Policy Forum Discusses the Politics of Globalization        

Distinguished panel of experts includes former U.S. Ambassador Jennifer Brush

Jennifer Brush

The increasingly global nature of nearly every aspect of society has had a significant impact on politics and policy, both in the United States and around the world, as evidenced by the 2016 U.S. presidential election and the global reaction to it. To better assess the impact of global politics on local, state, national and international governance, Cleveland State University will host the policy forum “The Impact of Globalization on the World and Cleveland,” Thursday, April 6.

The event, which will be held from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. on the CSU campus in Fenn Tower, Rm. 303, will feature a distinguished panel of experts who will discuss globalization’s impact on everything from the economy and politics to immigration and the international refugee crisis. Participants will include Ambassador Jennifer Brush, who served as U.S. Chargé D'affaires in both Serbia and Turkmenistan; Danielle Drake, community relations manager for US Together a refugee resettlement agency in Cleveland; Steven Hook, professor of political science at Kent State University and author of U.S. Foreign Policy: The Paradox of World Power; and Kathryn Lavelle, the Ellen and Dixon Long Professor in World Affairs at Case Western Reserve University and author of Legislating International Organization: The U.S. Congress, the IMF, and the World Bank.

The forum was conceived and developed by a team of graduate students in the Master of Arts in Global Interactions program within CSU’s Department of Political Science. The team sought to enhance understanding of the changing dynamics of the politics of globalization while engaging key stakeholders to ultimately improve U.S. foreign and domestic policy.

“This forum is an excellent example of how the MAGI program combines first class instruction in international relations with opportunities for students to make a difference in the world around them,” adds Neda Zawahri, associate professor of political science at CSU.

The event is free and open to the public. For more information about the MAGI program at CSU, visit http://www.csuohio.edu/class/political-science/master-political-science-global-interactions.

###


          Al Biruni        
Sebagai seorang ilmuwan besar, Al-Biruni banyak menuliskan penemuan-penemuannya. Ia telah menulis lebih dari 200 buku tentang hasil pengamatan dan eksperimennya.

ar-rayhan-al-biruniAllah Maha Mengetahui, dan tidak menyukai ketidaktahuan Abad Al-Biruni. Begitulah para sejarawan dunia menamakan masa keemasan ilmu pengetahuan pada abad pertengahan Masehi. Ini menurut catatan sejarah, ia pernah akan diberi penghargaan berupa ribuan mata uang perak yang dibawa tiga ekor unta oleh Sultan yang berkuasa saat itu, akan tetapi ia menolak. Menurutnya, ia mengabdi kepada ilmu pengetahuan karena ilmu pengetahuan itu sendiri, bukan demi uang.



Melalui jawabannya tersebut, secara tidak langsung ia mengatakan bahwa ilmu tidak dapat diukur dengan uang. Ia antusias mencari ilmu sebanyak-banyaknya hanya karena Allah. Ia sadar.

Dalam melakukan penelitian ilmiah terhadap alam semesta, Al-Biruni memiliki metode yang khas. Menurutnya, ilmuwan adalah orang yang menggunakan setiap sumber yang ada dalam bentuk aslinya, kemudian melakukan pekerjaan dengan penelitian melalui pengamatan langsung dan percobaan. Metode ini kemudian banyak dijadikan pegangan oleh para ilmuwan selanjutnya.

Ia lahir pada September 973 M di Khawarizm, Turkmenistan. Ia dibesarkan dalam keluarga yang mencintai ilmu pengetahuan dan juga taat beragama. Sayangnya masa kecil Al-Biruni tidak banyak diketahui sejarah seperti tokoh Islam lainnya. Yang jelas, pria yang bernama lengkap Abu Raihan Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Biruni ini sangat gemar belajar sejak kecil.

Beberapa tokoh ulama yang pernah menjadi gurunya sewaktu kecil adalah Abu Nasr Mansur ibnu Ali ibnu Iraqi, Syekh Abdusshamad bin Abdusshamad, dan Abu Al-Wafa Al-Buzayani. Berbagai ilmu yang diajarkan kepadanya, adalah ilmu pasti, Astronomi dan ilmu Kedokteran. Tak mengherankan bila ia dikenal sebagai ahli di berbagai bidang sejak masa belia.

Dengan bermodalkan penguasaannya terhadap Bahasa Arab, Yunani dan Sansekerta, Biruni mampu menyerap berbagai ilmu pengetahuan langsung dari sumber aslinya. Hasilnya berbagai karya di bidang Matematika, fisika, Astronomi, Kedokteran, Metafisika, Sastra, ilmu Bumi, dan sejarah pun menambah khasanah ilmu pengetahuan. Bahkan ia juga berhasil menemukan fenomena rotasi bumi dan bumi mengelilingi matahari setiap harinya.

Dengan tekad mendedikasikan dirinya pada ilmu pengetahuan, Al-Biruni melakukan penelitian terhadap semua jenis ilmu yang ada. Karenanya, banyak ahli sejarah yang menganggap ia sebagai ilmuwan terbesar sepanjang masa. Selain itu, setiap terjun kemasyarakat dan melakukan penelitian, Al-Biruni sangat mudah menyatu dengan lingkungan. Ia pun dikenal sebagai sosok yang penuh toleransi.

Dalam mencari ilmu, ia tidak hanya puas berada di satu wilayah. Ia banyak melakukan perjalanan ke berbagai daerah di Asia Tengah dan Persia bagian utara. Bahkan selama dalam perjalanannya melanglang buana itu, Al-Birun pernah berada dalam satu himpunan sarjana muslim lainnya seperti Ibnu Sina di Kurkang, Khawarizm. Setelah berpisah Al-Biruni dan Ibnu Sina tetap menjalin hubungan. Mereka terus mengadakan diskusi atau bertukar pikiran mengenai berbagai gejala alam.

Selama perjalanan hidupnya sampai dengan tahun 1048, Al-Biruni banyak menghasilkan karya tulis, tetapi hanya sekitar 200 buku yang dapat diketahui. Diantaranya adalah Tarikh Al-Hindi (sejarah India) sebagai karya pertama dan terbaik yang pernah ditulis sarjana muslim tentang India. Kemudian buku Tafhim li awal Al-Sina’atu Al-Tanjim, yang mengupas tentang ilmu Geometri, Aritmatika dan Astrologi. Sedangkan khusus Astronomi Al-Biruni menulis buku Al-Qanon al-Mas’udi fi al-Hai’ah wa al-Nujum (teori tentang perbintangan).

Disamping itu, ia juga menulis tentang pengetahuan umum lainnya seperti buku Al-Jamahir fi Ma’rifati al-Juwahir (ilmu pertambangan), As-Syadala fi al-Thib (farmasi dalam ilmu Kedokteran), Al-Maqallid Ilm Al-Hai’ah (tentang perbintangan) serta kitab Al-Kusuf wa Al-Hunud (kitab tentang pandangan orang India mengeanai peristiwa gerhana bulan).

Itu hanya sebagian kecil dari buku-buku karya Al-Biruni yang beredar. Selain itu masih banyak buku lainnya yang dapat dijadikan rujukan. Namun sangat disayangkan, tidak seperti Ibnu Sina, yang pemikirannya telah merambah Eropa. Karya-karya besar Al-Biruni tidak begitu berpengaruh di wilayah barat, karena buku-bukunya baru di terjemahkan ke bahasa-bahasa barat baru pada abad ke 20.

Tur ke India

Dari satu tempat ke tempat yang lain, begitulah perjalanan Al-Biruni. Setelah beberapa lama Al-Biruni menetap di Jurjan, ia memutuskan kembali ke kampung halamannya, namun setibanya di sana, ia melihat tempat kelahirannya sedang mengalami konflik antar Etnis.

Keadaan itu dimanfaatkan oleh Sultan Mahmud Al-Ghezna untuk melakukan invasi dan menaklukkan Jurjan. Keberhasilan penaklukan ini membawa langkah Al-Biruni, yang memang bekerja untuk Istana, ke India, bersama Sultan. Di India ia banyak melakukan penelitian pada berbagai bidang ilmu. Lagi-lagi ia menghasilkan karya baru, baik itu artikel ilmiah maupun buku.

Sang Sultan pun berhasil membuka kawasan India timur, hal ini dimanfaatkan Al-Biruni untuk menjadikan tempat tersebut sebagai basis baru dakwahnya. Selain itu ia juga memanfaatkan waktu untuk memperlajari adat-istiadat dan perlikau masyarakat setempat. Ia juga memperkenalkan permainan catur ala India ke negeri-negeri Islam.

Ketertarikan Al-Biruni kepada India, terlihat dari hasil karyanya Tahqiq Al-Hindi, yang memberikan penjelasan tentang problem-problem Trigonometri lanjutan. Kemudian Sankhya, yang mengupas asal-usul dan kualitas benda-benda yang memiliki eksistensi. Serta buku yang berjudul Patanial (Yoga Sutra), yang berhubungan dengan kebebasan jiwa. Keduanya diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Arab. Pada kedua buku India ini, Al-Biruni memuat secara autentik sejarah akurat invasi Sultan Mahmoud ke India.

Sebagai seorang ilmuwan muslim, segala sesuatu yang dipelajarinya selalu dikaitkan dengan Al-Qur’an. Ia melandaskan semua kegiatannya kepada Islam serta meletakkan ilmu pengetahuan sebagai sarana untuk menyingkap rahasia alam. Semua hasil karyanya bermuara kepada Allah SWT.

Dalam bukunya, Al-Biruni mengatakan, “Penglihatan menghubungkan apa yang kita lihat dengan tanda-tanda kekuasaan Allah dalam ciptaan-Nya. Dari penciptaan alam tersebut kita dapat menyimpulkan ke Esaan dan ke Agungan Allah.”

Itulah yang menjadi prinsip Al-Biruni selama melakukan penelitian dan percobaan. Ia sama sekali tidak melepaskan ilmu pengetahuan dari agama. Itu pula sebabnya, ia lebih hebat dibandingkan ilmuwan lainnya pada saat itu. Penguasaannya terhadap berbagai ilmu pengetahuan telah menyebabkan ia dijuluki Ustadz fil Ulum “Guru segala Ilmu.”

Kesuksesannya pada bidang Sains dan ilmu pengetahuan juga membuat banyak orang kagum, termasuk kalangan ilmuwan barat, salah satunya Max Mayerhoff, “Dia adalah seorang yang paling menonjol di seluruh Planet Bima sakti dan para ahli terpelajar sejagat, yang memacu zaman keemasan ilmu pengetahuan Islam.”

Pendapat ini di setujui oleh Sir JN. Sircar seorang sejarawan asal India. Al-Biruni dengan segala kelebihan yang dimilikinya, telah berjasa memberikan pemikirannya untuk kita ketahui dan kita pelajari. Buku-bukunya banyak diterbitkan di Eropa dan tersimpan dengan baik di Musium Escorial, Spanyol.

Al-Biruni wafat dalam usia 75 tahun. Tempat kelahirannya menjadi pilihan untuk menghabiskan sisa hidup dan menghapuskan nafas terakhirnya.

Allah telah memberikan sebuah hidup yang sangat berarti bagi Al-Biruni. Ia adalah orang yang benar-benar menggunakan akal dan pikirannya yang di anugrahkan Allah, untuk melihat tanda-tanda kebesaran-Nya.

“Sesungguhnya dalam penciptaan langit dan bumi, silih bergantinya siang dan malam, terdapat tanda-tanda bagi orang yang berakal, (yaitu) orang yang mengingat Allah sambil berdiri atau duduk atau dalam keadaan berbaring. Dan mereka memikirkan penciptaan langit dan bumi seraya berkata: Ya Tuhan kami, tiadalah Engkau menciptakan ini dengan sia-sia. Maha Suci Engkau, maka peliharalah kami dari siksa Neraka.” (Ali Imran: 190-191).
          Turkmenistan: Death Threats Against Journalist         

Soltan Achilova.

© 2011 azathabar.com (RFE/RL)
(Berlin) – An independent journalist, Soltan Achilova, has been the victim of harassment and a series of targeted attacks and death threats, Human Rights Watch and the Turkmen Initiative for Human Rights (TIHR) said today. With the Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games to be hosted in Ashgabat from September 17 to 27, the leadership of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), the owner and organizer of the games, should urge the Turkmen government to ensure that all journalists can do their work without fear of retaliation ahead of, during, and after the games.
 
In an August 4, 2017 joint letter to the Olympic Council of Asia, TIHR, a Vienna-based nongovernmental organization, and Human Rights Watch urged the Olympic Council of Asia to speak out publicly and privately against the attacks and death threats, and to remind the government that the Olympic Charter demands respect for media freedom. The Olympic Council of Asia needs to address the Turkmen government’s clampdown on independent voices, call for the release of unjustly imprisoned journalists, and secure guarantees from the government that it will ensure full press freedom.
 
“The Olympic Council of Asia has a responsibility to apply and uphold the Olympic Charter, which includes principles of press freedoms and human dignity,” said Farid Tukhbatullin, director of TIHR. “It should press the Turkmen government to ensure that Achilova and other independent correspondents like her can carry out their work without reprisal or undue interference.”
 
Achilova, 67, is a journalist with Radio Azatlyk, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty’s Turkmen service, the only independent media source on Turkmenistan that offers regular Turkmen-language news reporting. Her reporting covers a range of social issues, such as drinking water shortages, problems in the national healthcare system, and the like. In recent years, Achilova has repeatedly been intimidated and harassed for her work, as have her fellow Radio Azatlyk colleagues.
 
From July 27 to 31, men Achilova did not know severely harassed and intimidated her, including with death threats, demanding that she stop taking photographs, which is a routine part of her journalism work. In one incident, on July 31, a man in civilian clothes claimed that he was from the police and that he was instructed to prevent Achilova from taking any photographs. In three other episodes, the men physically prevented her from taking harmless photographs by grabbing and, at one point, twisting her arms. In one of the incidents, the assailant threatened to “destroy” Achilova and her camera and said she had “one foot in the grave,” and that she was “already dead.”
 
The Turkmen media operates in a very restrictive environment. There is absolutely no media independence or pluralism. Foreign media often cannot work in Turkmenistan, and local contributors to foreign outlets have been harassed, intimidated, and jailed, in an effort to silence them.
 
In one case, Gaspar Matalaev, an Alternative Turkmenistan News (ATN) activist, remains imprisoned on false charges of fraud that were brought in retaliation for his work monitoring state-sponsored forced labor in the cotton harvest. In another, Saparmamed Nepeskuliev, a freelance contributor to Radio Azatlyk, has been serving a three-year sentence since July 2015 on bogus drug charges, after he took photographs of an amusement park on the Caspian Sea coast.
 
Internet access in Turkmenistan remains limited and heavily state-controlled. For years, the government has waged a campaign to force people to dismantle their privately owned satellite dishes and subscribe to government-controlled cable television packages that cut them off entirely from alternative sources of information.
 
Turkmenistan’s history of severe restrictions on media freedoms and persistent harassment of independent correspondents and activists inside and outside Turkmenistan make it clear that the latest attacks against Achilova are part of the authorities’ efforts to silence critics, TIHR and Human Rights Watch said.
 
Turkmenistan’s failure to allow for media freedoms is a serious violation of its obligations under article 19 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which protects the right to freedom of expression. Turkmenistan has been a party to the ICCPR since 1997.
 
Human Rights Watch has written to the Olympic Council of Asia in December 2016 and February 2017, warning about repression in Turkmenistan, without response.
 
“The Olympic Council of Asia should act now to get the Turkmen government to change its miserable treatment of media and dire human rights situation ahead of the games,” said Hugh Williamson, Europe and Central Asia director at Human Rights Watch. “If the OCA doesn’t send a clear message to the government to stop intimidation and harassment of critics, the games risk being overshadowed by severe human rights violations.”
 
 

          Türkmenistan ve Azerbaycan stratejik işbirliği yapacak        
Türkmenistan ve Azerbaycan, stratejik işbirliği ve çeşitli anlaşmalara ilişkin deklarasyonu imzaladılar.
          CHP-169-The Mongol Yuan Dynasty Part 1        

In this long overdue episode with a deceiving title we don't actually get around to the Yuan Dynasty.  However a nice handy and confusing overview tracing the rise of the Mongol nation is presented which includes a bio on Genghis Khan.  We'll get to rise of Kublai Khan this time and look at the Yuan Dynasty next episode.  

 

Terms from this Episode

numero ciento sesenta y nueve Number 169

Qin Shihuang 秦始皇 Qin Dynasty founder

Da Yuanchao 大元朝 The Great Mongol Dynasty

Parthians 帕提亚  Iranian nomadic people

Scythians   斯基泰人 Iranian nomadic people

Yuezhi 月氏 Originally from Xinjiang and Gansu, defeated by the Xiongnu

Goths 哥特 West central Asian power, the scourge of the Roman Empire

Magyars   马扎儿人 West central Asian power. Today they are known as Hungarians.

Huns 匈奴 More from the western part of the steppe, often confused with Xiongnu

Xiongnu 匈奴 Often called Huns, they were an early northern tribe who kept invading China

Slavs   斯拉夫人 People from central Europe and the West Asian steppe

Xianbei 鲜卑   So-called "proto-Mongols" who lived around the Qin and Han dynasties and founded the Northern Wei.

Shatuo Turks  沙陀突厥  Power in north China late 9th and 10th century. Founded several short-lived dynasties in the north of China.

Khitans 契丹 The people who founded the Liao Dynasty 907-1125

Tatars 鞑靼人 Mongol tribe defeated by Genghis Khan who later moved westward towards Russia and Europe

Kazakhs   哈萨克人 North-Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan

Kyrgyz  吉尔吉斯  Central Asian people, Turkic, found mostly in Kyrgyzstan

Uighurs   维吾尔人   Turkic people who today mostly live in Xinjiang

The Hakkas 客家人 The Hakka People

Fujian 福建   Province on the east coast of China

Huizong   徽宗 Last emperor of the Northern Song

Aguda 阿骨打 Also known as Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jin Dynasty

Wuqimai 吴乞买 Aguda's brother, second emperor of the Jin

Kaifeng 开封 Capital of the Northern Song Dynasty

Jin Dynasty  金朝 Jürchen Dynasty 1115-1234, founded by Aguda

Zhao Gou   赵构 Escaped Zhao royal family member, launched Southern Song

Gaozong 高宗 First emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty

Lin'an 临安 Southern Song capital, present day Hangzhou

Merkits  蔑儿乞人 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Keraits  怯烈亦 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongüts  汪古部 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Ongirats  One of many tribes of the Mongols

Naimans 乃蛮 One of many tribes of the Mongols

Temüjin 铁木真 Genghis Khan's name

Dobun Known as Dobun the Clever, married to Alan the Fair, early ancestors of Temujin

Ah-Lan the Fair married to Dobun, early ancestors of Temujin

Khaidu 海都 c. 1040-1100 Great-grandfather of Khabul Khan

Khabul Khan  合不勒  Early great khan and great -grandfather of Genghis Khan

Yesugei the Brave 孛儿只斤Ÿ也速该 Father of Genghis Khan

Yuanchao Mi Shi 元朝秘史 The Secret History of the Mongols

Börte 孛儿帖 Wife of Temüjin and later Grand Empress of the Mongol Empire

Ulaan Bator 乌兰巴托 Capital of Mongolia

Jochi 术赤 Oldest son of Börte and maybe Genghis Khan

Golden Horde 金帐汗国  Originally the northwest portion of the Mongol Empire. Also known as the Kipchak Khanate. Lasted till 1502.

Xinjiang   新疆 Northwest autonomous region in China

Mongol Yasa (Jasagh)   A Mongol Codified law introduced by Genghis Khan

Khuriltai 忽里勒台   A Mongol congress of all elders and leaders

Kara Khitai 喀喇契丹 Also known as the Western Liao 1124-1218

Xixia  西夏 The Western Xia, an empire established by the Tanguts

Khwarizmian Empire 花剌子模王国 Lasted 1077-1231. Khwarazmia covered All of Iran and parts of Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan.

Batu 拔都 Founder of Golden Horde, son of Jochi, grandson of Genghis Khan

Chaghadai 蔡合台 Second son of Genghis Khan, founder of Khanate of Chaghadai

Khanate of Chaghadai 蔡合台汗国 Covered most of Central Asia

Ogedai Khan 窝阔台 or 斡歌歹 Third son of Genghis Khan, second Khan of the Mongol Empire

Tolui 拖雷 Fourth Son of Genghis Khan, father of Kublai Khan

Möngke 蒙哥 Eldest son of Tolui, elder brother to Kublai Khan

Kublai 忽必烈 1215-1294, Great Khan and founder of the Yuan Dynasty. Reigned 1271-1294.

Hulagu 旭烈兀 grandson of Genghis Khan, son of Tolui

Arigh Boke 阿里不哥 Youngest son of Tolui, fought civil war with Kublai

Subotei 速不台 Genghis Khan's number one guy (and Ogedai's too!). Great Mongol general.

Dzungaria 准噶尔 Northern half of Xinjiang with Tianshan Mountains south and the Altai north.

Karakorum 喀喇昆仑 Mongol capital 1235-1260

Guyuk 贵由 Eldest son of Ogedai Khan, reigned only two years as the 3rd Great Khan

Mamluks 马木留克 Originally slave soldiers, they were a powerful "caste" of warriors who operated from the 9th to 19th centuries. Not to be messed with.

Il-khanate 伊儿汗国  The southwestern portion of the Mongol Empire. Ruled by Hülagü's branch of the family - centered around Iran

Dali Kingdom 大理国 Kingdom that lasted 937-1253. Mostly located in Yunnan.

Owen Lattimore 欧文Ÿ拉铁摩尔 American scholar and Central Asian specialist

 

Isaac Meyer:  “History of Japan Podcast”

https://historyofjapan.wordpress.com/

 

Nina Xiang: "China Money Network"

http://www.chinamoneynetwork.com/

 


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1.  Kejadian pesawat terhempas dan hilang merupakan tragedi yang sangat tragis kepada ahli keluarga yang terlibat. Malah peristiwa dan tragedi yang sebegini pastinya akan mendapat perhatian dunia, apatah lagi ianya membabitkan jumlah penumpang yang besar dan juga penumpang yang terlibat daripada warganegara dari kuasa besar dunia.

2.  Kehilangan sebuah pesawat Boeing 777-200 milik MAS pada Sabtu lalu (8 Mac 2014) yang masih belum ditemui hingga kini (sewaktu artikel ini ditulis-16 Mac) pastinya menimbulkan seribu persoalan. Ini kerana pesawat ini didapati tiba-tba terputus hubungan dan hilang daripada radar ketika menuju ke Beijing. Dalam pada itu, banyak sekali spekulasi yang muncul tentang kehilangan MH 370. Banyak pihak yang bimbang kapal terbang ini sudah terhempas ataupun dirampas. Alhamdulillah, rakyat Malaysia yang prihatin masih tak jemu-jemu mengadakan solat hajat dan bacaan yaasin di masjid-masjid untuk memohon petunjuk dan juga pertolongan Allah agar memberi harapan supaya MH 370 ini masih selamat dan dapat ditemui.

3.  Setelah 8 hari berlalunya tragedi ni maka baru semalam ( 15 Mac 2014), YAB Perdana Menteri dapat mengumumkan secara hampir pasti bahawa pesawat ini masih dalam keadaan selamat dan disyaki dirampas ataupun ada unsur-unsur sabotaj dari seorang juruterbang yang berpengalaman secara solo. Antara intipati pengumuman YAB Perdana Menteri semalam ialah: 

" Usaha mecari MH 370 kini memasuki fasa baharu. Sepanjang tujuh hari lepas, kami mengikuti pelbagai kemungkinan. Kepada keluarga dan rakan-rakan mereka yang terlibat, kami berharap maklumat baharu ini akan membawa kami lebih dekat kepada menemui pesawat berkenaan."

"Tumpuan mencari kini difokuskan di dua koridor- utara dari sempadan Kazakhstan dan Turkmenistan sehngga utara Thailand dan Selatan menganjur dari Indonesia ke Utara Lautan Hindi. Operasi di Laut China Selatan dihentikan."

" Setakat ini belum dapat disahkan pesawat dirampas dan fokus baharu siasatan ialah kepada anak kapal dan penumpang."

4.  Di samping itu terdapat beberapa petunjuk baharu di mana seseorang dalam pesawat telah mematikan sistem komunikasi termasuk transponder MH 370 sebelum memasuki Vietnam. Laluan pesawat melencong ke Semenanjung Malaysia dan menghala barat laut dengan pergerakan konsisten. Dan data komunikasi terakhir antara pesawat dan satelit pada 8.11 pagi 8 Mac.

5.  Dalam pengumumannya kepada media semalam, YAB Perdana Menteri juga mengatakan walaupun terdapat laporan media bahawa pesawat ini telah dirampas, saya ingin tegaskan dengan sejelas-jelasnya bahawa kami sedang menyiasat semua kemungkinan yang boleh menyebabkan MH 370 melencong dari laluan asal penerbangannya.

6.  Menyentuh tentang misteri kehilangan pesawat ini, tentu ramai yang biasa mendengar  Segi Tiga Bermuda yang dikaitkan sebagai kawasan misteri berikutan ratusan kapal laut dan  kapal terbang dilaporkan hilang di kawasan yang menjangkau keluasan sehingga 1.2 juta kilometer persegi yang popular diberi nama "Segi Tiga Syaitan" iaitu satu kawasan yang dibentuk tiga lokasi iaitu Bermuda, Puerto Rico dan unjuran paling Selatan Florida. 

7.  Antara kes-kes kehilangan kapal dan pesawat yang dilaporkan ialah kapal USS Cyclops (1918), kapal Carroll A. Deering (1921), skuadron pesawat pengebom Flight 19 (1945), pesawat British South American Airways (BSAA) Star Tiger (1948) dan pesawat BSAA Star Ariel (1949). Hakikatnya terdapat banyak lagi misteri nahas pesawat yang berlaku di kawasan-kawasan lain di seluruh dunia.Antaranya:

Pada 1937 Juruterbang wanita pertama iaitu Amelia Earhart telah hilang setelah membuat penerbangan solo merentasi Lautan Pacific di Papua New Guinea. Pesawatnya telah gagal ditemui. Akhirnya diisytiharkan mati pada tahun 1939 setelah pesawatnya gagal ditemui.

Pada 8 Nov 1957, Pesawat Pan Am 7 telah terhempas ke dalam lautan Pasifik dan mengorbankan 44 orang penumpang. Pihak berkuasa tidak dapat menentukan punca kemalangan kerana tiada isyarat kecemasan yang diterima oleh radar menara kawalan. Mayat hanya ditemui hanya selepas tujuh hari dan badan pesawat ditemui terapung di timur laut Honolulu.

Pada 31 Oktober 1999 Egypt Air Flight 990  penerbangan  dari Lapangan Terbang JFK New York ke Kaherah, Mesir telah terhempas di Atlantik yang mengorbankan 217 penumpang pesawat berkenaan.. Akhirnya mendapati pembantu juruterbang yang dikatakan sengaja melakukan sabotaj penerbangan tersebut kerana marah selepas ditegur atas kesalahan seksual oleh pihak penerbangan sebelumnya. Pihak penyiasat Mesir kemudiaannya mengeluarkan kenyataan bahawa pesawat tersebut terhempas kerana masalah teknikal.

8. ADAKAH MH 370 DI SABOTAJ OLEH JURUTERBANG UTAMA ATAU PEMBANTUNYA SEPERTI YANG BERLAKU KE ATAS  EGYPT AIR PADA TAHUN 1999. SAMA-SAMA KITA DOAKAN AGAR SEGALA KEMUNGKINAN INI TAK BERLAKU. JIKA BERLAKU SEKALIPUN MAKA KITA MOHON KEPADA ALLAH AGAR PARA PENUMPANGNYA MASIH BERADA DALAM KEADAAN SELAMAT.

          India- China Bilateral Economic Ties: Issues and Prospects        
| by D. S. Rajan

( January 19, 2015, Chennai, Sri Lanka Guardian)
It may not be wrong to assume that the prevailing growth asymmetry between India and China can have implications for their economic partnership; the ties definitely look as one between two unequals- India occupying a weaker position as against a stronger China.

To elaborate, China adheres to a system of socialist market economy, in which the public ownership system plays a leading role. India, on the other hand, follows a mixed economy model involving both private and public sectors.

President Xi Jinping’s New Silk Road Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road proposals are meant to facilitate energy supplies connectivity to China from abroad. China has especially been able to conclude several international deals, to get shale gas from North America, build pipelines across Myanmar and secure stakes in Russian liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects and Caspian Sea oil and gas. To ensure an uninterrupted supply of oil and gas, China has been able to strengthen energy infrastructure by building a network of pipelines from Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Myanmar.
China’s economy is now the second largest in the world (GNP in 2013 at the level of US$ 9.24 trillion), after that of the U.S. India ranks No.10 in the global list. China’s “comprehensive national power” now exceeds that of India by a wide margin. The former’s economy was more than four times the size of India’s in 2012, and over eight times the size when adjusting for purchasing-power parity (PPP). China’s official military budget of $119 billion in 2013 was over three times larger than India’s $38 billion defense budget. In 2013, China’s real GDP growth rate was 7.7 % as against India’s 3.2%. In terms of alleviation of poverty, China seems to be doing better than India (China’s 0.061% and India’s 29.8%. in 2010); China’s literacy rate was 95% in 2010 as against India’s 62% (2006).

China is also the biggest exporting nation globally (US$ 2.2. trillion in 2013). Its main strength now lies in manufacturing for e.g. cell phones and personal computers, making it a workshop of the world. China’s foreign trade is burgeoning day by day –its total exports and imports surpassed US$ 4 trillion for the first time to reach US$ 4.16 trillion in 2013. It now has the largest foreign exchange reserve in the world- about US$ 3.4 trillion. Its investment abroad is gaining strength; it is now the third largest investor after the US and Japan. On the reverse side, in terms of inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), China has become second largest in the world- it attracted a record US$117.6 billion in FDI in 2013. 450 out of the FORTUNE 500 American companies have established production lines and business presence in China. Also, the PRC’s requirement of raw material from abroad to speed up its development at home has grown significantly. China has surpassed the US to become the world's biggest energy consumer. Only with regard to demography, India stands to gain vis-à-vis China; In 2012 India’s working-age population grew by twelve million while that of China shrank by over three million.

The importance of the outcome of the PRC President Xi Jinping’s visit to New Delhi in September 2014 to India-China economic ties needs no emphasis. The widespread perception in India is that the visit was a success in economic terms, but not so promising in political sense. The Chinese intrusion in Ladakh’s Chumar area has been seen in India as one which provided a negative backdrop to the visit; in broader terms, opinions in India view the intrusion as symbolic of the existing trust deficit affecting bilateral ties.

It is true that two sides agreed during the visit to conduct their relations from a strategic and overall perspective and consolidate their ties on the basis of Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and mutual respect and sensitivities for each other's concerns and aspirations, but there was no sign of an early solution to strategic issues dividing them , particularly to the key boundary problem; India and China merely reiterated their commitment to seek a fair, reasonable and mutually acceptable solution to it.

In purely economic terms, significant has been the readiness of India and China, exhibited during the visit, on taking the bilateral cooperation into new areas including industrial investment, infrastructure development, energy conservation and environment protection. Notable have been the steps agreed upon by the two sides on rebalancing bilateral trade and addressing the existing structural imbalance in trade through adopting measures like advancing cooperation on pharmaceutical supervision, conducting speedier negotiations on agro-products for two-way trade, establishing stronger links between Indian IT companies and Chinese enterprises, and increasing services trade in tourism, films, healthcare, IT and logistics. As a particular measure, they could approve a ‘Five Year Trade and Economic Development Plan’, aimed at laying down a roadmap to promote sustainability and lessen the bilateral trade imbalance as well as to strengthen investment cooperation in order to realize the US$ 20 billion Chinese investment in India, in next five years, assured by Xi Jinping; this investment is to be made in various industrial and infrastructure development projects in India, particularly in the establishment of two industrial parks in India, one in Gujarat and one in Maharashtra.

What has been achieved during Xi Jinping’s visit to India makes one to think that an unprecedented rise may be in the offing in the prospects of India-China economic relations; the driving forces are not difficult to identify. The new Modi regime in India like its predecessor and the Xi Jinping administration in China, are increasingly realizing the importance of domestic development to the nation building in the respective countries and to fulfill this objective,, are displaying keenness to work out mutual benefit-based external economic strategies. What we see today is the specific application of these strategies to India-China economic ties.

It would be appropriate to focus on the present status and future of India-China trade and investment ties. In early 90s, the level of bilateral trade was insignificant as the trade basket was restricted to a limited number of products. In 2008, China became India’s biggest trading partner replacing the U.S and that position continues today. Bilateral trade increased by nearly ten and a half times during 2003-11; it reached the level of US$ 74 billion in 2011, US$ 66.7 billion in 2012 and US$ 65.47 billion in 2013. The decline seen in 2012 and 2013 is being attributed to a variety of reasons including depreciation of Indian rupee, global slowdown and fall in Indian exports due to India’s curbs on the export of iron ore, the single biggest export item (53% of India’s total exports to China). The two countries aim at achieving the trade target of US$100 billion by 2015.

On the most prominent issue of trade imbalance in India-China economic ties, hopes for an early solution to it appear to have risen of late. China’s proposed US$ 20 billion investment in India, its readiness to open its pharmaceutical, agro-products, IT and service sectors to India’s participation and on the reverse, India’s nod to the Chinese entry into India’s infrastructure projects, may pave the way for closing the deficit, which stood at US$ 31.4 billion in 2013.

For India, progress on trade deficit issue, would depend on its ability to introduce new products to China having global competitiveness (Major Indian exports so far to the PRC are: iron ores, slag and ash, iron and steel, plastics, organic chemicals, and cotton. India’s imports from China so far mostly relate to the manufacturing sector, more precisely in the sectors of chemicals, machinery and mechanical appliances and base metals). Expert studies (for e.g S.K.Mohanty, Research and Information System for developing Countries (RIS), New Delhi, http://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/PublicationsView.aspx?id=15010) indicate that India could emerge as a competitive supplier to the Chinese market, as it has a large domestic market in value chain in a number of sectors, including the parts and component sector; its exports to China in this sector could be more competitive than that of several South East Asian economies on which China is seriously dependent for intermediate input supplies.

On imports from China, India should respond to the changing pattern of import demands of the latter which is rebalancing its economy taking the focus away from the traditional export and investment-led growth. Examples of pattern changes include the fall in China’s demand for coal imports, continuous rise in its energy demand from abroad and appetite for foreign hi tech products. Also, India would stand to gain in bringing medium and high-technology intensive products from China. The resultant change in the composition of India’s imports from China can have a positive impact on the bilateral trade imbalance. Growth in trade has prompted a spurt in investments between the countries as well. China’s accumulated investment in India reached US$57.6 million while India’s investment in China reached US$44.2 million by December 2011.

Next to trade imbalance, the other issue which may affect the prospects of India-China economic relations is the exchange rate regime in China. Authorities in China artificially keep the Chinese Yuan undervalued against world currencies and this step benefits its world exports, particularly exports to the neighboring countries in Asia. India may have to carefully study the implications of Yuan rate for its export to nations in South East and East Asia, a region where it is competing with China for markets.

India-China differences on the leadership in the regional integration process may be another issue relevant to their economic relationship. India supports the East Asia Summit (EAS)/ Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) process; it favors a leading role in the EAS by ASEAN plus 6 nations (10 ASEAN nations plus Australia, China, India, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand). China on the other hand wants ASEAN plus 3 (10 ASEAN nations, China, South Korea and Japan) to play a leading role in the EAS; it considers India, Australia and New Zealand as ‘secondary’ group in the EAS. The future of regional cooperation would very much depend on the progress in the ongoing negotiations among 16 countries on the RCEP proposal launched in November 2012. India and China are among those taking part in the negotiations. Five rounds of talks have been held so far. Meanwhile, China has made its own proposal to establish a working group to study the feasibility of a Free Trade Area of the Asia Pacific.

Concerning India-China bilateral economic ties, is also the question as to how each perceives its role in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)? China, an observer SAARC nation now, is keen to join that organization as a full member with an eye on expanding its presence in South Asia; its aim seems to be the signing of a China-SAARC Free Trade Area. With regard to India, China feels that both the nations can work together as ‘dual engines’ for regional stability and development. It is seeking India’s support to China becoming a full SAARC member.

President Xi Jinping has said that “China welcomes and supports India’s full membership in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization with the expectation that India will support China in building relations with SAARC”. Motivating China to play an active SAARC role, is its thinking that this will benefit the concerned South Asian economies as well as of itself, particularly its South Western part and the protection of the country’s sea lane security in the Indian Ocean. For this purpose, China says that it will follow a policy of “upholding justice and seeking interests”, which can accommodate interests of all neighboring nations, including the SAARC countries. According to it, initiatives under such policy comprise China’s four proposals – New Silk Road Economic Belt, 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the Bangladesh-China- India- Myanmar (BCIM) Corridor.

In an overall sense, China appears to assess that the SAARC is divided into two camps- one led by India and another by Pakistan and that India is adopting a ‘big brother’ attitude in South Asia (“China’s Economic Relations with SAARC: Prospects and Hurdles”, Liu Zongyi, China Institute of International Studies, 1 December 2014). On its part, India has so far been hesitant to endorse China’s proposals; the Joint India-China Statement, issued after President Xi Jinping’s visit to New Delhi, did not mention the first two. The apparent India’s reservations on the third proposal, i.e China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, can be understood in the context of the issue of Kashmir, a likely Chinese corridor area. On the BCIM, India’s position appears to be a developing one; it may have to respond to some domestic concerns arising from the likely implications for its Northeast part of the unresolved border dispute with China and the security challenges to the country in the event of opening that sensitive part for foreign participation.

Affecting India-China economic ties is also the ongoing competition between them for resources worldwide. As the two face continuing gap domestically between the resource supply and demand, it is natural that they compete to reach out to resource-rich nations in the world. The PRC became a net oil importer in 1993 and the largest global energy consumer in 2010. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) projected that China would surpass the United States as the largest net oil importer by 2014 due to its rising oil consumption. Oil imports in China grew by nearly 10 percent in 2014, to nearly 2.3 billion barrels (308 million tons). Taking the case of India, it is currently the fourth largest oil consumer in the world, behind the US, China and Japan. It is expected to become third largest by 2025. In the estimates of the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), India’s oil consumption will rise from 3.68 million barrels per day (bpd), or 173.5 million tonnes, in 2012 to 5.19 million bpd in 2025, overtaking Japan’s 4.38 million bpd consumption.

India-China competition for resources – oil and natural gas, industrial and construction materials, foreign capital and technology, is expected to intensify in future in the regions where the latter remains active at this juncture - Middle East (Iran and Saudi Arabia), Central Asia (Kazakhstan), Russia, Africa (Sudan and Angola), Latin America (Venezuela and Brazil) and the Asia-Pacific region (Myanmar and South and East China seas).

China is encouraging its state-owned companies to reach exploration and supply agreements with resource-producing nations in these regions. Simultaneously, Beijing is acting at state levels to influence such nations, which are getting manifested in four ways – conducting high-level diplomatic exchanges, promoting bilateral trade, extending economic aid especially for infrastructure building, and even providing military assistance. China is diversifying energy supply sources in response to perceived vulnerability to any over dependence in this regard on the politically volatile Middle East and Africa. Russia and Latin America have become China’s new markets.

President Xi Jinping’s New Silk Road Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road proposals are meant to facilitate energy supplies connectivity to China from abroad. China has especially been able to conclude several international deals, to get shale gas from North America, build pipelines across Myanmar and secure stakes in Russian liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects and Caspian Sea oil and gas. To ensure an uninterrupted supply of oil and gas, China has been able to strengthen energy infrastructure by building a network of pipelines from Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Myanmar.

On the other hand, Indian initiatives to respond to those taken by China seem to be inadequate. Indian entities like Oil & Natural Gas Corp. (ONGC) continue to face challenges from Chinese companies such as China National Petroleum Corp. (CNPC) in winning prospective oil and gas opportunities in the third countries. Admittedly, the new Modi government in India is seized of the urgency to accord priority to the nation’s energy security matters.

(The writer, D.S.Rajan, is Distinguished Fellow, Chennai Centre for China Studies, Chennai, India. This formed the basis of his presentation on the subject at an interaction with the visiting Chinese scholars, organized by the Indian Council of World Affairs, New Delhi on 13 January 2015. Email: dsrajan@gmail.com)



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Restricted countries for the casinos: Australia, Bangladesh, Brazil, Spain, France, United Kingdom, Croatia, Hungary, Ireland, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Romania, Russian Federation, South Africa.


          Operation Red October: malware che ha colpito l’intelligence internazionale        

Operation Red October: malware che ha colpito l'intelligence internazionale

[caption id="attachment_6858" align="alignleft" width="300"]Operation Red October: malware che ha colpito l'intelligence internazionale Operation Red October: malware che ha colpito l'intelligence internazionale[/caption]

È una scoperta destinata a suscitare l'attenzione dei sistemi di sicurezza internazionali. I ricercatori di Kaspersky Lab hanno scoperto un network di spionaggio su larga scala che ha colpito migliaia di organizzazioni diplomatiche, governative e scientifiche distribuite in 39 Paesi, tra cui la Russia, l'Iran e gli Stati Uniti. Sono i risultati della campagna di spionaggio “Operation Red October” (operazione ottobre rosso), attiva dal 2007, e che avrebbe già acquisito migliaia di terabyte di informazioni sensibili.

Sono stati utilizzati oltre mille distinti moduli mai visti prima per personalizzare l'attacco ai profili di ogni vittima. Colpiti computer individuali, componenti Cisco System e smartphone (dai prodotti Apple a Microsoft e Nokia). Lo scopo degli aggressori era mirato all'acquisizione di documenti sensibili detenuti, in larga parte, dall'intelligence geopolitica. Gli esperti di Kaspersky Lab nell'ottobre del 2012 hanno dato luogo all'inchiesta che ha scoperchiato la rete di spionaggio mondiale, probabilmente attiva fino ai primi giorni di gennaio 2013.

Al centro degli attacchi un malware denominato “Rocra”, che trova il suo punto di forza proprio nell'inedita struttura modulare. Una novità persino per gli esperti Kaspersky: “non abbiamo mai visto questi tipi di moduli così distribuiti, che hanno raggiunto un livello di personalizzazione tanto elevato nello sferrare un attacco informatico da rappresentare qualcosa di inedito”.

