Seminar Topics(100)        
Excellent Seminar/Paper Presentation Topics for Students


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1. 4G Wireless Systems
2. A BASIC TOUCH-SENSOR SCREEN SYSTEM
3. Artificial Eye
4. Animatronics
5. Automatic Teller Machine
6. Aircars
7. Adding interlligence to ineternet using satellite
8. ADSL
9. Aeronautical Communications
10. Agent oriented programing
11. Animatronics
12. Augmented reality
13. Autonomic Computing
14. Bicmos technology
15. BIOCHIPS
16. Biomagnetism
17. Biometric technology
18. BLUE RAY
19. Boiler Instrumentation
20. Brain-Computer Interface
21. Bluetooth Based Smart Sensor Networks
22. BIBS
23. CDMA Wireless Data Transmitter
24. Cellonics Technology
25. Cellular Positioning
26. Cruise Control Devices
27. Crusoe Processor
28. Cyberterrorism
29. Code division duplexing
30. Cellular Digital Packet Data
31. Computer clothing
32. Cordect WLL
33. CARBIN NANO TUBE ELECTRONICS
34. CARNIVORE AN FBI PACKET SNIFFER
35. CDMA
36. CELLONICSTM TECHNOLOGY
37. CELLULAR NEURAL NETWORKS
38. CELLULAR DIGITAL PACKET DATA
39. CIRCUIT AND SAFETY ANALYSIS SYSTEM
40. CISCO IOS FIREWALL
41. CLUSTER COMPUTING
42. COLD FUSION
43. COMPACT PCI
44. COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING (CAPP)
45. COMPUTER CLOTHING
46. COMPUTER MEMORY BASED ON THE PROTEIN BACTERIO
47. CONCEPTUAL GRAPHICS
48. CORDECT
49. CORDECT WLL
50. CRUISE CONTROL DEVICES
51. CRUSOE PROCESSOR
52. CRYOGENIC GRINDING
53. CRYPTOVIROLOGY
54. CT SCANNING
55. CVT
56. Delay-Tolerant Networks
57. DEVELOPMENT OF WEARABLE BIOSENSOR
58. DiffServ-Differentiated Services
59. DWDM
60. Digital Audio Broadcasting
61. Digital Visual Interface
62. Direct to home television (DTH)
63. DOUBLE BASE NUMBER SYSTEM
64. DATA COMPRESSION TECHNIQUES
65. DELAY-TOLERANT NETWORKS
66. DENSE WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
67. DESIGN, ANALYSIS, FABRICATION AND TESTING OF A COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING
68. DEVELOPMENT OF WEARABLE BIOSENSOR
69. DGI SCENT
70. DIFFFSERVER
71. DIGITAL AUDIO BROADCASTING
72. DIGITAL CONVERGENCE
73. DIGITAL HUBBUB
74. DIGITAL SILHOUETTES
75. DIGITAL THEATRE SYSTEM
76. DIGITAL WATER MARKING
77. DIRECT TO HOME
78. DISKLESS LINUX TERMINAL
79. DISTRIBUTED FIREWALL
80. DSL
81. DTM
82. DWDM
83. DYNAMIC LOADABLE MODULES
84. DYNAMICALLY RECONFIGURABLE COMPUTING
85. ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE
86. Embedded system in automobiles
87. Extreme Programming
88. EDGE
89. ELECTROMAGNETIC LAUNCHING SYSYEM
90. E BOMB
91. E INTELLIGENCE
92. E PAPER TECHNOLOGY
93. ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE
94. ELECTRONIC NOSE
95. ELECTRONIC NOSE & ITS APPLICATION
96. ELECTRONICS MEET ANIMALS BRAIN
97. EMBEDDED
98. EMBEDDED DRAM
99. EMBEDDED LINUX
100. EMBRYONICS APPROACH TOWARDS INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
          Researchers suggest existence of new Ebola-like strain        

Researchers from the University of Kent have published a new study that suggests the Reston virus may be capable of mutating into a virus with an Ebola-like impact.

The Reston virus is in the same biological family as Ebola, but in its current form is not known to cause death. It typically infects pigs in Asia, though it has been known to infect humans as well. The research, lead by Senior Lecturer in Computational Biology Mark Wass, Professor of Molecular Medicine Martin Michaelis, and Lecturer in Virology Jeremy Rossman, found that given a few mutations to a specific protein, the Reston virus could take on fatal characteristics.

The findings were recently published in the journal Scientific Reports.


          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        
Browse complete Digest publication library here.


Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus
Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1161:69-81. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0758-8_7
Brown JD, Poulson R, Stallknecht DE.

Perpetuation and reassortment of gull influenza A viruses in Atlantic North America
Virology. 2014 May;456-457:353-63. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.04.009. Epub 2014 Apr 28.
Huang Y et al.

Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores
Virol J. 2014 May 15;11(1):89. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-11-89.
Bodewes R et al.

Association of a lukM-positive clone of Staphylococcus aureus with fatal exudative dermatitis in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris)
Vet Microbiol. 2013 Mar 23;162(2-4):987-91. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.10.025. Epub 2012 Nov 2.
Simpson VR et al.

Temporal patterns in immunity, infection load and disease susceptibility: understanding the drivers of host responses in the amphibian-chytrid fungus system
Functional Ecology. 2014 Jun; 28(3): 569–578. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12194
Stephanie S. Gervasi et al.

The EMPRES-i genetic module: a novel tool linking epidemiological outbreak information and genetic characteristics of influenza viruses
Database. 2014; bau008 doi: 10.1093/database/bau008
Filip Claes et al.

Monitoring Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions in the Information Age: How Smartphones Can Improve Data Collection
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(6): e98613. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098613
Olson DD, Bissonette JA, Cramer PC, Green AD, Davis ST, et al.

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and haplotypes in domestic and imported pet amphibians in Japan
Tamukai K, Une Y, Tominaga A, Suzuki K, Goka K (2014)
Dis Aquat Org 109:165-175

First evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)
Vet Microbiol. 2013 Mar 23;162(2-4):972-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.10.009. Epub 2012 Oct 16.
Krengel A et al.

Fish pathogens near the Arctic Circle: molecular, morphological and ecological evidence for unexpected diversity of Diplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in Iceland
Int J Parasitol. 2014 Jun 11. pii: S0020-7519(14)00122-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.04.009. [Epub ahead of print]
Blasco-Costa I et al.

Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia
J Invertebr Pathol. 2014 Jun 10. pii: S0022-2011(14)00082-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2014.05.007. [Epub ahead of print]
Work TM et al.

Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands
PLoS One. 2014 Jun 13;9(6):e100061. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100061. eCollection 2014.
Pierce AA1, de Roode JC1, Altizer S2, Bartel RA3.

Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jul 22;281(1787). pii: 20133313. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3313. Epub 2014 Jun 11.
Goutte A et al.

Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis)
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Dec 28;3(1):32-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.12.002. eCollection 2014.
Girard YA et al.

Diffusion of influenza viruses among migratory birds with a focus on the Southwest United States
Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Jun 6. pii: S1567-1348(14)00198-1. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.05.029. [Epub ahead of print]
Scotch M et al.

Evidence That Bank Vole PrP Is a Universal Acceptor for Prions 
PLoS Pathog 10(4): e1003990. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003990
Watts JC, Giles K, Patel S, Oehler A, DeArmond SJ, et al. (2014)

Disease of Aquatic Organisms - May 2014
Vol. 109, No. 2

International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - August 2014
Volume 3, Issue 2
          Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        


Browse complete Digest publication library here

No Evidence of Metabolic Depression in Western Alaskan Juvenile Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(1): e85339. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085339
Hoopes LA, Rea LD, Christ A, Worthy GAJ

Discovery of a Novel Bottlenose Dolphin Coronavirus Reveals a Distinct Species of Marine Mammal Coronavirus in Gammacoronavirus
J. Virol. 2014 Jan; 88(2): 1318-1331 [Epub ahead of print 2013 Nov 13]. 10.1128/JVI.02351-13
Patrick C. Y. Woo et al.

Avian oncogenesis induced by lymphoproliferative disease virus: A neglected or emerging retroviral pathogen?
Virology. 2014 Feb; 450–451; 2–12. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2013.11.037
Andrew B. Allison et al.

Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(1): e83829. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083829
Alemu I JB, Clement Y

Differential Haemoparasite Intensity between Black Sparrowhawk (Accipiter melanoleucus) Morphs Suggests an Adaptive Function for Polymorphism
PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(12): e81607. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081607
Lei B, Amar A, Koeslag A, Gous TA, Tate GJ

Visceral leishmaniasis in zoo and wildlife
Vet Parasitol. 2013 Dec 31. pii: S0304-4017(13)00692-4. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.12.025. [Epub ahead of print]
Souza TD et al.

Susceptibility of openbill storks (Anastomius oscitans) to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2013 Sep;44(5):799-809.
Chaichoun K et al.

The use of contraception as a disease management tool in wildlife
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2013 Dec;44(4 Suppl):S135-7.
Rhyan JC et al.

On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus
Infection Ecology and Epidemiology. 2014 Jan 15;4. doi: 10.3402/iee.v4.20943. eCollection 2014
Karl Hagman et al.

A critical examination of indices of dynamic interaction for wildlife telemetry studies
J Anim Ecol. 2014 Jan 15. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12198. [Epub ahead of print]
Long JA, Nelson TA, Webb SL, Gee KL.

An integrated web system to support veterinary activities in Italy for the management of information in epidemic emergencies
Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Jan 22]. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.01.015
S. Iannetti et al.

Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in birds from the Atlantic Forest, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil
Veterinary Parasitology. 2014 Feb; 200(1-2); 193–197. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.10.003
S.M. Gennari et al.

EcoHealth - September 2013
Volume 10, Issue 3, September 2013

Mining free-text medical records for companion animal enteric syndrome surveillance
Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Jan 20]. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2014.01.017
R.M. Anholt et al.



           Specific amino acid substitutions in the S protein prevent its excretion in vitro and may contribute to occult hepatitis B virus infection         
Biswas, Subhajit and Candotti, Daniel and Allain, Jean-Pierre (2013) Specific amino acid substitutions in the S protein prevent its excretion in vitro and may contribute to occult hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of Virology, 87 (14). pp. 7882-7892. ISSN 0022-538X
           Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus oncoprotein K13 protects against B cell receptor induced growth arrest and apoptosis through NF-κB activation         
Graham, Ciaren and Matta, Hittu and Yang, Yanqiang and Yi, Han and Suo, Yulan and Tolani, Bhairavi and Chaudhary, Preet M. (2013) Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus oncoprotein K13 protects against B cell receptor induced growth arrest and apoptosis through NF-κB activation. Journal of Virology, 87 (4). pp. 2242-2252. ISSN 0022-538x
          Future of 7-day GP Access Pilots, Mers, Laughing Gas Health Risks        
Across England, selected GP surgeries are trialling 7-day working, but there are reports that take-up has been so low in some areas, particularly on Sundays, that pilots have been abandoned. Dr Margaret McCartney and Dr Mark Porter investigate where the pressure for extended opening hours is coming from. Mark visits Herefordshire where Taurus Healthcare, a federation of local GPs, is running a late night/weekend service. Managing Director Graeme Cleland describes the high take-up of the service after an initial slow start, and says new patients have been treated, showing previously latent demand in the system. Mike Dando is a wheelchair user with spina bifida and diabetes, and before the pilot started a year ago, he would have to wait in all day for a district nurse to dress his ulcerated legs. Now he just makes an appointment at a time convenient for him. But at the end of this year the seed money provided by the Prime Minister's Challenge Fund runs out, so what will happen to the Herefordshire pilot? Chair of the local Clinical Commissioning Group, Dr Andy Watts, says without extra funding, the pilot service is unlikely to continue and deputy chair of the BMA's GP Committee, Dr Richard Vautrey, calls for investment in current GP practices rather than expensive additional services. Doctors in the UK have been warned by public health officials to be on the lookout for people who become ill after travelling to South Korea. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) has killed 27 people in the region and there are 174 confirmed cases of the disease. Nearly five hundred people have died worldwide after the virus first emerged three years ago, in Saudia Arabia. Jonathan Ball, Professor of Molecular Virology at the University of Nottingham, describes how coronaviruses like MERS (and SARS) jump to humans via an intermediary animal. In the case of MERS, that's via the Dromedary camel. Nitrous Oxide or laughing gas has a long history of recreational use but in recent years, there's been an exponential growth in use among teenagers and young people. Founder of the Psychedelic Society, Stephen Reid, describes the physical effects of laughing gas and tells Mark why he believes the gas shouldn't form part of the government's planned clampdown on legal highs. But Dr Paul Seddon, respiratory paediatrician from Queen Alexandra Children's Hospital in Brighton, warns that increased use could mean increased health problems, like the case of the teenager girl with a collapsed lung admitted to his hospital after inhaling the gas. Producer: Fiona Hill.
           Analysis of linear epitopes recognised by the primary human antibody response to a variable region of the attachment (G) protein of respiratory syncytial virus         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Analysis of linear epitopes recognised by the primary human antibody response to a variable region of the attachment (G) protein of respiratory syncytial virus. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY, 51 (4). pp. 297-304. ISSN 0146-6615
           Antigenic structure, evolution and immunobiology of human respiratory syncytial virus attachment (G) protein         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) Antigenic structure, evolution and immunobiology of human respiratory syncytial virus attachment (G) protein. JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY, 78 (Part 10). pp. 2411-2418. ISSN 0022-1317
           E4 gene function in adenovirus, adenovirus vector and adeno-associated virus infections         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) E4 gene function in adenovirus, adenovirus vector and adeno-associated virus infections. JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY, 78 (Part 9). pp. 2131-2138. ISSN 0022-1317
           Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid proteins in defined segments: Localization of immunoreactive sites and neutralizing epitopes to specific regions         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Expression of Aleutian mink disease parvovirus capsid proteins in defined segments: Localization of immunoreactive sites and neutralizing epitopes to specific regions. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 71 (1). pp. 705-714. ISSN 0022-538X
           High and low efficiency neutralization epitopes on the haemagglutinin of type A influenza virus         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) High and low efficiency neutralization epitopes on the haemagglutinin of type A influenza virus. JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY, 78 (Part 10). pp. 2441-2446. ISSN 0022-1317
           Mapping of the target antigens of the rotavirus-specific cytotoxic T cell response         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Mapping of the target antigens of the rotavirus-specific cytotoxic T cell response. JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY, 78 (Part 5). pp. 1065-1075. ISSN 0022-1317
           Monopartite negative strand RNA genomes         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Monopartite negative strand RNA genomes. SEMINARS IN VIROLOGY, 8 (1). pp. 49-57. ISSN 1044-5773
           The Order Mononegavirales - current status         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) The Order Mononegavirales - current status. ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY, 142 (11). pp. 2321-2326. ISSN 0304-8608
           Rescue of synthetic minireplicons establishes the absence of the NS1 and NS2 genes from avian pneumovirus         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Rescue of synthetic minireplicons establishes the absence of the NS1 and NS2 genes from avian pneumovirus. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 71 (12). pp. 9849-9854. ISSN 0022-538X
           Revised Guidelines for the Preparation of Family Descriptions for the Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) due to be published in mid-1999         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) Revised Guidelines for the Preparation of Family Descriptions for the Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) due to be published in mid-1999. ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY, 142 (10). pp. 2115-2120. ISSN 0304-8608
           Variations in the neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting activities of five influenza A virus-specific IgGs and their antibody fragments         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) Variations in the neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting activities of five influenza A virus-specific IgGs and their antibody fragments. JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY, 78 (Part 10). pp. 2431-2439. ISSN 0022-1317
           Virus taxonomy 1997 - Proceedings of the 26th meeting of the executive committee of the ICTV, Strasbourg, France, May 10-11, 1997         
UNSPECIFIED (1997) Virus taxonomy 1997 - Proceedings of the 26th meeting of the executive committee of the ICTV, Strasbourg, France, May 10-11, 1997. ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY, 142 (8). pp. 1727-1733. ISSN 0304-8608
           A human IgG1 (b12) specific for the CD4 binding site of HIV-1 neutralizes by inhibiting the virus fusion entry process, but b12 Fab neutralizes by inhibiting a postfusion event         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) A human IgG1 (b12) specific for the CD4 binding site of HIV-1 neutralizes by inhibiting the virus fusion entry process, but b12 Fab neutralizes by inhibiting a postfusion event. VIROLOGY, 233 (2). pp. 313-326. ISSN 0042-6822
           A recombinant human adenovirus expressing the simian immunodeficiency virus Gag antigen can induce long-lived immune responses in mice         
UNSPECIFIED. (1997) A recombinant human adenovirus expressing the simian immunodeficiency virus Gag antigen can induce long-lived immune responses in mice. JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY, 78 (Part 5). pp. 991-997. ISSN 0022-1317
          TPS Ep. 034 – How to Avoid Losing Contact with Your Audience        
On this episode, Vincent, host of This Week in Virology, calls in to talk about his mix-minus setup. Grant wants to know about slow download speeds from files hosted on blip.tv and I talk about having a plan to stay connected to your audience if one or more of your broadcasting channels goes down or […]
           Infection with 2009 H1N1 influenza virus primes for immunological memory in human nose-associated lymphoid tissue, offering cross-reactive immunity to H1N1 and avian H5N1 viruses         
Mahallawi, Waleed H., Kasbekar, Anand V., McCormick, Maxwell S., Hoschler, Katja, Temperton, Nigel, Leong, Samuel C., Beer, Helen, Ferrara, Francesca, McNamara, Paul S. and Zhang, Qibo (2013) Infection with 2009 H1N1 influenza virus primes for immunological memory in human nose-associated lymphoid tissue, offering cross-reactive immunity to H1N1 and avian H5N1 viruses. Journal of Virology, 87 (10). pp. 5331-5339. ISSN 0022-538X (Print), 1098-5514 (Online) (doi:10.1128/JVI.03547-12 )
           Adjuvant-free immunization with hemagglutinin-Fc fusion proteins as an approach to influenza vaccines         
Loureiro, Silvia, Ren, Junyuan, Phapugrangkul, Pongsathon, Colaco, Camilo A., Bailey, Christopher R., Shelton, Holly, Molesti, Eleonora, Temperton, Nigel J., Barclay, Wendy S. and Jones, Ian M. (2010) Adjuvant-free immunization with hemagglutinin-Fc fusion proteins as an approach to influenza vaccines. Journal of Virology, 85 (6). pp. 3010-3014. ISSN 0022-538X (Print), 1098-5514 (Online) (doi:10.1128/​JVI.01241-10 )
           Antigenic drift in H5N1 avian influenza virus in poultry is driven by mutations in major antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin molecule analogous to those for human influenza virus         
Cattoli, Giovanni, Milani, Adelaide, Temperton, Nigel, Zecchin, Bianca, Buratin, Alessandra, Molesti, Eleonora, Meherez Aly, Mona, Arafa, Abdel and Capua, Ilaria (2011) Antigenic drift in H5N1 avian influenza virus in poultry is driven by mutations in major antigenic sites of the hemagglutinin molecule analogous to those for human influenza virus. Journal of Virology, 85 (17). pp. 8718-8724. ISSN 0022-538X (Print), 1098-5514 (Online) (doi:10.1128/JVI.02403-10 )
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          Existe una vía de finalización del embarazo para disminuir la transmisión vertical de Hepatitis B?        
S. Zunini, A. Mandiá, L. Lorente

Médicos Residentes Clínica Ginecológica C


Introducción

Es conocido hoy que el 95% de los contagios verticales de hepatitis B ocurren en el momento del parto. Por lo tanto se ha planteado la cesárea electiva anteparto como método de interrupción para disminuir el riego de contagio madre – hijo

Objetivo

En base a la mejor evidencia disponible, determinar si la vía de finalización del embarazo, parto vaginal o cesárea, realmente disminuye la incidencia de transmisión vertical del virus de la hepatitis B

Material y Métodos

Se realizó un búsqueda en inglés en las siguientes bases de datos: pubmed, cochrane, gfmer, md consult. Se utilizaron las siguientes palabras claves: “hepatitis B”, “hepatitis B managment”, “vertical transmission”, “elective cesarean”, “delivery”.
Se incluyeron únicamente revisiones sistemáticas, metaanálisis y guías clínicas.

Resultados

Se encontró 1 revisión sistemática-Virology Journal (1) - y 2 guías clínica –A.C.O.G.(2) - y C.D.C.(3)
La revisión sistemática del Virology Journal, incluye en su revisión 4 estudios con un total de 789 pacientes. Todos los estudios considerados son randomizados, si bien no se explica la forma de aleatorización. Esta revisión concluye que aunque los resultados evidencian una reducción significativa del riesgo de transmisión vertical del hepatitis B en aquellas pacientes con cesárea programada, estas conclusiones deben tomarse con precaución, dado que no hay datos precisos sobre la metodología.
La guía clínica propuesta por la A.C.O.G., no hace referencia a cuál es la vía de finalización del embarazo con menor tasa de transmisión vertical.
Esta guía expone que en un 85 a 95% de los casos, la infección ocurre debido a la exposición intraparto del recién nacido a la sangre y secreciones del tracto genital infectadas.

La guía de C.D.C. tampoco se expide en la forma de finalización del embarazo en pacientes portadoras de hepatitis b crónica.


Conclusiones

En base a la evidencia disponible, la finalización del embarazo mediante una operación cesárea parecería ser beneficioso para disminuir la incidencia de transmisión vertical de hepatitis b. Existen dudas sobre la calidad de la evidencia sobre este tema.
Los estudios al respecto son escasos y se necesita evidencia adicional.

Bibliografia

1- Yang J, Zeng XM, Men YL, Zhao LS. Elective caesarean section versus vaginal delivery for preventing mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus--a systematic review. Virol J. 2008 Aug 28;5:100

2- The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Viral Hepatitis in
Pregnancy. CLINICAL MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR OBSTETRICIAN–GYNECOLOGISTSNUMBER 86, OCTOBER 2007; 941-955

3- Mast E, Margolis H, Fiore A. A Comprehensive Immunization Strategy to Eliminate Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention., 2005 December 23, Vol. 54, No. RR-16.
          TWiV 284: By the pricking of my thumbs, something wicked this way comes        
On episode #284 of the science show This Week in Virology, the TWiV team discusses how skin scarification promotes a nonspecific immune response, and whether remaining stocks of smallpox virus should be destroyed. You can find TWiV #284 at www.microbe.tv/twiv.
          TWiV 229: Partly cloudy with a high of H7N9        
On episode #229 of the science show This Week in Virology, Vincent, Rich, Dickson, and Alan review the current status of human infections with avian influenza H7N9 virus. You can find TWiV #229 at www.microbe.tv/twiv.
          TWiV 227: Lacks security and bad poultry        
On episode #227 of the science show This Week in Virology, the complete TWiV team reviews the controversial publication of the HeLa cell genome, a missing vial of Guanarito virus in a BSL-4 facility, and human infections with avian influenza H7N9 virus. You can find TWiV #227 at www.microbe.tv/twiv.
          A startup cofounded by a 31-year-old just got a step closer to transplanting pig organs into humans        

Luhan Yang HeadshotCourtesy eGenesis

  • Egenesis, a startup that raised $38 million in March, just successfully used the gene-editing tool CRISPR to knock out a key virus in piglets.
  • The virus-free pigs could get us a step closer to transplanting pig organs into humans, something that's been a challenge in the past. 
  • Next, the company may have to make some more tweaks to make sure our immune systems don't reject the pig organs and ultimately test out how safe and effective these organs are in humans. 

Egenesis, a startup that's using the gene-editing tool CRISPR to make pig organs viable for transplants into people, just became the first company to make pigs that don't transmit a key virus, a move that could get us closer to pig-organ transplants for humans. 

The company, which raised $38 million in March and is cofounded by Harvard geneticist George Church and 31-year old Luhan Yang, wants to knock out certain genes in pigs that could cause diseases or organ rejection in humans, making it possible for those pig organs to be transplanted.

On Thursday, the Egenesis team announced in the journal Science that it had produced 37 piglets that had inactivated Porcine Endogenous Retrovirus, or PERV. The virus, which is part of the pigs' DNA, has been an issue for human-pig transplants in the past because of concerns that it could infect humans. Inactivating the virus could ease those concerns. 

"This is the first publication to report on PERV-free pig production," Yang, who is chief scientific officer at Egenesis, said in a news release. 

Why pig organs could help with transplant shortages

According to the US Health Resources and Services Administration, there are more than 118,000 people in the US who are on the waiting list for organ transplants. In 2016, there were a record-high 33,500 transplants, but an estimated 22 people die each day waiting on a new organ. Getting organs from animals — particularly from pigs, whose organs tend to be close in size and work similarly to human organs — could be the solution to that shortage. 

But there are two huge hurdles to getting animal-organ transplants to successfully work in humans — a process known as xenotransplantation. The first, Yang told Business Insider in March, is the virology, or the fact that pigs carry genes encoded with viruses that could transmit disease to humans — that's the PERV genes that Egenesis is working to deactivate.

The second hurdle, she said, is the immunology. Since the pig organ would be foreign to the body, the person's immune system might try to kick it out, rejecting the organ. Those proved too challenging for a slew of researchers going after this subject in the 1990s. 

Ideally, CRISPR will help tackle those issues "that were insurmountable before," Yang said. "We think the advancement of gene editing can help us address both of them," Yang said.  

How Egenesis' process works

  • Egenesis wants to build genetically modified pig clones that tackle both the virology and immunology challenges that come with taking a pig organ and putting it in a human.
  • To do that, you first genetically modify pig cells. That was the first step Egenesis took back in 2015 when it inactivated 62 virus genes in pig embryos. 
  • From those cells you can clone pigs that grow up, at which point you can take the organs from them. That's where today's news comes in: Yang and her team were able to create 37 piglets, 15 of which have survived and the oldest were 4 months old.
  • Now, the company can test the pig to make sure the organs are safe and effective, and eventually move the pig organs into clinical trials.

Egenesis isn't the only company trying to harness animal organs for use in humans. United Therapeutics is also going after xenotransplantation, while others are taking a different approach of trying to grow human organs in pigs. And the world's largest pork producer is exploring how to grow tissues and organs that could be used in human transplants. Yang said the number of companies starting to work on this again is good news. 

"I think it’s a good sign that the field has been revived," she told Business Insider. 

NOW WATCH: All the nasty things inside a pimple — and why you should stop popping them


           Virus species polemics : 14 senior virologists oppose a proposed change to the ICTV definition of virus species         
Regenmortel, Marc H. V., Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang, Calisher, Charles H., Dietzgen, Ralf G., Horzinek, Marian C., Keil, Gunther M., Mahy, Brian W. J., Martelli, Giovanni P., Murphy, Frederick A., Pringle, Craig, Rima, Bert K., Skern, Tim, Vetten, H.-J. and Weaver, Scott C.. (2013) Virus species polemics : 14 senior virologists oppose a proposed change to the ICTV definition of virus species. Archives of Virology, Volume 158 (Number 5). pp. 1115-1119. ISSN 0304-8608
           A proposal to change existing virus species names to non-Latinized binomials         
Van Regenmortel, Marc H. V., Burke, Donald S., Calisher, Charles H., Dietzgen, Ralf G., Fauquet, Claude M., Ghabrial, Said A., Jahrling, Peter B., Johnson, Karl M., Holbrook, Michael R., Horzinek, Marian C. et al. <#>. (2010) A proposal to change existing virus species names to non-Latinized binomials. Archives of Virology, Vol.155 (No.11). pp. 1909-1919. ISSN 0304-8608
           ALTERED CYTOKINE EXPRESSION IN T-LYMPHOCYTES FROM HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TAT TRANSGENIC MICE         
BRADY, HJM; ABRAHAM, DJ; PENNINGTON, DJ; MILES, CG; JENKINS, S; DZIERZAK, EA; (1995) ALTERED CYTOKINE EXPRESSION IN T-LYMPHOCYTES FROM HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS TAT TRANSGENIC MICE. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY , 69 (12) pp. 7622-7629.
           HEPATITIS-C GENOTYPES IN HEMOPHILIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH ALPHA-INTERFERON         
DEVEREUX, H; TELFER, P; DUSHEIKO, G; LEE, C; (1995) HEPATITIS-C GENOTYPES IN HEMOPHILIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH ALPHA-INTERFERON. JOURNAL OF MEDICAL VIROLOGY , 45 (3) pp. 284-287. 10.1002/jmv.1890450308 .
           In vivo selection of long terminal repeat alterations in feline leukemia virus-induced thymic lymphomas.         
Rohn, JL; Overbaugh, J; (1995) In vivo selection of long terminal repeat alterations in feline leukemia virus-induced thymic lymphomas. Virology , 206 (1) pp. 661-665.
           Immunogenicity and safety of a new inactivated Hepatitis A vaccine in a comparative study         
Goilav, C; Zuckerman, JN; Lafrenz, M; Vidor, E; Lauwers, S; Ratheau, C; Benichou, G; Goilav, C; Zuckerman, JN; Lafrenz, M; Vidor, E; Lauwers, S; Ratheau, C; Benichou, G; Zuckerman, AJ; - view fewer <#> (1995) Immunogenicity and safety of a new inactivated Hepatitis A vaccine in a comparative study. Journal of Medical Virology , 46 pp. 287-292.
           Precore and core mutations in HBV from individuals in India with chronic infection.         
Valliammai, T; Thyagarajan, SP; Zuckerman, AJ; Harrison, TJ; (1995) Precore and core mutations in HBV from individuals in India with chronic infection. Journal of Medical Virology , 45 pp. 321-325.
           Amplification and sequence analysis of the precore and core region of the HBV genome from sera of Spanish patients with HBV2-like infections.         
Valliammai, T; Echevarría, JM; León, P; Tusets, C; Harrison, TJ; (1995) Amplification and sequence analysis of the precore and core region of the HBV genome from sera of Spanish patients with HBV2-like infections. Journal of Medical Virology , 46 pp. 375-379.
           Diversity of genotypes of hepatitis C virus in South India.         
Valliammai, T; Thyagarajan, SP; Zuckerman, AJ; Harrison, TJ; (1995) Diversity of genotypes of hepatitis C virus in South India. Journal of General Virology , 76 pp. 711-716.
           Retroviral recombination can lead to linkage of reverse transcriptase mutations that confer increased zidovudine resistance.         
Kellam, P; Larder, BA; (1995) Retroviral recombination can lead to linkage of reverse transcriptase mutations that confer increased zidovudine resistance. Journal of Virology , 69 (2) pp. 669-674.
           Change in tropism upon immune escape by human immunodeficiency virus         
McKnight, A; Weiss, RA; Shotton, C; Takeuchi, Y; Hoshino, H; Clapham, PR; (1995) Change in tropism upon immune escape by human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Virology , 69 pp. 3167-3170.
           Retroviral retargeting by envelopes expressing an N-terminal binding domain         
Cosset, FL; Morling, FJ; Takeuchi, Y; Weiss, RA; Collins, MK; Russell, SJ; (1995) Retroviral retargeting by envelopes expressing an N-terminal binding domain. Journal of Virology , 69 (10) pp. 6314-6322.
           High-titer packaging cells producing recombinant retroviruses resistant to human serum         
Cosset, FL; Takeuchi, Y; Battini, JL; Weiss, RA; Collins, MK; (1995) High-titer packaging cells producing recombinant retroviruses resistant to human serum. Journal of Virology , 69 (12) pp. 7430-7436.
          Conformational states of a soluble, uncleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer        
Liu, Y, Pan J, Cai Y, Grigorieff N, Harrison SC, Chen B.  2017.  Conformational states of a soluble, uncleaved HIV-1 envelope trimer. Journal of Virology. 91(10):e00175-17.
          Flu Viruses May Be Preserved in Ice for Millennia        
Flu Viruses May Be Preserved in Ice for Millennia (Update1)

By Jason Gale

Nov. 28 (Bloomberg) -- Influenza viruses may be preserved in glaciers and Arctic ice for thousands of years and released into the environment when the frozen water is thawed, potentially touching off lethal pandemics, researchers said.

Global warming may speed the release of the microbes, increasing the frequency of outbreaks, according to a study in the December issue of the Journal of Virology. The study is based on tests of water and ice from three lakes in Siberia, where large populations of migratory waterfowl breed before traveling to North America, southern Asia, Europe and Africa.

The finding may help explain the constant emergence of influenza A-type viruses that cause seasonal epidemics and occasionally set off pandemics capable of killing millions of people. Disease trackers are monitoring flu viruses amid an outbreak of the H5N1 strain, known to have infected 258 people in 10 countries in the past three years, killing 153 of them.

``One expectation in relation to this phenomenon would be an increased rate of release of these microbes during times of global, or local, warming events and a decrease during cooler periods,'' said the authors, led by Gang Zhang from Ohio's Bowling Green State University.

Last year was the warmest in more than a century, according to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York. Climatologists there monitoring global annual average surface temperatures found that the four previous hottest years since the 1890s were 1998, 2002, 2003 and 2004.

Pandemic Threat

The spread of H5N1 in late 2003 has put the world closer to another pandemic than at any time since 1968, when the last of the previous century's three major outbreaks occurred, according to the World Health Organization.

The H5N1 virus killed about 200 chickens at a South Korean farm, the second outbreak in three days, fueling concerns that the disease may be spreading in the country again after three years. The farm, in the southwestern city of Iksan, is about 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) from a property where H5N1 was confirmed Nov. 25, said Kim Yang Il, an agriculture ministry spokesman.

In Indonesia, the country with the most H5N1 fatalities, the virus killed a 35-year-old woman in a Jakarta hospital early today. The woman from Banten province was most likely infected by diseased poultry, said Joko Suyono, an official at the health ministry.

Bird Contact

Almost all human H5N1 cases have been linked to close contact with sick or dead birds, such as children playing with them or adults butchering them or plucking feathers.

A pandemic can start when a novel influenza A-type virus, to which almost no one is naturally immune, emerges and begins spreading. Experts believe that a pandemic in 1918, which may have killed as many as 50 million people, began when an avian flu virus jumped to people from birds.

Aquatic birds, such as ducks and geese, are the primary host of all influenza viruses. The virus is shed in feces and frequently deposited in rivers and lakes.

Many species of aquatic birds flock to Siberia and other areas near the Arctic Circle for breeding during the Northern Hemisphere's summer before flying south during the fall.

As the birds visit lakes along their paths they shed viruses into the water and onto any ice present, and drink water containing viruses discharged by other birds or released from the ice by thawing, the authors said in the study.

