiện năm 2009, bằng 103% kế hoạch năm 2010 ; Tổng lợi nhuận ước đạt 1.241 tỷ đồng, tăng 40% so với thực hiện năm 2009, bằng 129% kế hoạch năm 2010 ; Tổng nộp ngân sách ước đạt 1.190 tỷ đồng, tăng 1% so với thực hiện năm 2009. Thực hiện quyết định số 926/QĐ-TTg ngày 18/6/2010 của Thủ tướng Chính phủ về việc tái cơ cấu Vinashin, trong thời gian qua Tổng Công ty đã tiến hành công tác tiếp nhận về nguyên tắc một số doanh nghiệp, dự án được chuyển giao từ Tập đoàn Vinashin. Sau khi tiếp nhận, Tổng Công ty đã tập trung chỉ đạo thực hiện điều chỉnh quy hoạch, công năng và quy mô đầu tư đối với các dự án xây dựng cơ sở hạ tầng cho phù hợp (như dự án đầu tư cảng và khu dịch vụ hậu cần logistics, Nhà máy sửa chữa tàu biển Sông Hậu, Cà Mau, cảng Năm Căn, cảng tổng hợp Đình Vũ …), hỗ trợ các doanh nghiệp về nhân lực, kỹ thuật, nguồn vốn để sửa chữa tàu, trả lương cho người lao động, tiếp tục triển khai các dự án đóng mới đang thực hiện dở dang. Đặc biệt, một số doanh nghiệp vận tải biển thành viên Tổng Công ty đã nhận hỗ trợ công tác sửa chữa, khai thác một số tàu của Công ty Vinashinlines nhằm giúp đơn vị từng bước vượt qua khó khăn. Tuy nhiên, do việc bàn giao chưa chính thức hoàn tất nên kết quả sản xuất kinh doanh trên chưa bao gồm kết quả thực hiện của các doanh nghiệp tiếp nhận từ Vinashin. Kết quả thực hiện năm 2010 đã giúp Tổng Công ty hoàn thành vượt mức toàn diện kế hoạch giai đoạn 5 năm 2006 – 2010 với mức tăng trưởng cao. Vốn nhà nước được bảo toàn và phát triển, các chỉ tiêu kế hoạch đều có mức tăng trưởng cao, đặc biệt là chỉ tiêu doanh thu và lợi nhuận, cụ thể như sau : Vốn nhà nước tại thời điểm 31/12/2010 ước đạt 8.180 tỷ đồng, tăng gấp 2,5 lần so với thời điểm năm 2005; Sản lượng vận tải biển đạt mức tăng trưởng bình quân 11%/năm, năm 2010 đạt 37,1 triệu tấn, tăng gấp 2 lần so với thời điểm năm 2005; Sản lượng hàng thông qua cảng đạt mức tăng trưởng bình quân 12%/năm, năm 2010 đạt 64,3 triệu tấn, tăng gấp 1,7 lần so với thời điểm năm 2005; Doanh thu đạt mức tăng trưởng bình quân 17%/năm, năm 2010 đạt 20,9 ngàn tỷ đồng, tăng gấp 2 lần so với thời điểm năm 2005; Lợi nhuận đạt mức tăng trưởng bình quân 23%/năm, năm 2010 đạt 1.241 tỷ đồng, tăng gấp 1,8 lần so với thời điểm năm 2005; Số nộp ngân sách đạt mức tăng trưởng bình quân 17%/năm, năm 2010 đạt 1.190 tỷ đồng, tăng gấp 1,9 lần so với thời điểm năm 2005.

* Xin cảm ơn những thông tin của ông.

Box :

Vinalines đã nhận bàn giao 02 tàu đóng mới với tổng trọng tải 35.000 DWT (gồm 01 tàu 12.500 DWT và 01 tàu 22.500 DWT) và đang tiếp tục phối hợp với Tập đoàn Vinashin đẩy nhanh tiến độ đóng mới 05 tàu còn lại với tổng trọng tải 117.000 DWT, trong chương trình đóng mới 32 tàu biển tại các nhà máy thuộc Tập đoàn Vinashin. Các dự án đầu tư đang được triển khai như: Dự án Cảng Cái Cui giai đoạn II (TP.Cần Thơ); Cảng Sài gòn – Hiệp Phước giai đoạn 1, Cảng quốc tế SP – PSA giai đoạn 1, Cảng quốc tế Cái Mép, Cảng container quốc tế Cảng Sài Gòn – SSA, Nhà máy sửa chữa tàu biển Vinalines phía Nam (Bà Rịa – Vũng Tàu); cảng Sơn Trà (Đà Nẵng); Bến tổng hợp container cảng Cam Ranh (Khánh Hòa); Bến 2, 3, 4 cảng Cái Lân, Nhà máy sửa chữa tàu biển Nosco – Vinalines (Quảng Ninh), Cảng tổng hợp Đình Vũ – bến số 6, Kho bải container Vinalines tại Hải Phòng …

==============================================================================

Striking Hoang Dung Hue angle

VINALINES
OCEAN SONG MOVEMENT

In 2010 was a year of major movements of the economic growth of Vietnam's sea. Corporation Vietnam Maritime is an economic unit is the Prime Minister is evaluating business activities effectively. Units with high competitiveness in the work of the port operators, shipping implement the investment project to build major national seaports. International transit port in Van Phong.
The New Year's Day 2011 crown, broke ground Vinalines journalist interviewed Mr. Nguyen Canh Vietnamese fast, Captain General Director of Vietnam Maritime Corporation.
* He said nothing about the variation in business, competitive market seaports in the past year like?
Mr. Nguyen Canh Vietnam: in 2010, next to favorable economic growth in Vietnam is maintained, increased import and export goods, the Corporation Vietnam Maritime continues to face many difficulties ways like the approach, mobilizing medium and long term to carry out investment projects to develop the fleet and infrastructure of the corporation for loans through commercial channels were difficult, labor costs activities, materials, raw materials, fuel, increasing interest and difficult to forecast trends, exchange rate against the Vietnam fluctuations give rise to the difference in rates of payment transactions liabilities denominated in foreign currencies. In 2010, maritime transport market world initially, but less sustainable recovery. Index of dry cargo freight BDI-6 months increased to peak at the end of January 4209 5 / 2010 and then declined from 2000 to 3000 points in the last 6 months. Rates Capesize and Panamax ships have the most rapid and strong decrease due to the phenomenon of excess supply tonnage, currently at $ 30,000 vibrations per day, the ship is only Handysize fluctuated from 10,000 to 13,000 USD / day. Oil prices continue to drop ship charges compared to 2009, revenue is not enough to cover costs. By goods transported on international routes scarce, many container ships to bring the ship to operate on domestic routes, leading to fierce competition. In particular, the status of the source of irrational over many years on the route north - south has made the two-dimensional difference in rates is widening. For operation port operation, the sand export ban in late 2009 had significant reduction of the output through a port in 2010. In the area of Hai Phong, the formation of many small ports and warehouses in the region makes commodities market is divided, the main port by reducing price competition. However, due to changing commodity structure positively, the proportion of high value goods such as container, machinery, equipment, although the output should increase through the port decreased, but the financial targets businesses are achieving positive results compared to 2009. For the activities of maritime services, competition is becoming more acute under the impact of the implementation of Vietnam's commitments in the roadmap for WTO accession and the economic decline, financial difficulties, single price and volume reduction due to Customer service tends to cost savings outsourcing.
* These figures do represent Vinalines competitiveness of the business operation of transport projects under his port?
Mr. Nguyen Canh Vietnamese: Total production of marine transport is estimated at 37.1 million tons (and 144 billion TKM), up 9% (and 10%) compared to 2009, and by 103% (105%) plan 2010, total production of goods through the port is estimated at 64.3 million tons, equal to 91% compared to 2009, with 101% of the plan in 2010, total revenue is estimated at 20,934 billion, up 16% implemented in 2009, with 103% of the plan in 2010; Total profit is estimated at 1241 billion, up 40% compared to 2009, with 129% of the plan in 2010; total budget is estimated at 1190 billion, 1% increase compared to 2009. Implement decisions of 926/QD-TTg on 06/18/2010 by the Prime Minister on the restructuring of Vinashin, in recent years the Company has conducted accepting in principle a number of enterprises, project was transferred from the Vinashin Group. Upon receipt, the Company has focused direction for the adjustment of planning and public investment and scale of construction projects in infrastructure to match (such as port investment projects and parks logistics logistics, ship repair plant in Hau River, Ca Mau and Nam Can port, the port of Dinh Vu general ...), support the business in terms of human, technical and capital resources to repair the ship, it wages for workers, continue to deploy building projects are performed. Chỉ số Triển vọng thương mại thế giới mới nhất của WTO (WTOI) cho thấy, thương mại hàng hóa toàn cầu sẽ tiếp tục tăng trưởng trong quý III/2017 với mức chỉ số đạt 102,6 cao hơn mức 102,2 của tháng 5 năm ngoái, đã khẳng định đà tăng trưởng bền vững của thương mại thế giới. 
          India to WTO: Legal Services Sector will be Accessible to Foreign Lawyers only after Consultation with Authorities        
Recently, India informed the members of World Trade Organization WTO that the country’s legal services sector will be open for foreign law firms and lawyers only after consultation from the stakeholders like Bar Council of India BCI. Countries, which are ready to offer similar services to India’s law firms and lawyers will be able to avail the legal services from India’s legal services sector.  Cabinet Secretary will soon operate a Committee of Secretaries CoS and consider a Commerce Ministry plan to start the legal sector with non-arguable services. As, initially, the BCI and the Law Ministry did not support this proposal, final steps are yet to be taken. It was made clear to the members of the World Trade Organization that, even though the legal sector will be made operative, it will offer limited services to selected countries. Separate agreements will be negotiated with every country individually and legal services sector will be kept open only for the countries, which are willing to offer similar services in return.  As per the proposal set by the Committee of Secretaries, the legal sector would offer services like international arbitration, and mediation services. Non-litigious services in the third country law, home country law of foreign lawyer, and international law may also be allowed. Foreign lawyers will be allowed to participate or practice in India as joint ventures, in combination with the Indian lawyers, with a cap on all the foreign participants.  Meetings are being held by the Commerce Ministry with the Society for Indian Law Firms and the BCI members, to ensure that business of the local lawyers will not be affected by opening the legal services sector to foreign firms and lawyers. Trade policy of all the members is reviewed by the WTO after every two to six years on the basis of the quantity of trade every member does, trade policies, and economic performances. 

Original Post India to WTO: Legal Services Sector will be Accessible to Foreign Lawyers only after Consultation with Authorities source Twease
          Ind asked by WTO Members to Move out Exports Sops from Textiles, Apparel        
Countries which are part of the WTO such as the United States, Japan, and Turkey have asked India that they will phase out their export subsidies on textiles and the apparel sectors, as informed by the Parliament. However, as per the data from WTO for 2006 and 2007, the country India has crossed its threshold for two years in these two segments, according to the Commerce and Industry Minister Sitharam in a reply to the Lok Sabha. According to the Minister, the WTO subsidies committee meetings the member countries of WTO especially the US has supported by the European Union, Japan, and Turkey, among others have requested phasing out the export subsidies by India for the apparel sectors. She also added that the government has yet not taken any decision on phasing out the subsidies as it this new Foreign Trade Policy is still undergoing consideration. However, the Minister replied to a separate question which was on buffalo meat exports. She stated that the exports need to be increased by around 13.71 per cent in quantity terms for the period April-October 2014. By value terms the increase has been recorded of 14.35 per cent during the aforesaid period. According to the minister the growth in the exports of the meat of buffalo during the period of April till October 2013 2014 was due to the increase of business experienced from Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Egypt, Vietnam, and Malaysia. She also stated that the Indian bovine meat was not allowed into the China’s marked due to the ground of prevalence of food and mouth diseases in India.

Original Post Ind asked by WTO Members to Move out Exports Sops from Textiles, Apparel source Twease
          The China Paper Industry - An Analysis of the Growth Forecast        
Historically, China has been a key market for paper. However, in the contemporary scenario, the paper industry in China as we know it today, developed after the country became a part of the World Trade Organization in 2001. This reflects in the trade figures. In 1999, China’s total paper and paperboard output was estimated at 29 million tons. However, in 2010, less than a decade after the country became a WTO member, this figure escalated to 100 million. The compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) for the period between 1999 and 2010 was 11.9%. However, following this long growth trend, the paper industry in China began showing a decline - this was mainly attributed to the large base amount. As of 2013, the volume of machine-made paperboard and paper touched about 115.14 million tons. This marks a mere YoY growth of 1.22%. The structure of the China paper industry There is an abundance of paper manufacturers in China - but they have a low industrial concentration. According to industry estimates, there were about 7,000 paper and ancillary product manufacturers in China at the end of 2013. On an average, each manufacturer’s annual production was lower than 20,000 tons. This figure is noticeably lower than that of other developed countries. Of the 7,000-odd players in China’s paper industry, only about six manufacturers boast an output of over 2 million tons in terms of volume. And, only ten other manufacturers report an output volume of 1 billion tons as of 2012.  In 2013, there was no instability reported in China’s export-import of waste paper, paperboard, and wood pulp. The volume of imports remained relatively stable, but a rebound was noted in China’s paper export volumes. Around the same time, the unit price of import increased marginally, whereas that of exports saw a steep decline. The import values saw very little change. But on the other hand, the export value saw a substantial dip. As of 2013, trade deficit continued to exist between export and import of paper products and wood pulp in China. A brief overview of China’s paper export-import landscape  China’s paper export volumes are less than 10% of its total domestic paper output. The export limit for paper is restricted by the Chinese government so as to protect the environment and curb large-scale felling of trees. Moreover, the paper export industry in China doesn’t enjoy a tax rebate, as many other industries here do. This is compounded by the fact that the paper industry here in general, is not offered subsidies, and there are several restrictions on the processing of waste paper. Elsewhere in the world, major paper manufacturing nations have successfully integrated pulp, paper, and forest. But China’s forest-paper system is conspicuous by its absence among Chinese paper manufacturers. As a result of this, the availability and supply of qualified paper fiber is largely dependent on imports.  These reasons are collectively responsible for paper manufacturers in China reporting low profits and the overall unstable state of the industry here. China needs to address problems pertaining to the insufficient availability of raw fiber to the paper industry.  Problems facing the China paper industry Currently, four key problems prevail in the Chinese paper industry, and they can to be addressed via regulatory reforms and industrial initiative. The four problems are: A shortage of resources resulting from high geographic concentration.  A product structure that is not regarded as being fair to the industry A low level of production resulting from obsolete machinery Persistent environmental pollution concerns in the country The Chinese economy is on the fast lane to development. And this will evidently boost the demand for paper in applications ranging from stationery to packaging to publishing and more. This will create several opportunities, and the industry needs to resolve its problems to harness the maximum potential of these business prospects. Browse Full Report with Toc: http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/analysis/191054 About us MarketResearchReports.biz [http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/] is the most comprehensive collection of market research reports. MarketResearchReports.Biz services are specially designed to save time and money for our clients. We are a one stop solution for all your research needs, our main offerings are syndicated research reports, custom research, subscription access and consulting services. We serve all sizes and types of companies spanning across various industries.

Original Post The China Paper Industry - An Analysis of the Growth Forecast source Twease
          China and the U.S File Dueling Trade Complaints with WTO        
China and the United States filed trade complaints against each other with the WTO (World Trade Organization), further escalating the trade tension between the two economic giants amidst a turbulent global economy. China and the United States, the two largest economies, are at the forefront again, with each slapping trade complaints against each other. Tension began when the U.S. challenged the Chinese subsidies provided on auto and auto parts, which threatened the already troubled American auto industry. President Obama, during his campaign in Ohio, a state with a prominent auto industry, alleged that Chinese auto subsidies are a threat to American jobs. His remarks have come at a time when presidential elections are approaching in November and Ohio can play a decisive role in the final outcome. The United States has alleged in the complaint filed with the WTO that the Government of China provided millions of dollars as export subsidies to its auto parts maker.  The U.S. has enforced a trade bill in this regard that will enforce tariffs and duties on Chinese auto exports. The bill allows the United States Commerce Department to continue the enforcement of counteracting taxes on imports from economies like Vietnam and China. The bill was signed in March this year. China counteracted with a complaint to the WTO against enforcement of duties by the U.S. on many of the Chinese imports. China has complained against the anti-dumping duties worth USD 7.2 billion levied by the U.S on goods imported from China. These include tires, steel and kitchen appliances. China’s exports of auto parts has grown to USD 70 billion annually making it the fourth largest exporter of auto parts to the U.S. market. China has requested for consultation with the U.S. through the WTO against the duties imposed. The two have 60 days to resolve the issue through consultation, before the WTO panel looks into the case, as per the WTO rules.