Tra i dati acquisiti figurano file ottenuti da sistemi crittografati come l'Acid Cryptofiler. Le credenziali trafugate erano usate per conoscere i dati di login in altre piattaforme. Al momento sappiamo molto poco riguardo alle persone e alle organizzazioni responsabili del progetto. La contraddittorietà dei dati disponibili rende difficile definire la nazionalità degli hacker. Sebbene una parte degli sviluppatori del malware è di origine russa, tanti exploit sfruttati erano stati elaborati, quanto meno in un primo momento, da hacker cinesi.

Il Paese più colpito è la Russia, seguita dal Kazakistan, Azerbaijan, Belgio, India, Afghanistan, Iran e Turkmenistan. In totale si tratta di 39 Paesi in diversi continenti. Sono stati usati oltre 60 nomi relativi al proxy servers, utili a oscurare la destinazione finale. Una infrastruttura pensata per proteggere l'identità degli hacker e per resistere a eventuali contrattacchi: “Si tratta di una infrastruttura ben articolata e gestita, che supporta multipli livelli di proxy con la finalità di proteggere la mothership (il livello più alto della struttura)”. A sorprendere in maniera particolare è l'affidabilità assicurata da un sistema tanto sofisticato in un periodo di cinque anni.

Una delle vie d'accesso del malware protagonista dell'Operation Red October è costituita dalla creazione di un'estensione Adobe Reader e Microsoft Word sulle macchine destinate ad essere compromesse. Ma se l'Operation Red October è stata portata avanti per cinque anni senza poter essere smantellata, viene spontaneo domandarsi se non vi siano altri progetti analoghi ancora in svolgimento e quali le conseguenze in termini di sicurezza internazionale.


          12 Must-Know Facts about Asia        
Asia is the world's largest continent in world covering 60 percent of Earth's total land area.

1.Asia is the most populous continent in the world with world's populous countries,China and India.It is the land of diversity.


2.Asia can be divided into 6 subcontinents :



  1. Central Asia – Kazakhstan Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.
  2. East Asia – China, Japan, Mongolia, Taiwan, North and South Korea.
  3. North Asia – Russia.
  4. India Subcontinent – India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka.
  5. Southeast Asia – Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar [Burma], Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
  6. Southwest Asia – The Middle East including Turkey, Iran, Cyprus, Israel, and Lebanon.

3.Top Ten Tallest Mountains in Asia :

Mount Everest is the highest point on Earth and it is located in Asia.

Mount Everest with group of people
Mount Everest



  1. Everest -Nepal,Tibet
  2. K2 - Pakistan,China
  3. Kangchenjunga - Nepal,Sikkim, India
  4. Lhotse - Nepal,Tibet, China
  5. Makalu - Nepal,Tibet, China
  6. Cho Oyu - Nepal,Tibet, China
  7. Dhaulagiri - Nepal
  8. Manaslu- Nepal
  9. Nanga Parbat-Pakistan
  10. Annapurna- Nepal
4.Top Ten longest rivers in Asia :

  1. Yangtze 
  2. Yellow River 
  3. Lena River 
  4. Mekong River 
  5. Irtysh River 
  6. Yenisei River 
  7. Ob River 
  8. Nizhnyaya Tunguska River 
  9. Indus River
  10. Brahmaputra River
5.Asia is located to the east of the Suez Canal, the Ural river, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or the Kuma-Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas.It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean.

6.Asia’s most dominant financial centers are Tokyo, Hong Kong and Singapore.

7.Asia is only continent joined by two other continents,Africa and Europe.


9.China is the world's biggest nation and it is located in Asia.

10.Asia is the only continent where tigers are found in the wild.

11.Caspian Sea is the Largest Salt Lake in Asia.

12.The Dead Sea or The Salt Sea is the lowest place on earth is situated in Asia.


          Countries in Asia        
 Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent in the world with 50 Countries.Here is the list of 50 countries in  Asia and their capitals. 
Asia





S.no
Countries
Capitals
1.
Afghanistan
Kabul
2.
Armenia
Yerevan
3.
Azerbaijan
Baku
4.
Bahrain
Manama
5.
Bangladesh
Dhaka
6.
Bhutan
Thimphu
7.
Brunei
Bandar Seri Begawan
8.
Cambodia
Phnom Penh
9.
Cyprus
Nicosia
10.
East Timor
Dili
11.
Egypt
Cairo
12.
Georgia
Tbilisi
13.
India
New Delhi
14.
Indonesia
Jakarta
16.
Iran
Tehran
17.
Iraq
Baghdad
18.
Israel
Jerusalem
19.
Japan
Tokyo
20.
Jordan
Amman
21.

Kazakhstan
Astana
22.
Kuwait
Kuwait City
23.
Kyrgyzstan
Bishkek
24.
Laos
Vientiane
25.
Lebanon
Beirut
26.
Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur
27.
Maldives
Malé
28.
Mongolia
Ulaanbaatar
29.
Myanmar
Naypyidaw
30.
Nepal
Kathmandu
31.
North Korea
Pyongyang (P'yŏngyang)
32.
Oman
Muscat
33.
Pakistan
Islamabad
34.
The People's Republic of China
Beijing
35.
The Philippines
Manila
36.
Qatar
Doha
37.
The Republic of China
Taipei
38.
Russia
Moscow
39.
Saudi Arabia
Riyadh
40.
Singapore
Singapore
41.
South Korea
Seoul
42.
Syria
Damascus
43.
Tajikistan
Dushanbe
44.
Thailand
Bangkok
45.
Turkey
Ankara
46.
Turkmenistan
Ashgabat
47.
The United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi
48.
Uzbekistan
Tashkent
49.
Vietnam
Hanoi
50.
Yemen
Sanaá

          Dynaflex appointed authorized representative for TGI ILMADUR gauge & sight glasses in Middle East & Africa        
TGI's factory in Ilmenau

Ilmenau — 22 June 2012 — Dynaflex Corporation, the authorized importer, stockist & representative in India for ILMADUR gauge & sight glasses manufactured by Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH, has been allotted by TGI the additional territories of the Middle East & Africa to cater to requirements of their ILMADUR branded gauge & sight glasses in the region. With this appointment, Dynaflex Corporation will now export Ilmadur Gauge & Sight Glasses to Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kurdistan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Northern Cyprus, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Comoros, Djibouti, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Somalia, Sudan, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan & Sahrawi.

ILMADUR branded gauge & sight glasses are manufactured by Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH at it's Ilmenau plant. ILMADUR gauge and sight glasses are manufactured from borosilicate “I-420” material developed and patented by TGI particularly to produce high-quality sight glasses.

About TGI
Technische Glaswerke Ilmenau GmbH is a leading manufacturer of laboratory and household glassware, sight and gauge glasses, pressed technical glasses, glass tubes, capillaries & rods in Ilmenau, a town located in the district of Ilm-Kreis, Thuringia, Germany.

About Dynaflex Corporation
Dynaflex Corporation is a leading importer and one of the largest stockists in the world of technical & safety glasses from the leading manufacturers in Europe & the USA. Most of the products are again re-exported to South East Asia, Middle East, Africa, North & South Americas & Europe.

Contact
To learn more about this topic, please contact
Dynaflex Corporation, Media Relations
Tek Towers (DOXA)
No.11, Rajiv Gandhi Salai (OMR)
Thoraipakkam
Chennai 600097, INDIA
pr@dynaflex.asia


          Is There A Terror Threat In Turkmenistan?        
Is there a terror threat in Turkmenistan? That's the big question as the Turkmen government takes actions that appear to support the idea.
          Blick ins HUNZA- Tal.        
Ein Foto von reisefreudig

Blick ins HUNZA- Tal.
Hunza liegt strategisch sehr günstig, da es die Pässe kontrolliert. Was in früheren Zeiten Macht und Wohlstand mit sich brachte. Die Händler mußten mit ihren Karawanen, auf dem Weg von Turkmenistan nach Indien durch das Tal von Hunza. Oftmals wurden sie hier ausgeplündert. Der "Weg" über Hunza war gefürchtet.
Auf der Seidenstraße in Pakistan, von Taxila über Gilgit und Gulmith, bis zur Grenze nach China über den Kunjerab-Paß.


          Why Putin Invaded Ukraine - Energy & Empires        
There are three reasons why Putin has invaded the Ukraine.
1) Hubris. He cannot stand the kick in the balls that the Ukranian Nationalists gave to him by toppling the pro-Russian corrupt political puppet regime that used to rule the Ukraine for Putins benefit.
2) Energy - The Ukraine is the energy aorta of Europe, with vast amounts of Russian gas flowing through the Ukraine and then into the EU. This control of Europe's energy supplies allows him to control Europe via energy blackmail. If Putin turns the pipelines off, then almost a third of Europes gas stops flowing. In the great game of empires throughout modern history since the post 1918 period, whoever controls the energy ( usually in the form of the oil ) controls the world. At the moment America and its Arab puppet regimes control the oil, but as Peak Oil hits in the 21st century then supplies of natural gas will replace oil. Hence those that have the gas will control the world when the oil starts to run dry.
The saying is true - There can be no National Security, without Energy Security.
3) The Eurasian Union.
Putins 21st century Geo-political plan is to create a vast supra-national bloc to challenge the EU, a sort of post-Soviet Empire run by Putin as his personal fiefdom.
This is what the Eurasian Union will look like ;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasian_Union
If realized, the Eurasian Economic Union would comprise a number of states which were part of the former Soviet Union: Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan.[9][10] Vladimir Putin stated in November 2011 that the Eurasian Union would build upon the "best values of the Soviet Union"; however, critics claimed that the drive towards integration aims to restore the "Soviet Empire"
The problem for Putin is that the Ukraine is the key to the Eurasian Union ;
http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/opinion/eurasian-economic-union-with-russia-at-centre-of-putins-endgame/story-e6frgd0x-1226844074752
In addition to the geostrategic importance of Ukraine, getting Kiev on side is critical to the success of Putin’s proposal for a Eurasian Economic Union. Such a union will exist as a counter to the EU and allow Moscow to institutionalise Russia’s influence.
If realised, the Russian-dominated union would also potentially control one-third of the world’s proven natural gas reserves. It is also clear that losing Ukraine would dangerously undermine Putin’s standing and authority within his own United Russia political party, and provide an example of what dissatisfied populations can achieve through popular protests.
This is why Russian willingness to use coercive diplomacy to maintain an exclusive sphere of influence in the former Soviet Space should come as no surprise. After all, it was Putin who in 2006 described the demise of the Soviet Union as the “greatest geopolitical catastrophe” of the 20th century. To protect its declining influence, Russia has not hesitated to use its control of energy resources. At the height of winter in 2006 and 2009, Moscow cut off gas supplies to the Ukraine - and Europe - in disputes with Kiev over gas prices and gas debts.
Russia also uses its position on a network of Soviet-era pipelines as the last exit point to European markets to bully clients and extract low gas and oil prices from Central Asian suppliers.
For example, in 2009, in a dispute over gas pricing Russia suspended gas imports from Turkmenistan for nine months, which cost the latter an estimated one-quarter of its total annual GDP.
Griffin, Golden Dawn, FN, Jobbik, NPD have all rushed to lay down and be petted by Putin.
They have done so solely for their own short term political interests, and at the same time have betrayed both Nationalism and Europe.
What Europe needs is a heroic resistance movement led by a revolutionary nationalist vanguard of young nationalists like the Ukranian Right Sector to lead the overthrow of the rotten old EU regime.
Instead we have a clique of tired, weak, corrupt cowards who have sold out their nations and nationalism for the patronage of Putin, a man who would do Nationalists in his Eurasian Union and in a Putin controlled Europe exactly what he has already done to Nationalists in Russia.
The primary reason why these puffed up political clowns of the pseudo-political right in Europe have opposed the Ukranian Nationalists is because the Ukranian Nationalists have done in a few months what these parasites have never achieved in decades of political activism.
The Ukranian Nationalists have overthrown their governments and built a National Revolution from the ground up.
Look at the European political nationalists, in their plush EU funded offices in designer suits supping fine wines and playing pathetic reactionary bourgeoisie games as they surrender ever more of our nationalist principles to appease the howler monkey liberals that hoot and yell perpetually demanding the dilution of nationalist principles in order for nationalists to sit beneath their tables and beg for the scraps they down to us like good, well trained pets of the traitorous elite.
The European nationalists are too stupid to realise they will never win the rigged game of electoral politics, or they are just too corrupt to care.
Therefore these sad pathetic parade of losers now go bowing and scraping to Putin for some pocket money to put in their already bulging pockets filled with EU funds, state cash and the subscriptions of their gullible members.
Anyone with any intelligence knows you cannot win the rigged game of politics in the EU. All nationalist political parties are is controlled fake oppositions to perpetuate the illusion of democracy in the EU tyranny. Even when Nationalists do win elections then their parties are banned ( NPD), arrested ( The Golden Dawn ), infiltrated by state agents ( BNP, NPD) the law forces them to change their constitutions to remove nationalist principles ( BNP ) or their leaders are murdered like Jorg Haider.
We will never overthrow the EU through playiung the rigged game of electoral politics.
That is why the European nationalists hate the Ukranian Nationalists and have now aligned with Putin, whose anti-nationalist venom inside Russia and whose IMPERIALIST plans for a supra-national state entity match only the Imperialism and anti-nationalism of the EU itself.
The Right Sector are the future of European Nationalism.
I stand with them and their heroes against all who will stand against the European Reconquista that we so deserve and need.
Let the old, the weak, the cowards, the traitors, the corrupted and the stupid all stand together against us.
That way when the time comes, we already know who all our real enemies are.

          My take on China’s "Marshall Plan"        
An abridged and combined translation of the two-part series by He Qinglian published in VoA on Nov 15 and 18 respectively. -- translator note.

Overcapacity: “nuclear threat’ of the Chinese economy

The majority of industries in China faces severe overcapacity that seriously threatens the smooth function of the Chinese economy.
Despite China’s high hope for it, “the Road Map for the Asian Investment Bank” remained only a plan in the APEC summit in 2014. In addition, the Mexican government decided to cancel a Chinese company’s $3.7 billion bid for a hi-speed railway project. China’s "Marshall Plan", which aims chiefly to “export the country’s overcapacity”, is off to a bad start; Beijing would still need to find ways to deal with the “nuclear threat” of the Chinese economy.

Why would China want to implement a Marshall Plan?

Most of the comments made inside China regarding the country’s "Marshall Plan" focus on the investment to be made overseas. While some might point out “export of capacity” is an intent, they deliberately omit the key modifier for the word capacity: over.

China seeks to establish an Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and, with that bank as the core, materialize its planning of “one belt and one road”—“the Silk Road Economic Belt” and “the Maritime Silk Road of the 21st century”. Through this “one belt and one road”, China can export capacity it doesn’t need. Commentators dubbed this as China’s Marshall Plan.

What I want to discuss here is the reason why China needs to implement its "Marshall Plan": The majority of industries in China faces severe overcapacity that seriously threatens the smooth function of the Chinese economy.

Why is overcapacity deemed as “nuclear threat” to the Chinese economy?

Overcapacity means the sum of productivity is greater than the sum of consumption demand. Unlike the US Marshall Plan that exported predominantly manufacturing apparatuses, the Chinese version seeks to export its infrastructure (such as railways and motorways) and the up- and downstream industries of the real property, where overcapacity is most noticeable.

China’s overcapacity came almost hand-in-hand with the country’s economic growth and its roots can be summarized as follows: investment made in the socialist manner and demand came following the capitalist fashion.

By “investment made in the socialist manner” I mean borrowers—state-owned-enterprises bosses (exempt from shouldering responsibility as unwritten rules dictate) and private companies owners (they would flee if they become bankrupt) alike—do not have to shoulder real risks as investment funds came mainly from the government or commercial banks and the investment risks are transferred to banks as bad debts.

By “demand came following the capitalist fashion” I mean that there has to be market demand for capacity. If effective demand is insufficient, excess, or in the case of the Chinese economy, over capacity would result.

Based on the aforementioned summary, we could see that China’s overcapacity has the following two characteristics:

First, overcapacity is the inevitable product of government interference with the economy.

Chinese economic growth is often linked to government stimulus policies. Whenever the central government launches stimulus policies, local authorities would without a doubt initiate as they please projects that are very similar in nature and result in severe overcapacity. Although the central government seeks to arrest excessive growth in some industries through macroeconomic regulation and control, their efforts have often been futile, with new overcapacity emerging while the existing ones have not yet been cleared.

In 2009, the NPC Financial and Economic Committee revealed in a survey and research report that starting from 2005, varying levels of overcapacity could be seen in 19 industries. At that time, the State Council Standing Committee set about a special plan to tackle the issue; however, with the local authorities seeing GDP growth as their achievement, overcapacity could not be controlled. By 2013, overcapacity became, as the respective industries acknowledged, a widely seen phenomenon that appeared in aluminum production, steel manufacturing, photovoltaics, wind power, ship building and the like.

Second, the macroeconomic regulation and control policy of the central government results, more often than not, in overcapacity becoming even more serious. Take for example the steel industry in China, despite going through several attempts to suppress its overcapacity in the last decade or so, the industry managed to circumvent those measures in one place or another somehow.

For instance, government policy stipulated that furnaces smaller than 200 cubic meters would be phased out. The intention of the policy was to eliminate smaller mills. However, many of those mills replaced their furnaces with ones sized 300, 500 cubic meters or even bigger. The phased out standard was raised to 300 cubic meters later on, and the mills made changes accordingly. This resulted in the actual capacity of China’s steel manufacture growing larger and larger.

Right now, the steel manufacturing industry has been in a state of overcapacity for several years and yet enterprises are still very eager to increase their capacity. In 2013, the overcapacity of the steel industry in China was 300 million tons, roughly two times the EU capacity. And in 2014, according to China United Steel Net (CUSteel), 24 new furnaces were put into operation; their combined annual capacity was 35 million tons. Although this was half of the 70 million tons increase in capacity in 2013, it’s still adding to the overcapacity issue when the demand is not strong.

According to a document from the National Development and Reform Commission, overcapacity could also be seen in a wide range of other industries and analysts were quoted as saying that there are but a handful of industries that do not have the overcapacity issue. Thus, overcapacity became the “nuclear threat” of the Chinese economy.

Why is it so difficult to bring overcapacity under control? The reasons, apart from the systemic issues of investment mentioned above, are that local authorities have two things to consider. First, phasing out excess capacity would result in huge layoffs, which would destabilize society and contradict the government objective of stability maintenance. And the second thing is debt risk. At present, the debt ratio of member companies of CUSteel is as high as 70%, with the total amount of loans reaching 1.3 trillion dollars. If the debt of non-CUSteel-member companies is also included, the sum of debt of the entire steel industry may exceed 2 trillion dollars. Phasing out companies would leave behind a massive credit black hole.

Obstacles abroad: oppositions to AIIB

Judging from China’s own situation, export of excess capacity might be a solution. So, during a 2013 visit to Indonesia, Xi Jinping offered to “finance infrastructure projects in developing countries in Asia, including ASEAN members” and proposed to set up an Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB).
After representatives from 21 countries including China, India, Kazakhstan and Vietnam signed their signatures on the AIIB memorandum on October 24, the financial institution is expected to complete its charter signing procedures and works to make it become effective in 2015 and come into operation before the end of 2015.

The obstacles AIIB faces include a lack of interest from major economies in the Asia-Pacific region. Representative from four key economies in the region—Japan, Korea, Indonesia and Australia—did not attend the AIIB memorandum signing ceremony. In addition, both the US and Japan oppose it. There were reports that the US asked its allies to take careful considerations before they decide to join the AIIB. Nakao Takehiro, president of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), stated simply that he does not welcome the creation of another regional bank spearheaded by China with objectives similar to the ADB.
Without the China-led AIIB to handle the lending business, it would not be easy for China to implement its plan to export the country’s excess capacity.

Obstacles abroad: investment risks outweigh opportunities

The idea of “one belt and one road” fascinated China, with plenty of articles on its bright prospects. These articles, I have to say, are written by starry-eyed persons who took into account only where to invest, i.e., where they could export excess capacity and did not think about the ways to have their return of investment guaranteed.

China’s so-called “market economy”, interfered with by the administration, concentrated only on how to get approvals from superiors, how to banks to lend the money and spend it; never once was ROI taken into consideration and unfinished projects and debts were deemed simply as “prices for mistakes”.

Take a look at the countries and regions covered by this “one belt and one road”, we could see that ASEAN, Southern Asia, West Asia, North Africa and Europe are all included.

Sure enough, countries like Korea, the Netherlands, France, Germany, Belgium and Russia are not in the initial stage of industrialization and they have in place well-developed infrastructure and so they don’t need to take in massive excess capacity from China.

As for India, it’s a populous country that doesn’t lag far behind China in terms of manufacturing and I.T. industries and has plenty of workers if it really needs to build infrastructure.

Hence, countries that might actually need China’s help would only be Indonesia, Malaysia and Central Asian countries like Tajikistan and Turkmenistan.

Obstacles abroad: troubles and losses

The difference between overseas investment in “one belt and one road” and that China made in the past is that: in the past, China's overseas investment was strategic investment made to resolve its energy and mineral needs; this time, it is to release China's massive overcapacity and it came up with the premise that other countries need infrastructure and yet they lack the fund.

But all investment, whatever the purposes maybe, needs returns. The gains and losses incurred in overseas investment made in the past can provide meaningful insights into how China has been doing.

The Heritage Foundation set up a database called China's Global Reach to keep trace of overseas investment projects of Chinese enterprises that worth 100 million dollars or more. The data showed that China invested in industries like energy, mining, transportation and banking.

Between 2005 and 2012, Chinese enterprises made investment in 492 projects that worth at least 100 million dollars and committed a total of 505.15 billion dollars, around 90% of this money came from State-owned enterprises. And according to the list of “troublesome projects” in the database, 88 projects of the same period were either rejected by supervision agencies in later stages or partly or completely failed, a total of 198.81 billion dollars were involved.
Things are much much worse if according to China's own calculation. Wang Wenli, vice-president of China Economic and Trade Promotion Association, said in August this year that there over 20,000 Chinese companies have investment overseas, more than 90% of those suffered losses because of [faulty] asset valuation, labor disputes, anti-monopoly and national security issues, tax, public relations and so on. What Wang did not include was embezzlement committed by overseas investment management of state-owned enterprises.

These factors of losses would not go away because the investment objective of “one belt and one road” changed to export of excess capacity.

Beneficiaries of China's overseas investment

The massive investment China made in the last decade or so is a phenomenon unlike anything the international community has ever seen. Such a phenomenon could not possibly emerge in capitalist countries, where all investment all from private money; no multinationals would keep making investment with a loss rate as high as 70-90% over a long period; it didn't emerge in any other socialist countries either: before the 1990s, socialist countries only traded among themselves; today, of the remaining socialist countries, China is the only one to have amassed a wealth so massive that it can make large-scale and ineffective overseas investment using its state power.

As a result, China as a socialist authoritarian country became economically intertwined with democratic countries around the world, and adversaries were turned into partners.

But for all the political gains, China's investment overseas has so far incurred only economic losses. And despite this, China is still making investment abroad. According to China's Ministry of Commerce, the country committed 81.9 billion dollars in direct investment overseas. It's hard to see this as normal investment behavior.

A news report in a Guangzhou newspaper on September 2 would perhaps hold the key to the question why China is so persistent in making investment overseas despite the staggering losses: many mid-level officials of the PetroChina and Sinopec cliques sought opportunity to emigrate to Canada, the US, the UAE and elsewhere before they are struck by the anti-corruption drive. It's estimated that 20 to 40 billion dollars would thus be moved out of China.

          Pacing tactics for recreational and competitive cyclists        
In my inaugural article at Tour d’Afrique I make my introductions and share some tips, tactics and strategies for athletes riding in the Silk Route Expedition. Tee Silk route is broken into several sections but for those brave athletes that will be riding the whole 12,100 kilometer/3899 miles in 129 days through China, Iran, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. These ... Read More
          Turkmenistan's Growing Economic Crisis        
Central Asia’s most isolated state remains set against reforms.

Amid an ongoing economic crisis, Turkmenistan’s government is currently struggling to finish a series of lavish building projects ahead of hosting the Asian Indoor and Martial Arts Games (AIMAG) this September.

The event will see more than 5,000 athletes from 62 countries descend on the capital Ashgabat, and the authorities are estimated to have spent nearly seven billion US dollars building a massive sports complex and an international airport.

Most recently, there have been reports that the Turkmen government has cut the salaries of state employees in its efforts to continue funding this huge project.



Muhammad Tahir, an expert on Turkmenistan. (Photo courtesy of M. Tahir)
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          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          President of Turkmenistan shoots like Arnold Schwarzenegger        
H/t Tarlan.


          Free Audiobook Version of A Year Amongst the Persians Now Available!        
Edward Granville Browne (1862 - 1926) in Persian dress

A group recording of A year amongst the Persians; impressions as to the life, character, and thought of the people of Persia, received during twelve month's residence in that country in the years 1887-8 has now been completed! The whole length of the audiobook is 29 hours, 8 seconds and is divided into 46 sections. I was the Book Coordinator (BC) for this project. Leni was the Meta Coordinator (MC). The book was read by four readers: myself, antinomy, hefyd and Nasseem. The dedicated proof listener was mim@can. The book may be downloaded from this site:

http://librivox.org/a-year-amongst-the-persians-by-edward-granville-brown/

It can also be listened to directly at the Internet Archive page:

http://www.archive.org/details/year_amongst_persians_1102_librivox

Edward Granville Browne (1862 – 1926), born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. His works are respected for their scholarship, uniqueness, and style. He published in areas which few other Western scholars had explored to any sufficient degree. He used a language and style that showed high respect for everybody, even toward those whom he personally did not view in positive light.

Map of Persia, from "the Dawn-Breakers" (originally published in 1932)

In A Year Amongst the Persians (1893) he wrote a sympathetic portrayal of a Persian society which few Westerners had ever seen, including a frank account of the effects of opium. It did not attract the attention it deserved at the time of its initial publication, but after his death in 1926 it was reprinted and became a classic in English travel literature. A Year Amongst the Persians includes moving accounts of the Bahá’í community in Iran. Concerning his meetings with the Bahá’ís of Iran, Browne writes: “The memory of those assemblies can never fade from my mind; the recollection of those faces and those tones no time can efface. I have gazed with awe on the workings of a mighty Spirit, and I marvel whereunto it tends”. The work contains many conversations between Browne and Bahá’ís, in which they demonstrate the proofs of their Faith through rational arguments. Browne didn't always agree with this arguments, but that may be because he didn't understand them fully.


Bahá’ís laying the foundation stone for the Bahá’í Temple in Ashkabad, Turkmenistan







The following is part of one of Browne's conversations with the Bahá’ís of Shiraz (pp. 336 - 340):

"I have already said that what is incumbent on every man is that he should believe in the 'manifestation' of his own age. It is not required of him that he should discuss and compare all previous 'manifestations.' You have been brought up a follower of Christ. We have believed in this 'manifestation' which has taken place in these days. Let us not waste time in disputing about intermediate 'manifestations.' We do not desire to make you believe in Muhammad but in Behá. If you should be convinced of the truth of Behá's teaching you have passed over the stage of Islám altogether. The last 'manifestation' includes and
sums up all preceding ones. You say that you could not accept Islám because its laws and ordinances are harsher, and, in your eyes, less perfect than those laid down by Christ. Very well, we do not ask you to accept Islám; we ask you to consider whether you should not accept Behá. To do so you need not go back from a gentle to a severe dispensation. Behá has come for the perfecting of the law of Christ, and his injunctions are in all respects similar; for instance, we are commanded to prefer rather that we should be killed than that we should kill. It is the same throughout, and, indeed, could not be otherwise, for Behá is Christ returned again, even as He promised, to perfect that which He had begun. Your own books tell you that Christ shall come 'like a thief in the night,' at a time when you are not expecting Him."



"True," I [Browne] replied, "but those same books tell us also that His coming shall be 'as the lightning, that lighteneth out of the one part under heaven and shineth unto the other part under heaven.'"


"There can be no contradiction between these two similes," answered the Bábí [Bahá’í]; "and since the phrase 'like a thief in the night' evidently signifies that when Christ returns it will be in a place where you do not expect Him, and at a time when you do not expect Him--that is, suddenly and secretly--it is clear that the comparison in the other passage which you quoted is to the suddenness and swiftness of the lightning, not to its universal vividness. If, as the Christians for the most-part expect, Christ should come riding upon the clouds surrounded by angels, how could He be said in any sense to come 'like a thief in the night'? Everyone would see him, and, seeing, would be compelled to believe. It has always been through such considerations as these that men have rejected the prophet whose advent they professed to be expecting, because He did not come in some unnatural and impossible manner which they had vainly imagined. Christ was indeed the promised Messiah, yet the Jews, who had waited, and prayed, and longed for the coming of the Messiah,rejected Him when He did come for just such reasons. Ask a Jew now why he does not believe in Christ, and he will tell you that the signs whereby the Messiah was to be known were not manifest at His coming. Yet, had he understood what was intended by those signs, instead of being led away by vain traditions, he would know that the promised Messiah had come and gone and come again. So with the Christians. On a mountain close by Acre [Mount Carmel] is a monastery peopled by Christian priests and monks, assembled there to await the arrival of Christ on that spot as foretold. And they continue to gaze upwards into heaven, whence they suppose that He will descend, while only a few miles off in Acre He has returned, and is dwelling amongst men as before.

Mount Carmel as it looked in 1894, before the establishment of the Bahá’í World Centre on the Mountain


"O be not blinded by those very misapprehensions which you condemn so strongly in the Jews! The Jews would not believe in Christ because He was not accompanied by a host of angels; you blame the Jews for their obstinacy and frowardness, and you do rightly. But beware lest you condemn yourselves by alleging the very same reason as an excuse for rejecting this 'manifestation.' Christ came to the Jews accompanied by angels--angels none the less because they were in the guise of fishermen. Christ returns to you as Behá with angels, with clouds, with the sound of trumpets. His angels are His messengers; the clouds are the doubts which prevent you from recognising Him; the sound of trumpets is the sound of the proclamation which you now hear, announcing that He has come once more from heaven, even as He came before, not as a human form descending visibly from the sky, but as the Spirit of God entering into a man, and abiding there."

"Well," I replied, "your arguments are strong, and certainly deserve consideration. But, even supposing that you are right in principle, it does not follow that they hold good in this particular case. If I grant that the return of Christ may be in such wise as you indicate, nevertheless mere assertion will notprove that Behá is Christ. Indeed, we are told by Christ Himself that many will arise in His name, saying, 'See here,' or 'See there,' and are warned not to follow them."

"Many have arisen falsely claiming to be Christ," he answered, "but the injunction laid on you to beware of these does not mean that you are to refuse to accept Christ when He does return. The very fact that there are pretenders is a proof that there is a reality. You demand proofs, and you are right to do so. What proofs would suffice for you?"

"The chief proofs which occur to me at this moment," I replied, "are as follows:--You admit, so far as I understand, that in each 'manifestation' a promise has been given of a succeeding 'manifestation,' and that certain signs have always been laid down whereby that 'manifestation' may be recognised. It is therefore incumbent on you to show that the signs foretold by Christ as heralding His return have been accomplished in the coming of Behá. Furthermore, since each 'manifestation' must be fuller, completer, and more perfect than the last, you must prove that the doctrines taught by Behá are superior to the teaching of Christ--a thing which I confess seems to me almost impossible, for I cannot imagine a doctrine purer or more elevated than that of Christ. Lastly, quite apart from miracles in the ordinary sense, there is one sign which we regard as the especial characteristic of a prophet, to wit, that he should have knowledge of events which have not yet come to pass. No sign can be more appropriate or more convincing than this. For a prophet claims to be inspired by God, and to speak of the mysteries of the Unseen. If he has knowledge of the Unseen he may well be expected to have knowledge of the Future. That we may know that what he tells us about other matters beyond our ken is true, we must be convinced that he has knowledge surpassing ours in some matter which we can verify. This is afforded most readily by the foretelling of events which have not yet happened, and which we cannot foresee. These three signs appear to me both sufficient and requisite to establish such a claim as that which you advance for Behá."

"As regards knowledge of the future," replied Haji Mirza Hasan, "I could tell you of many occasions on which Behá has given proof of such. Not only I myself, but almost all who have been at Acre, and stood in his presence, have received warnings of impending dangers, or information concerning forthcoming events. Some of these I will, if it please God, relate to you at some future time. As regards the superiority of Behá's doctrines to those of Christ, you can judge for yourself if you will read his words. As regards the news of this 'manifestation' given to you by Christ, is it not the case that He promised to return? Did He not declare that one should come to comfort His followers, and perfect what He had begun? Did He not signify that after the Son should come the Father?"

Such conversations were typical of Browne's encounters with Bahá’ís. All of Browne's objections have been answered and fully explained in numerous works of Bahá’í literature. The proofs that Browne seeks have been provided in many works, such as the numerous writings of 'Abdu'l-Bahá, the Báb's Seven Proofs, Bahá'u'lláh's Kitáb-i-Íqán and Gems of Divine Mysteries, The Brilliant Proof by Mírzá Abu’l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání, Christ and Bahá'u'lláh by George Townsend, The Prophecies of Jesus by Michael W. Sours, Understanding Christian Beliefs by Michael W. Sours, Understanding Biblical Evidence by Michael W. Sours, Thief in the Night: The Case of the Missing Millennium by William Sears, The Proofs of Bahá'u'lláh's Mission, The Challenge of Bahá'u'lláh by Gary L. Matthews, He Cometh With Clouds by Gary L. Matthews, Preparing for Christ's New Name by Alex Gottdank, Promises Fulfilled: Christianity, Islam and the Baha'i Faith by Nabil I. Hanna, among many, many others in English, Arabic, Persian and other languages.

Edward G. Browne referred to Bahá’ís as Bábís, but this was a mistake on his part. Siyyid ‘Alí-Muhammad-i-Shírází (1819-1850), known as the “Báb”, which is Arabic for “Gate”, proclaimed that He was the Promised One of Islám. He declared His mission in 1844 and was executed by the Persian government in 1850. His followers were known as Bábís. The Báb also proclaimed that He was the Gate, Herald and Forerunner of an even greater Manifestation of God who would come after Him, the Promised One of all religions and Return of Christ in the Glory of the Father.

In 1863, Mírzá Husyan-‘Alí-yi-Núrí (1817-1892), known as Bahá’u’lláh (Arabic for “The Glory of God”), proclaimed that He was the Promised One foretold by the Báb. By the time Browne arrived in Iran, most Bábís had already accepted Bahá’u’lláh as the Promised One and were now known as Bahá’ís. A small group of Bábís, led by Mírzá Yahyá Núrí, known as Azal, who was Bahá’u’lláh’s younger half-brother, rejected these claims. Azal is notorious for poisoning his own Brother (i.e. Bahá’u’lláh) as well as trying to assassinate other enemies on numerous occasions. While the Báb had made Azal His nominal successor, this was only until the Promised One were to appear, upon which time Azal’s authority was supposed to cease. Most Bábís realised Azal’s depravity and turned to Bahá’u’lláh, whose character and spirituality were unsurpassed. Browne was sympathetic to Azal’s claims but was also impressed by the spirituality of the Bahá’í community. The followers of Azal (sometimes spelled Ezel) were known as Azalís.

In 1890, Browne journeyed to Cyprus (where he met Azal) and then onto 'Akká (Acre) in Palestine, where he met both 'Abdu'l-Bahá and Bahá'u'lláh. He later recorded this journey in the Introduction to A Traveller's Narrative. I have previously posted about the audio version of A Traveller's Narrative, which doesn't include the introduction. I have now recorded the introduction as part of the Short Nonfiction Collection Vol. 020. In the Introduction (p. xxxvi.), Browne described 'Abdu'l-Bahá as “a tall strongly-built man holding himself straight as an arrow, with white turban and raiment, long black locks reaching almost to the shoulder, broad powerful forehead indicating a strong intellect combined with an unswerving will, eyes keen as a hawk's, and strongly-marked but pleasing features… One more eloquent of speech, more ready of argument, more apt of illustration, more intimately acquainted with the sacred books of the Jews, the Christians, and the Muhammadans, could, I should think, scarcely be found even amongst the eloquent, ready, and subtle race to which he belongs”.

'Abdu'l-Bahá, "The Master"
 
He described his meeting with Bahá'u'lláh in the following words (pp. xxxix. - xli.):

"Of the culminating event of this my journey some few words at least must be said. During the morning of the day after my installation at Behjé one of Behá's younger sons entered the room where I was sitting and beckoned to me to follow him. I did so, and was conducted through passages and rooms at which I scarcely had time to glance to a spacious hall, paved, so far as I remember (for my mind was occupied with other thoughts) with a mosaic of marble. Before a curtain suspended from the wall of this great ante-chamber my conductor paused for a moment while I removed my shoes. Then, with a quick movement of the hand, he withdrew, and, as I passed, replaced the curtain; and I found myself in a large apartment, along the upper end of which ran a low divan, while on the side opposite to the door were placed two or three chairs. Though I dimly suspected whither I was going and whom I was to behold (for no distinct intimation had been given to me), a second or two lapsed ere, with a throb of wonder and awe, I became definitely conscious that the room was not untenanted. In the corner where the divan met the wall sat a wondrous and venerable figure, crowned with a felt head-dress of the kind called táj by dervishes (but of unusual height and make), round the base of which was wound a small white turban. The face of him on whom I gazed I can never forget, though I cannot describe it. Those piercing eyes seemed to read one's very soul; power and authority sat on that ample brow; while the deep lines on the forehead and face implied an age which the jet-black hair and beard flowing down in indistinguishable luxuriance almost to the waist seemed to belie. No need to ask in whose presence I stood, as I bowed myself before one who is the object of a devotion and love which kings might envy and emperors sigh for in vain!

The Room where E.G. Browne met Bahá'u'lláh


"A mild dignified voice bade me be seated, and then continued:- "Praise be to God that thou hast attained!... Thou hast come to see a prisoner and an exile.... We desire but the good of the world and the happiness of the nations; yet they deem us a stirrer up of strife and sedition worthy of bondage and banishment.... That all nations should become one in faith and all men as brothers; that the bonds of affection and unity between the sons of men should be strengthened; that diversity of religion should cease, and differences of race be annulled - what harm is there in this?... Yet so it shall be; these fruitless strifes, these ruinous wars shall pass away, and the 'Most Great Peace' shall come.... Do not you in Europe need this also? Is not this that which Christ foretold?... Yet do we see your kings and rulers lavishing their treasures more freely on means for the destruction of the human race than on that which would conduce to the happiness of mankind.... These strifes and this bloodshed and discord must cease, and all men be as one kindred and one family.... Let not a man glory in this, that he loves his country; let him rather glory in this, that he loves his kind...."

"Such, so far as I can recall them, were the words which, besides many others, I heard from Behá. Let those who read them consider well with themselves whether such doctrines merit death and bonds, and whether the world is more likely to gain or lose by their diffusion.

"My interview lasted altogether about twenty minutes, and during the latter part of it Behá read a portion of that epistle (lawh) whereof the translation occupies the last paragraph on p. 70 and the greater part of p. 71 of this book."

This pen-portrait is famous among Bahá’ís and remains one of his lasting legacies to the community which he studied for so long. While Browne’s sympathetic views on Azal were misguided, he made a great contribution to Bahá’í studies through his translations of historical works and his accounts of the Bahá’í community. Amongst Persians, at a time when nearly the whole nation was highly suspicious of foreigners, and in particular of any British or Russian person due to the political dynamics of that time, Edward Browne was well accepted by the people who knew him and his works. He is well remembered today, and a street named after him in Tehran, as well as his statue, remained even after the Iranian revolution in 1979.


LibriVox is a tremendous way of producing public domain, freely accessible Bahá'í literature. One needs only find a public domain Bahá'í text (and there are many at Internet Archive, Google Books, H-Net, etc.), create an account at the LibriVox forum, read the Newbie Guide to Recording, submit a 1-minute test  (to check one's settings are correct) and then one can begin to bring the world of Bahá'í literature to life in an audio format, so that the waiting masses of humanity can hear and appreciate the Word of God and the Divine Teachings. This is a great service to the Faith, that any Bahá'í can do.








If you like this recording, you will also like my recordings of:

Talks by Abdul-Baha Given in Paris by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
The Myserious Forces of Civilization by ‘Abdu’l-Bahá
Introduction to A Traveller's Narrative Written to Illustrate the Episode of the Báb by E. G. Browne (Sections 7 and 8 of the Short Nonfiction Collection Vol. 020)
The Bahai Revelation by Thornton Chase
In Galilee by Thornton Chase
The Universal Religion: Bahaism - Its Rise and Social Import by Hippolyte Dreyfus-Barney
The Brilliant Proof (Burhäne Lämé) in reply to an attack upon the Bahai Revelation by Peter Z. Easton by Mírzá Abu’l-Fadl-i-Gulpáygání
The Revelation of Baha-ullah in a Sequence of Four Lessons by Isabella D. Brittingham
Persian Self-Taught (in Roman Characters) with English Phonetic Pronunciation by Shaykh Hasan

For more Bahá'í recordings which I have completed, see: My Audiobooks
          El accidente nuclear de Kyshtym        

Complejo industrial Mayak.

Los Estados Unidos probaron su primera bomba atomica el 16 de julio de 1945. Dado que para entonces Alemania ya habia sido derrotada los planes originales de usarla sobre Berlin se reemplazarian por un nuevo blanco: Japon, que fue atacado con bombas atomicas en agosto del mismo an-o, en las ciudades de Hiroshima y Nagasaki, lo que forzo a los nipones a firmar su rendicion.

El hecho no solo permitio a los Estados Unidos ahorrarse una cantidad significativa de bajas y concluir anticipadamente el conflicto sino que ademas permitio mostrar al mundo una nueva y potente arma y transformar entonces a ese pais en la unica potencia nuclear del planeta. La URSS, en tanto, habia acotado significativamente sus investigaciones para el desarrollo de un arma nuclear durante la Guerra, no solo por el desvio forzoso de recursos humanos y financieros y las colosales perdidas materiales y humanas producto del conflicto*, sino tambien debido a su deficit de uranio. Esto ultimo, sin embargo, seria resuelto tras el fin de la Guerra con los suministros que recibiria de los territorios de Europa que quedaron bajo su control, sobretodo los que formaban parte del proyecto nuclear de la derrotada Alemania.
*Los sovieticos verian destruidas, total o parcialmente, por la Guerra un total de 1710 localidades pobladas, entre ciudades y pueblos, algo que los Estados Unidos de modo alguno tuvo que vivir. Ademas, sus perdidas humanas sumaron decenas de millones de personas.