140,000 Years

In previous studies, the authors, who include researchers from Israel's Bar-Illan University and the Russian Academy of Sciences, documented the preservation of viruses, bacteria, and fungi in glacial ice for as long as 140,000 years.

Surveillance of Arctic lakes may help disease trackers predict which flu strains will cause future outbreaks and shape long-term vaccination strategies, the researchers said.

Ice, ice-covered lakes and glaciers have ``the potential for being major sources of viruses that cause pandemics and epizootics in birds and other animals,'' they wrote.

Until refreezing takes place, viruses of both present and past strains may be contracted by the waterfowl, allowing old and new viruses to continually recombine, the study said.

``Conceivably, such ongoing perpetual mechanisms have been operating cyclically throughout the virus's evolution, enabling recurrent emergence of past genes,'' according to the authors.

The same pattern of evolution probably occurs in other diseases as well, the authors said, adding that ``this awaits thorough examination.''

It may explain why some influenza virus strains have appeared, disappeared, and then re-emerged decades later virtually unchanged, they said. A Russian H1N1 influenza virus that caused an epidemic in 1977 was almost identical to the H1N1 strain that caused an epidemic in 1950. Other strains, most notably variants of H2N2 and H3N2 and several H1 varieties, have made similar returns, the researchers said.

To contact the reporter on this story: Jason Gale in Singapore at j.gale@bloomberg.net
Last Updated: November 28, 2006 04:36 EST
           Molecular epidemiology of human rhinovirus infections in Kilifi, coastal Kenya         
Onyango, Clayton O., Welch, Stephen R., Munywoki, Patrick K., Agoti, Charles N., Bett, Ann, Ngama, Mwanajuma, Myers, Richard, Cane, Patricia and Nokes, D. James. (2012) Molecular epidemiology of human rhinovirus infections in Kilifi, coastal Kenya. Journal of Medical Virology, Volume 84 (Number 5). pp. 823-831. ISSN 0146-6615
           Hypoxia- and radiation-inducible, breast cell-specific targeting of retroviral vectors         
Lipnik, Karoline, Greco, Olga, Scott, Simon, Knapp, Elzbieta, Mayrhofer, Elisabeth, Rosenfellner, Doris, Günzburg, Walter H., Salmons, Brian and Hohenadl, Christine (2006) Hypoxia- and radiation-inducible, breast cell-specific targeting of retroviral vectors. Virology, 349 (1). pp. 121-133. ISSN 0042-6822 (doi:10.1016/j.virol.2005.12.038 )
          Microbiology Supervisor - Microbiology (FT Days) - (Long Beach, California, United States)        
MICROBIOLOGY SUPERVISOR THIS POSITION IS ELIGIBILE FOR A SIGN-ON BONUS! At MemorialCare Health System, we believe in providing extraordinary healthcare to our communities and an exceptional working environment for our employees. Memorial Care stands for excellence in Healthcare. Across our family of medical centers, we support each one of our bright, talented employees in reaching the highest levels of professional development, contribution, collaboration and accountability. Whatever your role and whatever expertise you bring, we are dedicated to helping you achieve your full potential in an environment of respect, innovation and teamwork. Long Beach Memorial Medical Center is the largest facility in the MemorialCare Health System network and is a Magnet ® -designated teaching hospital. Adjacent to us, is the Miller Children's and Women's Hospital, a specialty provider for children and expectant mothers with 324 beds. Combined with the 458 beds at Long Beach Memorial, makes a total of 782 licensed beds. Our unique environment allows for a range of medical services, from childhood to adulthood, to be structured under one roof. With our technology, our vision, and especially our talented professionals, we ensure our patients receive the best possible care. We consistently achieve national accolades for our quality care, including ranking as one of “America’s Best Hospitals” by U.S. News & World Report magazine. A Bachelor's degree in clinical laboratory, medical technology or other science with at least 4 years’ experience with high complexity testing with high expertise in Microbiology, Virology, TB Mycology, Parasitology, and Bacteriology. •Current California licensure as a Clinical Lab Scientist (CLS). •In depth knowledge of laboratory activities as they impact laboratory services. •Knowledge, where indicated, of billing procedures, coding, and regulatory requirements. •Positive guest relations skills are critical in this position. •Ability to interact with and provide leadership for laboratory personnel who have high degrees of technical expertise in specialized areas. •Demonstrated supervisory skills in handling professional and/or nonprofessional workforce.
          SOAL ESSAY VIRUS KELAS X        
SOAL

1. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan virus ?
Jawab : virus merupakan partikel (virion ) dan dapat hidup di dalam sel organisme hidup (inang).

2. Terdiri dari apakah virus itu ?
Jawab : virus memiliki satu jenis molekul asam nukleat yang diselubungi oleh kapsid.

3. Apakah yang dimaksud dengan kapsid ?
Jawab : kapsid merupakan selubung protein yang membungkus asam nukleat.

4. Disebut apakah susunan unit unit protein pada kapsid ?
Jawab : composer

5. Apa saja peran kapsid ?
Jawab : kapsid berperan melindungi inti asam nukleat, menentukan macam sel yang akan dilekati oleh virion dan membantu menyisipkan virion ( setidak-tidaknya) kedalam sel inang .

6. Apa yang dimaksud lipoprotein?
Jawab :lipoprotein merupakan potongan membrane sel inang yang terdiri atas berbagai jenis protein khususnya enzim(misalnya, enzim polymerase)

7. Virus apa saja yang diselaputi oleh lipoprotein ?
Jawab : virus influenza,virus herpes,dan virus cacar.

8. Apa yang dimaksud replikasi ?
Jawab : yaitu virus bereproduksi dengan cara membuat salinan materi genetika dan selubung protein yang dimilikinya di dalam sel inang.

9. Sebutkan contoh reproduksi virus ?
Jawab : virus T bakteriofag yaitu virus yang menyerang bakteri.

10. Ada berapa macam daur hidup pada virus dan sebutkan ?
Jawab : ada macam yaitu daur litik dan daur lisogenik.

11. Cabang ilmu Biologi yang mempelajari tentang virus adalah …
Jawab : Virology

12. Asam nukleat pada virus diselubungi oleh kapsid yang disebut ….
Jawab: DNA

13. Pada bakterifag , kaki serabutnya merupakan perpanjangan ekor yang berfungsi untuk ….
Jawab :Menanjankan diri ke bakteri

14. Virus akan menghancurkan sel induk setelah melakukan reproduksi.
Pernyataan diatas termasuk dalam infeksi secara ….
Jawab :Litik

15. Fag menyusun dan memperbanyak DNA merupakan fase ....... dalam infeksi secara......
Jawab :Fase repllika dalam litik

16. Setelah dinding sel terhidrolis (rusak) maka DNA fag masuk ke dalam sel bakteri disebut fase …Jawab : Fase penetrasi


17. Perhatijan gambar dibawah ini


Virus pada gambar diatas yang ditunjuk oleh anak panah pada bagian 1 adalah …..
jawab : Kepala

18. virus pada gambar diatas yang ditunjuk oleh anak panah pada bagian 2 adalah …..
jawab : kapsid

19. virus pada gambar diatas yang ditunjuk oleh anak panah pada bagian 5 adalah …..
jawab :serabut ekor

20. Seorang ilmuan bernama …… menyimpulkan bahwa partikel yang yang menyerang tembakau tersebut sangat kecil dan hanya dapat hidup pada makhluk hidup yang diserangnya. Akan tetapi teori ini belum berhasil menemukan struktur dan jenis partikel ini.
Jawab :Martinus Beijerinck

21. Virus pemakan bakteri adalah …..
Jawab : Bakteriofag

22. Flu burung adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh virus yang biasanya menjangkit unggas. Penyebab penyakit ini termasuk golongan virus influenza …..
Jawab :Tipe A

23. Avian Influenza A( H5NI) penyebab penyakit ……
Jawab : Penyebab penyakit flu burung

24. Penularan penyakit AIDS dapat melalui ....
Jawab : Hubungan seksual

25. HIV di dalam penderita AIDS mengakibatkan penderita mengalami ……
Jawab : Rapuhnya sistem kekebalan

26. Salah satu sifat dari virus adalah ........
Jawab : Inti sel prokariotik

27. Disebut apakah sel inang yang terinfeksi provirus….
Jawab : sel lisogenik

28. Bersifat apakah asam nukleat virus didalam generasi sel inang….
Jawab : dorman dan disebut provirus

29. Sebutkan contoh virus hewan ….
Jawab : virus rabies,virus tetelo, virus mulut dan kuku

30. Sebutkan contoh virus tumbuhan ….
Jawab : virus mosaic tembakau

31. Sebutkan contoh virus manusia …..
Jawab : virus herpes, virus hepatitis

32. Sebutkan contoh virus bakteri ……
Jawab : bakteriofag

33. Sebutkan 3 virus yang menyerang tumbuhan ….
Jawab : virus Cvpd, virus pydv,virus tmv

34. Virus apakah yang menyerang tanaman buncis ….
Jawab : virus BMV (bean mosaic virus)

35. Virus apa saja yang menerang hewan …
Jawab : virus rabies,

36. Sebutkan virus yang menyerang manusia…
Jawab : virus herpes ,virus hepatitis

37. Apa yang disebabkan oleh virus herpes…
Jawab : menyebabkan lesi” pada alat kelamin laki” atau perempuan

38. Radang hati disebabkan oleh..
Jawab : virus hepatitis

39. Sebutkan gejala yang timbul akibat hepatitis A….
Jawab : badan lemah dan lelah , tidak nafsu makan ,mual,muntah

40. Virus yang menular melalui kontak darah dan cairan kelamin disebut….
Jawab : virus hepatitis B

          Noted Women Scientists of India - an attempt at enumeration        
Priya Ravichandran (@binaryfootprint on Twitter), who is a program manager and writer with the Takshashila Institution, threw a challenge on Twitter the other day. She asked her followers to name top 5 women scientists of India without doing a Google search first. Easy-peesy, I thought. But as I tried to remember the names, I was mortified to discover that beyond Dr. Asima Chatterjee (a noted Chemist) and Dr. Sipra Guha Mukherjee (a noted plant biologist, who had taught us at the Jawaharlal Nehru University), I couldn't remember off-hand the names of any top tier Indian women in the pure sciences fields. Even in my dotage, this was embarrassing. So, I enlisted the help of my friends on Facebook (Viva la social media!) and asked them to come up with names. In this post, I am going to list those names that came up. One caveat: the list, understandably, may be slightly biased towards women in bioscience and related fields - since many of my friends and I are biology researchers. However, I'd love it if you, dear readers, could come up with other names, and leave them in the comments, along with a few words in description.

Before I begin, let me gratefully acknowledge all those friends who have offered their suggestions. Two friends suggested that I start looking into the list of the awardees of the SS Bhatnagar award, a science award in India given annually by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of the Government of India for fundamental and applied research. The award was instituted in 1958; it seems a monumental shame that only 14 women (out of over 450 total awardees) were given this award until 2012! It certainly doesn't bode well for women scientists in India.

UPDATE: October 25, 2013: Yamuna Krishnan becomes the 15th woman awardee of the Bhatnagar Award; she receives it in Chemical Sciences for her work with the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids.

Here's the list.

NameYearSpecializationNotes
Shubha Tole2010Biological SciencesNeuroscientist, faculty member at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai; major research interest: Genetic mechanisms and signaling pathways of the cerebral cortex and amygdala of the developing brain.
Sanghamitra Bandyopadhyay2010Engineering SciencesProfessor at the Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta; fellow of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and Indian National Academy of Engineering; main research interest: Computational Biology and genetic algorithms.
Mitali Mukerji2010Medical SciencesScientist at the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi; main research area: effects of genome variation on human phenotypes and susceptibility to diseases.
Charusita Chakravarty2009Chemical SciencesProfessor of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; main research interest: theoretical chemistry, chemical, classical and quantum physics.
Rama Govindarajan2007Engineering SciencesProfessor of Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research; main research interests: instability and transition to turbulence of shear flows, physics of interfacial flows.
Sujatha Ramdorai2004Mathematical SciencesProfessor at the School of Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai; Professor at Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver; PhD student of Raman Parimala (see below); mathematician renowned for algebraic theory; fellow of Indian Academy of Sciences (IAS), NAS, Indian National Science Academy (INSA).
Vijayalakshmi Ravindranath1996Medical SciencesCurrent Chair, Center for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science (IISc); main research interests: pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, disease modifying therapies.
Shashi Wadhwa1991Medical SciencesCurrent faculty member, All Indian Institute of Medical Sciences; main research interest: developmental neurobiology, quantitative morphology and electron microscopy.
Sudipta Sengupta1991Earth SciencesProfessor, Department of Geological Sciences, Jadavpur University; fellow of INSA; conducted pioneering geological studies in Antarctica; expert mountaineer.
Manju Ray1989Biological SciencesEmeritus Scientist, Bose Institute, CSIR; former professor, Department of Biochemistry, Indian Association of Cultivation of Science; main research interest: tumor biochemistry and molecular enzymology.
Raman Parimala1987Mathematical SciencesCurrently, Professor of Mathematics at Emory University; member of the INSA and IAS.
Indira Nath1983Medical SciencesPhysician Scientist with major focus on immune responses in Leprosy; recipient of innumerable national and international awards, including Padmashree, the fourth highest civilian award in India; fellow and former vice president of the NAS; fellow of the IAS, National Academy of Medical Sciences, and many other national and international bodies.
Archana Sharma1975Biological Sciences(1932-2008) Scientist in the field of Cytogenetics and Genetic Toxicology; founding editor of the international journal The Nucleus; Second woman to be conferred a Doctorate of Science (D.Sc.) by University of Calcutta formerly, professor of Botany, University of Calcutta; member of INSA; author of several books on Chromosome and Genetic techniques. [Link to Obit]
Asima Chatterjee1961Chemical Sciences(1917-2006) Formerly Professor of Chemistry, University of Calcutta; first woman to be awarded a D.Sc. by an Indian university (University of Calcutta); noted for her work in organic chemistry and medicinal plants; member of INSA. [Link to Obit]

In addition to above, the following is a list of elected women fellows of prestigious national science bodies in India, such as IAS, NAS, and INSA. This compilation is gleaned from the websites of IAS, INSA, as well as individual institutions of the concerned scientists.

NameFellowshipResearch areaNotes
Ashima AnandINSAPhysiology and neurology of the cardiopulmonary systemScientist at Vallavbhai Patel Chest Institute of the Delhi University; also, a member of the Committee on Ethics of the International Union of Physiological Sciences.
Manju BansalINSA, IAS, NASMolecular Biophysics, Structural and Computational BiologyProfessor at the Molecular Biophysics unit, IISc; she did her PhD on collagen triple helix under the mentorship of world-renowned biophysicist GN Ramachandran; her work has elucidated the connection between DNA structure and specific functions such as transcription initiation and replication.
Mahtab Sohrab BamjiINSA, NAMSNutritional BiochemistryEmeritus Medical Scientist, Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR); she has done seminal work in elucidating the physiology and biochemistry of vitamin B-complex.
Aparna Dutta GuptaINSA, IASInsect Molecular PhysiologyProfessor at the School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad; her recent work has included improved methods of pest control via application of biochemistry and insect physiology.
Joyoti BasuINSA, IAS, NASMolecular and Cellular BiologyProfessor at Bose Institute, CSIR; she has done in-depth and high impact work on interaction of innate immunity with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the TB bacillus.
Archana BhattacharyyaINSA, IAS, NASIonospheric Physics and GeomagnetismScientist and Director of the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Mumbai; she studies the dynamics and evolution of ionospheric irregularities, which are produced by unstable plasma in earth's ionosphere, and scatter radio frequency waves.
Rajani Avinash BhiseyINSA, IASEnvironmental Carcinogenesis, Molecular EpidemiologyAdjunct professor, University of Pune; she developed a hairless mouse model sensitive to tumor initiation and promotion by environmental agents, such as tobacco; she has identified genetic polymorphisms that confer high oral cancer risk to tobacco users.
Bimla ButiINSA, NASPlasma PhysicsFormer Senior professor and Faculty Dean, Physical Research Laboratory; she held many national and international appointments.
Maharani ChakravortyINSA, NAS, NAMSMolecular Biology and Genetic EngineeringHonorary Scientist at the National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, ICMR; her work has greatly enriched the fields of ribosomes and protein synthesis in Salmonella typhimurium, and of the functions of bacteriophage P22.
Vidya Avinash ArankalleINSA, IASVirologyDirector-In-Charge & Scientist, National institute of Virology; she has conducted excellent research work in pathogenesis of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) and antibody immunity against HEV infection in pregnant women; she has developed a vaccine Candidate for HEV.
Madhu DikshitINSA, IASPharmacologyChief Scientist & Head, Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Lucknow; she has made seminal contributions in the understanding the role of Nitric Oxide in free-radical generation by innate immune cells, and in degenerative pathological conditions.
Chanda Jayant JogINSA, IAS, NASAstrophysicsProfessor of Physics, IISc, Bangalore; many original contributions in the field of morphology and dynamics of galaxies, which have been used to interpret observational studies on galaxies.
Sandhya Srikant VisweswariahINSA, IASBiochemistry, Protein Structure-Function and Signal TransductionProfessor of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, at IISc, Bangalore; current research focus includes molecular mechanisms of signalling mediated by cyclic nucleotides, and phosphodiesterase enzymes.
Sampa DasINSA, NASPlant Molecular Biology & BiotechnologyProfessor of Plant molecular biology, Bose Institute, CSIR; she has worked on carbohydrate-binding insecticidal plant proteins that inhibit certain agricultural pests, and created transgenic rice, mustard, chickpea and tobacco that were resistant to these pests.
Kasturi DattaINSA, NAS, IASCellular and Molecular BiologyFormerly, Professor, School of Environmental Sciences, JNU; currently, adjunct professor, Special Center for Molecular Medicine, JNU; she has made numerous contributions to studies on mammalian physiological processes.
Sulochana GadgilINSA, IASAtmospheric and Oceanic Science, Evolutionary BiologyPrimarily a mathematician, she is currently an Honorary Professor at the Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences of IISc; she has contributed significantly to the understanding of monsoon dynamics, tropical convection, coupling of the tropical atmosphere to the oceans and agricultural strategies for a variable climate; she also spearheaded the efforts culminating in the Indian Climate Research Programme (ICRP).
Rohini Madhusudan GodboleINSA, IAS, NASTheoretical High Energy PhysicsProfessor at the Center for High Energy Physics, IISc, Bangalore; she has done important work on hadronic structure of high-energy photons; she is also known for her hypotheses around innovative ways to seek new particles.
Sudha Gajanan GangalINSA, IASCancer Immunology, Basic Immunology Genetic DiseasesEmeritus Professor at Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Biotechnology, Bharati Vidyapeeth in Pune; she had established the cancer immunology division at Cancer Research Institute, and developed several oral cancer cells lines and monoclonal antibodies that recognize a variety of cancer cells.
Rajinder Jeet Hans-GillINSA, IAS, NASGeometry of Numbers, Number Theory, Discrete GeometryINSA Senior Scientist and Emeritus Professor at Punjab University. She is known to have made significant contribution to the field of pure mathematics.
Gaiti HasanINSA, IASCellular and Molecular Biology, Genetics, NeuroscienceSenior Professor at the National Center for Biological Sciences, TIFR, Bangalore; current research interests include the role of intracellular calcium signaling in Drosophila growth and neuronal function, by which she seeks to understand role of calcium signaling in human disease.
Hiriyakkanavar IlaINSA, IASSynthetic and Medicinal ChemistryFormerly, Professor at Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur - same institution where she was the first woman to receive a PhD (1968); her research contributions are related to the design and development of novel and efficient synthetic methods for biomolecules, especially heterocyclic substances and domino reactions.
Jaya Sivaswami TyagiINSA, NAS, IASMolecular Biology of MycobacteriaProfessor at the Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; a long time researcher in mycobacteriology, she has made important contribution to the understanding of the intracellular dormancy phenomenon of this bacterial pathogen.
Sudesh Kaur KhandujaINSA, NAS, IASAlgebraic Number TheoryCurrently, a Professor of Mathematics at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research in Mohali; her research contributions have been in theory of valuations, function field theory and algebraic number theory.
Renu Khanna-ChopraINSA, NASPlant Biochemistry and Stress PhysiologyScientist affiliated with the Water Technology Center of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute; her work has involved photosynthesis in relation to crop productivity, mechanism of heterosis and drought resistance in crop plants, and she has successfully hybridized drought tolerant and high yielding wheat varieties.
Kamala KrishnaswamyINSA, NAS, IASMedicineFormer Director of the National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, where she also established the Advance Centre for pre-clinical toxicology at the Food and Drug Toxicology centre; her research has involved diet-cancer interactions, nutrient-drug interactions, environmental toxicology, non-communicable chronic diseases and vitamin B-complex deficiencies.
Usha Kehar LuthraINSA, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Pathology, Cytopathology, Cancer ResearchFormer Additional Director General, ICMR, and founder Director of the Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology, New Delhi; her work significantly progressed the understanding of cancer of uterine cervix, and the role of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in these cancers in India, she was also the Project Director of the National Cancer Registry Project and played a major role in establishing a network of population and hospital-based cancer registries for providing data for cancer research and control in India.
Chitra MandalINSA, NAS, IASGlycobiology, ImmunologySenior Scientist at the Infectious Disease and Immunology division of the Indian Institute for Chemical Biology (IICB), Calcutta; her current research interest involves the study of glycosylation of biomolecules in various physiological and pathological conditions.
Minnie Mariam MathanINSA, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Pathology, Electron MicroscopyPhysician Scientist with major focus on gastrointestinal ultra-structure; she made two important contribution to infectious disease research: (a) established an in vitro model of the pathogenesis of the intestinal lesion in Tropical Sprue, and (b) elucidated rotaviral etiology of acute diarrhea in children in India, as well as the mechanism of microbial diarrhea.
Asha MathurINSA, NAS, IAS, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Medical Microbiology, Virology, ImmunologyProfessor and Head of General Pathology and Microbiology at Saraswati Dental and Medical College, Lucknow; her research contributions include diagnosis and investigation of a variety of viral diseases; several aspects of the viral disease, Japanese encephalitis, were elucidated via her studies; she first developed an immunofluorescence-based technique for rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection in patients, and also helped develop an IgM capture ELISA kit for the diagnosis of JE; she initiated the AIDS surveillance center in UP.
Bittianda Kuttapa ThelmaINSA, IAS, NASGeneticsProfessor of Genetics, University of Delhi; her work has involved the understanding of functional significance of repetitive sequences on the X and Y chromosomes, and genetics of complex traits of disease syndromes, such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, as well as inflammatory rheumatic and bowel diseases; she developed a DNA-based diagnostics for Fragile X syndrome.
Soniya NityanandNAS, IASImmunology, Hematology, Stem CellsProfessor and Chair of Hematology department at the Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow; her wide-ranging current research interests include basic biology and therapeutic applications of human mesenchymal stem cells, biology and characterization of human bone marrow derived multipotent adult progenitor cells; she has also worked extensively on immune mediated disorders and hematological malignancies.
Veena Krishnaji ParnaikINSA, IASCell BiologyChief Scientist at the Center for Cellular and Molecular Biology; her work has significantly elucidated the functional organization of the mammalian cell nucleus, especially the role played by a fibrous nuclear protein called lamin in mediating spatial coordination of transcription and splicing; her observations have progressed the understanding of inherited diseases termed laminopathies.
Poonam SalotraINSAMolecular Parasitology and ImmunologyDeputy Director and Scientist, ICMR National Institute of Pathology, New Delhi; she is an acknowledged expert in the field of leishmaniasis; ongoing research interests include genomics, vaccines, diagnostics, immunopathologies, and mechanism of drug resistance in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Vinodini ReddyINSA, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)NutritionPhysician Scientist with important contributions in the field of infant nutrition and growth, nutrition-immunity interactions, protein energy malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency; her research has had significant impact on food and nutrition policies and programs in India.
Rentala MadhubalaINSA, IAS, NAS, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Molecular Parasitology, Functional GenomicsProfessor, School of Life Sciences, JNU, New Delhi; she is an acknowledged expert in the field of leishamania research; ongoing research interests include identification of chemotherapeutic targets, development of diagnostic biomarkers for drug resistance in leishmania and identification of potential vaccine candidates.
Somdatta SinhaIAS, NAS, INSATheoretical and Computational Biology, Complex systemsCurrently, a Professor of Biology at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali; formerly, a Professor at CCMB, Hyderabad. Her research interests include theoretical biology, nonlinear dynamics and complex systems, with the aim to understand the logic and design of biological processes. Her work has also involved analysis of epidemiological data of infectious diseases, studies in host-parasite evolution using genomic data and computational modeling, and use of graph theory to understand macroscopic properties of intracellular networks. In addition, she is an avid Science Educator.
Handanahal Subbarao SavithriINSA, NAS, IASPlant Molecular Virology, Protein BiochemistryProfessor of Biochemistry, IISc, Bangalore; she has made significant contribution to the understanding of biochemistry and mechanism of viral infection of plants, and elucidated the natures of some plant viruses native to India; her work led to the development of transgenic cotton plants resistant to cotton leaf curl disease.
Chandrima ShahaINSA, IAS, NASCell Biology, BiochemistryStaff Scientist, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi; her work has contributed to the understanding of the mechanisms of cellular defense from oxidative stress and modalities of cell death in both multicellular and unicellular environments; her earlier research involved physiology of reproduction and contraception, and she has served as a member of the ICMR Task Force on male contraception.
Bhagyashri Achyut ShanbhagINSA, IASReproductive Biology, EndocrinologyProfessor of Zoology, Karnataka University; her research has made outstanding contributions to reproductive and behavioral ecology of South Indian Agamid lizards, elucidating reproductive events and socio-sexual mechanisms controlling reproduction. A first in her field in India, she successfully raised and bred the lizard Calotes versicolor in captivity, and demonstrated how the lizards trade-off energy for manipulation of many reproductive physiological processes; she was one of the first to provide experimental proof to the "stress induced evolution of viviparity" hypothesis.
Ajit Iqbal SinghINSA, NASFunctional Analysis, Harmonic AnalysisFormerly, a Professor of Mathematics at University of Delhi, and currently, an INSA Senior Scientist; she has worked in the "areas of linear operators in locally convex spaces, locally convex algebras, spectral synthesis on hypergroups, applications of harmonic analysis to differential equations and orthogonal polynomials, geometry of the range of a vector measure, and Quotient Rings of algebras of functions and operators" (Note: Text quoted from her INSA page, because I have no clue about Mathematics.)
Ramanathan SowdhaminiINSABioinformatics, Predictive GenomicsAssociate Professor, NCBS-TIFR; current research interests include analysis of higher level structure and function of proteins and theoretical prediction of protein function from its structure using Bioinformatics and Genome Analysis tools.
Sarala Karumuri SubbaraoINSA, NASCytogenetics of MalariaFormer Director of the Malaria Research Center, ICMR; an insect geneticist by training, she focused on biology, epidemiology, as well as insecticide resistance of mosquito vectors of various diseases including Malaria; her studies paved the way for the genetic control of mosquitoes; she also developed diagnostic assays to identify non-vector sibling species to the vectors, which helped develop effective control strategies for the malaria vectors.
Sulabha Kashinath KulkarniINSA, NAS, IASNanotechnology, Materials Science, Surface ScienceProfessor of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune; she is recognized for her work on nanomaterials, hard coatings and high strength aerogels, and she was made noteworthy contributions in the field of Nanotechnology, Materials Science and Surface Science; she is also an enthusiastic author and science communicator.
Ushadevi Narendra BhosleINSA, NAS, IASAlgebraic GeometryMathematical Scientist at TIFR; she is regarded as an expert in the field of "moduli spaces of torsionfree sheaves on singular curves" (Note. Again, quoted from her INSA page. I have no idea what these words mean.).
Usha VijayraghavanINSA, IASMolecular Genetics, Plant DevelopmentProfessor of Microbiology and Cell Biology at IISc, Bangalore; her current research interests involve the study of genes that control cell division and differentiation, and thereby regulate flowering and plant morphology; she also studies post-transcriptional gene regulation.
Chitra SarkarNAS, IASNeuropathology, neuro-oncologyProfessor of Pathology at AIIMS, New Delhi; she is a nationally and internationally recognized expert in Neuropathology, where her work has made seminal contributions in several areas related to Central Nervous System malignancies; her research focus has included basic and translational research in Neuro-Oncology, Neuroendocrinology, Neuromuscular Diseases.
Pratima SinhaIASMolecular Genetics of Yeast and Molecular BiologyProfessor of Biochemistry, Bose Institute, Calcutta; her current research area focuses on DNA replication, segregation and cell cycle control in the budding yeast.
Anuradha LohiaIASBiochemistryProfessor of Biochemistry at Bose Institute, Calcutta; using the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica as a model organism, she studies regulation of phagocytosis, cell division and motility, as well as novel kinesins from eukaryotic pathogens.
Soumya SwaminathanNAS, IASPediatric Internal MedicineDirector for the ICMR National Institute for research in Tuberculosis in Chennai, where she leads a multi-disciplinary group of clinical, laboratory and behavioural scientists studying various aspects of TB and TB/HIV; her research contributions have involved investigation of treatment and prevention regimens for TB among HIV-infected adults and children, as well as nutrition, pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of anti-TB and anti-HIV drugs in the Indian population.
Sudha BhattacharyaNAS, IASMolecular Biology, Molecular Parasitology and GenomicsProfessor at the School of Environmental Sciences, JNU; her group uses the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica as a model system to study the biochemistry and molecular biology of various intracellular proteins.
Shobhona SharmaIASMolecular Parasitology, Parasite Immunology and Parasite MetabolismSenior Professor & Chair, Department of Biological Sciences, TIFR, Mumbai. Her current research interests include biology of the malaria parasite and host-parasite interactions, acquired immunity to malaria, nanolipid carrier-mediated delivery of antimalarials.
Shally AwasthiNAS, IAS, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Paediatric Pulmonology, Infectious & Parasitic Diseases, Clinical TrialsProfessor of Pediatrics in Chhatrapati Shahuji Maharaj Medical University (formerly King George’s Medical College), Lucknow; her area of research work is in child survival, especially after acute respiratory infections; her work has been instrumental in formulating national policy in this area.
Qudsia TahseenIASNematology, Taxonomy & Functional Biodiversity of Soil and Freshwater NematodesProfessor of Zoology, Aligarh Muslim University; her area of research is the taxonomy and developmental biology of terrestrial and aquatic nematodes. She is an internationally acknowledged expert in nematode taxonomy, and has contributed to the existing knowledge by inventorying numerous nematode taxa specific to the Indian habitats; she also studied their role as indicators in assessment of the environment quality particularly of Indian wetlands. She holds the distinction of being the first Asian to receive ONTA (Organization of Nematologists of Tropical America) Special Award (2005) for sustained excellence in Nematology.
Renee M. BorgesIASEvolutionary Biology & Behavioural Ecology, Plant-Animal InteractionsProfessor, Center for Ecological Sciences, IISc, Bangalore; her research work specializes in the evolutionary ecology of inter-species interactions, and she investigates the sensory biology of these interactions, especially their chemical and visual ecology, using various insects as model systems.
Gomathy GopinathNAS, IAS, National Academy of Medical Sciences (India)Developmental Neurobiology, Neural PlasticityFormer Head of Anatomy, AIIMS, and an internationally acclaimed neurobiology researcher.
Priyambada Mohanty-HejmadiIASDevelopmental Biology, HerpetologyAn accomplished danseuse in the Odissi tradition of India, Priyambada Mohanty-Hejmadi left her dance recitals in favor of pursuing a career in science, which eventually brought her a Padmashri. She was a former vice-chancellor of Sambalpur University, and was an Emeritus Professor of Zoology at Utkal University, both in Orissa; she was one of the first scientists to demonstrate the phenomenon of homeosis, substitution of body parts, in vertebrates [Link to PDF], and had once worked on temperature-dependent sex determination in Olive Ridley turtles of Orissa, an effort which made way for conservation of these endangered species.
Namita SuroliaNAS, IASMolecular Parasitology, Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyProfessor of Molecular Biology and Genetics at Jawaharlal Nehru Center for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bangalore; her group studies host-pathogen interaction in Malaria, and the current research interests include identification of malarial parasite specific targets for drug development, study of the role of plastid in the parasite, and analysis of parasite fatty acid synthesis. She holds several global patents for anti-malarial agents.
Sangita MukhopadhyayNAS, IASImmunology, Cell Signalling, Communicable DiseasesGroup Leader, Molecular Cell Biology Division at the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting & Diagnostics; her current research interest is TB immunology, where she studies how
           A RECOMBINANT FOWLPOX VIRUS EXPRESSING THE HEMAGGLUTININ-NEURAMINIDASE GENE OF NEWCASTLE-DISEASE VIRUS (NDV) PROTECTS CHICKENS AGAINST CHALLENGE BY NDV         
BOURSNELL, MEG; GREEN, PF; SAMSON, ACR; CAMPBELL, JIA; DEUTER, A; PETERS, RW; MILLAR, NS; ... BINNS, MM; + view all <#> BOURSNELL, MEG; GREEN, PF; SAMSON, ACR; CAMPBELL, JIA; DEUTER, A; PETERS, RW; MILLAR, NS; EMMERSON, PT; BINNS, MM; - view fewer <#> (1990) A RECOMBINANT FOWLPOX VIRUS EXPRESSING THE HEMAGGLUTININ-NEURAMINIDASE GENE OF NEWCASTLE-DISEASE VIRUS (NDV) PROTECTS CHICKENS AGAINST CHALLENGE BY NDV. VIROLOGY , 178 (1) 297 - 300.
           Cloning of short interfering RNAs from virus-infected plants         
Ho, Thien X.; Rusholme, Rachel; Dalmay, Tamas; Wang, Hui. 2008 Cloning of short interfering RNAs from virus-infected plants. In: Foster, G.; Hong, Y.; Johansen, E.; Nagy, P., (eds.) Plant Virology Protocols: From Viral Sequence to Protein Function. 2nd Edition. Humana Press, 229-242. (Methods in Molecular Biology, 451).
          VIROLOGY-VINCENT RACANIELLO PODCAST        
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          The 3RD Neurovirology & Neuroimmunology Symposium        

          Hologic Announces FDA Clearance of Aptima® Assay to Detect Herpes Simplex Virus 1 & 2        
-- Aptima HSV 1 & 2 Assay Now Available Alongside Women's Health, Virology Menu on the Fully Automated Panther System --
          TWiP 126: A virus walks into a parasite        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, and Daniel Griffin

The TWiP Trinity solve the case of the Peace Corps volunteer with diarrhea, and reveal how immunizing against a virus ameliorates exacerbated leishmaniasis.