Original Post China and the U.S File Dueling Trade Complaints with WTO source Twease
          The Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) Threaten to File a Complaint For Ongoing Rum Subsidy Batle        
(News Brief by Shanken News Daily) The Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM) is threatening to file a complaint with the World Trade Organization (WTO) against the U.S., regarding the region’s ongoing rum subsidy battle. The organization has been critical of recent measures taken by Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands to use U.S. government refunds to create subsidies and incentives for large international rum producers like Bacardi and Diageo. CARICOM is claiming that the subsidies violate WTO regulations and make it impossible for smaller rum players to compete. Triggered by Diageo’s 2010 decision to shift production of its Captain Morgan rum brand from Puerto Rico to the USVI after being lured by higher rebates, the Caribbean rum war has since resulted in increased incentives for Bacardi—which does much of its production in Puerto Rico—as well as Beam Inc.’s Cruzan rum distillery in the USVI.
          Kutemukan yang Kumau        
“Cieee ada yang baru nih?” goda saya melihat Galih menenteng helm baru miliknya.

Jadi ceritanya beberapa waktu yang lalu, teman saya Galih kehilangan helm kesayangannya di parkiran. Makanya sekarang dia membeli sebuah helm baru untuk mengganti helm yang hilang tersebut. 

Helm baru punya Galih ini mencuri perhatian saya, modelnya sangat unik dan terihat keren, sangat kekinian jika dilihat dari design helmnya, beda dengan model helm kebanyakan yang biasa saya lihat di jalanan.

Tapi sebenarnya model helm punya Galih ini tak benar-benar baru saya lihat sih, beberapa kali pernah saya lihat di jalanan, juga ada anak-anak komunitas motor yang menggunakan helm jenis ini. Dan karena penasaran saya jadi banyak tanya sama Galih tentang helm baru miliknya itu.

Dan saya jadi sedikit tahu, ternyata helm unik nan keren yang bikin saya kepo itu namanya helm Bogo. Modelnya kata Galih memang unik-unik dengan bermacam-macam warna dan design yang sangat kreatif. Dan dengan polosnya saya menanyakan apakah helm Bogo yang dia punya itu sudah sesuai standar SNI? Karena modelnya itu tidak seperti helm pada umumnya. 

Saya sejak ikut acara bersama BSN beberapa waktu yang lalu (BSN Melindungi Konsumen dengan Standardisasi SNI), jadi saya selalu terngiang-ngiang tentang pentingnya kita sebagai konsumen untuk selalu membeli dan menggunakan produk-produk berstandar SNI, karena itu penting bagi konsumen untuk mendapatkan produk yang sudah ada jaminan kualitasnya. Apalagi helm semacam ini kan merupakan atribut berkendara yang memang sangat penting untuk keselamatan kita, makanya harus sudah berstandar SNI.

Kekhawatiran saya segera ditepis oleh Galih, karena ternyata helm WTO Helmet Retro Bogo yang dimilikinya itu sudah berstandar SNI (Standar Nasional Indonesia), karena kata Galih memang memilih helm wajib yang sudah berstandar SNI.

Katanya helm yang dimilikinya itu terbuat dari bahan yang berkualitas, hal itu terlihat dari bagian luarnya yang terbuat dari bahan fiber kuat sehingga sangat aman terhadap benturan, dan di bagian dalamnya terdapat busa yang tebal dan lembut yang membuat helm bogo miliknya aman dan nyaman saat digunakan. Dan helm ini juga sudah dilengkapi dengan tali pengaman yang dapat disesuaikan dengan bentuk kepala pemakainya. Tapi yang juga terpenting, helm tersebut ringan sehingga menambah kenyamanan saat digunakan berkendara jarak dekat maupun jarak jauh. 

Saya jadi kepo di mana helm bogo seperti milik Galih itu dibelinya, dan ternyata kata Galih dia membeli helm bogo miliknya secara online di mataharimall. Dia juga direkomendasikan temannya untuk beli di sana karena banyak pilihannya. Selain itu, belanja online dinilai Galih lebih fleksibel waktunya karena dia memang lagi sibuk dengan banyak kerjaan dan tidak punya waktu untuk mendatangi toko helm secara langsung, makanya merasa sangat terbantu bangat bisa belanja online apalagi bisa COD (Cash On Delivery) sehingga tidak ribet harus transfer melalui ATM dulu. 

Jadi secara nggak sadar ngobrol santai dengan Galih ini memberikan saya ide jitu bagi saya yang lagi pusing mikirin kasih kado apa buat teman saya yang sebentar lagi akan ulang tahun. Jadi kayanya saya akan membelikannya helm bogo saja sebagai kado untuknya, karena kebetulan teman saya itu anaknya menggunakan motor dalam kesehariannya.

Sebenarnya sih bukan kado, tepatnya sih gantiin helm yang tidak sengaja saya jatuhkan dan menjadi rusak beberapa waktu yang lalu, meski sebenarnya teman saya menolaknya untuk saya gantiin, tapi tetap saja saya tidak enak hati karena sudah merusak helm miliknya. 

Dan saya pun akhirnya meluncur ke mataharimall untuk kepoin model helm bogo yang ada di sana, ternyata sangat beragam juga pilihannya. Helm bogo ternyata bukan hanya untuk laki-laki, tapi untuk perempuan juga ada, model dan designnya juga sangat unik-unik, saya sampai bingung sendiri karena semuanya menghipnotis saya dengan tampilannya yang keren-keren. *bingung pilih yang mana ya?
Pilih si merah ini kayanya keren juga ya – Doc. mataharimall
Kalo saya lihat-lihat ya, ini helm-helm bogo ini sangat cocok digunakan oleh anak muda, karena model dan designnya terlihat sangat kekinian bangat. Jadi sangat cocok buat anak-anak muda yang hobi berkendara dengan motor untuk memiliki helm model ini, dan harganya juga masih terjangkaulah menurut saya.

Ahai, sekarang saya jadi mantap mau kasih hadiah helm bogo sebagai kado buat teman saya. Jadi ternyata, ide-ide itu bisa datang kapan saja dan dari siapa saja, asalkan kita jeli menangkapnya ya. Hehehe

 Jadi buat teman-teman yang mau kasih kado buat temannya, saudaranya, gebetannya boleh juga loh contek ide saya ini, yaitu kasih saja hadiah helm bogo supaya si dia selalu terlindungi saat berkendara. Eeiit, tapi kalo teman-teman juga pengen beli helmnya buat diri sendiri juga sih nggak apa-apa supaya tampilannya semakin hitz saat berkendara. Heheheh

Selamat berkendara aman dan nyaman ya guys :)

          Globalism Destroys America: 10 Reasons Why The World Trade Organization Is Bad For The United States Economy        
In 2010, education has been so "dumbed down" in America that most Americans don't even know what the WTO is, and even fewer understand why the WTO is important.
          Multilateralism is not a goal per se        
Many scholars place at the center of their analysis the role of multilateralism. The last example that I red was a post from Richard Baldwin that considers regionalism only as a risk for multilateralism without thinking on its impacts on sustainable development.

Multilateralism should not be a goal per se but a governance tool to achieve sustainable development. It is true that, often, bilateral relations are more asymmetrical. Nevertheless, we should not forget that multilateralism is not a perfect democracy system: power asymmetries matters.

Even if the presence of a bad multilateralism is probably better than its absence, we should maintain our criticism regarding its function and how it works in the reality. In fact, as Cox underlined (1992, p. 496), in the post-World War II,

[…] economic multilateralism meant the structure of world economy most conductive to capital expansion on a world scale; and political multilateralism meant the institutionalized arrangements made at that time [after World War II] and in those conditions for inter-state cooperation on common problems. There was, for some people, an implicit compatibility, even identity between economic and political aspects of multilateralism: political multilateralism had as primary goal the security and maintenance of economic multilateralism, the underpinning of growth in the world capitalist economy.


Furthermore, the main goal of economic multilateralism was to ensure growth in developed countries even if this depended on keeping developing countries in a poverty condition. The problem is that there is not alternatives to multilateralism even if South-South regionalism can help to solve some problems. We can only try to reform it.

In fact multilateralism is still crucial because, as Cox (1992, p. 492) pointed out:

multilateralism can only be understood within the context in which it exists, and that context is the historical structure of world order. But multilateralism is not just a passive, dependent activity. It can appear in another aspect as an active force shaping world order


Multilateralism it is not good per se. It should be assessed against another normative principle: sustainable development.

Economic multilateralism, if we use this kind of assessment, does not achieve spectacular results in the last decades. In fact, it does not avoid the rising asymmetries and inequalities at the world scale. What is more, the only countries that succeed in economic development (i.e. emerging countries) did it by breaking many multilateral rules (WTO agreements, World Bank advises, etc.).

Nevertheless, now multilateralism is changing. The rise of emerging countries change the power equilibrium in global governance institutions. In another post, I will try to assess if this phenomenon is positive or negative for others developing countries.

Bibliography

Cox, R. W. (1992), Multilateralism and world order. Review of International Studies , 18 (2), 494-523


          WTO Agricultural Negotiation Update        
Yesterday, the WTO released the following news on the advances of agricultural negotiations of the Doha “Development” Round:


Intensive consultations among a group of importing and exporting countries will be allowed to continue for a few more days in an effort to achieve a breakthrough that would also allow progress in the agriculture talks as a whole. By 31 March or earlier New Zealand Ambassador Crawford Falconer, who chairs the talks, will reconvene multilateral talks so that representatives of the full membership can negotiate the outcome and continue with other major issues, leading to a revised draft blueprint of the final deal. That is what he concluded after hearing members’ comments on 14 March 2008.

For more information and to listen Mr Falconer declarations go to this WTO page.

We will see if this process will create a breakthrough in the negotiations. Personally, I am not very confident that this will happen at least for two reasons:
  1. There are still a large amount of issues where Members have very far positions.
  2. An important number of Members (e.g. the US) have not enough political will to agree on the necessary concessions.

Furthermore, in the last seven years I heard many times that a breaktrough was feasible and that they will respect a dedline that they agree. Almost every of these deadlines were posponed. They lose their credibility. Nevertheless, a miracle or a surprising outcome it is always possible as the Uruguy Round showed us.


          What role plays agriculture in economic development?        
In 2007-2008 agriculture became once again a major issue in the global agenda. Even, the World Bank recognizes the importance of this sector for economic development in its 2008 World Development Report. Another reason is linked to rising prices of agricultural commodities caused by drought in some major exporting countries (e.g. Australia), rising global consumption and growing use of agricultural commodities for biofuels. Some actors underlined that the 21th century will be the agricultural century.

Agriculture plays for sure an important role in development. In fact, according to IFAD, 2/3 of poor in developing countries live in rural areas.

Agriculture debates at the international level are always linked with the trade dimension. In fact, even if only around 10% of the global production is traded, trade plays a crucial role in agriculture because it influences greatly prices. Trade in crucial for farmers incomes as well as for the added-value produced by the agricultural sector. For this reason, agricultural negotiations at the WTO are very difficult.

Economic history, as Reinert and other authors show us, can give us some insight on the role of agriculture in development:

  • Never in the history a country succeed to achieve development through its agricultural sector. In fact, often agricultural products are subject to decreasing returns that, as we showed in a post on trade and development linkages, does not enable a country to develop successfully. Nevertheless, some products can be subject to increasing returns notably rare products (Japanese beef meat from cow daily massed with sake), transformed and typical products (e.g. Swiss cheese, wine, etc.) and likely biofuels.
  • Never in the history was rural development possible without the presence in the same region/country of an industrial sector providing inputs and tehcnological innovations. Historically only industrialization allowed to raise durably productivity in agriculture.

Nevertheless, agriculture can play an important role in development event if we take into account what the history tell us:

  • Agricultural exports enable countries to increase their incomes that can be used to implement a strategy of industrialization and of development of an advanced service sector. An interesting option to start industrialization is to create an industry that transforms agricultural commodities. Often, this industry is easier to set up than high-tech industry. This will increase the country income, by climbing the value chain. These additional resources will be invested again in order to improve industrialization and create new industries, jobs and incomes. In this way, a developing country can start a virtuous economic development cycle.
  • Agriculture can raising incomes and help poor farmers to increase their consumption and improve their education. These two outcomes will both increase the national/regional market size essential to allow the development of a national (temporary protected against international competition with tariffs) industrial sector and increase the opportunities of farmers (when productivity rise) to have the skills required to work in the industrial sector. This process is what we observed in developed countries history.

You will think: “If it is so easy, why only a bunch of developing countries succeed to achieve high growth rate?” The reason is quite simple. Developing countries faced huge difficulties to export their agricultural commodities at a fair price. Historically there were at least three reasons:

  • Developed countries subsidies depressed international as well as developing countries local prices. This both decreased farmers and developing countries incomes and pushes out of business many farmers. For this reason, nowadays number of developing countries, even net importers of agricultural products, cannot fully profit of their production potential. Developed countries subsidies are a partial explanation of the growth success of many developing countries between the end of WW II and the 70s (when subsidies were relatively low in developed countries) and the growth low rates in the 80s and 90s (when developed countries invest large amount of money in subsidies).
  • Developed countries, for long time basically the only market for developing countries, in order to protect their farmers, adopted high tariffs and implemented non-tariff measures that restrict greatly the acess to their markets. Subsidies also played a role. In fact, they caused overproduction and reduced the need of import. What is more, developed countries tariffs policies imposed higher tariffs on transformed products (tariff escalation) in order to protect their agro-industry. This constraint developing countries to continue to export commodities without having a chance to develop their transformation industry.
  • Agro-industry is an oligopoly of developed countries industries that take advantage of their dominant position by negotiating low prices with producers. This issue can be solved if the WTO rules will include an international antitrust policy. This was never very high on the agenda because developed countries want to continue to take advantage of their dominant position in many sectors.


Today, the situation is different. In fact, agricultural prices were very high the last couple of years. The consequences are that developing countries can use agriculture more profitably to start a sustainable development path. What is needed is a WTO agreement that:

  1. Pushes developed countries to decrease their subsidies and opens their market (and eliminate tariff escalation);
  1. Allows developing countries to implement policies (tariff and subsidies) to modernize their agriculture (and temporarily protect poor farmers until an industrial sector is developed) and to increase their competitiveness and export capabilities.

In conclusion, agriculture can be a powerful tool to start a sustainable growth and economic development. Nevertheless, barriers that prevent to realize this potential are still large. Doha Round negotiations do not seem to be likely to remove these barriers effectively.


References

IFAD (2001), Rural Poverty Report. The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty

Reinert Erik S. (2007), How Rich Countries Got Rich... and Why Poor Countries Stay Poor, New York, Carrol And Graf

World Bank (2008), World Development Report. Agriculture for development




          Trade Preferences: Is Preference Erosion Really an Issue for Developing Countries?        
One of the main issues in the current WTO Round is the problem of preference erosion. In fact, lower tariffs, caused by a Doha Round Agreement, mean that the products from developing countries, particularly those benefiting from preferences that go beyond the Generalized System of Preferences (SGP), will lose part of their competitive advantage.


A debate took place among scholars and International Organizations to assess if the preference erosion will have important impacts. It seems that a quite large number of developing countries, notably Least Developed Countries (LDC), will incur in significant losses caused by Preference Erosion.

The easiest solution will be to avoid liberalization in those products that are important in preferences as tropical products. However, we need to remember that an important number of developing countries export these products outside favorable preferences (the SGP is worse than schemes for LDC or ACP countries). We can find a solution to this issue only by acknowledging the importance of co-development. Neither interests form favorable preferences recipient nor do interests form developing countries exporters predominate.

Before trying to find a solution, we need to better understand advantages and limits of preferences.