Entonces, los norteamericanos consideraban que los sovieticos serian capaces de desarrollar un arma nuclear solo a mediados de la decada de los ´50 lo que otorgaba a los Estados Unidos el monopolio nuclear en el mundo por una decada. Sin embargo, la URSS se adelantaria gracias al trabajo de sus cientificos e ingenieros y tambien de sus servicios de espionaje y de los recursos humanos y materiales capturados de la Alemania nazi*, lo que le permitiria probar su primera bomba atomica en agosto de 1949.
*El uranio transportado desde Alemania (cuya materia prima los nazis obtenian principalmente en Bulgaria, Republica checa y Alemania oriental) permitiria, segun palabras del director del programa nuclear sovietico, adelantar en 1 an-o la elaboracion de una bomba atomica. Demas esta decir que del aporte de la Alemania nazi usufructuaron tambien los programas atomicos de Inglaterra y de los Estados Unidos.

Como los sovieticos buscaban desarrollar una bomba a base de plutonio*, siguiendo el modelo de la bomba arrrojada por los norteamericanos en Nagasaki, lo primero que requerian era enriquecer uranio* para lo cual se pondria en operacion el 22 de junio de 1948 el primer reactor nuclear de la URSS en el Complejo industrial 817 de los Urales del Sur (imagen superior) lo que llevaria el 29 de agosto de 1949 al ensayo de la primera bomba nuclear sovietica.
*Para iniciar el proceso de produccion de plutonio, elemento practicamente ausente en la naturaleza, se utiliza Uranio-238 (su isotopo mas comun, con un 99,27% del uranio presente en el ambiente), el que se bombardea con neutrones al interior de un reactor nuclear.


La explosion de la primera bomba atomica sovietica, de 29 kilotones, se llevo a cabo en el llamado Poligono numero 2, de Semipalatinsk situado 170 km al oeste de esta ciudad. en el actual Kazaxstan.
La primera reaccion de los Estados Unidos fue pensar que se trataba de la explosion de un reactor nuclear.


Tras probar su primer artefacto nuclear los sovieticos decidirian construir bombas atomicas a un ritmo anual de 20, cuando ya los Estados Unidos contaban con un arsenal de 300 de ellas, sin embargo, a fines de 1949 solo conseguirian construir otras 2 unidades, cifra que se elevaria a 9 en 1950. La llamada paridad nuclear se alcanzaria solo a fines de la decada del ´70.

El grafico muestra el numero de armas nucleares en manos de Rusia (incluyendo a la URSS) y los Estados Unidos desde 1945 hasta 2005. 
En 1987 la URSS y los Estados Unidos firmaron un acuerdo por el cual el arsenal nuclear debia reducirse en 5 veces a partir de 2003.

De acuerdo a los rusos, el adelantarse en la elaboracion y prueba de una bomba atomica logro evitar el riesgo de que durante la decada del ´50 los Estados Unidos atacasen con ese tipo de armas el territorio sovietico. Adicionamente, se afirma que el hecho evito que los norteamericanos usaran su poder atomico en la Guerra de Corea*.
*Conflicto belico entre Corea del Norte y Corea del Sur entre 1950-1953 y en el que tomaron parte, de manera no oficial, tropas de China y la URSS, del lado de Corea del Norte, y de los Estados Unidos e Inglaterra, del lado de Corea del Sur. La muerte de Stalin, el 5 de marzo de 1953, seria el factor que desencadenaria el fin del conflicto.

El plutonio (imagen superior) existe en cantidades poco significativas en nuestro planeta como elemento natural por lo que se produce industrialmente por medio de la irradiacion de uranio natural:
 Cuando el U-238 atrapa 1 neutron genera U-239, un elemento inestable por lo que tras 23,5 minutos la mitad de su cantidad presente se transforma en Neptunio-239 al convertirse 1 neutron en 1 proton+1 electron, Luego de 59,5 horas, la mitad de la cantidad presente de Neptunio sufre el mismo proceso, llamado desintegracion beta, por el que 1 neutron es reemplazado por 1 proton y 1 electron, lo que mantiene el numero masico=239, pero aumenta el numero atomico al agregarse 1 electron, pasando de 93 a 94, formandose un nuevo elemento: Plutonio-239.

El origen del complejo industrial Маяк


La base industrial para la elaboracion de la primera bomba atomica sovietica seria, como ya se menciono, un complejo creado en los Urales para la elaboracion de plutonio para uso militar* donde no solo se elaboraria el plutonio para la primera bomba atomica sovietica sino tambien para la mayor parte de las siguientes.
*El plutonio (Pu) para uso militar contiene una proporcion de 93-94% de Pu-239 y de 6-7% de Pu-249. 

La eleccion de esa region del territorio ruso para instalar un complejo productor de plutonio tiene relacion con la II guerra mundial, pues durante el periodo en que afecto a la URSS (que los rusos llaman la Gran Guerra Patria), 1941-1945, el gobierno sovietico decidio sacar del oeste del pais sus industrias y el personal a cargo y trasladarlos mas al interior, hasta los Urales, que es el area geografica que marca, al interior de Rusia, la frontera con Asia. Por otra parte, se considero que en caso de un accidente nuclear la ciudad de Moscu no resultaria afectada dada la distancia que la separa de los Urales que, ademas, no era tan grande como para obstaculizar la rapida comunicacion entre la capital sovietica y ese nuevo centro industrial como sucederia, por ejemplo, si se instalaba el complejo en Siberia o aun mas al este.


Escogida el area geografica de las nuevas instalaciones se comenzo a buscar un lugar relativamente alejado de grandes centros poblados y de carreteras de gran circulacion que permitiera instalar una red ferroviaria para el transporte de gran cantidad de material de construccion y que, ademas, contara con gran provision de agua para el enfriamiento de los reactores nucleares.


La eleccion del territorio para el complejo quedo a cargo del teniente general e ingeniero metalurgico, Abraami Zavenyagin quien durante la Guerra habia tenido a cargo la construccion de complejos de industria pesada. Zavenyagin escogeria para el proyecto la region entre las ciudades de Kyshtym y de Kasli, al norte de la Provincia de Chelyabinsk, que conocia con detalle pues en 1937 habia sido candidato al Soviet Supremo de la URSS por el distrito electoral de Kyshtym.

La construccion del reactor* A-1, tambien llamado Аннушка (Ánnushka, Anita), se iniciaria en 1947, comenzando a funcionar a plena capacidad, 100 MW, en junio de 1948, sin embargo, debido a fallas en su operacion tuvo que detenerse durante 66 dias a partir del 20 de enero de 1949 lo que postergo el cumplimiento de sus metas hasta marzo de 1949. Entre tanto, la construccion del complejo continuaba a toda marcha y junto con el proyecto А se construyo el proyecto Б, que constaba de una planta radioquimica, donde por metodos quimicos se separaria el plutonio del uranio irradiado del reactor. El proyecto tambien incluia una tercera cadena productiva, el proyecto В**, que constaba de una planta quimico-metalurgica, donde se terminaba de depurar el plutonio de la planta Б lo que permitiria producir plutonio metalico de alta pureza para, a partir de el, crear un mecanismo explosivo.
*El primer reactor en el mundo comenzo a operar en diciembre de 1942 en los Estados Unidos, en tanto que el primero en operar fuera de este pais lo haria en Canada, en septiembre de 1945. En el caso de la URSS, su primer reactor comenzo a funcionar en Moscu el 25 de diciembre de 1946.
**Las primeras letras del alfabeto ruso son А, Б y В, equivalentes a A, B, C en espan-ol a pesar de que Б significa B y В significa V. С, a proposito, es equivalente en ruso a la letra S.


La falla del reactor A-1 del Complejo Mayak, en enero de 1949, llevaria a una operacion contra el tiempo que significo extraer barras de uranio irradiado del interior del reactor para ser reutilizadas dado el deficit de uranio con que contaba la URSS lo que expuso a muchos fisicos y operarios, como tambien el General Zavenyagin (imagen superior) a sobredosis de radiacion. La prisa y el menosprecio de medidas de seguridad llevaron a reducir los trabajos de reparacion de 1 an-o a tan solo 2 meses. Zavenyagin moriria 7 an-os mas tarde.  Si bien la causa oficial de su muerte fue una falla cardiaca se considera que, probablemente, la razon de su deceso derivo de su sobreexposicion a la radiacion.

El primer lingote de cloruro de plutonio, con una masa de 8,7 gr, se produciria en la planta В el 14 de abril de 1949 y seria llevado ante la presencia de Stalin*. El periodista Vladimir Gubarev describiria asi este episodio:
*Algunos afirman que este encuentro jamas tuvo lugar y que se trato solo de una invencion periodistica.

"A inicios de 1949 Kurchatov* llevo a Stalin una pequen-a y brillante bola de plutonio de 10 mm de diametro que Stalin toco con cautela con su palma:
*Igor Kurchatov, director del proyecto atomico sovietico.

-Esta caliente. Siempre esta asi?*
*Producto de la desintegracion radioactiva se libera calor lo que hace que el plutonio metalico tenga una temperatura superior en algunos grados a la temperatura ambiente.

-Siempre, Iosif Vissarionovich*".
*El nombre en ruso consta de 3 partes: Nombre, patronimico (derivado del nombre del padre) y el apellido. Para referirse a alguien de manera cortes o a una autoridad se usa el nombre y, a continuacion, el patronimico lo que reemplaza titulos como "Sen-or" o "Don", comunes en espan-ol.

El reactor A-1 (imagen superior) comenzaria a operar el 19 de junio de 1948 para producir plutonio de uso militar, fecha que se considera marca el inicio de operacion del complejo industrial Chelyabinsk-40. El reactor era capaz de producir unos 70 gramos de plutonio al dia.

La denominacion de la localidad en que vivian los trabajadores del complejo industrial junto a sus familias variaria con el tiempo denominandose inicialmente База-10 (Base 10) mientras que en 1954 adquiriria la categoria de ciudad con el nombre de Ozersk*. Sin embargo, a pesar de su status de ciudad, Ozersk no apareceria en ningun mapa de la URSS por su condicion de secreta, por lo que sus residentes tenian registro de domicilio oficialmente en una region de la ciudad de Chelyabinsk, que hasta 1966 seria Chelyabinsk-40 y posteriormente, hasta 1994, Chelyabinsk-65.
*Derivado de la palabra en ruso para lago, ózero, en virtud de la gran cantidad de ellos en torno a la ciudad. Ozersk se pronuncia Aziorsk.

En cuanto al complejo industrial se denominaria a partir de 1946 Complejo 817 y desde 1967 Complejo quimico Маяк (Mayák, faro en ruso).

Veamos en el relato de una protagonista parte de la operacion del complejo. Se trata de Liya Pavlovna Soxina quien habia terminado la universidad en 1948 y que junto a otras egresadas de la Facultad de quimica habia sido escogida para integrarse a la llamada Ваза-10 (Base 10), como se denominaba inicialmente a Chelyabinsk-40.

Las chicas partirian primero en practica a Moscu, al NII-9*, integrandose al laboratorio de radioquimica que dirigia el profesor Ilya Chernyaev, donde se trabajaba en la separacion y purificacion de plutonio para uso militar, para luego partir a los Urales, donde el complejo aun se seguia construyendo, lo que muestra que los sovieticos trabajaban muy presionados por el exito de los Estados Unidos en el campo nuclear:
*Instituto de investigacion cientifica numero 9, de metales especiales. Formo parte del proyecto atomico de la URSS y en el se crearon las primeras muestras de plutonio que fueron los primeros pasos en su produccion a mayor escala.

"Finalmente llegamos a la fabrica el 17 de marzo de 1949 y cual no seria nuestra sorpresa cuando en vez de una verdadera industria nos encontramos, al contrario, con una obra en plena construccion.

Alli trabajabamos en cuartos corrientes, sin ningun sistema de proteccion ... En las primeras operaciones de vertido de soluciones radioactivas utilizabamos implementacion quimica corriente: Vasos precipitados, matraces, aunque en las siguientes todos los recipientes eran de oro y platino para impedir la corrosion y cualquier presencia de impurezas".

Tanto encargados como empleados aspiraban a cumplir sus funciones en el minimo tiempo posible, incluso descuidando su seguridad, presionados por las autoridades pues los logros de los norteamericanos en el campo nuclear eran una amenaza potencial y una afrenta ideologica para el gobierno de la Union Sovietica.

La presencia de Lya, como de sus compan-eras, no era casualidad pues tras la Guerra la presencia masculina era escasa. Y si bien gracias a ellas la URSS conseguiria sus primeros gramos de plutonio en 1948 el heroismo de las jovenes iba tambien de la mano de la prisa, la inexperiencia, la improvisacion y el descuido.

M. V. Gladyshev, ingeniero principal de la fabrica Б (B), donde se separaba el plutonio del uranio irradiado, escribio en sus memorias: "Durante el inicio de operacion de la fabrica radioquimica las personas trabajaban con sustancias radioactivas usando ropa corriente. Solo a veces usaban delantales y botas de goma. El control dosimetrico* practicamente no existia y la contaminacion radioactiva se dispersaba por la ciudad y las casas".
*De los niveles de radiacion.

El trabajo en ese tipo de condiciones de emergencia provoco que cerca de 2 mil trabajadores del complejo se transformaran en "portadores de plutonio", es decir, en personas que portaban en sus propios organismos y su vestuario dosis radioactivas. Pero a esa cifra deben agregarse tambien soldados* que tomaron parte en la liquidacion de averias. Veamos lo que escribio sobre ellos en el articulo "Aurora boreal sobre Kyshtym", el ex trabajador del complejo, Anatoli Nikiforov:
*Los primeros casos de graves enfermedades por radiacion en la URSS surgirian alli, en Mayak y serian certificados por los medicos de la seccion de salubridad del complejo. Sus victimas serian jovenes soldados, que operaban en un ambiente altamente radioactivo con el proposito de mantener el potencial productivo del complejo.

"Los llamados al ejercito en las republicas sovieticas de Asia central, donde el idioma ruso apenas se entendia, literalmente, nos salvaron el pellejo pues gracias a ellos se logro mantener sanos y salvos a cientos de especialistas ocupados con la produccion de plutonio.

Territorio de la URSS en el cual aparecen en verde oliva las republicas de Asia Central: Kazaxstan, Turkmenistan, Kirguistan, Uzbekistan y Tadyikistan.

Para los soldados no existia el concepto de dia laboral o de turno de trabajo, pues estaban siempre disponibles. Provistos con un trapo y un balde retiraban los vertidos de soluciones altamente radioactivas y limpiaban hasta el ultimo rincon de las superficies de las instalaciones. El tiempo permitido para realizar su trabajo era en turnos de 10, 15 o 20 minutos considerando, ademas, 5 Roentgen de radiacion al llegar al Complejo y 45 Roentgen* tres meses mas tarde, cuando eran cambiados por nuevos brigadistas. Una profunda reverencia para ellos y nuestro eterno agradecimiento!".
*El 50% de las personas que reciben una dosis de 400 Roentgen mueren despues de 1 mes.

Otra trabajadora del complejo radioquimico, Irina Razmaxova, recuerda: "Hubo una situacion en que las dosis recibidas por los soldados escaparon de los margenes de seguridad. Fue tras una noche en que teniamos que cumplir un trabajo en el cual nos ayudarian soldados. Entonces, el dosimetrista dijo que habiamos alcanzado los rangos permitidos de radiacion y debiamos dejar de trabajar, por lo que el trabajo quedo inconcluso, lo que a la man-ana siguiente enfado a nuestro jefe quien dijo que las dosis maximas permitidas solo estaban definidas para nosotros, el personal permanente del complejo, pues los soldados podian recibir dosis superiores, ya que, estaban destinados a las instalaciones por un periodo no extenso".

Para construir un arma nuclear se requiere usar una sustancia capaz de sostener una reaccion de fision, que puede ser U-235 (Uranio con 235 protones+neutrones) o Pu-239 (Plutonio con 239 protones+neutrones). Ambos elementos se dividen al absorber neutrones, proceso que libera nuevos neutrones y, ademas, energia. La cantidad de masa que permite que los neutrones liberados superen en numero a los neutrones absorbidos se llama Masa critica y permite que la reaccion de fision se mantenga. Esa reaccion es controlada en un reactor nuclear de modo que la emision de energia sea controlada y tome gran cantidad de tiempo mientras que en una bomba se libera en millonesimas de segundo por medio de una violenta explosion y la liberacion de una inmensa cantidad de calor.
Cuando se hablar de U-235 o Pu-239 se hace mencion a los llamados isotopos (mismo lugar, en griego, en la Tabla periodica) del Uranio o el Plutonio, porque son variedades del mismo elemento que no se diferencian en su numero de electrones (que define que elemento es cada sustancia) sino que se distinguen por el numero de sus protones o neutrones.

En la concrecion del proyecto atomico sovietico trabajarian en total mas de 700 mil personas*, de los cuales mas de 230 mil eran soldados y oficiales y mas de 350 mil eran prisioneros. Muchos de estos ultimos participarian tanto en la extraccion de uranio, valiendose incluso de sus propias manos, como tambien en la construccion de instalaciones secretas por lo que muchos de ellos jamas conseguirian su libertad.
*En el caso del Proyecto atomico de los Estados Unidos, el Proyecto Manhattan, el personal involucrado alcanzo las 125 mil personas.

En el caso particular de Chelyabinsk-40, la construccion del complejo quedo en manos tanto de personal militar y de mas de 30 mil prisioneros. Estos ultimos residian en un campamento dentro del recinto industrial. Uno de ellos relataria asi su experiencia:

"... Yo fui enviado para cumplir mi pena a Chelyabinsk-40 (antes aparentemente era llamado Ozersk). Alli se producia bajo tierra un arma nuclear y por eso los lagos locales no se congelaban en invierno sino que desprendian vapor caliente*. Por el agua andaban vigilantes en lanchas militares. Nuestro campamento se ubicaba directamente sobre la fabrica. Cerca habia una seccion de construcciones militares (con unos 3 mil soldados). Nosotros eramos unos 70. Yo trabajaba como obrero de hormigon mientras otros reclusos cumplian funciones de soldadores, carpinteros o armadores.
*Probablemente, el calor emanado era mas bien producto del vertido de deshechos radioactivos. 

Segun lo que pasara con los que llamabamos "chocolateros libres" podiamos adivinar lo que pasaba alrededor. Veiamos a traves de la reja como los libres trabajaban en tenidas blancas limpias. Nosotros sabiamos que ellos, dado el riesgo de su trabajo, recibian diariamente 1 kg de chocolate y de alli creamos el apodo. A nosotros tambien nos alimentaban bien y nos pagaban. Se habia iniciado el descongelamiento del tiempo de Xrushchev*. Segun los indicadores de los dosimetros, con los cuales nos revisaban, todos los reclusos sabiamos que estabamos contaminados con radiacion hacia ya tiempo ..."
*Se refiere al periodo, no oficial, posterior a la muerte de Stalin (1953) en que la URSS estuvo bajo la direccion de Nikita Xrushchev y que se caracterizo por mayor libertad y el cuestionamiento de la figura de Stalin. Concluiria rapidamente tras el levantamiento de Hungria de 1956, hecho que ya habia sido acompan-ado por protestas masivas en 1953 en Alemania Oriental y en el mismo 1956 en Polonia.

Hacia 1949 1/3 de los trabajadores del complejo Chelyabink-40, o Sorokovka* como lo llamaban sus residentes, habian recibido dosis superiores a 1000 Roentgen.
*Termino derivado de la palabra en ruso para el numero 40: Sórok.

Река Теча, es decir, rio Techa en ruso.

Pero, ademas, de ser fuente directa de enfermedades por radiacion el complejo producia tambien una inmensa cantidad de deshechos radioactivos que debido a las insuficiencia tecnicas de la epoca y a la prisa por elaborar una bomba atomica no era posible tratar de manera adecuada. Asi, los deshechos escasa y medinamente activos se arrojarian hasta 1951 al rio local, el Techa, y luego se comenzarian a verter al lago Karachay*. Los habitantes de los alrededores, por supuesto, no suponian nada y continuaban viviendo y alimentandose alrededor de los rios contaminados con radionuclidos**.
*Parte de los deshechos se depositaban en el fondo y el resto permanecia en solucion en sus aguas. Debido a esa condicion los secos y calidos veranos sovieticos de 1967 y 1972, que secaron el lago, llevaron a esas particulas radiactivas a ser arrastradas por el viento hasta cubrir una superficie de 1800 km2, afectando a unas 40 mil personas.
**Atomos que poseen nucleos inestables producto de lo cual generan radioactividad.

Se decia en 1990 que permanecer 1 hora en las riberas del lago Karachay (imagen superior) era suficiente para morir, dado que se recibia una dosis de 600 Roentgen y eso a pesar de que gran parte del lago habia sido cubierto con concreto.  
Evolucion del Lago Karachay en la medida que las autoridades rusas decidieron verter concreto en su interior de modo de evitar la difusion por el viento de su contenido radioactivo.

En tanto, los deshechos fuertemente radioactivos se almacenaban en cilindros de acero inoxidable rodeados de una capa de mas de 1 metro de hormigon. El volumen del cilindro alcanzaba los 300 m3 y se cubria en su parte superior con una tapa de hormigon de 160 toneladas de peso. Encima de la obra se vertia una capa de tierra de 2 m de espesor sobre la cual se plantaba cesped para ocultar la presencia del deposito.

Para conservar los depositos de manera segura se requeria enfriamiento forzoso dado que el decaimiento radioactivo libera energia calorica. Pero el sistema de enfriamiento era inadecuado en muchos aspectos y, ademas, los sistemas de control funcionaban con fallas. En condiciones de alta radiacion los aparatos de medicion y control dejaban de operar por lo que el personal no lograba saber que procesos se estaban desarrollando en los depositos.

El accidente de 1957

El 29 de septiembre de 1957 sucederia un gran accidente nuclear en el conglomerado industrial Mayak que, por la cantidad de deshechos radioactivos generados y la complejidad de sus consecuencias, solo seria superado en la historia sovietica por el accidente de Chernobyl*.
*Segun la escala internacional INES (International Nuclear Event Scale), que va de 0-7, tanto los accidentes de Chernobyl (1986) como el de Fukushima (2011) alcanzaron nivel 7 mientras que el (unico) accidente que les sigue, con nivel 6, es el que afecto a Mayak.

Si bien se le denomina tradicionalmente "Accidente de Kyshtym", no fue esa localidad la afectada pues la localizacion real, Chelyabinsk-40, era un poblado secreto (condicion que mantendria hasta 1990). Como la actual ciudad de Ozersk, a la que pertenecia el complejo, no aparecia en la cartografia oficial el accidente recibio la denominacion de la localidad poblada mas cercana presente en los mapas: Kyshtym.

Ese dia domingo 29 de septiembre de 1957 era un dia soleado y con mucho calor. La gente en la ciudad realizaba sus actividades cotidianas cuando cerca de las 16:30 horas se sintio el estruendo de una explosion y comenzo a elevarse al cielo una columna de humo y polvo de 1 km de altura, que fulguraba con tonos aranjados y rojizos, lo que le daba la apariencia de una aurora boreal. La nube comenzaria a desplazarse hacia el noreste (achurado en mapa superior) y a las 3 de la madrugada se habia difundido completamente, cubriendo un territorio de 23 mil km2.

Una semana mas tarde, un perodico local de la ciudad de Chelyabinsk en su edicion del 6 de octubre de 1957 describiria asi el fenomeno de la luminiscencia sobre el cielo:

"El pasado domingo al caer la tarde ... muchas personas observaron una iluminacion especial del cielo estrellado. Esta iluminacion, bastante inusual en nuestras latitudes, tenia todas las caracteristicas de una aurora boreal. Su color rojizo intenso, que a veces pasaba a tonos ligeramente rosados y celestes se extendio al principio en un area significativa de la superficie suroeste y noreste del horizonte. Cerca de las 11 horas se le podia observar en direccion noreste ... Con el fondo del cielo surgieron areas coloreadas significativamente grandes y franjas temporalmente tranquilas que tenian en su etapa final un resplandor con direccion meridional.

El estudio de la naturaleza de las auroras boreales comenzo incluso con Lomonosov* y se mantiene hasta hoy en dia. En la ciencia contemporanea se ha encontrado confirmacion de las ideas principales de Lomonosov en relacion a que la aurora polar aparece en las capas superiores de la atmosfera como resultado de descargas electricas".
*Mixail Lomonosov (1711-1765). Sabio ruso cuyas investigaciones abarcaron las mas variadas areas del conocimiento cientifico. 

La publicacion concluia asi: "Nuevas auroras polares ... se podran observar tambien posteriormente en las latitudes de los Urales del sur".

Pero los vivos colores del cielo, como seguramente lo sabian de sobra los editores del periodico, eran efecto de algo mucho mas serio y grave: La desintegracion de plutonio y de los productos altamente radioactivos derivados de su division.

Causas del accidente

Desde el 2 de octubre, con su llegada a la ciudad de Ozersk, comenzarian los trabajos de una comision para el estudio de las causas del accidente creada por el Ministerio de construccion de maquinaria intermedia* a cargo del ministro Efim Slavski.
*Ministerio formado en 1953 en la URSS y que tenia a cargo la industria atomica del pais.

La comision estableceria que la causa principal del accidente en el complejo industrial Mayak fue una falla del sistema de enfriamiento en el deposito numero 14, que tenia un volumen de 300 m3 y era parte del complejo C-3* de la planta radioquimica. La falla, que afecto tambien a los sistemas de control que dejaron de informar lo que sucedia, habia sido generada por la corrosion producida por los deshechos radioactivos liquidos almacenados.
*S-3 en espan-ol.

Como el deposito dejo de ser enfriado comenzo a sobrecalentarse a partir de la energia derivada de la irradiacion radioactiva hasta que probablemente comenzo a hervir. Entonces, la solucion liquida empezo paulatinamente a evaporarse y se formo un sedimento seco de sales de acetato y de sales de nitrato en un monto de 80 m3, equivalente a unas 120 toneladas. Debido a que el recalentamiento de los sedimentos secos siguio sin interrupcion, hasta una temperatura estimada en 300-400°C, se produjo una explosion quimica equivalente a entre 10-50 toneladas de TNT.

Las laminas destrozadas del cuerpo del deposito quedaron repartidas a una distancia de hasta 150 metros mientras que su cubierta, que pesaba 160 toneladas, salio volando y cayo a 20 metros de distancia, donde permanece hasta el dia de hoy. En tanto, los depositos adyacentes se desplazaron pero quedaron intactos.

En el lugar de la explosion se formo un cono explosivo de hasta 10 metros de profundidad y un diametro cercano a los 20 metros. Toda esa cantidad de tierra junto con los fragmentos del deposito y la construccion de hormigon se elevo al cielo y fue difundida siguiendo la direccion del viento (desde el suroeste hacia el noreste).

Se produciria, ademas, la ruptura de los vidrios de las edificaciones vecinas hasta 1 km a la redonda.

Un recluso del campo de prisioneros que ayudo a construir el complejo describiria del siguiente modo ese momento:

"Ese dia nosotros no trabajabamos y yo estaba durmiendo en el lado mas bajo de la cama, junto a la ventana, que daba al lado de la fabrica y entonces fui lanzando subitamente al suelo. Otros reclusos que tambien dormian cayeron al suelo quedaron con rasgun-os y hematomas, pero yo me quede con el puro susto. Nos levantamos y nos acercamos a la ventana que quedo con los vidrios rotos y vimos un hongo de fuego que crecia y se elevaba rapidamente. El gorro del hongo se disperso por el cielo y pronto oculto el sol. Despues de como media hora comenzo a caer una especie de lluvia negra, con hollin".

El coronel Viktor Kukushin, a cargo de la compan-ia 42 que trabajaba en el complejo relato asi la situacion:

"Fruto de la explosion volaron practicamente todas las ventanas en los pabellones. Junto con nosotros cayo tambien el televisor de su soporte. Se levanto una nube de polvo que comenzo a inclinarse y a moverse hacia nosotros desde una distancia de 3-4 km. Entonces forzamos a todos a entrar a los pabellones. No recibimos ninguna orden de algun oficial de rango superior pero nosotros logramos comunicarnos por telefono con el regimiento 43 y averiguamos con el capitan de turno, Yuri A. Ivliev que no habia victimas, que los guardias estaban ilesos, que habian caido la cerca y 2 o 3 torres y que un soldado habia sufrido una contusion pero se desconocia lo que habia explotado realmente. "Gracias a Dios que no exploto la bodega de produccion terminada", dijo el capitan. La nube se depositaria sobre el poblado del regimiento, precipitando cenizas y particulas de polvo.

Debo aclarar que pronunciar la palabra radiacion estaba estrictamente prohibido, como tambien mencionar cualquier cosa sobre lo que se fabricaba en el Complejo por lo que nosotros, adecuando el lexico, deciamos que podia tratarse de "contaminacion tecnica", recomendando al personal que solo en caso de necesidad salieran de los cuarteles. Ademas, ordenamos cerrar las ventanas con planchas de madera y frazadas.

Toda la direccion de la fabrica, de la ciudad y de la division (como lo supimos despues) estaba en el estadio donde se realizaba un partido entre el Dinamo (el equipo de la division) y el Krasnaya zvezda* (el equipo del regimiento de construccion). Solo llegaria alguien con el cambio de guardia, cerca de las 19 horas. Si bien la mitad del personal (2,5 compan-ias) habia podido cenar el resto no entendia porque no los habian llevado a comer mientras que nosotros expresamos nuestro recelo ante los riesgos que significaba recibir alimento en esas circunstancias. Pero la falta de informacion, en alguna medida, ayudo a calmarnos porque pensabamos que si el mando callaba no habia razones para alarmarse.
*Estrella roja.

Solo despues de las 20 horas se recibio la disposicion de prepararse para la evacuacion y luego la orden: "Alarma! Armas, morral, urgente todo el personal (100%) a los vehiculos. A reubicarse al poblado del regimiento 43".

Otro testimonios dicen lo siguiente:

"La nube radioactiva cubrio el complejo quimico Mayak donde se encontraban cerca de 3 mil personas. En el lugar, donde se encontraba el deposito de deshechos radioactivos se elevo una inmensa columna de polvo. Una nube densa de tonos negro, gris y pardo se cernio sobre los pabellones cubriendo con oscuridad un claro dia soleado. La condicion de las personas era  de abatimiento. Los perros de servicio aullaban sin cesar.

Durante las primeras horas tras el accidente cayeron sobre las cabezas de las personas grandes algodones radioactivos de hollin y la caida de sustancias radioactivas fue muy intensa. Pequen-as particulas continuaron cayendo el dia siguiente. Tan pronto como la nube radioactiva cubrio la ciudad militar llamaron a los dosimetristas quienes afirmaron que era necesario evacuar lo antes posible a toda la gente. Preliminarmente, los militares realizaron un trabajo sanitario en el ban-o lavando al personal con agua caliente durante varias horas".

"... Intento recordar algo sobre los hechos aunque ha pasado ya mucho tiempo. No cuento con apuntes o documentos (salvo algunas notas de cuando entregamos nuestro compromiso de no decir nada sobre los hechos) ademas que mi cabeza no conserva muchos recuerdos. Incluso no recuerdo la fecha en que sucedio la explosion, solo se que fue en septiembre, un sabado por la noche. El personal habia cenado cuando los soldados escucharon una explosion y de inmediato volaron todos los vidrios del comedor. El polvo radioactivo junto con pequen-as piedrecillas se depositaron sobre las mesas. Los soldados continuaron comiendo luego de apartar las piedrecillas de los platillos (Se trataba de polvo radioactivo pero los soldados no lo sabian). En la man-ana un grupo de dosimetristas civiles llego a las instalaciones y sus instrumentos se salieron de los maximos de sus escalas, por lo que retrocedieron no sin antes aconsejarnos evacuar a todo el personal del lugar lo antes posible. Pero, por la diferencia horaria, en Moscu se levantan 2 horas mas tarde y, ademas, no era dia laboral por lo que los jefes se encontraban fuera de la ciudad de modo que se decidiria evacuar a la hora de almuerzo. De ese modo, el personal seria evacuado desde las locaciones contaminadas solo 16-17 horas despues de la explosion!".

Traza de contaminacion por estroncio-90 fruto del accidente nuclear de Kyshtym.

"El 29 de septiembre de 1957 sacabamos tuberculos en el campo de la granja colectiva Zhdanov. Cerca de las 16 horas todos oimos un estruendo que venia de alguna parte por el oeste y sentimos una rafaga de viento. Al atardecer cayo en el campo una niebla inusual. Nosotros, claro, no sospechabamos nada y seguimos trabajando. El trabajo continuaria en los proximos dias. Unos dias despues nos forzarian a destruir todos los tuberculos que todavia no habiamos arrancado de la tierra.

Cuando llego el invierno comence* a sentir fuertes dolores de cabeza. Recuerdo como iba a caballo extenuado por el campo como si con un arco me presionaran las sienes, sufria de hemorragia nasal y practicamente perdi la vista".
*Rizvan Xabibullin, residente de la aldea Tatarskaya Karabolka.

Por supuesto, que una de las cosas que mas sorprende es que tanto soldados, como reclusos, continuaran con su comida como si nada sucederia porque la accion significa la ingestion directa al organismo de sustancias radioactivas:

"Los reclusos eran alimentados al aire libre y las mesas y las bancas estaban cubiertas con una capa de hollin de unos 3-4 cm de espesor. Cuando llegamos a cenar cada uno limpiaba el hollin de las mesas con lo que pudiera, un trapo, un papel, las mangas. Pero el hollin seguia cayendo desde el cielo asi que algunos comian todo eso mezclado con avena o con el pan. Nadie sentia panico pero discutian mucho. Algunos decian que se trataba de un atentado, otros que era un accidente y otros que una explosion de prueba. De la administracion del recinto no se recibio ninguna informacion".

La llamada de Xrushchev

El accidente sucedia exactamente 1 mes antes de la celebracion del aniversario numero 40 de la Revolucion de Octubre, accion que suponia la capacidad sobresaliente de la ciencia y la tecnologia sovietica y su total superioridad sobre la ciencia burguesa. La realizacion practica de esta tesis habia sido el lanzamiento del primer satelite artificial de la Tierra al espacio el 4 de octubre de 1957, justo 5 dias despues de la tragedia de Kyshtym. Evidentemente, que cualquier mencion del accidente de Kyshtym que cruzara el muro de esctricto secreto en el complejo nuclear mas importante del pais no solo disminuiria significativamente el efecto propagandistico en Occidente del lanzamiento del Sputnik sino que menoscabaria la base ideologica de la autoridad de Nikita Xrushchev (imagen superior), que entonces tenia a su cargo la direccion de la URSS.

El 27 de junio de 1954 comenzaria a operar la primera planta de energia electrica del mundo a base de energia atomica. Hasta entonces, la energia nuclear se habia usado principalmente para fines militares. La planta experimental, que significaba para Xrushchev otro gran triunfo tanto personal como de la ideologia sovietica, estaba situada en la Provincia de Kaluga (sur de la Provincia de Moscu) y generaba 5 MW.

Adicionalmente, existian profundos conflictos al interior del gobierno sovietico que se harian manifiestos en la sesion plenaria del Comite Central del PCUS de junio de 1957 cuando un grupo de altos dirigentes partidistas, que finalmente resultaron destituidos, solicitaron la remocion del gobierno de Nikita Xrushchev.

Y, precisamente, uno de los argumentos de los cuales se valia Xrushchev para defenderse era imputarse la responsabilidad de los logros de la industria atomica sovietica, uno de los cuales habia sido la inauguracion en 1954 de la primera estacion generadora de energia electrica a base de energia atomica del mundo. Por eso la reaccion de Xrushchev al saber del accidente no se hizo esperar:

"Al caer la tarde del 29 de septiembre de 1957 telefoneo un encolerizado N. S. Xrushchev y expresandose de manera grosera empezo* a llenarme de ofensas por lo sucedido en Kyshtym, amenazando con castigarnos a todos por lo sucedido. Yo le dije: "Nikita Sergeevich, yo no he recibido hasta ahora ninguna llamada desde Mayak-40 con algun detalle del accidente. Cuando tenga informacion se la informare a Ud."
*Habla Efim Slavski, ministro de construccion de maquinaria intermedia de la URSS.

Entonces Xrushchev se encolerizo todavia mas y me parecio que el auricular negro comenzaba a volverse incandescente: "Usted que se cree, que esta jugando a hacerse el tonto? Dentro de 1 mes se celebran los 40 anos de la Revolucion de Octubre y vendran invitados de todo el mundo y Usted me prepara una sorpresa de este nivel?! Vuele de inmediato al lugar del accidente e informeme al instante sobre la liquidacion del accidente o de lo que este pasando ... Y nada de excusas! Evidentemente, la Sesion plenaria de junio* no le dejo ninguna leccion!". Me insulto otra vez y de nuevo prometio expulsarnos a todos, y entonces el impulsivo N.S. Xrushev colgo el telefono".
*Como se menciono anteriormente en ella un grupo contrario a Xrushchev busco sacarlo del gobierno, pero seria este el que lograria deshacerse del grupo disidente al conseguir su expulsion del Comite central del Partido comunista sovietico. 

Despues de una hora yacia sobre la mesa del ministro un telegrama cifrado: "29 de septiembre 1957, a las 16 horas 25 minutos en el Complejo industrial Mayak en un contenedor subterraneo de almacenamiento de deshechos radioactivos solidos fruto de la produccion de plutonio para componentes de un arma nuclear sucedio una explosion termica que arrojo a la atmosfera un volumen de 10-15 millones de Curie* de radioactividad. Como resultado de la explosion junto con el contenedor subterraneo se destruyo una losa de hormigon de 160 toneladas. Se formo una columna de humo y polvo con una altura de hasta 1 km. Se produjo destruccion y dan-os de edificiones, instalaciones, elementos tecnicos y de transporte en un radio de 3 km. En la liquidacion del accidente y en la custodia de las instalaciones, ademas del personal del Complejo Mayak, se reforzo el personal por medio de tropas internas y la subdivision especial de bomberos del Ministerio del interior de la URSS".
*1 Curie es una unidad de medida de radioactividad que representa la actividad radioactiva de 1 gramo de Radio (isotopo 226) por segundo. Al representar una cantidad muy grande de radioactividad como tambien no representar el efecto en humanos cayo en desuso siendo reemplazada por otras unidades. 
La EPA (Agencia de proteccion ambiental de los Estados Unidos) considera actualmente como norma de seguridad para una persona un valor de 4*10 elevado a -12 Curies, es decir: 0, 000 000 000 004 Curie

Pero mucho mas tarde se estableceria que en el deposito que exploto habia 20 millones de Curie de actividad de los cuales 18 millones quedaron depositados en el territorio de la industria y cerca de 2 millones se elevaron a la atmosfera siendo arrastrados por el viento.

La nube de deshechos radioactivos arrojada a la atmosfera por la explosion cubrio una superficie del orden de 23 mil km2, que abarco un total de 217 lugares poblados con una poblacion total cercana a 270 mil habitantes.

La evacuacion de la poblacion

Solo desde el 6 de octubre, el 7° dia despues del accidente, comenzaria la evacuacion de soldados y prisioneros del territorio mas afectado por la contaminacion radioactiva mientras que la evacuacion de la poblacion de las aldeas mas afectadas se iniciaria tan solo 7-14 dias despues del accidente.

Posteriormente, en los territorios contaminados se realizarian acciones para suprimir los efectos del accidente para lo cual se ocuparon, mayormente, militares.

"... En la noche nos comenzaron a hablar desde los altavoces informandonos que estabamos en una zona de elevada contaminacion nuclear y nos ordenaron estar listos para la evacuacion y que no llevaramos nada consigo (ni siquiera dinero u objetos de metal). Se produjo entonces mucho panico y los reclusos se lanzaron al puesto de control donde habia guardias armados y se formaron en filas. Yo me encontraba en la barraca y no veia lo que pasaba junto a la entrada. No habia muertos ni heridos pero corrian muchos rumores.

El resplandor rojo se extinguio y comenzo a amanecer. Nos subieron en vehiculos y nos llevaron a un lugar en el bosque. En un gran claro habia una fila de mesas y junto a ellas un monton de ropa de trabajo especial ademas de ropa interior y camisetas. Por medio de amplificadores comenzaron a decir: "Todos deben quitarse sus ropas y arrojarlas en un solo monton".

Estabamos desnudos junto a las mesas donde se media el nivel de radiacion. La escala del dosimetro alcanzaba hasta 900 unidades. No se a cuantos Roentgen correspondia, nadie lo sabia. Yo, personalmente, llegue a 800 unidades. La aguja del dosimetro oscilaba en dependencia de a que parte del cuerpo se acercara el sensor. Lo que mas sonaba eran los dientes de oro y el pelo. Todo esto se extendio hasta tarde. Antes de la revision algunos reclusos se las ingeniaron para tragarse sus anillos de oro".

"Recuerdo que entonces habia gran panico en la ciudad. Por todas las calles iban vehiculos y lavaban la ciudad. Nos informaron por la radio que abandonaramos todo lo que teniamos en casa ese dia y que limpiaramos constantemente el piso. Muchas personas, trabajadores de Mayak, se enfermaron por la radiacion pero temian decir o preguntar algo bajo amenaza de ser despedidos o incluso arrestados".
Natalya Smirnova, residente de la ciudad de Ozersk, vecina al complejo Mayak.

Despues del accidente se evacuaron con gran retraso, de 1-2 semanas, del orden de 10-12 mil personas desde las regiones mas contaminadas. Los poblados (un total de 23) quedaron desiertos despues del traslado de su poblacion y, entonces, se procedio a eliminarlos de la faz de la Tierra bajo la accion de bulldozers que destruyeron casas, tiendas con viveres y todo tipo de construcciones. Ademas, se sacrifico y enterro todo el ganado, se elimino tambien el territorio labrado y se destruyo todo lo que la gente podia tomar y utilizar con el fin de evitar la dispersion de contaminacion radioactiva y para proteger a la poblacion del riesgo de que pudieran regresar en secreto a sus casas.

"Comenzo la evacuacion de la poblacion desde las aldeas a nuevos lugares. Los ciudadanos tenian que cambiar completamente sus ropas, lavarse, reunirse y construirles una casa y llevarlos a un nuevo lugar de residencia. Esto significaba organizar una gran cantidad de trabajo y tambien gastos elevados. Se trataba abrumadoramente casi solo de bashkirios*.
*Poco mas del 1% de la poblacion actual de Rusia.