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This episode is brought to you by Blue Apron. Blue Apron is the #1 fresh ingredient and recipe delivery service in the country. See what’s on the menu this week and get your first 3 meals free - WITH FREE SHIPPING - by going to blueapron.com/twip.

Case Study for TWiP 126

Another Peace Corps volunteer in Fiji. 24 yo male, several days of fever, headache, dry cough, rash. Feels poorly, starts diarrhea. No blood or mucus, no vomiting but abdominal discomfort. Heart rate over 100. At private nearby hospital for evaluation: no prior med probs or surgeries. Social history: MSM, not always protected, drinks every weekend. Home blown away by cyclone. Alcohol: drinks beer, a lot. White rice, split peas, bread diet. Fan of cava, also drank unfiltered water. He is admitted, continues to feel poorly. Continued fevers, localized abdominal pain RUQ. On exam he has tender palpable liver, elevated WBC 17.8, eosinopenia, 0 cells. AST/ALT slightly above normal. Dengue, chick, lepto, blood all negative. Ultrasound of liver: shows 8x8 cm mixed echogenic lesion in right lobe. HIV negative. 

Send your case diagnosis, questions and comments to twip@microbe.tv


          TWiP 105: Survival of the fattest        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, and Daniel Griffin

The TWiPanosomes solve the case of the Young Man from Anchorage, and discuss how cestode parasites increase the resistance of brine shrimp to arsenic toxicity.

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 Case study for TWiP 105

This week's case involves a 32 yo male with several concerns. Spent 6 weeks doing religious missionary work in Kenya, performed baptisms in Lake Victoria.Waist deep in water, no shoes. Took malaria drugs, ate lots of interesting foods: cichlids, ugali, corn based food, flavored with greens; stew with some sort of meat, beef and goat. Five weeks after return developed rash with fever, shortness of breath. Three of four friends who were with him in Kenya reported similar symptoms. The fourth who did not get sick did not go in water, nor did he eat very much. No medical/surgical history, no drugs. Had some sexual activity while there. Elevated white count, 70% eosinophils. Chest CT shows nodules in lungs. Doc told him, allergy, you will be fine. The water he went into is near a village, there are rodents nearby, and a runoff.

Send your diagnosis to twip@microbe.tv

Send your questions and comments to twip@microbe.tv


          TWiP 97: The seven year itch        

The paratenic hosts reveal a case of scabies in the Traveling Salesman, and discuss a role for natural antibody in protection from infection with Plasmodium.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, and Daniel Griffin

 

Links for this episode:

Case study for TWiP 97

Daniel has two cases this week. Two people with similar presentations. A 12 yo girl in Peru presented for care with painless dark brown area on right knee. Has brothers and sisters, often play together. No trauma, but area is expanding. Months later develops cognitive changes. Second case is a 5 yo boy from the coastal region of Peru brought in by Mother, has red swollen area on face. Mom says while playing scratched nose, swelling right cheek, eye, nasal obstruction, no response to antibiotics. MRI of both show infiltrating process. Girl, left side of brain, middle cerebral artery territory. Boy in frontal region, midline area. Thus both skin lesions associated with infiltrating process in brain. Came into clinic months after lesions started, and lesions still present.

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Contact

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          TWiP 84: Bigfoot        

Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel consider the delivery of anti-trypanosome nanobodies to the tsetse fly via a bacterial symbiont, and present a new case study.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, and Daniel Griffin

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Send your questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twip@twiv.tv

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          TWiP 65: The real world wide web        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Vincent and Dickson consider the effects of climate change on parasitic diseases.

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Dickson's Pick

Neglected by Shelly Xie (YouTube)

Contact

Send your questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twip@twiv.tv

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          TWiP 58: People, parasites, and plowshares        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Guest: Cali Despommier

Vincent and Dickson update the multistate outbreak of cyclosporiasis, and Dickson reads a chapter from his new book.

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Send your questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twip@twiv.tv

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          TWiP 57: An outbreak of cyclosporiasis        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Vincent and Dickson review a multistate outbreak of cyclosporiasis caused by the single-celled coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis.

The day after recording this episode, ProMedMail reported that the outbreak of cyclosporiasis had spread to Texas.

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Send your questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twip@twiv.tv

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          TWiP 56: Whirling disease        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Vincent and Dickson discuss Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes whirling disease of salmonids.

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Listener Pick

Amanda - Pandemic: On the Brink

Contact

Send your questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twip@twiv.tv

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Subscribe to TWiP (free) in iTunes, by the RSS feed or by email


          TWiP 55: A ladybird's weapon        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Vincent and Dickson reveal how invasive harlequin ladybirds use biological weapons against their competitors.

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Dickson's Pick

An Inordinate Fondess for Beetles by Arthur V. Evans, Charles L. Bellamy

Listener Pick

Jessie - Pandemic, the board game

Contact

Send your questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twip@twiv.tv


          TWiP #6 - Tapeworms, the long and short of it        

Vincent and Dick talk about the anatomy and life cycle of beef and pork tapeworms, and why House was wrong about neurocysticercosis.

Host links: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Links for this episode:

  • Taenia saginata life cycle (jpg)
  • Taenia saginata adult (jpg)
  • Taenia saginata scolex (jpg)
  • Taenia saginata gravid proglottid (jpg)
  • Taenia solium life cycle (jpg)
  • Taenia solium adult (jpg)
  • Taenia solium scolex (jpg)
  • Facial cancer in Tasmanian devils (thanks PhogDog!)

Science Picks

Dickson Peace through vaccine diplomacy by Peter Hotez
Vincent Parasite Rex by Carl Zimmer


          TWiP #5 - The nurse cell        

Vincent and Dick discuss the nurse cell, a unique structure formed in the host muscle by Trichinella species.

Host links: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Links for this episode:

Weekly Science Picks

Dickson Every Living Thing by Rob Dunn


          TWiP #3 - Trichinella spiralis        

Vincent and Dick distinguish among intracellular and extracellular parasites, then discuss the history and general characteristics of Trichinella spiralis.

Host links: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Links for this episode:

Weekly Science Picks

Dickson The Doctor and the Devils


          TWiP #1 - Introduction to parasitism        

Vincent and Dick provide an overview of parasites and parasitism.

Host links: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Weekly Science Picks

Dick The Black Cloud by Fred Hoyle
Vincent Parasitic Diseases by Despommier et al.


          CD4+ T-cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent-cycle antigens and the recognition of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines        
Long, H. M. and Haigh, T. A. and Gudgeon, N. H. and Leen, A. M. and Tsang, C.-W. and Brooks, J. and Landais, E. and Houssaint, E. and Lee, S. P. and Rickinson, A. B. and Taylor, G. S. (2005) CD4+ T-cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent-cycle antigens and the recognition of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines. Journal of Virology, 79 (8). pp. 4896-4907. ISSN 0022-538X
          Biotech Resume        
Sandy Jackab
1 Devonshire Place, Apt 3003, Boston, MA 02109
(617) 320-8789 (mobile)
pdoe@evelexa.com

Education:

Doctor of Philosophy, Virology
Hayward University, Graduate School of arts and science - Boston, MA - January 2001

* Thesis: CD4-Independent Replication of a CCR5-Using HIV-1 Primary Isolate.

Bachelor of Arts, Biology
Cornell University - Ithaca, NY - May 1997
* Honors Thesis: Non-cytolytic release of Canine Parvovirus. Advisor: Dr. Colin Parrish

Experience:

Director
CA Capital Associates Cambridge, MA - June 2001
* Evaluate all investment opportunities, ranging from biotechnology startups to public companies.
* Assist Managing Director Richard Aldrich, former CBO of Vertex Pharmaceuticals, on business development and strategy-related advisory projects.

Founder, Director
Texan Bioresearches - 4500+ members Boston, MA, January 2001
* Developed educational web site that offers free business information related to starting biotech companies.
* Author an article each month for e-mail distribution to members.
* Members may download a free copy of the Entrepreneur's Guide to a Biotech Startup

Independent Consulting
Boston, MA, January 2001

* Pearlacon, Inc. Proteomics start-up
Proposed specifications for prototype drug-screening platform.
* Eleusis Biomedical, Inc. Diagnostics start-up.
Helped raise $1.4M of a $4.5M A round.

Sample of free Biotech resumes you can easily get from here. These resumes help you to learn how to write Biotech resume and gives you a quickstart on building an effective and optimized resume for your job application.

Publication:
Author/Editor
Entrepreneur's Guide to a biotech start-up Third Edition -2002

* A 100+ page guide for biotech entrepreneurs. Background research included interviews with attorneys, venture capitalists, entrepreneurs, scientists, angel investors, technology transfer specialists, and others. The third and prior editions have been available for free download as of March, 2001

Additional:
* Co-founder of Biotech Monday, Boston networking event series. 1,700+ members
* Founded Harvard Biotechnology Club in 1999. 4,000+ members.
* Enjoy snowboarding, sailing, and travel.
          TWiV 301: Marine viruses and insect defense        
On episode #301 of the science show This Week in Virology, Vincent travels to the International Congress of Virology in Montreal and speaks with Carla Saleh and Curtis Suttle about their work on RNA interference and antiviral defense in fruit flies, and viruses in the sea, the greatest biodiversity on Earth. You can find TWiV #301 at www.microbe.tv/twiv.
          TWiV 195: They did it in the hot tub        
On episode #195 of the science show This Week in Virology, the complete TWiV team meets with Ken Stedman to discuss the discovery in Boiling Spring Lake of a DNA virus with the capsid of an RNA virus. You can find TWiV #195 at www.microbe.tv/twiv.
          TWiV 445: A nido virology meeting        
From Nido2017 in Kansas City, Vincent  meets up with three virologists to talk about their careers and their work on nidoviruses. Show notes at microbe.tv/twiv Click arrow to play Download TWiV 445 (39 MB .mp3, 64 min) Subscribe (free): iTunes, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV!
          TWiV 89: Where do viruses vacation?        
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Alan Dove On episode #89 of the podcast This Week in Virology, Vincent and Alan review recent findings on the association of the retrovirus XMRV with ME/CFS, reassortment of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in swine, and where influenza viruses travel in the off-season. Click the arrow above to play, or right-click […]
          TWiV #30: A/Mexico/4108/2009 (H1N1)        
On episode #30 of the podcast “This Week in Virology”, Vincent, Dick, Alan, and Hamish Young focus on the new H1N1 influenza virus, which originated in swine and is likely to be the next pandemic strain. Click the arrow above to play, or right-click to download TWiV #30 or subscribe in iTunes or by email.
          Why swine flu isn’t so scary        
Peter Palese has written an excellent opinion piece for the Wall Street Journal on why swine flu is not that scary. His arguments may bring some comfort for those readers of virology blog who are worried about the impact of the new influenza H1N1 strain. Even if you are not worried, the scientific basis for […]
          Influenza A/Mexico/2009 (H1N1): Questions and answers        
Here are my answers to questions about the currently circulating influenza H1N1 strain (formerly swine flu) sent by readers of virology blog. A reader from Mexico shared the following numbers with virology blog, then asked a question about hog cholera. Q: There are 312 confirmed cases of swine virus here in Mexico and 12 of […]
          Structure of influenza virus        
In this week’s discussion of swine flu A/Mexico/09 (H1N1), we have considered many aspects of influenza virus biology that might not be familiar to some readers of virology blog. I thought it might be useful to explain how the virus multiplies, how it infects us, and how we combat infection. Today we’ll start with the […]
          Swine flu A/Mexico/2009 (H1N1): Questions and answers        
Here are my answers to questions about swine flu sent by readers of virology blog: Q: Am I missing something?  How can a summer pandemic be unprecedented?  You cited a pretty famous example of one.  In fact nearly all of your examples seem to have occurred partly or mostly “out of season”. A: You are […]
           Type I feline coronavirus spike glycoprotein fails to recognize aminopeptidase N as a functional receptor on feline cell lines         
Dye, Charlotte, Temperton, Nigel and Siddell, Stuart G. (2007) Type I feline coronavirus spike glycoprotein fails to recognize aminopeptidase N as a functional receptor on feline cell lines. Journal of General Virology, 88 (6). pp. 1753-1760. ISSN 0022-1317 (Print), 1465-2099 (Online) (doi:10.1099/vir.0.82666-0 )
          Los Links 9/23        
Lots of amazing stuff this week, my darlings. You'll notice quite a few things highlighted in bold, and I do hope you read all those, but don't stop there! There's so much win in this week's selections that I could've bolded nearly all of them.


DADT

The New Civil Rights Movement: DADT: Gay 88-Year Old WWII Vet Speaks On Repeal Of Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

New York Times: Marines Hit the Ground Running in Seeking Recruits at Gay Center.

AP: Navy officer, partner wed in Vt. as ban ends.


Troy Davis

White Coat Underground: Emergency ethics post.

Observations: Eyes (and Minds) Deceive: Witness Unreliability Casts Doubt on Death Penalty Rulings.

Slate: A Killer Issue.

Bad Astronomy: The night the lights went out in Georgia.

Geotripper: The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia...and Texas Too.


Science

Oregon Live: Oregon Shores Conservation Coalition celebrates 40 years as coastal watchdog.

Lifehacker: Forget the Standing Desk; You Just Need to Move Regularly.

Discovery News: Dinosaur Feathers Found in Amber: Photos.

National Geographic: The Beautiful Teenage Brain.

Mountain Beltway: Giant City State Park, Illinois.

Clastic Detritus: Listening to Rivers.

Bad Astronomy: Invaders from Vesta! and The Milky Way from the top of the world.

Not Exactly Rocket Science: Computer gamers solve problem in AIDS research that puzzled scientists for years.

Uncovered Earth: Sometimes You Just Can’t Reach the Top.

Science Cheerleader: “I was skeptical about the Science Cheerleaders.”

Earthly Musings: My 10-Day Rafting Trip Through Grand Canyon - 2011.

NYT Scientist at Work: Northern Lights on the Midnight Watch.

Atomic-O-Licious: An Open Letter of Apology to my Organic Chemistry Students.

Scientific American: Lessons from Sherlock Holmes: Don’t Tangle Two Lines of Thought and Lessons from Sherlock Holmes: Breadth of knowledge is essential.

Wired Science: Q&A: The Unappreciated Benefits of Dyslexia.

Bad Archaeology: I remember why I’ve never wanted satellite television.

Oscillator: Allergy Recapitulates Phylogeny.

The Guardian: Another view on the new Feist album Metals.

Not Necessarily Geology: Pillow Basalt, Bencorragh.

Rapid Uplift: Geological Framework Of the Sikkim Earthquake.

Glacial Till: Meteorite Monday: So you think you’ve found a meteorite.

Science-Based Medicine: Scientific American Mind Is Not So Scientific.

Southern Fried Science: In sexual selection and thermoregulation, bigger is better, at least for fiddler crabs.

Boundary Vision: Students don’t lose their ability to think scientifically.

JPL: Aquarius Yields NASA's First Global Map of Ocean Salinity.

A Blog Around the Clock: The Mighty Ant-Lion.

Speakeasy Science: Dr. Oz and the Arsenic Thing.

Grist: Oceans kept the last decade from being even hotter.

Dinosaur Tracking: Cretaceous Utah’s New, Switchblade-Clawed Predator.

The Scientist: Plant RNAs Found in Mammals.

Degrees of Freedom: Archimedes and Euclid? Like String Theory versus Freshman Calculus.

Surprising Science: Biologist Rob Dunn: Why I Like Science.

Scientific American: Urban Geology: Artists Investigate Where Cities and Natural Cycles Intersect.

Scientific American: It’s Not That Easy Being Green, but Many Would Like to Be.

The Scicurious Brain: One injection makes you older…

Volcan01010: Farmyard Geomorphology.

Respectful Insolence: Reiki: You can't always get what you want, but if you try sometimes you can get what you need.

Highly Allochthonous: Scenic Saturday: Pinnacle in the Piedmont.

Observations: Hackers Use Open Hardware to Solve Environmental Problems.

Evergreen Public Schools: Evergreen Public Schools Names new school Henrietta lacks Health and BioScience High School.

Terra Sigillata: Kitchen Chemistry: Rose Jelly. Sweet!

History of Geology: Large Igneous Provinces and Mass Extinctions.

Geotripper: You Betcha, it's Breccia: Some Otherworldly Pictures.


Writing

The Creative Penn: Trunk Novels Are An Endangered Species.

The Buttry Diary: ‘He said, she said’ stories fail to seek the truth and report it.

Terrible Minds: Writers Hear that All-Too-Familiar Refrain: 'Get a Real Job'.

Mitali's Fire Escape: How To Write Fiction Without The "Right" Ethnic Credentials.

Write to Publish: Branding #3...product vs. author brand.

Take As Directed: Trine Tsouderos on This Week in Virology: When do you fact-check article content with sources?

Password Incorrect: Ebook Specific Cover Design: #2 – Size and Resolution.

Digital Book World: Best Practices For Amazon Ebook Sales.


Atheism and Religion

This Week in Christian Nationalism: A New Ending for an Old Spam Email.

Think Atheist: My Testimony (my journey to atheism).

Unscientific Malaysia: Why atheists must not be silent.

I Heart Chaos: Christian fourth grade textbook, tries to explain electricity but just gives up.

Why Evolution is True: The ugly, vicious, fanatical side of atheism.

BBC: Al-Shabab radio gives weapons prize to Somali children.

Butterflies and Wheels: Don’t think, just live.

ABC Religion and Ethics: Is the Australian Christian Lobby dominionist?

Shouts & Murmurs: God’s Blog.


Women's Issues

Another Feminist Blog: Boundaries.

Firedoglake: Sluts Are Asking the Right Question about Rape.

Almost Diamonds: “Consent Is Hard” and MRA Says, “Yep, We’re Domestic Abusers”.

Strange Ink: Let's talk about sex.

Man Boobz: Violence against women? Blame it on feminism, says W. F. Price.

Downlo: A Useful Rape Analogy.

BBC: 'My cousin wanted me for a passport'.

Madison Magazine: Why Doesn't She Just Leave?

Butterflies and Wheels: We wanted to do a bruised-up Barbie shoot.

The F Word: On Tom Martin's campaign to sue LSE.

MSN CA: Is this the most annoying thing a man can do to a woman?

Biodork: Fighting Kindness with Kindness.

Camels with Hammers: Be Careful About Loving Women Too Much Lest Other Guys Think You’re Gay.


Politics

Spocko's Brain: No Brains. No Heart. The Tea Party/CNN debate.

Firedoglake: Woman Who Watched Her Brother Die From Lack of Insurance Delivers Powerful Rebuttal to GOP.

Balloon Juice: The Modern Inquisition, Starring David Brooks in the Role of Phlogiston Man.

Think Progress: Texas GOP Rep On Cuts To Family Planning: ‘Of Course This Is A War On Birth Control’.

Decrepit Old Fool: “You get what you pay for” – third in a series of things we used to say.

MoveOn.org: The Elizabeth Warren Quote Every American Needs To See.

White Coat Underground: Death cult.

Salon: A real Wall Street takeover threat.

Duluth News Tribune: Sam Cook: Big, bad government sure helped during fire.

War is a Crime: Welcome to Boston, Mr. Rumsfeld. You Are Under Arrest.

Dispatches From the Culture Wars: On the Internet, Everyone is a Criminal.


Society and Culture

The Telegraph: Animal rights group PETA to launch pornography website.

Gawker: The Wall Street Journal Wonders: Should We Let Blacks Marry Whites?

Dangerous Minds: Another heartbreaking gay teen suicide.

New York Times: Autistic and Seeking a Place in an Adult World.

Charlotte Observer: Same-sex marriage ballot skips words.

Pam's House Blend: Will the Catholic Church declare war on Obama over gay equality?

On Top Magazine: North Carolina's James Forrester Tells Lesbian Mom To Move To New York.

Have a Heart of Fire, Have a Heart of Gold: On understanding.


Nymwars

Almost Diamonds: Pseudonymous Service.


And, finally, two of the sweetest compliments I've ever had:

Watershed Hydrogeology Blog: About the best compliment I could get (or, why blogging is worthwhile).

Clastic Detritus: What Rocks: The Week’s Best In the Geoblogosphere.
           Phylogenetic analysis of Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus strains from the Arabian Peninsula: did RHDV emerge simultaneously in Europe and Asia?         
Forrester, N. L.; Abubakr, M. I.; Abu Elzein, E. M. E.; al-Afaleq, A. I.; Housawi, F. M. T.; Moss, S. R.; Turner, S. L.; Gould, E. A.. 2006 Phylogenetic analysis of Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus strains from the Arabian Peninsula: did RHDV emerge simultaneously in Europe and Asia? Virology, 344. 277-282. 10.1016/j.virol.2005.10.006
          New Tropical Medicine Publication: “A guinea pig model of Zika virus infection”        
Authors: Mukesh Kumar,, Keeton K. Krause, Francine Azouz, Eileen Nakano, and Vivek R. Nerurkar Virology Journal. 2017. DOI: 10.1186/s12985-017-0750-4. Animal models are critical to understand disease and to develop countermeasures for the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here we report that immunocompetent guinea pigs are susceptible to infection by a contemporary American strain of ZIKV. [...]
           Detection of human papillomavirus from archival tissues in cervical cancer patients in Mauritius         
Rughooputh, Sanjiv, Eddoo, Rechad, Manraj, Shyam, Jeebun, Nilima and Greenwell, Pamela (2006) Detection of human papillomavirus from archival tissues in cervical cancer patients in Mauritius. Journal of Clinical Virology, 35 (2). pp. 173-178. ISSN 1386-6532
          Ciri-ciri, Perkembangbiakan dan Manfaat Bakteri        

  • Bakteri adalah mikroorganisme uniseluler prokariotik ( inti selnya tidak memiliki membran/selaput inti ) yang mempunyai diding sel seperti tumbuhan namun umumnya tidak berklorofil 
  • Bakteri bersifat kosmopolitan karena merupakan makhluk hidup yang  paling banyak jumlahnya dan tersebar luas hampir di semua tempat seperti di makanan , tanah, air, udara, dalam tubuh makhluk hidup dan bahkan di tempat yang sangat ekstrim seperti di dalam magma.

Ciri-ciri Bakteri Bakteri : 

1. Organisme uniselluler ( tubuhnya terdiri atas satu sel saja )
2. Prokariot (tidak memiliki membran inti sel )
3. Umumnya tidak memiliki klorofil
4. Memiliki ukuran tubuh rata-rata 1 s/d 5 mikron.
5. Memiliki bentuk tubuh yang beraneka ragam
6. Hidup bebas atau parasit
7. Yang hidup di lingkungan ekstrim seperti pada mata air panas,kawah/magma atau gambut dinding selnya tidak mengandung peptidoglikan
8. Yang hidupnya kosmopolit diberbagai lingkungan dinding selnya mengandung peptidoglikan


Struktur Bakteri :

Struktur bakteri terbagi menjadi dua yaitu:
1. Struktur dasar (dimiliki oleh hampir semua jenis bakteri)
Meliputi: dinding sel, membran plasma, sitoplasma, ribosom, DNA, dan granula penyimpanan
2. Struktur tambahan (dimiliki oleh jenis bakteri tertentu)
Meliputi kapsul, flagelum, pilus, fimbria, klorosom, Vakuola gas dan endospora.


Struktur  Dasar Bakteri :
1. Dinding sel
tersusun dari peptidoglikan yaitu gabungan protein dan polisakarida (ketebalan peptidoglikan membagi bakteri menjadi bakteri gram positif bila peptidoglikannya tebal dan bakteri gram negatif bila peptidoglikannya tipis). 

2. Membran plasma 
adalah membran yang menyelubungi sitoplasma tersusun atas lapisan fosfolipid dan protein. Di bagian dalam membran plasma terdapat lekukan-lekukan yang disebut mesosom.

3. Mesosom
Daerah  bagian dalam membran plasma yang mengalami lipatan. Fungsinya diduga sebagai organel respirasi sel. berarti mesosom menggantikan peranan organel mitikondria pada sel eukariotik. Namun keberadaan mesosom itu sendiri masih diperdebatkan sampai sekarang. 

4. Sitoplasma 
adalah cairan sel.  di dalam sitoplasma terdapat organel-organel dari sel seperti ribosom, mitokondria, retikulum endoplasma, dan lain sebagainya.

5. Ribosom 
adalah organel yang tersebar dalam sitoplasma berbentuk bulat-bulat kecil, tersusun atas protein dan RNA. Fungsinya untuk sintesa protein


6. Granula penyimpanan
untuk menyimpan cadangan makanan yang dibutuhkan.


Struktur tambahan bakteri :

1. Kapsul atau lapisan lendir 
adalah lapisan di luar dinding sel pada jenis bakteri tertentu, bila lapisannya tebal disebut kapsul dan bila lapisannya tipis disebut lapisan lendir. Kapsul dan lapisan lendir tersusun atas polisakarida dan air. 

2. Flagelum atau bulu cambuk 
adalah struktur berbentuk batang atau spiral yang menonjol dari dinding sel. Bentuknya mirip cambuk

3. Pilus dan fimbria 
adalah struktur berbentuk seperti rambut halus yang menonjol dari dinding sel, pilus mirip dengan flagelum tetapi lebih pendek, kaku dan berdiameter lebih kecil dan tersusun dari protein dan hanya terdapat pada bakteri gram negatif. Fimbria adalah struktur sejenis pilus tetapi lebih pendek daripada pilus. 

4. Klorosom 
adalah struktur yang berada tepat dibawah membran plasma dan mengandung pigmen klorofil dan pigmen lainnya untuk proses fotosintesis. Klorosom hanya terdapat pada bakteri yang melakukan fotosintesis. 

5. Vakuola gas 
terdapat pada bakteri yang hidup di air dan berfotosintesis. 

6. Endospora 
adalah bentuk istirahat (laten) dari beberapa jenis bakteri gram positif yang terbentuk jika kondisi lingkungan tidak menguntungkan bagi kehidupan bakteri. Endospora mengandung sedikit sitoplasma, materi genetik, dan ribosom. Dinding endospora yang tebal tersusun atas protein dan menyebabkan endospora tahan terhadap kekeringan, radiasi cahaya, suhu tinggi dan zat kimia. Jika kondisi lingkungan menguntungkan endospora akan tumbuh menjadi sel bakteri baru.


Bentuk Bakteri
Bentuk dasar bakteri terdiri atas bentuk bulat (kokus), batang (basil),dan spiral (spirilia) serta terdapat bentuk antara kokus dan basil yang disebut kokobasil. Berbagai macam bentuk bakteri : 

1. Bakteri Kokus :

a.Monokokusyaitu berupa sel bakteri bulat tunggal

b.Diplokokusyaitu dua sel bakteri bulat yang berdempetan 

c.Tetrakokus yaitu empat sel bakteri bulat yang berdempetan berbentuk segi empat. 

d.Sarkina yaitu delapan sel bakteri bulat yang berdempetan membentuk kubus 

e. Streptokokus yaitu lebih dari empat sel bakteri bulat berdempetan membentuk rantai. 

f. Stapilokokus yaitu lebih dari empat sel bakteri kokus berdempetan seperti buah anggur

2. Bakteri Basil :

a. Monobasilyaitu berupa sel bakteri batang tunggal

b. Diplobasil yaitu berupa dua sel bakteri batang yang berdempetan 

c. Streptobasil yaitu beberapa sel bakteri basil berdempetan membentuk rantai

3. Bakteri Spirilia :

a. Spiral yaitu bentuk sel bergelombang

b. Spiroseta yaitu bentuk sel seperti sekrup

c. Vibrio yaitu bentuk sel seperti tanda baca koma



Alat Gerak Bakteri 

Alat gerak pada bakteri berupa flagellum atau bulu cambuk adalah struktur berbentuk batang atau spiral yang menonjol dari dinding sel. Flagellum memungkinkan bakteri bergerak menuju kondisi lingkungan yang menguntungkan dan menghindar dari lingkungan yang merugikan bagi kehidupannya. Flagellum memiliki jumlah yang berbeda-beda pada bakteri dan letak yang berbeda-beda pula yaitu :
A. Monotrik B. Lofotrik C. Lofotrik D. Peritrik








a. Atrik, tidak mempunyai flagel.
b. Monotrik, mempunyai satu flagel pada salah satu ujungnya.
c. Lofotrik, mempunyai sejumlah flagel pada salah satu ujungnya.
d. Amfitrik, mempunyai flagel pada kedua ujungnya.
e. Peritrik, mempunyai flagel pada seluruh permukaan tubuhnya.






Faktor-faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Pertumbuhan Bakteri

Pertumbuhan pada bakteri mempunyai arti perbanyakan sel dan peningkatan ukuran populasi. Faktor–faktor yang mempengaruhi pertumbuhan bakteri atau kondisi untuk pertumbuhan optimum adalah :

1. Suhu
2. Derajat keasaman atau pH
3. Konsentrasi garam
4. Sumber nutrisi
5. Zat-zat sisa metabolisme
6. Zat kimia

Hal tersebut diatas bervariasi menurut spesies bakterinya.misalnya berdasarkan kisaran suhu tempat hidupnya bakteri dibagi menjadi 4 golongan : 

a. Bakteri psikrofil, yaitu bakteri yang hidup pada daerah suhu antara 0°– 30 °C
b. Bakteri mesofil, yaitu bakteri yang hidup di daerah suhu antara 15° – 55 °C
c. Bakteri termofil, yaitu bakteri yang dapat hidup di daerah suhu tinggi antara 40° – 75 °C
d. Bakteri hipertermofil, yaitu bakteri yang hidup pada kisaran suhu 65 - 114 °C

Penggolongan bakteri berdasarkan sumber oksigen yang diperlukan dalam proses respirasi. Bakteri itu dikelompokan sebagai berikut :

a. Bakteri aerob, yaitu bakteri yang menggunakan oksigen bebas dalam proses respirasinya. Misal: Nitrosococcus, Nitrosomonas dan Nitrobacter. 
b. Bakteri anaerob, yaitu bakteri yang tidak menggunakan oksigen bebas dalam proses respirasinya. Misal: Streptococcus lactis 
c. Bakteri aerob obligat, yaitu bakteri yang hanya dapat hidup dalam suasana mengandung oksigen. Misal: Nitrobacter dan Hydrogenomonas. 
d. Bakteri anaerob obligat, yaitu bakteri yang hanya dapat hidup dalam suasana tanpa oksigen. Misal: Clostridium tetani.  Bakteri ini penyebab penyakit tetanus, oleh karena itu orang yang terkena tetanus diberikan udara yang kaya oksigen untuk mempercepat proses penyembuhannya.
e. Bakteri anaerob fakulatif, yaitu bakteri yang dapat hidup dengan atau tanpa oksigen. Misal: Escherichia coli, Salmonella thypose dan Shigella. 

Penggolongan bakteri berdasarkan cara mendapatkan makanan :

a. Bakteri heterotrof
yaitu bakteri yang tidak dapat membuat makanan sendiri. Bakteri heterotrof dibagi lagi menjadi 2 yaitu bakteri saprofit dan parasit. Bakteri saprofit adalah bakteri yang mendapatkan makanan dari sisa-sisa makhluk hidup seperti kotoran, sampah dan bangkai makhluk hidup. Sedangkan bakteri parasit memperoleh makanan dari mengambil makanan makhluk hidup inangnya.

b. Bakteri autotrof 
yaitu bakteri yang dapat menyusun zat makanan sendiri dari zat anorganik yang ada. Dari sumber energi yang digunakannya, bakteri autotrof  dibedakan menjadi dua golongan, yaitu: bakteri  fotoautotrof dan kemoautotrof. 
  • Bakteri fotoautrotof  yaitu bakteri yang memanfaatkan cahaya sebagai energi untuk mengubah zat anorganik menjadi zat organik melalui proses fotosintesis. Contoh bakteri ini adalah: bakteri hijau, bakteri ungu.
  • Bakteri kemoautrotof adalah bakteri yang menggunakan energi kimia yang diperolehnya pada saat terjadi perombakan zat kimia dari molekul yang kompleks menjadi molekul yang sederhana dengan melepaskan hidrogen. Contoh bakteri ini adalah: Nitrosomonas , Nitrosocoocus, Nitrobacter

Cara Perkembangbiakan bakteri

Bakteri umumnya melakukan reproduksi atau berkembang biak secara aseksual (vegetatif = tak kawin) dengan membelah diri. Pembelahan sel pada bakteri adalah pembelahan biner yaitu setiap sel membelah menjadi dua. 

Reproduksi bakteri secara seksual yaitu dengan pertukaran materi genetik antara bakteri satu dengan bakteri lainnya. Pertukaran materi genetik disebut rekombinasi genetik atau rekombinasi DNA

Rekombinasi genetik dapat dilakukan dengan tiga cara yaitu:

1. Transformasi
adalah perpindahan materi genetik berupa DNA dari sel bakteri yang satu ke sel bakteri yang lain tanpa kontak langsung. Pada proses transformasi saat sel bakteri donor mengalami lisis/hancur akan menyebarkan materi genetik ke lingkungan sebagian dari materi genetik akan bergabung dengan materi genetik bakteri penerima. Diguga transformasi ini merupakan cara bakteri menularkan sifatnya ke bakteri lain. Misalnya pada bakteri Pneumococci yang menyebabkan Pneumonia dan pada bakteri patogen yang semula tidak kebal antibiotik dapat berubah menjadi kebal antibiotik karena transformasi.



2. Transduksi
adalah pemindahan materi genetik bakteri ke bakteri lain dengan perantaraan virus. Selama transduksi, sel bakteri donor terinfeksi oleh virus bakteri / bakteriofage sehinggga bakteri mengalami siklis litik yang diakhiri dengan pecahnya sel bakteri/lisis dan mengeluarkan virus-virus baru hasil reproduksi virus dalam sel bakteri dan virus-virus baru ini juga membawa materi genetik dari bakteri. Virus-virus baru/bakteriofage yang nonvirulen (menimbulkan siklus lisogen) memindahkan materi genetik/DNA yang dibawanya dan bersatu dengan DNA bakteri inangnya. Materi genetik/DNA dari virus ini disebut profag.