The main positive point of preferences is to improve the competitiveness of products from poorest developing countries through more favorable tariffs. Preferences allowed a number of countries to export products (as sugar and bananas) where they were not competitive at the international level. Of course, for favorable preference recipient the end of preferences or the decrease of preference margins will have a significant impact.
Nevertheless, preferences have more negative than positive impacts. I will resume it in the following points:
  • Preferences are unilateral concessions by developed countries. This is highly problematic. In fact, developed countries can use it to pressure preference recipient (notably this is what happen at the WTO, cf. Jawara and Kwa, 2004). Furthermore, often when these preferences are really utilized by developing countries they are suspended and/or restricted. I heard, for example, that Switzerland suspended and after restricted its SGP on refined sugar because developing countries (as Guatemala) started to take advantage of the preferences. It is easy to give a quota and duty free access to LDC countries that have not the productive capabilities to profit of these preferences (also because usually Rules of Origin are very strict) is less easy to give real favorable preferences to countries that have these capabilities.
  • In more than forty years, preferences did not succeed to improve and diversify trade exports form poorest developing countries. In fact, preferences push recipient countries to continue to focus on a small number of commodities to export where they have a favorable market access. Preferences did not help these countries to diversify and to climbing the value chain (through industrialization and advanced services development). This system keeps alive the colonization trading system. The issue is that as we underlined in a previous post these elements are crucial to improve the positive impacts of trade on development.
  • One of the most important preference schemes is disappearing. In fact, preferences between EU and ACP countries will become Free Trade Agreements called EPAs. That pose a number of problems that I will maybe analyze in another post.

If we take into consideration all these negative impacts of preferences and the interests of developing countries exporters, the solution seems to me quite clear:

We need to find a way to give up to preferences avoiding losses for recipient countries and helping them to develop both their productive capabilities and an effective use of trade in their development strategy.

I guess you will say: “That’s right but how we can achieve this?” In fact, this is the very difficult question. I think that the following measures should be implemented

  1. Progressive liberalization of tropical products in 10 years. Every year tariffs should be decreased by the same amount. This will give enough time for adaptation of these sectors in preference recipient countries without causing too much damage to other developing countries. This is an option included in the WTO draft on agriculture (February 2008).
  2. Implementing Aid for Trade with additional resources and by ensuring ownership by recipient countries. We are still far from this objective. This kind of aid should match with the trade strategy for development of recipient countries. This will be a key element for LDCs.
  3. This in the most important point and it is not fully taken into account in the WTO draft. In order to give to recipient countries, notably the non-LDC developing countries, the possibility to implement an effective development strategy, these countries should have enough policy space to protect and support their advanced services and industrial sector. Only with these tools, they can diversify and develop their economy. Furthermore, developed countries should improve their chances to develop both sectors. They should give them temporary preferential margins (10-15 years) for recipient countries high value added exports notably by eliminating tariff escalation and by incite them to export transformed products instead of commodities. In order to avoid the creation of another useless preference schemes and help to improve the competitiveness of these sectors, developed countries should reduce progressively this preferential margin (same amount every year) after, say, 5 years. With these preferences these countries can built a “modern” economic sector that progressively will become competitive in the global markets.

In conclusion, the measures that I proposed will allow these countries to implement an effective development strategy without undermining trade opportunities for exporters. What is needed it a real commitment by developed countries to really help preference recipient countries to improve their development level.

The first two measures seem to me feasible. The problem is with the third one that requires a change of mindset by trade negotiators particularly form developed countries.

Of course, this it is only a proposition. I guess there is other innovative thinking on this issue. If you have one or if you simply want to give a critic assessment on this post simply write a comment.


References

Jawara F. and Kwa A., Behind the Scenes at the WTO. The Real World of International Trade Negotiations. The Lessons of Cancun, London and New York, Zed Books.

Picture reference




          Why NoGlobal Movement Disappeared?        
During the Seattle Ministerial Conference in 1999 a global social movement appeared. The groups that took part of this Movement where very different from development NGOS to Unions and other civil society organizations. It was the so-called No-Global Movement.

Less than a decade after Seattle NoGlobals basically disappeared. Of course, they continue to organize their World Social Forum but people participating to this event as well as demonstrating against major multilateral events as WTO ministerial meetings, G8, etc. are always less visible.

What happen? How a very big enthusiastic movement die out?

In my opinion, there are four important reasons:
  1. People where demoralized because changes in the world global order are too slow. What is more, they proposed very different pattern of change among NoGlobal organizations. Many of their propositions where very far from reality. Because they were out of reach propositions, people lost faith when they did not succeed to bring these propositions in the international arena.
  2. The international community accepted part of the NoGlobal claims and (partially) implemented them. For example: 1) The United Nations launched the Millennium Development Goals, 2) The International Financial Institutions (IMF and World Bank) start to implement initiatives to reduce the poorest developing countries debt and 3) The World Trade Organization dedicated its current Round to development (but only in its discourse).
  3. This movement contained too different organizations that after 2001 they chose different ways. Many Union turned to be protectionist and asked for more trade barriers. Development NGOs ask for more trade opportunities for developing countries. Environmental NGOs warned against problems linked to emerging countries development. These divide become too important to allow a joint advocacy by these organizations.
  4. 9/11 and the war against terrorism decreased world attention on the regulation of the world economy.

If you have other ideas on this abrupt end of this movement, share your ideas on this blog.

I am very disappointed with this disappearance not because I shared all the NoGlobal ideas but because they played an important role to push government, mainly from industrialized countries, to change their policies that arm developing countries. They contribute to change (at least for a period) perceptions of stakeholders and to improve their sensitiveness on sustainable development issues.




          How to Reform the World Trade Organization? A way to go beyond Members disagreements        
For few years, some policy-makers, scholars and other stakeholders have voiced their disappointment with the World Trade Organization (WTO) and have proposed some ideas for reform this institution. The WTO has been accused to be to ineffective (slow to produce agreements) as well as to fail to produce results favorable in terms of sustainable development and of solving asymmetries in the international trading system between developed and developing countries.

Some authors pointed out that ineffectiveness derive from the institutional setting. However, as far as I know, scholars failed to propose feasible new ways of organizing the WTO institutional setting. In fact, there is some historical “path dependence” on its evolution as Wilkinson brilliantly shows (1).

Independently of potential improving on how the WTO institutionally works, it is more important to sort out how to go beyond the first issue with the WTO that I showed in the last post: conflicts among Members. There is number of divides among WTO Members: not only between developed and developing countries but also between "defensive" developing countries (that want to defend their agricultural and industrial sector) and "offensive" developing countries (that are competitive exporters and want that every country open up its market) or between “old” and “new world” (on geographical indications that want to protect food specialties). In order to succeed to find an agreement and bridge these divides, Members should change their approach and the founding principles of WTO.

The WTO is based on number of principles that normatively try to push the international trading system in the direction of always more free trade (as the Most Favorite Nation, the National Treatment, etc.). This is at least the dominant discourse. In fact, the reality is quite different because developed countries used the GATT/WTO since the 80s to eliminate developing countries trade barriers while maintaining and reinforcing the protection of their sensitive sectors (as agriculture) and introducing some additional protectionist measures to defend their interests (agricultural subsidies and the protection of intellectual property). However, the normative foundations of the WTO have a huge impact on the negotiation process, on what is feasible and on how Members can defend their interest and propose acceptable solutions.

These norms constrain Members to negotiate in a reciprocal mercantilist way. In fact, even if the goal of the Doha Round was to solve asymmetries between developed and developing countries, the path choosed is not that developed countries will eliminate measures that create these asymmetries by changing their policies and reduce the constraints for developing countries. The principle applied was the “less than full reciprocity”. This means that developing countries should negotiate and offer something in exchange of the (partial) elimination of the international trading system asymmetries. For these reasons, negotiations became (once again) very mercantilist. Developed countries ask for more concessions by developing countries. Developing countries try to maintain their policy space (crucial for their development process) and to obtain more concessions by developed countries. This means that if the developing countries want to obtain some gains in terms, for example, of market access, they will need to accept disciplines that will harmonize even more their policies and restrict their policy space.

This situation is a recipe for failure. In order to get out of this dead-end we need to rethink the principles on which the WTO is based. The starting point should be that trade is not a goal per se but a means to achieve sustainable development for all Members. In fact, this is the only norm that can reach a consensus among WTO Members. What is more, this norm is included in the introduction of the agreement that choose to create the WTO.

Few days ago, I show some elements that can improve the positive impact of the international trading system on development. I underlined that for developing countries is crucial to:

  • Use the international trading system to increase incomes as well as to specialize in transformed and high value added products.
  • Have the opportunity to use protectionist measures to protect and develop their industry and advanced service sector.
  • Have the opportunity to use regional integration in order to increase the competitiveness of their production.
  • Have enough policy space to innovate in policy and industry is crucial. Only this freedom will allow a country to find its development path by balancing: 1) temporary protection and incentives for some sectors and 2) market opening to increase their competiveness.

On the opposite, for developed countries, trade already contributes to their economic development. However, it can bring some risks in terms of environmental and social damages.

To find a middle ground to achieve a consensus between these two positions seem quite difficult. However, we need to precise the two developed countries issues and their importance. Regarding social issues caused by imports, we should remember that developed countries have enough resources to adjust and solve these problems (notably through a better education of workers). What is more, outsourcing is creating jobs in the North. The problem is to adapt workers’ skills. However, developing countries should respect some basic standards. Regarding environmental issues, the question is more complex. In fact, developing countries should make some efforts, at least to avoid most damageable practices. However, we should not forget the developed countries historical responsibility of pollution. This mean that rich countries should be more commited in solving environemental problems, carry most part of the costs, invest more in clean technologies R&D and contribute to transfer this technology on the South.


In conclusion, in order to improve the problem solving effectiveness of the WTO we need to think trade issues in terms of co-development. The international trading system should contribute to improve sustainable development in both developed and developing countries. To reach these objectives negotiators should remember this hierarchy of objectives in developing countries: economic, social and, finally environmental goals. For this reason, they should introduce the following hierarchical principles at the WTO:

  1. Give back policy space to developing countries. Renounce to constrain all countries to harmonize their policies beacause they are in very different situations that need very different policy tools.
  2. Developed countries policies should not arm developing countries or preclude them to follow a sustainable way of development. For this reason, for example, developed countries should eliminate all their agricultural subsidies.
  3. Developed countries should give more market access (particularly for transformed products) to developing countries. This is the best opportunity for developing countries to improve their economic and social development and lift people out of poverty.
  4. Improve social standards (that take in consideration the differences between developed and developing countries situations).
  5. Launch environmental standards and other measures to solve environmental issues. All countries are constrained to contribute. These measures can harm development priorities of poor countries. Costs are attributed considering a country development level and its historical responsibility in terms of pollution.

This package of measure should be implemented in its integrality and following this hierarchical order. Otherwise, it will harm developing countries fight against poverty or it will simply be impossible to reach a consensus.

All comments are welcomed.


Footnotes
(1) Wilkinson Rorden (2006), Crisis and the Governance of the Global Trade, New York, Routledge.




          Reply #987        
wto go msb . congrats to all the winners today .
          World Trade Organization (WTO)        



World Trade Organization








Organization in 1995. It is one of the smallest organizations to the global age, where the WTO is the successor of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which was established in the wake of World War II.

Thus, despite the fact that the WTO is still the modern multilateral trading system, which was originally developed under the GATT has reached the age of fifty years. Celebrate the golden jubilee system in Geneva in May 19, 1998 the presence of many Heads of State and government leaders.

Twenty years have witnessed exceptional growth in the last world trade. Merchandise exports has increased an average of 6% per year and helped the GATT and the WTO to establish a trading system a strong and prosperous, which have contributed to unprecedented growth.

The system has evolved through a series of trade negotiations, or rounds, held under the banner of the GATT, the first rounds concessions primarily to reduce tariffs. The subsequent negotiations elsewhere, such as anti-dumping procedures, which do not belong to tariffs. Led the last round of the 1986 to 1994 for the establishment of the World Trade Organization.

Negotiations did not end at this point, but some negotiations continued after the end of the Uruguay Round. In February 1997 reached an agreement about the telecommunications services with the approval of the actions of the Government of 69 written and wide-reaching in excess of those agreed upon in Tetum Uruguay Round.

In the same year the Government has completed four successful negotiations on trade without tariffs, especially information technology products, and completed the seven Member States of the special agreement covers the financial services to more than 95% of the trade of banking, insurance, securities and financial information.

Members also agreed at the World Trade Organization ministerial meeting in May 1998 to examine areas of trade arising from the global electronic commerce.

In 2000 new negotiations in agriculture and services.

The WTO is the only global organization competent international laws on trade between nations. The organization's mission is to ensure the basic flow of trade as smooth as possible and ease and freedom.
The desired result of that is security. Consumers and manufacturers are aware of the possibility of supply by ensuring the continued enjoyment of the goods, while ensuring the widest selection of finished products, components and raw materials as well as production services. This ensures all producers and exporters to foreign markets will remain always open to them.
The result of all this is a world where economic prosperity and peace.

Another result is confidence. That consumers and producers know that they can enjoy secure supplies and a wider choice of final products, components and raw materials and services used by them. And to know the producers and exporters to foreign markets will remain open to them.

The result is also the world economy enjoyed a prosperous peace and more official. Are typically the decision-making in the WTO Member States, unanimity to be ratified by the parliaments of the Member States. Be challenged with regard to trade disputes through the dispute settlement mechanism of WTO, where the emphasis is on interpreting agreements and commitments and how to ensure that the trade policies of their countries. In this way, decrease the risk that the differences extend to the political or military conflicts reduced. And the reduction of trade barriers, the WTO system also removes other barriers between individuals and nations.
Decision-making in the WTO is usually a unanimous vote of the Member States and then later approved by the Parliaments of the States. Transformation of any trade dispute to the dispute settlement mechanism in the organization where they are resorting to the conventions and treaties to ensure that the systems and the trade policies of countries in line with them. In this way, the risk of conflict transformation to a political or military conflict is much lower. And to reduce trade barriers in the systems lead the World Trade Organization to reduce barriers between the United States.
That the focus of the system known as the multilateral trading system is the World Trade Organization Agreements, signed by a majority of countries in the world of commerce and approved by their parliaments. The foundations of those conventions and legal norms of international trade is in the basis of contracts to the Member States to ensure that important commercial rights Governments are also required to maintain the continuity of their business within the limits acceptable in the interest of all.
The conventions discussed by Governments and by governments, however, that the purpose of these conventions in the foundation is to help producers of goods and providers of goods and services, exporters and importers to manage their business successfully, which leads to the interest and welfare of the peoples of Member States

Terms of Reference.
The main objective of the World Trade Organization is to assist in the operation and the flow of trade and Bslaslp expected and freely.

The organization does so by:
Management agreements on trade.
Presence of a forum for negotiations on trade.
Resolution of disputes relating to trade.
Review of national policies relating to trade.
Assist developing countries in trade policy issues through technical aid and training programs.
Cooperation with other international organizations.
Structure

The membership of the World Trade Organization more than 140 members representing more than 90% of world trade. The 30 others are negotiating with regard to membership.

Decisions are made by all members, be unanimous. Ratified the WTO agreements by the parliaments of all Member States.

The supreme body of decision-making in the WTO is the Ministerial Conference which is held once every two years at least.

The General Council in the following list (including ambassadors, in general, heads of delegations in Geneva, but sometimes include senders officials from the capitals of Member States), which is held in Adpmrat at Headquarters in Geneva. The General Council meets as a trade policy review body and as the resolution of disputes.

There is the next level in both the goods and services the Council and the Council of Intellectual Property (TRIPS), which reports to the General Council.

Handle many of the specialized committees and working groups and task forces with the conventions, the Convention on the unit and other topics such as environment, development, membership applications and regional trade agreements.

His first ministerial conference in Singapore in 1996 three working groups to this new structure. And specializes in the relationship between trade and investment, interaction between trade and competition policy, transparency in government procurement. At the second ministerial meeting in Geneva in 1998 Ministers decided that the World Trade Organization will examine also the subject of e-commerce, a task which will be divided between the boards and commissions.

Ten advantages of the trade regime of WTO

Allow WTO trading system and many of the advantages and benefits, some known and others are not clear, as the organization seeks to create a more peaceful world through which we have the money and goods and services we use that we enjoy.