Y lo mas sorprendente es que todos los trasladados se produjeron sin excesos ni ruido, y con total quietud y, ademas, en un periodo relativamente corto. Muy pronto todos comenzaron a habituarse a las nuevas condiciones de vida. La verdad, yo puedo no conocer los pormenores, puesto que no me dedique a esto pero se algo: Se realizo un trabajo eficiente, con comprension de la situacion, sin histeria alguna".

El trabajo de los liquidadores

Testimonio del encargado de relaciones publicas del complejo Mayak, Evgeni Ryzhkov:

"Yo comence a trabajar al complejo Mayak como aprendiz de laboratorista dos semanas antes de la explosion, cuando recien habia cumplido 19 an-os. Cuando al dia siguiente de la explosion nos reunieron y nos dijeron que teniamos que ponernos a trabajar, dada mi juventud, no senti ningun temor sino orgullo por haberseme asignado un asunto tan importante.

Nosotros trabajamos practicamente en periodos de 24 horas seguidas. De dia realizabamos mediciones y desde la medianoche hasta las 6 de la man-ana experiencias de laboratorio. El trabajo mas serio era la limpieza del complejo quimico que estaba recien construido. Tuvimos que quitar el techo, sacar el estucado. Todo se realizo con los trabajadores de Mayak y del departamento de construccion de los Urales del Sur y no se uso ningun prisionero del campo de reclusos como dicen muchas personas. Todos los reos que construyeron Mayak (casi 40 mil personas) fueron enviados a otros lugares de reclusion, principalmente a Magadan*.
*Puerto en el extremo oriental de Rusia, junto al Oceano Pacifico. Actualmente, con una poblacion de 95 mil personas.

Nadezhda Kutepova, hija de un liquidador de la ciudad de Ozersk:

Mi padre tenia 17 an-os y estudiaba en el instituto tecnico en Sverdlovsk*. El 30 de septiembre de 1957 el y otros compan-eros de estudio fueron llevados en camiones directamente desde el instituto hasta Mayak para tomar parte en la liquidacion de las consecuencias del accidente sin decirles nada sobre los riesgos que corrian. Alli trabajarian dias y noches enteras. Les entregaron dosimetros individuales y si superaban la dosis permitida los castigaban por lo que mucho dejaban los dosimetros en sus cajas para vestuario para no superar la dosis. En 1983 enfermaria de cancer y seria operado en Moscu pero se le inicio una metastasis en todo el organismo y 3 an-os mas tarde murio. Nos dijeron entonces que no era fruto del accidente pero luego, oficialmente, se reconocio que fue a consecuencia del accidente en Mayak. Mi abuela tambien tomo parte en la liquidacion del accidente y oficialmente recibio una gran dosis de radiacion. Yo nunca la vi porque murio de cancer linfatico mucho antes de mi nacimiento, 8 an-os despues del accidente.
*Denominacion en tiempos sovieticos de la ciudad de Ekaterinburg.

N.G. Mitronov:

"Saliendo de la unidad y vi que una nube se movia hacia el lado de la fabrica numero 37 y del cuartel de bomberos. Voskresenski V. V. tomo el mando de la division de bomberos como el jefe mas antiguo de la guarnicion. El personal libre de turno fue reunido en condicion de emergencia y con las dotaciones militares se completaron todos los carros de bomberos de reserva. Nosotros lavabamos los caminos y las veredas con agua y espuma desde los tubos de los vehiculos de bomberos en las fabricas 24 y 37, tras la III seccion de bomberos, y ademas el campamento de reclusos. Despues de que los caminos se lavaron (por supuesto, que en terminos relativos) a las 3 de la madrugada del 30 de septiembre la comandancia comenzo la evacuacion de la seccion militar y del campamento hacia el lado de la ciudad mientras que el personal de la III seccion permanecio en la zona contaminada. Solo a las 11 horas del 30 de septiembre se tomo la decision de evacuar a todo el personal de la seccion de vehiculos hacia la II seccion de bomberos ubicada cerca del area 22. Durante algunos meses limpiamos toda la "suciedad" del camino  y de los techos de los edificios, apagamos los incendios en la zona contaminada para impedir que la "suciedad" se extendiera con el viento por la ciudad y otras areas".

"A cuenta de la radioactividad aparecio una nube luminosa de vapor y polvo que creo la ilusion de una aurora boreal. Yo escuche la explosion cuando estaba en el estadio, durante un partido de futbol. Corri a mi trabajo ante la solicitud de N.A. Semenov, me puse ropa de seguridad y con un aparato de medicion de radiacion parti al territorio de mi unidad de trabajo.

Entonces, yo era el jefe de una unidad que se encontraba en plena construccion que contaba con algunos edificios ya terminados. Llegue cuando estaba ya oscuro y note en el cielo una luminiscencia inusual. Entonces, asumie que era el reflejo del sol bajo el horizonte. Al dia siguiente, parece que en el periodico Izvestiya, presentaron una breve nota sobre este inusual fenomeno en los Urales, parecido a una aurora boreal.

En la noche y toda la madrugada realice mediciones de contaminacion del territorio de mi fabrica y determine el limite donde era superior a 5 microRoentgen por segundo. Al otro dia, junto con el ingeniero-dosimetrista A. F. Lyzlov, determinamos el nivel de radioactividad no solo en el territorio sino ademas en las alas del edificio y en toda la obra. Los resultados los llevamos a un cartograma donde destacamos las magnitudes de contaminacion superiores a 10 mR por segundo. El techo del edficio tenia 816 y se midieron varios cientos de mR por segundo en los edficios 802, 803, 807 y en los lugares en construccion.

Registre en el cartograma que habia que hacer para realizar las acciones para continuar con la construccion. Sin embargo, para esto se necesitaba mucha gente, habia que organizar su vestuario y su aseo. Hacerlo no era simple, puesto que el centro de desinfeccion estaba todavia en proceso de construccion.

Pronto llego a la unidad el ingeniero jefe de la construccion, el teniente coronel A. K. Greshnov y luego el Ministro E.P. Slavski, quien comenzo a preguntar que debia hacerse en nuestra opinion, se intereso si no era mejor que las obras necesarias para nosotros se construyeran de nuevo en otro lugar. Los constructores callaron y tuve que responder yo a la pregunta.

Entonces era complejo hacer una eleccion: Que resultaba mas confiable, rapido y simple?

La contaminacion de la unidad era grande, los productos de fision eran diversos sobre todo Estroncio-90 y Cesio-137. Los isotopos tenian larga vida media, de unos 30 an-os, y la defensa frente al Cesio no es muy simple pues es un emisor de rayos gamma. No se contaba tampoco con experiencia de lavado de superficies, especialmente de paredes, piso y techo ni teniamos medios tecnicos a excepcion de carros de bomberos, bulldozer, palas y picotas mineras.

Yo propuse realizar trabajos d
          La evolucion del territorio de Rusia a lo largo de su historia (III parte)        
Siglo XX

Se considera habitualmente que el siglo XX fue un siglo de perdidas territoriales para Rusia que, primero, por medio del Imperio ruso, no solo dejo de existir sino que resulto ser ademas progenitor forzoso de un antagonista suyo, la Union Sovietica, conglomerado que fue mucho mas efimero en su existencia que su antecesor pero que tuvo la virtud de llevar a los rusos a constituir un Imperio que en terminos ideologicos tuvo influencia planetaria. La Federacion rusa, que la sucedio, ya no aspiraria a un rol de escala planetaria en los destinos de la humanidad sino que, luego de sobrevivir a la compleja decada de los ´90 que la tuvo al borde de la desintegracion, aspiraria a retomar el papel que le cupo al Imperio ruso, de potencia regional pero dentro de un contexto ideologico distinto, post-Guerra Fria en lo que se buscaba era imponer un mundo multipolar que sirviera de contrapeso al anhelo de los Estados Unidos por gobernar el planeta a sus anchas y sin contrapesos.

Tal vez si la hegemonia creciente de China en los breves an-os transcurridos del siglo XXI haga pensar que la URSS no solo dejo como heredero suyo a la Federacion rusa, que tambien podria considerarse en medida importante su antagonista en terminos ideologicos, sino ademas a un heredero ideologico, aunque mucho mas pragmatico pues China ya no lleva la revolucion por las armas sino que por el comercio.

La guerra ruso-japonesa (1904-1905)

Asi como la expansion de Rusia hacia el este se encontro con la resistencia del Imperio chino en su avance hacia el Pacifico sucederia lo mismo con el Japon.

Hacia fines del siglo XIX el Zar Nikolai II mantenia una politica de expansion en el este de Asia aprovechando la debilidad en terminos economicos y militares del Imperio chino, pero las acciones de Rusia se verian enfrentadas en el area de Manchuria y Corea con Japon que tras la llamada Restauracion Meidzhi* buscaba expandirse en el Lejano Oriente lo que lo llevaria a un choque con los intereses de Rusia en ese sector del mundo.
*Proceso de profundas transformaciones al interior de Japon, entre 1868-1869, que lo transformaria de un atrasado pais agricola a una potencia de nivel mundial. 

Entre 1894-1895 Japon derrotaria a China en un conflicto belico que le significaria anexar Taiwan, la peninsula de Lyaodun y otros territorios, accion que provocaria la molestia de varias potencias occidentales de modo que bajo presion de Rusia, Alemania y Francia se forzo a Japon a ceder todos esos territorios lo que, sin embargo, no frenaria las ansias de expansion del pais nipon.

Entonces el territorio de China, especialmente su costa, se habia transformado en un territorio en disputa entre Rusia, Japon, Alemania y el Reino Unido y los rusos se adelantarian llevando una escuadra hasta Port Arthur, locacion que el Zar deseaba transformar en base naval rusa antes que los britanicos y los alemanes. La situacion de los rusos se consolidaria cuando en marzo de 1898 y tras un acuerdo en Pekin los rusos tomaron en arriendo Port Arthur por un periodo de 25 an-os.Ademas, junto a la base naval se comenzo a construir un puerto, Dalni, que en corto tiempo se transformaria en uno de los puertos mas importantes de China.

Toda esta situacion generaria nuevos roces con Japon pero que Rusia no tomaria demasiado en serio, ya que, no lo veia como un rival de temer. Sin embargo, Japon venia preparandose a toda maquina para enfrentarse militarmente con Rusia y contaba para ello con el apoyo de Inglaterra y tambien de los Estados Unidos, que buscaba detener la expansion de Rusia hacia el Pacifico.

La peninsula de Liaodong enmarcada en un circulo rojo. El triunfo de Japon contra la Rusia zarista dejaria ese territorio por 40 an-os en sus manos hasta que los sovieticos lo tomaron por asalto en 1945 conquistandolo y lograndolo en arriendo de China por 30 an-os como base naval. Sin embargo, tras el fin de la Guerra de Corea los sovieticos regresarian el 12 de octubre de 1954 este territorio a China.

Si bien Rusia contaba con superioridad naval en numero, 119 buques contra 89 de Japon, en el Lejano Oriente contaban solo con 63 de ellos los que, ademas, eran en cuanto a calidad inferiores a los japoneses pues se trataba en su mayoria de embarcaciones anticuadas. Y si bien en terminos de fuerzas de superficie Rusia era superior, contando con 3,5 millones de soldados contra 1,135 millones de tropas japonesas, los rusos no pensaban que el pequen-o Japon podria atacarlos por lo que mantenian el grueso de su infanteria en las fronteras del sur y del oeste, muy lejos del Pacifico y, ademas, contaban con la desventaja de su escasa capacidad para movilizar hacia el este sus tropas.

El 8 de febrero de 1904, y sin una declaracion de guerra, Japon ataco la escuadra rusa en Port Arthur. Los japoneses contaban con clara superioridad militar y tambien con una estrategia militar agresiva y definida, acentuada por el hecho de que los rusos, menospreciando a los japoneses, entregaron la iniciativa a Japon, .

El curso del conflicto diezmaria a los rusos, que perdieron practicamente toda su flota del Oceano Pacifico a lo que agregaron mas de 100 mil bajas pero la guerra tambien tendria un alto costo para la economia de Japon, por lo que los japoneses se vieron forzados a proponer la paz, que se acordaria en la ciudad de Portsmouth, Estados Unidos el 23 de agosto de 1905. 

Como resultado de la misma Rusia cederia a Japon el sur de la Isla de Saxalin y, adicionalmente, se detendria la expansion de Rusia en el oriente.


La guerra ruso-japonesa fue el primer gran conflicto belico del siglo XX y significo para ambos paises una cantidad de 270 mil bajas, entre las cuales se contaron mas de 50 mil muertos por parte de los rusos y mas de 86 mil en el caso de Japon.

Perdidas territoriales producto de la I Guerra Mundial

La participacion de Rusia en este conflicto, que llevaria a su fin a otros 3 imperios ademas del ruso (el aleman, el otomano y el austro-hungaro) quedaria sellada por la firma de una paz separada entre la Rusia bolchevique y Alemania, Austria-Hungria, el Imperio otomano y el Reino de Bulgaria*.
*Las llamadas Potencias centrales, que se oponian a la llamada Entente (Acuerdo en frances), conformada por Rusia, Inglaterra y Francia, durante la I Guerra Mundial.

Alianzas militares en Europa en 1914. En cafe las potencias centrales: El Imperio alemana, Austro-Hungria e Italia, y en verde oscuro la Entente, conformada por Francia, el Reino Unido y Rusia. 
En verde claro aparecen las naciones eslavas aliadas de Rusia, Serbia y Montenegro.
Con el inicio de la guerra, Italia declararia sorpresivamente su neutralidad y luego se pasaria del lado de la Entente mientras que del lado de las potencias centrales se pondrian el Imperio otomano, en 1914, y Bulgaria en 1915.

La Paz de Brest-Litovsk, firmada el 3 de marzo de 1918, significaria para la Rusia sovietica, entonces dirigida por Lenin, la salida de la guerra y el reconocimiento de su derrota en el conflicto pero ademas significativas perdidas territoriales que conllevaron una perdida, tambien relevante, de tierras agricolas y de la base industrial del pais, lo que provocaria criticas de todos los sectores politicos del pais. Ademas, permitiria que las llamadas potencias centrales, que se encontraban cerca de la derrota, tomaran nuevos brios y se enfocaran en otros frentes.

Ese mismo mes de marzo de 1918 los bolcheviques, que desconfiaban de los alemanes y temian un ataque contra la capital rusa la llevarian de Petrogrado de vuelta a Moscu, opcion mas que sensata considerando que el Tratado de Brest-Litovsk exigia la desmovilizacion de la flota y del ejercito ruso, tanto del zarista como del ejercito rojo.

Adicionalmente, por la Paz de Brest-Litovsk, Rusia acordo el pago de una suma muy significativa de dinero en calidad de compensacion economica a Alemania sumado a la entrega de viveres. Sin embargo, Rusia solo realizaria un primer pago monetario, equivalente a 93,5 toneladas de oro puro, que Alemania entregaria luego casi por completo como compensacion economica a Francia tras firmar su capitulacion en el Tratado de Versalles.

Rusia ademas reconocio la independencia de Ucrania y Georgia, se deshizo de Estonia y Livonia pero mantuvo el acceso a los puertos del Baltico y logro mantener a Crimea dentro de sus fronteras mientras que Alemania acordo retirar sus tropas de Bielorrusia, de las costas del Mar Negro y de otras zonas del sur de Rusia.

El contenido secreto del acuerdo consideraba el apoyo militar de Alemania en caso de la intervencion de las fuerzas de la Entente al interior de Rusia y la verdad es que los bolcheviques necesitaban del apoyo de Alemania para poder contrapesar la guerra civil al interior del pais y tambien la intervencion de otras fuerzas extranjeras para poder mantenerse en el poder, por lo que accedieron a la paz con Alemania. Aun mas, se dice que la paz de Brest fue fruto de un acuerdo previo de los bolcheviques con los alemanes si estos los apoyaban financieramente para tomar el poder en Rusia.

Pero las perdidas asociadas al acuerdo eran desastrosas para Rusia, siendo equivalentes a 842 mil km2 lo que significaba en terminos de poblacion perder 56 millones de personas, equivalente a cerca de 1/3 de la poblacion del pais antes del conflicto y tambien significaban una perdida de un 27% de tierras cultivables, un 33% de la industria textil y un 75% de la industria metalurgica, ademas de un 89% de la extraccion de carbon.

En verde se aprecia el territorio cedido por Rusia a las potencias centrales fruto de la firma del Acuerdo de paz de Brest-Litovsk. Sin el acuerdo las principales ciudades rusas del oeste como Petrogrado, Moscu o Kiev se encontraban a buen resguardo en terminos de distancia del frente con los alemanes pero Lenin, se dice, debia retribuir a Alemania con el dinero que se le habia aportado para tomar el poder en Rusia pues los alemanes buscaban contar con un rival menos en la guerra.
Ademas, de lo anterior Rusia debia retirar sus tropas de Finlandia y las islas Aland como tambien retirar toda presencia de su flota de los puertos fineses y debia tambien firmar la paz con Ucrania y retirar sus tropas alli presentes. 

A pesar de todo, la paz no evitaria la agresion de las potencias centrales contra Rusia, de modo que en abril de 1918 los alemanes tomarian Crimea, en mayo se harian con Georgia y luego en septiembre los otomanos ocuparian Baku, en la Transcaucasia.

Sin embargo, la ocupacion de territorios en Rusia significaria para los alemanes desviar una fuerza militar superior al millon de hombres lo que debilitaria su accion en el frente occidental y los llevaria a la derrota definitiva.

El armisticio se firmo el 11 de noviembre de 1918 y el acuerdo de paz al an-o siguiente, en Versalles en 1919, sin la participacion de Rusia que, como hemos visto, habia firmado la paz con Alemania por separado. El llamado sistema de Versalles sancionaria la existencia legal de un conjunto de Estados independientes como Polonia y Finlandia.

Dada la derrota de Alemania, el 13 de noviembre de 1918 el llamado Parlamento sovietico anularia el Acuerdo de paz de Brest-Litovsk lo que incluia el desconocimiento de las concesiones territoriales y de las contribuciones economicas que deberian aun pagarse a los alemanes. Ademas, con el retiro de las tropas germanas de los territorios rusos comenzaria el avance del Ejercito Rojo hacia los territorios ocupados por Alemania y Austria-Hungria: Bielorrusia, Estonia, Lituania y ademas sobre Ucrania, que se consideraba a si misma un Estado independiente en ese momento.

Guerra con Finlandia, 1918-1920

Con la toma del poder de los bolcheviques en Petrogrado* se daria impulso para la toma del poder por revolucionarios en todas las grandes ciudades del Imperio ruso, lo que generaria como respuesta la formacion de coaliciones antibolcheviques dando inicio a una Guerra civil. 
*Petrograd (traduccion al ruso de Peterburg) fue la denominacion con que el Zar Nikolai II decidio renombrar a Sankt Peterburg, por su origen aleman, el 18 de agosto de 1914, tras el ingreso del Imperio ruso a la I guerra mundial, donde Rusia lucharia contra Alemania. El 26 de agosto de 1924 la ciudad seria nuevamente bautizada, esta vez como Leningrad, ciudad de Lenin, denominacion que existiria hasta el 6 de septiembre de 1991, cuando volveria a recuperar su nombre de San Petersburgo.

En el caso de Finlandia, que habia sido territorio del Imperio ruso desde 1809, la Revolucion hizo que el Senado fines declarara la independencia del pais el 6 de diciembre de 1917 mientras que 12 dias despues Lenin firmo el decreto reconociendo el hecho. Entonces, las fronteras entre Rusia y la Finlandia no fueron definidas pero los bolcheviques reconocieron, de facto, como tal el territorio que ocupaba el Gran principado fines.

En enero de 1918 se iniciaria una Guerra civil en Finlandia entre partidarios de los bolcheviques, los rojos, y sus opositores, los blancos. En un principio los rojos controlaban el sur del pais, incluyendo la capital Helsinki pero los blancos, apoyados por Alemania, lograron tomar el control de todo el pais y consiguieron la victoria, situacion que tampoco permitiria definir las fronteras. Finlandia aspiraba a hacerse con la region de Carelia, en la frontera con Rusia, y con la Peninsula de Kola e incluso consideraban hacerse con Petrogrado, la capital rusa pero sus acciones militares los llevarian solo a conquistar el norte de Carelia.

El 14 de octubre de 1920 en la ciudad estonia de Tartu se firmaria el acuerdo de paz entre Finlandia y la Rusia sovietica lo que permitiria finalmente establecer la frontera entre ambos paises. En terminos generales, se conservaron las fronteras del Gran principado de Finlandia pero, ademas, Rusia cedio territorios en el norte, en torno a Petsamo, dejando a Finlandia con salidas a dos mares, al Baltico y al Mar de Barents.

Rusia veria adicionalmente mermado su territorio en el Baltico con la independencia de Estonia que con esa accion expandio su territorio hacia el este, en desmedro de Rusia.

El mapa superior permite apreciar lo disminuido de la costa sovietica en el Baltico tras la guerra. En rosa se aprecia el territorio de la Estonia independiente y hacia el norte el territorio de Finlandia que con la posesion de Carelia, justo en la frontera con Rusia, quedo a escasos kilometros de Leningrado. Al norte se observa la adquisicion de territorios que lo dejo con salida al mar.

Guerra con Polonia, 1919-1921

Luego de la derrota de Alemania en la I Guerra Mundial, Polonia recuperaria a fines de 1918 su independencia, la que habia adquirido en diciembre de 1917. La situacion plantearia la delimitacion de sus fronteras resultando como punto en disputa el estatus que debian adquirir los territorios del este de Polonia-Lituania: Como un nuevo Estado o como parte de Polonia mientras que el poder sovietico buscaba una opcion distinta, al aspirar a mantener bajo su control todo el territorio del desaparecido Imperio Ruso.

Pero por otra parte, con la firma del acuerdo que dio termino a la Guerra el 11 de enero de 1918 comenzaria la salida de las tropas alemanas de los territorios que mantenian ocupados lo que provoco un vacio politico en Europa oriental que intentaron suplir diferentes fuerzas: Por una parte los gobiernos locales, sucesores de los organos de gobierno formados durante la ocupacion y, por otra, los bolcheviques y sus partidarios, apoyados por la Rusia sovietica, luego de declarar invalido el Tratado de Brest-Litovsk.

La salida de los alemanes de territorios del ex Imperio Ruso comenzaria en noviembre de 1918 mientras que los sovieticos avanzaban tras ellos, de modo que ingresarian a Minsk el 10 de diciembre. Ante el avance sovietico los polacos residentes en Bielorrusia y en Lituania crearon unidades militares de defensa con ex soldados polacos y ofrecieron su ayuda al gobierno polaco, que entonces estaba dirigido por Yuzef Pilsudski, quien buscaba recuperar las fronteras de 1772 del antiguo Estado de Polonia-Lituania lo que significaba en pleno siglo XX controlar Bielorrusia, Ucrania, Lituania y, en consecuencia, dominar geopoliticamente sobre toda Europa oriental.

Pero los sovieticos buscaban restablecer el control sobre los territorios del oeste del ex Imperio Ruso, es decir, sobre Ucrania y Bielorrusia, lo que seria coronado por el exito pues el 1° de enero de 1919 se proclamaria la formacion de la Republica socialista de Bielorrusia, que se constituiria en parte de la Republica socialista federativa sovietica de Rusia. Entonces, los sovieticos aspirarian en sovietizar Polonia y seguir con Alemania de modo de abrir el camino a la revolucion a nivel mundial.

El 1° de enero de 1919 las tropas polacas ocuparian Vilnius, la capital lituana, pero serian desalojadas a mediados de febrero por las tropas rusas de modo que el 27 de febrero la Republica socialista sovietica de Bielorrusia se transformaria en la Republica socialista sovietica de Lituania-Bielorrusia, lo que significaria seguir desplazando a los polacos. Estos aun se mantenian en una situacion compleja, pues mantenian el conflicto hacia el sur con Checoslovaquia mientras que en el oeste aun permanecian estacionadas tropas alemanas. Pero apenas 1 mes mas tarde, en febrero, las tropas polacas avanzarian sobre el oeste de Ucrania y ocuparian tambien la ciudad bielorrusa de Brest.

El 19 de abril los polacos volverian a ocupar Vilnius, ofreciendole a sus ciudadanos integrarse a Polonia como en los tiempos del Estado de Polonia-Lituania. Ademas, las tropas seguian desplazandose por el este de Bielorrusia y fortaleciendo sus posiciones en Ucrania de modo que en 1920 ingresaron a Kiev. En junio las tropas sovieticas comenzaron un feroz contrataque de modo que despues de 3 meses llegaron hasta Varsovia donde los sovieticos fueron derrotados y se desviaron hacia Crimea lo que dejo el oeste de Bielorrusia y de Ucrania en manos polacas. Las fronteras volverian a modificarse para Polonia solo en 1939.

Fronteras de Polonia y de paises cercanos en 1922.

Como resultado del conflicto ni Polonia ni los rusos alcanzarian todos sus objetivos pues Ucrania y Bielorrusia resultarian repartidas entre Polonia y las republicas que a partir de 1922 se constituyeron en integrantes de la URSS. En tanto el territorio de Lituania se repartio entre Polonia, que se quedo con Vilnius, su capital, y la Lituania independiente.

 Los mapas adyacentes muestran, respectivamente, los territorios del oeste de Bielorrusia y del oeste de Ucrania bajo control de Polonia tras su conflicto con Rusia.

Si bien las relaciones entre ambos paises se mantendrian tensas la Rusia sovietica reconoceria la independencia de Polonia y abandonaria por un tiempo sus planes de exportar la revolucion al resto del mundo mientras que el financiamiento hacia Polonia por parte de naciones que apoyaban a las ejercitos blancos comenzaria a decaer y las naciones pasarian poco a poco a reconocer la legitimidad de la Union Sovietica como Estado.

Conformacion de la URSS

Luego del surgimiento de las republicas que se constituyeron, en el papel, en soberanas tras la desintegracion del Imperio Ruso comenzaria un proceso de integracion entre ellas en torno a la Rusia sovietica (RSFSR: Republica socialista federativa sovietica de Rusia) entre 1918 y 1922 ya sea adhiriendo a la estructura de la RSFSR como republicas o provincias autonomas o tomando parte en conversaciones bilaterales con ella.


El sistema de acuerdo bilaterales entre republicas comenzaria a gestarse en 1920 de modo que en noviembre de ese an-o se firmo un acuerdo entre la Republica socialista rusa y Azerbaidyan que consideraba la unificacion de las administraciones y funciones de defensa, economia, comercio exterior, industria alimentaria, transporte, finanzas y de los servicios de comunicacion. Acuerdos similares se firmarian en diciembre del mismo an-o entre Rusia con Ucrania y entre Rusia y Armenia mientras que en enero de 1921 se haria entre Rusia y Bielorrusia y en mayo de 1921 entre Rusia y Georgia.

En el Partido bolchevique existieron diversas opiniones sobre la construccion de un unico estado multinacional y mientras Stalin planteaba la integracion a Rusia de otras republicas pero en calidad de autonomas Lenin se impuso con la idea de que las republicas sovieticas debian unirse en un unico Estado a base de igualdad de derechos y de la conservacion de sus derechos de soberania.

Entre 1921-1922 se terminaria con las fronteras aduaneras entre republicas y el espacio comercial entre ellas se comenzaria a considerar interno y unitario. Los presupuestos de las republicas se formaban en el contexto de un presupuesto comun y la legislacion de la RSFSR se constituyo en la de las republicas.

El 29 de diciembre de 1922 se firmaria el acuerdo de formacion de la URSS, conformada por la RSFSR, la Republica socialistas sovietica de Ucrania (USSR), la Republica socialista sovietica de Bielorrusia (BSSR) y la Republica sovietica federal socialista de Transcaucasia (ZSFSR).

La URSS en su momento de formacion, en 1922.
La Republica sovietica popular de Xorezma pasaria a integrar a partir de 1924 los territorios de las Republicas socialistas sovieticas de Uzbekistan y Turkmenistan. En el mismo an-o, la RSP de Buxaria se integraria a los territorios de las Republicas socialistas sovieticas de Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan y de Tadyikistan.

En 1924 se conformarian en Asia Central las Republicas socialistas sovieticas de Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan y se integrarian a la URSS mientras que la RSSA (Republica socialista sovietica autonoma) de Tadyikistan se integraria a la RSS de Uzbekistan.

En 1929 se conformaria la Republica socialista sovietica de Tadyikistan que hasta entonces era Republica autonoma de la RSS de Uzbekistan. Con su integracion a la URSS esta alcanzaria los 7 miembros.

El 5 diciembre de 1936 la URSS, con la aprobacion de una nueva constitucion, la URSS esta quedaria dividida en 11 republicas: RSS de Armenia, Azerbaidyan y de Georgia que hasta entonces habian formado parte de una unica republica: La Republica socialista sovietica federativa de Transcaucasia. Se agregaron tambien las RSS de Kazaxstan y de Kirguizia, que hasta antes de la promulgacion de la constitucion habian sido republicas autonomas integrantes de la Republica socialista de Rusia (RSFSR). A las anteriores republicas hay que sumar las RSS de Turkmenistan, Tadyikistan y de Uzbekistan junto a las RSS de Ucrania, Bielorrusia y la RSSF de Rusia.

En lila los paises que se formaron tras la I Guerrra mundial segun sus fronteras en 1923.

El Pacto Molotov-Ribbentrop

En la noche del 16-17 de septiembre de 1939 la URSS comenzaria una incursion militar en los territorios del oeste de Ucrania y del oeste de Bielorrusia, en manos de Polonia, y ademas contra la Region de Vilenski (norte de Polonia que incluia territorios lituanos, incluida su capital Vilnius, y bielorrusos), que segun el Pacto de no agresion con la Alemania nazi* habia sido considerada territorio bajo la esfera sovietica de modo que en octubre el territorio de Ucrania occidental se integraria a la Republica socialista sovietica de Ucrania y Bielorrusia occidental a la RSS de Bielorrusia mientras que la region de Vilenski seria entregada a Lituania.
*El 23 de agosto de 1939 la URSS y Alemania firman un Acuerdo de no agresion y de reparticion de Europa Oriental, el Pacto Molotov-Ribbentrop, por el que los sovieticos buscaran tomar el control sobre los territorios del Imperio ruso que se habian independizado tras la formacion de la URSS buscando asegurarse que los nazis no intervengan en las areas de su interes y dejando que aquellos obren a su voluntad en el resto de Europa.

Poco despues, entre fines de septiembre e inicios de octubre de 1939, se establecerian base militares sovieticas en Estonia, Letonia y Lituania, territorios que de acuerdo al Pacto de no agresion con los nazis habian tambien sido considerados bajo influencia sovietica.

Finlandia tambien estaba considerada en la misma categoria pero los fineses no aceptarian ni un acuerdo de colaboracion con la URSS ni tampoco el arriendo o el intercambio de territorio de modo que el 30 de noviembre de 1939 la URSS comenzaria un ataque militar contra Finlandia en el que los sovieticos suponian que derrotarian a los fineses en un breve periodo de tiempo y sin necesidad de ocupar demasiadas tropas. Sin embargo, sus perdidas serian significativas lo que seria especialmente llamativo a los ojos de los alemanes dado que el ejercito fines que era considerado sin capacidad y preparacion militar por lo que el mediocre actuar de los sovieticos fue considerado un sinonimo de la debilidad y escasa preparacion de sus tropas y, sin duda, un incentivo para invadir posteriormente a la URSS.

El conflicto finalizaria el 12 de marzo de 1940 con la firma del Acuerdo de paz de Moscu que significo para Finlandia realizar un conjunto de concesiones territoriales en favor de los sovieticos.

Por la Paz de Moscu Rusia recibiria los territorios destacados en rojo lo que permitiria dejar todo el Lago Ladoga en territorio sovietico. Ademas, se recibiria la ciudad de Hanko en arriendo durante 30 an-os para la fundacion de una base naval. 

Tras el Acuerdo de paz de Moscu se realizaria el 31 de marzo de 1940 una sesion del Soviet Supremo de la URSS en la cual se decidiria convertir la Republica socialista sovietica autonoma de Carelia, que formaba parte de la Rusia sovietica, en una Republica socialista sovietica, transformandose en la republica numero 12 de la URSS y cuya capital seria Petrozavodsk.


En el curso de una nueva guerra fino-sovietica, entre 1941 y 1944, una gran parte del territorio de esa nueva republica socialista sovietica seria ocupado por el ejercito fines y por parte de las tropas alemanas pero serian finalmente derrotadas en 1944.

El nuevo conflicto entre Finlandia y la URSS de 1940-1944 llevaria a Finlandia a la cesion de territorios del norte del pais lo que la dejaria sin salida al Mar de Barents. Se acordaria, ademas, que la ciudad de Hanko no seria entregada en arriendo a la URSS pero si se estableceria otro territorio para llevarlo a cabo. Adicionalmente, se prohibio que Finlandia poseyera un sinnumero de armas como submarinos, bombarderos, armas nucleares, etc., condicion que estaria vigente hasta el 21 de septiembre de 1990 cuando ese articulo fue anulado.

Tras la victoria parte de los territorios de la republica se anexarian a la vecina provincia de Leningrado mientras que en julio de 1956 se transformaria de nuevo en parte integral de la Rusia socialista sovietica pero como Republica autonoma, eliminandose de su denominacion la palabra "finesa".

Con la desaparicion de la Republica sovietica de Carelia la composicion de la URSS bajaria de 16 a 15 republicas, numero que se mantendria invariable hasta su disolucion en 1991.

El 14 de junio de 1940 los sovieticos le darian un ultimatum a Lituania y 2 dias despues a Letonia y Estonia para poner en sus gobiernos personas afines a la URSS y permitir el estacionamiento de tropas sovieticas en sus territorios. Escasas horas despues las tropas sovieticas ingresaban a los 3 estados balticos.

Poco despues, todos esos paises levantaron las prohibiciones que pesaban sobre el partido comunista y proclamaron nuevas elecciones al Parlamento que fueron ganadas por bloques procomunistas, algo no sorprendente si se tiene en cuenta que serian los unicos a los que se les permitio tomar parte en las elecciones. Estas agrupaciones proclamarian la formacion de 3 nuevas republicas socialistas sovieticas: De Estonia, de Letonia y de Lituania, ademas de declarar su ingreso a la URSS entre el 3-6 de agosto de 1940.

Tras el comienzo de la agresion nazi contra la URSS el descontento de los habitantes del Baltico contra la intervencion sovietica en sus territorios provocaria el ataque armado contra los ejercitos sovieticos, que facilitaria posteriormente el ataque aleman hacia Leningrado.

El 26 de junio de 1940 la URSS exigiria de Rumania la cesion de Bessarabiya y del norte de Bukovina, lo que seria aceptado por Rumania por lo que el 28 de junio de 1940 ingresarian las tropas sovieticas a esos territorios.

Territorios cedidos por Rumania a la URSS en 1940. Aparecen tambien otras 2 cesiones territoriales, realizadas tambien en 1940, pero a Hungria y Bulgaria.

Posteriormente, el 2 de agosto el Soviet Supremo de la URSS decidiria la formacion de la Republica socialista sovietica de Moldavia. En su composicion se incluirian la ciudad de Kishinev, 6 de las 9 provincias de Bessarabiya ademas de la ciudad de Tiraspol ademas de 6 de las 14 regiones de la ex Republica socialista sovietica autonoma de Moldavia. El resto de las provincias de Bessarabiya serian anexadas a la Republica socialista sovietica de Ucrania, a la que tambien se adiciono el norte de Bukovina.


En noviembre de 1940 Alemania ofreceria a la URSS integrarse a las fuerzas del Eje lo que los sovieticos aceptaron siempre que se declarara zona de influencia sovietica Rumania, Bulgaria y Turquia, que ya hemos visto lo que significaba para esos paises, pero los nazis, que tambien deseaban seguir anexionando territorios en Europa, no lo aceptarian. Este hecho es especialmente relevante por lo que hubiese significado para un pais musulman como Turquia haber caido bajo la egida sovietica por decadas y luego recuperar su independencia tras la desintegracion de la URSS, hecho que tal vez hubiese significado su fragmentacion en 2 o mas paises dejando, posiblemente, a la Turquia musulmana integramente en Asia. Ademas, haber dejado a Europa y territorios  en otros continentes en manos de Alemania y la URSS hubiese significado un enfrentamiento entre ambos, en algun momento posterior, que habria generado una guerra de escala, probablemente, sin precedentes en el uso de armamentos de destruccion masiva, en el numero de bajas y en la extension geografica de los enfrentamientos.

En lila territorios pertenecientes al Imperio alemana a fines de 1939. En gris los territorios bajo su control a fines de 1940. En azul los territorios anexados a la URSS entre 1939-1940.

La Gran Guerra Patria

El 22 de junio de 1941 la Alemania nazi atacaria a la URSS rompiendo con las condiciones del Pacto de no agresion lo que daria inicio a lo que en Rusia se conoce como la Gran Guerra Patria que culminaria en mayo de 1945 con la toma de Berlin.

En terminos de anexiones territoriales, en el transcurso de la guerra los sovieticos se harian con la region de Tuva en 1944 mientras que en 1945, y como resultado de la guerra con Japon, serian anexadas la mitad sur de la Isla de Saxalin y las Isla Kuriles.

La anexion de Tuva
Republica de Tuva destacada en rojo, junto a la frontera con Mongolia, en un mapa actual de la Federacion rusa.

Se trataria del primer estado extranjero en adherirse a la URSS luego de que en 1944 se integrara como Provincia autonoma de Tuva.

La region fue parte del Imperio de Genghis-Khan en los siglos XIII y XIV y luego fue parte de otras agrupaciones estatales mongolas hasta que el Imperio mongol se desintegro y se conformaron un sinnumero de xanatos como sucesores, uno de los cuales tomo control sobre Tuva.

En el siglo XVIII caerian bajo control de los chinos mientras que los rusos, en la medida que avanzaban hacia el Oceano Pacifico a traves de Siberia y del Lejano oriente tomarian contacto con estas tierra por la extraccion de oro, que comenzarian de manera ilegal a partir de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. Esta accion permitiria el inicio de relaciones entre rusos y habitantes de Tuva y provocaria que en los circulos comerciales rusos adquiriera importancia estrategica lo que pondria en cuestion el tema de su pertenencia nacional que los maximos dirigentes de la region plantearian al Imperio ruso a partir de 1912. Sin embargo, los rusos no querian tensar las relaciones con China y las potencias europeas por lo que en un acuerdo de 1915 con China y Mongolia acordaron solo otorgar autonomia a la region.

Siguiendo a la Revolucion bolchevique de 1917 en Tuva triunfaria tambien la revolucion que transformaria en 1921 a la region en Republica popular de Tuva mientras que en la llamada por los rusos Gran Guerra Patria, Tuva se pondria de parte de los sovieticos estrechando aun mas sus lazos de modo que en 1944 seria incluida como republica autonoma de la URSS. En agosto de 1991 seria denominada Republica Tuva mientras que una nueva constitucion, proclamada en octubre de 1993, cambiaria su denominacion de Tuva a Tyva.

La anexion de Saxalin sur y de las Islas Kuriles

El conflicto armado entre la URSS y Japon se extendio entre agosto y septiembre de 1945 y concluyo con la capitulacion del Japon.

Si bien existia el riesgo de una guerra con Japon desde mediados de la decada del ´30 la URSS busco actuar de manera consensual con los japoneses debido a que enfrentaba problemas mucho mas serios en sus fronteras europeas. Ademas, el mismo Japon renunciaria al frente sovietico optando por enfocarse en sus fronteras del sur atacando a los Estados Unidos e Inglaterra. Por ello ambos paises firmarian un Pacto de no agresion el 13 de abril de 1941 valido por 5 an-os, desde el 25 de abril de 1941 hasta el 25 de abril de 1946.

En 1941 la coalicion de las fuerzas del Eje, exceptuando al Japon, declararian la guerra a la URSS, mientras que los nipones atacarian a los Estados Unidos iniciando la guerra en el Oceano Pacifico.

En febrero de 1945, durante la Conferencia de Yalta, los Estados Unidos buscaron que la URSS se involucrara en la guerra con Japon de modo de terminar por derrotarlo, lo que Stalin aceptaria, comprometiendose a declarar la guerra a Japon 2-3 meses despues del fin de las acciones belicas en Europa pero bajo la condicion de hacerse con el sur de Saxalin y las islas Kuriles, lo que Roosevelt acepto esperando mantener buenas relaciones con los sovieticos despues del fin de la guerra.

A mediados de 1945, con  Alemania ya derrotada, los aliados solicitarian de Japon su rendicion incondicional, lo que este pais rechazaria solicitando, ademas, la intermediacion de la URSS, su supuesto aliado, quien no solo no tomaria parte en esta accion sino que le declararia la guerra el 8 de agosto de 1945, 3 dias despues de haber abandonado el pacto de no agresion con la nacion asiatica. Japon firmaria su capitulacion el 2 de septiembre.

Como resultado de la victoria sovietica la URSS conquistaria el sur de Saxalin y las Islas Kuriles, pero restaba aun firmar el acuerdo de paz para establecer las nuevas fronteras.


La perdida de las islas Kuriles no seria nunca reconocida por Japon, quien considera hasta hoy su devolucion como condicion necesaria para la firma de un tratado de paz entre ambas paises el que, a proposito, tampoco existe entre Rusia y Alemania.

Para los rusos la importancia de las Islas Kuriles en terminos estrategicos es relevante porque se trata de aguas que no se congelan y permiten cruzar,por tanto, en cualquier momento del an-o a los submarinos rusos hacia el Oceano Pacifico.Ademas, albergan los mayores yacimientos en el mundo de un metal raro, el renio, que se utiliza en tecnologia de aviacion y espacial y que, ademas, se encuentra en las islas puro, sin mezclas con otros metales. En tiempos sovieticos, el renio se extraia de Kazaxstan, hoy territorio extranjero para Rusia.

Junto con otros minerales disponibles el territorio de las islas es tambien rico en recursos pesqueros.

Anexion de Prusia oriental


La anexion de la ciudad de Kaliningrad, o Konisberg como se llamaba entonces, se produjo un 17 de octubre de 1945 luego de que la ciudad fuera tomada por tropas sovieticas el 6 de abril de ese mismo an-o. Esta, fundada en 1255, ya habia sido parte del territorio de Rusia entre 1758 y 1762 cuando sus habitantes juraron servir a la Emperatriz rusa, Yelizaveta Petrovna durante la llamada Guerra de los 7 an-os*. La anexion se produciria por decision de la Conferencia de Postdam** que entrego a la URSS 1/3 del territorio de Prusia oriental, incluyendo su capital, la ciudad de Konisberg como parte de su territorio dejando el sur del territorio en manos de de Polonia.
*Churchill la llamaria la verdadera I guerra mundial dado que involucro a todas las grandes potencias europeas, ademas de la mayor parte del resto de los paises de Europa, y tuvo una escala geografica que cubrio varios continentes. El conflicto se produjo en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII y enfrento los animos colonialistas del Reino Unido, Francia y Espan-a. Concluiria con el triunfo de Inglaterra y ademas de Prusia, que se transformaria en centro de union de los territorios germanos, en un proceso que culminaria en el siglo XIX.
**Conferencia realizada en la ciudad de Potsdam entre julio y agosto de 1945 entre representantes de los gobiernos de la Union Sovietica, el Reino Unido y los Estados Unidos, naciones que formaron parte de la coalicion antihitleriana. La reunion tuvo como proposito definir el futuro de Europa.