3. Konjugasi 
adalah pemindahan materi genetik berupa plasmid secara langsung melalui kontak sel dengan membentuk struktur seperti jembatan diantara dua sel bakteri yang berdekatan yang disebut pilus. Umumnya terjadi pada bakteri gram negatif.


Peranan Bakteri Dalam kehidupan manusia

bakteri mempunyai peranan yang menguntungkan maupun yang merugikan.

Bakteri yang menguntungkan adalah sebagai berikut : 

1. Pembusukan/penguraian sisa-sisa mahluk hidup contohnya Escherichia colie

2. Pembuatan makanan dan minuman hasil fermentasi contohnya :
  • Acetobacter pada pembuatan asam cuka
  • Lactobacillus bulgaricus pada pembuatan yoghurt
  • Acetobacter xylinum pada pembuatan nata de coco 
  • Lactobacillus casei pada pembuatan keju yoghurt. 
3. Berperan dalam siklus nitrogen sebagai bakteri pengikat nitrogen yaitu Rhizobium leguminosarum yang hidup bersimbiosis dengan akar tanaman kacang-kacangan dan Azotobacter chlorococcum.

4. Penyubur tanah contohnya Nitrosococcus, Nitrosomonas dan Nitrobacter yang berperan dalam proses nitrifikasi mengikat Nitrogen bebas di udara dalam bentuk akhir ion nitrat yang dibutuhkan tanaman. Proses nitrifikasi sebenarnya terdiri dari dua tahap yaitu :
  • Nitritasi : oksidasi amonia (NH3) menjadi nitrit (NO2-) oleh bakteri nitrit. Proses ini dilakukan oleh kelompok bakteri Nitrosomonas dan Nitrosococcus.
  • Nitratasi : oksidasi senyawa nitrit menjadi nitrat (NO3-) oleh bakteri nitrat. Proses ini dilakukan oleh kelompok bakteri Nitrobacter
5. Penghasil antibiotik contohnya adalah :
  • Bacillus polymyxa penghasil antibiotik untuk pengobatan infeksi bakteri gram negatif
  • Bacillus subtilis penghasil antibiotik untuk pengobatan infeksi bakteri gram positif
  • Streptomyces griseus penghasil antibiotik streptomisin untuk pengobatan TBC 
6. Pembuatan zat kimia misalnya aseton dan butanol oleh Clostridium acetobutylicum

7. Berperan dalam proses pembusukan sampah dan kotoran hewan sehinggga menghasilkan energi alternatif metana berupa biogas. Contohnya methanobacterium

8. Penelitian rekayasa genetika dalam berbagai bidang.sebagai contoh dalam bidang kedokteran dihasilkan obat-obatan dan produk kimia bermanfaat yang disintesis oleh bakteri, misalnya enzim, vitamin dan hormon.


Bakteri yang merugikan sebagai berikut :

1. Pembusukan makanan contohnya Clostridium botulinum

2. Penyebab penyakit pada manusia contohnya :
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis penyebab penyakit TBC  
  • Vibrio cholerae penyebab kolera atau muntaber
  • Clostridium tetani penyebab penyakit tetanus
  • Mycobacterium leprae penyebab penyakit lepra
3. Penyebab penyakit pada hewan contohnya Bacilluc antrachis penyebab penyakit antraks pada sapi

4. Penyebab penyakit pada tanaman budidaya contohnya :
  • Pseudomonas solanacearum penyebab penyakit pada tanaman tomat, lombok, terungdll
  • Agrobacterium tumafaciens penyebab tumor pada tumbuhan

Soal-soal Bakteri

1. Bakteri Rhizobium yang bersimbiosis dengan tanaman polong-polongan bermanfaat karena...
a. menghaluskan partikel-partikel tanah
b. memecah senyawa organik menjadi anorganik
c. memecah senyawa anorganik menjadi organik
d mengubah nitrogen bebas menjadi nitrat
e. mengubah nitrat menjadi nitrogen bebas

2. Makhluk hidup yang dapat menguraikan sampah organik yang berasal dari tumbuhan mati dan bangkai ialah ....
a bakteri dan j amur
b. bakteri dan ganggang
c. jamur dan rayap
d. ganggang dan cacing tanah
e. cacing tanah dan ulat

3. Jenis bakteri di bawah ini yang menibulkan penyakit ialah ....
a Treponema pallidum
b. Acetobacter xylinum
c. Zymomonas mobilis
d. Bacillus licheniformis
e. Rhizobium sp.

4. Bentuk dasar bakteri ditentukan oleh ....
a. kapsul
b. kapsid
c. fnembran sel
d. flagela
e dinding sel

5. Bakteri yang tumbuh baik pada suhu rendah dibawah 20°C ialah....
a. halofil
b. asidofil
c. mesofil
d. psikrofil
e. termofil

6. Bakteri di bawah ini yang tidak terlibat dalam pembuatan yogurt ialah ....
a. Lactobacillus bulgaricus
b. Lactobacillus acidophilus
c. Streptococcus thermophillu
d. Lactobacillus lactis
e Bacillus licheniformis

7. Kandungan spesifik dinding sel bakteri ialah....
a.peptidoglikan
b.pektin
c.selulosa
d.lignin
e.kitin

8. Persamaan antara bakteri dan Chynophyta antara lain bahwa keduanya ....
a. tidak memiliki bahan inti sel
b tidak memiliki membran inti sel
c. tidak memiliki dinding sel
d. tidak memiliki membran sel
e. tidak memiliki kromosom

9. Bakteri pengikat nitrogen yang hidup bersimbiosis dengan polong-polongan ialah....
a. Azotobacter
b. Nitrobacter
c. Clostridium
d Rhizobium
e. Nitrosomonas

10. ilmu yang mempelajari segala aspek kehidupan mikroorganisme disebut ...
a mikrobiologi
b. bakteriologi
c. mikologi
d. virology
e. bioteknologi

11. Semua organisme yang termasuk dalam kingdom monera memiliki ciri ...
a. Berkoloni
b. Autotrof
c. heterotrof
d. prokariot
e. eukariot

12. Suatu makluk hidup bersel tunggal, tidak berklorofil, dapat membuat makanan sendiri dan bila lingkungan tidak sesuai dapat membuat endospora. Didasarkan atas sifat tersebut kita dapat menarik kesimpulan bahwa makhluk hidup tadi adalah ...
a. Virus
b. Bakteri
c. protista
d. alga biru
e. protozoa

13. Perhatikan bentuk bakteri di bawah ini!
Nama bentuk koloni bakteri adalah ...
a. Monobacil

b. Diplococcus

c. sarcina

d. diplobasil

e. streptocoocus





14. Manakah dari pasangan yang benar antara nama bakteri dengan perannya
a Diplococus pneumonia - Radang Paru paru
b Vibrio comma - pes / sampar
c. Shigela disentri - muntaber
d. Clostridium pasteurianum - tetanus
e. Myxobacterium dipteriae - TBC

15. Diplococus pneumonia adalah penyebab penyakit pneumonia (paru-paru) pada manusia. Dari namanya dapat dipastikan bakteri tersebut berbentuk...
a. Bacillus
b. Vibrion
c. Diplococus
d. Spirilllium
e. Monobacilus
16. Dinding sel bakteri memiliki struktur yang disebut ...
a. selubung lendir
b. kapsid
c. peptidoglikan
d. lipoprotein
e. fosfolipid

17. Bakteri yang memiliki lapisan peptidoglikan yang tebal pada dinding selnya disebut ...
a. Gram positip
b. Gram negatif
c. heterotrof
d. autotrof
e. patogen

18. Selubung lendir yang melapisi bagian luar dari dinding sel, dimanfaatkan bakteri untuk ...
a. berkembang biak
b. melekatkan diri pada inangnya
c. menyebabkan penyakit
d. Membusukkan makanan
e. Menguraikan makanan

19. Manakah dari pernyataan ini yang tidak termasuk struktur dasar bakteri?
a. DNA
b. Ribosom
c. Dinding sel
d. flagel
e. sitoplasma

20. Fungsi pilli pada bakteri adakah ....
a. sebagai alat reproduksi sexual
b. sebagai pertahanan diri dalam lingkungan yang buruk
c. sebagai alat gerak
d. sebagai alat untuk melekat pada inangnya
e. sebagai alat untuk bernapas

21. Bakteri yang hidup dengan cara memanfaatkan sisa-sisa produk buangan organisme disebut ...
a. Heterotrof
b. Autotrof
c. parasit
d. saprofit
e. aerob

22. Kelompok bakteri yang tidak memiliki lapisan peptidoglikan, dapat hidup pada tempat yang terlalu ekstrim, dan memiliki lipopolisakarida pada dinding selnya termasuk dalam kelompok ...
a. Eukariota
b. Prokariota
c. Archaebacteria
d. Eubacteria
e. Monera

23. Bakteri halofil merupakan bakteri yang dapat hidup pada lingkungan ekstrin yang sangat ...

a. panas
b. Dingin
c. Asin
d. asam
e. manis

24. Untuk memperbanyak diri bakteri melakukan reproduksi dengan cara ...
a. pembelahan biner
b. transformasi
c. transduksi
d. konjugasi
e. replikasi

25. Perkembangbiakan bakteri secara konjugasi dilakukan dengan tujuan ...
a. memperbanyak diri
b. melestarikan jenisnya
c. membentuk variasi genetik
d. Memecah diri
e. Menyebabkan penyakit

26. Bakteri yang menyebabkan penyakit raja singa (Gonosshoe) adalah ...
a. Neischeria gonorrhoe
b. Treponema palidum
c. Bacilus antrachis
d. Vibrio cholerae
e. Escherisia coli

27. Bakteri yang banyak dimanfaatkan untuk pembuatan yogurth adalah ...
a. Lactobacillus bulgaris
b. Rhyzobium leguminosorum
c. Pseudomonas solancearum
d. Nitrosomonas sp
e. Bacilus polymixa

28. Untuk mengatasi serangan bakteri yang merugikan pada bahan makanan ikandapat dilakukan dengan cara ...
a. Pasterurilisasi
b. Pengasinan
c. pemanisan
d. sterilisasi
e. pengapuran

29. Untuk menghindari penyakit TBC / Tuberculosis dilakukan dengan pemberian vaksin ..
a. BCG
b. Vaksin tifus
c. DPT
d. Vaksin kolera
e. Vaksin tifus

30. Kelompok penyakit dibawah ini disebabkan yang disebabkan oleh bakteri adalah ....
a. Influenza, cacar, rabies
b. Gonorhoe, TBC, sifilis
c. Trachoma, cacar, rabies
d. Kolera, sifilis, TBC
e. Kolera, rabies, kanker
           The evolutionary rate of citrus tristeza virus ranks among the rates of the slowest RNA viruses         
Silva, Gonçalo, Marques, Natália and Nolasco, Gustavo (2011) The evolutionary rate of citrus tristeza virus ranks among the rates of the slowest RNA viruses. Journal of General Virology, 93 (2). pp. 419-429. ISSN 0022-1317 (Print), 1465-2099 (Online) (doi:10.1099/vir.0.036574-0 )
           Interactions between a luteovirus and the GroEL chaperonin protein of the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola of aphids         
Bouvaine, Sophie, Boonham, Neil and Douglas, Angela E. (2011) Interactions between a luteovirus and the GroEL chaperonin protein of the symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola of aphids. Journal of General Virology, 92 (6). pp. 1467-1474. ISSN 0022-1317 (Print), 1465-2099 (Online) (doi:10.1099/vir.0.029355-0 )
           Mutations in hemagglutinin that affect receptor binding and pH stability increase replication of a PR8 influenza virus with H5 HA in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets and may contribute to transmissibility         
Shelton, Holly, Roberts, Kim L., Molesti, Eleonora, Temperton, Nigel and Barclay, Wendy S. (2013) Mutations in hemagglutinin that affect receptor binding and pH stability increase replication of a PR8 influenza virus with H5 HA in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets and may contribute to transmissibility. Journal of General Virology, 94 (6). pp. 1220-1229. ISSN 0022-1317 (Print), 1465-2099 (Online) (doi:10.1099/vir.0.050526-0 )
           Investigating antibody neutralization of lyssaviruses using lentiviral pseudotypes: a cross-species comparison         
Wright, Edward, Temperton, Nigel J., Marston, Denise A., McElhinney, Lorraine M., Fooks, Anthiny R. and Weiss, Robin A. (2008) Investigating antibody neutralization of lyssaviruses using lentiviral pseudotypes: a cross-species comparison. Journal of General Virology, 89 (9). pp. 2204-2213. ISSN 0022-1317 (Print), 1465-2099 (Online) (doi:10.1099/vir.0.2008/000349-0 )
           Evolution of cassava brown streak disease-associated viruses         
Mbanzibwa, D.R., Tian, Y.P., Tugume, A.K., Patil, B.L., Yadav, J.S., Bagewadi, B., Abarshi, M.M., Alicai, T., Changadeya, W., Mkumbira, J., Muli, M.B., Mukasa, S.B., Tairo, F., Baguma, Y., Kyamanywa, S., Kullaya, A., Maruthi, M.N., Fauquet, C.M. and Valkonen, J.P.T. (2010) Evolution of cassava brown streak disease-associated viruses. Journal of General Virology, 92 (4). pp. 974-987. ISSN 0022-1317 (Print), 1465-2099 (Online) (doi:10.1099/vir.0.026922-0 )
          MedImmune: QC Virology Specialist        
Negotiable: MedImmune: Title: QC Virology Specialist Location: Liverpool, UK Salary: Competitive If you're inspired by the possibilities science holds to change lives, and thrive when making brave decisions then join us. MedImmune is the worldwide biologics research and devel Lancashire
          Denmark,PhD scholarship in Host-virus Interactions        
Firstly I hope good for all of you

A 3 year PhD position belief host-virus interactions in bubble trout is accessible at the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The abode of assignment is Aarhus, Division of Poultry, Angle and Fur Animals. The applicant will be affiliated to the Assay Group for Angle Immunology and Vaccinology.

The PhD action is an chip allotment of a beyond National Assay action with focus on co-evolutionary aspects of host and virus on both abiogenetic and phenotypic levels. The action will accommodate beneath stays at assay institutes alfresco of Denmark.




Job description
The all-embracing accurate aim of this PhD action is to acknowledge and characterise the mechanisms complex in amnesty to a baleful angle rhabdovirus (viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, VHSV). A DNA-based vaccine inducing a awful careful allowed acknowledgment actuality represents an important apparatus forth with immuno assays and atomic assay techniques. A above assignment will be to actuate mRNA and miRNA acknowledgment profiles to anesthetic and/or infection and to associate these with the phenotypic ancestry (level of immunity, humoral and cellular allowed response). Gene announcement assay will be an important activity, but assignment at all levels including additionally anatomic studies of virus advancement in corpuscle ability as able-bodied as wet lab anesthetic and infection trials should be expected. Publishing of after-effects in accurate journals will represent an chip element. A cardinal of training courses will be included in the PhD study.

Qualifications
Applicants should accommodated the afterward qualifications:
A master’s amount in either veterinary medicine, assay or a commensurable conduct or a agnate amount with an bookish akin agnate to the master’s degree
Experience in immunology, virology and/or atomic assay research
An absorption in accurate compassionate of host-pathogen interactions, aiming at development of strategies for ache prophylaxis
Fluency in English speaking and writing
Good abilities in accurate advice and avant-garde thinking, acceptable amusing skills

Salary and arrangement terms
The bacon and arrangement agreement are constant with the accepted rules for PhD amount students. The aeon of appliance is 3 years.

Further advice
For added advice please acquaintance Senior Scientist Niels Lorenzen, 3588 6829.

You can apprehend added about National Veterinary Institute at www.vet.dtu.dk/English.aspx

Application
Deadline for appliance is 15 August 2010. Please accessible the articulation “apply for this job online” and ample in the appliance anatomy and attach:
A action anecdotic why you are absorbed in this position
A CV including publications
Copy of affidavit with grades

All absorbed candidates irrespective of age, gender, race, adoration or indigenous accomplishments are encouraged to apply.

For added details

Please leave a comment IF you like the entry. It's like visiting a place where there is a guest book by the front door. Before you exit, you sign it to leave a note about your experience of the place.I know that people are visiting by virtue of site meter, but almost no one leaves a comment.If you are in a hurry (and who isn't these days?), just leave a "thanks".Thanks

           Use of short-tandem repeat (STR) fingerprinting to validate sample origins in hepatitis C virus molecular epidemiology studies         
Edwards, Victoria C. and McClure, Patrick and Brown, Richard J.P. and Thompson, Emma and Irving, William L. and Ball, Jonathan K. (2014) Use of short-tandem repeat (STR) fingerprinting to validate sample origins in hepatitis C virus molecular epidemiology studies. Journal of General Virology, 95 (1). pp. 66-70. ISSN 1465-2099
          Government-authorised hospitals for the treatment of H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu) in India        
Symptoms: cough, headache, fever, bodyache, fatigue, chills, nausea, sore throat, vomitting, diarrhea.
City Hospital Address Contact
Chennai King Institute of Preventive Medicine (24/7 Service) Guindy, Chennai – 32 (044) 22501520, 22501521 & 22501522
Communicable Diseases Hospital Thondiarpet, Chennai (044) 25912686/87/88, 9444459543
Government General Hospital Opp. Central Railway Station, Chennai – 03 (044) 25305000, 25305723, 25305721, 25330300
Pune Naidu Hospital Nr Le'Meridian, Raja Bahadur Mill, GPO, Pune– 01 (020) 26058243
National Institute of Virology 20A Ambedkar Road, Pune– 11 (020) 26006290
Kolkata ID Hospital 57,Beliaghata, Beliaghata Road, Kolkata - 10‎ (033) 23701252
Coimbatore Government General Hospital Near Railway Station,
Trichy Road, Coimbatore– 18
(0422) 2301393, 2301394, 2301395, 2301396
Hyderabad Govt. General and Chest Diseases Hospital, Erragadda, Hyderabad (040) 23814939
Mumbai Kasturba Gandhi Hospital Arthur Road, N M Joshi Marg, Jacob Circle, Mumbai - 11 (022) 23083901, 23092458, 23004512
Sir J J Hospital J J Marg, Byculla, Mumbai - 08 (022) 23735555, 23739031, 23760943, 23768400 / 23731144 / 5555 / 23701393 / 1366
Haffkine Institute Acharya Donde Marg, Parel, Mumbai – 12 (022) 24160947, 24160961, 24160962
Kochi Government Medical College Gandhi Nagar P O, Kottayam - 08 (0481) 2597311,2597312
Government Medical College Vandanam P O, Allapuzha - 05 (0477) 2282015
Taluk Hospital Railway Station Road, Alwaye, Ernakulam (0484) 2624040 Sathyajit - 09847840051
Taluk Hospital Perumbavoor PO, Ernakulam 542 (0484) 2523138 Vipin - 09447305200
Gurgaon &
Delhi
All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Ansari Nagar, Aurobindo Marg Ring Road, New Delhi– 29 (011) 26594404, 26861698 Prof. R C Deka - 9868397464
National Institute for Communicable Diseases 22, Sham Nath Marg,
New Delhi – 54
(011) 23971272/060/344/524/449/326
Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital Kharak Singh Marg,
New Delhi – 01
(011) 23741640, 23741649, 23741639
Dr. N K Chaturvedi – 9811101704
Vallabhai Patel Chest Institute University Enclave, New Delhi- 07 (011) 27667102, 27667441, 27667667, 27666182
Bangalore Victoria Hospital K R Market, Kalasipalayam, Bangalore – 02 (080) 26703294 Dr. Gangadhar - 94480-49863
SDS Tuberculosis & Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Chest Diseases Hosur Road, Hombegowda Nagar, Bangalore – 29 (080) 26631923 Dr. Shivaraj - 99801-48780



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          Descubren un gen que podría abrir el camino a una vacuna contra el sida        
El hallazgo de un gen que juega un papel clave en la producción de anticuerpos que neutralizan los retrovirus podría abrir el camino a una vacuna contra el sida, según prometedores trabajos divulgados el jueves en Estados Unidos. Este hallazgo casual realizado en ratones podría también explicar por qué algunas personas expuestas al VIH (virus de inmunodeficiencia humana), responsable del sida, nunca lo contraen, indicaron los autores del estudio divulgado en la revista Science del 5 de setiembre. El gen, denominado Apobec3, que existe también en los humanos y en la misma región cromosómica, controla la capacidad de los ratones de producir anticuerpos que neutralicen retrovirus, lo que les permite combatir con éxito infecciones.

Los investigadores creen que este gen podría jugar el mismo papel en los humanos y neutralizar el retrovirus responsable del sida. Esta hipótesis es alimentada por estudios anteriores que muestran que las proteínas producidas por Apobec3 tienen propiedades anti-VIH y que la región del cromosoma en la que se encuentra el gen influye en la capacidad de ese virus para infectar el organismo.

"Este avance pone en evidencia un mecanismo genético potencial de producción de anticuerpos capaces de neutralizar el virus del sida, lo que es esencial para impedir la infección", subrayó en un comunicado el doctor Anthony Fauci, director del Instituto nacional estadounidense de alergias y enfermedades infecciosas (NIAID). "Otras investigaciones sobre la función del gen Apobec3 en los humanos podrían conducir al hallazgo de medicamentos y vacunas contra el sida", añadió.
Los anticuerpos son la clave para combatir con éxito infecciones virales y la mayoría de las vacunas estimulan la producción de anticuerpos contra un virus en particular. Pero pese a un cuarto de siglo de investigación y a la movilización de importantes recursos, la ciencia aún no ha podido poner a punto una vacuna eficaz contra el virus del sida, origen de una pandemia con más de 25 millones de muertos. "Este hallazgo aporta una nueva dimensión a nuestra comprensión del mecanismo biológico de Apobec3 que podría ayudarnos a resolver el rompecabezas de la neutralización del virus del sida", indicó por su parte el doctor Warner Greene, director del Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology de la Universidad de California (oeste), principal autor de estos trabajos. Los trabajos del Instituto Gladstone y el NIAID aportan también una nueva luz sobre la manera en la cual el virus del sida usa una de sus propias proteínas, denominada Vif, para destruir dos proteínas humanas producidas por el gen Apobec3. Dado que Apobec3 parece jugar un papel importante para ayudar al sistema inmunitario a producir anticuerpos contra los retrovirus, la destrucción de estas dos proteínas por parte de Vif podría explicar por qué la mayoría de las personas no fabrican anticuerpos contra el virus del sida.
          Cryptovirology Revisited ...        
Cryptovirology Revisited http://www.secuobs.com/revue/news/77912.shtml
          CRISPR Edits Hope College Lab Curriculum        
Most students edit papers, but students in Hope College’s virology course are editing genomes.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #84 - Gators go viral        
Vincent and Rich spoke with Dave Bloom and Grant McFadden about their work on herpesviruses and poxviruses in this episode recorded before an audience at the University of Florida, Gainesville - home of the Gators.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #83 - An hour with Dr. Kiki        
Vincent, Alan, Rich, and special guest Dr. Kirsten Sanford talk about her career in science media, then consider whether smallpox eradication led to the AIDS pandemic, high fidelity RNA synthesis, and a new Ebola virus vaccine.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #82 - Immunology in silico        
Vincent and Rich talk about how thymic selection of T cells might lead to better control of HIV-1 infection, and a mouse model for severe antibody-induced dengue virus disease.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #81 - Be a virus, see the world        
Vincent and Rich answer listener questions on viruses and gluten allergy, RNA silencing, influenza virus, herpes simplex virus, HIV/AIDS, chronic fatigue syndrome, manicure salons, and the koala tea of Marseilles.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #80 - How much X could a woodchuck chuck?        
Vincent, Alan, and Rich speak with Michael Bouchard about hepatitis B virus discovery, replication, and pathogenesis.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #79 - Red hot chili viruses        
Vincent and Alan converse about making published science accessible to everyone, global eradication of poliomyelitis, and whether a plant virus can cause disease in humans.
          Futures in Biotech 58: Vertical Farms and much more with Dick Despommier        

Hosts: Marc Pelletier and Vincent Racaniello, Ph.D., Professor of Microbiology & Host of This Week in Virology, Host of This Week in Parasitism, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Feeding the world with indoor vertical farming.

Guest: Dickson D. Despommier, Ph.D., Professor of Microbiology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY. Host of This Week in Virology; Host of This Week in Parasitism.

Show notes

Comments and suggestions on Futures in Biotech.

For a free audiobook, visit Audible.com/biotech.

Also thanks to Phil Pelletier and Will Hall for the great themes.

Thanks to Cachefly for providing the bandwidth for this netcast.

Running time: 1:12:19


          This Week in Virology: TWiV #78 - Darwin gets weird        
Vincent, Alan, Dickson, and Rich talk about treating arthritis with a tanapox virus protein, Darwinian evolution of prions in cell culture, and the connection between cold weather fronts and outbreaks of avian H5N1 influenza in Europe.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #77 - Non-nuclear proliferation        
Vincent, Alan, and Rich revisit circovirus contamination of Rotarix, then discuss poxvirus-like replication of mimivirus in the cell cytoplasm, and whether seasonal influenza immunization increases the risk of infection with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #76 - XMRV with Professor Stephen Goff        
Vincent speaks with Stephen Goff about the origin of the retrovirus XMRV and its association with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #75 - Rabies rampant        
Vincent, Alan, and Matt review contamination of Rotarix with circovirus DNA, antigenic similarity between 1918 and 2009 H1N1 influenza, a collection of rabies reports, and chicken pox mistaken for smallpox in Uganda.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #74 - Influenza with Professor Adolfo Garcia-Sastre        
Vincent speaks with Adolfo Garcia-Sastre talk about the origin, pathogenesis, and prevention of the 2009 pandemic influenza H1N1 virus.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #73 - Entering the ends        
Vincent, Dickson, and Rich discuss multipotent progenitor bone marrow cells as a reservoir of HIV-1, integration of HHV-6 into telomeres, and dispersal of West Nile virus across the US by mosquitoes.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #72 - Bucket of bolts        
This week the TWiV team explains CRISPR/Cas, the immune system of bacteria and archaea, how novel viruses are discovered by deep sequencing of small RNAs, and the relationship between dry weather and outbreaks of West Nile virus infection.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #71 - Please Mr. Postman        
Vincent, Dickson, Alan, and Rich answer listener questions on maternal infection, viral gene therapy, eyeglasses and flu, filtering prions from blood, rinderpest, Tamiflu, the human microbiome, H1N1 vaccine, tumor viruses, RNA interference, and junk DNA.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #70 - Hacking aphid behavior        
Vincent, Dickson, and Alan consider a broad spectrum antiviral against enveloped viruses, how a plant virus induces chemical signals in the host to maximize its spread, a new way to preserve viral vaccines at tropical temperatures, and the continuing story of XMRV and chronic fatigue syndrome.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #69 - They're all safecrackers        
Vincent, Alan, and Rich review recent outbreaks of mumps in the UK, US, and Israel, protection of mice against 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus by 1918-like and classical swine H1N1 vaccines, and a virus-like particle vaccine for chikungunya virus.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #68 - Ode to a plaque        
Vincent, Alan, and Rich are enthralled by movies of vaccinia virus plaque formation, then consider how repulsion of superinfection virions leads to rapid virus spread, and a therapeutic prostate cancer vaccine.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #67 - Wasting deer and the Hulk rabbit        
Vincent, Alan, and Marc talk about chronic wasting disease of deer caused by prions, blocking the semen-derived enhancer of HIV infection with surfen, and making green transgenic rabbits using a lentiviral vector.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #66 - Reverse transcription        
Vincent and Dickson continue virology 101 with a discussion of reverse transcription, the flow of information from RNA to DNA, which occurs in cells infected with retroviruses, hepatitis B virus, cauliflower mosaic virus, foamy viruses, and even in uninfected cells.
          This Week in Virology: TWiV #65 - Matt's bats        
Vincent, Alan, and Matt discuss a project to study the RNA virome of seven Northeastern American bats, failure to detect XMRV in UK chronic fatigue syndrome patients, and DNA of bornavirus, an RNA virus, in mammalian genomes.
           A hepatitis C virus cis-acting replication element forms a long-range RNA-RNA interaction with upstream RNA sequences in NS5B         
Diviney, Sinéad, Tuplin, Andrew, Struthers, Madeleine, Armstrong, Victoria, Elliott, Richard M., Simmonds, Peter and Evans, D. J. (David J.). (2008) A hepatitis C virus cis-acting replication element forms a long-range RNA-RNA interaction with upstream RNA sequences in NS5B. Journal of Virology, Vol.82 (No.18). pp. 9008-9022. ISSN 0022-538X
          341: Still not Crucified        
Galatians 1-3
"Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us, for it is written: 'Cursed is everyone who is hung on a tree.' " - Galatians 3:13

The book of Galatians is yet another letter by Paul scolding a church (this time the Galatians) for not behaving. I'm starting to get Old Testament repetitiveness flashbacks.

Paul says that the Galatians have turned from one gospel, and gone to another. We are never told the author of this mysterious other gospel, or who delivered it to the Galatians. We are only told that it is not from Paul. In fact, this seems to be Paul's litmus test for whether the gospel is legit or not. If it's Paul's, it's correct, if not, it's not correct.

Paul is so serious about this principle that he says even if an angel from heaven descends and tries to teach a gospel different from Paul's, the angel should be eternally condemned. I wonder what happens if Jesus returns and tries to un-teach some of Paul's nonsense. I guess Paul would have him eternally condemned too.

The rest of the first chapter is Paul recounting his miraculous conversion story. He can't stop himself from slipping in some conceited douchebaggery. "I was advancing in Judaism beyond many Jews of my own age and was extremely zealous for the traditions of my fathers". Of course, his awesome Jewry was leading him to send Christians to their deaths, maybe that's not something he should be bragging about.

Chapter 2 starts with Paul recounting his first trip to Jerusalem. He says that this is when he realized that he should preach to the gentiles. The apostles, says Paul, agreed to his preaching to the gentiles on the condition that Paul "remember the poor". Paul says that this was the very thing he was eager to do. Remember them as he's robbing them, I guess.

Paul then says that he rebuked Peter for his refusal to eat with the gentiles. He says that Peter was not acting according to the gospel. Of course, neither is Paul.

In chapter 3 Paul goes on a long rant about the law of the prophets. He says that the only thing the law is good for is cursing everybody. But Jesus has become the curse for all of us by being "hung on a tree". Based on the bible, I'm not sure where, when, or how Jesus was killed. You'd think the writers could at least be consistent on these basics.

Paul then tries to convince us that God's covenant with Abraham was actually about Jesus. And that somehow God's law only applies until Jesus arrives.

Paul talks pretty regularly about nobody being bound by the law anymore. Why is it, then, that Christians condemn other people based on Old Testament law, if not even they are bound by it?Moreover, why is it that Christians claim to base their morality on a set of laws that the bible says don't apply to them any more? This reminds me of an awesome article in The Onion I just read.

I'm really ready to be done with these stupid letters from Paul.

*News*
Can you quote the bible in scientific journals? Apparently not:
Though it might work for The DaVinci Code, apparently citing the bible doesn’t fly in a scientific journal. Virology Journal apologized yesterday for publishing a paper titled “Influenza or not influenza: Analysis of a case of high fever that happened 2000 years ago in Biblical time,” which attempts to diagnosis “a woman with high fever cured by our Lord Jesus Christ.”
Did this journal not read over the article before they published it? Next thing you know they'll be publishing articles about the most common color for unicorns, or the genetic makeup of fairies. This is an excerpt from the "scientific" article:
The Bible describes that when Jesus touched the woman, the fever retreated instantaneously. This implies that the disease was probably not a severe acute bacterial infection (such as septicemia) or subacute endocarditis that would not resolved instantaneously.
Right, he can bring people back from the dead, and cure paralytics, but instantaneously curing septicemia is one step too far. Maybe instead of worrying about multi drug-resistant bacteria, we should be worried about those pesky Jesus-resistant bacteria.

As further "evidence" for their bacteria theory, these "scientists" consider whether the patient could be demon-possessed:
One final consideration that one might have is whether the illness was inflicted by a demon or devil. The Bible always tells if an illness is caused by a demon or devil (Matthew 9:18-25, 12:22, 9:32-33; Mark 1:23-26, 5:1-15, 9:17-29; Luke 4:33-35, 8:27-35, 9:38-43, 11:14). The victims often had what sounded like a convulsion when the demon was cast out. In our index case, demonic influence is not stated, and the woman had no apparent convulsion or residual symptomatology.
Does this mean to say that if the bible had said the woman was demon possessed that they would have to throw out their bacteria theory? Thus, I guess, accepting the possibility of demons as a scientific fact? Maybe the Virology Journal should at least skim the articles they publish.

(via Discover)

          All my Coursera certificates        
Coursera is a nice service where top universities in the world offer free online courses.

In my experience, the courses are generally of excellent quality and some are very challenging also.

I'm collecting all my Coursera certificates in this article.