World is very complex: this text shows some of the benefits of the multilateral trading system of the World Trade Organization, although the text does not claim that the system is free from defects that were the case, there would be no need for further negotiations and discussions and will be revising the rules for the development and continuous improvement. Nor can the claim that everyone agrees on everything in the World Trade Organization. Perhaps this is one of the main reasons for the existence of a system: it is a forum where the circulation of ideas and differences between countries in matters relating to trade.

This means that there are many reasons why the existence of the rules of the advantage of the presence and absence of the following ten advantages.

Ten advantages of a global trading system
1 - support system and strengthen the peace.
2 - The address conflict constructively.
3 - lead to lay the foundations and rules to make life easier for all.
4 - reduce the most liberal trade regime for life.
5 - expand the trading system more liberal than the range of choices in products and quality.
6 - Free trade increases income.
7 - free trade stimulates economic growth.
8 - makes the rules and the foundations of the trade life more meaningful and useful.
9 - to protect the free trade regime and the governments of the existence of partisan groups.
10 - will help the free trade system of the existence of a strong government



          The Road Ahead for Aquaculture Products in the US Market        

The presence of slavery and forced labor in the seafood industry has been brought out of the shadows in high-profile media reports during the past two years with questions raised about the sale of these products in the US. An arcane provision in Customs law from 1930, known as the consumptive demand exception, allowed products and commodities made with forced or coercive labor practices to be imported when domestic production or supply in the US was insufficient to meet “consumptive demands” of the United States. However, recent changes in the statute have brought an end to this provision.

In addition, some imported seafood, considered high risk, will soon be required to have traceability back to point of harvest. These new regulations will be finalized later this year as the result of a commitment by President Obama and work by the Presidential Task Force to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. For further information on the full list of “at risk” species, the reader is referred to: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2015-10-30/pdf/2015-27780.pdf. The intention of the regulations is to apply to all seafood, but the application of these rules will be phased in with regards to species over time. The first species to be addressed that are produced through aquaculture are abalone and shrimp.

In accordance with the WTO and in order for the US federal government to enact traceability regulations on imports of farm products, domestically produced products in the US also must comply with these new rules.

Some US producers of abalone and shrimp are in direct competition with imported products and as such, many US producers are in favor of greater accountability that would accompany traceability. However, there is a challenge that first needs to be overcome. Because in the US, the states regulate aquaculture, there will need to be an effort to coordinate the information on traceability (primarily volumes sold and to whom) between state and federal agencies. This state-federal relationship has been offered as a reason to slow or postpone the application of the new regulations to abalone and shrimp. The US produces approximately 350 metric tons (mt) of farmed abalone and 1,700 mt of farmed shrimp. The imports of abalone and shrimp to the US in 2015 are approximately 780 mt and 580,000 mt, respectively, according to the USDA Foreign Agriculture Service.

In the US, many producers are concerned with “over-regulation” of the private sector. However, it appears that there may be an advantage to not only domestic aquaculture producers, but also to consumers that desire the point of harvest of the products they consume. In discussing many of the issues around these new regulations with NOAA, state agencies and US aquaculture producers, it does not appear to be an overly burdensome regulation. There is an effort to align the traceability requirements with that information which is already provided to state agencies.

Why would WWF care about these new regulations? The simple answer is accountability. There are high performing aquaculture producers all over the world. There are also poor performers as well. The effort to reward the best performers is hampered by the inability to discern who has produced a particular product. While many consider retail outlets as having great visibility on the origin of their food products, for aquaculture, this is seldom the case.

In reference to the recent confirmation of forced and bonded labor in the seafood industry, it is unfortunate that horrific revelations tend to be the reason for action. It would be easy and likely expected for the NGOs to get on their bully pulpits and “preach” to this issue. However, the Monday morning quarterbacking gets quite old by Thursday so it may be that NGOs and their corporate partners in the seafood world need to reflect on how they measure progress and track success. Further, maybe the glamour of “commitments to sustainability” are not as important as actually meeting commitments. So in retrospect, it appears that more doing and less talking is necessary.

As we have determined, whether it be a human rights group or an environmental conservation organization, traceability is a fundamental requirement for accountability. It is “agnostic” when it comes to environmental protection or social justice. I believe that we need to be united around traceability. In my mind it is the notion of standing behind a product that one produces and if you don’t want to take responsibility for the product that you produce, then maybe it is not appropriate for others to ingest that product.

In the aftermath of these recent revelations, many in the seafood world are taking things into their own hands. Appalled by trade associations that have claimed to never have seen this coming, the buyers are coming together to verify their own supply chains. It is time for the US aquaculture industry to play its part in fostering greater accountability for US imports. The typical, knee jerk anti-regulation reaction likely needs to be subdued such that one can see the forest for the trees in this case. I am confident that there is no desire to be over-burdensome to the US aquaculture industry, and reflection upon these new regulations may be viewed as pre-competitive rules to play the game.

Editor's Note:

With nearly 90% of the world’s fisheries harvested at or even beyond their biological limits, the ocean is scarcely able to yield more fish to feed a growing population. Aquaculture—the farming of aquatic species from salmon to seaweed—can help meet the planet’s rising demand for protein, but not without impacts on the environment. Originally published in Aquaculture Magazine, this article is one in a series by WWF’s Aaron McNevin, Ph.D., examining those impacts and how improved environmental performance can bear positive economic results for farmers.


          Major update for spamdyke on Gentoo howto        
I recently migrated my server to a new maschine and a new provider. After supporting Kore today with installing spamdyke on his maschine, too, I seized the chance to update my Spam Filtering with Spamdyke in front of Qmail howto on the wiki. The howto describes how to install the most recent version of spamdyke on a Gentoo system, explains the most important configuration options and gives some practical hints for such setups. You can ask Kore, it only takes about 10 minutes to do so ;) and saves you a huge lot of spam. Comments and addtions are very welcome.
          Duoslim Garcinia        
Duoslim Garcinia In case your telephone includes a camera, it is simple to file an individual show them, presents workshops, offers phase-by-step guide on your desktop screen, and bring or howto things. You can also utilize software like Jing or Camtasia to report video on-screen. They are ideal to show people and demonstrate to them what to do on the Computer.
          Tobias Schlitt - a passion for php at Thu, 28 Feb 2008 20:31:56 +0100        
I recently migrated my server to a new maschine and a new provider. After supporting Kore today with installing spamdyke on his maschine, too, I seized the chance to update my Spam Filtering with Spamdyke in front of Qmail howto on the wiki. The howto des
          The Theological Iron Curtain        
Essay Types
Essay
Joseph Lieberman

TWO YEARS after the fateful attacks of September 11, the United States remains locked in an epic struggle with a new nemesis--international terrorism. Like fascism and communism before it, terrorism poses a direct threat to our interests and values, and fundamentally challenges the international order on which our security, liberty and prosperity depend. Eliminating this threat must be one of the highest priorities of U.S. foreign policy.

Winning this war requires that the United States maintain its military dominance and forcefully apply it to deter and defeat tyrants and terrorists alike. Destroying the Taliban in Afghanistan and removing Saddam Hussein's brutal regime in Iraq--both of which were incubators of hateful violence--were critical to our global counter-terrorism campaign. These wars were just, and our military victories in each have made the United States and the world safer by depriving terrorists of safe havens, funding and support.

The war against terrorism will not be won by military means alone, however. The September 11 attacks epitomized the larger, more amorphous threat we face from fanatics who find justification for evil behavior in Islam. These militants are not only targeting the United States and our allies, but are also engaged in a great civil war with the vast majority of their fellow Muslims who do not share their beliefs or behaviors. It is a war of ideas as much as it is a war of arms. And as such, we cannot rely just on the use of force to protect ourselves.

The Islamic world is beset by political, economic and cultural trends that have limited freedom and increased isolation, repression and anti-American anger over the last generation. These include vast income inequalities, economic and political isolation, cultural balkanization and little or no popular participation in government through which to constructively channel and resolve this strife. Islamic terrorism grew in this swamp--not in a vacuum.

Yet, there are extensive traditions of tolerant and moderate Islam, ones that can support and engender political and economic reform. These types of Islam, practiced by the vast majority of people in the Muslim world, are targeted by the radicals. The moderate majority--which understands that there is great promise for progress for nations that undergo internal modernization and seek to engage with the rest of the world--is under assault by the ethnocentric, extremist few who blame external powers for all their ills. And they see jihad--the virtueless cycle of violence, repression and revenge--as the only answer.

Half a century ago, ideological extremists drew a political iron curtain across Europe. Today, the fanatical forces of jihad are trying to build a "theological iron curtain" to divide the Muslim world from the rest of the globe--a Berlin Wall built with bricks made from the frustrations and anger that arise from conditions of poverty and tyranny, and cemented by the mortar of hatred and violence.

It is still not too late to stop this theological iron curtain from falling. But the more we wait, the more we risk. The United States must act now--proactively, aggressively and in cooperation with our allies--to help moderate Muslims throughout the world who are being besieged by isolation and intolerance. For if the curtain should someday fall, it would be a grave danger to our own security and could bring awful repression to the hundreds of millions of Muslims trapped behind it. In Taliban-controlled Afghanistan, we had a glimpse of the horrors fanatics can perpetrate against the populations under their control--as well as the destruction that could be wrought by terrorists living under their protection.

American actions since September 11 showed that we can have a powerful impact. During a bipartisan Senate delegation trip to Central Asia in the wake of our victory in Afghanistan two years ago, I saw heartening evidence of the secondary effects of America's resolve, with regional leaders taking a clearer and stronger stand for moderation and modernity than they had before September 11. We have empowered them to give voice to their moderate message and to provide leadership to fight the forces of fanaticism.

The Bush Administration, however, has too often failed to capitalize on our progress. In a pattern emerging in post war Afghanistan, Iraq and elsewhere, the United States takes forceful action to drain the swamps that breed terrorism, but fails to adequately seed the garden to enable peace, prosperity and democracy to take root and to prevent terrorism from returning. Moderates are competing with extremists for control in the vacuum our military victories leave, with precious little support from the United States and its allies. Should the forces of fanaticism prevail in these postwar struggles, the theological iron curtain will undoubtedly descend, and behind it, terrorism will fester.

Reorienting, Diplomacy Around Human Rights

OUR STRATEGY to stop the theological iron curtain from falling should begin with a fundamental reassessment of our diplomatic relations with many Muslim nations. We should start with a clear and correct understanding of the diversity and breadth of the world's population of 1.2 billion Muslims. Less than a fifth of the world's Muslims are Arabs. Many Muslims live under democratic governments in countries like India, Indonesia and Turkey, and also across Western Europe and the United States. Islam, one of the world's great religions, is a powerful and positive presence all throughout the globe.

But it is also true that too many people in Islamic countries are struggling to thrive against difficult odds. According to a recent Freedom House survey, 38 of the 47 Muslim-majority countries in the world are not democracies; 19 percent of countries in the Islamic world have democratically-elected governments, compared to 77 percent in the non-Islamic world. And over the last twenty years, the nations of the Islamic world have grown increasingly less free, experiencing a "significant increase in repressive regimes" as the world at large moved dramatically in the opposite direction.

Where has American policy been? For too long, our government has looked the other way while many regimes in Muslim nations have denied their citizens human rights and economic opportunity. Our alliances with and aid to some of these regimes naturally make us targets of citizens of those countries. The American people know the United States has a proud record, in the last decade alone, of protecting Muslim people around the world from oppression--in Kuwait, Somalia, Bosnia, Kosovo and now Afghanistan and Iraq. We have an equally proud tradition of creating and nurturing freedom of religion here at home--enabling Islam to flourish within our own borders. But many in the Muslim world are blinded to these realities by our close alignment with regimes whose behavior is inconsistent with the American values we otherwise work so hard to uphold and defend. The United States should steer a new course--one closer to American values and closer to the values that grow from our common humanity.

We can and must demonstrate to ordinary people throughout the Islamic world that the United States will take risks to support their freedom, aspirations and quality of life. We must make those values a premise of our alliances and a condition of our aid. The inalienable, God-given rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness do not end at America's borders. That means, among other things, that the United States must be a vocal proponent of women's rights throughout the Muslim world. For years, the United States has muted its support for the rights of women for fear of upsetting its relationship with existing regimes. It is time to become a more outspoken advocate for the right of women to be educated, to live freely and to rise as far as their talents and hard work will take them, as they do in many Muslim countries today such as Turkey. A nation's economic productivity and quality of life can only increase when women, who comprise at least half of the human talent and skill in any economy, are more fully integrated into society.

Stagnating economies and stifling poverty also feed the fanaticism that has begun to emerge in many Muslim countries. Some there blame globalization for their woes, and a handful of American commentators have supported that thesis. In reality, the economic problem of the Muslim world is not that there is too much globalization, but that there is too little. Since 1980, as the population of the Muslim Near East (the Arab League plus Iran) has doubled, its share of world investment has fallen by half and its share of world trade by two-thirds. That means a smaller and smaller economic pie is being shared by more and more people.

How has that happened? While in recent decades, the world has torn down old economic barriers, many Muslim countries have fortified them. Most Middle Eastern countries maintain trade practices that are among the most burdensome in the world. Egypt, for example, imposes high tariffs and other barriers on imports of clothing. Syria bans imports of processed foods, puts a 250 percent tariff on cars and requires a license for all imports.

While other parts of the world have adopted mutually beneficial regional trade programs such as NAFTA, Mercosur and the ASEAN Free Trade Area, Middle Eastern nations have increased trade restrictions and sanctions on one another and the rest of the world. Half of the Arab League's 22 members (and Iran as well) remain outside the World Trade Organization (WTO). Thus, Middle Eastern export priorities receive little consideration in global trade negotiations. The net result is growing economic misery for growing numbers of people.

It does not need to be that way. Since 1999, Jordan has sharply cut tariffs and other trade barriers, launched an economic integration project with Israel and completed a full free trade agreement with the United States. The results are impressive. In the past two years alone, Jordan's exports to the United States have risen tenfold, and more than 25,000 jobs have been created in a country with a population of 5.5 million. Moreover, American workers have also benefited from these new economic opportunities.

Other governments in the Muslim world need to follow Jordan's lead. We in the United States can help them do that by inviting them back to the global economic table. We should encourage Muslim nations to embrace more open economies so that they can join the WTO. That would both spur further reform of their trade policies and help them succeed in export industries.

Just as the Clinton Administration helped Jordan, Oman and Bahrain enter the WTO, the Bush Administration should follow through with some of the larger economies in the Muslim world. Saudi Arabia, for example, applied to join the WTO in 1993, and we should actively support that effort in concert with Saudi Arabian economic reforms.

In Congress, we can help by adopting additional trade preference programs, including duty-free treatment and freedom from quotas for certain goods, for countries that prove themselves to be good global citizens. We passed a trade preference law for the countries of Africa in 2000, and it is working to help that part of the developing world control its own economic destiny.

Just as vital to the future as a freer flow of goods and services is a freer flow of information. In the Cold War, we understood that opening markets and opening minds go hand in hand. We have to understand that now as well.

Regrettably, in many Muslim-majority countries, governments allow their citizens minimal access to news and information from outside and filter what news is made available. Official state-controlled media outlets are often brimming with inflammatory anti-American rhetoric, as we have seen in Iran and elsewhere. The result, not surprisingly, is a distorted understanding of the world--especially of the United States--and too many people willing to embrace anti-American conspiracy theories.

The United States must fill this information gap by intensifying its own message and also by cultivating responsible independent media in Muslim countries so that people can have the opportunity to absorb a more balanced view of world events. We must also make clear to our many allies in the Muslim world that we will no longer close our eyes and ears to the anti-American propaganda in state-run media and state-sponsored mosques and madrassas. A new commitment to foster responsible, independent communication is needed.

Yet, since the end of the Cold War, we have sold short many critical tools of public diplomacy. The United States Information Agency was eliminated, and State Department posts around the world have reduced the general public's walk-in access and closed the lending libraries that once stood open to all visitors. The United States Foreign Service, which represents the most significant official American presence overseas, has also been underfunded. We need to think and work long and hard about how to better convey our values not only to opinion leaders and elites, but to the people at large in the public square.

Young people tend to be the first to open their minds to new ideas and perspectives. That is why foreign exchange programs that bring students from the Muslim world to the United States to work, study or live must not become another victim of September 11. Student exchanges are critical in opening the world to American strengths and values, and in opening Americans to the strengths and values of other countries and cultures. We need to strike the proper balance between ensuring U.S. security and keeping the door open for education--for there has been a marked decrease in the number of Arabs and South Asians coming to America for education since the new Immigration and Naturalization Service regulations went into force.