En abril de 1946 la URSS decidiria constituir en el territorio cedido la provincia de Konisberg, perteneciente a la Republica socialista sovietica de Rusia, y 3 meses mas tarde, un dia 4 de julio, se decidio renombrar su capital, Konisberg como Kaliningrad (ciudad de Kalinin, en honor del funcionario del partido bolchevique sovietico y del gobierno bolchevique, Mixail Kalinin). Pero el cambio de denominacion afectaria tambien a todos los territorios que llevaban nombres alemanes y que habian sido adoptados por decision de Hitler en 1938, quien habia cambiado las denominaciones prusianas, originales.

La inclusion del territorio como parte de la URSS significo que de los 370 mil alemanes que lo habitaban antes de la guerra productos de las deportaciones quedasen solo 20 mil. De estos ultimos, la mayoria seria deportado a Alemania hacia 1947, quedando solo algunos pocos especialistas que ayudaron a restablecer la produccion industrial del pais y que residirian en la region hasta 1949. El territorio seria repoblado por ciudadanos sovieticos.

Luego de la desintegracion de la URSS y la consiguiente independencia de las republicas del Baltico, Kaliningrad se transformo en un exclave de la Federacion rusa, pues perdio continuidad territorial con Rusia, como se observa en el mapa siguiente. Curiosamente, cuando el territorio formaba parte del Imperio aleman, tras su derrota en la I Guerra Mundial, tambien seria transformado en exclave, pero de Alemania, luego de que este pais se viera forzado a ceder, tras su derrota, un conjunto de territorios a Polonia que dejaron el territorio de Prusia oriental, denominacion adoptada en 1773, aislado por tierra de Alemania.


Kaliningrad es hoy la provincia mas pequen-a de la Federacion rusa y esta rodeada de paises extranjeros. Al norte y al este limita con Lituania y al sur con Polonia mientras que su frontera oeste da al Mar Baltico. Despues de la guerra la ciudad estuvo cerrada para la visita de extranjeros por su condicion de estrategica (posee el unico puerto ruso en el Baltico que permanece sin hielo todo el an-o) y la gran presencia de tropas.

El territorio ruso tras la II Guerra Mundial


Territorio de la URSS tras la II Guerra Mundial

Tras el fin de la Guerra se instalarian gobiernos comunistas afines a la URSS en los paises de Europa oriental (Hungria, Polonia, Rumania, Bulgaria, Checoslovaquia, Alemania oriental) mientras que surgiria el bloque militar de la OTAN en respuesta del cual se conformaria el Acuerdo de Varsovia (mas conocido en el mundo hispanoparlante como Pacto de Varsovia) en 1955.

Sub-carpatia

Arriba territorio de Checoslovaquia entre 1928-1938, destacando Sub-carpatia.
A continuacion, aparece encerrado en un circulo ese territorio pero ya anexado a Ucrania, en un mapa actual de este pais.


En terminos de variaciones de territorio tras la guerra la URSS anexaria en 1945, en acuerdo con Checoslovaquia, el territorio de Subcarpatia mientras que por acuerdo con Polonia se modificaria la frontera entre ambos paises cediendo la URSS algunos territorios, situacion que se produciria en conjunto con el intercambio de poblacion de modo que al 31 de octubre de 1946 de Polonia a la URSS se desplazaron cerca de 518 mil personas y en sentido contrario entre 1 y 1,5 millones de personas.

Destacado con un signo + las ganancias territoriales para Polonia y con un signo - sus cesiones a la URSS. A continuacion los mismos territorios pero destacados en amarillo y en rosa. Las fronteras actuales de Polonia aparecen en rojo y las previas a la Guerra con azul.
El Acuerdo de Varsovia

La particularidad de este acuerdo de ayuda mutua en terminos militares, surgido en respuesta al surgimiento de la OTAN en 1954, es que extendio el area de influencia de la URSS mas alla de sus fronteras sin necesidad de extenderlas en terminos formales. El documento que le dio origen fue firmado el 14 de mayo de 1955 en Varsovia, capital de Polonia por los siguientes paises: Albania, Bulgaria, Hungria, Alemania oriental, Polonia, Rumania, la URSS y Checoslovaquia.


El Acuerdo seria abandonado por Albania en 1968 y en 1990 por Alemania oriental, luego de unirse con Alemania federal.

El 1° de julio de 1991 se firmaria en Praga su disolucion.

La existencia del Acuerdo de Varsovia estaria vinculada en un contexto mas amplio con la llamada Guerra Fria, surgida tras el fin de la II Guerra Mundial y que extenderia la influencia de la Union Sovietica a gran parte del mundo por lo que se puede afirmar que si bien el Imperio ruso alcanzo su maximo extension geografica en el siglo XIX la maxima extension historica del territorio ruso en terminos de influencia en el mundo se produciria solo en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, durante la llamada Guerra Fria*, que concluiria con la desintegracion de la URSS en diciembre de 1991.
*Concepto acun-ado por el afamado escritor ingles (nacido en la India pero en el seno de una familia inglesa) George Orwell. Este publicaria el 19 de octubre de 1945 un articulo en el semanario britanico Tribune donde denominaria Guerra Fria a un conflicto latente entre unas cuantas potencias que lograran adquirir poder nuclear y que frente a esa amenaza nunca desencadenaran un conflicto real, manteniendo una paz tacita todo el tiempo.

Acuerdo Baker-Shevarnadze

Este acuerdo se realizo en territorio maritimo entre Rusia y Estados Unidos cuando entre 1976-1977 los paises comenzaran a implementar el concepto de las 200 millas de zona maritima exclusiva. El espacio acuoso en que se realizo el acuerdo consideraba el espacio maritimo entre Alaska y el Lejano oriente ruso.

La cercania de ambos territorios en ese sector, que en gran parte es menor a 400 millas hacia que las 200 millas de cada pais se intersectaran con las del pais vecino por lo que habia que buscar una formula para dividir esos territorios comunes.

Ademas habia tambien un sector donde se superponian las plataformas continentales a las que tenia derecho cada nacion, pues esas zonas se extienden hasta 350 millas de las costas de cada nacion y en el sector aludido la distancia entre costas entre ambas naciones era inferior a 700 millas.


Rusia, en ese tiempo la Union Sovietica, propondria establecer una linea media (ver mapa superior) para dividir los territorios en comun pero los Estados Unidos afirmaron que ya existia un acuerdo maritimo entre ambos paises, surgido en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX por la venta de Alaska y las Islas Aleutianas por el Imperio ruso a los Estados Unidos. Ese acuerdo establecia varios puntos geograficos de manera aproximada que demarcaban el territorio maritimo fronterizo de ambos paises.

La linea trazada por el acuerdo, llamado Convencion de 1867, daba ventajas territoriales a los norteamericanos por sobre el trazado de la linea media propuesta por los sovieticos lo que no parecio importar al Ministro de relaciones exteriores de la URSS de entonces, Eduard Shevarnadze, quien en 1990 acepto la proposicion de los Estados Unidos dejando el acuerdo listo para ser ratificado por los congresos de ambos paises, lo que Estados Unidos concretaria pero el Soviet Supremo de la URSS rechazo realizar, tal como en 2 ocasiones lo rechazaria tambien la Camara de diputados de la Federacion rusa (la Duma).

A pesar de lo anterior, los rusos cometerian un nuevo error al aceptar darle validez temporal al acuerdo a partir del 15 de junio de 1990 lo que entrego, de facto, el territorio a los Estados Unidos y, aparentemente sin retorno.

Posteriormente, una comision especial del Consejo de la Federacion (el Senado ruso) mostro cuantitativamente lo lesivo que habia sido el tratado para Rusia en terminos de recursos pesqueros, sin mencionar los recursos minerales con que cuentan los territorios cedidos y que los Estados Unidos comenzaron a vender desde 1982 a compan-ias petroliferas y gasiferas norteamericanas. Miembros de esa Comision asistirian a los Estados Unidos, donde representantes norteamericanos afirmaron rotundamente que no se disponian a modificar lo acordado entre Shevarnadze y el entonces Secretario de Estado norteamericano, James Baker, que firmaron el acuerdo en presencia de los presidentes Mixal Gorbachev y George Bush padre, quien calificaria el acuerdo como un "puente de amistad" entre ambos paises pues, recordemos, que se firmo aun durante la Guerra Fria, aunque en pleno proceso de desintegracion de la URSS, en 1990.

Segun la Convencion de 1867 las aguas se dividian entre ambos paises a partir del punto 1, en el Estrecho de Bering, desde donde una recta partia hacia el Polo Norte y luego por otra recta con direccion suroeste, que pasaba por los puntos 2 y 3.

La desintegracion de la URSS
El territorio de las distintas RSS (Republicas socialistas sovieticas) que integraban la URSS junto con el de la Republica socialista federativa sovietica de Rusia, hoy Federacion rusa.
Como lo muestra el grafico el territorio de la actual Federacion rusa es un 24% menor que el de la URSS mientras que en terminos de su poblacion es casi la mitad, siendo menor en un 51%

La desintegracion de la URSS se produciria con el trasfondo de una crisis economica en la cual los intentos por reformar el sistema sovietico agravarian aun mas la situacion, mientras que en el terreno politico se manifestaba una crisis entre el Presidente de la URSS, Mixail Gorbachev, y el Presidente de la Republica sovietica de Rusia (RSFSR), Boris Yeltsin, que buscaba la soberania de ese territorio.

El Comite estatal de emergencia conformado el 19 de agosto de 1991 para intentar detener la desintegracion de la URSS solo resultaria el preludio del derrocamiento del partido comunista sovietico y de la desintegracion de la URSS.

El 8 de diciembre de 1991 los lideres politicos de Bielorrusia, Rusia y Ucrania firmarian el Acuerdo de creacion de la Comunidad de Estados Independientes (СНГ, SNG en ruso) constatando el fin de la existencia de la Union Sovietica declarando que "la Union de RSS (Republicas socialistas sovieticas) como sujeto de derecho internacional y como realidad geopolitica concluye su existencia".

El 12 de diciembre el acuerdo seria ratificado por el Soviet Supremo de la RSFSR (Rusia sovietica) mientras que el 24 de diciembre el Presidente de la Rusia sovietica, Boris Yeltsin, informaria al Secretario general de la ONU que su pais continuaria como sucesor de la URSS en todos los organismos de la ONU, incluyendo el Consejo de seguridad.

Un dia despues el Soviet supremo de la RSFSR promulgaria la ley que renombraria a la RSFSR como Federacion rusa mientras que el 21 de abril de 1992 el Congreso de diputados del pueblo de la RSFSR confirmaria el cambio de denominacion, introduciendo los cambios respectivos en la Constitucion a excepcion de un articulo, el 147, que seria modificado el 25 de diciembre de 1993 con la promulgacion de una nueva Constitucion para la Federacion rusa, hoy vigente.

Siglo XXI

Acuerdo limitrofe con China

          S'acosta Sant Jordi i us recomano alguns llibres de viatges (3)        
I tercera proposta, en un dia que per mi és força especial, i aquest cop em faig una mica de publicitat, crec que és un bon llibre per regalar en aquesta data...

CONTES DE LA RUTA DE LA SEDA d'Eduard Balsebre

Contes i llegendes que han fet durant segles i segles les delícies d’adults i infants i desperten l’interès per l’espiritualitat, la transcendència, l’aventura i el desconegut.

Un recull fet seguint els ensenyaments mil·lenaris dels mestres sufís que ens aconsellen: “quan hagis de triar un camí, tria el camí del cor” i un petit homenatge a tres indrets de la Ruta de la Seda que l'autor considera entranyables i especials: Àsia Central, Tibet i Xina.

Àsia Central, el cor de la Ruta, en la seva denominació més actual inclou cinc països nascuts de la fallida de la Unió Soviètica: Uzbekistan, Kirguizistan, Kazakhstan, Tadjikistan i Turkmenistan. El Tibet, el sostre físic i espiritual del món no necessita cap presentació. I que dir de la Xina, bressol literari, cultural i celestial...

Tres indrets fascinants amb estepes infinites, deserts sense retorn, rius mítics, muntanyes en el sostre del món, ciutats de llegenda i una inigualable barreja de cultures, ètnies, religions, llengües i tradicions que sedueixen a primera vista als viatgers d’avui en dia com van fascinar a mercaders, exploradors, monjos i arqueòlegs en segles anteriors.

Enllaç per comprar-ho



          The Turkmenator: Berdymukhammedov Goes Action Hero With Sharpshooting, Knife-Throwing Display        
Turkmenistan’s authoritarian leader has put on another display of his purported multifaceted talents -- this time with a state-media report showing his abilities with assault rifles and knives.
          Turkmenistan and the Middle East        
Turkmenistan is a weak country militarily, but well-­endowed with natural gas reserves. While the latter also insulates it somewhat from international criticism of its human rights abuses, unfortunately, Turkmenistan is landlocked and dependent upon the goodwill of its neighbors in order to export that commodity. Additionally, Turkmenistan is in need of technological assistance. Given its relatively homogenous population and its hydrocarbon wealth it has adopted a policy of subsidizing certain necessities—though it underfunds other—and is fairly stable internally. Nevertheless, it is ruled under an autocratic political system, suffers massive corruption, and has to contend with fears of instability on its borders. Therefore, Turkmenistan has adopted a policy of permanent neutrality and is open to cooperation with all its neighbors as well as the big powers. The countries of the Middle East as both immediate and nearby neighbors play an important part in the international relations of Turkmenistan and in providing technological assistance and economic investments. This article, which reviews and analyzes those ties, utilizes government documents, academic works and newspapers from Turkmenistan and Middle Eastern countries.
          Anneke        
Waardering: 7     Ligging: 7     Service: 7     Prijs / kwaliteit: 6     Kamers: 6     (Gem. : 7 )
Het is dat er niets anders is....
De enige reden om in Mary te blijven is voor een dagtrip naar de ruïnes van Merv. Hotel Yrsgal is zo ongeveer de enige keuze. Hotel heeft een kleine lobby vol met boeken over/van de president. Er...
 

          Kuda Albania        

Asal: Berasal dari Albania dan hidup dalam persekitaran pergunungan.

Fizikal: Mempunyai tubuh kecil tetapi kuat. Kuda ini mempunyai campuran darah kuda Monggolia, Turkmenistan dan Arab. Baka kuda ini mudah membiak dan bersifat fleksibel. Selain itu juga kuda ini turut mempunyai kebolehan menyeimbangkan badan di kawasan yang tidak rata sesuai dengan persekitaran hidup di pergunungan.

Warna: Hitam, Coklat, Kelabu, Bay

Kegunaan: Tunggangan seharian, kerja-kerja pertanian dan untuk tujuan menarik barang.
          Kuda Akhal-Teke        

Asal: Berasal dari jenis kuda kuno Scythian dan kemudian berkembang biak di kawasan
oasis Akhal di Turkmenistan.

Fizikal: Kuda ini mempunyai kekuatan luar biasa. Mampu berlari dalam jarak sangat
jauh tanpa memerlukan air selama 3 hari. Bentuk yang menarik dan tidak
terlalu tegap. Sangat pantas dan berani menghadapi ancaman. Sejak berabad
lamanya kuda ini telah digunakan sebagai kuda perang oleh masyarakat tamadun
manusia.

Warna: Boleh ditemui dalam semua warna dan kadangkala boleh ditemui dalam warna
keemasan.

Kegunaan: Digunakan untuk tunggangan seharian, kuda pengangkutan dan untuk tujuan
sukan berkuda.
          Kuda Adaev        

Asal : Berasal dari pedalaman Caspian yang terletak di Timur Tengah dan sekitar
kawasan Iran, Kazakhstan dan Turkmenistan

Fizikal : Agak tinggi dan berotot, bentuk menarik, bentuk kepala dan leher yang kemas

Warna :Warna keperangan, kelabu, kuning lembut

Kegunaan : Digunakan untuk mengembala haiwan ternakan, tunggangan seharian serta
dijadikan sebagai sumber daging dan mendapatkan hasil susu kuda (Koumiss)
          Baka-baka kuda terbaik        


Kuda Arab

Kuda Arab adalah sejenis kuda yang berasal dari semenanjung Arab. Ia memiliki bentuk kepala yang unik dan ekor yang ternaik,kuda arab adalah salah satu yang spesis kuda yang paling mudah dikenali.Kuda Arab juga merupakan salah satu baka kuda tertua melalui penemuan bukti arkeologi yang dipercayai berusia 4.500 tahun. Sepanjang perkembangan sejarah manusia, kuda Arab telah tersebar di seluruh bahagian dunia melalui peristiwa peperangan dan perdagangan. Selain itu juga kuda Arab turut digunakan untuk memperbaiki baka-baka kuda lain kuda yang terhasil dari campuran baka kuda Arab akan membolehkan anak kuda mewarisi kelajuan, kekuatan, ketahanan, dan kelasakan kuda Arab. Hari ini, keturunan kuda Arab boleh ditemui di hampir semua jenis baka kuda moden.

Kuda Arab berkembang dalam iklim gurun dan sangat dihargai oleh orang-orang Badwi. Hubungan erat antara kuda Arab dengan manusia telah menjadikannya mempunyai sifat yang baik dan cepat belajar. Namun demikian kuda Arab turut mempunyai ciri penting seekor kuda yang sesuai digunakan dalam situasi berperang iaitu kepantasan menyerang dan keberanian dalam menghadapi situasi buruk. Kombinasi ciri-ciri unggul ini menyebabkan penunggang kuda Arab hari ini perlu mempunyai kemahiran tinggi semasa menunggangnya.

Kuda Arab mampu menjalankan pelbagai tugasan seperti yang dikehendaki oleh pemiliknya.Kuda Arab mampu menguasai disiplin kuda lasak dan mampu bersaing dalam pelbagai acara berkuda. Kuda Arab adalah salah satu daripada sepuluh keturunan kuda paling popular di dunia. Kuda Arab hari ini dapat ditemui di seluruh dunia, termasuk Amerika Syarikat dan Kanada, Inggeris, Australia, benua Eropah, Amerika Selatan (terutama Brazil), dan tanah asal, Timur Tengah.





Kuda Andalusia

Kuda Andalusia juga merupakan salah satu keturunan kuda tertua di dunia. Pada tahun 2005 terdapat sekitar 400 kuda Andalusia yang telah didaftarkan di Kanada. Kuda Andalusia berasal dipercayai berasal dari Semenanjung Iberia Sepanyol. Bukti arkeologi menunjukkan kuda ini telah wujud hampir 2500 tahun berdasarkan lukisan yang ditemui di gua. Pada abad ke-18 kuda Andalusia amat popular diseluruh eropah. Bagi masyarakat eropah kuda Andalusia dianggap mempunyai ciri kebangsawanan dan amat bergaya.Namun demikian jumlah kuda ini telah berkurangan disebabkan peperangan yang tercetus di eropah pada abad ke 18. Bagi mengatasi masalah ini satu program pembiakan kuda Andalusia telah dilaksanakan dengan giat malahan dalam masa sama turut menghalang eksport kuda Andalusia.

Kuda Andalusia mempunyai sifat patuh kepada arahan selain cerdas dan juga sensitif kepada tindak balas. Apabila dikendalikan dengan baik kuda Andalusia akan mahir dengan cepat serta memberikan kerjasama yang positif. Gaya gerakan kuda Andalusia biasanya mempunyai langkah yang panjang, mengangkat kaki dengan tinggi, dan mempunyai rentak langkah yang harmoni. Kuda Andalusia mempunyai keseimbangan gerakan badan yang baik. Walaupun kuda Andalusia terkenal dengan kelincahan dan kebolehan mereka untuk belajar tetapi kuda ini agak sukar bergerak dengan tangkas dalam situasi tertentu kerana saiz yang besar. Sejak awal lagi sejarah kuda Andalusia telah digunakan untuk haiwan pengangkutan. Baka kuda ini sering dipilih di antara beberapa baka kuda yang digunakan untuk acara 'Dressage' klasik. Kuda Andalusia juga turut digunakan untuk kerja-kerja ladang.Adakalanya kuda Andalusia mempunyai sifat agresif sama seperti lembu.




Kuda Mustangs

Kuda Mustang adalah kuda liar yang ditemui di barat Amerika Syarikat. Nama kuda ini dipercayai berasal dari perkataan Sepanyol yang membawa maksud mesteño atau monstenco liar atau tersesat. Walaupun ia berasal dari kuda Sepanyol namun setelah bertahun-tahun berada di Amerika ia telah bercampur dengan pelbagai baka kuda lain. Kuda Mustangs telah banyak merubah gaya kehidupan penduduk asli Amerika yang tinggal berdekatan Great Plains. Kawanan kuda Mustang liar yang terdapat di bahagian timur Amerika Syarikat telah menyeberangi Sungai Mississippi dan bergabung dengan kawanan barat. Darah baka kuda Perancis kemudiannya telah diperkenalkan ke dalam campuran baka kuda-kuda ini.

Baka kuda lain yang mungkin terdapat dalam baka kuda Mustang ini adalah baka kuda Friesian Timur.Selama 10 tahun bermula pada akhir 1800-an sehingga awal 1900-an 150 kuda jantan telah dibeli oleh kerajaan AS dan kebanyakan kuda ini adalah dari Jerman. Tujuan utama pembelian kuda Friesian Timur pada waktu itu ialah untuk kerja-kerja berat (seperti menarik kereta meriam. Ini menyebabkan walau di mana pun tentera berkuda AS ditemui sudah pasti baka kuda fresian ini turut ditemui. Ini menimbulkan kemungkinan yang besar dan tidak boleh diragukan lagi bahawa baka kuda Friesian turut menambah kepelbagaian baka dalam baka kuda Mustang Amerika.

Baka kuda Mustang ini juga telah diiktiraf antarabangsa FEI untuk kegunaan disiplin berkuda lompatan, Dressage dan sebagainya menjadikan baka Mustang sebagai kuda serbaguna.






Kuda Akhal-Teke

Kewujudan kuda ini mungkin telah muncul sejak 3000 tahun yang lalu. Ia dikenali dengan beberapa nama, tetapi paling nama yang sering digunakan ialah kuda Nisean. Namun, keturunan sebenar kuda ini sukar dikesan kerana sekitar 1600 sebelum Masihi, keturunan kuda dalam definisi moden masih belum muncul. Pada masa itu kuda dikenal pasti berdasarkan lokasi tempat atau jenis.

Menurut sebahagian pendapat, kuda Akhal-Teke telah disembunyikan oleh puak setempat. Lokasi baka kuda ini membiak adalah di kawasan Turkmenistan iaitu di padang pasir Kara Kum. Padang pasir ini berbatu kawasan dataran gurun yang tandus serta dikelilingi oleh pergunungan. Namun ada pendapat lain mendakwa bahawa kuda-kuda ini adalah keturunan daripada kuda yang digunakan oleh kaum Mongol semasa melakukan serangan di kawasan pergunungan pada abad-13 dan abad ke-14.


Suku kaum Turkmenistan merupakan antara masyarakat pertama memplopori penggunaan kuda untuk menyerang. Mereka memilih kuda terbaik sebelum dibiakan. Kaum ini turut membuat nota salasilah kuda mereka berdasarkan tradisi lisan. Kuda-kuda itu disebut "Argamaks" oleh Russia, dan amat diminati oleh para pengembara yang mengunjungi kaum ini.

Pada tahun 1881, Turkmenistan telah menjadi sebahagian daripada Empayar Rusia. Suku-suku kaum ini telah berperang dengan pihak Tsar dan akhirnya memenangi peperangan tersebut. Seorang jeneral Rusia, Kuropatkin, telah berjaya menangkap dan membiakan baka kuda yang digunakan oleh suku kaum ini dan dinamakan sebagai kuda "Akhal-Tekes," sempena suku Turkmen Teke yang tinggal berdekatan Akhal oasis. Kerajaan Russia kemudiannya mencetak buku salasilah keturunan kuda pertama yang berjaya mereka biakan adalah pada tahun 1941.


Kuda baka Akhal-Teke, ini sering digunakan untuk disiplin berkuda Dressage, lompatan dan kuda lasak.




Kuda Don Rusia

Baka kuda Don, umumnya disebut "Old Don,". Kuda ini telah dijinakan dari separuh liar kepada kuda yang jinak.Kuda Don pada asalnya mempunyai saiz sedehana dengan daya tahan yang luar biasa kerana dibesarkan dalam keadaan hidup yang sukar. Kuda Don Rusia ini telah digunakan sebagai asas untuk meningkatkan keturunan kuda di Rusia. Pasukan berkuda Cossack menggunakan kuda Old Don semasa kempen Rusia menentang Napoleon, dan kuda-kuda Don telah membuktikan kehebatannya bersama pasukan Cossack ke seluruh eropah.


Penggunaan utama kuda Don Rusia dibiakan pada masa lalu bertujuan sebagai pengangkutan untuk pasukan berkuda Cossack. Kuda Don Rusia terkenal dengan daya tahan dan stamina yang tinggi.Kuda-kuda ini hanya memerlukan waktu yang singkat untuk bergerak dalam jarak yang jauh. Hari ini, Kuda Don Rusia digunakan secara meluas untuk tunggangan dan aktiviti berkuda.





Kuda Marwari

Asal usul kuda marwari adalah dari kuda India asli dan dikacukan dengan kuda Arab. Pengaruh kuda Arab mungkin datang melalui peristiwa kapal kargo yang rosak dan terdampar dipantai barat India. Legenda di India menyatakan bahawa kapal Arab yang karam tersebut memiliki tujuh kuda Arab yang baik ini kemudiannya telah dibiakan melalui kacukan ke atas kuda-kuda India. Kuda-kuda Arab ini kemudian dibawa ke daerah Marwar dan digunakan sebagai asas pembiakan kuda marwari hari ini.Kuda ini memiliki bentuk tubuh yang baik dan mempunyai identiti telinga yang unik dan berbeza dari kebanyakan baka kuda lain. Selain itu terdapat juga kemungkinan pengaruh kuda Monggol dari utara dan membiak di barat laut India di sempadan Afghanistan, dan juga di Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, dan Turkmenistan.

Pada masa zaman kegemilangan India, kuda-kuda Marwari dianggap haiwan yang sangat penting dan ia hanya boleh dimiliki oleh ahli-ahli keluarga Diraja Rajput dan golongan kasta Kshatriya. Ketika penaklukan Mongul di kawasan India utara pada awal tahun 1500-an orang-orang Mongul telah membawa kuda-kuda Turki yang digunakan untuk meningkatkan kualiti kuda Marwari.Kuda marwari amat terkenal dengan keberanian mereka dalam pertempuran, serta kesetiaan mereka kepada penunggangnya. Pada akhir abad ke-16, seorang bangsawan Rajput daripada Marwar, di bawah pimpinan Maharaja Akbar telah membentuk pasukan berkuda lebih terdiri daripada 50.000 anggota.Menurut kepercayaan setempat kuda marwari hanya boleh meninggalkan medan perang dengan tiga syarat sahaja sama ada setelah memperolehi kemenangan dibawa keluar dari medan perang kerana terbunuh atau keluar dari medan perang dengan membawa penunggang yang tercedera untuk mendapatkan rawatan. Kuda-kuda itu dilatih untuk menjadi sangat tangkas dalam situasi medan pertempuran.





Kuda Quarab

Kuda Quarab adalah kacukan antara kuda Quater Amerika dan Kuda Arab.

Kuda Quarter dikenali kerana kelajuannya dan kuda Arab dikenali kerana ketahanan stamina dan ketangkasannya. Kedua-dua baka kuda ini mempunyai ciri-ciri yang baik. Kacukan dari dua baka kuda ini merupakan usaha untuk mengintegrasikan sifat-sifat terbaik daripada dua baka kuda. Kuda Quarab mempunyai tubuh yang serupa dengan baka kuda Arab. Ia memiliki otot lengan yang kuat, punggung yang baik dan sebagainya. Kepala kuda Quarab biasanya memiliki mata yang besar serta dahi lebar dan mempunyai bentuk agak menarik dibahagian wajah. Namun keadaan ini sebenarnya amat bergantung pada peratusan nisbah genetik kuda arab atau kuda Quarter.

Kuda Quarab sangat sesuai untuk berbagai acara berkuda seperti Dressage, lompatan, tunggangan riadah dan kuda lasak.




Kuda Appaloosa

Bukti paling awal kuda appaloosa boleh didapati berdasarkan kepada lukisan gua yang berasal dari zaman Paleolitik yang berusia 18.000 SM. Ia telah dijumpai di Lascaux dan peche-Merle Perancis. Cara menjinakan kuda turut dijumpai dalam senibudaya Parsi Purba, Greek kuno dinasti Tang di China dan Perancis pada abad ke-11.Lukisan dari Perancis pada abad ke 16 dan 17 pula menunjukkan kuda-kuda dengan tompok Appaloosa telah digunakan sebagai kuda tunggangan dan catatan ini turut menunjukkan kuda Appaloosa telah digunakan sebagai kuda latihan di istana Raja Louis XIV dari Perancis. Pada pertengahan abad ke-18 Eropah, ada permintaan yang tinggi untuk kuda Appaloosa bagi kegunaan kalangan bangsawan. Kuda-kuda ini digunakan di sekolah-sekolah yang mengajar cara menunggang kuda dan sering digunakan untuk perarakan majlis perayaan.

Tidak jelas bagaimana kuda Appaloosa tiba di Amerika, meskipun ada kemungkinan penjajah Sepanyol telah membawa beberapa kuda baka ini bersama-sama mereka semasa awal tahun 1500-an. Menurut rekod terdapat seekor kuda dengan tompok kepingan salji telah didaftarkan sebagai salah seekor dari 16 kuda yang telah dibawa ke Mexico oleh Cortez.Rekod ini merupakan catatan yang dibuat oleh para penulis Sepanyol pada tahun 1604.

Kuda Appaloosa adalah kuda serbaguna, dan ia mampu bersaing dalam acara disiplin berkuda seperti Rodeo. Dalam jenis disiplin berkuda Inggris pula kuda Appaloosa digunakan untuk tujuan memburu serta Dressage dan tidak ketinggalan juga acara kuda lasak.




Kuda baka Quater Amerika

Kuda Quater Amerika adalah sejenis baka kuda yang mahir dalam acara memecut jarak dekat. Nama baka kuda ini diambil dari kebolehannya untuk mendahului baka kuda lain dalam jarak suku kilometer dalam kebanyakan acara perlumbaan. Beberapa pengkaji telah mengukur kelajuan baka kuda ini dan antara catatan menunjukkan ia berkelajuan (88.5 km / jam). Kuda baka Quarter adalah jenis yang paling popular di Amerika Syarikat ketika ini, dan kuda baka Quarter Amerika telah dibiakan oleh kebanyakan persatuan berkuda dan kini mencapai jumlah lebih dari 4 juta kuda Quater Amerika.

Kuda Quarter Amerika terkenal sebagai kuda lumba kuda dan boleh bersaing dalam acara Rodeo. Tubuh yang padat menjadikan kuda Quater Amerika sangat sesuai untuk pergerakan lincah dan cepat terutama semasa aktiviti memintas ternakan seperti lembu.Kuda Quater Amerika juga mampu melakukan acara disiplin berkuda gaya Inggeris seperti menunggang, dan banyak lagi aktiviti berkuda lain.




Kuda Baka Kiger Mustang

Kuda baka Kiger Mustang adalah sejenis kuda yang ditemui pada tahun 1977, oleh Biro Pengurusan Tanah di Beatys butte, yang terletak di tenggara Oregon (Harney County) Amerika Syarikat. Menurut pemerhatian mereka baka kuda-kuda ini mempunyai persamaan dari segi warna dan ciri-ciri fizikal yang serupa di seluruh wilayah Oregon. Ujikaji yang dilakukan di University of Kentucky dan contoh keputusan DNA menunjukkan baka kuda ini mempunyai hubungan yang erat dengan baka Sepanyol yang dibawa ke Amerika pada tahun 1600-an.
Kuda baka Kiger Mustang adalah kuda yang berasal dari genetik kuda liar yang dinamakan "Mesteño", yang bermaksud "liar" atau "liar" dalam bahasa Sepanyol (lihat etimologi di Mustang).

Kuda baka Kiger mustang, mempunyai ciri-ciri pergerakan yang tangkas dan cerdas, dengan stamina kuat setanding dengan kebanyakan kuda-kuda liar.Kuda baka Kiger Mustang juga mempunyai sifat berani tetapi lembut serta tenang dan sangat sesuai untuk ditunggang oleh mereka yang kurang pengalaman dan juga untuk acara kuda lasak.





Kuda Baka Spanish Mustang

Penjajah Sepanyol telah membawa kuda ini dalam masa 30 tahun pertama mereka di Caribbean. Kuda ini berasal dari semenanjung Iberia.Kuda baka Spanish Mustang ini merupakan kacukan dari baka-baka yang dibawa dari Cuba, Hispanola, dan tanah jajahan Sepanyol yang lain. Kuda baka Spanish Mustang ini adalah keturunan langsung kuda-kuda zaman ke-emasan Sepanyol. Kuda baka Sepanyol Mustang dikembangkan sebagai jenis yang berbeza sepanjang abad 17 dan 18, sebelum kedatangan penjajah Inggeris.

Hari ini kuda baka Sepanyol mustang mengekalkan stamina dan keupayaan untuk perjalanan jauh tanpa menimbulkan tekanan. Kuda baka Sepanyol Mustang mempunyai sejarah kemampuan lagenda untuk perjalanan jarak jauh tanpa kecederaan.




Baka kuda Friesian

Kuda Friesian ialah sejenis kuda berwarna hitam. Ia dipercayai telah wujud lebih daripada 2000 tahun. Disebabkan faktor inilah kuda Friesian dianggap sebagai salah satu keturunan kuda tertua di Eropah. Lokasi asal kemunculan kuda ini dipercayai bermula di wilayah Friesland iaitu dalam kawasan Utara Belanda. Sepanjang abad 16 dan 17 baka kuda Arab dan Andalusia telah diperkenalkan dalam pembiakan kuda di eropah. Ini mungkin telah memberi pengaruh kepada kuda Friesian memiliki gaya berjalan yang menarik saiz kepala yang kecil dan leher agak melengkung. Kuda Friesian didapati bebas daripada pengaruh kuda baka Inggeris. Selama dua abad terkemudian kuda ini telah dibiakan tanpa gabungan baka kuda lain. Kuda Friesian telah digunakan untuk membentuk pelbagai baka kuda moden hari ini seperti kuda Shire, New Forest, Dale, Morgan, Sweden Warmblood, dan Orlov Trotter.

Pahlawan berbaju besi eropah telah menggunakan kuda Friesian untuk aktiviti mereka. Kuda ini memiliki kekuatan untuk membawa beban berat namun dalam masa yang sama mempunyai keseimbangan stabil. Raja Hungary iaitu Raja Louis II telah emenggunakan kuda Friesian jantan semasa bertempur di medan perang pada 15 Jun 1526. Kuda Friesian turut digunakan sebagai kuda perang oleh tentera Friesland berperang dengan tentera Rom dan kemudian digunakan oleh pahlawan tentera Salib eropah semasa cuba menjajah Baitulmuqadis di Timur Tengah. Kehebatan dan kelincahan yang ditunjukan kuda Friesian menyebabkan ianya popular sebagai kuda latihan di sekolah-sekolah berkuda Paris dan Sepanyol pada abad 15 dan 16.

Dengan perkembangan sektor industri dan penggunaan mesin perladangan yang meluas peranan kuda Friesian hampir pupus. Bahkan sebelum Perang Dunia I, jumlah kuda Friesian yang wujud pada masa itu hanyalah 3 ekor sahaja. Kuda Friesian kemudiannya telah diselamatkan oleh sekumpulan peternak yang berdedikasi di Friesland, sebuah wilayah utara Belanda dan melalui kerja keras mereka akhirnya baka kuda Friesian ini berjaya diselamatkan dan kekal sehingga hari ini. Pembiakan kuda Friesian dilakukan di bawah peraturan yang ketat seperti melalui proses pemilihan, menguji keupayaan prestasi dan mengklasifikasikan setiap baka kuda Friesian perlu memiliki persamaan ciri kuda Friesian yang sangat tinggi.

Kuda Friesian hari ini menikmati publisiti meluas kerana sering muncul dalam filem seperti The Mask of Zorro, Vampir, Sense and Sensibility, Emma, Disney's-Tall Tales, Sleepy Hollow, dan Bedazzled. Kuda Friesian mempunyai kecantikan, saiz yang menarik, dan bagus untuk ditunggang menjadikannya pilihan ramai penunggang baru dan lama.
          IMAM MAHADI AKHIR ZAMAN.        

Musuh-musuhnya (YAHUDI) amat percaya masa KEBANGKITANNYA sudah dekat. Mereka berusaha sedaya mungkin menjejaknya. Persoalan yang amat pelik kenapa mereka percaya ramalan yang disebut di dalam alQuran dan Hadis padahal mereka tidak beriman kepada kedua-duanya? Memang benar mereka adalah golongan yang paling tegar menentang Allah swt

Dari Dzar dari Abdullah dari Nabi SAW yang bersabda: “Sekiranya dunia hanya tinggal sehari sahaja (sebelum qiamat) nescaya Allah memanjangkan hari itu sehingga bangkit padanya seorang lelaki dari keturunanku atau dari kaum keluargaku, yang namanya spt namaku, nama bapanya spt nama bapaku, ia akan memenuhi bumi dengan keadilan dan saksama sebagaimana bumi dipenuhi kezaliman dan kekejaman”. Hadith riwayat Abu Daud dan Turmizi.

Dengan jelas Hadis di atas menceritakan perihal Iman Mahadi. Pertama, lelaki dari keturunan Baginda Rasulullah SAW, keduanya namanya Muahammad dan nama bapanya ialah Abdullah. Secara logiknya tentulah mudah bagi kita mengenalinya asalkan ia bernama Muhammad bin Abdullah. Keturunan Rasulullah yang kita tahu ialah mereka yang bergelar Syed atau Syarif, tentulah namanya ialah Syed Muhammad Bin Syed Abdullah.

Diriwayatkan oleh Al-Imam Abu Daud , “Telah berkata Ali sambil memandang puteranya Hassan,” Sesungguhnya Puteraku ini ialah syed (sayyid) sebagaimana yang telah dinamakan oleh Nabi SAW. Dari keturunannya akan lahir seorang lelaki yang namanya seperti nama Nabi kamu, menyerupai baginda dalam perangai dan tidak menyerupai baginda dalam rupa dan bentuk.”

Adakah semudah itu kita mengesannya padahal kita tahu Dajjal dan talibarutnya berusaha sedaya mungkin menjejaknya sejak ratusan tahun dahulu. Di dalam sejarah begitu ramai keturunan nabi Muhammad yang menunjukkan ciri kepimpinan dan lebih menonjol telah dibunuh dan kebanyakannya mati diracun walaupun apa nama mereka sekalipun (tidak semestinya Muhammad Bin Abdullah).

Bagaimana hendak mengenali Imam Mahadi jika ia benar-benar telah muncul atau ada di persekitaran kita? Persoalan ini nampak remeh tetapi amat sukar untuk dijawab. Kenapa demikian? Bagi yang berhujah berdasarkan tafsiran alQuran dan Hadis semata-mata tentu sekali akan mengatakan 'telah jelas' tanda-tanda yang disebut dalam banyak nas yang telah dibukukan dan tak perlu bersusah payah menyelidik dan mencari-cari "siapa dia". Ada pula akan mengatakan persoalan ini tak wajar dibangkitkan kerana dikhuatiri akan menjejaskan aqidah dan iman.

Telah bersabda Rasulullah s.a.w, “Al-Mahdi berasal dari umatku, berkening lebar, berhidung panjang dan mancung. Ia akan memenuhi bumi ini dengan keadilan dan kemakmuran, sebagaimana ia (bumi ini) sebelum itu dipenuhi oleh kezaliman dan kesemena-menaan, dan ia (umur kekhalifahan) berumur tujuh tahun.” (HR. Abu Dawud dan al-Hakim)

Lagi pula Imam Mahadi akan bangkit dan akan menyeru manusia ke jalan tauhid, bagi kaum Muslimin sudah tentu akan bertemu dengannya dan bersenang hati menerima ajakannya itu. Apakah benar begitu?

Dari Abu Said Al-Khudri ra berkata : “Aku telah mendengar Rasulullah SAW bersabda ; “Akan lahir dari umatku seorang lelaki yang menyeru dengan sunahku, Allah menurunkan hujan dari langit untuknya, bumi mengeluarkan hasil darinya. Ia memerintah umat ini selama tujuh tahun dan akan berada di Baitul Maqdis”.Hadith riwayat At-Tabarani.

Bersandarkan kepada Hadis di atas, bahawa Imam Mahadi akan muncul dan berdakwah menyeru umat manusia kembali mengamalkan sunah Rasulullah SAW.  Apabila muncul pendakwah sedemikian tentulah tidaklah sukar untuk kita mengenalinya. Akan tetapi jika kita perhitungkan apa yang sedang berlaku sekarang, ia agak janggal kerana musuh-musuhnya sudah mengetahui peristiwa kebangkitan ini dan berusaha sedaya upaya untuk menghalangnya usahanya.

Cuba kita perhatikan kata-kata Baginda dalam hadis di atas, "berada di Baitul Maqdis", agaknya bilakah peristiwa ini akan berlaku?  Keadaan pada waktu itu berlaku huruhara yang amat menggerunkan dan suasananya tidaklah aman seperti hari ini. Jadi jawapannya yang paling munasabah ialah selepas Dajjal dibunuh oleh Nabi Isa as dan negara Israel ditawan baharulah Imam Mahdi bebas melaksanakan dakwah. Sebelum daripada waktu itu, amat mustahil Imam Mahadi dapat berdakwah di sana kerana Baitul Maqdis dibawah kekuasaan musuhnya, Dajjal dan tentera-tenteranya.