           Development of a targeted gene vector platform based on simian adenovirus serotype 24         
Belousova, Natalya and Mikheeva, Galina and Xiong, Chiyi and Soghomonian, Suren and Young, Daniel and Le Roux, Lucia and Naff, Katherine and Bidaut, Luc and Wei, Wei and Li, Chun and Gelovani, Juri and Krasnykh, Victor (2010) Development of a targeted gene vector platform based on simian adenovirus serotype 24. Journal of Virology, 84 (19). pp. 10087-10101. ISSN 0022-538X
          National Institute of Virology NIV Pune- Study M.Sc Virology in Pune University        
Are you interested to do M.Sc Virology course in Pune? Then you have the excellent opportunity to do this course in NIV Pune. Read this article to know more about National Institute of Virology and contact details, eligibility criteria and selection methods of M.Sc Virology course and many more.
          The Naked Scientist [Audio]        
Speaker(s): Dr Chris Smith | Dr Chris Smith explores present-day predicaments and tomorrow's technologies, from the most surprising facts to the most innovative new inventions, from staggering stats to serious developments that will transform the world around us. Chris Smith is a medical doctor and scientist, employed as a specialist registrar and clinical lecturer in virology at Cambridge University. He is also the founder and driving force behind The Naked Scientist, a live weekly radio talkback show aired by the BBC.
          In Memoriam: Dr. Frank John Fenner        
This podcast reflects on one of the greatest pioneers in virology, Dr. Frank John Fenner. Dr. Frederick Murphy, a member of EID's editorial board and the Institute of Medicine, and professor of Pathology at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, shares professional and personal stories of Dr. Frank Fenner.
          Chikungunya Outbreaks Caused by African Genotype, India        
Chikungunya fever has reemerged in India, with thousands of people reporting moderate to high fever with arthralgia and arthritis. Learn what researchers at the National Institute of Virology in Pune, India, determined after analying blood samples collected from suspected case-patients in 3 Indian states.
          Carl Zimmer: Viral Time        
The frontier of biology these days is the genetics and ecology of bacteria, and the frontier of THAT is what's being learned about viruses. "The science of virology is still in its early, wild days," writes Carl Zimmer. "Scientists are discovering viruses faster than they can make sense of them." The Earth's atmosphere is determined in large part by ocean bacteria; every day viruses kill half of them. Every year in the oceans, viruses transfer a trillion trillion genes between host organisms. They evolve faster than anything else, and they are a major engine of the evolution of the rest of life. Our own bodies are made up of 10 trillion human cells, 100 trillion bacteria, and 4 trillion very busy viruses. Some of them kill us. Many of them help us. Some of them are us. Viral time is ancient and blindingly fast. Science journalist Carl Zimmer is the author of A Planet of Viruses; the best introduction to the subject. His previous books include Parasite Rex and Microcosm.
          APHA – Animal Plant & Health Agency: Avian Virology and Mammalian Influenza LaboratoryScientist        
£22,280 – £22,940 + excellent benefits: APHA – Animal Plant & Health Agency: At the Animal and Plant Health Agency, we safeguard animal and plant health for the benefit of people, the environment and the economy. Weybridge, Surrey (GB)
          Sabin President Peter Hotez honored with Distinguished Achievement Award by B’nai B’rith International        

Sabin President Peter Hotez, M.D, Ph.D., was honored yesterday evening with B’nai B’rith International’s Distinguished Achievement Award for advancing science and humanity, his commitment to enlightened leadership, and community service. The award recognizes the accomplishments of key community and corporate leaders around the world.

Dr. Hotez is an internationally-recognized physician-scientist in neglected tropical disease and vaccine development. In addition to his role as President of Sabin, Dr. Hotez is dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine and professor of Pediatrics and Molecular Virology and Microbiology at Baylor College of Medicine, where he is also the Texas Children’s Hospital Endowed Chair of Tropical Pediatrics. He leads the only product development partnership for developing new vaccines for schistosomiasis, hookworm infection, Chagas disease and SARS/MERS, diseases affecting hundreds of millions of children and adults worldwide.

For more than four decades, B’nai B’rith’s Distinguished Achievement Award has honored exceptional individuals and companies for their community service, dedicated leadership and commitment to improving the lives of the individuals they serve. Click here to learn more about B’nai B’rith and this year’s Distinguished Achievement Award.


          TWiV 453: Neurovirology with Diane Griffin        

From the Vector-Borne Viruses Symposium in Hamilton, Montana, Dickson and Vincent speak with Diane Griffin about her career and her work on understanding viral infections of the central nervous system.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Guest: Diane Griffin

 

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          TWiV 452: Kiss that frog        

Lynda Coughlan joins the weekly virtual bus companions for a discussion of a host defense peptide from frogs that destroys influenza virus, and mouse models for acute and chronic hepacivirus infection.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Lynda Coughlan

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Kathy - US rivers as subway map
Lynda - No Time to Lose: A Life in Pursuit of Deadly Viruses by Peter Piot
Alan
- Apollo-era computers found in dead engineer’s basement
Vincent - 110 NFL Brains, research article in JAMA and The best science is often accidental

Listener Pick

Stig - Security Now! and The Gene by Siddhartha Mukherjee
Ricardo - John Oliver on Vaccines

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 451: Expectorate the unexpected        

The TWiV scientists reveal that mosquitoes transmit different West Nile virus populations with each blood meal, only to have the diversity purged in a bird host.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Kathy - Approaching Jupiter and Michigan parents about vaccination
Rich - Math Limericks from Futility Closet
Alan
- NASA flyover of Pluto
Vincent - Talk show host nominated as USDA chief scientist

Listener Pick

Neil - These smart girls are here to debunk anti-vaxxer nonsense
John - John Sever AMA

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 450: Ben tenOever and RNA out        

Ben tenOever joins the TWiVoli to discuss the evolution of RNA interference and his lab's finding that RNAse III nucleases, needed for the maturation of cellular RNAs, are an ancient antiviral RNA recognition platform in all domains of life.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Ben tenOever

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Weekly Science Picks

Ben - Invisible Invaders by Peter Radetsky
Kathy -
ASV 2017 Virolympics Crossword solved (pdf) and National Museum of the Air Force
Rich - Columbia river gorge and Undaunted Courage by Stephen Ambrose
Dickson -
All the World's Earthquakes
Alan
- Map of Roman roads
Vincent - Brain atlas of fly behavior

Listener Pick

Rob - Vaccinate Your Kids and Charles Darwin Natural Selection
Islam - Self-assembling virus and Virus Patterns

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 449: The sound of non-silencing        

The TWiV Council explores the finding that facial appearance affects science communication, and evidence that RNA interference confers antiviral immunity in mammalian cells.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

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Weekly Science Picks

Kathy - ASV 2017 Virolympics Crossword (pdf)
Dickson -
The Visible Mouse
Alan
- Is profitable publishing bad for science?
Vincent - Locally Sourced Science

Listener Pick

Neva - Michael Summers interview and Virus coloring book

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 448: Mavis the Structure Maven        

From ASV 2017 in Madison, Wisconsin, the complete TWiV team speaks with Mavis Agbandje-McKenna about her career and her work solving virus structures by x-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Mavis Agbandje-McKenna

 

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Promega products are used by life scientists who are asking fundamental questions about biological processes applying their knowledge to diagnose and treat diseases or discover new therapeutics.

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Weekly Science Picks

Kathy - Doktor Kaboom!
Dickson - 
Mars as you've never seen it before
Alan
- Eclipse 2017
Rich - Sirens of Titan by Kurt Vonnegut
Vincent - Research!America

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 447: Un-impacting an elephant        

The glorious TWiVerati un-impact their email backlog, anwering questions about viruses, viruses, viruses, viruses, viruses, and more. You should listen - our fans ask great questions!

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

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Weekly Science Picks

Kathy - Oskar Fischinger Google Doodle
Dickson - 
Ten Tiny But Terrifying Micro Monsters
Alan
- Hunting mammoth ivory in Siberia
Rich - Occam’s razor
Vincent - Blame vax for illness without proof, says EU

Listener Pick

Ed - Lysenkoism

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 446: Old sins die hard        

The TWiV hosts review an analysis of gender parity trends at virology conferences, and the origin and unusual pathogenesis of the 1918 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Kathy - BioKids Critter Catalog
Dickson - 
Shanghai Vertical Farm
Alan
- Colossal Cave Adventure open source
Rich - Life on Mars (HI-SEAS)
Vincent - TWiM 154 with Arturo Casadevall

Listener Pick

Grant - Antibody validation challenges

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 445: A nido virology meeting        

From Nido2017 in Kansas City, Vincent  meets up with three virologists to talk about their careers and their work on nidoviruses.

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guests: Margo Brinton, Luis Enjuanes, and Linda Saif

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Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees

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          TWiV 444: Astro Kate, The Right Stuff        

From ASM Microbe 2017 at New Orleans, Vincent and Rich meet up with astronaut Kate Rubins to talk about becoming an astronaut, space travel, and doing science in space.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Rich Condit

Guest: Kate Rubins

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          TWiV Special: Trial by Error, Continued        

David Tuller returns to discuss the continuing saga of the UK's PACE trial for chronic fatigue syndrome, including the accusation that he is engaging in libelous blogging.

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guest: David Tuller

 

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          TWiV 443: On a leaf, no one can hear you scream        

The TWiVsters reveal the puppet master: an RNA virus injected with wasp eggs that paralyzes the ladybug so that she protects the cocoon until the adult emerges.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Kathy - Science Showcase Video Contest
Alan
- Biochemical pathways on one chart
Rich - 35th America’s Cup
Vincent -  Viruses (pdf) and A whole new Jupiter

Listener Pick

Peter - Fake typhoid epidemic saves Polish city and Life gets complicated when disease
overruns your town
Ralph - Dilbert on climate change

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 442: The New York Tim        

Freelance science journalist Tim Requarth joins the TWiVers to explain why scientists should stop thinking that explaining science will fix  information illiteracy.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Tim Requarth

 

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Kathy - Life Saver Lightning
Alan
- Model rocket engine burning in slow-mo
Rich - scistarter
Vincent - The quest to wipe out a virus and FCC Votes to Begin Dismantling Net Neutrality

Listener Pick

Robert - Zika presentation

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 441: Don't ChrY for me influenza        

The Beacons of Viral Education (aka the TWiVoners) reveal a cost of being a male mouse - the Y chromosome regulates their susceptibility to influenza virus infection.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

 

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Kathy - Social science research on “luck” in motherhood
Alan
- Foiling dinghy built by engineering students (video)
Rich - Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA)
Vincent - Make measles great again in Michigan and Which tech giant would you drop?

Listener Pick

Steven - Difficult truths about a post-truth world

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 440: I hardly noumeavirus        

No problem being nice to Dickson in this episode, because he's absent for a discussion of a new giant virus that replicates in the cytoplasm yet transiently accesses the nucleus to bootstrap infection.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

 

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Kathy - U-M Rubik’s Cube story   #1 video   #2 video    #3 video
Alan
- You're not going to believe this
Rich - High School student builds robot to solve Rubrik's cube
Vincent - NIH limits grant money and The abomination of a bill

Listener Pick

Ken - The Fab Lab with Crazy Aunt Lindsey
Laurel - Sally Hoskin’s CREATE program
Maureen - Simple Science Experiments You Can Do With Eggs Before Breakfast

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 439: The purloined envelope        

Paul Bieniasz joins the TWiV team to talk about the co-option, millions of years ago, of an endogenous retrovirus envelope protein by hominid ancestors for host defense against viral infection.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Paul Bieniasz

 

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Kathy - UM Science Communication TeachOut
Alan
- LLNL nuclear test videos
Rich - The Great A.I. Awakening  (Artificial neural network; DeepDream; DeepDream images)
Dickson
 - Cassini images
Paul - Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Vincent - Google rewrites search rankings; Senator Whitehouse on politics of climate change

Listener Pick

Anthony - Raspberry Pi 3 Model B Weather Monitor Kit

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 438: Drs. TWiV go to Washington        

 On the eve of the March for Science, the TWiV team gathers at ASM Headquarters in Washington, DC with guests Stefano and Susie to talk about the state of science communication.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Rich Condit

Guests: Stefano Bertuzzi and Susan Sharp

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Steve Ballmer’s government data project (NYTimes article)
Rich - Alexander Hamilton by Ron Chernow
Dickson
 - Shanghai vertical farming
Vincent - Right-to-try sham and NASA media
Stefano - Why Religion is Natural and Science is Not and The Path Between the Seas
Susan - Rick and Morty

Listener Pick

Johnye - A capella CRISPR/Cas9

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 437: Kathy's new spindle virus        

The TWiVsters reveal new giant viruses that argue against a fourth domain of life, and discovery of viruses in the oceanic basement.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Kathy - Cloud appreciation society
Rich - High Rise Urban Farming
Dickson
 - Planets orbiting a distant star
Vincent - TWiEVO 18: Raiders of the lost orco

Listener Pick

Kevin - Cherry blossoms at Brooklyn Botanical Garden

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 436: Virology above Cayuga's waters        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guests: Susan Daniel, Colin Parrish, and Gary Whittaker

At Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, Vincent speaks with Susan, Colin, and Gary about the work of their laboratories on parvoviruses, influenza viruses, and coronaviruses that infect dogs, cats, horses and other mammals.

 

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Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 435: Two virus particles walk into a cell        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVome discuss the blood virome of 8,420 humans, and thoroughly geek out on a paper about the number of parental viruses in a plaque.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Couple donates insect collection
Kathy
 - Why is science important to you?
Rich - Hook
Dickson
 - Ten Incredible Astronomy Pictures
Vincent - Why Trump’s NIH Cuts Should Worry Us and
The Real Threat to National Security: Deadly Disease 

 Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 434: Live long and pupate        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

The esteemed TWiVumvirate reveal the discovery of a new negative stranded RNA virus of wasps that regulates longevity and sex ratio of its parasitoid host.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - The Wrath of Khan from Bug Chicks
Kathy
 - Boaty McBoatface submarine launching
Dickson - Fierce animal portraits
Vincent - Westworld

Listener Picks

Hannah - Plague, Inc
Stig - John Oliver: Trump vs the truth

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 433: Poops viruses and worms        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

The lovely TWiV team explore evolution of our fecal virome, and the antiviral RNA interference response in the nematode C. elegans. 

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Contact information for Senators and Representatives
Kathy
 - How Tumor Virology Transformed Oncology
Dickson - Seven new species of Peacock Spider
Vincent - Proposed NIH budget cut and Expensive Oxford Comma

Listener Pick

Kim - Pigeon Fashion Week (TWiEVO 7)
Richard - aeroMorph and Understanding Molecular Evolution
Johnye - Ice Instruments and Fahrenheit and Celsius

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 432: Conjunction junction, what's your function?        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVites discuss Zika virus seroprevalence in wild monkeys, Zika virus mRNA vaccines, and a gamete fusion protein inherited from viruses.

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Raspberry pi
Kathy
 - The Worst F&#%ing Words Ever
Dickson - NASA images of climate change
Brianne - How herd immunity works
Vincent - Radioactive boars in Fukushima

Listener Pick

Margaret - DNA socks and gloves

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 431: Niemann-Pick of the weak        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVirions reveal bacteriophage genes that control eukaryotic reproduction, and the biochemical basis for increased Ebolavirus glycoprotein activity during the recent outbreak.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Rich - Germ Theory by Robert P. Gaynes
Alan - Student Scientist Partnerships
Kathy
 - Symbiartic
Dickson - PaleoBioDB Navigator
Vincent - Kusama Infinity Room

Listener Pick

Chaim - How to fight back against the backfire effect

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 430: The persistence of herpesvirus        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiX cabal discuss sexual transmission of Zika virus in mice, and how immune escape enables herpes simplex virus escape from latency.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Rich - Vipassana Momma (Dravet Syndrome)
Kathy
 - Landlines Chrome Experiments
Dickson - Origami Revolution
Vincent - Hunched Over a Microscope

Intro music is by Ronald Jenkees.

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          TWiV 429: Zika Experimental Science Team        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guests: Katie Antony, Tom Friedrich, Emma Mohr, and David O'Connor

Vincent meets with members of team ZEST at the University of Wisconsin Madison to discuss their macaque model for Zika virus pathogenesis.

 

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Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 428: Lyse globally, protect locally        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVsters explain how superspreader bacteriophages release intact DNA from infected cells, and the role of astrocytes in protecting the cerebellum from virus infection.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Skulls Unlimited
Rich - Bernard Moss Reflection
Kathy
 - Why vaccines don't cause autism
Dickson - Honomobo
Vincent - Trump vs FDA

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          TWiV Special: Vincent Munster on MERS-coronavirus and Ebolavirus        

Guest: Vincent Munster

At the Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, Vincent speaks with Vincent Munster about the work of his laboratory on MERS-coronavirus and Ebolaviruses.

 

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Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 427: It was a DURC and UV light        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVoids discuss the March for Science, the GOF moratorium, and a classic virology paper on mapping the gene order for vesicular stomatitis virus.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Good Omen miniseries (book)
Kathy - How to cure earworms
Dickson - Exoplanets orbits
Vincent - Outbreak News Today

Listener Pick

Tom - The Smartest Protester

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 426: I'm Axl, and I'll be your cervid today        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The sages of TWiV explain how chronic wasting disease of cervids could be caused by spontaneous misfolding of prion protein, and the role of the membrane protein Axl in Zika virus entry into cells.

 

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This episode is brought to you by Blue Apron. Blue Apron is the #1 fresh ingredient and recipe delivery service in the country. See what’s on the menu this week and get your first 3 meals free – WITH FREE SHIPPING – by going to blueapron.com/twiv.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Deerland by Al Cambronne
Dickson - Antarctica's Colorful Underwater World
Kathy - You can’t unring a bell #1 and #2
Rich - Extra letters added to life's genetic code (source) and The Doomsday Clock (wiki)
Vincent - Trump Science Advisors, National Parks Won't Be Silenced

Listener Pick

Stefan - The Vital Question by Nick Lane
Kevin - Scientists March on Washington?
Dennis - Fractal Tree of Life

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          TWiV 425: All picornaviruses, all the time        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVaniellos discuss a thermostable poliovirus empty capsid vaccine, and two cell genes that act as a switch between entry and clearance of picornavirus infection.

 

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This episode is brought to you by Blue Apron. Blue Apron is the #1 fresh ingredient and recipe delivery service in the country. See what’s on the menu this week and get your first 3 meals free – WITH FREE SHIPPING – by going to blueapron.com/twiv.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Medical lab whirligig
Dickson - Antarctica's Colorful Underwater World
Kathy - Prince Rupert’s drops #1 and #2
Rich - Dylan's 30th - Eric Clapton --Don’t Think Twice, It’s All Right  (The 30th Anniversary Concert Celebration)
Vincent - Saving climate data and Public Good and Public Funding of Science

Listener Pick

Suellen - For the anti-vaccine people

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 424: FLERVergnügen        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Trudy Rey

Trudy joins the the TWiVlords to discuss new tests for detecting prions in the blood, and evidence showing that foamy retroviruses originated in the seas with their jawed vertebrate hosts at least 450 million years ago.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Trudy - Artist Jenni Viljaniemi
Alan
 - Radio Garden
Dickson - World's First Green Energy Boat
Kathy - mSphereDirect video and web
Rich - Deathworld Trilogy by Harry Harrison
Vincent - Trump's Vaccine Panel (NYTimes), Offit's Response (Daily Beast), ASM Letter

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 423: Dry, well formed, and light brown        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Jared Rice

The TWiV academia discuss induction of diarrhea by the capsid protein of an astrovirus, and association of a fungal RNA virus with white-nose syndrome of North American bats.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - GPS visualizer
Dickson - James Webb Space Telescope and The Vertical Farm
Kathy - First Snowflake Photos (One and Two)
Rich - Red Mars by Kim Stanley Robinson
Vincent - Carrie Fisher Fought for the Rebel Alliance and Mental Health Awareness

Listener Pick

Ken - The Abate Lab
Sean - The Death of Expertise

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 422: Watching the icosahedron drop        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVestigators wrap up 2016 with a discussion of the year's ten compelling virology stories.

 

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Should auld infections be forgot
And never T-cells primed?
Will cross-reacting antigens
Protect the host next time?

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - North America's Lost Medieval City
Dickson - New Views of Pillars of Creation
Kathy - Reilly Top Ten
Rich - Everyday Einstein
Vincent - Naples' Sleeping Volcano Might Be Waking Up

Listener Pick

John - RadioLab: The Times They Are a-Changin'

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          TWiV 421: Like flies on shot        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Nathan Letts

The TWiVnauts present another example of an infectious but replication incompetent vaccine, an insect specific arborvirus bearing chikungunya virus structural proteins.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Open Access Button
Dickson - National Geographic Photographs
Kathy - World's Tiniest Radio Receiver
Nathan - Mutter Museum, Philadelphia
Vincent - How Rogue One is Connected to the Mac

Listener Pick

Sam - Cell Lab: Evolution Sandbox
Hannelore - Congressional Dish
Johnye - The Fungi in Your Future
Brendan - Zimmer on Longform podcast

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          TWiV 420: Orthogonal vectors        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiV gurus describe how to use an orthogonal translation system to produce infectious but replication-incompetent influenza vaccines.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Superbugs game
Dickson - Dinosaur tail trapped in amber
Rich - Earth's Rotation is Slowing (original article)
Kathy - Lithium Ion batteries (one and two)
Vincent - Truth and Lies in the Age of Trump (virology blog) and self driving Uber car

Listener Pick

Steve - New York City Street Tree Map
Justin - Transmissible vaccines?

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 419: The selfless gene        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVrific gang reveal how integration of a virophage into the nuclear genome of a marine protozoan enhances host survival after infection with a giant virus.

 

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Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Lab Wars
Dickson - Star in a Jar Fusion Reactor
Rich -You're a Bee. This is What it Feels Like.
Kathy - List of Potential Predatory Journals
Vincent - CRISPR Patent Trial Begins

Listener Pick

Drake - Spinzall
Katreya - Periodic Videos
Pritesh - Smallpox in mummy

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 418: Of mice and MERS        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVsters describe a new animal model for MERS coronavirus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome, produced by CRISPR/Cas9 editing of the mouse gene encoding an ortholog of the virus receptor.

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Register for ASV 2017 at Madison, Wisconsin

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Human population through time
Dickson - Every Orbit Cassini Has Taken
Rich - OK GO: Walk Her Walk
Kathy - Medieval Bestiary Online
Vincent - Can You Out-Science an Eighth Grader? and Stitchen Pox

Listener Pick

Hannah - Bioart and Bacteria

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV Special: Gary Nabel on World AIDS Day 2016        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guest: Gary Nabel

Vincent speaks with Gary Nabel, Chief Scientific Officer at Sanofi and former Director of the Vaccine Research Institute of NIAID, about his career and his work on HIV vaccines.

 

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          TWiV 417: O is the loneliest letter        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The Fellowship of the Virus trace the early history of HIV in North America, based on genome sequences obtained from late 1970s archival sera, which also reveal that Gaetan Dugas was not Patient Zero.

 

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Check out the graduate and postdoctoral programs at the Department of Microbiology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Deadline for applying to the graduate program is 1 December 2016. For more information about the Department, please visit http://bit.ly/micromssm

Register for the 2017 ASM Grant Writing Online course.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - VP8SGI
Dickson - 
New leaf-shaped spider discovered
Rich - 
Dance of Earth and Venus About the Sun
Kathy - Cultivar Series, Mutatoes, Uli Westphal site
Vincent - 
Kung Fu Mantis vs Jumping Spider

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 416: Scattered seeds dormant        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The multi-dimensional TWiV-brane bring you the entries in the haiku/limerick contest, and explain how a giant virus infects a host within another host (it has to do with predators!).

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Check out the graduate and postdoctoral programs at the Department of Microbiology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Deadline for applying to the graduate program is 1 December 2016. For more information about the Department, please visit http://bit.ly/micromssm 5:05

Register for the 2017 ASM Grant Writing Online course.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Cubes in Space
Dickson - 
The Architecture of Eden by H. Pearlman and A. Whalley
Rich - 
Studying the building blocks of life in stereo (original paper)
Kathy - Ancient bottom wipes yield evidence of diseases (original paper)
Vincent - 
Iguana vs snakes

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 415: Ebola pipettors and the philosopher's clone        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guests: Jeremy Luban, Aaron Lin, and Ted Diehl

Jeremy, Aaron, and Ted join the TWiV team to discuss their work on identifying a single amino acid change in the Ebola virus glycoprotein from the West African outbreak that increases infectivity in human cells.

 

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Check out the graduate and postdoctoral programs at the Department of Microbiology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Deadline for applying to the graduate program is 1 December 2016. For more information about the Department, please visit http://bit.ly/micromssm 1:35

Register for the 2017 ASM Grant Writing Online course.

Weekly Science Picks

Jeremy – Real time tracking of Ebola virus evolution
Ted - The Brain Scoop
Aaron - Kate Rubins sequencing DNA on ISS (video)
Alan – A Sand County Almanac by Aldo Leopold
Rich –  Vendee Globe
Kathy – Axios
Vincent – Vendors from above by Loes Heerinck

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 414: Zika in the guys with Diamond        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guest: Michael Diamond

Michael Diamond visits the TWiV studio to talk about chikungunya virus and his laboratory's work on a mouse model of Zika virus, including the recent finding of testicular damage caused by viral replication.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Check out the graduate and postdoctoral programs at the Department of Microbiology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Deadline for applying to the graduate program is 1 December 2016. For more information about the Department, please visit http://bit.ly/micromssm

Register for the 2017 ASM Scientific Writing and Publishing Online Course.

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 413: Partnerships not parachutes        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, and Paul Duprex

Guests: Ralph Baric, Felix Drexler, Marion Koopmans, and Stacey Schultz-Cherry

From the EIDA2Z conference at Boston University, Vincent, Alan and Paul meet up with Ralph Baric, Felix Drexler, Marion Koopmans, Stacey Schultz-Cherry to talk about discovering, understanding, protecting, and collaborating on emerging infectious diseases.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Check out the graduate and postdoctoral programs at the Department of Microbiology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Deadline for applying to the graduate program is 1 December 2016. For more information about the Department, please visit http://bit.ly/micromssm

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 412: WO, open the borders and rig the infection        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Mark Fuccio

The TWiVome reveal the first eukaryotic genes found in a bacteriophage of Wolbachia, and how DNA tumor virus oncogenes antagonize sensing of cytoplasmic DNA by the cell.

 

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This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

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Weekly Science Picks

Mark - EFN Enterprise Futures Network and Mission Log Podcast
Alan - 
2016 Wildlife Comedy Photography
Rich
 -  ZuTA, portable robotic printer
Kathy - How LEGO help blind people see
Vincent - 
Airplane photos of Mike Kelley

Listener Pick

Hannah - Frozen Flow Glass (Instagram)

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 411: Chicken runs        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVeroos examine a reverse spillover of Newcastle disease virus vaccines into wild birds, and identification of a protein cell receptor for murine noroviruses.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Braincraft
Rich
 -  Now is the Greatest Time to Be Alive
Kathy - CRISPR/Cas9 by A Capella Science
Vincent - 
Microbes After Hours: The Necromicrobiome

Listener Pick

Jolene - Chalk Talk Science by Dennis Mangan

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 410: Hurricane Zika        

Guests: Sharon Isern and Scott Michael

Sharon and Scott join the TWiV team to talk about their work on dengue antibody-dependent enhancement of Zika virus infection, and identifying the virus in mosquitoes from Miami.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Weekly Science Picks

Sharon - Zika virus comics and cartoons and Florida weekly arbovirus reports
Scott - Real-time tracking of Zika virus evolution
Alan - Evolution of antibiotic resistance on a mega plate
Rich
 -  Windytv
Kathy - Zika virus map and timeline
Vincent - 
Ohsumi Nobel advanced information and HR 5325 funding breakdown

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 409: A Nef is enough        

Guest: Jeremy Luban

Jeremy joins the TWiVeroids to tell the amazing story of how the function of the HIV-1 protein called Nef was discovered and found to promote infection by excluding the host protein SERINC from virus particles.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE. 0:25, 28:50

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Migration in Motion
Dickson - Beautiful Chemistry
Rich - XKCD Timeline of Earth Temperature
Kathy
 -  Vaccine Heroes from Vaccine Education Center
Jeremy - CIDRAP posters and Demon in the Freezer
Vincent - 
People Peas and Pathogens

Listener Picks

Matlock - Science isn't broken

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 408: Boston Quammens        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Alan Dove

Guest: David Quammen

Four years after filming 'Threading the NEIDL', Vincent and Alan return to the National Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory BSL4 facility at Boston University where they speak with science writer David Quammen.

 

Watch this episode at YouTube

Become a patron of TWiV!

Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 407: Tar Heels go viral, part two        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guests: Ralph Baric, Kristina De Paris, Tal Kafri, Helen Lazear, Mark Heise, and David Margolis

In the second of two shows recorded at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, Vincent meets up with faculty members to talk about how they got into science, their research on RNA viruses, and what they would be doing if they were not scientists.

 

View video of this episode at YouTube

Become a patron of TWiV!

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 407: Tar Heels go viral, part one        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guests: Dirk Dittmer, Cary Moody, Nat Moorman, Nancy Raab-Traub, Lishan Su, and Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque

In the first of two shows recorded at the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, Vincent meets up with faculty members to talk about how they got into science, their research on DNA viruses, and what they would be doing if they were not scientists.

View video of this episode at YouTube

 

Become a patron of TWiV!

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 406: Pow, right in the enteroids!        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiV team discussed eye infections caused by Zika virus, failure of Culex mosquitoes to transmit the virus, and replication of norovirus in stem cell derived enteroids.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Infective Perspective
Dickson - The Living River
Rich - Freddy Mercury around the Sun
Kathy
 -  A Day in Pompeii
Vincent - Spraying Pesticides

Listener Picks

Ricardo - Why the metric system matters
Eric - The Giving Plague by David Brin

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 405: All the world's a phage        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiXers discuss a study on vertical transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes, and uncovering Earth's virome by mining existing metagenomic sequence data.

 

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This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completel free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE. 0:25, 58:55

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - The Vizzies
Dickson - NASA Spinoff
Kathy
 -  Maps.me
Vincent - Zika: The Emerging Epidemic by Donald McNeil

Listener Picks

Tarwin - Darwin's Radio by Greg Bear (paper or Kindle)
Bodham - The start of scientific publishing, 1665

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 404: Not found        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Rich Condit

From the twiVivants, follow up on FluMist and Zoster vaccines, Zika virus update, and isolation of a multicomponent animal virus from mosquitoes.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completel free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Sally Le Page
Dickson - Comfortably Numb by Jamie Dupuis
Rich
 -  Learned Helplessness
Vincent - Virus by Marilyn Roossinck

Listener Picks

OneTime - The Stranglers - Old Codger
Steve - A Poem About Pronunciation

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV Special: DA Henderson, smallpox eradicator        

Donald “D.A.” Henderson, a physician, educator, and epidemiologist who led the World Health Organization’s campaign to eradicate smallpox, died at 87 years of age on Aug. 19, 2016. Vincent was fortunate to have the opportunity to speak with DA Henderson in 2014 about his career, the smallpox eradication effort, and what it means for the eradication of polio. 

Become a patron of TWiV!

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completel free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 403: It's not easy being vaccine        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, and Rich Condit

The TWiV team takes on an experimental plant-based poliovirus vaccine, contradictory findings on the efficacy of Flumist, waning protection conferred by Zostavax, a new adjuvanted subunit zoster vaccine.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completel free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - To Scale: The Solar System
Rich -  Route 66 Goes Solar
Vincent - Race for a Zika Vaccine by Siddhartha Mukherjee

Listener Picks

Bohdan - Penn and Teller on Vaccinations
Bill - Connections, Episode 1

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 402: The plight of the bumblebee        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Rich Condit

Polio returns to Nigeria, Zika virus spreads in Miami, and virus infection of plants attracts bumblebees for pollination, from the virus gentlepeople at TWiV.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completel free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Solar storm that launched US space weather science
Rich -  Data storage on DNA
Dickson - Perseid meteor show live
Vincent - In the Company of Microbes by Elio Schaechter

Listener Picks

Neva - I Contain Multitudes by Ed Yong
Amanda - American Gut

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 401: Vector victorious        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

Zika virus spreads in the USA, a Zika virus DNA vaccine goes into phase I trials, and how mosquito bites enhance virus replication and disease, from the friendly TWiFolk Vincent, Dickson, Alan, and Kathy.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completel free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - The Doubleclicks
Kathy - WHO ZIKV app and ZIKV Giant Microbe
Dickson - Photographer Rosamond Purcell
Vincent - Spillover: Zika, Ebola, and Beyond

Listener Picks

Ricardo - Portugal Four Days on Renewable Energy
Fatma - DeNovo: Predicting virus-host protein interactions
Stephen - How mosquitoes use six needles to suck your blood

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 400: Harold '400' Varmus, a scientist for all seasons        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Harold Varmus

The TWiV team is together in New York City for a conversation with Nobel Laureate Harold Varmus about his remarkable career in science.

 

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This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

This episode was made possible by PLoS Pathogens - the leading Open Access journal to publish breakthroughs in understanding pathogens and their interactions with host organisms and each other. PLOS Pathogens fosters the open exchange of ideas across fields, publishing original research on viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, and prions. For more information, check out www.plospathogens.org

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - A year on Earth
Rich - TWiV #1: West Nile Virus
Dickson - Chasing storms, chasing beauty
Kathy - Bioartography and FASEB image and video competition
Vincent - The Art and Politics of Science by Harold Varmus (free download)

Listener Picks

Trudy - Scientific Studies on Last Week Tonight with John Oliver

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 399: Zika la femme        

IMG_3202.jpgHosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Rich Condit

The latest Zika virus news from the ConTWiVstadors, including a case of female to male transmission, risk of infection at the 2016 summer Olympics, a DNA vaccine, antibody-dependent enhancement by dengue antibodies, and sites of replication in the placenta.

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Become a patron of TWiV.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - CDC postmortem on Ebolavirus outbreak
Rich - Refutations to anti-vaccine memes (Twitter, Facebook)
Dickson - History of urbanization
Vincent - How to cut subject from background in Photoshop

Listener Picks

Marion - Skeptics Guide to the Universe podcast
Jennie - Leatherback turtles in Costa Rica

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 398: Permission to be intuitive        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guest: Sandy Weller

Vincent speaks with Sandy Weller about her career and her work on the mechanisms of synthesis, maturation and cleavage and packaging of viral DNA genomes.

 

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          TWiV 397: Trial by Error        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guest: David Tuller

Vincent speaks with David Tuller about flaws in the U.K's $8 million PACE trial for chronic fatigue syndrome, and efforts to have the trial data released.

 

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This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

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          TWiV 396: Influenza viruses with Peter Palese        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guest: Peter Palese

Vincent speaks with Peter Palese about his illustrious career in virology, from early work on neuraminidases to universal influenza virus vaccines.

 

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          TWiV 395: The cancer thief        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Stephen J. Russell

From ASV 2016 at Virginia Tech, Vincent, Rich and Kathy speak with Stephen Russell about his career and his work on oncolytic virotherapy - using viruses to treat cancers.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Weekly Science Picks

Kathy - Can you explain your science in 30 seconds? and How Far Can We Go?
Rich - Small asteroid Earth's companion
Vincent - The Gene by Siddhartha Mukherjee

Listener Picks

Dylan - Microsculpture by Levon Biss (website)

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 394: Cards in a hand        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Alan Dove

Guest: Erica Ollmann Saphire

Vincent and Alan speak with Erica about her career and her work on understanding the functions of proteins of Ebolaviruses, Marburg virus, and other hemorrhagic fever viruses, at ASM Microbe 2016 in Boston, MA.

 

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Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Slime Lapse
Vincent - Virus Watch

Listener Picks

Patricia - NECSS, People Behind the Science, The Life Scientific
Peter - Iron Lung on eBay

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 393: Lovers and livers        

The first raceHosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVerati revisit possible sexual transmission of Zika virus, and reveal how a cell protein that allows hepatitis C virus replication in cell culture enhances vitamin E mediated protection against lipid peroxidation.