Money is the last part of the equation, and an important one. Helping Afghanistan rebuild itself will require substantial foreign aid and investment. We will have support from our coalition partners throughout Europe, Asia and the rest of the world--in fact, they will contribute more than 75 percent of the reconstruction costs. Ultimately, the future of Afghanistan will be up to the Afghan people themselves, but the United States must play a central role to provide security, leadership and targeted assistance to facilitate the transition process. The United States and our allies must work together to get this right, because the fate of the people of Afghanistan will be the first test of American involvement in the civil war of beliefs and behaviors that is now being waged in the Muslim world.

We already provide hundreds of millions of dollars per year to nations throughout the Muslim world, not to mention having taken on the responsibility of reconstructing post-Saddam Iraq. In each case, we now have to evaluate very carefully whether the people--the intended beneficiaries of our assistance--are benefiting from such aid. Are attitudes toward America improving? It is time to take a hard look at how we spend this money and where we might want to make new strategic investments and cut out old, failing ones. This may mean re-targeting funds away from large-scale, government-run projects toward better public education systems, stronger public health infrastructures, more independent media outlets controlled by citizens and not the state, and reinforcement of the basic civic values of tolerance, equality and opportunity throughout these societies.

THE DUTY to "commend good and reprimand evil" is one of the core obligations of Islam, one that is echoed in the other two monotheistic faiths of Judaism and Christianity. It should also be at the core of our relations with the Islamic world. Since September 11, the United States has been working hard to reprimand evil with a fierce and focused military campaign that seeks to root out terrorist sanctuaries and end the threat posed by rogue regimes seeking weapons of mass destruction.

Over the long term, however, the fight for American security will require a parallel campaign to commend good by supporting freedom, tolerance, democracy and prosperity throughout the Muslim world. That is the best way to prevent a theological iron curtain from descending upon the Islamic world, suffocating the lives of millions of Muslims behind it and providing a base for terrorist attacks against us. The historian Edward Gibbon wrote that, "The greatest success of Mohammed's life was effected by sheer moral force without the stroke of a sword." So too will the greatest success of this long and noble struggle against terrorism by the United States, its partners and our Islamic allies be brought about by moral force--that is, the consistent application of our shared values. Together we will rise to meet that challenge and to seize that opportunity.

The Honorable Joseph Lieberman is a member of the United States Senate from Connecticut and a candidate for the nomination of the Democratic Party for President.

Topics
Society
Tags
CounterterrorismJihadMusliminsurgencyIslamismWar in AfghanistanYugoslaviaIslamSerbs
Issue:
Fall 2003
Regions
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          Rusia tras un mundo multi-polar        


El 25 de septiembre pasado el Presidente ruso, Vladimir Putin tomo parte en la sesion plenaria de la Asamblea general numero 70 de las Naciones Unidas, en Nueva York. Su intervencion fue la primera tras 10 an-os, luego de haber tomado parte en las sesiones de 2000, 2003 y 2005.

Si bien en sus palabras no menciono directamente a los Estados Unidos su intervencion fue una critica contra lo que considera los intentos de ese pais por adquirir una posicion hegemonica en el mundo desde la perspectiva de un mundo unipolar, donde los Estados Unidos gobernarian en el mundo entero sin contrapeso. Frente a esa postura, que Putin considera como propia de la logica de la Guerra Fria, plantea la existencia de un mundo multi-polar, en el cual defiende el rol de la ONU como parte de una instancia multilateral necesaria en un mundo donde los centros de poder son diversos.

"-Estimado Sr. Presidente. Estimado Sr. Secretario General. Estimados Jefes de gobierno y de Estado. Sen-oras y sen-ores.

El aniversario numero 70 de la Organizacion de las Naciones Unidas es un instancia adecuada para rememorar la historia y hablar sobre nuestro futuro comun. En 1945 los paises que habian sido devastados por el nazismo unieron fuerzas para establecer solidas bases para el mundo de la post-guerra.

La Conferencia de Yalta fue un encuentro multilateral entre los Estados Unidos, Inglaterra y la URSS que se realizo entre el 4-11 de febrero de 1945 para definir el orden mundial de la post-guerra. Se realizo en la ciudad de Yalta, en Crimea, territorio sovietico.

Les recuerdo que las decisiones claves sobre los principios de las relaciones entre Estados, las decisiones sobre la creacion de la ONU se tomaron en nuestro pais en el encuentro de Yalta de los lideres de la coalicion contra Hitler. El sistema de Yalta tuvo que hacerse cargo de muchos sufrimientos, vinculados con la muerte de decenas de millones de personas, con 2 guerras mundiales que se hicieron presente en el planeta en el siglo XX y, seamos objetivos, ayudo a la Humanidad a sobrevivir a traves de los hechos tormentosos, a veces dramaticos, de los ultimos 7 decenios, y protegio al mundo de grandes estremecimientos.

Emblema de la ONU

La ONU es un estructura que no tiene igual en legitimidad, representatividad y universalidad a pesar de que en el ultimo tiempo se han lanzado no pocas criticas en su contra porque, aparentemente, seria poco efectiva y por que habria contradicciones insuperables, en especial en el seno del Consejo de Seguridad, para resolver cuestiones de principios.

Sin embargo, quiero destacar que en el curso de los 70 an-os de existencia de la Organizacion siempre han existido esos desacuerdos en su interior y el derecho de veto* se ha aplicado siempre: Se utilizo por los Estados Unidos, el Reino Unido, Francia, China, la URSS y mas tarde por Rusia. Esto es absolutamente natural para una organizacion tan multifacetica y representativa. Al fundarse la ONU no se asumio que se impondria la comunidad de ideas pues el sentido de la organizacion consiste, precisamente, en la busqueda y la elaboracion de compromisos y su fuerza se sostiene en la consideracion de diversas opiniones y puntos de vista.
*Derecho propio de los 5 miembros permanentes del Consejo de Seguridad de la ONU: China, Estados Unidos, Francia, Inglaterra, Rusia y que permite bloquear cualquier resolucion de la Organizacion.

Las decisiones discutidas en la ONU se acuerdan en la forma de resoluciones o no se acuerdan. Como dicen los diplomaticos: Pasan o no pasan. Y cualquier accion de algun Estado al margen de este acuerdo resulta ilegitima y contradice los estatutos de la ONU y el derecho internacional contemporaneo.

Todos nosotros sabemos que despues del fin de la Guerra Fria surgio en el mundo un unico centro de dominacion. Y entonces, entre aquellos que resultaron en la cumbre de esta piramide surgio la tentacion de pensar que si eran tan fuertes y exclusivos entonces sabian mejor que nadie lo que debia hacerse por que, en conscuencia, no era ya necesario contar tampoco con la ONU que, a menudo, en vez de sancionar automaticamente y legitimar una decision necesaria solo causa molestias, se enreda entre las piernas, como decimos en Rusia. Hubo conversaciones en las que se asumia que la ONU era ya anacronica pues ya habia cumplido su mision historica.

Por supuesto, que el mundo cambia y la ONU debe adaptarse a esta transformacion natural. Rusia, si se cuenta con el apoyo de un amplio consenso, esta preparada para este trabajo, para el desarrollo posterior de la ONU con todos sus socios.

Consideramos que los intentos por quebrantar la autoridad y la legitimidad de la ONU son extremadamente peligrosos y pueden llevar a la destruccion de toda la arquitectura de las relaciones internacionales. Entonces nos quedaremos, realmente, sin otra regla mas que el derecho del mas fuerte. En un mundo asi, en vez del trabajo colectivo va a imperar el egoismo, todo sera mas bien una imposicion y habra menos igualdad de derechos, menos democracia real, libertad y paz y en vez de gobiernos verdaderamente independientes se multiplicaran los protectorados de-facto, dirigidos desde fuera de sus fronteras.

Y que es la soberania de los Estados sobre la cual hablaron aqui nuestros colegas? Es ante todo una cuestion de libertad, de libertad de eleccion del propio destino por cada persona, cada pueblo y cada Estado.

A proposito, respetables colegas, en este mismo contexto cabe la pregunta sobre la llamada legitimidad de la autoridad de gobierno. No se puede jugar a manipular las palabras. En el derecho internacional, en los asuntos internacionales cada termino debe resultar comprensible, transparente, debe poseer una comprension unica y un criterio de comprension comun. Somos todos distintos y esto hay que considerarlo con respeto. Nadie esta obligado a adaptarse a un unico modelo de desarrollo, reconocido por alguien de una vez y para siempre como lo unico correcto.

No debemos olvidar la experiencia del pasado. Nosotros, por ejemplo, recordamos tambien los ejemplos de la historia de la Union Sovietica. La exportacion de experimentos sociales, los intentos de presionar cambios en diversos paises sin consideracion de sus condiciones ideologicas, a menudo trajo consecuencias tragicas, que no llevaron al progreso sino a la degradacion pero, al parecer, nadie aprende de los errores de otros sino que solo los repite pues vemos ahora una continua exportacion de las llamadas "revoluciones democraticas".

Basta con observar la situacion en el Medio Oriente y en el Norte de Africa, sobre lo cual hablo quien me precedio en este estrado. Por supuesto, los problemas politicos y sociales en esta region se gestaron hace mucho tiempo y la gente alli, por supuesto, que queria cambios pero que resulto? La intervencion exterior agresiva llevo a que, en vez de reformas de gobierno, las instituciones y el mismo regimen de vida fueran simplemente arrasados. En vez del triunfo de la democracia y del progreso hubo violencia, pobreza, marasmo social y los derechos humanos, incluyendo el mismo derecho a la vida, quedaron sin respaldo alguno.

Por eso quisiera preguntar a quienes crearon esa situacion: "Entienden ustedes ahora lo que han hecho?". Pero temo que la respuesta quede pendiente porque no se descarto valerse de una mirada fundada en la autosuficiencia y la impunidad.

Resulta evidente que el vacio de poder que surgio en un sinnumero de paises del Medio Oriente y del Norte de Africa llevo a la formacion de una zona de anarquia que rapidamente comenzo a ser cubierta por extremistas y terroristas.

Hoy bajo los estandartes del llamado "Estado Islamico"* estan luchando ya decenas de miles de milicianos. Entre sus filas hay ex militares iraquies, que como resultado de la invasion de Irak, fueron lanzados a la calle en 2003.
*Territorio de-facto al interior de suelo iraki y sirio bajo control de esta agrupacion terrorista y que cuenta con agrupaciones armadas leales repartidas en otros paises musulmanes. Se conformo en 2006, en Irak a partir de diversas agrupaciones terroristas bajo el control de Al-Qaeda.


En rojo los territorios efectivamente bajo control del Estado Islamico a fines de 2014. En beige los territorios que la misma agrupacion terrorista declaraba como parte de sus dominios.

Y contamos tambien con Libia como proveedor de reclutas, nacion cuya gobernabilidad fue destruida como resultado de una grosera violacion de la Resolucion numero 1973* del Consejo de seguridad de la ONU. Y ahora, agrupaciones de radicales forman parte tambien de la llamada opisicion siria moderada, la que recibe el apoyo de Occidente, que en un principio arma a grupos de milicianos, los entrena para que luego estos terminan pasandose al lado del llamado Estado Islamico, el que tampoco, a proposito, surgio en un espacio vacio. En un principio tambien les dieron forma y los cobijaron valiendose de ellos como un instrumento contra regimenes laicos indeseados. Hoy, sin embargo, el Estado Islamico, ha creado un campo de operaciones en Siria y en Irak y se va expandiendo de modo activo hacia otras regiones planeando no solo dominar al mundo islamico. El estado de las cosas es mas que peligroso.
*Resolucion del 17 de marzo de 2011 que permitio la intervencion militar de naciones extranjeras en la Guerra civil en Libia con el objetivo de defender a los ciudadanos pacificos, para lo cual se permitia la permanencia de fuerzas de ocupacion en el pais. La resolucion fue aceptada favorablemente por 10 paises y recibio 5 abstenciones. De acuerdo a Rusia, la accion fue utilizada no en defensa de la poblacion civil sino que para atacar a las fuerzas de gobierno de modo de destituir al Presidente Kaddafi, violando la resolucion de las Naciones Unidas. Kaddafi seria asesinado el 20 de octubre de 2011.

En una situacion asi resulta hipocrita e irresponsable realizar declaraciones grandilocuentes sobre la amenaza del terrorismo internacional al tiempo que se cierran los ojos frente a los canales de financiamiento y de apoyo de los terroristas, que incluyen el negocio de las drogas, el comercio clandestino de petroleo y de armas, como tambien lo es intentar manipular agrupaciones extremistas, para ponerlas al servicio de propositos politicos personales en la esperanza de que luego, de alguna forma, la situacion se pueda resolver es decir, hablando sin rodeos, liquidando esas agrupaciones.

A aquel que realmente actua y piensa de ese modo quisiera decirle: Respetable sen-or, usted mantiene vinculos con personas muy crueles pero que de ningun modo son tontos o primitivos. Ellos no son menos tontos que ustedes y no resulta muy comprensible quien usa a quien? Los ultimos datos sobre la entrega de armamento por parte de esta supuesta oposicion moderada a los terroristas son la mejor confirmacion de esto.

Consideramos cualquier intento de involucrarse con los terroristas, especialmente si se los arma, no solo miope sino que capaz de provocar un incendio.

Como resultado de la amenaza terrorista global esta puede acrecentarse de hacerse con nuevas regiones del planeta especialmente si consideramos que en los campos del Estados Islamico se ponen a punto milicianos de muchos paises, incluidos paises europeos.

Lamentablemente, estimados colegas, se debe hablar sobre esto directamente, y Rusia no constituye aqui una excepcion. No se puede permitir que estos rufianes, que ya sintieron el olor de la sangre luego regresen a sus casas y continuen alli sus oscuros asuntos. Nosotros no queremos esto. Y nadie realmente lo desea, no es verdad? Rusia siempre ha intervenido duramente y de modo consecuente contra el terrorismo en todas sus formas.

Hoy prestamos ayuda tecnico-militar tanto a Irak como a Siria y tambien a otros paises de la region que llevan a cabo una lucha contra agrupaciones terroristas. Consideramos un error de proporciones rechazar colaborar con las autoridades sirias, con el ejercito del gobierno, con aquellos que, valientemente, cara a cara, se enfrentan con el terror. Hay que finalmente reconocer que ademas de las fuerzas gubernamentales del Presidente Asad y de las unidades militares kurdas realmente nadie mas esta luchando en Siria contra el Estado Islamico y contra otras agrupaciones terroristas.

Conocemos los problemas de la region, todas sus contradicciones pero debemos, de todos modos,
partir de la realidad.

Respetables colegas, es imprescindible destacar que en el ultimo tiempo nuestro enfoque honesto y directo se utiliza como pretexto para culpar a Rusia de ambiciones crecientes como si aquellos que lo afirmaran no carecieran por completo de ambiciones. Pero el asunto no son las ambiciones de Rusia, respetables colegas, sino que resulta imposible tolerar el estado actual de las cosas en el mundo.

Lo que proponemos es regirnos no por ambiciones sino que por valores comunes y por intereses en comun a base del derecho internacional, uniendo fuerzas para la resolucion de los nuevos problemas que se nos presenten para crear una verdadera y amplia coalicion antiterrorista internacional como lo logro la coalicion contra Hitler, que fue capaz de unir en sus filas a las fuerzas mas diversas, pues estaban dispuestas de modo decidido a contrarrestar a aquellos que, como entonces los nazis, siembran el mal y el odio entre los seres humanos.

Y, por supuesto, los participantes claves de ese tipo de coalicion deben ser los paises musulmanes pues el Estado Islamico no solo significa una amenaza directa a ellos sino que ademas, con sus sangrientos delitos, profana una gran religion del mundo, como es el Islam. Los ideologos de los terroristas se burlan del Islam y deforman sus verdaderos valores humanos.

Quisiera por eso dirigirme a los lideres espirituales del Islam y decirles que hoy es muy importante tanto vuestra autoridad como vuestros sermones. Es necesario apartar a las personas de aquellos que intentar reclutar milicianos, hay que alejarlos de acciones no meditadas y a aquel que resulto engan-ado y en virtud de las circunstancias ya forma parte de las filas de los terroristas hay que ayudarlo a reencontrar el camino hacia una vida normal, dejando las armas para detener esta guerra fraticida.