Kemungkinan besar kekacauan dan kekejaman yang berlaku adalah unjuran dari peperangan dunia ketiga (WWIII). Bumi telah dirosakkan dengan teruk dan manusia ketika itu pula hanya tinggal sedikit sahaja. Peperangan ini menular hingga ke Madinah, sebuah bandar yang aman damai selama ini. Malah ada diantara mereka juga cuba menyerang Makkah.

Telah bersabda Rasulullah s.a.w, "Seorang laki-laki akan datang ke Baitullah (Kaabah), maka diutuslah suatu utusan (oleh penguasa) untuk mengejarnya. Dan ketika mereka telah sampai di suatu gurun pasir, maka mereka terbenam ditelan bumi." (HR. Muslim)

Aisyah Ummul Mukminin RA telah berkata, "Pada suatu hari tubuh Rasulullah s.a.w. bergetar dalam tidurnya. Lalu kami bertanya, 'Mengapa engkau melakukan sesuatu yang belum pernah engkau lakukan wahai Rasulullah?' Rasulullah s.a.w. menjawab, 'Akan terjadi suatu keanehan, iaitu bahwa sekelompok orang dari umatku akan berangkat menuju baitullah ( Kaabah) untuk memburu seorang laki-laki Quraisy yang pergi mengungsi ke Kaabah. Sehingga apabila orang-orang tersebut telah sampai ke padang pasir, maka mereka ditelan bumi.' Kemudian kami bertanya, 'Bukankah di jalan padang pasir itu terdapat bermacam-macam orang?' Beliau menjawab, 'Benar, di antara mereka yang ditelan bumi tersebut ada yang sengaja pergi untuk berperang, dan ada pula yang dipaksa untuk berperang, serta ada pula orang yang sedang berada dalam suatu perjalanan, akan tetapi mereka binasa dalam satu waktu dan tempat yang sama. Sedangkan mereka berasal dari arah (niat) yang berbeda-beda. Kemudian Allah s.w.t. akan membangkitkan mereka pada hari berbangkit, menurut niat mereka masing-masing.'" (HR. Bukhary, Muslim)

Telah bersabda Rasullah s.a.w, "Sungguh, Baitullah ini akan diserang oleh suatu pasukan, sehingga apabila pasukan tersebut telah sampai pada sebuah padang pasir, maka bagian tengah pasukan itu ditelan bumi. Maka berteriaklah pasukan bagian depan kepada pasukan bagian belakang, dimana kemudian semua mereka ditenggelamkan bumi dan tidak ada yang tersisa, kecuali seseorang yang selamat, yang akan mengabarkan tentang kejadian yang menimpa mereka." (HR. Muslim, Ahmad, Nasai, dan Ibnu Majah).

Telah bersabda Rasulullah s.a.w, "Akan dibaiat seorang laki-laki antara maqam Ibrahim dengan sudut Kaabah." (HR. Ahmad, Abu Dawud)

Telah bersabda Rasulullah s.a.w, "Suatu pasukan dari umatku akan datang dari arah negeri Syam ke Baitullah (Kaabah) untuk mengejar seorang laki-laki yang akan dijaga Allah dari mereka." (HR. Ahmad)

as-SYUFYANI

Jika Imam Mahadi muncul sekarang atau sebelum berlakunya peperangan dan huruhara, tentu ia akan mudah dikenali dan musuh-musuhnya dan mereka tidak akan teragak-agak untuk menghapuskannya. Hadis tersebut hanya menceritakan secara am peribadi Imam Mahadi dan membayangkan bahawa Imam Mahadi hanya akan muncul bila keadaan telah selamat dari gangguan musuh-musuhnya.

Ada hadis yang menyebut "ia disembunyikan" oleh Allah swt, tetapi lebih sesuai jika dikatakan "ia dipelihara" oleh Allah sehinggalah tiba masanya. Ia di islahkan dalam satu malam sahaja. Dari rangkaian hadis akhir zaman, kita temui seorang dari musuhnya adalah beragama Islam kerana dia dapat menjejakkan kakinya ke Mekah dan Madinah. Rasulullah saw juga menyebut manusia ini dari kaumnya (umat). Namanya as-Syufyani atau as-syufiani.

Siapakah as-Syufyani ini? Adakah dia seorang pemimpin kaum arab atau dari bangsa ajam dan kenapa dia memusuhi manusia yang masih belum dibaiat itu? Pemimpin Islam mengejar untuk membunuhnya? (Suatu pasukan dari umatku akan datang dari arah negeri Syam ke Baitullah (Kaabah) untuk mengejar seorang laki-laki yang akan dijaga Allah dari mereka - hadis di atas'

Dari satu hadis lain. ".........maka mereka membai’at paksa lelaki itu di antara Rukun dan Makam Ibrahim padahal ia tidak suka dengan hal itu, kemudian suatu pasukan diutus dari ahli Syam (untuk menangkap orang-orang yang berbai’at itu), maka mereka dibenamkan ke dalam bumi di suatu tempat bernama Al-Baida antara Mekkah dan Madinah."

Al-Muhaddits Sayid Ahmad Siddiq Al-Ghumari menerangkan di dalam kitabnya Aqidah Ahlil Islam Fi Nuzuli Isa AS bahawa Al-Mahdi dilahirkan di Madinah Al-Munawwarah serta dibesarkan di sana. Sebelum umat Islam berbai’at dengannya, berlakulah satu peperangan yang besar di antara penduduk Madinah dengan tentera-tentera As-Syufiani. Dalam peperangan tersebut, penduduk Madinah mengalami kekalahan dan mereka lari bersama-sama Al-Mahdi ke Makkah. Di Makkah datanglah orang dari berbagai-bagal negeri kerana berbai’at dengannya di suatu tempat iaitu di antara Hajar Aswad dan Maqam Ibrahim

As-Syufyani ini dari daerah Syam (Damsyiq, Syiria). Dialah yang menyerang Madinatul Munwwarah yang menyebabkan penduduknya melarikan diri ke Makkah, termasuklah Imam Mahadi. Pada waktu itu tiada siapa pun yang tahu bahawa dia adalah Imam Mahadi termasuklah dirinya sendiri.

Jika ada sesiapa yang mendakwa dirinya adalah Imam Mahadi, dakwaan tersebut akan tertolak dengan sendirinya. Imam Mahadi sebenar, tidak mengetahui bahawa dirinya adalah Imam Mahadi, jauh sekali membuat pengakuan (sebelum berlakunya peristiwa "baiah" seperti yang disebut dalam sabda baginda junjungan). Telah ramai Imam Mahadi palsu muncul dan mungkin ada lagi selepas ini, oleh itu berhati-hatilah jangan sampai terpedaya. Begitu juga manusia yang mendakwa dirinya ialah Pemuda Bani Tamim. Tiada siapa pun yang mengenali PBT ini sehinggalah Imam Mahadi di "baiah" nanti. Harus diingat bahawa alMahadi dan Pemuda Bani Tamim itu hanyalah gelaran bukan nama mereka.

Rasulullah saw bersabda: “Akan terjadi perselisihan setelah wafatnya seorang pemimpin, maka keluarlah seorang lelaki dari penduduk Madinah mencari perlindungan ke Mekkah, lalu datanglah kepada lelaki ini beberapa orang dari penduduk Mekkah, lalu mereka membai’at Imam Mahadi secara paksa, maka ia dibai’at di antara Rukun dengan Maqam Ibrahim (di depan Ka’bah). Kemudian diutuslah sepasukan manusia dari penduduk Syam, maka mereka dibenamkan di sebuah daerah bernama Al-Baida yang berada di antara Mekkah dan Madinah.” (HR Abu Dawud 3737)

Imam Mahadi mempunyai ramai musuh termasuk dikalangan pemimpin Islam sendiri. Mungkin pemimpin Islam ini sudah menjadi sahabat Dajjal. Seolah telah tahu waktu kebangkitan Imam Mahadi dan berusaha menghapuskannya sebelum tarikh pembai'atannya lagi (di Madinah). Kita lihat as-Sufyani tahu perkara ghaib ini (peristiwa bai'ah), dari mana sumbernya?

Begitulah cara Rasulullah menyampaikan maklumat kepada kita. Huruhara berlaku gara-gara perebutan kuasa, apabila 3 putra "raja" Arab Saudi bertelingkah dan berperang merebut takhta. Ditambah pula dengan serangan tentera as-Sufyani.

Bagi "jentera" Dajjal pula, Imam Mahadi adalah musuh nombor satu kepada "BOSS" mereka, beliau (Imam Mahadi) akan menjadi penghalang utama terhadap rencana jahat mereka menyesatkan seluruh manusia di muka bumi. Imam Mahadi akan bertindak tegas dalam menjaga dan menyelamatkan kaum Mukminin dari gangguan dan pengaruh Dajjal Laknatullah. Menyerukan kebenaran untuk menghapuskan pembohongan Dajjal. Penipuan Dajjal sememangnya licik dan sukar untuk dikesan kecuali oleh mereka yang mendapat perlindungan dan petunjuk Allah. Orang Mukmin sendiri tidak terjamin selamat dari godaannya, apa lagi gulungan yang menjadi orang Islam melalui keturunan.

Ia akan mendakwa dirinya adalah Nabi Isa almasih yang ditunggu-tunggu dan selepas itu mendakwa pula sebagai tuhan. Sesuai dengan konsep trinity pegangan umat Kristian, Katholik terutamanya. Yesus (Jesus) adalah salah satu dari tiga tuhan mereka.

Konsep TRINITY itu disediakan oleh mereka yang bekerja untuk Dajjal dengan memesongkan ajaran Nabi Isa as. Kelihatan seolah menyediakan laluan mudah untuk Dajjal mengaku sebagai TUHAN pada akhir zaman. Adakah ia satu kebetulan atau telah dirancang? Hanya Allah yang tahu segala rahsia mereka. Biasanya kerja-kerja seperti ini dilakukan oleh berbagai pertubuhan dan badan sulit yang beroperasi secara tersembunyi yang digelar "The Hidden Hand" ringkasnya THH. Rahsia ini telah dibongkar dan diulas mendalam di banyak laman2 web dan blog seperti Mistisfiles, Sangtawal, dan Efairy (sekadar beberapa nama). Jika ianya benar seperti yang didakwa, perancangan mereka bermula sejak 1700 tahun yang lalu. Orang Kristian tentu dengan mudah menerima Dajjal sebagai" Isa almasih" seterusnya memujanya sebagai "tuhan". Ia amat berbeza dengan Islam yang memegang kukuh kalimah "TAUHID" yang terang dan jelas seperti dalam surah al Ikhlas.

Amatlah ganjil jika mereka menyambut kedatangan Nabi Isa as kelak, apa lagi menerima seruannya untuk mengimani Syariat Nabi Muhammad, iaitu Islam yang amat mereka musuhi dan pandang hina selama ini. Saya tidak akan membincangkan soal trinity dan THH ini kerana perkara pokok yang akan diperkatakan ialah mengenai Imam Mahadi.

PANDANGAN PENGANUT KRISTIAN

Adakah pembaca maklum bahawa para penganut Kristian juga telah membuat kajian mendalam mengenai Hadis akhir zaman ini dan mereka membuat kesimpulan yang sungguh menghairankan. Iaitu keterbalikan fakta (Islam) hanya kerana tidak dapat menerima agama Islam sebagai agama yang benar. Mereka juga tidak dapat menerima kenyataan: Nabi Isa as. akan menghapuskan "salib". Bagi mereka mana mungkin Nabi Isa as. (Jesus) akan bersekongkol dengan orang Islam, Imam Mahadi. Akhirnya mereka berkata Hadis ini dari sumber "syaitan".

Mereka membuat satu ketetapan sebagai jalan untuk mententeramkan perasaan gusar mereka dengan mengatakan, Imam Mahadi ialah "ANTI CHRIST" yakni "Dajjal" sementara Nabi Isa as. pula dikatakan sebagai "NABI PALSU" (false Prophet).

Maklumat ini diperolehi dari beberapa rencana yang ditulis oleh mereka (penganut Kristian) dan juga bebera siri perbincangan dalam forum-forum berbincangan dikalangan penganut Kristian. Mereka membolak balikkan kitab mereka mencari fakta untuk menguatkan hujah mereka. Adakalanya saya kesihan melihat gelagat mereka. Yang pasti mereka sedang mempersiapkan diri untuk menerima Dajjal sebagai "Jesus" yang juga "tuhan" mereka. Lihat petikan di bawah:

"Therefore, the church's need for a healthy and sound end-time theology has never been greater. And those of us who believe we are living in the 'last of the last' days, Jesus' words to 'watch' for his coming carry with it a great responsibility. I am now going to expound on a teaching that has permeated the Muslim faith over the centuries, but with a great intensity over the last few decades. It is a very intriguing teaching that parallels the Biblical teaching of Antichrist in many ways."
Mereka berusaha bersungguh-sungguh untuk menyesuaikan atau memadankan pandangan mereka dengan apa yang tertulis dalam kitab-kitab mereka.
"Yes, the holy books of Islam (Quran, the Hadith) contain many prophecies concerning the future. As a Christian, I believe these Islamic prophecies to be satanically inspired, but that is beside the point. All branches of Islam (Sunni, Shiite...) maintain a teaching that in the 'last days,' an Islamic savior, known as Al-Mahdi, will rise to great power and conquer the world for Islam. He will annihilate Christians and Jews, will conquer Jerusalem, and will fill the world with Islamic justice"
Mereka telah membaca dan mengkaji Hadis-Hadis yang menceritakan kebangkitan al Mahdi dan Jesus Christ, sayangnya mereka menganggap alQuran dan Hadis sebagai ayat-ayat syaitan dan mengalihkan perhatian kearah kepalsuan dalam membuat keputusan. Walaupun begitu terdapat tanda, (saya kira) bahawa mereka masih ada rasa ragu untuk menafikan kebenaran isi alQuran dan Hadis. Dalam keadaan keraguan itu, disebabkan taksub kepada kepercayaan mereka, dengan nada sinis mereka menyatakan Nabi Isa as yang akan turun itu (disebut dalam alQuran dan Hadis) sebagai NABI PALSU (false prophet) kerana ia tidak disebut sedemikian di dalam kitab-kitab mereka:
"According to the Quran, Islam's holiest book, and the Hadith, a collection of Islamic holy writings that supplement the Quran, a messianic figure will arise in the last days of history known as Al Mahdi. He, along with the 'Prophet Jesus,' (False Prophet) will lead the Muslim believers to victory over the infidels (Christians and Jews)."
Jelas bahawa mereka tidak akan menerima orang yang mereka anggap sebagai "NABI PALSU" sebagai "penyelamat" (Jesus Christ) yang mereka nanti-nantikan sejak sekian lama. Lihat betapa kelirunya mereka dan sia-sia sahaja mereka menunggu dengan penuh semangat (Jesus akan turun menyelamatkan mereka).
"Islam teaches that Jesus was born of Mary and was a great prophet but that he is not the Son of God. Muslims teach that it is not possible for God to have a son. This opposing view of who Jesus is one of the greatest distinctions between Islam and Christianity."
Sememangnya konsep TRINITY telah menyesatkan mereka begitu jauh sehingga sukar mereka menerima kebenaran. Islam menolak dan menafikan Jesus itu anak tuhan bertentangan dengan doktrin gereja Kristian. Jika tidak kerana TRINITY itu tidaklah begitu susah mereka mencari jawapan terhadap persoalan yang memeningkan kepala mereka.

Mereka berusaha untuk mengenali Imam Mahadi melalui beberapa kajian terhadap Hadis-Hadis seperti yang yang di "ketengahkan":

"Quotes from the Hadith:"al Mahadi will return at the head of the forces of righteousness and do battle with the forces of evil in one, final, apocalyptic battle. When evil has been defeated once and for all, the al Mahadi will rule the world for several years under a perfect government and bring about a perfect spirituality among the peoples of the world. After the al Mahdi has reigned for several years, Jesus Christ will return"
"al Mahadi: His forehead will be broad and his nose will be high. He will fill the world with justice and fairness at a time when the world will be filled with oppression. He will rule for seven years."
"Allah will give Al-Mahdi the ability to righteously rule the Muslim nation in the span of a night. He will fill the earth with justice, as it was filled with injustice. He will lead the Muslim nation to the second conquering of Constantinople and possibly Rome."
Bagi menyesuaikan apa yang tercatit pada kitab mereka (Bible) mereka menuduh Nabi Isa as adalah nabi palsu. Sukar bagi mereka menerima hakikat Nabi Isa akan membawa syariat Islam dan membuang salib. Nabi Isa as tidak membela mereka sepertimana yang mereka percaya dan harapkan, bahkan menidakkan ajaran Kristian dengan membuang salib, tindakan ini seolah-olah "memusuhi" mereka:
"According to the Quran, Islam's holiest book, and the Hadith, a collection of Islamic holy writings that supplement the Quran, a messianic figure will arise in the last days of history known as Al Mahdi. He, along with the 'Prophet Jesus,' (False Prophet) will lead the Muslim believers to victory over the infidels (Christians and Jews).
1) The word, Mahdi, means 'The Guided One.'
2) According to Islam's holy writings, one day the entire world will be converted to Islam. Leading this revival will be the Mahdi, who will assume the role as the Islamic Messiah.
3) Islamic tradition teaches that Jesus will return from heaven in the last days and follow the Mahdi into Jerusalem, where Jesus will deny he is the Son of God.
4) Then, together the two will destroy the 'Cross'(Christianity) and kill the Jews who will be 'hiding behind rocks.' Afterwards Islamic justice will prevailand the world will submit to the rule of Mahdi, and Jesus.
5) All branches of Islam teach on the Mahdi. All Muslims believe this!
In addition, Islam's holy writings describe the Islamic messiah's lineage, name, facial features, etc. in great detail. "
He will be tall
He will be fair complexioned
His father's name will be Abdullah
His mother's name will be Aamina
He will speak with a slight stutter and occasionally this stutter will frustrate him causing him to hit his hand upon his thigh.
Kita tinggalkan dahulu kaum Kristian dengan gelagat mereka.

Yahudi Zionis

Zionis terus menerus mengkaji rahsia dan petunjuk yang disebutkan di dalam alQuran dan Hadis malah lebih gigih berbanding kebanyakan orang Islam sendiri. Siapakah Zionis adakah sama dengan Yahudi lainnya? Sila rujuk artikel sebelum ini mengenai bangsa terlaknat ini. Mereka juga induk kepada YAKJUJ dan MAKJUJ.

Mereka adalah ejen kepada Dajjal laknatullah. Mereka mengumpul sebanyak-banyaknya emas untuk menguasai perekonomian dunia, (sila kaji siapa ' Illuminati bloodline"). Semua keuntungan adalah untuk "boss" mereka Dajjal laknatullah, semua emas dan dana yang dikumpulkan kini sedang disalurkan ke Israel iaitu tempat bersemayamnya "raja" mereka (Dajjal). Mereka akan aturkan kejatuhan semua matawang kertas termasuk negara Malaysia dan USA juga tak terkecuali. Hanya emas dan mungkin perak sahaja akan bernilai. Wang baru berserta CHIPs akan dilancarkan oleh mereka ini. Ada kisah tentang chips dengan lambang "beast" iaitu 666. Saya tidak akan bicarakan hal tersebut.

Lawati laman web zionis – “ Temple institute”. Di sana kita akan lihat betapa gigihnya kaum Yahudi mahu membina biara suci untuk menyambut kedatangan "Raja" mereka yang mereka nanti sebagaimana yang tercatat dalam kitab mereka.

The Temple Institute is Founded
Archeological Devastation
Jews return to the Mount
Dajjal mampu menguasai sebilangan besar penduduk bumi ini melalui pertolongan Iblis (Lucifer). Kumpulan yang dinaungi oleh Dajjal ini tidak pernah lalai dan berhenti mengesan Imam Mahadi di serata pelusuk dunia terutama di lokasi yang disyaki seperti "khorasan", Indonesia dan Malaysia selain negara-negara Timur Tengah.

Apakah Imam Mahadi akan dibiarkan jika ditemui oleh Dajjal? Pembaca sendiri tentu sudah maklum jawapannya.

Adakah kita tidak percaya dengan kenyataan ini ataupun tidak ambil peduli dan hanya mengatakan "hanya Allah yang Maha Mengetahui" tanpa perlu mengkajinya? Ramai diantara kita tidak mengambil berat soal ini kerana telah tergoda oleh "fitnah Dajjal" yang diatur sekian lama tanpa disedari. Berbeza dengan kelompok kaum yang menjadi hamba Dajjal. Mereka akan terus mengkaji tanpa jemu.

Mereka (ejen Dajjal) begitu yakin Imam Mahadi tidak akan muncul dalam bentuk personaliti sebagaimana yang kita bayangkan selama ini. Mereka mendakwa dapat merasakan wujudnya "keganjilan" dan "helah" penceritaan mengenai Imam Mahadi ini. Baik dari segi perwatakan, peribadi atau tempat kelahirannya. Inilah perkara yang amat menyusahkan dan membimbangkan musuh-musuhnya. Begitulah kebenaran Islam dan kebijaksanaan Allah swt, Maha Perancang.
PERSONALITI Imam Mahadi

Secara logiknya akan berlaku penyamaran sebagai pelindung dan ini akan berterusan sehingga masanya yang sesuai. Ia akan selamat dari bencana manusia. Oleh itu sesiapa sahaja yang mengaku dan mendakwa dia "Imam Mahadi" adalah seorang pendusta dan pembohong. Tiada siapa akan mengenalinya walaupun kita telah bertemu atau bergaul dengannya setiap hari. Orang Islam juga akan terkeliru, apa lagi mereka yang bukan Islam. Sila renung kembali kisah Uwais al-Qarni ra yang hanya dikenali oleh Rasulullah sahaja, para sahabat pun tidak mengenalinya sehingga diberitahu.

KHALIFAH (King)

Imam Mahadi adalah seorang pemerintah (raja) yang memerintah "umat ini" selama 7 tahun. Jelas bahawa beliau bukan orang kebanyakan kerana sifatnya seperti sifat Rasulullah, bukan juga dari kalangan seorang raja yang sedia ada kerana sifatnya dan keteguhannya kepada tauhid dan adil. Adakah wujud pemerintah yang ada sekarang ini zuhud, warak dan adil? Jadi timbul pula pertanyaan baru, bagaimana caranya Imam Mahadi mendapat sokongan untuk menjadi pemerintah kerana dimana-mana tempat di dunia ini sudah ada pemerintah tersendiri (yang dilantik melalui demokrasi). Jawapan yang boleh kita agak ialah beliau hanya memerintah selepas Dajjal dihapuskan dan pusat pemerintahannya di Pelestin (Baitul Maqdis). Dari sinilah bermulanya era baru yang penuh keadilan dan kesaksamaan seperti yang disebut di dalam Hadis Rasulullah SAW.

Persoalan lain pula timbul, adakah dia sudah menjadi RAJA atau khalifah Daulah Timur sebelum memerintah di Baitul Maqdis itu ? Ada bukti bahawa beliau adalah "raja" dari timur (King of the East) yang menyerang tentera Dajjal. Didalam kitab2 agama terdahulu termasuklah Bible menceritakan pasukan dari Timur ini akan tiba sebaik sahaja sungai Furat kering. King of the East inilah yang bergabung dengan tentera Kristian dan membawa kemenangan menentang tentera Anti Christ (Dajjal). Negara manakah Daulah Timur tersebut? Ada hadis yang menyebut "dari Khorasan". Di manakah terletaknya Khorasan ini? Pada masa ini Khorasan ialah satu daerah di negara Iran. Kita lihat peta Khorasan lama dimana ia meliputi satu kawasan yang luas berbanding yang wujud pada hari ini.

KHORASAN (zaman keagungan Parsi)
Ramai juga pengkaji meramalkan dan tidak kurang juga yang amat yakin bahawa pemuda Bani Tamim itu adalah dari Khorasan (Khurasan) yang asalnya ialah kawasan yang luas meliputi sebahagian dari negara Parsi, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan dan utara Pakistan.

Pendokong kuat Imam Mahdi ialah Pemuda Bani Tamim yang sekaligus menjadi 'tulang belakang' kepada kekuatan Imam Mahdi. Pemuda Bani Tamim berasal dari Timur dan mengikut pandangan Syeikh Dr Walid al-'Ani yang dimaksudkan dengan Timur itu ialah Afghanistan. Namanya ialah Syuaib Bin Soleh. Beliau ialah seorang pemimpin tentera yang hebat. Pada waktu malam beliau terkenal sebagai seorang yang amat kuat dan khusyuk beribadah, manakala pada waktu siang pula, pula digeruni oleh musuh dengan ketangkasannya dalam medan perang.

Logiknya kemungkinan ini adalah kerana rekod perjuangan kental para Mujahideen Afghanistan terbukti amat digeruni pihak lawan walaupun dari negara kuasa-kuasa besar seperti Rusia dan USA. Keimanan mereka tinggi dan mereka berjuang kerana Allah bukan kerana habuan dunia.

Dari beberapa kajian yang dibuat juga menunjukkan bangsa Phatan/Phastun mempunyai pertalian darah dengan Bani Israel (Bani Ishaq) tetapi tiada kaitan dengan orang Yahudi Khazar yang menduduki negara Israel sekarang. Sebab itu Afghanistan di "tawan" oleh tentera USA yang menjadi alat ILLUMINAT yang kini berpusat di Israel. Secara mudahnya, pihak Yahudi akan mengambil kesempatan mencari pemuda Bani Tamim ini sambil menghalang kebangkitan tentera al Mahdi. Petikan artikel "Black Banner from the East" Research Paper by Bilal Khan.
"the army of Mehdi will consist of Muslims from Bani-Israel from Khurasan holding black flags. No power in the world will be able to stop them till they reach Jerusalem and erect their flags where there is Aqsa Mosque standing today."
"The older Persian province of Khorasan (also known as the Greater Khorasan) included parts which are today in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Some of the main historical cities of Persia are located in the older Khorasan: Nishapur and Tus (now in Iran), Merv and Sanjan (now in Turkmenistan), Samarkand and Bukhara (both now in Uzbekistan), Herat and Balkh (now in Afghanistan), Khujand and Panjakent (now in Tajikistan). In its long history, Khorasan knew many conquerors and empires: Greeks, Arabs, Seljuk Turks, Safavids, Pashtuns (ethnic Afghans) and others."
Sementara DAJJAL (ANTI-CHRIST) adalah NABI PALSU dan MENDAKWA dirinya sebagai ISA ALMASIH yang dinantikan oleh penganut Kristian. Persediaan awal telah dilakukan dengan baik menaikkan imej Jesust Christ (Yesus) berwajah Eropah, berkuli cerah berambut ikal warna kuning mayang. Dari penyelidikan sumber sejarah telah terdapat fakta bahawa Nabi Isa as berkulit sedikit gelap dan berambut hitam kerinting sesuai dengan perwatakan Bani Israel. Lukisan pada dinding-dinding bangunan purba dan piramid di Mesir telah membuktikannya.

Bayangkan apabila Nabi Isa muncul nanti dan memperkenalkan dirinya sebagai "Yesus" kepada penganut kristian. Apa pandangan mereka terhadapnya? Adakah mereka (penganut Kristian) akan mempercayai kata-katanya? Tentu sekali mereka akan mendustainya kerana perawakannya tidak sama dengan wajah yang ada pada lukisan dan ukiran patung yang telah di"sogok" oleh pengikut Dajjal kepada mereka. Betapa bijaknya pengikut Dajjal ini mengelirukan berjuta-juta manusia kristian ini. Tambahan pula Nabi Isa as akan membawa akidah Islam yang selama ini amat mereka musuhi.

Dajjal pula akan berjaya menjadi al Masih dan akan diterima sebagai Yesus, penyelamat mereka. Konsep trinity juga mirip pegangan masyarakat Yahudi sekarang (zionis) yang mengamalkan fahaman Kabbalah berformat paganisma Mesir purba. Memang trajis fenomena ini.

Bagaimana bentuknya Dajjal ini. Adakah serupa dengan apa yang kita fikirkan? Siapakah sebenarnya dia? Dari beberapa keterangan, dia munculkan diri lebih awal dari Imam Mahadi dan Nabi Isa.

Dari Jabir bin Abdullah, katanya Rasulullah s.a.w bersabda:"Dajjal muncul pada waktu orang tidak berpegang kepada agama dan jahil tentang agama. Pada zaman Dajjal ada empat puluh hari, yang mana satu hari terasa bagaikan setahun, ada satu hari yang terasa bagaikan sebulan, ada satu hari yang terasa satu minggu, kemudian hari-hari berikutnya seperti hari biasa".

Dia tidak akan muncul sehingga manusia (sebahagian besar) meninggalkan agama dan penghuni dunia asyik memikirkan kepuasan nafsu dan keseronokan. Fitnah Dajal adalah "besar dan serius". Ini bukan masalah hidup atau mati tetapi kesengsaraan, mereka yang terpengaruh dengan sihir Dajjal akan jadi kafir, Na’uzubillah. Sabda Rasulullah saw mahfumnya, sejak zaman Nabi Adam, tidak ada Nabi yang tidak mengingatkan umat mereka tentang fitnah Dajal. Sedarlah dan sedarkanlah seluruh kaum muslimin tentang peristiwa paling dahsyat yang bakal berlaku. Jika kita perhatikan fenomena semasa, mungkin sebahagian darinya telah dan sedang berlaku.

Sebelum Dajjal muncul akan berlaku "kemarau" selama 3 tahun. Manusia akan menderita dalam kepayahan hidup yang cukup menyiksakan disamping peperangan dan pembunuhan yang tak terkawal. Kita harus bersedia jika ingin selamat dari fitnah "terbesar" Dajjal (menawarkan "syurga" kepada siapa yang mengakuinya sebagai tuhan) ketika dunia dihimpit kesengsaraan yang amat perit.

BERITA YANG MENGGERUNKAN ....

Jangan mengambil mudah dan hayatilah setiap peristiwa berlaku berlaku, kerana ia menjurus kepada satu mala petaka yang akan meruntuhkan iman. Perangkap durjana telah lama menjerat kita tanpa disedari.
layari blog rakan seperjuangan saya, ada sesuatu yang mengejutkan..

http://holywar-efairy.blogspot.com/2009/12/pope-roman-peter-ii-cantus-benedictine.html#comment-form

SAYANG SEKALI BLOG INI TELAH DIGODAM DAN DITAMATKAN RIWAYATNYA. Namun saya ada menyimpan salinan artikel tersebut, KLIK sini atau sila ke ABATASA II

Kita kembali kepada Imam Mahdi atau Al Mahdi. Telah dijelaskan, beliau adalah dari keturunan cucu Rasulullah SAW, Saidina Hassan bin Ali Bin Abi Thalib. Bernama Muhammad Bin Abdullah.

Dari Ibnu Umar bahawa Nabi SAW telah mengambil tangan Saidina Ali ra dan bersabda: “Akan keluar dari sulbi ini pemuda yang akan memenuhi dunia dengan keadilan (Al Mahdi). Bilamana kamu melihat yang demikian itu, maka wajib kamu mencari Pemuda dari Bani Tamim itu, dia datang dari sebelah Timur dan dia adalah pemegang bendera Al Mahdi“ dari Al Hawi Lil Fatawa oleh Imam Suyuti

Kemunculannya menjadi tajuk bualan hangat sejak kebelakangan ini. Kenapa? Kerana semua tanda-tanda kecil kiamat telah nyata dan hanya menanti tanda-tanda besar sahaja. Samaada ia akan muncul sekarang atau kemudian nanti tidak menjadi soal, apa yang jelas dari Hadis di atas ialah - ia (Pemuda Bani Tamim) akan datang dari "TIMUR". Bukan dari tanah Arab. Adakah pemuda Bani Tamim ini Imam Mahadi sendiri? atau orang lain,  apa sahaja yang berlaku nanti, tanggung jawab kita ialah "..... maka wajib kamu mencari Pemuda dari Bani Tamim itu".  Untuk itu kita perlu membuat kajian mengenainya.

Diriwayatkan oleh Al-Imam Abu Daud dalam, “Telah berkata Ali sambil memandang puteranya Hassan,” Sesungguhnya Puteraku ini ialah syed sebagaimana yang telah dinamakan oleh Nabi SAW. Dari keturunannya akan lahir seorang lelaki yang namanya seperti nama Nabi kamu, menyerupai baginda dalam perangai dan tidak menyerupai baginda dalam rupa dan bentuk.”

Adakah dia seorang Raja atau Pemerintah (Perdana Menteri, Presiden atau Khalifah) ?

Bahawa Al Mahdi ini mempunyai dua ciri-ciri besar iaitu akan mendapat daulah di sebelah Timur dan akan memegang pedang Zulfaqor (Dhu al-Faqar) sebagai bukti bahawa ia membawa kebenaran.

Malangnya tiada sesiapa yang mengetahui dan mengenali Imam Mahadi ini termasuk "dirinya sendiri" sehinggalah di islahkan dalam satu malam. Dalam keadaan kacau bilau kerana kemangkatan raja, Imam Mahadi dilantik untuk menjadi pemimpin.

Sabda Rasulullah saw ”Akan terjadi perselisihan (kekacauan) setelah wafatnya seorang pemimpin, maka keluarlah seorang lelaki dari ahli Madinah mencari perlindungan menuju ke Mekkah, lalu lelaki itu didatangi oleh sekumpulan manusia dari ahli Mekkah, maka mereka membai’at paksa lelaki itu di antara Rukun dan Makam Ibrahim padahal ia tidak suka dengan hal itu, kemudian suatu pasukan diutus dari ahli Syam (untuk menangkap orang-orang yang berbai’at itu), maka mereka dibenamkan ke dalam bumi di suatu tempat bernama Al-Baida antara Mekkah dan Madinah.” (HR Abu Dawud)

Sajauh mana keyakinan anda setakat ini?

TIGA KELOMPOK MANUSIA SEDANG MENANTI ORANG YANG AKAN MUNCUL SEBAGAI "PENYELAMAT". ISU INI MENJADI TAJUK PERBINCANGAN HANGAT OLEH PENGANUT ISLAM, KRISTIAN DAN YAHUDI. Masing-masing mendakwa merekalah di pihak yang benar.

Apa yang pasti, Al Mahdi tetap akan muncul, hanya masa menentukannya. Beliau bukanlah manusia sembarangan tetapi yang terpilih dikalangan penghuni dunia akhir masa. Kehebatannya sehebat hulubalang agung Saidina Ali ra dan pekertinya pula halus selunak pekerti Baginda Rasulullah SAW.

Pihak illuminati zionis amat gerun kepada berita kemunculan lelaki pilihan ini. Mereka menggelar dan memanggil Imam Mahdi ini sebagai Muhammad kedua dan menamakan Rasulullah saw sebagai Muhammad pertama. Apakah maksudnya, sama-samalah kita cuba fikirkan. Muslimin yang soleh dan patuh mengikut sunnah Nabi pula (benar-benar bertaqwa) dianggap sahabat Muhammad (kedua) ini..

Segalanya masih menjadi rahsia. TIDAK AKAN DIKETAHUI sehinggalah bai'ah (perlantikan) di makam Ibrahim - penjuru Kaabah.

          The Crimean Farce        

The people of Crimea have spoken. In yesterday’s referendum, they voted overwhelmingly to secede from Ukraine and join Russia. According to Russia’s Itar-Tass news agency, the vote was 93 percent to 7 percent. According to Russia Today, it was 96 percent to 3 percent.

It’s an amazing victory. Even more amazing when you consider that according to the most recent census, 37 percent of the Crimean population is ethnically Ukrainian or Tatar. Yet only 3 to 7 percent voted against leaving Ukraine and embracing Mother Russia.

To be fair, it’s not quite as amazing as last week’s election in North Korea. There, beloved leader Kim Jong-in was re-elected to the parliament with 100 percent of the vote. The ruling party holds all 687 seats. And last year in Cuba, voters approved 100 percent of the national assembly candidates put forward by official nominating committees.

How do exemplary democracies such as Russia, Cuba, and North Korea achieve these mandates? By rigging them, of course. As Charles Krauthammer pointed out long ago, the fraudulence of an election is proportionate to the margin of victory. My colleague Joshua Keating recently updated this pattern with stellar vote shares from Azerbaijan (85 percent), Kazakhstan (91 percent), Belorussia (93 percent), Turkmenistan (97 percent), Syria (98 percent), and Chechnya (99 percent). In The Dictator’s Learning Curve, Slate’s William J. Dobson notes that smarter tyrants have learned to water down such ridiculous margins.

Last year’s official report on the Cuban election, published by the Communist Party news outlet, Granma, began this way:

The 612 candidates for deputies to the National Assembly of People's Power and the 1,269 candidates for delegates to the 15 Provincial Assemblies of People's Power, were elected on February 3, according to information given by Alina Balseiro Gutiérrez, president of the National Electoral Commission (CEN), in a press conference. Once again, Cubans exercised their universal, free and democratic right to elect their representatives, she affirmed.

The first word in the story—“the”—explains the rest. In Cuba, no alternative candidates are on the ballot. You can vote for the official candidate, or you can vote against him and take your chances. Among the nearly 2,000 official candidates, not one was rejected. Same deal in North Korea.

In Crimea, the recipe for overwhelming victory was subtler. First, you narrow the ballot to two choices: joining Russia or increasing Crimea’s autonomy from Ukraine. You exclude the status quo. Then you saturate Crimea with 21,000 Russian troops and put armed men outside polling stations.

The effects are impressive. All the voters emerging from a Simferopol polling station told the Kyiv Post they voted to join Russia. "We are Russians,” one woman explained. Meanwhile, in a district “where many Crimean Tatars live … only 10 percent of registered voters were reported to have taken part in the referendum. The Kyiv Post saw just one Crimean Tatar couple there. They refused to give comments.” The New York Times adds:

Citizens with misgivings about joining Mr. Putin’s Russian Federation, particularly Crimean Tatars, a Muslim Turkic people with a history of persecution by Russia, generally opted to stay home rather than participate in what they called a rigged vote. At a cultural center that served as a polling station in Bakhchysaray, the historical home of Crimean Tatars, few if any Tatars were casting ballots.

The Crimean election reminds me of a focus group I observed years ago, after Slate had erected a pay wall. Microsoft, which then owned Slate, had recruited members of the focus group from people who said they had visited the site recently. I listened to everything the participants said and took notes. I thought I was learning what our audience thought.

After the session was over, the moderator came backstage to talk to me and the other observers. The important finding in the focus group, he explained, wasn’t what the people in the room thought. The important finding was that all of them had been reading Slate before we put up the pay wall. We weren’t acquiring new readers. The pay wall was killing us.

The lesson from Crimea is similar. Sometimes the message of an election isn’t what the voters said. It’s who didn’t vote. In Crimea, the people we needed to hear from weren’t even in the room.


          Ð‘ердымухамедов вступил в должность президента Туркменистана        

На торжественной церемонии инаугурации избранный президент Туркменистана Гурбангулы Бердымухамедов принес присягу, передает «Интерфакс». После этого новоизбранному главе государства было вручено удостоверение президента. Ранее Президент России Владимир Путин поздравил Бердымухамедова с победой на президентских выборах. Действующий президент Туркмении Гурбангулы Бердымухамедов был переизбран на должность главы государства на третий срок. Он набрал 97,69% голосов избирателей.

Запись Бердымухамедов вступил в должность президента Туркменистана впервые появилась События дня - InfoRU.news.


          Iqbal: His Life and Our Times        
Cover design MelloWatts 
Originally published at Marghdeen Learning Centre

The mind of Goethe,
The heart of Rumi,
The message of the Quran.

This was the unparalleled legacy of the poet-philosopher credited with birthing a nation and a state, and at no other time has the world been more ready to embrace his ideas than it is right now. 


The story of his mind, and what he taught, as told herein from a new and compelling angle, leads us on a trail of discovery towards a new way of life. You're invited to approach this as a handbook for implementing his life-giving ideas.
The above-quoted blurb reflects the spirit in which my new book, Iqbal: His Life and Our Times, is being offered. The book is a tribute to Iqbal by ten sovereign states, since it is being published jointly by Iqbal Academy Pakistan and the Cultural Institute of the Economic Cooperation Organization, which is the successor organization of the RCD and now includes Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

The international edition is being brought out by Libredux, UK, on behalf of the original publishers. It will be available from Thursday, May 8.

It can be ordered from the page on the Createspace Website. It will also be available on other websites, including Amazon. The Pakistani edition is hopefully coming out by the end of this month.  

Much has been written about Iqbal but this book may turn out to be different (even from my earlier writings) because it presents Iqbal with a special focus on how his ideas can be implemented today - especially in Pakistan and the Muslim world, but also elsewhere - by individuals as well as societies. I have kept it less than 200 pages, so that it may serve as a compact handbook.

Until the book comes out this Thursday, I offer you following introduction written by two people for whom I have deep respect and gratitude.


Introduction
by 
Muhammad Suheyl Umar, Director, Iqbal Academy Pakistan;
and Iftikhar Arif, Director, ECO Cultural Institute (ECI)

Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938) is the only poet and thinker in the history of world literature who has been credited with the birth of a new nation and a new state. It is therefore very befitting that a handbook about his life and thought should be brought out by an organization comprising of ten member states. The Economic Cooperation Organization’s Cultural Institute (ECI) is pleased to bring out this publication jointly with Iqbal Academy Pakistan.

In addition to his unique status in Pakistan, Iqbal also happens to be either a national poet or a household inspiration in several other countries including Iran, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and India. In Turkey, his symbolic grave stands in the compound of the mausoleum of Maulana Jalaluddin Rumi. In the universities of Heidelberg and Cambridge, there are chairs or fellowships in his name. Roads, buildings and monuments have been named after him in other countries too, including Mauritius.

Iqbal: His Life and Our Times fulfils the need for a simple and reliable introduction to the life and work of this unmatched genius, highlighting the practical relevance of his ideas for those who wish to consider them for implementation. The author, Khurram Ali Shafique, is well-known in the field of Iqbal Studies. The awards which he has received for his previous publications include the coveted Presidential Iqbal Award.

The present volume includes many findings that are the outcome of the author’s original research. Of special interest to the general readers as well as the experts would be the evidence, presented here for the first time, which establishes a historical connection between the political ideas of Iqbal, the American thinker Mary Parker Follett and the Bengali visionary C. R. Das. 

We are hoping that this volume will offer much by way of looking at the present times from new avenues. 

It is shown here that the views expressed by Iqbal in his poetry and prose formed a coherent system of thought, and the same was implemented by him through political and social action. 