 

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This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Also brought to you by ASV 2016

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - All About That Space
Rich - The Expanse by James S.A. Corey (SyFy)
Kathy - Five Pivotal Paragraphs in a Paper
Vincent - Agar Art Contest Winners

Listener Picks

Ted - Marshall Niremberg charts

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 392: Zika virus!        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guests: Michael Diamond, Michaela Gack, Laura Kramer, and Charles Rice

Four virologists discuss our current understanding of Zika virus biology, pathogenesis, transmission, and prevention, in this special live episode recorded at the American Society for Microbiology in Washington, DC.

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          TWiV 391: Whiter reefs, fresh breath        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, and Rich Condit

Guests: David Pride and Forest Rohwer

If you have always wanted to know what coral reefs and the human oral cavity have in common, listen as guests David Pride and Forest Rohwer talk about their work on the microbiomes and viromes of these two environments, and you'll also understand why mucus is cool.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Vax Pack Hero
Rich - Helicopter autorotation
Vincent - Live in Our Phage World by Forest Rohwer, Merry Youle, Heather Maughan, Nao Hisakawa

Listener Picks

Matt - Experiment.com

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 390: Building a better mosquito trap        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guests: Ethan Jackson and Jonathan Carlson

Project Premonition, a Microsoft Research project that uses drones to capture mosquitoes and analyze them for pathogens, preprint servers, and three mouse models for Zika virus induced birth defects are the topics of this episode hosted by the TWiumvirate and theirs guests Ethan and Jonathan.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Also brought to you by ASV 2016

Weekly Science Picks

Dickson - Germany nearly reached 100% renewable power
Alan
 - Vertical City documentary and Lumino City game
Rich - Errol Morris: ‘Demon in the Freezer’
Kathy - Entropic Time YouTube by A Capella Science (watch “the making of”)
Vincent - Agar Art contest finalists

Listener Picks

Jennie - SciFi reading (scroll down)

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 389: Alphabet hepatitis with Stan Lemon        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guest: Stan Lemon

Vincent speaks with Stan Lemon about his career in virology, from early work on Epstein Barr virus, through making essential discoveries about hepatitis A virus, hepatitis C virus, and rhinoviruses.

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 388: What could possibly go wrong?        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

Preprint servers, the structure of an antibody bound to Zika virus, blocking Zika virus replication in mosquitoes with Wolbachia, and killing carp in Australia with a herpesvirus are topics of this episode hosted by Vincent, Dickson, Alan, and Kathy.

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Also brought to you by ASV 2016

Weekly Science Picks

Dickson - EarthEnv
Alan
 - Research funding by lottery
Kathy - Eugenia Cheng Math and Baking
Vincent - Zika Diaries

Listener Picks

Stephen - Virus trading cards
William - Virus trading cards
Norma+Maurice - Virus trading cards
Tom - Virus trading cards

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 387: Quaxxed        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Nina Martin

Nina Martin joins the TWiV team to talk about the movie Vaxxed, her bout with dengue fever, and the latest research on Zika virus.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get two months free when you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Also brought to you by ASV 2016

Weekly Science Picks

Nina - Vaccines and Your Child by Paul Offit and Charlotte Moser
Dickson - The animals of Chernobyl
Alan
 - Five rules of lab safety
Kathy - 20 best science images of the year?
Vincent - Massive undersea crab swarm

Listener Picks

JP - Global map of wind
Todd - Doc Martin

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 386: The dolphins did it        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guests: Ted Diehl and Welkin Johnson

Ted and Welkin inform the TWiV team how the evolution of ancient retroviruses can be inferred by studying their sequences in the genomes of modern mammals, and join in a discussion of virus dispersal during different methods for drying hands.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest, ASM Grant Writing Course, and ASV 2016

Weekly Science Picks 1:30:20

Welkin - Lab Girl by Hope Jahren (essay)
Ted - Accidental brilliance in science
Rich - Perpetual motion?
Kathy - R0 graphic and explanation
Vincent - NWS ditches all caps forecasts

Listener Picks

Basel - Gimli Glider and Mars Climate Orbiter
Ken - Vaccination comic book

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 385: Failure        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Guest: Stuart Firestein

Stuart joins Vincent and Dickson to talk about his sequel to Ignorance, a book called Failure, which seeks to make science more appealing by revealing its faults.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest and ASV 2016

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 384: Agent 003, a view to a fish kill        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove and Rich Condit

Guests: Nischay Mishra and Ian Lipkin

Nischay and Ian join the TWiVions to discuss mass die-offs of tilapia by a novel orthomyxo-like virus, Ian's editorial on the movie Vaxxed, and new vaccines to prevent dengue virus infections, including a human challenge model. 

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest, ASM Grant Writing Course, and ASV 2016

Weekly Science Picks

Rich - Dune by Frank Herbert
Alan - Adult vaccination video contest
Dickson - Ski town greenhouse
Vincent - Preprint servers: Force awakens or revenge of undead?

Listener Picks

Ken - Golden Mole Awards for Accidental Brilliance (list, video)
Jim - Linear algebra course

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 383: A zillion Zika papers and a Brazilian        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Esper Kallas

Esper and the Merry TWiXters analyze the latest data on Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil, and discuss publications on a mouse model for disease, infection of a fetus, mosquito vector competence, and the cryo-EM structure of the virus particle.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest and ASV 2016

Weekly Science Picks

Esper - The Chaos by Gérard Nolst Trenité and HIV pathogenesis course
Alan - Science Kombat
Dickson - Four steps to wiping out a mosquito
Vincent - Public lacks information on Zika virus
Kathy - Zika virus cryo-EM structure video

Listener Picks

Justin - Culture-independent discovery of Archaeal virus
Melinda - Zika virus open research portal and Your body battles series

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 382: Everyone's a little bit viral        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove and Kathy Spindler

Guests: Nels Elde and Edward Chuong

Nels and Ed join the TWiV team to talk about their observation that regulation of the human interferon response depends on regulatory sequences that were co-opted millions of years ago from endogenous retroviruses.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest and ASV 2016

Weekly Science Picks

Nels - Don't Get Me Started - Matt Giorgianni
Alan - Sun's magnetic field (paper)
Dickson - Most realistic dinosaur terrifies
Vincent - Top secret!
Kathy - Zika virus risk for US 50 cities (paper)
Ed - Watching comb jellies poop

Listener Picks

Asal - Lost paper of Gregor Mendel
Dennis - PhysicsGirl
Jacob - Second (XKCD) and ACI blogger interview

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 381: Add viruses and Zimmer        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Carl Zimmer

Carl Zimmer joins the TWiV team to talk about his career in science writing, the real meaning of copy-paste, science publishing, the value of Twitter, preprint servers, his thoughts on science outreach, and much more.

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASV 2016 and ASM Agar Art Contest

Weekly Science Picks

Carl - Surprising benefit of viral DNA
Alan - Global ship traffic
Dickson - Music with 2000 marbles
Vincent - The whiteboard revolution
Kathy - How to interpret UK and American advisors
Rich - Carina Storrs, science writer

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 380: Viruses visible in le microscope photonique        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVeroos deliver the weekly Zika Report, then talk about a cryoEM structure of a plant virus that reveals how the RNA genome is packaged in the capsid, and MIMIVIRE, a CRISPR-like defense system in giant eukaryotic viruses.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest and Microbe Magazine Podcast

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Progression of Evolution
Dickson - Toddler dies of meningitis
Vincent - Gardasil ideology, not science
Kathy - The Noun Project
Rich - Physics Girl

Listener Pick

Mark - MyRadar app (iOS, Android)

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 379: A mouse divided        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Scott Tibbetts

Scott Tibbetts joins the TWiVists to describe his work on the role of a herpesviral nocoding RNA in establishment of peripheral latency, and then we visit two last minute additions to the Zika virus literature.

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium and Microbe Magazine Podcast 4:15, 1:05:25

Weekly Science Picks 1:42:45

Alan - Okeanos Explorer
Dickson - Rome Reborn
Vincent - Twitter Missing Manual
Scott - Best Science Images of 2015
Kathy - Space Travel Posters
Rich - GoISSWatch

Listener Pick

Peter - Antibiotics and the Problem of the Broken Market

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 378: Herpes plays DUBstep        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

Guests: Greg Smith and Mark Fuccio

Greg Smith joins the TWiVirate to reveal how his lab discovered a switch that controls herpesvirus neuroinvasion, and then we visit the week's news about Zika virus.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium and Microbe Magazine Podcast

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Science byline counting project
Dickson - Bill Nye on climate change
Vincent - Zdziarski's blog of things (Apple's motion to vacate)
Greg - Atlas, the next generation
Kathy - Sources of Chaco wood
Mark - How Dogs Love Us by Gregory Berns

Listener Pick

Bohdan - The real reason for brains

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 377: Chicken with a side of Zika        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVniks review the past week's findings on Zika virus and microcephaly, and reveal a chicken protein that provides insight on the restriction of transmission of avian influenza viruses to humans.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium and Microbe Magazine Podcast

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - CDC vaccine quiz
Dickson - A telescope so powerful
Vincent - Virology Lectures 2016 (virology blog, iTunes U)
Rich - Ion propulsion (Wiki)
Kathy - Spurious Correlations

Listener Pick

Johnye - Magellan telescope and van Egmond photograpy at Kids Should See This

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 376: The flavi of the month is Zika        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guest: Jeremy Luban

The TWiV team discusses the latest data on Zika virus, including ocular defects in infants with microcephaly, and isolation of the entire viral genome from fetal brain tissue.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium and ASM Microbe 2016

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - PhD Comics on gravitational waves
Dickson - 25 years of Hubble
Vincent - Amazon AWS TOS and Confirming Einstein
Rich - Mosquito mass production
Kathy - TileApp
Jeremy - IL17A and autism and The Perfect Theory by Pedro Ferreira

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 375: Zika and you will find        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guests: Carolyn Coyne, Helen Lazear, and Jeremy Luban

The TWiVziks present everything you want to know about Zika virus, including association of infection with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, transmission, epidemiology, and much more.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium and ASM Grant Writing Webinar

Weekly Science Picks 1:50:45

Alan - Jetstream Online School for Weather
Vincent - New virus watercolors from Michele Banks (one, two)
Rich - The Mad Virologist (Facebook, blog)
Kathy - Orcas in Antarctica
Jeremy - Pardis Sabeti on TED
Helen - Science Valentines
Carolyn - Three letter word missing from Zika warnings

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 374: Discordance in B        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVniks consider the role of a cell enzyme that removes a protein linked to the 5'-end of the picornavirus genome, and the connection between malaria, Epstein-Barr virus, and endemic Burkitt's lymphoma.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium and ASM Grant Writing Webinar

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Indoor skydiving
Vincent - Cancer Virus by Crawford, Johannessen, and Rickinson
Rich - Wit
Kathy - The Only Woman in the Room by Eileen Pollack
D
ickson - Show everyone your clinical data

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 373: The distinguished virology career of Julius S. Youngner        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guest: Julius S. Youngner

Vincent speaks with Julius about his long career in virology, including his crucial work as part of the team at the University of Pittsburgh that developed the Salk inactivated poliovirus vaccine.

 

Links for this episode

  • Trypsin for cell cultures (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med)
  • Interferon induction by nonviral stimuli (J Gen Physiol)
  • Interferons of different molecular weight (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med)
  • Poliovirus thermal mutants (J Bacteriol)
  • Combination of different cells in culture (Science)
  • Equine influenza vaccine (Eq Vet J)
  • Younger role in Salk vaccine (interview, amednews)
  • Cutter Incident (JRSM)
  • Video of this episode - coming as soon as I can get home!

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 372: Latent viral tendencies        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiV-osphere introduces influenza D virus, virus-like particles encoded in the wasp genome which protect its eggs from caterpillar immunity, and a cytomegalovirus protein counters a host restriction protein that prevents establishment of latency.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Grant Writing Webinar and ASM Biodefense

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Go viral
Vincent - 3D virus popsicles (3ders, dangerous popsicles)
Rich - Galileo thermometer
Kathy - Thing Explainer by Randall Munroe

Listener Picks

Christiane - Using PowerPoint to shine

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 371: Sympathy for the devil        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVologists discuss the finding of a second transmissible cancer in Tasmanian devils, and development of new poliovirus strains for the production of inactivated vaccine in the post-eradication era.

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Grant Writing Webinar and ASM Biodefense

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Skyfaring by Mark Vanhoenacker
Vincent - Your Cells. Their Research. Your permission?
Rich - NASA UV photos of the sun
Kathy - Aurora bike lights
Dickson - Unfilled vials

Listener Picks

Kevin - John Oliver on nutritional supplements
Jim - Tour of Australian synchrotron

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@microbe.tv


          TWiV 370: Ten out of 15        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVomics review ten captivating virology stories from 2015.

Ten virology stories from 2015

This episode is sponsored by ASM Microbe and ASM Biodefense

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Scientifics online
Vincent - Giant squid in Tokyo Harbor
Kathy - A Year of Sky

Listener Picks

Daniel - Paper Life
Stephen - How to deal with science denialists
Venkat - Kabisa

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          TWiV 369: Camel runny noses and other JNK        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

A swarm of virologists discusses testing of a MERS coronavirus vaccine for camels, and how a neuronal stress pathway reactivates herpes simplex virus.

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by Clinical Virology Symposium

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - SpaceX Falcon 9 landing
Vincent - Scientists: Engage the public! and Lego contest winners
Kathy - Google Ngram viewer

Listener Picks

Dennis - Americapox: The missing plague
Mark - WeatherSpark and Quasispecies theory

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          TWiV 368: Infected, you will be        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

A plaque of virologists explores the biology of Zika virus and recent outbreaks, and the contribution of a filamentous bacteriophage to the development of biofilms.

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by Clinical Virology Symposium and ASM Microbe

Weekly Science Picks

Alan - Twelve days of norovirus
Vincent - This Week in Evolution
Rich - In the Kingdom of Ice by Hampton Sides
Kathy - Kajanjian lecture on Frederick Novy and Milestones ceremony at UM

Listener Picks

Peter - What if anti-vax, anti-science movement won?
Stephen - Scandalous origin of vaccines
Pritesh - Absurd way of doing business

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          TWiV 367: Two sides to a Coyne        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guests: Carolyn Coyne and Coyne Drummond

Two Coynes join the TWiV overlords to explain their three-dimensional culture model of polarized intestinal cells for studying enterovirus infection.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Microbe

Weekly Science Picks

Kathy - Tardigrade genome sequence (video)
Alan - Antibiotic action nonprofit group
Vincent - Ex Machina and genome editing moratorium
Rich - Launch photography by Ben Cooper
Kathy - HIV life cycle in video (paper)
Dickson - 2015 Nobel Lectures Physiology or Medicine
Carolyn - Metapneumovirus entry

Listener Picks

Tom - Global host-pathogen database
Trudy - Madame Curie by Eve Curie

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          TWiV 366: Doctorates down under        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guests: Carla Giles, Zoe Dyson, Brianna McLean, and Caitlin O'Brien

In Melbourne, Australia, Vincent speaks with four PhD students about their research projects and what it's like to get a doctorate down under.

Video of this episode: view at YouTube

 

This episode is sponsored by ASM Microbe and ASM Biodefense.

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv

TWiV is a MicrobeTV Production


          TWiV 365: Blood, feuds, and a foodborne disease        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, and Kathy Spindler

For a TWiV Thanksgiving, Vincent, Alan, and Kathy trace the feud over genome editing, a new virus discovered in human blood, and the origins of hepatitis A virus.

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Microbe, ASM Biodefense, and the 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium. (1:10, 1:18:30)

Weekly Science Picks 1:36:30

Kathy - Tardigrade genome sequence (video)
Alan - XKCD on Gates polio eradication site
Vincent - Lifting the Impenetrable Veil by Charles Calisher

Listener Picks

Judi - Jennifer Doudna's Ted Talk
Ramon - Map of the Sky

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          TWiV 364: It's not SARS 2.0        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

Guests: Ralph Baric and Vineet Menachery

Vincent, Rich, and Kathy speak with Ralph and Vineet about their research on the potential of SARS-like bat coronaviruses  to infect human cells and cause disease in mice.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by Mt. Sinai Department of Microbiology (2:10), ASM Education (33:25), and the 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium (1:51:30)

Timestamps by Jennifer. Thanks!

Weekly Science Picks 1:53:00

Kathy - California Dept of Public Health
Rich - Leafy greens on space station
Vincent - Mechanical keyboards and TWiV on Perfect your podcast

Listener Picks

Jesse - Networking for Nerds by Alaina G. Levine
Russell - Worldmapper

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          TWiV 363: Eat flu and dyad        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

The TWiVers reveal influenza virus replication in the ferret mammary gland and spread to a nursing infant, and selection of transmissible influenza viruses in the soft palate.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by Mt. Sinai Department of Microbiology, ASM Education, and ASM Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Conference

Timestamps by Jennifer. Thanks!

Weekly Science Picks 1:29:00

Kathy - Insect gears
Alan - Bye, Bye, Ebola
Rich - Hedy Lamarr
Vincent - Should we resurrect extinct species?

Listener Picks

Jennie - Bye, Bye, Ebola
Peter - Epidemics on edX

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          TWiV 362: Gotta catch 'em all        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, Rich Condit, and Kathy Spindler

With their usual verve, the virus virtuosos illuminate a new method to identify all the viral nucleic acids in a sample, and regulation of viral gene expression by codon usage. 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Education: ASM MOOC 5:45

Timestamps by Jennifer. Thanks!

Weekly Science Picks 1:39:20

Kathy - Adam Savage, Andy Weir and Chris Hadfield talk about The Martian
Alan - Project Apollo photo archive - and video

Rich - Watch A Bowling Ball And Feather Falling In A Vacuum
Dickson - California drought
Vincent - Does AAAS care about Ebola anymore?

Listener Picks

Anonymous - Lives saved by vaccination
Paul - Science articles: A guide
Judi - How a virus invades your body

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          TWiV 361: Zombie viruses on the loose        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, Alan Dove, and Rich Condit

The TWiVsters discuss Frederick Novy's return from retirement to recover a lost rat virus, and evidence for persistence of Ebolavirus in semen.

 

Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Education: ASM MOOC 3:50

Weekly Science Picks 1:27:05

Alan - Sticky
Rich - Arthur C. Clarke predicts the Internet (so did Vannevar Bush)
Dickson - Nikon Small World Photomicrography winners
Vincent - Pat Schloss on microbiome initiative

Listener Picks

Awkward Skeptic - 16 year old wins Google prize for detecting Ebolavirus

Timestamps by Jennifer. Thanks!

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          TWiV 360: From Southeastern Michigan        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Kathy Spindler

Guests: Michael Imperiale, Adam Lauring, and Akira Ohno

Vincent visits the University of Michigan where he and Kathy speak with Michael, Adam, and Akira about polyomaviruses, virus evolution, and virus assembly, on the occasion of naming the department of Microbiology & Immunology a Milestones in Microbiology site.

Links for this episode

Weekly Science Picks 1:27:30

Kathy - Ada Lovelace and Charles Babbage Lego #1 and #2 and Ada Lovelace Day
Vincent - MiSciWriters

Listener Picks

Junio - XKCD marks the spot
Kari - Spoonflower

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          TWiV 359: A Blossom by any other name        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guest: Blossom Damania

Vincent speaks with Blossom about her laboratory's research on Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, including how it transforms cells, the switch between lytic and latent replication, and its interaction with the innate immune system of the host.

 

Links for this episode

Send your virology questions and comments to twiv@twiv.tv


          50 Branches of Biology        
Biology is the science of very large trees. Because the extent of biological material studies, biology is subdivided into branches of science. Some branches of biology, among others:

1. Zoology, the study of animal
2. Botany, plant science that studies about
3. Physiology, The study of the physiology / function of body work
4. Anatomy or anatomy, the study of body parts
5. Genetics, the study of inheritance
6. Microbiology, the study of the organism
7. Bacteriology, the study of bacteria
8. Mikobiologi, the study of fungi
9. Evolution, the study of living things change over the long term.
10. Molecular Biology, the study of biology at the molecular level
11. Genetic engineering, the study of the nature of genetic manipulation
12. Ecology, the study of reciprocal relationships between living things and their environment
13. Taxonomy, systematic study of living things
14. Ikhtiologi, science that studies on fish
15. Malacology, the study of mollusks
16. Karsinologi, the study of crustacean
17. Ornithology, the study of birds
18. Entomology, the study of insect science
19. Protozoologi, the study of protozoa
20. Algologi, the study of algae
21. Limnology, the study of marsh
22. Embryology, the study of embryonic development
23. Pathology, the study of disease
24. Endocrinology, the study of hormone
25. Cytology, the study of cell
26. Histology, the study of tissue
27. Organological, the study of organ
28. Morphology, the study of form or characteristics outside the organism
29. Enzimologi, the study of enzyme
30. Fikologi Sciences, the study of algae
31. Pteridologi, the study of ferns
32. Bryologi, the study of mosses
33. Dendrology, the study of trees and other woody plants, such as lianas and shrubs
34. Paleobotany, the study of ancient plants
35. Nematologi, the study of nematodes
36. Apiari, the study of livestock including bees bees
37. Mirmekologi, the study of termite
38. Iktiologi, the study of fish
39. Harpetologi, the study of reptiles and ampibia
40. Mamologi, the study of mammalian
41. Primatology, the study of primates
42. Rodentiologi, the study of rodentia
43. Paleozoologi, the study of ancient animals
44. Pulmonology, the study of lung
45. Cardiology, the study of the heart and blood vessels
46. Radiology, science to see inside the human body using radiant or wave radiation, both electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves
47. Neurological Sciences, who deal with deviations in the nervous system
48. Virology, the study of viruses
49. Oncology, the study of cancer and its prevention
50. Enzimologi, the study of enzyme

          TWiP 126: A virus walks into a parasite        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, and Daniel Griffin

The TWiP Trinity solve the case of the Peace Corps volunteer with diarrhea, and reveal how immunizing against a virus ameliorates exacerbated leishmaniasis.

Become a patron of TWiP.

Links for this episode:

This episode is brought to you by Blue Apron. Blue Apron is the #1 fresh ingredient and recipe delivery service in the country. See what’s on the menu this week and get your first 3 meals free - WITH FREE SHIPPING - by going to blueapron.com/twip.

Case Study for TWiP 126

Another Peace Corps volunteer in Fiji. 24 yo male, several days of fever, headache, dry cough, rash. Feels poorly, starts diarrhea. No blood or mucus, no vomiting but abdominal discomfort. Heart rate over 100. At private nearby hospital for evaluation: no prior med probs or surgeries. Social history: MSM, not always protected, drinks every weekend. Home blown away by cyclone. Alcohol: drinks beer, a lot. White rice, split peas, bread diet. Fan of cava, also drank unfiltered water. He is admitted, continues to feel poorly. Continued fevers, localized abdominal pain RUQ. On exam he has tender palpable liver, elevated WBC 17.8, eosinopenia, 0 cells. AST/ALT slightly above normal. Dengue, chick, lepto, blood all negative. Ultrasound of liver: shows 8x8 cm mixed echogenic lesion in right lobe. HIV negative. 

Send your case diagnosis, questions and comments to twip@microbe.tv


          TWiP 105: Survival of the fattest        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, and Daniel Griffin

The TWiPanosomes solve the case of the Young Man from Anchorage, and discuss how cestode parasites increase the resistance of brine shrimp to arsenic toxicity.

Links for this episode:

 Case study for TWiP 105

This week's case involves a 32 yo male with several concerns. Spent 6 weeks doing religious missionary work in Kenya, performed baptisms in Lake Victoria.Waist deep in water, no shoes. Took malaria drugs, ate lots of interesting foods: cichlids, ugali, corn based food, flavored with greens; stew with some sort of meat, beef and goat. Five weeks after return developed rash with fever, shortness of breath. Three of four friends who were with him in Kenya reported similar symptoms. The fourth who did not get sick did not go in water, nor did he eat very much. No medical/surgical history, no drugs. Had some sexual activity while there. Elevated white count, 70% eosinophils. Chest CT shows nodules in lungs. Doc told him, allergy, you will be fine. The water he went into is near a village, there are rodents nearby, and a runoff.

Send your diagnosis to twip@microbe.tv

Send your questions and comments to twip@microbe.tv


          TWiP 97: The seven year itch        

The paratenic hosts reveal a case of scabies in the Traveling Salesman, and discuss a role for natural antibody in protection from infection with Plasmodium.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, and Daniel Griffin

 

Links for this episode:

Case study for TWiP 97

Daniel has two cases this week. Two people with similar presentations. A 12 yo girl in Peru presented for care with painless dark brown area on right knee. Has brothers and sisters, often play together. No trauma, but area is expanding. Months later develops cognitive changes. Second case is a 5 yo boy from the coastal region of Peru brought in by Mother, has red swollen area on face. Mom says while playing scratched nose, swelling right cheek, eye, nasal obstruction, no response to antibiotics. MRI of both show infiltrating process. Girl, left side of brain, middle cerebral artery territory. Boy in frontal region, midline area. Thus both skin lesions associated with infiltrating process in brain. Came into clinic months after lesions started, and lesions still present.

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          TWiP 84: Bigfoot        

Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel consider the delivery of anti-trypanosome nanobodies to the tsetse fly via a bacterial symbiont, and present a new case study.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Dickson Despommier, and Daniel Griffin

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          TWiP 65: The real world wide web        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Vincent and Dickson consider the effects of climate change on parasitic diseases.

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Dickson's Pick

Neglected by Shelly Xie (YouTube)

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          TWiP 58: People, parasites, and plowshares        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Guest: Cali Despommier

Vincent and Dickson update the multistate outbreak of cyclosporiasis, and Dickson reads a chapter from his new book.

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          TWiP 57: An outbreak of cyclosporiasis        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Vincent and Dickson review a multistate outbreak of cyclosporiasis caused by the single-celled coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis.

The day after recording this episode, ProMedMail reported that the outbreak of cyclosporiasis had spread to Texas.

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          TWiP 56: Whirling disease        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Vincent and Dickson discuss Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes whirling disease of salmonids.

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Listener Pick

Amanda - Pandemic: On the Brink

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          TWiP 55: A ladybird's weapon        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Vincent and Dickson reveal how invasive harlequin ladybirds use biological weapons against their competitors.

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Dickson's Pick

An Inordinate Fondess for Beetles by Arthur V. Evans, Charles L. Bellamy

Listener Pick

Jessie - Pandemic, the board game

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          TWiP #6 - Tapeworms, the long and short of it        

Vincent and Dick talk about the anatomy and life cycle of beef and pork tapeworms, and why House was wrong about neurocysticercosis.

Host links: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

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  • Taenia saginata life cycle (jpg)
  • Taenia saginata adult (jpg)
  • Taenia saginata scolex (jpg)
  • Taenia saginata gravid proglottid (jpg)
  • Taenia solium life cycle (jpg)
  • Taenia solium adult (jpg)
  • Taenia solium scolex (jpg)
  • Facial cancer in Tasmanian devils (thanks PhogDog!)

Science Picks

Dickson Peace through vaccine diplomacy by Peter Hotez
Vincent Parasite Rex by Carl Zimmer


          TWiP #5 - The nurse cell        

Vincent and Dick discuss the nurse cell, a unique structure formed in the host muscle by Trichinella species.

Host links: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

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Weekly Science Picks

Dickson Every Living Thing by Rob Dunn


          TWiP #3 - Trichinella spiralis        

Vincent and Dick distinguish among intracellular and extracellular parasites, then discuss the history and general characteristics of Trichinella spiralis.

Host links: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Links for this episode:

Weekly Science Picks

Dickson The Doctor and the Devils


          TWiP #1 - Introduction to parasitism        

Vincent and Dick provide an overview of parasites and parasitism.

Host links: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier

Weekly Science Picks

Dick The Black Cloud by Fred Hoyle
Vincent Parasitic Diseases by Despommier et al.


          Chocolate, Green Tea and Neurologic Disorders        
A new study in the Journal of Neurovirology found that epicatechins can protect against the neurological complications of HIV. Epicatechins are natural anti-oxidants. They are found primarily in unfermented tea and dark chocolate. HIV caused neurological damage is a challenge for doctors to treat. HAART is unable to stop HIV replication inside the brain, leaving Continue Reading
           Interferon treatment inhibits onset of herpes simplex virus immediate-early transcription.         
Mittnacht, S; Straub, P; Kirchner, H; Jacobsen, H; (1988) Interferon treatment inhibits onset of herpes simplex virus immediate-early transcription. Virology , 164 (1) pp. 201-210.
           Incidence and significance of hepatitis B core antibody in a healthy blood donor population         
Kitchen, AD; Harrison, TJ; Meacock, TJ; Zuckerman, AJ; Harrison, JF; (1988) Incidence and significance of hepatitis B core antibody in a healthy blood donor population. Journal of Medical Virology , 25 pp. 69-75.
           The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a hepatitis B virus isolated from a naturally infected chimpanzee         
Vaudin, M; Wolstenholme, AJ; Tsiquaye, KN; Zuckerman, AJ; Harrison, TJ; (1988) The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of a hepatitis B virus isolated from a naturally infected chimpanzee. Journal of General Virology , 69 pp. 1383-1389.
           Low fidelity of cell-free DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus.         
Takeuchi, Y; Nagumo, T; Hoshino, H; (1988) Low fidelity of cell-free DNA synthesis by reverse transcriptase of human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Virology , 62 pp. 3900-3902.
          AOMEI Backupper Free: Helps you Defense Against WannaCry Ransomware        

What is WannaCry Ransomware? Ransomware attacks cause a big influence all over the world in these days. Ransomware is a type of malicious software that carries out the cryptoviral extortion attack from cryptovirology that blocks access to data until a ransom is paid and display a message requesting payment to unlock it. WannaCry is the name …


          GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals completes Acquisition of Vaccines Business of Novartis        
The pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals has announced yesterday that it completed the transaction for acquiring the vaccines business of the pharma company Novartis and has in return dissociated itself from its marketed oncology portfolio, which is acquired by the Novartis. GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals completed the transaction with Novartis Healthcare Pvt Ltd yesterday wherein the vaccine business of the latter was acquired, traded for its oncology portfolio to Novartis, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals stated in a filing to the BSE. The acquisition allows GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals the opportunity to develop an even stronger and sustainable business of vaccines in the global market, representatives of the company said. The filing states that the transaction will enhance the vaccines portfolio of the company and bring its expertise in the fields of bacterial infection, virology, and technical platforms together for the delivery of a reliable supply of high quality vaccines to its global consumers. London-based GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals had entered into an agreement in 2014 with the Bases-based company Novartis AG for acquiring the vaccine business along with manufacturing capabilities with the latter and sell the rights for its line of oncology products, with related R&D activities, and also the AKT inhibitors which are currently in development to Novartis. According to the agreement, Novartis had decided to acquire the cancer drugs portfolio of GSK for US$16 billion and sell in return its vaccines business to GSK for US$7.1 billion, apart from the decision to form a joint undertaking for the consumer healthcare business. This is the completion of the transaction that was decided between GSK and Novartis in a global deal dated February 12, 2015. Industry sources say that the existing vaccines portfolio of GSK contributes nearly 15 percent to the company’s overall revenues. The company is a leader in a wide range of vaccines that fall in the non government category and includes vaccines for influenza, hepatitis A and B, and chickenpox

Original Post GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals completes Acquisition of Vaccines Business of Novartis source Twease
           A phage-displayed single chain variable fragment that interacts with hepatitis B core antigen: Library construction, selection and diagnosis         
Tan, Geok Hun and Yusoff, Khatijah and Seow, Heng Fong and Tan, Wen Siang (2007) A phage-displayed single chain variable fragment that interacts with hepatitis B core antigen: Library construction, selection and diagnosis. Journal of Clinical Virology, 38 (1). pp. 49-56. ISSN 1386-6532
          By: Web Roundup: Ebola Update | Somatosphere        
[…] Ebolavirus topics on the Virology Blog by Vincent Racaniello and Ebloa topics at the Lancet […]
          By: TWiV 306: This Week in Ebolavirus        
[…] Ebolavirus content at virology blog and TWiV […]
          Going Viral        
The term “bird flu” is a misnomer, scientists say, because almost all human influenza originates in our feathered friends. How it lands in you and spreads is another matter … Hear what it takes for a virus to go global, from a virus hunter who plans to stop epidemics in their tiny DNA tracks with an innovative global surveillance system. Also, why your genome is littered with fossil viruses of the past … the two largest viruses discovered so far, Mimi and Mega, square off … and, what it takes for ideas to “go viral.” Guests: Nathan Wolfe – Viral Ecologist, Director of the Global Viral Forecasting Initiative Robert Gifford – Evolutionary virologist, Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center at Rockefeller University Vincent Racaniello – Virologist at Columbia University’s College of Physicians and Surgeons, host of the podcast, “This Week in Microbiology,” and author of the “Virology Blog” Bill Wasik – Senior Editor at Wired, author of And Then There’s This: How Stories Live and Die in Viral Culture
           Biophysical analysis of natural variants of the multimerization region of Epstein-Barr virus lytic-switch protein BZLF1         
Hicks, MR; Balesaria, S; Medina-Palazon, C; Pandya, MJ; Woolfson, DN; Sinclair, AJ; (2001) Biophysical analysis of natural variants of the multimerization region of Epstein-Barr virus lytic-switch protein BZLF1. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY , 75 (11) pp. 5381-5384. 10.1128/JVI.75.11.5381-5384.2001 .
           In vivo attenuation of simian immunodeficiency virus by disruption of a tyrosine-dependent sorting signal in the envelope glycoprotein cytoplasmic tail         
Fultz, PN; Vance, PJ; Endres, MJ; Tao, BL; Dvorin, JD; Davis, IC; Lifson, JD; ... Hoxie, JA; + view all <#> Fultz, PN; Vance, PJ; Endres, MJ; Tao, BL; Dvorin, JD; Davis, IC; Lifson, JD; Montefiori, DC; Marsh, M; Malim, MH; Hoxie, JA; - view fewer <#> (2001) In vivo attenuation of simian immunodeficiency virus by disruption of a tyrosine-dependent sorting signal in the envelope glycoprotein cytoplasmic tail. JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY , 75 (1) pp. 278-291. 10.1128/JVI.75.1.278-291.2001 .
          Comment on The Virilogy: A Drinking Game – Good To The Last Drop by Catching Up With Artem Yatsunov – One Catches Light Festival - The Happiest Medium        
[...] first saw Artem’s work at UNDER St. Marks when he directed The Virology back in 2012. I was immediately drawn to his directing style and impressed with his talents. A few [...]
           The K-bZIP Protein of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus is Phosphorylated by Cyclin-dependent Kinase         
Polson, AG; Huang, L; Lukac, M; Belthrow, JD; Morgan, DO; Burlingame, AL; Ganem, D; (2001) The K-bZIP Protein of the Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus is Phosphorylated by Cyclin-dependent Kinase. Journal of Virology , 75 pp. 3175-3184.
          TWiM #158: The bottom line        

The TWiM team considers a report on prokaryotic viral DNA in mammalian brain, and how diarrhea is beneficial, by clearing enteric pathogens.