En los proximos dias, Rusia, en su rol de Presidente del Consejo de seguridad, convocara a un encuentro ministerial para un analisis multifactorial de las amenazas en el Medio Oriente. Ante todo, ofrecemos analizar la posibilidad de acordar una resolucion para coordinar las acciones de todas las fuerzas que se oponen tanto al Estado Islamico como a otras agrupaciones terroristas. Reitero, que una coordinacion de ese nivel debe basarse en los principios de los estatutos de la ONU*.
*Firmados el 26 de junio de 1945 y que entraron en vigor el 24 de octubre del mismo an-o. Para los rusos el punto mas relevante es que no se considera la aplicacion de una accion de fuerza sobre un territorio sin el acuerdo del Consejo de Seguridad de la Organizacion, es decir, no es legitimo concretar una accion militar si existe veto de alguno de sus paises miembros.

Consideramos que la comunidad internacional podra elaborar una estrategia integral de estabilizacion politica y de recuperacion social y economica del Medio Oriente. Entonces, estimados amigos, ya no sera necesario construir campos para refugiados. El flujo de personas, necesitados de abandonar su tierra natal literalmente inundo, primero, los paises vecinos y, despues, tambien Europa. Aqui la cuenta habla de cientos de miles pero podriamos llegar a millones de personas. Esta nueva, inmensa y triste reubicacion de pueblos es, en esencia, una compleja leccion para todos nosotros, incluida Europa.

Quisiera subrayar que los refugiados, sin duda, requieren de conmiseracion y apoyo. Sin embargo, este problema se puede resolver desde la raiz solo por medio del restablecimiento de la gobernabilidad alli donde fue destruida, mediante el fortalecimiento de instituciones publicas donde se conservaron o se estan reconstituyendo por medio de una ayuda en todo sentido: Militar, economica y material a los paises que cayeron en situaciones complejas y tambien, por supuesto, a las personas que a pesar de todo el dolor que vivieron no abandonaron su patria.

Sin duda que cualquier ayuda a Estados soberanos puede y debe imponerse y ofrecerse exclusivamente en correspondencia con los estatutos de la ONU. Todo lo que se haga y se vaya a hacer en esta esfera, respetando las normas del derecho internacional, debe ser respaldado por nuestra Organizacion y todo lo que la contradiga, debe ser retirado.

Ante todo, considero extremadamente importante ayudar a restablecer la estructura de gobierno en Libia, apoyar al nuevo gobierno en Iran y ofrecer ayuda multilateral al gobierno legitimo de Siria.

Respetables colegas, una tarea clave de la comunidad internacional encabezada por la ONU es el mantenimiento de la paz y de la estabilidad global y regional. Desde nuestra perspectiva, debemos enfocarnos en la formacion de un espacio de seguridad, indivisible e igualitario, de seguridad no para algunos sino para todos. Se trata de un trabajo extenso, complejo pero no tenemos otra opcion.

Lamentablemente, el pensamiento fundado en bloques de tiempos de la Guerra Fria y la aspiracion a la colonizacion de nuevos espacios geopoliticos de algunos de nuestros colegas es aun predominante. Desde un principio se mantuvo la idea de extender la OTAN pero en pos de que si el Bloque de Varsovia* habia dejado de existir y la Union Sovietica se habia disuelto? Pero la OTAN no solo siguio vigente sino que ha seguido extendiendose en conjunto con su infraestructura militar.
*El Pacto de Varsovia se creo en mayo de 1955 como una alianza militar de los paises de la orbita sovietica, encabezada justamente por la URSS. Se disolvio oficialmente el 1° de julio de 1991.

Luego pusieron a los paises post-sovieticos delante de una alternativa irreal de escoger estar del lado de Occidente o del Este?  Tarde o temprano esa logica confrontacional debia ser objeto de una seria crisis geopolitica y eso fue lo que sucedio en Ucrania, donde se valieron de la insatisfaccion de una parte significativa parte de la poblacion frente a las autoridades y provocaron desde fuera una revolucion armada. Como resultado, estallo una Guerra Civil.

Estamos convencidos de que detener el derramamiento de sangre, encontrar una salida del callejon sin salida se puede lograr solo en pleno acuerdo con los Acuerdos de Minsk, del 12 de febrero del presente an-o. No se conseguira la integridad de Ucrania por medio de amenazas o la fuerza de las armas. Y eso debe hacerse. Es necesario una real consideracion de los intereses y derechos de las personas en Donbass, de respeto de su capacidad de eleccion para que, de acuerdo con ellos, como se establecio en los Acuerdos de Minsk se establezcan los elementos claves de la organizacion politica del Estado. En esto radica la garantia de que Ucrania se va a desenvolver como un Estado desarrollado y que se constituira en el lazo mas importante para la construccion de un espacio comun de seguridad y de colaboracion economica tanto de Europa como de Asia.

Los Presidentes de Bielorrusia (Aleksandr Lukashenko), Rusia (Vladimir Putin), Alemania (Angela Merkel), Francia (Francois Hollande) y Ucrania (Petro Poroshenko) reunidos para el II Acuerdo de Minsk, los dias 11-12 de febrero de 2015 para la regulacion de la situacion en el este de Ucrania. A la reunion asistieron, ademas, representantes de las regiones separatistas de Lugansk y Donetsk, del este de Ucrania junto con otros altos funcionarios. 

Sen-oras y Sen-ores, no es casual que les hable ahora sobre un espacio comun de colaboracion economica. No hasta muy poco tiempo atras parecia que en la economia, donde rigen reglas objetivas de mercado, ibamos a actuar fundados en normas transparentes, bajo reglas elaboradas en conjunto, incluyendo los principios de la WTO* que asumen la libertad comercial, de las inversiones y la libre competencia. Sin embargo, hoy en dia por poco no se han vuelto una norma las sanciones unilaterales a espaldas de los estatutos de la ONU que no solo persiguen intereses politicos sino que tambien servir como medio para eliminar a competidores del mercado.
*Organizacion economica mundial.

Destaco aun otro sintoma del creciente egoismo economico. Una serie de paises ingresaron al camino de alianza economicas cerradas y excluyentes, siendo de notar que las conversaciones sobre su creacion se producen tras bastidores, a espaldas de sus propios ciudadanos, de sus propios circulos empresariales, de la sociedad y de otros paises. Otros Estados, cuyos intereses podrian verse afectados, tampoco son de modo alguno informados. Probablemente, nos quieren poner a todos frente al hecho de que las reglas del juego han sido reescritas y, de nuevo, en favor de un estrecho circulo de elegidos, a proposito, sin participacion de la WTO. Esto implica un desequilibrio total del sistema comercial, el fraccionamiento del espacio economico global.

La Organizacion Mundial de Comercio fue fundada el 1 de enero de 1995 para buscar liberalizar el comercio mundial y regular las relaciones comerciales entre sus paises miembros. Rusia pertenece a la OMC desde 2012. 
A partir de la llamada Ronda de Doha (capital de Qatar), que se llevo a cabo en 2001 no se ha podido llegar a un acuerdo cabal para liberalizar el comercio agricola por las medidas de proteccion que los paises establecen sobre su agricultura local.

Los problemas mencionados tocan los intereses de todos los Estados, influyen en las perspectivas de toda la economia mundial. Por lo tanto, proponemos juzgarlos en el contexto de la ONU, de la WTO y del Grupo de los 20. En oposicion a la politica de exclusividad, Rusia propone la armonizacion de los proyectos economicos regionales, de la llamada integracion de las integraciones, fundada en principios transparentes y universales del comercio internacional. En calidad de ejemplo expondre nuestros planes para yuxtaponer la Union economica euro-asiatica* con la iniciativa china para crear el llamado Cinturon economico del Camino de la seda. Y, como antes, vemos grandes perspectivas en la armonizacion de los procesos de integracion en el contexto de la Union economica euro-asiatica y la Union Europea.
*Alianza politica y economica que establecio una zona de libre comercio a partir de 2015 entre Rusia, Bielorrusia y Kazaxstan ademas de Armenia y Kirguistan. Al acuerdo se sumo Vietnam mientras que Tadyikistan evalua su integracion. Existe una serie de paises que estan considerando sumarse tanto de Europa como Asia y Africa.


El cinturon del Camino de la Seda
Proyecto del gobierno chino iniciado oficialmente en el oton-o (del Hemisferio Norte) de 2013 y que comprende una via terrestre, que recorre Eurasia, y otra maritima que va por las costas de Asia, a traves del Canal de Suez, hasta Europa. 
El proyecto abarca a mercados con una poblacion de 3 mil millones de personas, mientras que la Union euro-asiatica liderada por Rusia, alcanza cerca de 200 millones de personas aunque los costos y los tiempos para poner en operacion la Ruta de la seda no son de modo alguno comparables.

Sen-oras y Sen-ores, entre los problemas que afectan el futuro de nuestra humanidad tambien esta el desafio del cambio global del clima. Estamos interesados en la capacidad resolutiva de la Conferencia climatica de la ONU, que se llevara a cabo en diciembre, en Paris. En el contexto de nuestro aporte nacional, hacia 2030 planeamos reducir la emision de gases invernadero hasta un 70-75% de nuestros niveles del an-o 1990.

Sin embargo, les propongo revisar este problema de modo mas amplio. Si bien estableciendo cuotas para las emisiones peligrosas, utilizando otras medidas tacticas, por su caracter, podemos, quiza, en algun plazo disminuir la gravedad del problema no lo resolveremos de modo capital. Necesitamos enfoque totalmente distintos. El discurso debe enfocarse en la implantacion de nuevas tecnologias amistosas con el medio ambiente, que no perjudiquen el entorno sino que coexistan con el en armonia y permitan restablecer el balance roto por el ser humano entre la biosfera y la tecnosfera. Se trata realmente de un desafio de escala planetaria pero estoy seguro que la Humanidad cuenta con el potencial intelectual para responder a el.

Es imprescindible unir esfuerzos, ante todo entre aquellos paises que cuentan con una poderosa base de investigacion, con proyectos en ciencias basicas. Proponemos fundar bajo la egida de la ONU un foro especial en el cual se analicen de modo multilateral los problemas relacionados con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales, con la destruccion del medio ambiente y el cambio del clima. Rusia esta dispuesta a tomar parte como uno de los organizadores de un foro de este tipo.

Estimados sen-oras y sen-ores, colegas, el 10 de enero de 1946 en Londres comenzaria el trabajo de la I sesion de la Asamblea General de la ONU. En su apertura, el Presidente de la Comision preparatoria de la Sesion, el diplomatico colombiano Zuleta Angel*, en mi opinion, establecio de modo demasiado amplio los principios sobre los cuales debia regirse la actividad de la ONU: La buena voluntad, el menosprecio a las intrigas y las artiman-as, el espiritu de colaboracion. Hoy estas palabras nos resuenan solo como expresiones de buena voluntad, pero Rusia cree en el inmenso potencial de la ONU, el cual debe ayudar a evitar una nueva confrontacion global y llevarnos a una estrategia de cooperacion. Junto con otros paises vamos en los sucesivo a trabajar para el fortalecimiento del rol de coordinacion central de la ONU.
*Eduardo Zuleta Angel, diplomatico colombiano nacido en Espan-a. Fue Embajador en Estados Unidos, ocasion en que fue nombrado Presidente de la Comision preparatoria para la I Asamblea general de la ONU. Fallecio en 1973, en Miami.

Estoy convencido de que actuando juntos haremos de la paz algo estable y seguro y otorgaremos las condiciones para el desarrollo de todos los paises y los pueblos.

Les agradezco su atencion".

Intervencion de Vladimir Putin en el Club internacional de discusion de Valday


El club internacional de discusion de Valday es una reunion que se realiza de manera anual dentro de Rusia y en la que participan politicos, expertos en relaciones internacionales, periodistas y actores sociales para conversar de actualidad.

La primera sesion del Club se realizo en septiembre de 2004 en la provincia de Veliki Novgorod, cerca del lago Valday de donde tomo su nombre. Debido al interes y la evaluacion favorable del trabajo del Club en los medios y por parte de especialistas se decidio continuar sesionando de manera anual, en reuniones que se llevan a cabo en distintas regiones del pais.

Provincia de Veliki Novgorod en la que se destaca la ciudad homonima y, hacia el este, el Lago Valday.

En la ultimas de estas sesiones, la numero XII, y que concluyo el pasado 22 de octubre el tema central fue designado oficialmente como "Guerra y paz: El ser humano, el Estado y la amenaza de un gran conflicto en el siglo XXI". En ella, como en todas las anteriores, tomo parte el Presidente Vladimir Putin, cuya intervencion citare a continuacion. Tras su presentacion en la ONU, su participacion en el Club de Valday permite apreciar con  mas detalle la posicion del Presidente Putin frente a la actualidad, pues desaparecen los eufemismos presentes en su intervencion en Nueva York y se fustigan, con todo detalle, los diversos intentos de los Estados Unidos por ampliar su posicion hegemonica en el mundo.

Sus expresiones, tanto en la ONU como aqui, jugando de local en Rusia, de ningun modo representan una vuelta a la logica confrontacional de la Guerra Fria pues la posicion de Putin no plantea mas que su defensa de un mundo constituido por distintos centros de poder y donde las relaciones entre esos centros se desarrolle a partir de regulaciones acordadas por la comunidad internacional.

La inclusion de la frase "Guerra y Paz" en la designacion del tema principal de la reunion del Club de Valday de este an-o no es casual, pues hace alusion a la obra de Leon Tolstoy que lleva ese nombre dado que 2015 fue declarado en Rusia como el An-o de la Literatura.
En el logo superior, alusivo al hecho, aparecen los colores de la bandera tricolor rusa: Blanco, azul y rojo y, ademas, la silueta de 3 grandes escritores rusos: Aleksandr Pushkin, Maksim Gorki y la poetisa Anna Axmatova.

"Queridos colegas, amigos, sen-oras y sen-ores.

Permitanme saludarlos en una nueva sesion del Club internacional de Valday.

Ya han pasado mas de 10 an-os en que en estas reuniones se discute sobre los temas mas candentes y se analizan las vias y perspectivas de desarrollo de Rusia y de todo el mundo. Y, por supuesto, la composicion de sus participantes se modifica pero en conjunto se mantiene la base de esta plataforma de modo que nos hemos transformado en un entorno donde nos podemos entender mutuamente...
En este an-o nuestra discusion se concentra en los temas de la guerra y la paz, los que, sin duda, han preocupado a la Humanidad en el curso de toda su historia. Incluso en epocas lejanas, en la Antiguedad clasica, hubo discusiones sobre la naturaleza y causas de los conflictos, sobre la justicia o injusticia de la aplicacion de la fuerza y sobre si las guerras iban a acompan-ar para siempre el desarrollo de la civilizacion alternandose con periodos de tregua o si llegaria un momento cuando las disputas y las contradicciones se resolverian sin necesidad de un conflicto armado.

Aqui, sin duda, recordamos tambien a nuestro gran escritor Leon Nikolaevich Tolstoy. En su gran novela Guerra y Paz, el llamo a la guerra como un hecho repugnante para la inteligencia y la naturaleza humana mientras que describio a la paz como un bien para el ser humano.

Edicion de 1915 de la obra de Leon Tolstoy, Guerra y Paz, escrita por el autor entre 1863-1869. Tolstoy escribio su titulo original en frances, La guerre et la paix, y durante su vida se imprimio tambien asi en ruso, Война и миръ (Literalmente Guerra y paz, pues en ruso no existe el articulo determinado), sin embargo, por errores de impresion, algunas ediciones posteriores escribirian el titulo de la obra como Ð’ойна и міръ (Guerra y mundo)

Realmente, la paz, la vida en paz fue y permanece siendo un ideal de la Humanidad. Lideres politicos, filosofos y juristas han propuesto mas de una vez modelos de convivencia pacifica entre las potencias. Diferentes alianzas y coaliciones proclamaron como su proposito suministrar una paz solida, como se dice ahora, una paz duradera. El problema, sin embargo, radica en que la salida de contradicciones acumuladas se buscaria de todos modos a traves de la guerra de modo frecuente. Y la misma guerra serviria de medio para establecer nuevas jerarquias, de post-guerra, en el mundo.