This is to dispel the myth which has been preventing a deeper understanding of Iqbal’s thought until now, i.e. the false but widely perpetuated assumption that the ideas presented by Iqbal were either inconsistent with each other or they kept undergoing such perpetual changes throughout his life that they cannot be considered for implementation in any other time.

The system of his thought and its underlying principles are being presented here, perhaps for the first time. It is also being shown that in spite of its inner coherence, the system of Iqbal’s thought kept pace with the evolution of the collective life of his community. 

This evolution can be studied by dividing the intellectual life of the poet-philosopher into three stages: inquiry, discovery and transcendence. The duration of each stage has been established here on the basis of biographical and textual evidence, and the book has been divided into three chapters accordingly. 

Each of these three stages started in his mental life when his community adopted a new goal collectively. The goals, their relevance to the world and humanity, their implications for Iqbal, and his contribution towards achieving them are issues which are being discussed here in a fresh light. This may turn out be one of the most significant contributions which this book will make to the subject.

If nations of the world desire to come closer in their hearts and minds, they cannot ignore to learn about the ideas, emotions and visions of each other. The Economic Cooperation Organization’s Cultural Institute (ECI), formed through a charter at the third summit meeting of the countries of ECO held at Islamabad in 1995, aims at fostering understanding and the preservation of the rich cultural heritage of its members through common projects in the field of the media, literature, art, philosophy, sport and education. 

The present volume is being offered in line with this vision, and with the conviction that it is important for everybody to be informed about the ideas of Iqbal, since they may be counted among those cultural forces which have gone into shaping a significant part of our world.

This conviction is shared by Iqbal Academy Pakistan, a statutory body of the Government of Pakistan, originally established through an act of parliament in 1951 and reinforced through an ordinance in 1962. The aims and objectives of the Academy are to promote and disseminate the study and understanding of the works and teachings of Iqbal. The Academy has been translating its objectives into action and activity through a number of measures including publication programme, IT projects, outreach activities, Iqbal Award Programme, website, research and compilation, audio-video, multimedia, archive projects as well as exhibitions, conferences, seminars, projection abroad, research guidance, academic assistance, donations and library services.

We hope that the readers will benefit from the book which we are offering here jointly, and this will go a long way in achieving our common objectives.

          ÐŸÑƒÑ‚ин поздравил Бердымухамедова с победой на президентских выборах Туркменистана        

Президент России Владимир Путин поздравил президента Туркменистана Гурбангулы Бердымухамедова с победой на президентских выборах. Об этом сообщает пресс-служба Кремля. «Итоги голосования подтверждают Ваш высокий политический авторитет, свидетельствуют о широком признании Ваших заслуг на посту главы государства, а также о поддержке Вашего курса на дальнейшее укрепление национальной экономики и повышение уровня жизни граждан Туркменистана», — говорится в тексте телеграммы российского президента. Кроме того, Путин высоко оценил вклад Бердымухамедова в развитие дружественных отношений между двумя странами и выразил уверенность в продолжении конструктивного диалога и плодотворной совместной работы по актуальным вопросам двусторонней и международной повестки дня в интересах народов России и Туркменистана в русле обеспечения стабильности и безопасности в Центральноазиатском регионе. Ранее сообщалось, что действующий президент Туркмении Гурбангулы Бердымухамедов переизбран на должность главы государства на третий срок.

Запись Путин поздравил Бердымухамедова с победой на президентских выборах Туркменистана впервые появилась События дня - InfoRU.news.


          Ð¯Ð²ÐºÐ° на выборах президента Туркменистана составила 94,17%        

В Туркменистане в 19.00 по местному времени (17.00 мск) завершилось голосование на выборах президента республики, явка составила 3 млн 40 тыс. 779 человек или 94,17% зарегистрированных избирателей, сообщает «Интерфакс». Теперь избирательным комиссиям предстоит провести подсчет голосов. Избирательные участки работали по всей стране с 7.00 (5.00 мск), голосование проходило и в дипломатических представительствах и консульских учреждениях Туркменистана за рубежом. Претенденты на пост президента Туркменистана, в том числе и действующий глава государства были в числе первых, кто пришел на избирательные участки. Всего на выборах зарегистрированы девять кандидатов. За ходом выборов следят национальные и международные наблюдатели. В сентябре 2016 года туркменский меджлис единогласно принял новую конституцию государства, в которой отсутствует положение о возрастном ограничении в 70 лет для избрания на пост президента.

Запись Явка на выборах президента Туркменистана составила 94,17% впервые появилась События дня - InfoRU.news.


          Anonymous Proxy List - May 06, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Country

190.166.47.187:8080:HTTPS:Dominican Republic
41.208.68.20:3128:HTTPS:Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
54.251.150.254:80:HTTP:United States
54.251.150.255:80:HTTP:United States
64.145.83.252:11493:HTTPS:United States
66.54.126.45:8080:HTTPS:Jamaica
77.94.48.4:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
84.200.69.94:7808:HTTPS:Germany
183.89.44.114:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
188.115.144.209:3128:HTTPS:Ukraine
200.23.246.200:80:HTTP:Mexico
178.18.17.211:3128:HTTPS:United States
180.183.174.243:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
91.228.53.28:3128:HTTPS:Germany
116.50.153.66:3128:HTTPS:Philippines
211.195.207.62:8080:HTTPS:Korea

          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - May 01, 2013        
IP | Port | Type | Country

176.34.88.20:29786:HTTPS:Anonymous:Ireland
209.141.58.4:7808:HTTPS:Anonymous:Canada
176.34.88.20:29786:HTTPS:Anonymous:Ireland
209.141.58.4:7808:HTTPS:Anonymous:Canada
66.54.126.45:8080:HTTPS:Anonymous:Jamaica
77.94.48.4:80:HTTP:Anonymous:Turkmenistan
94.107.236.108:80:HTTPS:Anonymous:Belgium
200.23.246.200:80:HTTP:Anonymous:Mexico
133.242.155.125:3128:HTTPS:Anonymous:Japan
180.183.174.243:3128:HTTPS:Anonymous:Thailand
91.228.53.28:8089:HTTPS:Anonymous:Germany
91.228.53.28:7808:HTTPS:Anonymous:Germany

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          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - April 28, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

176.34.88.20:29786:HTTPS:Ireland
54.251.150.255:80:HTTP:United States
66.54.126.45:8080:HTTPS:Jamaica
77.94.48.4:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
81.196.156.93:80:HTTPS:Romania
210.242.4.253:81:HTTP:Taiwan
211.195.207.62:8080:HTTPS:Korea
133.242.155.125:3128:HTTPS:Japan
116.50.153.66:3128:HTTPS:Philippines
180.183.232.117:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
180.183.153.3:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
91.228.53.28:7808:HTTPS:Germany
180.183.174.243:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
187.95.110.233:80:HTTPS:Brazil

          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - April 19, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

77.94.48.4:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
61.91.89.29:80:HTTPS:Thailand
180.183.187.199:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
180.183.243.234:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
200.23.246.200:80:HTTP:Thailand
202.47.247.152:8080:HTTP:Thailand
202.146.237.70:8013:HTTPS:Indonesia
183.89.81.152:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
180.183.71.68:3128:HTTP:Thailand
188.64.128.1:3128:HTTPS:Russia
113.12.83.157:80:HTTP:China
203.80.222.9:8081:HTTP:Hong Kong

          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - April 16, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

61.91.89.29:8080:HTTPS:Thailand
77.94.48.5:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
173.245.220.140:11493:HTTPS:United States
202.108.251.214:8888:HTTPS:China
216.172.131.220:11493:HTTPS:United States
216.172.131.32:11493:HTTPS:United States
216.172.131.6:11493:HTTPS:United States
221.176.14.72:80:HTTP:China
61.91.89.29:80:HTTPS:Thailand
173.245.220.231:11493:HTTPS:United States
222.73.242.137:81:HTTP:China
64.145.83.82:11493:HTTPS:United States
180.183.246.104:8080:HTTPS:Thailand
190.52.120.39:8080:HTTPS:Peru
216.172.131.186:11493:HTTPS:United States
216.172.131.4:11493:HTTPS:United States
64.145.83.179:11493:HTTPS:United States
64.145.83.252:11493:HTTPS:United States
173.245.220.160:11493:HTTPS:United States
173.245.220.48:11493:HTTPS:United States
173.245.220.49:11493:HTTPS:United States
183.89.68.141:8080:HTTPS:Thailand
216.172.131.10:11493:HTTPS:United States
216.172.131.180:11493:HTTPS:United States
62.24.103.194:8081:HTTPS:Kenya
64.145.83.110:11493:HTTPS:United States
64.145.83.186:11493:HTTPS:United States
64.145.83.60:11493:HTTPS:United States

          Elite Anonymouse Proxy List - April 15, 2014        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

115.66.252.144:3128:HTTPS:Singapore
190.102.30.19:80:HTTP:Netherlands Antilles
190.213.15.141:6588:HTTPS:Trinidad and Tobago
196.0.39.237:443:HTTPS:Uganda
203.81.68.203:80:HTTP:Myanmar
212.49.70.48:10001:HTTPS:Kenya
41.188.61.246:80:HTTP:Madagascar
41.224.247.239:81:HTTP:Tunisia
61.91.89.29:8080:HTTPS:Thailand
77.94.48.5:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
80.255.2.225:443:HTTPS:Germany
91.103.29.66:3128:HTTPS:Armenia
111.13.55.11:80:HTTP:China
173.245.220.140:11493:HTTPS:United States
202.108.251.214:8888:HTTPS:China
216.172.131.220:11493:HTTPS:United States
216.172.131.32:11493:HTTPS:United States
216.172.131.6:11493:HTTPS:United States
221.176.14.72:80:HTTP:China
61.91.89.29:80:HTTPS:Thailand
122.228.68.72:80:HTTP:China
173.245.220.231:11493:HTTPS:United States
190.52.120.39:9090:HTTPS:Peru
216.172.131.100:11493:HTTPS:United States
64.145.83.82:11493:HTTPS:United States
180.183.246.104:8080:HTTPS:Thailand
190.52.120.38:8080:HTTPS:Peru
190.52.120.39:8080:HTTPS:Peru
216.172.131.186:11493:HTTPS:United States
216.172.131.4:11493:HTTPS:United States

          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - April 14, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

115.66.252.144:3128:HTTP:Singapore
116.50.153.66:3128:HTTPS:Philippines
119.233.255.50:80:HTTP:China
122.192.64.16:80:HTTP:China
178.18.17.211:8080:HTTPS:United States
190.102.17.240:80:HTTP:Netherlands Antilles
196.207.216.131:3128:HTTP:Senegal
200.28.4.131:80:HTTP:Chile
203.81.68.203:80:HTTP:Myanmar
209.97.203.60:3128:HTTP:Canada
212.49.70.48:10001:HTTPS:Kenya
46.238.24.34:8080:HTTP:Bulgaria
77.94.48.4:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
80.255.2.225:443:HTTPS:Germany
91.103.29.66:3128:HTTP:Armenia
111.13.55.11:80:HTTP:China
122.228.68.72:80:HTTP:China
173.213.113.111:3128:HTTPS:United States
173.213.113.111:8080:HTTPS:United States
177.19.149.246:80:HTTPS:Brazil
202.108.251.214:8888:HTTPS:China
221.176.14.72:80:HTTP:China
61.91.89.29:80:HTTPS:Thailand
61.91.89.29:8080:HTTPS:Thailand
76.191.98.246:8085:HTTP:United States
113.31.42.30:1080:HTTP:China
186.89.164.44:8080:HTTPS:Venezuela
218.204.131.250:3128:HTTPS:China
178.18.17.250:8080:HTTPS:United States
199.91.172.25:8080:HTTPS:United States

          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - April 12, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

117.6.72.38:8080:HTTPS:Viet Nam
173.213.113.111:8080:HTTPS:United States
61.91.89.29:80:HTTPS:Thailand
77.94.48.4:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
91.219.238.77:8080:HTTPS:Hungary
122.192.64.16:80:HTTP:China
173.213.113.111:3128:HTTPS:United States
178.18.17.211:3128:HTTPS:United States
199.91.172.25:3128:HTTPS:United States
61.91.89.29:8080:HTTPS:Thailand
178.18.17.211:8080:HTTPS:United States
183.89.79.83:3128:HTTP:Thailand
183.89.43.58:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
199.91.172.25:8080:HTTPS:United States
202.29.60.220:8080:HTTPS:Thailand
183.89.44.231:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
66.35.68.145:3128:HTTPS:United States
164.107.123.10:80:HTTP:United States
183.89.82.123:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
210.242.4.253:81:HTTP:Taiwan
190.52.120.39:9090:HTTPS:Peru
188.64.128.1:3128:HTTPS:Russia
189.210.174.146:80:HTTPS:Mexico
192.41.170.23:3128:HTTPS:Thailand
190.52.120.39:8080:HTTPS:Peru
200.23.246.200:80:HTTP:Mexico
119.184.214.18:808:HTTPS:China
202.146.237.70:8013:HTTPS:Indonesia
221.179.173.170:8080:HTTP:China
41.206.61.189:8080:HTTPS:Kenya
66.35.68.145:8080:HTTPS:United States
          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - April 10, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

116.50.153.66:3128:HTTPS:Philippines
122.192.64.16:80:HTTP:China
178.18.17.211:8080:HTTPS:United States
199.91.174.6:3128:HTTPS:United States
200.23.246.200:80:HTTP:Mexico
210.242.4.253:81:HTTP:High :[Taiwan
211.25.208.170:80:HTTPS:Malaysia
77.94.48.5:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
173.193.200.199:3128:HTTPS:United States
173.213.113.111:8080:HTTPS:United States
199.91.174.6:8080:HTTPS:United States
61.135.179.183:80:HTTP:China
91.219.238.77:8080:HTTPS:Hungary
216.230.230.57:8080:HTTPS:United States
190.52.120.39:9090:HTTPS:Peru
202.146.237.70:8013:HTTPS:Indonesia

          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - April 08, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

203.152.216.75:8080:HTTP:Japan
216.230.230.57:8080:HTTPS:United States
66.35.68.145:3128:HTTPS:United States
116.50.153.66:3128:HTTPS:Philippines
122.192.64.16:80:HTTP:China
200.23.246.200:80:HTTP:Mexico
211.25.208.170:80:HTTPS:Malaysia
77.94.48.5:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
178.18.17.211:3128:HTTPS:United States
173.255.142.206:8080:HTTPS:United States
186.24.38.157:8080:HTTPS:Venezuela
173.213.113.111:3128:HTTPS:United States
190.52.120.39:8080:HTTPS:Peru
199.91.174.6:8080:HTTP:United States
61.91.89.29:80:HTTPS:Thailand
173.213.113.111:8080:HTTPS:United States
5.34.244.212:8080:HTTPS:Europe
173.255.142.206:3128:HTTP:United States
190.52.120.38:9090:HTTPS:Peru
54.235.18.210:80:HTTP:United States
91.219.238.77:8080:HTTPS:Hungary
178.18.17.211:8080:HTTPS:United States
116.68.169.6:80:HTTPS:Indonesia
173.193.200.199:3128:HTTPS:United States
190.52.120.39:9090:HTTPS:Peru
199.91.174.6:3128:HTTPS:United States
207.177.47.178:80:HTTP:United States
210.242.4.253:81:HTTP:Taiwan
61.91.89.29:8080:HTTPS:Thailand
164.107.123.10:80:HTTP:United States
190.52.120.38:8080:HTTPS:Peru
198.154.63.115:3128:HTTPS:United States
41.206.61.189:8080:HTTPS:Kenya
5.39.119.105:8080:HTTPS:Europe
203.152.216.75:8080:HTTP:Japan
216.230.230.57:8080:HTTPS:United States
66.35.68.145:3128:HTTPS:United States

          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - Aprul 07, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

199.91.174.6:8080:HTTPS:United States:
209.97.203.64:3128:HTTP:Canada:
211.25.208.170:80:HTTPS:Malaysia:
77.94.48.4:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan:
91.219.238.77:8080:HTTPS:Hungary:
173.193.200.199:3128:HTTPS:United States:
186.24.38.157:8080:HTTPS:Venezuela:
190.52.120.39:8080:HTTPS:Peru:
173.213.113.111:3128:HTTPS:United States:
173.213.113.111:8080:HTTPS:United States:
190.52.120.39:9090:HTTPS:Peru:
199.91.174.6:3128:HTTPS:United States:
64.120.142.140:8080:HTTPS:United States:
64.37.51.112:8080:HTTPS:United States:
116.50.153.66:3128:HTTPS:Philippines:
61.91.89.29:80:HTTPS:Thailand:
61.91.89.29:8080:HTTPS:Thailand:
207.177.47.178:80:HTTP:United States:
54.235.18.210:80:HTTP:United States:
190.52.120.38:8080:HTTPS:Peru:
41.206.61.189:8080:HTTPS:Kenya:
198.154.63.115:3128:HTTPS:United States:
203.80.222.8:8081:HTTP:Hong Kong:
190.52.120.38:9090:HTTPS:Peru::
210.242.4.253:81:HTTP:Taiwan:
66.35.68.145:3128:HTTPS:United States:
66.35.68.145:8080:HTTPS:United States:
164.107.123.10:80:HTTP:United States:
5.34.244.212:8080:HTTPS:Europe:
202.146.237.70:8013:HTTPS:Indonesia:
203.152.216.75:8080:HTTP:Japan:
95.67.106.110:3128:HTTPS:Ukraine:



          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - April 04, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

200.23.246.200:80:HTTP:Mexico
77.94.48.5:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
85.112.66.248:80:HTTPS:Lebanon
91.213.108.178:80:HTTP:Poland
91.219.238.77:8080:HTTPS:Hungary
173.255.142.206:3128:HTTPS:United States
221.3.153.91:80:HTTP:High Anonymous:China
64.37.51.112:8080:HTTPS:United States
173.213.113.111:8080:HTTPS:United States
186.24.38.157:8080:HTTPS:Venezuela
61.91.89.29:8080:HTTPS:High Anonymous:Thailand
199.91.174.6:8080:HTTPS:United States
61.91.89.29:80:HTTPS:High Anonymous:Thailand
173.213.113.111:3128:HTTPS:United States
190.52.122.36:9090:HTTPS:Peru
199.91.174.6:3128:HTTPS:United States
218.204.131.250:3128:HTTPS:High Anonymous:China
66.35.68.145:3128:HTTPS:United States
173.193.200.199:8080:HTTPS:United States
190.52.120.39:8080:HTTPS:Peru
190.52.120.39:9090:HTTPS:Peru
164.107.123.10:80:HTTP:United States
173.193.200.199:3128:HTTPS:United States
190.52.120.38:80:HTTPS:Peru
190.52.120.38:9090:HTTPS:Peru
190.52.122.36:80:HTTPS:Peru
54.235.18.210:80:HTTP:United States
66.35.68.145:8080:HTTPS:United States

          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - April 02, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Protocol:Country

115.66.252.144:3128:HTTPS:Singapore:
116.50.153.66:3128:HTTPS:Philippines:
122.192.64.16:80:HTTP:China:
190.52.122.36:9090:HTTPS:Peru:
194.14.179.124:3128:HTTPS:Italy:
200.23.246.200:80:HTTP:Mexico:
77.94.48.4:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan:
91.213.108.178:80:HTTP:Poland:
91.219.238.77:8080:HTTPS:Hungary:
173.255.142.206:3128:HTTPS:United States:
173.255.142.206:8080:HTTPS:United States:
190.52.122.37:8080:HTTPS:Peru:
74.221.211.12:8080:HTTPS:United States:
199.91.174.6:3128:HTTPS:United States:
74.221.211.12:3128:HTTPS:United States:
173.213.113.111:3128:HTTPS:United States:
190.52.120.38:9090:HTTPS:Peru:
173.193.200.199:3128:HTTPS:United States:
190.52.120.38:80:HTTPS:Peru:
200.185.223.34:3128:HTTPS:Brazil:
207.177.47.178:80:HTTP:United States:
216.230.230.57:3128:HTTPS:United States

          Elite Anonymous Proxy List - April 01, 2013        
Proxy Address:Port:Country

117.6.72.38:8080:HTTPS:Viet Nam
122.192.64.16:80:HTTP:China
190.52.120.38:9090:HTTPS:Peru
194.14.179.124:3128:HTTPS:Italy
200.23.246.200:80:HTTP:Mexico
77.94.48.4:80:HTTP:Turkmenistan
87.236.233.92:8080:HTTPS:Jordan
91.219.238.77:8080:HTTPS:Hungary
173.255.142.206:3128:HTTPS:United States
173.255.142.206:8080:HTTPS:United States
190.52.120.39:8080:HTTPS:Peru
5.34.244.212:8080:HTTPS:Europe
74.221.211.12:8080:HTTPS:United States
119.167.231.184:80:HTTPS:China
164.107.123.10:80:HTTP:United States
190.52.122.36:9090:HTTPS:Peru
207.177.47.178:80:HTTP:United States
218.204.131.250:3128:HTTPS:China
173.193.200.199:3128:HTTPS:United States
173.193.200.199:8080:HTTPS:United States
194.14.179.124:8080:HTTPS:Italy Italy

          Bulan Sya'ban        
1 Sya'ban
Ibnu Thawus Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 1 Sya'ban tahun 693 Hijriah, Ghiyatsuddin Abu Muzaffar Abdul Karim bin Ahmad yang dijuluki Ibnu Thawus, seorang ahli fiqih dan sastrawan terkenal abad ke-7 Hijriah meninggal dunia di kota Kadzimain Irak.
Ibnu Thawus dilahirkan pada tahun 648 dan pada usianya ke-12 tahun, dia telah menghapal Al-Quran dan setelah itu dia mempelajari sastra. Dia belajar kepada ulama-ulama besar, di antaranya Nashiruddin Thusi. Ibnu Thawus banyak meninggalkan karya penulisan dalam bahasa Arab.

2 Sya'ban
Khoja Abdullah Anshari Lahir

Tanggal 2 Sya'ban 396 Hijriah, Khoja Abdullah Anshari, ahli fiqih, penyair, dan ulama terkemuka pada abad ke-5 Hijriah, terlahir ke dunia di kota Herat, Afghanistan. Dia dikenal dengan julukan "Pir Herat".
Abdullah Anshari banyak meninggalkan karya penulisan bernilai tinggi di bidang sufisme dengan format naratif dan syair, dalam bahasa Arab dan Persia. Karyanya yang paling terkenal adalah "Munajat Nameh", "Mahabbat Nameh", dan "Zadul Arifin". Dia juga menulis sebuah kitab tafsir Al-Quran yang bergaya sastra dan sufisme, sehingga menjadi aliran baru dalam penulisan tafsir Quran. Abdullah Anshari meninggal dunia pada tahun 481 Hijriah.

3 Sya'ban
Imam Husein Lahir

Tanggal 3 Sya'ban tahun keempat Hijriah, Imam Husein a.s. terlahir ke dunia. Masa-masa indah kehidupan Imam Husein dirasakan saat ia hidup bersama kakeknya, Muhamad SAWW. Imam Husein tumbuh besar dalam sebuah keluarga yang dipenuhi dengan kesempurnaan dan keutamaan akhlak. Keberadaan kedua orang tuanya, yaitu Imam Ali a.s. dan Sayyidah Fathimah s.a yang merupakan dua manusia utama hasil didikan Rasulullah, telah membuat Imam Husein juga menjadi manusia yang dipenuhi dengan keutamaan dan ma'rifat akan hakikat ilahiah. Selama hidupnya, saat Islam dihadapkan kepada bahaya, Imam Husein selalu tampil sebagai pembela.
Setelah saudaranya, Imam Hasan a.s., gugur syahid pada tahun 50 Hijriah, Imam Husain memegang tampuk imamah atau kepemimpinan atas ummat Islam. Pada tahun 61 Hijriah, Imam Husein pun mengikuti jejak kakaknya dalam memperjuangkan agama Islam. Pada tahun itu, beliau bersama 72 anggota keluarga dan sahabatnya, bertempur melawan ribuan pasukan Yazid bin Muawiyah di Padang Karbala.
Imam Husain menolak untuk berbaiat atau menyerah kepada penguasa zalim itu. Beliau dan anggota kafilahnya menemui kesyahidan. Kisah tragis gugurnya Imam Husein di Karbala menjadi drama tragedi paling pahit dalam sejarah ummat manusia. Akan tetapi, kisah ini justru menjadi sebab tetap tegaknya ajaran Islam di muka bumi ini dan selalu menjadi sumber semangat bagi perjuangan melawan kezaliman. Hari kelahiran Imam Husain di Iran diperingati pula sebagai hari Pasukan Garda Revolusi.

4 Sya'ban
Abul Fadhl Al-Abbas Lahir

Tanggal 4 Sya'ban tahun 27 Hijriah, Abbas bin Ali yang lebih dikenal dengan nama Abul Fadhl, lahir ke dunia. Ia adalah putera Imam Ali a.s. dari istri beliau, Ummul Banin. Abul Fadhl dibesarkan bersama saudara-saudaranya, yaitu Imam Hasan a.s. dan Imam Husein a.s. dalam didikan spiritual Imam Ali a.s.
Ketika Imam Hasan memegang tampuk imamah atau kepemimpinan atas ummat Islam, Abul Fadhl termasuk pendamping Imam yang sangat setia. Kesetiaan kepada jalan suci Ahlul Bait dia tunjukkan pada peristiwa heroik pembantaian keluarga Rasulullah di Padang Karbala, yang berakhir dengan gugurnya Imam Husein a.s. Dalam peristiwa itu, Abul Fadl Al-Abbas termasuk di antara para syuhada Karbala dengan kondisi kaki dan tangan terpotong-potong
Hari kelahiran beliau oleh bangsa Iran dijadikan sebagai Hari Cacat Perang Nasional, dan rakyat Iran serta seluruh pengikut Ahlul Bait sedunia selalu mengenang pengorbanan Al-Abbas untuk kemudian dijadikan teladan dalam pengorbanan demi kepentingan Islam dan kaum muslimin.

6 Sya'ban
Allamah Khu'i Gugur

Tanggal 6 Sya'ban 1320 Hijriah, Alamah Khui, seorang ilmuwan besar Islam asal Iran, gugur syahid dalam perjuangan melawan kezaliman. Setelah bertahun-tahun menimba ilmu dari ulama-ulama besar pada zamannya,, di antaranya Syaikh Murtadha Anshari, beliau mencapai derajat ijtihad.
Allamah Khui berjuang untuk menerapkan pemerintah yang konstitusional serta bebas dari kezaliman dan despotisme di Iran. Akibat perjuangannya itu, Allamah Khui dibunuh oleh antek-antek Syah Muhammad Ali yang merupakan raja dari Dinasti Qajar.

8 Sya'ban
Ibnu Rumiyah Lahir

Tanggal 8 Sya'ban 561 Hijriah, Ibnu Rumiyah, seorang ahli hadis, ahli tanaman obat, dan ahli obat-obatan muslim abad ke 6 Hijriah, terlahir ke dunia. Bersamaan dengan menuntut ilmu-ilmu agama dari ulama-ulama besar pada zamannya, Ibnu Rumiyah juga melakukan penelitian di bidang tanaman obat. Pada awalnya, Ibnu Rumiyah melakukan penelitian tanaman obat di Andalusia, kemudian pergi ke berbagai negara, seperti Mesir, Irak, dan Hijaz, untuk meneruskan penelitiannya itu. Ibnu Rumiyah meninggalkan banyak karya penulisan di bidang hadis, fiqih, dan ilmu flora.


9 Sya'ban
Ibnu Barraj Tharablusi Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 9 Sya'ban 481 Hijriah, Ibnu Barraj Tharablusi, seorang ulama besar Mesir meninggal dunia. Ia sebenarnya dilahirkan di Mesir. Akan tetapi, dikarenakan selama beberapa tahun menjadi hakim di Kota Tharablus, sebuah kawasan di utara Libanon, ia lantas dikenal dengan nama Tharablusi.
Semasa hidupnya, ia belajar kepada ulama-ulama besar zaman itu, di antaranya Syaikh Thusi. Dia kemudian banyak menulis buku-buku agama, yang paling terpenting adalah kitab "Al-Jawamiul Fiqih " yang berisi sekitar 820 tanya-jawab di bidang fiqih. Kitab ini dianggap sebagai salah satu rujukan utama dalam ilmu agama Islam.

10 Sya'ban
Abu Abdillah Abdul Baqi Wafat

Tanggal 10 Sya'ban 422 Hijriah, Abu Abdillah Abdul Baqi, seorang penyair terkenal abad ke-5 hijriah, meninggal dunia. Dia tinggal di kota Baghdad dan menuntut ilmu dari para sastrawan terkemuka pada masa itu. Selain itu, Abdul Baqi juga mempelajari ilmu-ilmu agama. Karya syair Abdul Baqi dikenal memiliki gaya natural dan penuh makna.

11 Sya'ban
Ali bin Husain Terlahir ke Dunia

Tanggal 11 Sya'ban tahun 33 Hijriah, Ali bi Husain, putra tertua Imam Husain a.s., cucu Nabi Muhammad SAWW, terlahir ke dunia di kota Madinah. Ali bin Husain memiliki banyak kemiripan dengan Rasulullah. Dia dibesarkan serta dididik oleh kakeknya, Imam Ali a.s. dan ayahnya, Imam Husain a.s. Oleh karena itulah, beliau mencapai derajat keilmuan dan ma'rifat yang tinggi. Karena namanya sama dengan nama putra Imam Husain yang lain, maka Ali bin Husain dijuluki sebagai Ali Akbar. Pada peristiwa kebangkitan Imam Husain di Karbala, Ali Akbar adalah salah satu pejuang pembela Imam Husain yang utama dan beliau gugur syahid pada tanggal 10 Muharam.

Sina'iy Ghaznawi Wafat
Tanggal 11 Sya'ban 529 Hijriah, Sina'iy Ghaznawi, penyair, ahli hikmah dan sufistik terkemuka Iran, meninggal dunia di kota Ghaznin. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 467 Hijriah dan pada masa mudanya, ia banyak menciptakan syair yang memuja para raja. Kemudian, ia meninggalkan kegiatannya itu dan hidup sebagai seorang sufi. Dalam syair-syairnya, ia banyak mengkritik kezaliman pemerintah. Sina'iy merupakan pengubah aliran syair Persia dan menciptakan variasi baru di dalamnya. Dalam bangunan syair tradisional Persia, khususnya dalam qasidah dan ghazal, Sina'iy memberikan hawa dan suasana baru. Di antara karya Sina'iy yang terpenting adalah buku "Taman Kebenaran" yang berisi syair-syair dalam pola Matsnawi. Di dalamnya, Sina'iy mengungkapkan pemikiran dan akhlak sufi.

12 Sya'ban
Hasan Andalusi Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 12 Sya'ban 492 Hijriah, Hasan bin Hafidh Andalusi, seorang ahli hadits dan thabib terkenal Andalusia meninggal dunia. Hasan bin Hafidh yang lebih dikenal dengan nama Al-Ghassani, menulis berbagai kitab penting, di antaranya yang berjudul "Tamjid Al-Muhmal", berisikan biografi tokoh-tokoh penting yang hidup pada zaman itu.

Sayyidyul Atibba Tabrizi Wafat
Tanggal 12 Sya'ban tahun 1316 Hijriah, Sayyidul Atibba Tabrizi, seorang ahli fiqih dan dokter terkenal Iran meninggal dunia. Ia dilahirkan di Kota Tabriz, sebuah kawasan di barat laut Iran. Sejak masa mudanya, ia menunjukkan minat yang sangat besar kepada sastra ilmu-ilmu agama. Setelah itu, ia belajar ilmu kedokteran kepada sejumlah ilmuwan pada zamannya. Di antara kitab-kitab yang ditulisnya adalah "Sejarah Tabriz" dan "Aturan-Aturan Umum Ibnu Sina".

13 Sya'ban
Muhamad Khalidi Wafat

Tanggal 13 Sya'ban 1200 Hijriah, Husain bin Muhammad Shaleh Khalidi, seorang ulama terkemuka abad ke-13 Hijriah, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan di Baitul Muqaddas dan di kota itulah ia menuntut ilmu-ilmu yang berkembang pada zaman itu. Selain dikenal sebagai ulama, Khalidi juga terkenal karena keahliannya dalam menulis indah dan menyusun syair dalam bahasa Arab.


Abul Hasan Forughi meninggal dunia
Tanggal 13 Sya'ban tahun 1379 hijriyah, Abul Hasan Forughi, tokoh intelektual dan sastrawan besar Iran meninggal dunia. Foroughi lahir di Tehran dan mengenyam pendidikan ilmu klasik dan modern di kota ini. Usai merampungkan jenjang pendidikan, ia mengajar ilmu geografi dan sejarah. Beberapa tahun kemudian, Foroughi diangkat sebagai dosen di Universitas Tehran dan menjadi anggota Pusat Kebudayaan Iran. Foroughi wafat meninggalkan sejumlah karya tulis diantaranya adalah "Tarikh-e Adabiyyat-e Iran" atau sejarah sastera Iran, "Sarmaye'ye Saadat" atau bekal kebahagiaan, dan buku akidah sosial dan filosofis yang ditulisnya dalam bahasa Prancis.

14 Sya'ban
Ibnu Yunus Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 14 Sya'ban tahun 639 Hijriah, Ibnu Yunus, ahli fiqih, kedokteran, dan matematika muslim abad ke-7, meninggal dunia. Dia menimba ilmu-ilmu dasar dari ayahnya dan kemudian melanjutkan dengan belajar kepada ulama-ulama terkemuka pada zaman itu. Pada masa itu, Islam sedang berada dalam kegemilangan keilmuan dan peradabannya. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya, Ibnu Yunus mengajar pada sekolah-sekolah di Kairo dan menulis berbagai buku. Di antara karya-karya adalah buku berjudul "Asrarus-Salathiniyah".

Penyair Farhang Lahir

Tanggal 14 Sya'ban tahun 1301 Hijriah, Mirza Muhammad Khan, yang lebih dikenal dengan nama "Farhang", seorang penulis dan penyair Iran, terlahir ke dunia di kota Teheran. Pada usianya ke-7 tahun, ayahnya meninggal dunia dan karenanya, dia harus bekerja keras untuk bisa menyelesaikan pendidikannya. Dalam periode Revolusi Konstitusional di Iran, Farhang merupakan salah satu pejuang yang aktif. Selain beraktivitas politik, Farhang bekerja sebagai wartawan surat kabar. Dia menerbitkan suratkabar "Farhang", "Khavarestan", dan "Payetakht". Farhang juga pernah menjalani pendidikan di Wina, Istambul, Paris, dan Swiss.
Karya-karya syair Farhang dikenal memiliki gaya yang alami dan lancar. Umumnya, karya-karya syair Farhang dimuat di koran-koran Iran, Perancis, dan Turki.

15 Sya'ban
Imam Mahdi Lahir

Tanggal 15 Sya'ban 255 Hijriah, Imam Mahdi, sang juru selamat di akhir zaman terlahir ke dunia di Kota Samarra, Irak. Imam Mahdi adalah putera dari Imam Hasan Al-Askari a.s., dan merupakan generasi keturunan Rasulullah SAWW. Imam Mahdi memiliki nama dan panggilan yang sama dengan Rasulullah, yaitu Muhamad dan Abul Qasim.
Sampai berusia lima tahun, Imam Mahdi berada di samping ayahnya. Pada usia itulah ayahandanya, yaitu Imam Hasan Al-Askari, mengapai kesyahidan, dan beliau menerima tampuk imamah atau kepimimpinan atas ummat Islam. Dengan kehendak Ilahi, beliau kemudian menghilang untuk jangka waktu tertentu. Selama 69 tahun, Imam Mahdi memimpin ummatnya melalui perantaraan para utusan khususnya yang berjumlah empat orang.
Di usianya yang ke 74 tahun, Imam Mahdi kemudian menghilang atau ghaib untuk jangka waktu yang sangat lama. Berdasarkan berbagai keterangan hadits yang kuat, beliau kelak akan muncul kembali di akhir zaman untuk memimpin dunia ini dengan penuh keadilan dan ketentraman. Saat itu, berbagai kezaliman, kefikiran, dan diskriminasi akan dilenyapkan dari muka bumi. Karena itulah, kemunculam kembali Imam Mahdi menjadi harapan terbesar para pencari keadilan, dan mereka selalu berupaya untuk menciptakan kondisi yang bisa mempercepat kemunculan beliau.
Dalam Al-Quran Surat Al-Qashash ayat 5 disebutkan bahwa Allah SWT berkehendak untuk menjadikan orang-orang yang tertindas sebagai penguasa dan pewaris di muka bumi. Untuk itulah, di Iran, tanggal 15 Sya'ban ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Orang-Orang Tertindas.

16 Sya'ban
Ibnu Syahr Asyub Wafat

Tanggal 16 Sya'ban 588 Hijriah, Ibnu Syahr Asyub, seorang ahli fiqih, tafsir, dan ahli hadis muslim, meninggal dunia. Dia sejak kanak-kanak telah memulai pendidikannya dan pada usia delapan tahun, dia sudah menghafal Al-Quranul Karim. Dia menimba ilmu pada ulama-ulama besar saat itu, seperti Zamakhsyari, Muhammad Ghazali, dan Khatib Kharazmi. Selain menguasai bidang agama, Ibnu Syahr Asyub juga dikenal sebagai penyair. Dia banyak menciptakan syair-syair yang memuji keutamaan Ahlul Bait rasulullah SAWW. Syair-syair tersebut dibukukan dalam kitab "Manaqib Ali Abi Thalib". Ibnu Syahr Asyub juga menulis buku-buku agama, di antaranya berjudul "Mutasyabihul Quran wa Mukhtalifuhu" dan "Ma'alimul Ulama".

Ibnu Dahan Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 16 Sya'ban 612 Hijriah, Ibnu Dahan, seorang sastrawan dan penyair buta Arab, meninggal dunia di Bagdad. Selain bidang sastra, Ibnu Dahan juga menguasai ilmu-ilmu yang berkembang di zamannya, seperti fiqih, tafsir, kedokteran, dan perbintangan. Selain itu, Ibnu Dahan menguasai banyak bahasa selain Arab, seperti Persia, Turki, Romawi, India, dan Armenia.

Amir Ahmad Mina'iy Lahir
Tanggal 16 Sya'ban 1244 Hijriah, Amir Ahmad Mina'iy, penyair dan penulis India, terlahir ke dunia. Dia mulai menulis syair sejak usia 15 tahun. Syair-syairnya dikenal memiliki gaya yang menyentuh hati, kuat, dan lancar. Selain itu, Amir Ahmad Mina'iy juga menulis karya-karya prosa. Dia banyak menulis qasidah yang memuji-muji keutamaan Rasululah dan Ahlul Baitnya. Karya-karya Amir Ahmad Mina'iy terdiri dari 22 jilid buku, di antaranya berjudul "Matsnawi Nur Tajalli" yang isinya mengenai kelahiran Rasulullah SAWW dan "Syam Abad" yang isinya mengenai wafatnya Rasul.

17 Sha'ban
Haji Syeikh Husein Ali Isfahani Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 17 Sha'ban 1361 H, fakih arif dan ulama zuhud, Haji Syeikh Husein Ali Isfahani meninggal dunia. Beliau lahir di Isfahan pada tahun 1279 Hijri. Di kota ini, ia mempelajari berbagai ilmu seperti fikih, usul, mantik dan falsafah. Setelah itu, Ayatollah Isfahani melanjutkan pelajarannya ke Najaf dan Mashad. Beliau tinggal di Mashad hingga akhir usianya. Ulama besar ini juga mengajar sejumlah ilmu lain seperti matematika, perbintangan dan kedokteran. Selain itu, beliau juga dikenal dengan keirfananannya dan akhlaknya yang dihasilkan dari ketekunan ibadah, kerendahan hati dan ketakwaannya. Keramat-keramat Ayatollah Isfahani dapat ditemui dalam buku hasil karya tulisan putranya berjudul "Neshan az bi Neshanha".

18 Sya'ban
Ibn Dorayd Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 18 Sha'ban 321 H, Ibn Dorayd seorang ahli bahasa, sastrawan dan penyair arab meninggal dunia. Dia adalah seorang alim, berperangai mulia, pemaaf dan panghafal yang kuat. Ibn Dorayd terkenal dikarenakan perannya dalam sejarah penulisan kamus bahasa arab. Salah satu karya pentingnya berjudul Al-Eshtiqaq. Buku ini sama seperti kamus yang disusun mengikut alif ba nya. Selain itu, ia juga dikenal dengan karyanya, Dewan Saari yang merupakan karya-karya syairnya.


Periode Pertama Parlemen Nasional Iran dibuka
Tanggal 18 Sya'ban 1324 H, periode pertama Parlemen Nasional Iran dibuka secara resmi. Parlemen ini berhutang budi pada pengorbanan dan perjuangan rakyat. Dalam pemilihan pemilu periode pertama parlemen, para industriawan, pedagang, petani dan penternak ikut berpartisipasi dengan memilih para kandidat. Di antara anggota parlemen yang menonjol adalah Sayyid Muhammad Thabathabaei dan Sayyid Abdullah Behbahani, Kedua tokoh ini adalah tokoh agama rakyat Iran. Setelah terbentuknya parlemen, UUD Iran disusun dalam waktu yang singkat dan kemudian ditandatangani oleh raja Iran saat itu, Muzaffaruddin Shah Qajar. Para sejarawan menyebutkan parlemen ini merupakan parlemen yang paling aktif dalam era konstitusi Iran.

19 Sya'ban
Perang dengan Bani Mostaleq

Tanggal 19 Sya'ban tahun keenam H, terjadi peperangan antara umat muslimin melawan Bani Mostaleq. Bani Mostaleq adalah bagian suku-suku atau kabilah yang tergabung dalam kabilah Khuza'ah, yang sudah sejak lama berhijrah dan bertempat disekitar kota Makah. Para pembesar kabilah ini senantiasa mengembangkan penyembahan berhala di Makah. Setelah umat Islam mencapai kekuasaannya di Madinah, Bani Mostaleq yang tetap mempertahankan penyembahan berhala mereka, mempersiapkan diri untuk memerangi muslimin. Nabi Besar Muhammad saaw pun mengerahkan pasukan muslimin untuk menghadapi serangan musuh ini. Dalam perang yang kemudian terjadi, Bani Mostaleq mengalami kekalahan parah di tangan umat Islam.