Hosts: 

Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter.

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          TWiM #157: Back to the ancestor        

The TWiMbionts explore the role of bacteria in the genesis of moonmilk, and how ancient host proteins can be used to engineer resistance to virus infection.

Hosts: 

Vincent Racaniello, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter.

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          TWiM #156: Gifted microbes and defensive symbiosis        

The TWiM team explains the use of microbial genome mining to identify new drugs, and how a bacterial symbiont protects flies against parasitoid wasps.

Hosts: 

Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter.

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          TWiM #155: Living in the stomach of a cell         

Michele updates the TWiMers on Legionella in the Flint water supply, and Elio informs us about how horizontally acquired biosynthesis genes boost the physiology of Coxiella burnetii.

Hosts: 

Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter.

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          TWiM #154: Rigor, lotteries, and moonshots        

At Microbe 2017 in New Orleans, the TWiM team speaks with Arturo Casadevall about his thoughts on the pathogenic potential of a microbe, rigorous science, funding by lottery, and moonshot science.

Hosts: 

Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter.

Watch the video version recorded live at ASM Microbe 2017!

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          TWiM #153: Covert pathogenesis        

The TWiM team ventures into preprint space with an analysis of type VI secretion across human gut microbiomes, and provide insight into urinary tract infection: how bladder exposure to a member of the vaginal microbiota triggers E. coli egress from latent reservoirs.

Hosts: 

Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter.

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          TWiM #152: Wooden steps        

The TWiMmers get cozy with symbionts: the bacteria that allow a giant shipworm to oxidize sulfur, and algae that live within salamander cells.

Hosts: 

Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter.

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          TWiM #151: Bat and moth antimicrobials        

The TWiMsters discuss potential new sources of antimicrobial compounds from unusual places: the skin of bats and the intestines of moths.

Hosts: 

Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson.

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iPhone, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

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          TWiM #150: Microbiology is where it’s at        

In recognition of National Medical Laboratory Professionals Week, Robin Patel speaks with the TWiM team about directing a clinical bacteriology laboratory, and how an observation made by a laboratory technologist lead to the finding that Ureaplasma species can cause a system metabolic disturbance, hyperammonemia.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson

Guest: Robin Patel

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          TWiM Special: Q fever with Robert Heinzen        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guest: Robert Heinzen

At the Rocky Mountain Laboratory in Hamilton, Montana, Vincent speaks with Robert Heinzen about the work of his laboratory on Q fever and its causative microbe, Coxiella burneti.

 

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Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission.

Send your microbiology questions and comments to twim@microbe.tv


          TWiM 140: Small town, big science        

Host: Vincent Racaniello

Guests: Marie Antonioli, Bryan Hansen, Forrest Jessop, Kyle Shifflet and Jim Striebel

At the Hamilton, Montana Performing Arts Center, Vincent speaks with three local high school graduates and two high school teachers about how Rocky Mountain Laboratories influenced school science programs and opened up career opportunities.

 

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

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Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission.

Send your microbiology questions and comments to twim@microbe.tv


          TWiM #138: Learning to love uranium and the A-baum        

The TWiM team brings you a bacterium from a Colorado field site that grows on uranium, and copper resistance in the emerging pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii.

Hosts: 

Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson.

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

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This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 


          TWiM #137: The battle for oxygen        

Highlights of the Recent Advances in Microbial Control meeting in San Diego, and expansion of a gut pathogen by virulence factors that stimulate aerobic respiration.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson.

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

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This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 


          TWiM #136: Diderms and then monoderms        

Them TWiM team discusses the importance of neutrophils in microbial infections, and evidence that ancient bacteria had two cell walls.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson.

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

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This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 


          TWiM #134: Lipids that live forever        

Design of a synchronously lysing bacterium for delivery of anti-tumor molecules in mice, and hopanoids, the lipids that live forever, brought to you by the four Microbies of TWiM.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson.

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

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This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 


          TWiM #133: Right under our noses        

Insight into the biology of rhinovirus C from cryo-electron microscopy, and a novel antibiotic from a commensal bacterium that grows in the human nose, from the doctors of TWiM.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, and Michael Schmidt.

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Image in audio player: Molecular surface of a Human rhinovirus, showing protein spikes. By: Wiki user: Robin S

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 


          TWiM #132: Bacteria learn long division        

Vincent, Elio, and Michele present cell division by longitudinal scission in an insect symbiont, and thermally activated charge transport in microbial nanowires.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michele Swanson and Elio Schaechter.

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This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​.

This episode is also brought to you by Drobo, a family of safe, expandable, yet simple to use storage arrays. Drobos are designed to protect your important data forever. Visit www.drobo.com to learn more. Listeners can save $100 on a Drobo system at drobostore.com by using the discount code Microbe100.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 


          TWiM 131: Mice behaving badly        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Michael Schmidt

Michael and Vincent present Spotlights, brief reviews of classic papers in the Journal of Bacteriology, and explain how a single bacterial species can reverse autism-like social deficits in the offspring of obese mice.

 

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This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/microbe and use the promo code MICROBE.

Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission.

Send your microbiology questions and comments to twim@microbe.tv


          TWiM #129: Dried and wrinkled, smooth and mucoid        

The arrival in the US of plasmid-mediated resistance to colistin antibiotics, a last line of defense against many gram-negative bacilli, and a quorum sensing system in a eukaryote are topics of this episode hosted by Vincent, Michael, and Michele.

Image: Etest used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of an antibiotic for a particular bacterium.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Michele Swanson. 

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Links for this episode

This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 


          TWiM #128: A moonlighting phage protein        

A eukaryote without a mitochondrion, and using a phage enzyme to eliminate intracellular bacteria are two topics discussed by the TWiMers on this episode.

Image (right): An entry in the ASM Agar Art Contest which bears an uncanny resemblance to one of the TWiM hosts.TWiV agar art

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michele Swanson, and Michael Schmidt.

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This episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream, a subscription streaming service that offers over 1,400 documentaries and non­fiction series from the world's best filmmakers. Get unlimited access starting at just $2.99 a month, and for our audience, the first two months are completel free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/m​icrobe ​and use the promo code MICROBE​.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 


          TWiM #127: Subway Snowblowers and Men in Black        

The TWiM team explores microbes in snowblower vents on the ocean floor, and cleavage of antibody molecules by a Mycoplasma protease.

Image (right): Photograph of the ‘Subway’ snowblower vent on the sea floor at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge. Visible are white ‘snow’ in the vent and orange floc on the seafloor. Credit: Canadian Scientific Submersible Facility and the University of Washington

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, Michele Swanson, and Michael Schmidt.

snowblower vent800

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This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest and ASM Grant Writing Course

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@microbe.tv 


          TWiM #126: I’m not scared of zebrafish and mice and bears (oh my!)        

The microbiome of hibernating bears, and zebrafish as a model for bacterial sepsis feature in this animal-centric episode of TWiM hosted by Vincent, Michael, and Michele.

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michele Swanson, and Michael Schmidt.

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Links for this episode

This episode is sponsored by ASM Agar Art Contest and ASM Microbe 2016

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.

 


          TWiM #123: A microbial MAGE        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter.

Guest: Harris Wang

Harris joins Vincent, Elio, and Michael to describe multiplex automated genome engineering, a method for targeting many modifications in a population of bacterial cells.

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This episode is sponsored by Microbe Magazine Podcast and ASM Microbe 2016

Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv.

 


          TWiM #120: Snakes in trouble        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Elio Schaechter.

Vincent and Elio marvel in the finding that a phage tail-like structure from a marine bacterium stimulates tubeworm metamorphosis, and reveal Ophidiomyces as a cause of snake fungal disease.

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This episode is sponsored by ASM Grant Writing Institute Online Webinar and 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium

Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv.

 


          TWiM #119: Power of one        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter.

The microbophiles investigate the ratio of bacterial to human cells in our bodies, and how placing solar panels on a bacterium enables it to carry out photosynthesis.

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Links for this episode 

This episode is sponsored by ASM Grant Writing Institute Online Webinar and 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium

Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv.

Thumbnail image: Cell structure of a gram positive bacterium. This vector image is completely made by Ali Zifan - Own work; used information from Biology 10e Textbook (chapter 4, Pg: 63) by: Peter Raven, Kenneth Mason, Jonathan Losos, Susan Singer · McGraw-Hill Education.

 


          TWiM #118: Spore-drops keep fallin’ on my head        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson

On the last episode for 2015, Vincent, Elio, and Michele discuss how soil amoeba hunt nematodes in packs, and the role of mushrooms as rainmakers.

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Links for this episode 

This episode is sponsored by ASM Microbe 2016 and ASM Biodefense

Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv.


          TWiM #116: Chewates and coconuts        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson

The TWiMeriti reveal a Brazilian social bee that must cultivate a fungus to survive, and diet-mediated reduction in gut colonization by Candida albicans.

Links for this episode 

This episode is sponsored by ASM Biodefense and the 32nd Clinical Virology Symposium.

Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv.


          TWiM #111: Ancientbiotics and modernbiotics        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter.

The TWiMitos discuss the reconstruction of a 1,000-year-old antimicrobial remedy, and using gallium as an antimicrobial in the battle for iron.

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, Stitcher, Android, RSS, or by email. You can also listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

Links for this episode 

Music used on TWiM is composed and performed by Ronald Jenkees and used with permission.

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.


          TWiM #108: Vaccine in the time of cholera        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson.  

The professors of TWiM discuss a University of Wisconsin plan for rescuing biomedical research in the US, and results of a clinical trial in Bangladesh of an oral cholera vaccine.

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          TWiM #107: The battle in your bladder        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Michael Schmidt.

Vincent and Michael discuss the highly diverse microbiome of uncontacted Amerindians, and how the composition of human urine plays a role in the battle for iron.

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Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.


          TWiM #104: Feed me polyamines, biofilm        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson.  

The TWiM team discusses how measles vaccination protects against other infectious diseases, and links between bacterial biofilms and colon cancer.

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Links for this episode

Measles vaccination prevents all-cause infectious disease (Science)

Master of contagion (The Loom)

Video: Measles incidence to immunomodulation (Science)

FAQ: Adult vaccines

Metabolism links biofilms and colon cancer (Cell Metab)

Scripps Center for Metabolomics

Scripps metabolite database

Image credit

Sponsors for this episode: SciMedSolutions, ICAAC-ICC

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.

 


          TWiM #103: The battle for iron        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson. 

The TWiM team is amazed by the ocelloid, and an evolutionary battle for iron between mammalian transferrin and bacterial transferrin-binding protein.

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Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.

 


          TWiM #102: Happiness is the spore-formers in your gut        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson. 

The TWiM team discusses evidence that serotonin synthesis is regulated by spore-forming members of the gut microbiota.

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Links for this episode

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.

Image: Serotonin temporary tattoo by flickr user: ChezShawna

 


          TWiM #101: The MRSA in your home        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson. 

The TWiMers discuss how aroma helps disperse yeast cells on insect vectors, and evidence that MRSA is transmitted within households.

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Links for this episode

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.

 


          TWiM #100: Omnis cellula e cellula        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Jo Handelsman.  

The TWiM team celebrates 100 episodes with a Talmudic question, and discussion of how a single mutation alters bacterial host tropism.

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Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.

Image: Yellow colonies of S. aureus on a blood agar plate, note regions of clearing around colonies caused by lysis of red cells in the agar By: HansN. on wikimedia. From the study (Nat Gen) "...only a single naturally occurring nucleotide mutation was required and sufficient to convert a human-specific S. aureus strain into one that could infect rabbits." 


          TWiM #99: Careers in Biodefense        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello

Guests: Maria Julia Marinissen, Edward H. You, and David R. Howell

Vincent meets up with Maria, Edward, and David at the ASM Biodefense and Emerging Infections Research meeting to talk about alternative careers for scientists.

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

 

A video version of this episode is available at microbeworld.org/twim 

Links for this episode:


Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.


          TWiM #96: A lean, mean sequencing machine        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello.

Special guest: Rob Knight

Vincent meets up with Rob Knight to talk about the technology that has fueled his drive to sequence the Earth and its inhabitants.

Check out the Microbeworld app.

Links for this episode

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.


          TWiM #95: A microbe lover in San Diego        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello.

Special guest: Stanley Maloy

Vincent meets up with Stan Maloy on the campus of San Diego State University to talk about his career in microbiology and his work as Dean of Science.

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

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Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.

 


          TWiM #86: Blurring the line between organelle and endosymbiont        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson. 

Vincent, Elio, Michael, and Michele consider whether our eating behavior is manipulated by gastrointestinal microbiota, and an aphid gene of bacterial origin whose gene product encodes a protein that is transported to an obligate endosymbiont. 

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          TWiM #82: Betrayal and compromise        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, Elio Schaechter and Michele Swanson.

Vincent, Michael, Elio and Michele discuss how an endosymbiont betrays its aphid host to alert plant defenses, and a new immunosuppressive cell that allows infection of neonates.

 

Subscribe to TWiM (free) on iTunes, via RSS feed, by email or listen on your mobile device with the Microbeworld app.

Links for this episode

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.


          TWiM #80: Hurling fleas and designer chromosomes        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Elio Schaechter, and Michele Swanson. 

Vincent, Elio, and Michele discuss how to synthesize a designer yeast chromosome, and deciphering the genetic changes path that allowed Yersinia pestis to be transmitted by fleas.

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Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.


          TWiM #65: Leanness is transmissible        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Michelle Swanson.

Vincent and Michelle reveal how the human gut microbiota can modulate obesity in mice.

Links for this episode: 

Send your microbiology questions and comments (email or mp3 file) to twim@twiv.tv, or call them in to 908-312-0760. You can also post articles that you would like us to discuss at microbeworld.org and tag them with twim.


          TWiM #34: Doing the DISCO with Emiliania        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Michael Schmidt, and Elio Schaechter

Vincent, Michael, and Elio discuss changing populations of Emiliania huxleyi and their viruses in the North and Black Seas.

Right click to download TWiM #34 (50 MB .mp3, 69 minutes).

Links for this episode:


          TWiM 31: Screen door on a submarine        

Hosts: Vincent Racaniello, Jo Handelsman, and Michael Schmidt

Vincent, Jo, and Michael discuss an archetypal protein transport system in bacterial outer membranes, and evidence that gut microbial enterotypes might not fall into defined groups.

Links for this episode:


          TWiM #16: ICAAC Live        

On episode #16 of the podcast This Week in Microbiology, Vincent, Michael, Arturo, Stuart, and David converse about antimicrobial resistance and why most fungi do not cause disease at the 51st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC).


          ÐœÐ¸ÐºÑ€Ð¾Ð±Ð¸Ð¾Ð»Ð¾Ð³Ð¸Ð¹Ð½ шинжлэх ухаан юу судалдаг вэ?        

Microbiology


An agar plate streaked with microorganisms

Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microscopic organisms, which are defined as any living organism that is either a single cell (unicellular), a cell cluster, or has no cells at all (acellular).[1] This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes. Viruses[2] and prions, though not strictly classed as living organisms, are also studied. Microbiology typically includes the study of the immune system, or immunology. Generally, immune systems interact with pathogenic microbes; these two disciplines often intersect which is why many colleges offer a paired degree such as "Microbiology and Immunology".

Microbiology is a broad term which includes virology, mycology, parasitology, bacteriology, immunology and other branches. A microbiologist is a specialist in microbiology and these related topics.

Microbiological procedures usually must be aseptic, and use a variety of tools such as light microscopes with a combination of stains and dyes.The most commonly used stains are called basic dyes, and are composed of positively charged molecules. Two types of basic dyes are simple stains and differential stains. Simple stains consist of one dye and identify the shape and multicell arrangement of bacteria. Methylene blue, carbolfuchsin, safranin, and crystal violet are some of the most commonly used stains. Differential stains on the other hand, use two or more dyes and help us to distinguish between two or more organisms or two or different parts of the organism. Types of differential bacterial stains are gram, Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast, negative, flagella, and endospore. Specific constraints apply to particular fields of microbiology, such as parasitology, which heavily utilizes the light microscopy, whereas microscopy's utility in bacteriology is limited due to the similarity in many cells' physiology. Indeed, most means of differentiating bacteria is based on growth or biochemical reactions. Virology has very little need for light microscopes, relying on almost entirely molecular means. Mycology relies on all technologies the most evenly, from macroscopy to molecular techniques.

Microbiology is actively researched, and the field is advancing continuously. Research in the microbiology field is expanding, and in the coming years, we should see the demand for microbiologists in the work force increase.[citation needed] It is estimated that only about one percent of the microorganisms present in a given environmental sample are culturable[3] and the number of bacterial cells and species on Earth is still not possible to be determined, recent estimates indicate that it can be extremely high (5Ч1030 on Earth, unknown number of species). Although microbes were directly observed over three hundred years ago, the precise determination, quantitation and description of its functions is far to be complete, given the overwhelming diversity detected by genetic and culture-independent means.


          Virology Research Growing        
Focusing on viral threats to people, plants and animals, Nebraska Center for Virology scientists target some of the world’s most devastating diseases. Creating an internationally recognized center is the goal, said Charles Wood, NCV’s director and Lewis Lehr/3M University Professor … Continue reading
          Watch ASCEND Documentary: Patients, Providers, and Hepatitis C         
The ASCEND Documentary - An inside view of Hepatitis C treatment in an urban community health care setting

Abstract
The ASCEND study has been published in the Annals of internal medicine: Expansion of Treatment for Hepatitis C Virus Infection by Task Shifting to Community-Based Nonspecialist Providers: A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial.

Full Text 
Expansion of Treatment for Hepatitis C Virus Infection by Task Shifting to Community-Based Nonspecialist Providers
A Nonrandomized Clinical Trial
Sarah Kattakuzhy, MD; Chloe Gross, RN; Benjamin Emmanuel, MPH; Gebeyehu Teferi, MD; Veronica Jenkins, MD; Rachel Silk, RN, MPH; Elizabeth Akoth, RN, MS; Aurielle Thomas, BA; Charisse Ahmed, BS; Michelle Espinosa; Angie Price, CRNP; Elana Rosenthal, MD; Lydia Tang, MD; Eleanor Wilson, MD, MS; Soren Bentzen, PhD; Henry Masur, MD; Shyam Kottilil, MD, PhD; and the ASCEND Providers*
Full text PDF tweeted via @HenryEChang

Follow On Twitter
I highly suggest you follow Henry E. Chang on Twitter if you are interested in reading full text articles about the treatment and management of hepatitis C.               



Aug 10, 2017
Provided by - InstHumanVirology


          AbbVie Receives U.S. FDA Approval of MAVYRET™ (glecaprevir/pibrentasvir)         
Updates On This Blog
Research & Media Articles

Download
HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESCRIBING INFORMATION

FDA Press Release
FDA approves Mavyret for Hepatitis C
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Mavyret (glecaprevir and pibrentasvir) to treat adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1-6 without cirrhosis (liver disease) or with mild cirrhosis, including patients with moderate to severe kidney disease and those who are on dialysis. Mavyret is also approved for adult patients with HCV genotype 1 infection who have been previously treated with a regimen either containing an NS5A inhibitor or an NS3/4A protease inhibitor but not both.

Mavyret is the first treatment of eight weeks duration approved for all HCV genotypes 1-6 in adult patients without cirrhosis who have not been previously treated. Standard treatment length was previously 12 weeks or more.

“This approval provides a shorter treatment duration for many patients, and also a treatment option for certain patients with genotype 1 infection, the most common HCV genotype in the United States, who were not successfully treated with other direct-acting antiviral treatments in the past,” said Edward Cox, M.D., director of the Office of Antimicrobial Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 2.7 to 3.9 million people in the United States have chronic HCV. Some patients who suffer from chronic HCV infection over many years may have jaundice (yellowish eyes or skin) and complications, such as bleeding, fluid accumulation in the abdomen, infections, liver cancer and death.

There are at least six distinct HCV genotypes, or strains, which are genetically distinct groups of the virus. Knowing the strain of the virus can help inform treatment recommendations. Approximately 75 percent of Americans with HCV have genotype 1; 20-25 percent have genotypes 2 or 3; and a small number of patients are infected with genotypes 4, 5 or 6.

The safety and efficacy of Mavyret were evaluated during clinical trials enrolling approximately 2,300 adults with genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 HCV infection without cirrhosis or with mild cirrhosis. Results of the trials demonstrated that 92-100 percent of patients who received Mavyret for eight, 12 or 16 weeks duration had no virus detected in the blood 12 weeks after finishing treatment, suggesting that patients’ infection had been cured.

Treatment duration with Mavyret differs depending on treatment history, viral genotype, and cirrhosis status.

The most common adverse reactions in patients taking Mavyret were headache, fatigue and nausea.

Mavyret is not recommended in patients with moderate cirrhosis and contraindicated in patients with severe cirrhosis. It is also contraindicated in patients taking the drugs atazanavir and rifampin.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation has been reported in HCV/HBV coinfected adult patients who were undergoing or had completed treatment with HCV direct-acting antivirals, and who were not receiving HBV antiviral therapy. HBV reactivation in patients treated with direct-acting antiviral medicines can result in serious liver problems or death in some patients. Health care professionals should screen all patients for evidence of current or prior HBV infection before starting treatment with Mavyret.

The FDA granted this application Priority Review and Breakthrough Therapy designations.
The FDA granted approval of Mavyret to AbbVie Inc.

AbbVie Receives U.S. FDA Approval of MAVYRET™ (glecaprevir/pibrentasvir) for the Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C in All Major Genotypes (GT 1-6) in as Short as 8 Weeks

MAVYRET is a new 8-week, pan-genotypic treatment for hepatitis C patients without cirrhosis and who are new to treatment

- FDA approval is supported by an overall 98 percent cure rate (rates ranged between 92-100 percent) in patients who received the recommended duration of treatment
- MAVYRET is a pan-genotypic treatment approved for use in patients across all stages of chronic kidney disease
- MAVYRET may be used in up to 95 percent of HCV patients, depending on stage of liver disease and prior treatment history*

NORTH CHICAGO, Ill., Aug. 3, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- AbbVie (NYSE: ABBV), a global biopharmaceutical company, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved MAVYRET™ (glecaprevir/pibrentasvir), a once-daily, ribavirin-free treatment for adults with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection across all major genotypes (GT1-6). MAVYRET is an 8-week, pan-genotypic treatment for patients without cirrhosis and who are new to treatment. Up to 95 percent of HCV patients in the U.S. may be eligible for treatment with MAVYRET, including patients with compensated cirrhosis or without cirrhosis and those with limited treatment options, such as patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).*

"With MAVYRET, physicians and patients now have a treatment option that is highly effective and has the potential to cure the majority of HCV patients in as short as 8 weeks, regardless of genotype," said Michael Severino, M.D., executive vice president, research and development and chief scientific officer, AbbVie. "The approval of MAVYRET demonstrates AbbVie's commitment to advancing science to help address unmet needs by delivering a new cure for patients who historically had limited treatment options, including those with genotype 3 HCV, individuals with CKD and certain DAA failure patients."

Approximately 3.4 million Americans are chronically infected with HCV.1 Additionally, HCV is common among people with severe CKD, with an estimated more than 500,000ⱡ people having both chronic HCV and CKD.2 MAVYRET was designed to deliver a cure** across all major genotypes and specific treatment challenges, such as patients with severe CKD, and GT1 patients not cured by a NS5A inhibitor or a NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI) direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment, but not both. MAVYRET combines two new DAAs that target and inhibit proteins essential for the replication of the hepatitis C virus.

"The clinical trial program for MAVYRET resulted in high cure rates across a range of patient populations, from those who have never been treated and who do not have cirrhosis, all the way to patients with compensated cirrhosis," said Fred Poordad, M.D., vice president, academic and clinical affairs, Texas Liver Institute and professor of medicine, University of Texas Health, San Antonio. "This approval helps achieve physicians' goals of delivering effective options for a broad range of patients."

The approval of MAVYRET is supported by data from nine registrational studies in AbbVie's clinical development program, which evaluated more than 2,300 patients in 27 countries across all major HCV genotypes (GT1-6) and special populations.

Approval of MAVYRET follows an FDA-granted Breakthrough Therapy Designation for the treatment of GT1 HCV patients who were not cured with prior DAA therapy, as well as Priority Review. According to the FDA, Breakthrough Therapy Designation is intended to expedite the development and review of therapies for serious or life-threatening conditions, which may offer substantial improvement over available therapies.

AbbVie's pan-genotypic regimen was also recently granted marketing authorization by the European Commission. AbbVie's treatment is now licensed for use in all 28 member states of the European Union, as well as Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway.

*Ipsos Healthcare HCV Monitor, 2017. New York, NY: Ipsos in North America. ©Ipsos 2017, all rights reserved.
**Patients who achieve a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks post treatment (SVR12) are considered cured of hepatitis C.
ⱡBased on IMS Dx (Oct. 2016) distribution of 15.7% Renal patients in diagnosed population applied to ~3.4M HCV prevalence population of all major HCV genotypes.

About MAVYRET™ (glecaprevir/pibrentasvir)
MAVYRET™ is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults across all major genotypes (GT1-6). MAVYRET is a pan-genotypic, once-daily, ribavirin-free treatment that combines glecaprevir (100mg), an NS3/4A protease inhibitor, and pibrentasvir (40mg), an NS5A inhibitor, dosed once-daily as three oral tablets, taken with food.

MAVYRET is an 8-week, pan-genotypic option for patients without cirrhosis and who are new to treatment, who comprise the majority of people living with HCV. MAVYRET is also approved as a treatment for patients with specific treatment challenges, including those (GT1) not cured by prior treatment experience to either a protease inhibitor or NS5A inhibitor (but not both), and in patients with limited treatment options, such as those with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) or those with genotype 3 chronic HCV. MAVYRET is a pan-genotypic treatment approved for use in patients across all stages of CKD.

Glecaprevir (GLE) was discovered during the ongoing collaboration between AbbVie and Enanta Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ: ENTA) for HCV protease inhibitors and regimens that include protease inhibitors.

Full prescribing information can be found here.

Use and Important Safety Information

USE
MAVYRET™ (glecaprevir and pibrentasvir) tablets are a prescription medicine used to treat adults with chronic (lasting a long time) hepatitis C virus (hep C) genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 infection without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION
What is the most important information to know about MAVYRET?

Hepatitis B virus reactivation: Before starting treatment with MAVYRET, a doctor will do blood tests to check for hepatitis B virus infection. If people have ever had hepatitis B virus infection, the hepatitis B virus could become active again during or after treatment of hepatitis C virus with MAVYRET. Hepatitis B virus becoming active again (called reactivation) may cause serious liver problems including liver failure and death. A doctor will monitor people if they are at risk for hepatitis B virus reactivation during treatment and after they stop taking MAVYRET.

MAVYRET must not be taken if people:
Have certain liver problems
Are taking the medicines:
atazanavir (Evotaz®, Reyataz®)
rifampin (Rifadin®, Rifamate®, Rifater®, Rimactane®)

What should people tell a doctor before taking MAVYRET?
If they have ever had hepatitis B virus infection, liver problems other than hep C infection, or any other medical conditions.
If they are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, or if they are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if MAVYRET will harm a person's unborn baby or pass into breast milk. A doctor should be consulted about the best way to feed a baby if taking MAVYRET.

About all the medicines they take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. MAVYRET and other medicines may affect each other. This can cause people to have too much or not enough MAVYRET or other medicines in their body. This may affect the way MAVYRET or other medicines work, or may cause side effects.
− A new medicine must not be started without telling a doctor. A doctor will provide instruction on whether it is safe to take MAVYRET with other medicines.

What are the common side effects of MAVYRET?
The most common side effects of MAVYRET are headache and tiredness.

These are not all of the possible side effects of MAVYRET. A doctor should be notified if there is any side effect that is bothersome or that does not go away.

This is the most important information to know about MAVYRET. For more information, people should talk to a doctor or healthcare provider.

People are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www.fda.gov/medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

Please see full Prescribing Information, including the Patient Information.

If people cannot afford their medication, they should contact www.pparx.org for assistance.

About AbbVie
AbbVie is a global, research-driven biopharmaceutical company committed to developing innovative advanced therapies for some of the world's most complex and critical conditions. The company's mission is to use its expertise, dedicated people and unique approach to innovation to markedly improve treatments across four primary therapeutic areas: immunology, oncology, virology and neuroscience. In more than 75 countries, AbbVie employees are working every day to advance health solutions for people around the world. For more information about AbbVie, please visit us at www.abbvie.com. Follow @abbvie on Twitter, Facebook or LinkedIn.

Forward-Looking Statements
Some statements in this news release may be forward-looking statements for purposes of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. The words "believe," "expect," "anticipate," "project" and similar expressions, among others, generally identify forward-looking statements. AbbVie cautions that these forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that may cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated in the forward-looking statements. Such risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, challenges to intellectual property, competition from other products, difficulties inherent in the research and development process, adverse litigation or government action, and changes to laws and regulations applicable to our industry. Additional information about the economic, competitive, governmental, technological and other factors that may affect AbbVie's operations is set forth in Item 1A, "Risk Factors," in AbbVie's 2015 Annual Report on Form 10-K, which has been filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. AbbVie undertakes no obligation to release publicly any revisions to forward-looking statements as a result of subsequent events or developments, except as required by law.

1 Messina JP, Humphreys I., Flaxman A., et.al. Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology. 2015;61(1): 77-87 (and supplementary appendix).
2 IMS Health. IMS Dx/LRx. December 2016. (©IMS Health Inc., all rights reserved).

          Virology agency, partners launch national programme on Tuberculosis        
The Institute of Human Virology Nigeria (IHVN) in collaboration with its partners has launched a national quality improvement program on Tuberculosis to ensure that TB patients receive standard care and treatment . Mr. Dennis Mordi, Communication Manager, IHVN, said that the agency and other partners developed sections of a guideline to drive the NigeriaQual TB project […]
          CD4+ T-cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA1 in Chinese populations are highly focused on novel C-terminal domain-derived epitopes        
Tsang, C. W. and Lin, X. and Gudgeon, N. H. and Taylor, G. S. and Jia, H. and Hui, E. P. and Chan, A. T. C. and Lin, C. K. and Rickinson, A. B. (2006) CD4+ T-cell responses to Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA1 in Chinese populations are highly focused on novel C-terminal domain-derived epitopes. Journal of Virology, 80 (16). pp. 8263-8266. ISSN 0022-538X
          Ð’ИЧ не вызывает СПИД напрямую        
Исследователи из Гладстонского института вирологии и иммунологии (Gladstone Institute of Virology and Immunology) обнаружили, что ВИЧ не вызывает СПИД своим непосредственным действием на иммунные клетки носителя. Это происходит путем воздействия самих клеток друг на друга. Вирус
          Keep calm and do virology        
There is another new bird flu. H7N9 Bird Flu Cases Reach 21 In China; Death Total Unchanged At Six  More bird flu cases reported in China  New deadly bird flu virus infects at least 20 in China The NPR article is quite good: Human Cases Of Bird Flu In China Draw Scrutiny This ‘bird flu’…
          Swine Flu Symptoms - Scared? Take The Swine Flu Poll And You Can Win A Free TV!        

"Scared About Swine Flu
Symptoms?"


Take The Swine Flu Poll And Then
Choose Your Favorite TV


"Are
You Concerned About The Swine Flu Outbreak?...










YES!
NO!





In 2009 outbreaks of swine
flu is a new strain of influenza virus H1N1, which began in March 2009.
Localized outbreaks of influenza type illness (IPI), were found in
three areas, primarily in Mexico, and shortly after, as in the United
States. After opening a new strain in the United States, his presence
was quickly confirmed in several of the nation through several
continents. There was more than 1,600 suspected cases. Because this is
not possible to confirm, each of these cases as caused by avian
influenza, World Health Organization (who), refers to their population,
as influenza - like illness (IPI).



A new strain is partly from human Influenzavirus a (H1N1), and subtype
in part of the two strains of swine flu and avian influenza. In April
as who and the US Centers for disease control and prevention (CDC)
expressed serious concern about this new strain, apparently, because it
passes from human rights, has a relatively high level of mortality in
Mexico, and also because he has could become a pandemic influenza.



25 April 2009 who identified the situation that is the official
"emergency health international concern", with knowledge, not in
relation to the "clinical signs, epidemiology, virology and reports of
cases and appropriate responses". Government health institutions
throughout the world also expressed concern about and monitor the
situation.





Before season flu before, in the northern hemisphere winter 2008 / 2009
was relatively mild season influenza infections that typically cause
250,000 / 500000 deaths in the year, mostly older people, very young,
and people with chronic diseases. Up to 8 April 2009 CDC reported death
of 43 children from seasonal influenza, compared with 68 in the
previous season influenza. The rise was due in particular, improvement
of the northern hemisphere winter 2008 / 2009 seasonal influenza
vaccine, for which rarely decision was taken to update all three
strains (H1, H3, and b) at the same time, that eventually brought a
very good match H1N1 and H3N2 strains, which ultimately to it. (This
followed a poor performance in 2007 / 2008 the vaccine, which is only 2
/ 20% protection, and not the 70 / 90% made in several years.)
Improvement was also explain the new recommendations, including
vaccination 5 / 18 year children who may act as "Super-rating
отвалообразователи" in connection with the inability to take
precautions, such as handwashing.



In addition, since December 2005 to February 2009 a total of twelve
human infections swine influenza were recorded in 10 States.