Junto con esto, la paz como una condicion de la politica mundial nunca fue estable y no surgio por si sola. Los periodos de paz, tanto en la historia de Europa como en el resto del mundo, se fundaron siempre en la consolidacion y apoyo del balance de fuerzas existente. Asi, fue en el siglo XVII cuando la Paz de Westfalia* puso fin a la Guerra de 30 an-os y tambien sucederia en el siglo XIX, en la epoca del Congreso de Viena**. Y lo fue tambien en Yalta, 70 an-os atras, cuando los vencedores del nazismo tomaron la decision de crear una Organizacion de las naciones unidas sobre los principios de las relaciones mutuas entre los Estados.
*Daria fin a la Guerra de los 30 an-os en 1648, en la que se lucho por la hegemonia al interior del Sacro Imperio romano-germanico entre 1618-1648 y en el que se vieron involucrados, en alguna medida, todos los paises europeos. El conflicto significo el fortalecimiento de Francia y, por algunas decadas, de Suecia mientras que continuo debilitando al Imperio espan-ol mientras que, por otra parte, debilito significativamente la influencia de la religion en la vida politica de Europa.
**Congreso realizado en Viena entre 1814-1815 para restablecer el orden absolutista interrumpido por la Revolucion Francesa y las Guerras napoleonicas. En el tomaron parte todos los paises de Europa con excepcion del Imperio Otomano.

Con la aparicion de las armas nucleares se volvio claro que en un conflicto global no podria haber un vencedor pues el resultado seria solo uno: La aniquilacion mutua garantizada. Resulto, entonces, que el ser humano, al crear el arma mas destructiva de todas, volvio la guerra una accion sin sentido.
A proposito, las generaciones de lideres mundiales de las decadas de los ´50, ´60, ´70, e incluso de los ´80, realmente consideraron el uso de la fuerza militar como una medida excepcional. Y en este plano se comportaron de manera responsable, evaluando todas las circunstancias y las posibles consecuencias.

Si bien el fin de la Guerra Fria puso fin a la contradiccion ideologica no desapareceria de modo alguno el sustento para discusiones y contradicciones geopoliticas.

Todos los Estados cuentan, y contaran siempre, con sus intereses, a veces diversos pero el desarrollo de la historia mundial siempre fue acompan-ado por la competencia de las potencias y sus aliados y, a mi parecer, esto es absolutamente natural.

Lo importante es que esa competencia se constituya en el marco de reglas y normas definidas en terminos politicos, juridicos y morales. De otro modo, la rivalidad, los conflictos de intereses llevaran a crisis agudas y fracasos dramaticos.

Hemos visto esto mas de alguna vez en el pasado y, hoy, lamentablemente, de nuevo nos topamos con situaciones parecidas. Los intentos, por todo tipo de medios, de promover un modelo de dominio unipolar, yo he hablado ya de esto en diversas ocasiones, llevaron al desbalance del sistema del derecho internacional y de la regulacion global, lo que significa que hoy exista una amenaza de que la competencia, militar, politica, economica, pueda resultar incontrolable.

Que podria, por ejemplo, significar esa competencia fuera de control en la esfera de la seguridad internacional? Sin duda, que podria llevar a un incremento de los conflictos locales, especialmente en regiones fronterizas, donde colisionan los intereses de grandes potencias o bloques. Esto tambien puede llevar a un probable ocaso del sistema de limitacion de las armas de destruccion masiva (que considero extremadamente peligroso) y que conlleva como resultado una nueva espiral de la carrera armamentista.

Ya surgio el concepto del llamado "Primer golpe sin armas", que considera la aplicacion de medios no nucleares de alta toxicidad y gran radio de accion, comparables por sus efectos con un arma nuclear.

Bajo el pretexto de una amenaza nuclear de parte de Iran, como sabemos, se destruyo la base fundamental de la seguridad internacional contemporanea: El Acuerdo sobre limitacion de defensa anti-misiles, que fue abandonado*, de manera unilateral, por los Estados Unidos. Hoy dia, a proposito, el problema nuclear irani esta resuelto porque, como lo deciamos nosotros, no ha existido una amenaza nuclear por parte de Iran. La razon que aparentemente habria convencido a nuestra socios norteamericanos para levantar un sistema de defensa antiproyectiles se desvanecio. Y nosotros esperabamos que las acciones para el desarrollo del sistema PRO** de los Estados Unidos se detuvieran pero que sucedio, al fin y al cabo? Que nada de esto sucedio y que las cosas, al contrario, han seguido un rumbo opuesto.
*El acuerdo se firmo el 26 de mayo de 1972 en Moscu, entre los Estados Unidos y la URSS siendo abandonado por los norteamericanos en 2002.
**Sistema de defensa anti-misiles de los Estados Unidos (NMD, National Missile Defense) contra un grupo determinado de paises, que considera capaz de lanzar un ataque con cohetes y que incluye a Iran, Corea del Norte, Siria y Libia. Si bien el sistema comenzo a gestarse y desarrollarse en tiempos de la Guerra Fria, en la actualidad para los rusos no es mas que una excusa para disponer cohetes en las inmediaciones del territorio ruso.

Por estos dias se han realizado las primeras pruebas del sistema PRO de los Estados Unidos en Europa. Que significa esto? Significa que cuando discutiamos con nuestros colegas norteamericanos estabamos en lo cierto. A nosotros, como tambien a todo el mundo, nos intentaron inducir simplemente a error o si lo decimos de manera mas simple, nos engan-aron. El asunto de fondo no era una hipotetica amenaza nuclear de Iran, que jamas existio, sino intentar romper el balance estrategico, cambiar las correlaciones de fuerzas en favor de no solo dominar sino que de dictar su voluntad a todos, tanto a sus competidores geopoliticos como tambien, segun creo, a a sus aliados. Se trata de un escenario demasiado peligroso, perjudicial para todos, incluyendo al mismo Estados Unidos.

El factor capaz de contener las armas nucleares comenzo a devaluarse. Algunos, posiblemente, incluso se ilusionaron con el hecho de que en un conflicto mundial nuevamente era posible la real victoria de uno de los lados, sin consecuencias reversibles e inaceptables, como dicen los especialistas, para el vencedor, si es que hubiera, realmente, vencedor alguno.

En el ultimo cuarto de siglo la aplicacion de la fuerza claramente disminuyo. La inmunidad adquirida despues de 2 guerras mundiales contra la guerra y que existia literalmente a nivel psicologico, subconsciente comenzo a debilitarse. El concepto mismo de guerra cambio: Para los que hoy se sientan frente a un televisor se comenzo a transformar y se ha transformado en una especie de espectaculo de los medios como si en el curso de las operaciones militares no muriera ni sufriera nadiey no se destruyeran ciudades y paises enteros.

Lamentablemente, la terminologia belica ahora practicamente resuena en todas las esferas de la vida. Asi, la realidad de la economia global actual trata sobre guerras de sanciones y comerciales, lo que se ha transformado en un patron tambien para los medios de comunicacion masiva. Por lo demas, las sanciones se utilizan ademas como instrumento de competencia desleal para presionar o expulsar a competidores de los mercados. En calidad de ejemplo cito la verdadera epidemia de multas, incluidas tambien compan-ias europeas, de parte de los Estados Unidos. En el proceso se presentan pretextos inventados donde se castiga severamente a quien se haya atrevido a romper las sanciones unilaterales de los norteamericanos.

Este, por supuesto, no es un asunto de los rusos pero tenemos con ustedes un Club de discusion y por lo tanto yo puedo plantearlo. Actuarian de ese modo con sus aliados? Claro que no, pues asi se actua con vasallos que se atrevieron a actuar bajo su propio juicio. A ellos se los castiga por su mala conducta.

Solo el an-o pasado, le fue impuesta a una banco frances una multa de casi 9 mil millones de dolares, me parece que 8,9. Toyota pago 1,2 mil millones de dolares, el banco aleman Commerzbank firmo un acuerdo para el pago al presupuesto norteamericano de 1,7 mil millones de dolares, etc.

En 2014 el mas grande banco frances, Paribas, fue forzado a pagar una multa record de 8,9 mil millones de euros al Ministerio de Justicia de los Estados Unidos luego de ser acusado de realizar entre 2002-2009 transferencias ilegales por miles de millones de dolares, la mayor parte por operaciones con petroleo, a traves del sistema financiero norteamericano a personas naturales y compan-ias de Sudan y, en menor medida, de Cuba e Iran, paises contra los cuales los Estados Unidos ha establecido sanciones comerciales.

Nosotros vemos tambien como se desarrolla el proceso de creacion de bloques economicos poco transparentes, ademas que el proceso de formacion de esas estructuras se desarrolla practicamente segun las reglas de la conspiracion. La tarea es comprensible, se busca reformatear la economia mundial para extraer una aun mayor renta a partir de la dominacion y de la extension de estandares de regulacion tecnologica, comercial y economica.

La formacion de bloques economicos por medio de la imposicion de condiciones a los jugadores mas fuertes, sin duda, no hara del mundo un lugar mas tranquilo sino que solo instalara bombas de accion lenta, base para futuros conflictos, lo que fue favorecido alguna vez por la Organizacion de comercio mundial. Si, la discusion va por un camino complejo, la Ronda de Doha de conversaciones tal vez entro a un callejon sin salida pero hay que buscar una salida y acuerdos, de todos modos, porque solo los acuerdos pueden crear un sistema de relaciones de largo plazo en cualquier esfera, incluyendo la esfera economica. Y si consideramos que estas preocupaciones de algunos paises, participantes de la comunidad economica internacional, no son relevantes, si pensamos que se las puede evadir la verdad es que no se desvaneceran en ningun lugar, pues estas contradicciones nadie las podra solucionar y permaneceran, hasta salir a la superficie en algun momento.

Y saben ustedes, nosotros tenemos otro enfoque. En el curso de la formacion de la Union economica euro-asiatica nosotros intentamos construir relaciones con nuestros colegas, incluso realizamos un trabajo conjunto en el contexto de la iniciativa china de la llamada Ruta de la seda. Estamos tambien trabajando activamente y en un contexto absolutamente equitativo en el contexto del BRICS, la APEC y en el G-20*.
*El BRICS es una agrupacion que integran Brasil, Rusia, India y China a la cual se sumo la pequen-a economia de Sudafrica en febrero de 2011. Abarca 2/5 de la poblacion mundial y 18% del PIB del planeta. El G-20 (The Group of Twenty) reune a las 20 economias mas grandes del planeta. Incluye no solo a sus Presidentes sino tambien a los Jefes de sus Bancos centrales, entre otras autoridades que forman parte de esta agrupacion. Representa un 85% del PIB del mundo y 2/3 de su poblacion. La APEC reune a 21 economias del Oceano Pacifico. Abarca 2/5 de la poblacion mundial y un 54% del PIB del mundo.

Hoy el espacio informativo global tambien es sacudido por las guerras, por decirlo de alguna forma pues se imponen, de modo agresivo, puntos de vista e interpretaciones de los hechos "correctos" y se manipulan o se dejan pasar situaciones determinadas. Nos hemos ido acostumbrado a poner etiquetas y a la creacion de un modelo de enemigo.

Las autoridades de los paises que, al parecer, siempre apelaron a los valores de la libertad, de la libertad de prensa, de la libre difusion informativa (cuan a menudo escuchabamos eso en otros tiempos!), ahora intentan obstaculizar la difusion de informacion objetiva y de cualquier punto de vista distinto que se diferencie de la suya propia, hablan de una propaganda hostil con la cual hay que combatir, ademas por medio, claramente, no democraticos.

Lamentablemente, cada vez mas se utilizan de modo mas frecuente las palabras guerra y conflicto cuando la conversacion trata sobre las relaciones entre personas de distintas culturas, religiones y nacionalidades. Hoy, cientos de miles de migrantes intentan integrarse a otras sociedades al tiempo que no tienen profesion, no conocen el idioma, las tradiciones y las culturas de los paises en los cuales se establecen. En tanto, los residentes locales, sin ninguna duda, y hay que decirlo directamente, sin adornarlo, se expresan con irritacion sobre la primacia de personas ajenas, sobre el deteriorio de la situacion criminal, sobre el dinero que se gasta en los refugiados tomado del presupuesto nacional.

Por supuesto, muchas personas, la mayoria de las personas, compadecen a los refugiados y quieren ayudarlos. El asunto es como hacerlo sin menoscabar los intereses de los residentes locales de aquellos paises en los cuales se establecen los refugiados. La colision masiva, fuera de control y repentina de distintos modos de vivir puede provocar un incremento del nacionalismo y la intolerancia y crear un conflicto permanente en la sociedad.

Estimados colegas, seamos realistas: La fuerza militar, por supuesto, que seguira estando presente y, sin duda, que por largo tiempo sera un instrumento de la politica internacional. Sea esto bueno o malo es otra cosa, pues es un hecho de la vida. Lo relevante es cuando se aplicara? Sera solo cuando todos los otros medios se hayan agotado o cuando sea imprescindible oponerse a una amenaza comun como, por ejemplo, una amenaza terrorista, y, ademas, ajustandose a las normas expuestas en el derecho internacional? O, al contrario, se permitira que nos vayamos a los pun-os frente a cualquier situacion, a veces simplemente para recordarle al mundo quien es el duen-o de casa sin pensar sobre la legitimidad en la aplicacion de la fuerza y sobre sus consecuencias, especialmente cuando muchas veces no resuelve los problemas sino que solo los multiplica.

Vemos lo que sucede ahora en el Medio Oriente donde por decenios y, en ocasiones, hasta por siglos se fueron acumulando contradicciones politicas, religiosas, inter-etnicas y se gestaron agudos problemas sociales. En una palabra, la mezcla detonante se acrecento y los intentos externos, de caracter burdo, para reconstruir la region se transformaron en la chispa que llevo a una verdadera explosion que destruyo la gobernabilidad, permitio el despliegue del terrorismo y, finalmente, volvio todo el planeta un lugar mas riesgoso.

La organizacion terrorista denominada como Estado islamico tomo bajo control territorios inmensos. Como llego a suceder esto? Solo piensen bien: Si llegan a hacerse con Damasco o Bagdad las agrupaciones terroristas podrian recibir el status de, practicamente, autoridades oficiales y se crearia una base de operaciones para su expansion global. Alguien ha pensado sobre esto? Llego el momento de que toda la comunidad internacional entienda con quien estan tratando. Se trata, en esencia, de un enemigo de la civilizacion, de la humanidad y de la cultura mundial y que comparte una ideologia de odio y barbarie, que esta pisoteando la moral y los valores de las religiones mundiales, incluyendo al islam, el que ha resultado desacreditado.

Y no es necesario jugar con las palabras y dividir a los terroristas entre moderados y no moderados. Quisiera entender, a proposito, en que radica la diferencia? Probablemente, en opinion de algunos especialistas la diferencia radica en que los bandidos moderados constituyen un numero moderado o es que decapitan a la gente con mas delicadeza?

En esencia, vemos ahora una verdadero ovillo de agrupaciones terroristas. Y si, en ocasiones, los militantes del Estado islamico, de Dzhabxad an-Nusra*, u otros herederos y vestigios de Al-Qaeda incluso pelean entre si, lo hacen solo por el dinero, por la reparticion del dinero, por fuentes de ingresos, por territorios de nutricion, por eso luchan. No luchan por consideraciones ideologicas. Su esencia y metodo es uno solo: El terror, el asesinato, el transformar a la gente en una masa sumisa, asustada, atemorizada.
*Agrupacion terrorista conformada en enero de 2012 durante la Guerra civil en Siria. Esta presente en este pais y tambien en Libano y depende de Al-Qaeda.

En los ultimos an-os la situacio han empeorado aun mas pues la infraestructura de los terroristas ha crecido mucho, el numero de terroristas ha tambien aumentado como lo han hecho tambien sus armas, las que se habian entregado a la llamada "oposicion moderada", a los "opositores moderados" pero que terminaron inevitablemente en manos de organizaciones terroristas. Dire mas, a veces a su lado se pasaron de inmediato agrupaciones completas.

Y porque los esfuerzos de nuestros socios norteamericanos y de sus aliados en su lucha contra el Estado islamico no produjeron resultados relevantes? Evidentemente, el asunto no radica en la falta de poder de fuego o de potencial porque, sin duda, los Estados Unidos cuentan con un potencial militar inmenso, el mas grande del mundo, pero siempre es complejo llevar a cabo un juego doble, declarando la guerra a los terroristas y, a la vez, intentando utilizar una parte de ellos para disponer figuras en el tablero del Medio Oriente, en favor de intereses particulares.

Es imposible aspirar al triunfo sobre el terrorismo si parte de los terroristas se utiliza como un ariete para remover regimenes no deseados porque nunca te desharas de estos terroristas. Eso es solo una ilusion con la cual hay que despues enfrentarse para eliminarlos del poder o, de algun modo, llegar con ellos a una transaccion. Y el mejor ejemplo de esto es la situacion en Libia.

Pongamos nuestras esperanzas en que un nuevo regimen sera capaz de estabilizar la situacion, aunque eso no sea algo garantizado pero, como sea, hay que ayudar a la estabilizacion.

Nosotros entendemos bien que los militantes que luchan en el Medio Oriente representan una amenaza para todos, incluidos para nosotros, los rusos. En nuestro pais se sabe lo que es una agresion terrorista, sabemos lo que hicieron estos bandidos en el norte del Caucaso. Recordemos los sangrientos actos terroristas en Budennovska, Moscu, Beslan, Vologrado y en otras ciudades rusas. Rusia siempre lucho contra el terrorismo en todas sus manifestaciones y, consecuentemente, intervino por una verdadera union de fuerzas de la comunidad mundial contra este mal. Precisamente, por ello se dicto nuestra proposicion de la creacion de una amplia coalicion terrorista internacional, lo que se escucho recientemente en mi intervencion en la ONU.

En julio de 1995 un grupo de 195 terroristas tomo como rehenes a mas de 1600 personas del poblado de Budennovska, en el sur de Rusia, a quienes forzaron a desplazarse al hospital local. Los terroristas exigieron detener las acciones militares de Rusia en Chechenia. Luego de este hecho se establecio mediante una ley especial que no se podria volver a transar nunca mas con terroristas. 

A fines de diciembre de 2013 se produjo el 2do de un total de 3 atentados terroristas que se produjeron ese an-o en la ciudad de Volgogrado, en el sur de Rusia.La explosion de unos 10 kg de TNT, transportados por un terrorista-suicida, en la estacion de trenes provoco la muerte de 18 personas.

Despues de la solicitud de las autoridades oficiales de Siria para apoyarlos nosotros tomamos la decision para iniciar una operacion militar rusa en este pais, la que se constituyo, y quiero subrayarlo, de modo completamente legitimo pues su unico proposito es permitir el establecimiento de la paz. Estoy seguro que las acciones de las fuerzas armadas rusas aportaran de manera positiva, ayudando a las autoridades oficiales a crear condiciones favorables para acciones posteriores en la esfera de la regulacion politica y permitiran aplicar golpes anticipados a los terroristas que amenacen tambien a nuestro pais, Rusia como tambien ayudaran a todos los paises y pueblos que, sin duda, se encuentran en riesgo, si estos terroristas regresasen a sus casas.

A nuestro parecer lo que es imprescindible hacer para apoyar una regulacion de larga data en la region, que permita su renacer social, economico y politico, es ante todo liberar de terroristas los territorios de Siria y de Irak y no permitir que ellos extiendan sus acciones a otras regiones. Para esto es necesario unificar todas las fuerzas: A los ejercitos regulares de Irak y Siria, a destacamentos de milicianos kurdos, a diversos grupos opositores, preparados realmente para el aplastamiento de terroristas y para coordinar acciones con paises tanto de la region como de fuera de ella que se oponen al terrorismo. Junto con esto, la actividad antiterrorista conjunta debe apoyarse, sin duda, en el derecho internacional.

En segundo lugar, es evidente que la victoria militar sobre los terroristas no resolvera por si misma todos los problemas pero si creara condiciones para lo principal: El inicio de un proceso politico con participacion de todas las fuerzas aptas de la sociedad siria dispuestas de manera patriotica pues son, precisamente, los sirios quienes deben resolver su destino con la contribucion excepcional de la comunidad internacional de modo correcto y respetuoso y no bajo presion externa por medio de un ultimatum, el chantaje o la amenaza.

La desintegracion de las autoridades legitimas en Siria solo moviliza a los terroristas. Ahora es necesario no arruinar sino que restablecer, fortalecer las instituciones gubernamentales en la zona de los conflictos.

Quiero recordar que el Medio Oriente en su historia a menudo se ha transformado en arena de de enfrentamientos de diferentes imperios y potencias, que han modificado las fronteras y la composicion politica de la region bajo su mando a partir de sus propios intereses. Y las consecuencias no fueron siempre gratas y buenas para los pueblos que residian alli que, a decir verdad, no eran, como norma, consultados. Los ultimos en informarse sobre lo que sucedia en sus propios paises eran precisamente las personas que vivian en el Medio Oriente.

Por supuesto, que se plantea la pregunta de si no es hora ya de que la comunidad internacional acuerde todas sus acciones con aquellos que viven en esos territorios? Creo que hace tiempo es hora de actuar de ese modo. Es necesario relacionarse con respeto hacia todos ellos como tambien con todos los demas .

Un aporte relevante lo hara la incorporacion al proceso de regulacion politica del clero musulman, de los lideres del islam, de los jefes de los Estados musulmanes. Nosotros contamos con su contribucion y posicion consolidada, con su autoridad moral. Es muy importante defender, especialmente a la juventud, de la influencia destructiva de la ideologia de los terroristas, que intentan valerse de ellos como carne de can-on. Es necesario delimitar con claridad la frontera entre el islam genuino, cuyos valores son la paz, la familia, las buenas acciones, la ayuda al projimo, el respeto a las tradiciones para separarlos de las mentiras y del odio que siembran los terroristas, amparandose en el islam.

Cuarto. Ya es hora de desarrollar "mapas de ruta", para la recuperacion social y economica de la region, para la restitucion de infraestructura elemental, de viviendas, hospitales y escuelas. Solo un trabajo asi de constructivo in situ, despues de la erradicacion del terrorismo y de la regulacion politica, podra detener el inmenso flujo de refugiados a los paises europeos y llevar de regreso a su patria a aquellos que la abandonaron.

Es evidente que Siria requiere una ayuda maciza en terminos humanitarios, economicos y financieros para sanar las heridas de guerra. Tenemos que determinar el formato, en cuyo marco podriamos realizar este trabajo con la captacion de paises donantes y de instituciones financieras internacionales.

Ahora los problemas de Siria se discuten en la ONU, en otras organizaciones internacionales, en el contexto de las relaciones entre Estados. A pesar de que es doloroso dejar de lado expectativas no concretadas y calculos injustificados veo que, de todos modos, ha habido progreso.

Vemos que en el contexto de la operacion antiterrorista paulatinamente, aunque no de modo tan activo y rapido como quisieramos, se van ajustando los contactos por la linea de los organos militares. Un paso serio es el documento de acuerdo ruso-norteamericano sobre seguridad de vuelo de aviones militares de ambos paises sobre cielo sirio.

Nosotros tambien acordamos comenzar el intercambio de informacion con nuestros colegas del Oeste sobre las posiciones y desplazamientos de los terroristas. Todos estos, sin duda, que son pasos en la direccion correcta. Lo principal es considerarnos mutuamente como aliados frente a una lucha comun y comportarnos abiertamente y honestamente. Solo asi se puede garantizar la victoria sobre los terroristas.

Siria, en conjunto con toda su dramatica condicion actual, puede transformarse en un modelo de colaboracion en nombre de intereses comunes para la solucion de problemas que nos tocan a todos, para el desarrollo de un sistema efectivo de control de riesgos. Esa oportunidad ya la tuvimos tras el fin de la Guerra Fria. Lamentablemente, no la utilizamos.
          Event: Trade for Sustainable Development Forum 2017        
The International Trade Centre's (ITC) Trade for Sustainable Development (T4SD) programme organizes the Trade for Sustainable Development Forum, which brings together business people, researchers, standards organizations and international trade officials to discuss trends in sustainable value chains and voluntary sustainability standards. In 2017, the event will consider 'Partnerships: Which model is yours?' with agenda items considering: why some models are more successful in achieving sustainability objectives; common elements of success when standards organizations, policy makers and private companies work well together; what we can expect from successful collaboration; and what issues should be considered when engaging in new partnerships. The 2017 edition of the T4SD Forum will be hosted in the headquarters of ITC from 25-26 September, and will feature a high-level session at the WTO Public Forum 2017 on 27 September.
          Codex Alimentarius & Nutricide - The Real Truth Behind Your Health Freedom Rights        
CODEX AND NUTRICIDE...

"Those who control food production and supply, control the world."

Here is the REAL TRUTH behind the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the threat to your rights to healthy organic foods, supplements, nutrients, herbs, vitamins and all natural remedies.

HealthFreedomUSA.org has been working diligently for many years to stop the destruction of YOUR rights to use supplements, herbs, vitamins, minerals, and also to have access to ORGANIC foods, non-gmo foods, etc. in this country and now globally.

If you've never heard of it, and most people have not, the Codex Alimentarius Commission is an aggressive, bureaucratic "Trade Commission" created in 1962 by former Nazi War Crime Giant IGFarben. This Commission is not a public health commission or a consumer health commission, it is a "Trade Commission" which means its goals are primarily trade, business and profit. It is administered, funded and run by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) at the request of the United Nations.

The long-term goal of this Codex Commission in 1962 was to work towards total global implementation by December 31, 2009, of their over 5,000 guidelines, standards and regulations of everything to do with food; basically everything you can legally put into your mouth with the exception of pharmaceuticals.

Enter... The World Trade Organization (WTO). What does the WTO have to do with this? Everything. The WTO, when it was first formed in 1994, accepted and adopted the Codex Alimentarius Commission's rules and regulations as their guidelines for settling trade disputes between countries around food. Their guidelines have been "voluntary" up until now. It has now become "mandatory" that every member country of the WTO "HARM-onize" with Codex Alimentarius by December 31, 2009, even if their own country's laws and regulations do not coincide with Codex rules.

Countries who do not become "Codex Compliant" will suffer WTO sanctions and penalties, including loss of rights in the WTO. So, if two countries go to the WTO for their dispute resolution process, and one country is not "Codex Compliant" and the other country is "Codex Compliant", the country who is "Codex Compliant" will automatically win the case, regardless of the merits of the case! They are using Codex Compliance as a weapon in a much bigger economic battle. So every country in the world is racing to become Codex Compliant, regardless of the dangers.

In this country, the USA, how do we become Codex Compliant when we have laws that are supposed to protect us? In 1994, the Dietary Supplements Health And Education Act (DSHEA) was passed which classified nutrients and herbs as "food." And as "foods" you cannot set an upper limit on them (vitamins, supplements, herbs, nutrients, etc.). And as foods, access to these nutrients is feely given to us. We are allowed to have any nutrients we want, because under Common Law, anything not specifically "forbidden" is "permitted".

Codex is a "Napoleonic Code" law system. Under this type of law, anything not specifically "permitted" is "forbidden." That is called a "positive list." In 1994, Codex declared Nutrients to be "toxins," dangerous industrial poisons, and have set the upper limit of these to be 1/100th of the largest dose that can be given before a discernable impact is shown. So basically, the maximum allowable dose of these nutrients is scientifically proven to have absolutely no impact on the human being.

Nutrients, under Codex, will be limited to those on the "positive list," and it is anticipated that there will be only 18 of these, one of which is fluoride. For those of you who do not know, fluoride is a toxic chemical that was first used in the Nazi Concentration Camps. It was discovered that prisoners who were fed fluoridated water became complacent, and you could do anything you wanted to them. They were easy to manage.

Currently in this country, our protection, the 1994 Dietary Supplements Health And Education Act (DSHEA), is being attacked by legislation (2009: The Food Safety & Modernization Act) so that this country can become "Codex Compliant." Under Codex, high-potency, therapeutically effective, clinically significant nutrients will be illegal in the way that heroine is illegal; not available with a prescription, but illegal. If these nutrients have any effect on the human body in any way, they are illegal.

Codex does not serve consumer well-being, nor does it serve health. Codex serves the Five Bigs: Big-Pharma, Big-Chema, Big-BioTech, Big-AgriBus, and Big-Medica.

What else does Codex do?

Find out more by watching this excellent video that tells all...
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-5266884912495233634&hl=en

How Can You Take Action?
Go to the HealthFreedomUSA.org website and read and sign the petitions which will then be sent to your Legislative Representatives. One email, phone call or fax to your representative is counted as 13,000 constituent votes!

Also, sign the Health Freedom Petition online here:
http://www.healthrevolutionpetition.org/

You can also spread the word. Please pass this information on to others you know, especially alternative practitioners.


Resources:

          HOWTO test EJB3 with JUnit outside of the container        

Since EJB 3.0, testing should be easy. And it IS much more simpler than with EJB 2.1, because you dont need to have an application server (AS) up and running

Chapter 12 in the book "Pro EJB 3: Java Persistence API" by Mike Keith and Merrick Schincariol was very useful for me.

I'm using Netbeans 6.0, EJB3, JPA and a MySQL-Datebase and i write integration tests. (as defined in the book above: focus on use-cases, decoupled from appserver, making full use of external resources such as database)

First of all i added the library JUnit (4.1) to my Netbeans-Project You can then rightclick on a sourcefile and select > Tools > Create JUnit Tests

Using the Entity Manager
If you're using the Entity Manager (EM) you must create one for your tests. Because no AS is around, you need an EM Factory and for that you need a Persistence Provider. Add the library TopLink Essentials to the project. Without the AS we cant use JTA datasource with JNDI, so i created a mysql testdatabase and added a persistence-unit for testpurposes. To use it i need the MySQL JDBC Driver-library in my project.
My persistence.xml looks like this:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<persistence version="1.0" xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/persistence_1_0.xsd">
  <persistence-unit name="Project-ejbPU" transaction-type="JTA">
    <jta-data-source>jdbc/project_database_jndi_name</jta-data-source>
  </persistence-unit>
  <persistence-unit name="ProjectTest-ejbPU" transaction-type="RESOURCE_LOCAL">
    <class>project.model.entity1</class>
    <class>project.model.entity2</class>
    <class>project.model.entity3</class>
    <class>project.model.entity4</class>
    <class>project.model.entity5</class>
    <properties>
        <property name="toplink.ddl-generation" value="create-tables"/>
        <property name="toplink.jdbc.driver" value="com.mysql.jdbc.Driver" />
        <property name="toplink.jdbc.url" value="jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/project_test_db_name" />
        <property name="toplink.jdbc.user" value="root"/>
        <property name="toplink.jdbc.password" value="xxx"/>
     </properties>
  </persistence-unit>
</persistence>

Note that the transaction-type should be RESOURCE_LOCAL and not JTA, because we dont want any trouble with JNDI-stuff ;) I've been told that every entity has to be defined explicitly in the persistence.xml

Now you need to create and use the EM in your tests
Change the setUp()-method in the testclass to the following:

    @Before
    public void setUp() {
        yourbean.em = Persistence
.createEntityManagerFactory("ProjectTest-ejbPU")
.createEntityManager(); // your own setUp-stuff }
Now you can write your tests as if your app is deployed in an AS.
          The Value of an Expanded Information Technology Agreement        

“Inclusive trade” was the theme of last week’s annual WTO Public Forum in Geneva. The recently expanded Information Technology Agreement (ITA) represents a good example of an inclusive trade deal given the wide set of beneficiaries involved. The discussion served … Read more >

The post The Value of an Expanded Information Technology Agreement appeared first on Policy@Intel.


          Comment on #HowTo – How To Explain Affiliate Marketing To Your Friends by Donna DeGuglielmo        
this is great "evergreen content" today is 1/2017 and loving i am excited to start my website/blog and reling them in for the good stuff I will be selling. thanks bunches blessings everyone
          Institute of International Economic Law Co-Hosts Annual G2 Conference on WTO Law in Geneva        
Geneva has long drawn diplomats, corporate titans and those interested in the intersection of international economic law and policy. On June 9 and 10, Georgetown Laws Institute of International Economic Law (IIEL) and the Graduate Institute,...
          Nya HowTo filmer för iPad!        
Här kommer två HowTo filmer på hur du ändrar lr ställer in lösenkod och hur vi i Mölndal kan skriva ut från iPad.

Enjoy!