Outbreak was first detected in the Federal District in Mexico, where
monitoring began gathering the sharp increase in cases of мирг opens on
18 March. Sharp was Mexican authorities be "the end of season
influenza" (which generally coincides with the soft Influenzavirus b
peak until 21 April, when the CDC alerts on two separate cases Roman
pigs influenza was reported in the media. In the first two cases,
certain (and confirmation), as pig influenza was two children living in
the United States, in San Diego County and Imperial, California, who
became ill on 28 March and 30. This new strain was immediately
confirmed in Mexico, connecting new States


          Cinco perguntas aleatórias pra um prêmio Nobel - Entrevista com David Baltimore        
Como alguns de vocês sabem, atualmente sou Pesquisadora Estudante Visitante no Instituto de Tecnologia da Califórnia (AKA Caltech) nos Estados Unidos. Estando aqui, não podia perder a oportunidade de entrevistar um dos maiores nomes da Biologia que fica literalmente no prédio ao lado, e compartilhar com vocês aqui as suas opiniões.

Sim, entrevistei nada mais nada menos que David Baltimore, prêmio Nobel de Fisiologia de 1975, junto com Howard Temin e Renato Dulbecco, pela descoberta da enzima Transcriptase Reversa, uma enzima que apenas destruiu o chamado Dogma Central da Biologia. Coisa pouca, e tudo isso com apenas um experimento (quantos experimentos eu já fiz na minha vida???).

Dogma Central da Biologia antes e depois de David Baltimore

David Baltimore não parou no Nobel. Ele continuou colecionando descobertas e feitos, como NFkappaB (um fator de transcrição super importante em células do sistema imune), foi o primeiro a clonar o genoma do vírus da pólio (junto com Vincent Racaniello), criou o sistema de classificação de vírus mais usado até hoje (as classes de Baltimore), participou do comitê que criou as regras para uso de DNA recombinante, e hoje é pioneiro no uso de terapia gênica para tratamento do câncer e HIV. Além de descobertas, Dr. Baltimore também coleciona no currículo instituições de renome como MIT, Caltech (presidente emérito), Rockfeller (presidente emérito), Whitehead Institute, entre outras.

Eu queria fazer algo curto e tentar me focar em 5 questões interessantes (que não se sobrepusessem a outras mil entrevistas que ele já deu). Não foi fácil (coloca "Baltimore interview” no Google pra você ver!), e no final eu fiquei com 5 perguntas superinteressantes, mas meio desconexas. Então acho que podemos chamar essa entrevista de 5 questões aleatórias para David Baltimore!

Abaixo vc pode ver o transcrito da entrevista (meu sistema de gravação falhou bem na hora da entrevista, que legal! #pagandomicoprobaltimore, então fizemos uma entrevista oldschool).

Entrevista em Português:

Eu: Você, Temin e Dulbecco receberam um prêmio Nobel pela a descrição da transcriptase reversa, uma enzima tão incomum que quebrou o antigo dogma central da biologia. Como você se sentiu, no momento, quando você percebeu que você estava testemunhando algo que era contrário a uma noção tão forte na ciência, que era chamado de dogma? Você duvidou de si mesmo? Você teve que reunir coragem ou algo parecido?

Baltimore: Não, eu não tive. Foi bioquímica simples. Eu tinha um molde, que nesse caso era RNA e não DNA, e verificava a incorporação de nucleotídeos e polimerização in vitro, por isso não havia espaço para erros e eu estava muito confiante de que os resultados estavam corretos. Eu estava trabalhando em bioquímica há 10 anos e como isso foi publicado em simultâneo com o laboratório de Temin não havia muito espaço para discussão, foi um experimento fácil e simples, então, em resumo, foi um prêmio nobel em 1 experimento.

Eu: Você fez parte da conferência de Asilomar que definiram as diretrizes para uso seguro do DNA recombinante, que são usadas até hoje para a fabricação de todos os produtos biofarmacêuticos mais avançados. Qual você acha que é a próxima fronteira na biomedicina? E por quê?

Baltimore: Eu não vejo uma barreira tão alta quanto havia na época com o DNA recombinante, e no momento podíamos ver o caminho à frente e acho que ainda podemos vê-lo. Algumas pessoas diriam que o próximo passo na biomedicina é a biologia sintética. Utilizar a biologia sintética para modificar o comportamento celular. Sabemos muito de biologia celular e estamos aprendendo ainda mais. Eu acho que se assemelha muito à química há algum tempo atrás. No passado, a química era uma caixa preta e o desenvolvimento desta ciência e a aprendizagem das interacções levou ao desenvolvimento de novos e melhores produtos químicos. E agora sabemos muito sobre a biologia por trás do comportamento celular, aprendemos muito e agora podemos incorporar esse conhecimento em uma abordagem médica.

Eu: Você tem uma extensa lista de publicações. Na sua opinião, qual é o melhor trabalho / artigo que publicou?

Baltimore: Bom, tem que ser o da transcriptase reversa, é o artigo com maior impacto e foi o ápice de 10 anos de esforço de trabalho em bioquímica e virologia. E foi um trabalho muito simples.

Eu: Normalmente, o maior impacto vem dos trabalhos mais simples.

Baltimore: Mas nem sempre. Eu olho para a lista de prêmios Nobel, ano após ano, e o número de pessoas que receberam o prêmio por um experimento simples e direto é realmente muito pequeno. Quase todos eles são o resultado de um compromisso de vida. O vencedor do ano passado, Randy Schekman, vem trabalhando há 20 anos em abordagens ao tráfico de membrana, tanto ele quanto os outros destinatários, (James E. Rothman, e Thomas C. Südhof), um trabalhando in vitro, o outro geneticamente, de modo não foi o resultado de um experimento.

Eu: O seu ex-aluno, Vincent Racaniello, é o maior porta-voz em divulgação de ciência no mundo. Quais são seus pensamentos sobre a divulgação e popularização da ciência?

Baltimore: Ele é certamente o mais importante em virologia. Seu blog recebe muitos acessos todos os dias. Minha esposa é uma, ela é virologista também. Eu acho que a popularização da ciência é extremamente importante, fornecer o acesso ao público em geral do progresso que está sendo feito na ciência, e por muitas razões. Primeiro porque eles pagam por isso, mas também porque, se você quiser um apoio continuado, tanto financeiramente, mas também na política, você precisa popularização da ciência.
Há um monte de gente boa fazendo divulgação da ciência e eu acho que um dos maiores avanços no campo tem sido um programa de TV chamado "Your Inner Fish". É um show de três horas dividido em três partes, onde você pode ver como os seres humanos evoluíram e os reflexos da evolução em nossos corpos, então a primeira parte mostra um peixe que se aventurou na terra, e as outras partes são chamadas de seu réptil interior e seu macaco interior.
É muito bem feito, incrível. E Neil Shubin é a própria imagem do cientista.
A segunda é Cosmos, de Carl Sagan, e ele foi atualizado recentemente por Neil deGrasse Tysson. Há também os livros de Sean Caroll. Então, em resumo, há um monte de gente fazendo popularização da ciência e eles fazem isso muito bem e de forma consciente.

Me: Não há como negar que você tem uma carreira muito bem sucedida. Que conselho você daria a alguém que quer seguir seus passos?

Baltimore: Estou muito orgulhoso e feliz com a minha carreira. Mas eu nunca tive um objetivo específico em mente, eu sempre senti uma forte afinidade com as perguntas e materiais da biologia e minha maior força motriz é a alegria da descoberta. Isso é verdade desde que eu fui a um programa de verão do ensino médio e descobri que eu poderia fazer experimentos originais na biologia, e este é o impulso que tem vindo a impulsionar a minha carreira desde então.


Entrevista original em inglês:

Me: You, Temin and Dulbecco received a Nobel prize for the description of the reverse transcriptase, an enzyme so unusual that broke the former central dogma of biology. How did you felt, at the time, when you realized that you were witnessing something that was contrary to such a strong notion in science that was actually called dogma? Did you doubt yourself? Did you had to gather courage or something like that?

Baltimore: No, I didn't. It was straightforward biochemistry. I had the template, that in that case was RNA and not DNA, and I would check the nucleotide incorporation and polymerization in vitro, so there were no mistakes and I was very confident the results were correct. I had been working in biochemistry for 10 years and as it got published simultaneously with Temin’s lab there were not much space for discussion, it was an easy and simple experiment, so in summary it was a nobel prize over 1 experiment.

Me: You were part of the Asilomar conference that tailored the guidelines of the safely use of recombinant DNA, that is used until today for the manufacture of all the most advanced biotechnological pharmaceuticals. What do think is the next frontier in biomedicine? And why?

Baltimore: I don’t see a barrier as high as there was at the time for recombinant DNA, and at the time we could see the path ahead and I think we can still see it. Some people would say that the next step in biomedicine is synthetic biology. To use synthetic biology to modify cell behavior. We know much of cell biology and we are learning even more. I think it resembles a lot chemistry some time ago. In the past chemistry was a blackbox and the developing of this science and the learning of the interactions led to the development of new and better chemicals. And now we know a lot of the biology behind cell behavior, we learnt a lot and now we can incorporate this knowledge into a medical approach.

Me: You have a very extensive publication record. In your opinion, what is the best work/paper you published?

Baltimore: Well, it has to be the Reverse Transcriptase one, its the one with the greatest impact and was the culmination of 10 years of effort of work in biochemistry and virology. And it was a very straightforward paper.

Me: Usually the biggest impact comes from simple straightforward work.

Baltimore: But not always. I look at the list of nobel prizes year after year and the number of recipients that received the prize over a  straighfoward experiment is actually very small. Almost all of them is the result of a lifetime commitment. So the last year winner Randy Schekman, he’s been working for 20 years in approaches to membrane trafficking, both he and the other recipients, (James E. Rothman, and Thomas C. Südhof), one working in vitro, the other genetically, so it wasn’t the result of 1 experiment.

Me: Your former student, Vincent Racaniello, is the greatest spokesman of science divulgation in the world. What are your thoughts about science divulgation and popularization?

Baltimore: He’s certainly the most important in virology. His blog receives lots of access every day. My wife accesses it, she’s a virologist as well. I think science popularization is extremely important, to provide the general public access to the progress being done in science for many reasons. First because they pay for it, but also because, if you want continued support, both financially but also in politics you need science popularization.
There’s a lot of good people doing science divulgation and I think one of the greatest advances in the field has been a public tv show called Your Inner Fish. Is a 3 hour show divided in three parts where you can see how the humans have evolved and the reflections of the evolution on our bodies, so the first part shows a fish that ventured on the ground, and the other parts are called your inner reptile and your inner monkey.
It’s beautifully done, amazing. And Neil Shubin is the very image of the scientist.
The second one is Cosmos, by Carl Sagan, and it’s been updated recently by Neil de Grasse Tysson. There’s also the books by Sean Caroll. So in summary, there’s a lot of people doing  science popularization and they do it very well and consciously.

Me: There is no denying that you have a very successful career. What advice would you give to anyone that wants to follow your footsteps?


Baltimore: I’m very proud and happy with my career. But I never had a particular aim in mind, i just always felt a strong affinity with the questions and materials of biology and the biggest driving force was the joy of discovery. That was true ever since I went to a high school summer program and found out that I could do original experiments in biology, and this is the impetus that has been driving my career since then.

          Como tudo começou        

Achei que seria interessante contar como decidi começar esse blog.

Durante meu doutorado uma das disciplinas que eu cursei se chamava Divulgação Científica. O motivo pelo qual decidi cursar essa disciplina era nobre e ao mesmo tempo egoísta e mesquinho. Nobre porque realmente queria aprender mais sobre divulgação e popularização da ciência. Mas mesquinho porque era uma disciplina de 90 horas de carga horária, sem provas. Ou seja, quase 1/3 da carga horária do doutorado, praticamente sem esforço (eu achava)! Ora, é juntar a fome com a vontade comer!

Na primeira aula, o professor, Stevens Rehen (você já deve ter ouvido falar nele, senão, dá um Google, que o cara é realmente bom!), perguntou a cada aluno porque tínhamos decidido fazer aquela disciplina. Todos deram respostas românticas (inclusive eu), e meu colega, Sandro, virou pra trás num ponto e cochichou "ninguém vai mencionar as 90 horas não?”.

Mas enfim, a disciplina foi muito boa de fato. O professor era bem “relacionado”, digamos assim, e conseguiu com que vários grandes nomes dessem palestras pra nós, como Suzana Herculano-Houzel (A neurocientista de plantão - http://www.suzanaherculanohouzel.com/ e O cérebro nosso de cada dia - http://www.cerebronosso.bio.br/), Roberto Lent (O cara que escreveu o livro mais usado de neurociência no Brasil, fundador da Revista Ciência Hoje e fundador da editora Vieira e Lent, que publica diversos textos com temas relacionado à Ciência), Mauro Rebelo (Você que é biólogo - http://scienceblogs.com.br/vqeb/),  Franklin Rumjanek (colaborador e colunista da revista Ciência Hoje) e outros. Cada um deles nos enchia com um pouquinho mais de motivação e propósito, e a idéia de contribuir com divulgação ia a cada aula tomando mais forma na minha cabeça.

Mas o que realmente me fez decidir começar um blog foi um dos “trabalhos de casa” da disciplina. A cada semana tínhamos que produzir uma peça de divulgação científica (um post de blog, um vídeo, um podcast etc, era uma trabalheira danada, muito mais difícil que estudar pra prova!). E naquela semana eu estaria no Congresso Brasileiro de Virologia. Um dos palestrantes convidados era apenas o maior virologista envolvido em divulgação científica no mundo. Pensei: Seria uma boa fazer um podcast com esse cara! Mandei um email despretensioso pedindo uma breve entrevista e expliquei que estava cursando uma disciplina de divulgação científica. Não esperava nenhuma resposta (afinal, quão ocupado esse cara deve ser?). Mas nem 6 horas depois ele me respondeu! E aceitou!

O virologista era Vincent Racaniello, professor da Universidade de Colúmbia, nos Estados Unidos, pesquisador, ex-aluno do prêmio Nobel David Baltimore, e autor dos podcasts, This Week in Virology (TWIV - http://www.twiv.tv/), This Week in Microbiology (TWIM - http://www.microbeworld.org/podcasts/this-week-in-microbiology) e This Week in Parasitism (TWIP - http://www.microbeworld.org/podcasts/this-week-in-parasitism) e autor do Virology blog (http://www.virology.ws/). Coisa pouca, né?

A entrevista foi super tranquila, ele foi super legal (ele me emprestou o super sofisticado sistema de gravação portátil dele!), e depois da entrevista, fomos almoçar. Conversamos sobre diversos temas, inclusive como fazer aulas em formato online, eu sugeri algo como o khanacademy, que é de matemática, mas com virologia, e hoje Racaniello tem um curso inteiro de virologia online, no Coursera (é claro que não deve ter sido devido a minha sugestão, mas eu gosto de fantasiar que foi!). Durante o almoço ele disse: Divulgação Científica não é pra todo mundo, mas se você acha que pode ser pra você, você deveria investir nisso!

Pronto! Era o empurrão final pra iniciar o blog! Que agora é esse aqui.

A entrevista foi publicada no blog da Revista BioICB, o blog do Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas da UFRJ, onde todos os "trabalhos de casa" da disciplina eram publicados. Racaniello também fez um post no seu blog sobre a nossa entrevista (aqui, com direito a uma foto trevas de mim para seu divertimento).

O podcast pode ser ouvido no link abaixo, tanto o original em inglês quanto o traduzido pro português. Lembrando que esse material foi primeiramente publicado na Revista BioICB.

http://www.icb.ufrj.br/cgi/cgilua.exe/sys/start.htm?infoid=602&sid=427

E aí gostaram? Querem mais entrevistas em formato de podcast no blog?

PS: O próximo post também será uma entrevista. Com um prêmio Nobel! Não deixe de conferir!

          Renovando a esperança em uma vacina contra o HIV        
Belíssima representação da partícula viral do HIV feita em vidro pelo artista Luke Jerram.
Eu quero uma (a escultura, não o vírus, cruzes!).

No post passado eu comentei que havia saído um artigo que renovou as esperanças sobre uma vacina contra o HIV, pois então...

Cientistas americanos publicaram dia 4 desse mês na revista Nature, resultados de uma nova vacina experimental feita em macacos. A vacina foi desenvolvida contra o vírus da imunodeficiência símia (SIV), um primo do HIV que infecta primatas. A vacina desenvolvida demonstrou alta eficiência de proteção, acima de 80%, o que renovou a confiança dos cientistas de encontrar os elementos certos para uma vacina eficiente contra o HIV.

O estudo foi feito em macacos rhesus, utilizando-se uma vacina de DNA vetorizado (leia aqui pra entender o que é) com sequências de duas proteínas do SIV chamadas GagPol e Env. Os autores testaram diversas combinações de vetores (Ad35, Ad26, MVA e até DNA não vetorizado) sempre no mesmo regime de duas doses, conhecido como prime-boost, onde a primeira dose é a dose de estímulo e a segunda é um reforço. Eles vacinaram macacos rhesuse depois de seis meses verificaram se a vacina havia induzido proteção através de um desafio com SIV, ou seja, eles propositalmente injetaram vírus intraretalmente nos macacos (não deve ser muito agradável, nem pros macacos nem pra quem está fazendo as inoculações, mas é uma via mais próxima da via natural de infecção). Eles realizaram diversos desafios (até 6, pobres macacos) e após cada um deles, verificaram quantos animais foram ou não foram infectados. Assim, comparando os animais vacinados com os controles não-vacinados, eles chegaram ao percentual de >80% de proteção, em três das combinações prime-boost testadas: DNA/MVA, Ad26/MVA e MVA/Ad26.

ResearchBlogging.org
Figura retirada do artigo. O eixo y mostra a porcentagem de animais não-infectados e o eixo x o número de desafios.  Note que com apenas um desafio a maioria dos macacos controle (Sham) se tornam infectados, enquanto que aqueles vacinados com a combinação DNA/MVA, Ad26/MVA e MVA/Ad26 precisam de muito mais desafios para serem infectados (alguns continuam não-infectados mesmo ao final dos seis desafios).
Um ponto importante a salientar é que as sequências de SIV usadas na vacina eram provenientes de um uma variante de SIV chamada de SIVsm, mas o desafio foi realizado com outra variante, mais virulenta, denominada SIVmac, e mesmo assim a vacina foi protetora. Isso é importante, pois o HIV é muito variável, e é certo que as sequências contidas numa possível vacina serão de um vírus distinto daquele que um indivíduo vacinado irá “topar” durante sua vida.

Apesar de serem ótimas notícias, ainda precisamos ter cautela. Muitas vacinas que tiveram sucesso em primatas falharam quando testadas em humanos. Além disso, há estudosdemonstrando que talvez anticorpos contra o Ad26 e Ad35 não sejam tão raros assim na espécie humana. Mesmo tendo alta eficiência de proteção, após os seis desafios, a maioria dos macacos adquiriu a infecção. Mas temos mais motivos para ter esperança. Os macacos que foram vacinados e que ficaram infectados após os desafios apresentavam uma replicação viral menor, quando comparado com o controle não vacinado, indicando que a infecção viral estava de alguma forma sendo controlada pelo sistema imune. Havia vírus infectando o macaco, mas o número de partículas virais era até 100 vezes menor do que em um macaco não vacinado. E outros sinais apontavam para um controle imune eficiente da infecção, como maiores níveis de anticorpos neutralizantes e maior número de células T (células do sistema imune) específicas contra o vírus.

Além de elucidar os parâmetros de um regime eficiente de vacinação, esse estudo também dá mais pistas sobre quais são as sequências do vírus que devem entrar na vacina. O HIV (e o SIV também) possui 15 proteínas distintas, e apesar de muita especulação sobre quais seriam as proteínas mais importantes para incluir numa vacina, nenhum estudo até o momento havia encontrado uma combinação que trouxesse uma eficiência de proteção tão alta. No caso, o estudo conclui que uma proteína essencial para haver proteção é a proteína Env, de envelope, que como o nome sugere, é uma proteína que se encontra na parte externa da partícula viral (seriam as bolinhas agrupadas em três na escultura que abre o post). A inclusão da sequência de Env na vacina testada aumentou de 29% para 80% a eficiência de proteção. Essa informação pode ser valiosa no desenvolvimento de futuras vacinas.

Como vocês podem notar, não é à toa que os cientistas ficaram animados com esses resultados. Termino o post com o parágrafo final do artigo, que resume muito bem (melhor do que eu poderia resumir) a sua importância:

Em resumo, nossos dados demonstram a prova de conceito de que a vacinação pode proteger contra a aquisição de SIV nos desafios feitos em macacos rhesus. (…) Esses achados, junto com as observações de requerimento critico de Env e os diversos correlatos de proteção imunológica contra a aquisição da infecção e seu controle, pavimentam novos caminhos na direção do desenvolvimento de uma vacina contra o HIV.


Barouch, D., Liu, J., Li, H., Maxfield, L., Abbink, P., Lynch, D., Iampietro, M., SanMiguel, A., Seaman, M., Ferrari, G., Forthal, D., Ourmanov, I., Hirsch, V., Carville, A., Mansfield, K., Stablein, D., Pau, M., Schuitemaker, H., Sadoff, J., Billings, E., Rao, M., Robb, M., Kim, J., Marovich, M., Goudsmit, J., & Michael, N. (2012). Vaccine protection against acquisition of neutralization-resistant SIV challenges in rhesus monkeys Nature DOI: 10.1038/nature10766

Por Luiza Montenegro Mendonça, muito orgulhosa pelo seu primeiro post com o selo do Research Blogging!


Luke Jerram é um artista que cria esculturas inspiradas em patógenos, no seu site há fotos de diversas outras esculturas (outras de HIV inclusive), que realmente valem a penas ser vistas. A ilustração desse post foi retirada de lá.

          Verdade, ciência e ME/CFS        
Uma vez um professor meu de filosofia (cujo nome nem lembro mais) perguntou à minha turma de ensino médio: Onde nasce a verdade?

Depois de muito debater (e não chegar a lugar nenhum, diga-se de passagem), o professor respondeu: A verdade nasce na discussão científica. Grupos de pesquisa experimentam exaustivamente (e repetidamente) até terem certeza de que tal resultado é real. E ali, uma verdade nasce. O HIV é o agente causador da AIDS, é um exemplo. É uma verdade reconhecida. E nasceu através da prática do método científico.


Hoje em dia, a ciência funciona mais ou menos assim. Um grupo de pesquisa tem uma hipótese, imagina os experimentos e controles que precisa fazer pra testar essa hipótese, realiza esses experimentos, analisa e interpreta os resultados e chega à conclusão se sua hipótese é verdadeira ou não (ambos os casos são válidos, e a ciência andaria muito mais rápido se mais artigos com resultados negativos fossem publicados). Ao final, redige-se um artigo científico com a hipótese (e da onde ela surgiu), os métodos experimentais (exaustivamente detalhados), os experimentos, seus resultados e a conclusão. Esse artigo é então enviado a uma revista científica que irá analisá-lo e decidir se ele deve ser publicado como está, se há a necessidade de algum experimento adicional, ou se simplesmente ele não deve ser publicado (por não ter alcançado qualidade científica para tal).


Um artigo científico não termina com sua publicação numa revista (a ciência não acaba aí!). Ele apenas começa ali. A partir desse momento, aqueles resultados serão postos à prova por outros grupos de pesquisa a fim de replicá-los e provar que os resultados são válidos. E é bom que assim seja.


Recentemente, a renomada revista Science publicou a retratação de um artigo original de 2009 que havia primeiramente identificado um novo vírus como o agente causador da encefalomielite miálgica (mais conhecida como síndrome da fatiga crônica, ou ME/CFS, de Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome). A ME/CSF é uma doença altamente debilitante caracterizada por dores intensas, náuseas, lapsos de memória e outros sintomas, cujo agente etiológico continua desconhecido e foi por muito tempo praticamente ignorada pelo CDC (Center for Disease Control - Centro de Controle de Doenças dos EUA), que chegou inclusive a considerar que a doença tinha causa psicológica e era relacionada  Ã  abusos e traumas sofridos na infância. Devido a isso, tanto os pacientes de ME/CSF, quanto a pesquisa sobre a doença, nunca foram levados muito a sério.

Então, com o artigo de 2009, pesquisadores isolaram um novo retrovírus de pacientes com ME/CSF, o XMRV (sigla para Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus related Virus, traduzindo, se isso fosse possível, ficaria, vírus relacionado ao vírus xenotrópico da leucemia murina) e relacionaram o vírus como possível causador da doença. Finalmente prova de que a ME/CSF era uma doença com causas virais e não simplesmente psicológicas. No congresso anual sobre Retrovírus do Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories (fundado pelo prêmio Nobel James Watson, o mesmo da dupla hélice de DNA) em 2010, duas sessões foram dedicadas apenas para discussão desse novo vírus, tamanha a repercussão dessa descoberta (eu estava lá \o/). No entanto, com o passar do tempo, outros grupos tentaram replicar os resultados originais, sem sucesso. Nesse mesmo congresso alguns grupos já começaram a discutir a fim de tentar entender porque as coisas não funcionavam como deveriam. Cientistas são assim, eles demoram muito e fazem muitos testes antes de afirmar qualquer coisa com veemência. Ainda bem. Por isso na época ainda se discutiam diferenças nos métodos usados por diferentes grupos, possíveis diferenças nas populações de pacientes e por aí vai...


Porém, mais tarde foi-se descobrindo falhas nos métodos e até mesmo omissão de dados relevantes (como o tratamento com uma droga que não estava previamente descrita nos métodos). E a coisa começou a desmoronar. Primeiramente, houve uma retratação parcial de alguns resultados do artigo original, até que finalmente a Science retratou totalmente o artigo com a nota:
A Science perdeu sua confiança no artigo e na validade de suas conclusões. (...) Nós estamos editorialmente retratando o artigo. Nós lamentamos o tempo e recurso que a comunidade científica tem devotado à tentativas infrutíferas de replicar esses resultados.
Esse episódio retrata bem a necessidade de uma comunicação científica transparente e minuciosamente detalhada, a fim de que episódios como esse não se repitam. E para que sempre possamos confiar no peer-review, ou revisão pelos pares, para que a “verdade” possa ser retestada até que se prove ser verdade de fato (ou não). Todo e qualquer interessado deve ter acesso a qualquer detalhe e resultado, a fim de que esse sistema continue funcionando brilhantemente como tem feito até hoje.

Como o virologista Vincent Racaniello costuma dizer: Trust science, not scientists. Ou, confie na ciência, não nos cientistas. A ciência sempre dará um jeito para que a verdade venha à tona, mais cedo ou mais tarde.

E é por isso que um outro episódio vem preocupando a comunidade científica, mas isso ficará pra outro post.




Maiores informações sobre a história da ME/CSF - Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and the CDC: A Long, Tangled Tale.

Ilustração retirada daqui.


Por Luiza Montenegro Mendonça.


          Novos e vellos virus con Carmen Rivas        
Que se coñece do ébola, zika e outros virus? Por que estamos agora máis expostos aos virus emerxentes? Conversamos coa viróloga do @cimususc Carmen Rivas que estuda vulnerabilidades do ébola en colaboración co Laboratorio de Virus Emerxentes que dirixe César Muñoz Fontela en Hamburgo. Este laboratorio do Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology é un dos poucos en Europa con nivel de bioseguridade P4.
          Efer 356 (22-5-16): Virus emerxentes        
Son os virus emerxentes unha moda ou un perigo real? Conversamos coa viróloga do @cimususc Carmen Rivas que estuda vulnerabilidades do ébola en colaboración co Laboratorio de Virus Emerxentes que dirixe César Muñoz Fontela en Hamburgo. Este laboratorio do Leibniz Institute for Experimental Virology é un dos poucos en Europa con nivel de bioseguridade P4. A cociña é un laboratorio de química que todos temos na nosa casa. Co programa "Cociña con Ciencia" do @iim_csic coordinado por Graciela Ramilo podes cociñar co gran Pepe Solla e aprender a facelo con seguridade alimentaria. Inauguramos sección de ciencia e cine con @pawley co capítulo "De como a curiosidade astronómica axudou ao nacemento do cinema e de como o cinema axudou ao progreso da astronomía".
          Microbiology Society Prize Medal 2017: Professor Michael Rossmann        
At the Microbiology Society’s Annual Conference 2017, Professor Michael Rossman from Purdue University was awarded our Prize Medal. You can watch his talk ‘A personal history of structural virology’ below. In this post, David Bhella gives an overview of Michael’s … Continue reading
          Interesting Papers 2009: XMRV        
I was listening to one of my favorite podcasts "Futures In Biotech" recently.  They had a panel of experts talking about some of the more interesting papers of 2009.  Dr. Vincent Racaniello of the "This Week In Virology" podcast was a guest panelist and contributed one of the more interesting papers on XMRV -- Xenotropic Murine Leukemia-Related Virus.  We first heard of this virus in an announcement several years ago at the 2006 ASCO meeting and in this paper in PLoS Pathogens.  At the time, the announcement highlighted the discovery that XMRV may play a role in certain forms prostate cancer.  The PLoS Pathogens paper discussed the detection of the virus in stromal cells surrounding prostate tumors, and later papers discussed the discovery of signs of the virus in prostate tumor tissue.  A recent paper also found XMRV in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome although, as with prostate cancer, no causative link has been established.  This page neatly summarizes some of the research done so far.  If at some point a causative link is established between XMRV and prostate cancer then, AZT could be used as a treatment for it.

It's discoveries like this though that often beg more questions than they answer:
  • What role does the virus play in prostate cancer?  Is it taking advantage of a weakened immune response, and taking up residence in the tumor, or is there a causative link?
  • How many other tumor types show signs of viral infection?  We've seen HPV, HIV play a causative role in cervical cancer and Kaposi's Sarcoma respectively.  The NCI has tissue banks available throughout the country, and PCR-based assays could easily be developed to survey different tumor microenvironments for signs of infection.  
  • We've seen at least two mechanisms of action whereby retroviral insertion causes either activation of an endogenous oncogene, or causes an oncogene to be inserted.  Are there any motifs specific to these MOAs?  If so, are there other viruses with these motifs that we should be taking a closer look at?  Or should we just be looking for signs of infection by closely-related viruses?





          When I Was a Windy Boy and a bit        
"When I was a windy boy and bit", as Dylan Thomas said, we would visit my Grandmother every other summer.  She lived in a small farming town in the boot-heel of Missouri.  The town had a few shops, a bank, and a restaurant clustered around a main square.  You could walk 4 blocks in any direction and find yourself standing in a field.  Unlike the European cities and towns that I lived in at the time, this little town didn't have a library, or a bookstore, which meant that its main attraction for me was air conditioning and TV (TV really sucked in Europe in the early 70s).  My Grandmother and Grandfather had both been teachers at some point in their lives, and so one summer we arrived at my Grandmother's for a visit to find a set of leather-bound, gold-embossed World Book encyclopaedias sitting on the bookshelf next to the fire place.  Encyclopaedia's were a way to absorb a world of ideas and history when your resources were limited.  You could follow an idea down a rabbit hole and see where it took you.

Recently I was reading "A Day In The Life of Ancient Rome" and I found myself reaching for my trusty iPod Touch and the Wikipanion app to look up some information on Tacitus, the Roman historian and lawyer.  Although it lacked the smell of leather, and the feel of fine paper, Wikipanion made for an interesting read, and the links in the text kept me wandering around for bit.  It brought back those summers spent in front of the fireplace, inhaling the encyclopaedia, and gave me the assurance that this type of information was within the reach of anyone with an internet connection and a computer.  Although the cost of entry for a set of encyclopaedia's, a netbook, a SmartPhone, or an iPod Touch is about the same, I think the ease of accessibility of Wikipedia makes it much more likely that people will use it.

In college, we turned from inhaling broad swathes of knowledge, to digging deeply into a particular subject -- "post-hole digging" as a former colleague of mine called it.   We spent a lot of time in the library.  Reading journals, researching papers, skimming through micro-fiche.  The process of writing a paper was more time consuming then than it is now.  This past summer I needed to research the state of the art in text mining.  It took me a few minutes to put together a starting corpus of papers using PubMed and a few days to read through it all.  I could save that corpus and share it with others on my team either through My NCBI's "Collections" feature, or by bookmarking the articles in Delicious.  And reading through the most relevant ones available as PDFs through PubMedCentral or from the relevant open journals, I found most of the information that I wanted.  The reference sections in most of the papers led to other papers that I could easily follow up on.  No more treks down to the library to copy articles out of journals.  Nowadays, when I do step into a library, it's because a book I've ordered has arrived, or I want to find a book that I don't want to clutter up my shelves with.

One of the recent innovations that has helped reduce clutter is the advent of e-books.  Reference books that I used to buy by the pound, I now purchase as e-books that I can read on my laptop or iPod Touch.  Searching is definitely much easier and faster, and by placing my e-books on my thumbdrive, I'm able to walk around with a complete library of books that I can refer to regardless of where I am.  With tools like Stanza's desktop app, I can convert PDFs into e-book formats.

Even the process of staying current has changed.  It used to be that I would wait for journals to be published and to arrive at the library.  Now, I use Google Reader to aggregate all of the RSS feeds from the most relevant journals.  You can also subscribe to feeds that show you the articles that have yet to be published, called AOP (or Advance Of Print) feeds.  I spend a few minutes every day sifting through the abstracts, "starring" and tagging the ones that look interesting enough to read, and sharing the articles with my colleagues.  (If you'd like to see what I'm reading, these Google Reader bundles will help).  In addition to RSS feeds, mailing lists, IM and twitter feeds make it easier and faster for ideas to circulate, find fertile ground and grow.  Moreover, it makes it possible for communities of interest to form around an idea or theme in a way that was never really possible prior to the internet.  Social media sites for scientists are starting to become more popular.

But reading isn't the only way to stay current.  There are a number of very interesting podcasts (both amateur and professional) from publishers like Nature and Science, that can keep you up-to-date while you commute or workout.  Podcasts like "This Week In Virology" give you insights into the latest developments, and background information on the science and assays used.  I've put a few of these podcasts into a Google Reader bundle here.

I'm also surprised at the number of blogs that feature YouTube clips as a means of explaining some of the science.  The Biosolutions blog in particular is a good example of this.  It features animations that show you how a particular cellular process or technology works.

Conferences have also changed.  Many conferences now feature either live, or near-live broadcasts of their plenary sessions, major talks and panel discussions.  BioITWorld does a good job of providing these webcasts and it's a great way of viewing what other people in the industry are doing.  Project development teams like Cytoscape and BioJava are also using these kinds of technologies to help widely dispersed developers groups get together for &qu