20 Sya'ban
Ibnu Nadim Wafat

Tanggal 20 Sya'ban tahun 385 Hijriah, Ibnu Nadim, seorang sejarawan Muslim terkemuka, meninggal dunia. Keterkenalan Ibnu Nadim lebih banyak disebabkan oleh buku karyanya yang berjudul "Al-Fihrist" Dalam buku ini, dia menginventarisasi semua ilmu yang berkembang dalam peradaban Islam pada zaman itu dan menerangkan kehidupan para ilmuwan terkemuka saat itu.
Selain itu, dalam Al-Fihrist juga dituliskan tentang buku-buku dan makalah dari berbagai bidang ilmu dan catatan lengkap mengenai kehidupan para pengarangnya. Ibnu Nadim juga menulis penjelasan mengenai buku-buku kuno dari berbagai bangsa di dalam Al-Fihrist. Ibnu Nadim juga melakukan penelitian dan penulisan mengenai agama-agama dan mazhab-mazhab yang terkenal di zamannya dan melahirkan banyak buku di bidang ini. Karya ibnu Nadim lainnya berjudul "Al-Ausaf wa Tasybihaat".

21 Sya'ban
Abdul Karim Samani terlahir ke dunia

Tanggal 21 Sha'ban 506 H, Abdul Karim Bin Muhammad Samani atau "Tajul Islam", seorang fakih, ahli hadis, dan sejarawan terkenal abad ke 6 H terlahir ke dunia di kota Marv di tenggara Turkmenistan sekarang atau Khorasan Besar pada masa itu. Demi memperoleh ilmu pengetahuan, Tajul Islam rela menghabiskan usianya dengan melakukan berbagai perjalanan. Beliau telah melakukan perjalanan ke Iran, Syam, Hijaz, dan Transoxiana untuk menimba ilmu pengetahuan. Karya Tajul Islam nya yang paling terkenal adalah kitab "Al-Insab". I Ia juga mengarang buku-buku lain seperti, "Mu'jamul Mashayekh", "Tazyilul Tarikh Baghdad" dan "Tarikh Marv".

22 Sya'ban
Ibnu Hajar Asqalani Terlahir

Tanggal 22 Syaban 773 Hijriah, Ibnu Hajar Asqalani, ulama fiqih, hadis, sejarah, dan penyair muslim Mesir, terlahir ke dunia di kota Kairo. Pada usianya ke-5 tahun, ayahnya meninggal dunia dan sejak saat itu pula, ia dikirim ke sekolah agama.
Pada usia 10 tahun, Asqalani telah menghapal Al-Quran dan setelah itu, dia melanglang buana untuk menimba ilmu. Penguasaannya terhadap ilmu hadis membuatnya dikenal sebagai penghapal hadis terkemuka. Dia meninggalkan karya penulisan sebanyak 150 jilid buku, di antaranya berjudul "Lisaanul Mizan" dan "Al-Ishabah Fi Tamyiizish-Shahabah". Ibnu Hajar Asqalani meninggal dunia tahun 852 Hijriah.

Allamah Syaikh Muhammad Jawad Balaghi Wafat
Tanggal 22 Sya'ban 1354 Hijriah, Allamah Syaikh Muhammad Jawad Balaghi, seorang ulama besar Islam, meninggal dunia. Allamah Balaghi menuntut ilmu dari ulama-ulama terkemuka di zamannya, antara lain Mirza Shirazi, sampai akhirnya dia menjadi ulama fiqih dan penulis besar. Di antara karya-karya Allamah Balaghi berjudul "Balaghul Mubin".

23 Sya'ban
Syarafuddin Wafat

Tanggal 23 Syaban 733 Hijriah, Husein bin Abdullah Thayyebi yang dikenal dengan nama Syarafuddin, seorang ahli hadits dan sastrawan besar abad ke-8 hijriah meninggal dunia. Pada masa hidupnya, ia adalah ilmuwan ternama yang sangat menguasai ma'ani, bayan, dan sastra Arab. Dalam kehidupan sehar-hari, Thayyebi lebih banyak meluangkan waktunya untuk mengajar tafsir Quran dan periwayatan hadits. Di antara karya terkenalnya adalah kitab "Tafsir Al-Quran" dan "Syarh Misykat".

Penyair Jami Lahir ke Dunia
Tanggal 23 Sya'ban 817 Hijriah, Nuruddin Abdurrahman Jami, seorang penyair dan sastrawan terbesar Iran abad ke-9 Hijriah terlahir ke dunia di Kota Jam, sebuah kawasan di timur laut Iran. Ketika masih muda, Jami telah belajar ilmu-ilmu keagamaan, sastra, dan sejarah di Kota Samarqand. Setelah itu, ia melakukan pengembaraan ke berbagai kawasan lainnya.
Jami adalah seorang penyair yang dikenal sebagai pecinta Ahlul Bait Rasulullah SAWW. Berbeda dengan para penyair lain pada masanya, Jami tidak pernah membuat syair yang isinya berupa pujian kepada para penguasa. Di antara karya-karya terkenalnya adalah kitab yang berjudul "Silsilatudz-Dzahab", dan "Baharestan". Jami meninggal dunia pada tahun 898 Hijriah.

24 Sya'ban
Hasan Shirazi Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 24 Sya'ban 1312 Hijriah, Mirza Muhammad Hasan Shirazi, seorang ahli fiqih dan marji' besar Islam, meninggal dunia. Beliau dilahirkan pada tahun 1230 Hijriah di kota Shiraz, di selatan Iran. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan dasarnya, beliau melanjutkan pendidikan ke hauzah imiah di kota Najaf, Irak. Selama beberapa tahun, beliau belajar dari Syaikh Murtadha Anshari, yang merupakan ulama besar pada zaman itu, sampai akhirnya mencapai derajat keilmuan yang tinggi.
Mirza Shirazi merupakan pencetus pemboikotan tembakau di Iran. Beliau mengeluarkan fatwa yang mengharamkan tembakau dan rokok, yang kala itu penjualannya dimonopoli oleh Inggris. Fatwa ini merupakan penentangan besar terhadap rezim yang berkuasa waktu itu, yaitu Raja Nasirudin dari Dinasti Qajar, yang bekerjasama dengan Inggris. Fatwa pengharaman tembakau ini memberikan pengaruh besar bagi perjuangan rakyat Iran selanjutnya dalam melawan rezim-rezim despotik di Iran.

25 Sya'ban
Abu Muslim Khurasani Terbunuh

Tanggal 25 Sya'ban 137 Hijriah, Abu Muslim Khurasani, seorang panglima perang asal Iran, dibunuh atas perintah Al-Manshur, penguasa dari Dinasti Abasiah. Abu Muslim Khurasani adalah pemimpin gerakan pemberontakan rakyat terhadap pemerintahan Umawiyah yang despotik. Kelompok pemberontakan yang bernama "Pembawa Bendera Hitam" ini, setelah melalui banyak peperangan, berhasil menggulingkan pemerintahan Umawiyah.
Setelah runtuhnya Dinasti Umawiyah, Dinasti Abassiah memegang tampuk kekuasaan. Khalifah Al-Manshur kemudian merasa khawatir atas kekuasaan yang dimiliki Abu Muslim Khurasani dan pengaruhnya yang meluas di tengah masyarakat. Oleh karena itulah dia memerintahkan antek-anteknya untuk membunuh Khurasani.

Kemenangan Kelompok Sarbedaran

Tanggal 25 Sya'ban 737 Hijriah, perjuangan kelompok Sarbedaran melawan pemerintahan Mongol di Sabzewar, timur laut Iran, mencapai kemenangan. Sejak saat itu pula, dimulailah pemerintahan Sarbedaran.
Sarbedaran adalah sekelompok orang yang berjuang menentang kezaliman pemerintahan Mongol di Iran. Mereka dipimpin oleh para ruhaniwan, di antaranya Syaikh Khalifah, Syaikh Hasan Juri, dan Abdul Razaq. Slogan perjuangan kelompok ini adalah "Para Pezalim Kita Musnahkan atau Kita Pergi ke Tiang Gantungan." Oleh karena itulah kelompok ini dinamakan Sarbedaran yang artinya "kepala-kepala yang siap digantung".
Kelompok Sarbedaran menguasai pemerintahan di timur laut Iran selama lima abad sampai datangnya Timur Gurgani pada tahun 788 Hijriah yang merebut kekuasaan dari tangan mereka.

26 Sya'ban
Ibnu Fasih Wafat

Tanggal 26 Sya'ban 755 Hijriah, Ibnu Fasih, seorang ahli fiqih, penyair, dan sastrawan Arab, meninggal dunia di kota Damaskus. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan di bidang fiqih dan sastra, ia mulai mempelajari ilmu-ilmu hadis hingga akhirnya mencapai kemampuan yang tinggi di bidang ini. Ibnu Fasih juga menciptakan syair dan menyusun tema-tema fiqih dalam bentuk syair. Ibnu Fasih juga banyak meninggalkan karya-karya penulisan dalam bahasa Arab.

27 Sya'ban
Ibnu Funduq Lahir

Tanggal 27 Sya'ban 490 Hijriah, Abul Hasan Ali bin Zaid, yang terkenal dengan nama Ibnu Funduq, salah seorang ilmuwan besar Islam, terlahir ke dunia di kota Baihaq, Iran. Dia menguasai berbagai ilmu, seperti hadis, fiqih, sastra, agama, dan hikmah. Buku terpenting karya Ibnu Funduq berjudul "Sejarah Baihaq". Di dalamnya, dia menuliskan kondisi geografis, sejarah, dan keadaan para bangsawan dan dinasti terkenal di Baihaq. Buku ini merupakan salah satu sumber sejarah penting pada abad ke-6 Hijriah dan salah satu contoh dari karya berbahasa Persia yang baik. Karya lain dari Ibnu Funduq adalah "Lubabul Ansab", "Tafsir Nahjul Balaghah", dan "Qawaid Ulumith-Thib". Ibnu Funduq meninggal dunia pada tahun 565 Hijriah.

Ibnu Iraqi Wafat
Tanggal 27 Sya'ban 826 Hijriah, Ibnu Iraqi, seorang ahli fiqih dan hakim Mesir, meninggal dunia di kota Mekah. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 762 Hijriah. Ibnu Iraqi menuntut ilmu hadis dari ayahnya yang merupakan ulama terkenal pada masa itu. Kemudian, dia melanjutkan pendidikannya dengan menimba ilmu dari ulama-ulama terkemuka, sampai akhirnya ia sendiri masuk ke jajaran ulama terkenal. Selain mengajar fiqih dan hadis, Ibnu Iraqi juga menghasilkan banyak karya penulisan dalam bahasa Arab.

28 Sya'ban
Ibnu Hajib Wafat

Tanggal 28 Sya'ban 630 hijriah, Ibnu Hajib, seorang ahli hadis dan sejarawan Islam meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 593 Hijriah di Damaskus. Untuk menuntut ilmu-ilmu hadis, Ibnu Hajib melakukan perjalanan ke berbagai kota untuk belajar dari ulama-ulama besar pada masa itu. Ibnu Hajib meninggalkan tiga karya yang dicetak dan dua karya lagi yang ditulis tangan.

29 Sya'ban
Abu Nu'aim Wafat

Tanggal 29 Sya'ban 219 Hijriah, Abu Nu'aim, seorang ulama hadis, fiqih, dan sejarah Islam, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 130 Hijriah di Irak. Abu Nu'aim dianggap sebagai salah satu periwayat hadis yang sangat terkemuka dan karenanya, dia amat dihormati dan dipercaya oleh para ulama lslam. Karya Abu Nu'aim di antaranya berjudul "Ash-Shalah". Selain itu, Ibnu Nadim, seorang sejarawan terkenal Arab, dalam dua bukunya yang berjudul "Al-Manasik" dan "Masail Al-Fiqh" menisbatkan bab-bab fiqih dan adab keagamaan kepada Abu Nu'aim.

Ibnu Mundzir Wafat
Tanggal 29 Sya'ban 318 Hijriah, Ibnu Mundzir, seorang ahli fiqih, tafsir, dan hadis, meninggal dunia. Dia menuntut ilmu hadis dan fiqih dari ulama-ulama terkemuka pada masa itu. Selanjutnya Ibnu Mundzir pergi ke Mekah untuk mempelajari ilmu-ilmu hadis. Hingga akhir umurnya, Ibnu Mundzir menetap di kota Mekah dan menyusun berbagai buku, di antaranya berjudul "Al-Ijma'" dan "Al-Asyraf". Dalam buku "Al Ijma'", Ibnu Mundzir menukil dan membahas berbagai pendapat yang berbeda mengenai fiqih. Dalam buku Al Asyraf, dia membahas masalah ilmu hadis.
          Bulan Rabiuts-Tsani        
2 Rabiuts-Tsani
Ibnu Mu'taz Tewas

1134 tahun yang lalu, tanggal 2 Rabiuts-Tsani 296 Hijriah, Ibnu Mu'taz, seorang penyair dan sastrawan Arab zaman Dinasti Abbasiah, dibunuh atas perintah dari penguasa saat itu. Ibnu Mu'taz dilahirkan di Samara. Irak, pada tahun 247 Hijriah, dan merupakan putra dari Mu'taz , khalifah Dinasti Abbasiah ke-13. Ibnu Mu'taz adalah seorang pencinta sastra dan syair sehingga rumahnya menjadi tempat berkumpulnya para ilmuwan dan sastrawan.
Setelah kematian khalifah Muktafa, Ibnu Mu'taz diangkat menjadi khalifah, namun mendapatkan penentangan dari sekelompok orang sehingga akhirnya terguling. Setelah itu, Muqtadir Abbasi naik ke kursi kekhalifahan dan atas perintahnya pula, Ibnu Mu'taz dibunuh. Karya Ibnu Mu'taz berjudul, "Asy'aarul Muluk" dan "Kitaabul Badii'".

3 Rabiuts-Tsani
Shah Mahmud Ghaznawi Meninggal

Tanggal 3 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 421 Hijriah, Mahmud Ghaznawi, raja ketiga dari dinasti Ghaznawi di Iran, meninggal dunia. Mahmud Ghaznawi pada tahun 387 merebut kekuasaan dari saudaranya, Ismail. Raja Ghaznawi kemudian mengalahkan raja-raja Shafari, Samani, Ali Buyeh,dan Ali Ziyar sehingga menguasasi wilayah utara dan timur Iran. Secara bertahap, wilayah kekuasaan Ghaznawi semakin meluas. Selama masa pemerintahannya, dia 12 kali mengadakan perang di India. Akhirnya, setelah 34 tahun berkuasa, Shah Ghaznawi meninggal dunia akibat sakit.

Ayatullah Kalantari Meninggal
Tanggal 3 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 1292 Hijriah, Ayatullah Mirza Abul Qasem Kalantari, seorang ulama Islam terkemuka di Iran, meninggal dunia di kota Teheran. Beliau menuntut ilmu-ilmu Islam di hauzah ilmiah kota Najaf, Irak dan belajar kepada ulama-ulama terkemuka saat itu, antara lain Syaikh Murthadha Ansari, sampai akhirnya mencapai derajat ijtihad. Selain sebagai ulama yang menjadi tempat kaum muslimin Iran, khususnya kota Teheran, meminta bimbingan dan nasehat, Ayatullah Mirza Abul Qasem Kalantari juga merupakan seorang penulis yang meninggalkan berbagai buku berkenaan dengan hukum Islam.

4 Rabiuts-Tsani
Sayyid Abdul Adzhim Lahir

Tanggal 4 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 173 Hijriah, Sayyid Abdul Adzhim, salah seorang keturunan Imam Hasan a.s., cucu Rasulullah SAWW, terlahir ke dunia di kota Madinah. Sayyid Abdul Adzhim hidup sezaman dengan Imam Hadi a.s., dan menjadi seorang pembela dan sahabat utama beliau. Atas perintah Imam Hadi a.s., Sayyid Abdul Adzhim mengadakan perjalanan ke Iran untuk menyebarkan ajaran Islam yang murni. Di Iran, beliau tinggal di kota Rey, di dekat Teheran dan hidup di sana hingga gugur syahid tahun 250 Hijriah. Makam beliau kini menjadi salah satu pusat peziarahan di Iran dan dikunjungi para peziarah dari berbagai penjuru dunia.

Abu Bakar Muhammad Anbari lahir kedunia
Tanggal 4 Rabiuts- Tsani 513 HQ, Abu Bakar Muhammad Anbari seorang fakih, ahli hadis, dan pakar nahwu dan sastra, terlahir ke dunia. Sejak usia muda, Anbari memperdalam ilmu agama dan menimba ilmu Nahwu dan sastra dari ayahnya. Setelah mempelajari berbagai ilmu Anbari kemudian mengajar dan banyak murid yang menimba ilmu darinya. Dia adalah seorang fakih dan pakar nahwu terkenal. Diantara karyanya adalah buku Manshur Al Fawaid.

Sayid Ali Muhammad meninggal dunia
Tanggal 4 Rabiuts- Tsani 1312 HQ, Sayyid Ali Muhammad bin Sultan Al Ulama yang terkenal dengan Tajul Ulama merupakan salah seorang ulama terkenal India, meninggal dunia pada usia 52 tahun. Dia adalah seorang fakih yang alim, pakar hadis dan pintar berpidato. Dia juga mempunyai pengetahuan yang luas dalam masalah keagamaan hingga banyak cendikiawan dari berbagai agama berdialog dengannya. Diantara buku karyanya adalah Ahsanul Qisas berkaitan dengan tafsir surah Yusuf dan Mutiara Lampu Malam yang membahas soal keutamaan shalat.

5 Rabiuts-Tsani
Koran Berbahasa Persia Pertama Terbit

Tanggal 5 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 1267 Hijriah, terbitlah koran berbahasa Persia pertama dengan nama Waqayeq-e Ittifaqiye atau Realitas Peristiwa. Koran ini terbit di kota Teheran di masa pemerintahan Shah Nashiruddin dan terbit atas perintah Mirza Amir Kabir, perdana menteri Iran kala itu yang sangat reformis. Koran Waqayeq-e Ittifaqiye terbit sebanyak 472 edisi dan kemudian diterbitkan dengan nama lain.

6 Rabiuts-Tsani
Syah Qajar Menerima Pembatasan atas Kekuasaannya

Tanggal 6 Rab'uts-Tsani tahun 1327, Muhamad Ali Syah Qajar, salah seorang raja Dinasti Qajar Iran, menyatakan diri menyerah terhadap tuntutan kelompok-kelompok yang menginginkan kebebasan sekaligus menginginkan pembatasan atas kekuasaan monarki Dinasti Qajar. Langkah itu diambil Syah Qajar setelah tangannya berlumuran darah dengan tindakan represif terhadap para pejuang kebebasan.
Ia pada saat itu menginstruksikan penyelenggaraan pemilihan umum dan menjanjikan pembentukan kembali Dewan Nasional. Menyusul pengumuman Syah Qajar tersebut, ratusan orang yang selama ini melakukan aksi mogok massal di Haram Syah Abdul Azhim, Rey, mengakhiri aksi mereka itu.

7 Rabiuts-Tsani
Mula Quthb Lahir

Tanggal 7 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 634 Hijriah, Qathbuddin Mahmud bin Dhiyaauddin Mas'ud Kazruni, yang terkenal dengan nama Mula Quthb, seorang astronom muslim terkemuka, terlahir ke dunia. Mula Quthb sepanjang hidupnya melakukan perjalanan ke berbagai negara. Ketika observatorium Maragheh Iran didirikan, Mula Quthb pun bergabung dengan Nashiruddin Thusi dan para astronom lainnya untuk mengembangkan observatorium ini. Mula Quthb menulis beberapa buku ilmiah, antara lain berjudul Nihayatul Idrak dan Syarh-e Qanun-e Ibn-e Sina.

Pemberontakan Kedua Serbia Melawan Ottoman
Tanggal 7 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 1230 Hijriah, rakyat Serbia melakukan pemberontakan untuk kedua kalinya melawan imperium Ottoman. Pemberontakan yang mendapat dukungan dari Rusia ini dipimpin oleh Milos Ubrenovic. Setelah terjadi beberapa kali pertempuran antara Serbia dan Otoman, akhirnya kedua puhak mengadakan perjanjian damai. Berdasarkan perjanjian ini, Serbia diakui secara resmi sebagai sebuah pemerintahan otonomi di bawah imperium Ottoman dan diizinkan untuk membentuk parlemen sendiri. Namun demikian, imperium Rusia masih terus memprovokasi pemberontakan bangsa-bangsa Balkan terhadap Imperum Ottoman dengan tujuan untuk memperlemah kekuasaan imperium ini.

8 Rabiuts-Tsani
Imam Askari a.s. Lahir

Tanggal 8 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 232 Hijriah, Imam Hasan Askari a.s., cucu Rasulullah SAWW generasi ke-10, dan merupakan imam kesebelas kaum muslimin, terlahir ke dunia di kota Madinah. Pada masa kanak-kanak, Hasan Askari a.s. bersama ayah beliau, Imam Hadi a.s terpaksa hijrah ke Samara, Irak, karena tekanan penguasa saat itu, yaitu Bani Abbasiah dan tinggal di sana selama 13 tahun. Setelah Imam Hadi a.s. gugur syahid akibat dibunuh penguasa, Hasan Askari a.s, pun diangkat menjadi imam kaum muslimin. Imam Hasan Askari kemudian menjalani kehidupan yang berat, karena selalu diawasai, diasingkan, dan dipenjara oleh penguasa Bani Abbasiah. Namun demikian, beliau tetap berjuang menyebarkan ajaran Islam yang murni kepada kaum muslimin saat itu. Imam Hasan Askari gugur syahid pada usia 27 tahun. Dalam rangka mengenang hari kelahiran Imam Hasan Askari a.s. marilah kita mengingat kembali salah satu pesan beliau, yaitu, "Orang yang menghormati hak-hak masyarakat, lebih daripada semua orang, kedudukannya di sisi Allah juga lebih tinggi daripada semua orang."

Abu Firas Hamdani Meninggal
Tanggal 8 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 357 Hijriah, Abu Firas Hamdani, seorang penyair dan penulis Arab, meninggal dunia. Selain sebagai penyair, Abu Firas Hamdani juga merupakan seorang ahli perang dan menjadi salah satu komandan pasukan penguasa kawasan Halb, Saifud-Daulah. Pada zaman itu, para penyair umumnya menulis syair-syair pujian terhadap Khalifah Islam saat itu, yaitu Bani Abbasiah, namun Abu Firas Hamdani justru menulis syair yang mengkritik kezaliman yang dilakukan oleh Bani Abbasiah. Abu Firas Hamdani meninggal dunia akibat luka-luka yang dideritanya dalam sebuah peperangan.

9 Rabiuts-Tsani
Najibuddin Samarqandi Tewas

Tanggal 9 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 610 Hijriah, Najibuddin Abu Ahmid Ali bin Umar Samarqandi, seorang dokter dan ahli obat-obatan muslim tewas terbunuh dalam serangan yang dilakukan pasukan Mongol terhadap kota Heart, Afganistan. Samarqandi adalah seorang tabib yang terkemuka pada zamannya dan banyak melakukan penelitian di bidang obat-obatan.
Samarqandi mencatat semua hasil penelitiannya itu dalam berbagai kitab dan makalah. Salah satu karya terpenting Samarqandi berjudul Al-Asbab wal Alaamaat, yang berisi sebab dan ciri-ciri berbagai penyakit. Karya Samarqandi yang lain berjudul Kitaabul Albaab yang merupakan buku bidang kedokteran.

10 Rabiuts-Tsani
Fatimah Ma'shumah s.a. Wafat

Tanggal 10 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 201 Hijriah, Fatimah Ma'shumah (salamullah alaiha), putri Imam Musa bin Ja'far a.s., imam ketujuh kaum muslimin, meninggal dunia di kota Qom, Iran. Beliau dilahirkan di Madinah tahun 173 Hijriah. Fatimah Ma'shumah s.a. dikenal sebagai seorang perempuan yang suci, berilmu tinggi, dan hidup zuhud. Sekitar tahun 200 Hijriah, kakak beliau, Imam Ridha a.s. dipaksa untuk datang ke Khurasan, Irah, oleh penguasa kaum muslimin saat itu, Khalifah Ma'mun. Setahun kemudian, Fatimah Ma'shumah memutuskan untuk pergi ke Khurasan demi menjenguk kakak beliau. Dalam perjalanan, Fatimah Ma'shumah singgah di kota Qom, dan setelah 17 hari berada di kota itu, beliau meninggal dunia karena sakit. Kompleks pemakaman Fatimah Ma'shumah s.a. di kota Qom hingga kini ramai dikunjungi para peziarah dari berbagai penjuru dunia. Kota tersebut juga menjadi pusat pengajaran ilmu-ilmu Islam dan pusat gerakan revolusi Islam Iran yang akhirnya menang pada tahun 1979.

Makam Imam Ridha Diserang Rusia
Tanggal 10 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 1330 Hijriah, tentara Rusia menyerang kompleks makam Imam Ridha a.s., imam kedelapan kaum muslimin yang berada di kota Masyhad, Provinsi Khurasan. Tindakan ini dilakukan oleh Rusia menyusul dibentuknya kepolisian militer yang khusus mengelola keuangan di seluruh Iran, oleh seorang berkebangsaan AS, Morgan Shuster. Rusia yang melihat bahwa lembaga ini menghalangi imperialismenya di Iran, mengeluarkan ultimatum kepada pemerintah Iran untuk mengusir Morgan Shuster dan menyatakan bahwa setiap warga asing yang akan dipekerjakan oleh Iran harus mendapat izin dari pemerintah Inggris dan Rusia. Segera setelah mengeluarkan ultimatum itu, tentara Rusia yang sebelumnya telah berpangkalan di kota Mashad, menggempur makam Imam Ridha, menembaki massa, serta merampok barang-barang berharga di kota tersebut.

11 Rabiuts-Tsani
Abu Ali Khayat Meninggal

Tanggal 11 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 220 Hijriah, Abu Ali Khayat, seorang astronom dan matematikawan muslim, meninggal dunia. Ilmuwan besar muslim ini meninggalkan berbagai karya penting, di antaranya berjudul Al-Mawalid dan Siirul A'mal. Sebagian dari karya-karyanya diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Latin.

Ibnu Khalkan Lahir
Tanggal 11 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 608 Hijriah, Ibnu Khalkan, seorang hakim, sejarawan, dan sastrawan muslim terkenal, terlahir ke dunia di kota Mosul, Irak. Ibnu Khalkan banyak mengadakan perjalanan ke berbagai negara muslim untuk menuntut ilmu. Selama beberapa waktu, Ibnu Khalkan diangkat sebagai hakim di kota Damaskus, Syria. Selain menguasai bidang hukum dan agama, Ibnu Khalkan juga dikenal berilmu tinggi di bidang sastra Arab, terutama syair. Karya terpenting Ibnu Khalkan berjudul Wafayatul A'yaan, yang berisi penjelasan tentang kehidupan para pembesar dan ilmuwan pada zamannya.

12 Rabiuts-Tsani
Qasimul Anwar Lahir

Tanggal 12 Rabi'uts-Tsani tahun 835 hijriah, Sayid Qasimul Anwar, seorang penyair terkenal Iran zaman Timurian, meninggal dunia. Ia dilahirkan di kota Tabriz, barat laut Iran. Awalnya, Sayyid Qasim menetap di Herat, Afghanistan. Di kawasan itu, Sayid Qasim mengajar sastra Persia dengan jumlah murid yang sangat banyak. Akan tetapi, Pangeran Shahrukh dari Dinasti Timurian memiliki kecurigaan terhadap aktivitas Sayid Qasim.
Akhirnya, Sayid Qasim terpaksa meninggalkan Heart menuju Samarqand, Uzbekistan. Sejumlah karya tulis Sayid Qasimul Anwar yang berupa tulisan tanggan hingga kini masih tersimpan rapi di sejumlah museum. Di antara karyanya adalah buku-buku berjudul "Anisul Arifin" dan Anisul ‘Asyiqin".

13 Rabiuts-Tsani
Mu'izzud-daulah Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 13 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 356 Hijriah, Abul Hasan Ahmad bin Buyah, terkenal dengan nama Mu'izzud-daulah Dailami meninggal dunia di kota Baghdad. Mu'izzud-daulah adalah salah seorang diantara tiga bersaudara keluarga Alu Buyah yang berhasil menaklukan kota Baghdad. Al-Mustakfi, khalifah Daulah Abbasiah yang saat itu berkuasa di Irak berhasil ditaklukkan oleh Mu'izzud-daulah. Warga Baghdad yang sebelumnya berada dalam situasi represif pemerintahan Al-Mustakfi mendapatkan kenyamanan pemerintahan Mu'izzud-daulah selama 2 tahun. Ia juga dikenal sebagai pemimpin yang sangat memperhatikan masalah budaya dan keilmuan. Di bawah pimpinan Mu'izzud-daulah, Baghdad mengalami perkembangan peradaban yang cukup pesat. Bagi para pengikut madzhab Ahlul Bait, pemerintahan Mu'izzud-daulah dikenang sebagai masa pesatnya pertumbuhan keilmuan madzhab keluarga suci Nabi ini.

14 Rabiuts-Tsani
Wardikhan Meninggal

Tanggal 14 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 1023 Hijriah, Allah Wardikhan, salah seorang panglima pada Dinasti Safawi di Iran, meninggal dunia. Wardikhan awalnya adalah seorang budak asal Georgia yang dijual kepada Raja Tahmasab. Pada tahun 1004, karena kemampuannya yang tinggi, oleh Raja Abbas dia diangkat sebagai pemimpin pemerintahan wilayah Fars. Selama masa kepemimpinannya, Wardikhan banyak melakukan pembangunan demi kesejahteraan rakyat. Di antara hasil pembangunan yang dilakukannya adalah "Siyu Se Poul" atau "33 Jembatan" yang hingga kini masih berdiri tegak di kota Isfahan.

15 Rabiuts-Tsani
Bagdadi Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 15 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 388 Hijriah, Abu Ali Muhammad bin Muzhaffar yang terkenal dengan julukan Hatimi atau Bagdadi, seorang ahli bahasa, sastrawan, dan cendikiawan Islam, meninggal dunia. Hatimi mempelajari ilmu sastra dan bahasa dari Ibnu Duraid dan Abu Amar. Setelah menguasai ilmu-ilmu tersebut, Hatimi kemudian mengajar di kota Bagdad. Kelas Hatimi banyak didatangi murid-mudrid, di antaranya Hakim Tanukhi dan ulama-ulama besar lainnya pada zaman itu. Hatimi meninggalkan banyak karya penulisan, di antaranya buku berjudul "Hatimiyah" yang berisi kritik dan pembahasan atas kesalahan dalam syair-syair penyair pada masa itu.

Aminul Islam Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 15 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 552 Hijriah, Fadhl bin Hasan Thabarsi, yang lebih dikenal dengan nama Aminullah, seorang ulama, ahli hadits, dan ahli tafsir besar, meninggal dunia. Beliau memiliki kedudukan tinggi dan dihormati oleh kaum muslimin pada zamannya. Aminullah banyak memiliki murid di antranya, Qutbu-Rawandi, penulis kitab "Syarah Nahjul Balaghah" yang terkenal. Thabarsi juga merupakan hakim yang adil pada zaman itu. Karya Thabarsi yang terpenting berjudul "Majma'ul Bayan" yang merupakan kitab tafsir Al-Quran yang terdiri dari 10 jilid . Setelah menyusun kitab tersebut, Thabarsi juga menyusun kitab tafsir lainnya berjudul Jawami'ul Jami. Karena ketelitiannya dalam menjelaskan sebab-sebab turunnya ayat dan penafsiran atasnya, kitab ini sangat diterima luas oleh ulama-ulama Islam.

16 Rabiuts-Tsani
Zainul Islam Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 16 Rabi'uts-Tsani tahun 465 hijriah, Syaikh Abul Qasim Abdul Karim bin Hawazin Qasyiri, lebih dikenal dengan nama Zainul Islam atau Syaikhul Islam, seorang ulama Islam meninggal dunia di kota Naishabur, timur laut Iran. Samasa hidupnya Zainul Islam dikenal memiliki pengetahuan yang sangat luas dan mendalam di bidang fiqh, kalam, tafsir, dan hadits.
Di kawasan Khurasan, Zainul Islam memiliki murid yang sangat banyak. Di antara karya tulis beliau yang hingga kini bisa dibaca adalah sebuah kitab tentang Irfan dan Tafsir Al-Quran berjudul "Risalah Qasyiriah".

17 Rabiuts-Tsani
Ayatullah Nakhjawani Meninggal

Tanggal 17 Rabi'uts-Tsani tahun 1334 Hijriah, Ayatullah Syaikh Muhammad Ali Nakhjawani, seorang ulama termasyhur abad ke-14 Hijriah, meninggal dunia di kota Karbala, Irak. Ayatullah Nakhjawani berasal dari kota Nakhjawan, Azerbaijan. Sejak usia 11 tahun, beliau telah menguasai Al-Quran dan kemudian mempelajari ilmu-ilmu logika, sastra Arab, dll.
Selanjutnya, Syaikh Nakhjawani menuntut ilmu dari ulama-ulama besar seperti Fadhil Irwani, sampai akhirnya mencapai derajat mujtahid dan menjadi marja taklid kaum muslimin di Kaukasus dan Azerbaijan. Ayatullah Nakhjawani meninggalkan berbagai karya penulisan, di antaranya berjudul Ijtima'iy-e Imruzi.

18 Rabiuts-Tsani
Muhaqiq Hilli Lahir

Tanggal 18 Rabi'uts-Tsani tahun 602 Hijriah, Muhaqiq Hilli, seorang ulama dan ahli fiqih Islam termasyhur, terlahir ke dunia di Irak. Selain dikenal memiliki ilmu yang tinggi di bidang agama, Muhaqiq Hilli juga merupakan seorang penyair. Selain meninggalkan banyak karya-karya syair, Muhaqiq Hilli juga meninggalkan karya penulisan di bidang agama, antara lain berjudul Syariul Islam fi Masailul Halal wal Haram. Ilmuwan Islam ini meninggal dunia tahun 676 Hijriah pada usia 74 tahun.

Ayatullah Mirza Ali Shirazi Meninggal
Tanggal 18 Rabi'uts-Tsani tahun 1355 Hijriah, Ayatullah Mirza Ali Shirazi, seorang ulama muslim terkemuka, meninggal dunia pada usia 68 tahun di kota Najaf, Irak. Beliau menuntut ilmu dari ulama-ulama besar pada masa itu, antara lain Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Taqi Shirazi. Karena kecerdasannya dan kemampuannya yang tinggi, Ayatullah Mirza Ali Shirazi berhasil meraih derajat mujtahid pada usia sangat muda, yaitu 22 tahun. Selain berilmu tinggi di bidang agama, Ayatullah Mirza Ali Shirazi juga dikenal menguasai imu kedokteran, sejarah, dan sastra.

19 Rabiuts-Tsani
Ayatullah Haji Muhammad Khurasani Lahir

Tanggal 19 Rabi'uts-Tsani tahun 1180 Hijriah, Ayatullah Haji Muhammad Ibrahim Khurasani, seorang ulama terkemuka Isfahan Iran, terlahir ke dunia. Ulama yang terkenal dengan nama Karbosi ini memulai pendidikannya di kota Isfahan dan kemudian melanjutkan ke hauzah ilmiah di Najaf, Irak.
Seusai menyelesaikan pendidikan di Irak, Ayatullah Karbosi kembali ke tanah kelahirannya dan mengabdikan hidupnya untuk mengajar dan menulis buku. Buku-buku karya Ayatullah Karbosi yang juga terkenal atas sikap hidupnya yang zuhud ini, di antaranya berjudul Isyaraat-e Ushul dan Manasik-e Haj. Ayatullah karbosi meninggal dunia tahun 1261 Hijriah.

Ali bin Khalaf meninggal dunia
Tanggal 19 Rabiul Tsani 403 Hijriah, Ali bin Khalaf Qayrawani Qabasi, seorang cendikiawan, ahli hadis, dan fakih muslim meninggal dunia. Dia adalah warga Qayrawan Tunisia dan lahir pada tahun 324 Hijriah. Dia mempunyai ilmu yang banyk dalam bidang fikih dan dasar fikih. Qabasi buta sejak usia remaja. Meski demikian ia mampu menghafal banyak hadis beserta seluruh dalilnya. Di antara buku hasil karyanya adalah Al Mumahhad di bidang fikih.

Asiruddin meninggal dunia
Tanggal 19 Rabiul Tsani 663, Asiruddin Abhari, Filsuf, astronom dan matematikawan terkenal Iran meninggal dunia. Dia merupakan salah seorang pakar hukum Islam dan murid Fakhrur Razi dan Kamadluddin Ibn Yunus. Abhari banyak mengajar dan menulis buku. Sebagian besar karyanya terfokuskan pada mantiq, hikmah, matematika, dan astronomi. Astronom dan matematikawan Iran ini meninggalkan banyak buku tulisan di antaranya Islahu Usuli Aklidis dan Hidayatul Hikmah.

20 Rabiuts-Tsani
Haji Luthf-ali Beik Lahir

Tanggal 20 Rabi'uts-Tsani tahun 1134 Hijriah, Haji Luthf-ali Beik Azar Bigdili, seorang penyair dan sastrawan Iran, terlahir ke dunia di kota Isfahan. Selama beberapa tahun, Haji Luthf-ali Beik tinggal di kota Qom dan Shiraz, dan akhirnya kembali menetap di Isfahan.
Haji Luthf-ali Beik hidup di saat terjadi peperangan di Iran, namun ia tetap tekun menuntut ilmu-ilmu dari para ulama, penyair, dan orang-orang alim pada zaman itu. Karya-karya yang ditinggalkan Haji Luthf-ali Beik diantaranya adalah buku kumpulan syair dan buku berjudul Atashkadeh Azar yang berisi biografi para penyair pada zamannya dan zaman sebelumnya.

21 Rabiuts-Tsani
Haji Mula Muhammad Baqir Waidz Tehrani

Tanggal 21 Rabi'uts-Tsani tahun 1313 Hijriah, Haji Mula Muhamamd Baqir Waidz Tehrani, seorang ulama terkemuka Teheran, meninggal dunia. Beliau dilahirkan pada tahun 1255 Hijriah dan sebagian besar umurnya dihabiskan untuk menelaah dan menuntut ilmu.
Haji Mula Muhammad Baqir Waidz Tehrani juga banyak meninggalkan karya penulisan, di antaranya berjudul Jannatun-naim yang berisi tentang riwayat hidup Sayyid Abdul Adzim, ulama besar kaum muslimin yang merupakan salah seorang cucu Rasulullah SAWW, yang dimakamkan di kota Rey, Iran.

23 Rabiuts-Tsani
Abu Shamah Lahir

Tanggal 23 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 599 Hijriah, Shihabuddin Abdurrahman Dimashqi Muqaddasi, yang terkenal dngan nama Abu Shamah, terlahir ke dunia di kota Damaskus, Syria. Abu Shamah adalah seorang cendikiawan dan ulama terkemuka di Damaskus.
Dia menuntut ilmu-ilmu agama di Iskandariah, Mesir. Abu Shamah meninggalkan banyak karya penulisan, di antaranya berjudul Mukadimah Ilmu Nahwu dan Sejarah Ringkas Kota Damaskus. Namun sayang sekali sebagian besar karya Abu Shamah hancur dalam kebakaran yang menimpa perpustakaan besar yang dimilikinya.

24 Rabiuts-Tsani
Muhammad Shiddiqi Wafat

Tanggal 24 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 993 hijriah, Muhamad bin Muhamad Shiddiqi, salah seorang ulama terkenal asal Mesir meninggal dunia. Ia yang dilahirkan dari keluarga ulama, sejak kecil menunjukkan bakat dan minat yang sangat besar terhadap ilmu-ilmu keagamaan. Setelah menguasai sejumlah ilmu keagamaan, Shiddiqi kemudian mengajar di bidang fiqh, hadits, dan tafsir. Di antara karya tulisannya adalah sebuah buku berjudul "Adabusy-Syaikh Wal-Murid".

25 Rabiuts-Tsani
Tsabit Al-Shabi'i Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 25 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 288 hijriyah,Tsabit bin Qurrah Al-Shabi'i, matematikawan, astronom, dan dokter kenamaan meninggal dunia. Al-Shabi'i lahir pada tahun 221 hijriyah di kawasan Haraan di wilayah Beinan Nahrein, Irak. Sebagai bagian kaum Shabiin yang bermukim di wilayah beinan Nahrein, Al-Shabi'i juga fasih berbahasa Yunani dan Suryani.
Selain dua bahasa tersebut, Tsabit Al-shabi'I juga mengenal bahasa Arab dengan baik. Dia berhasil menguasai ilmu matematika dan astronomi dibawah bimbingan Muhammad bin Musa, matematikawan muslim terkenal. Al-Shabi'i banyak menulis dan menerjemahkan karya ilmiah menyangkut ilmu kedokteran, matematika, dan astronomi. Diantara hasil karyanya adalah Al-Dzakhirah fi ‘ilm Al-Thibb dan Kitabul Mafrudhat.

Ibnu Abdil Barr Lahir
Tanggal 25 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 368 hijriyah, Abu Umar Yusuf bin Abdillah yang dikenal dengan nama Ibnu Abdil Barr seorang faqih, muhaddits, sastrawan dan ahli sejarah terkenal lahir di Andalusia. Sejak dini, Ibnu Abdil Barr telah mulai menima ilmu dari ayahnya dan para guru terkenal saat itu. Berkat ketekunannya dalam belajar, dalam waktu yang cukup singkat, Ibnu Abdil Baar tampil sebagai salah seorang ulama besar di Andalusia.

26 Rabiuts-Tsani
Qattan Muruzi Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 26 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 465 hijriyah, Ainuz Zaman Qattan Muruzi, matematikawan, dokter dan filsuf terkemuka muslim terlahir ke dunia di kota Marw, Khorasan yang kini masuk dalam wilayah Turkmenistan.Qattan dikenal sebagai ilmuan besar di bidang matematika, filsafat, sastra dan ilmu-ilmu agama.
Dia juga memiliki ketertarikan yang besar kepada ilmu kedokteran. Qattan Muruzi akhirnya lebih menyibukkan diri dengan aktifitasnya sebagai dokter. Banyak buku yang telah ditulisnya, diantaranya buku berjudul Keyhan-e Shenakht, yang membahas ilmu matematika. Qattan Muruzi wafat pada tahun 548 hijriyah.

Najafi Quchani Wafat
Tanggal 26 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 1363 hijriyah, Agha Najafi Quchani, filsuf, faqih dan sastrawan terkemuka Iran wafat di tanah kelahirannya Quchan, Iran. setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan dasar di Quchan, beliau bertolak ke Irak untuk menimba ilmu agama di Hauzah Ilmiah Najaf. Di bawah bimbingan para ulama besar, Najafi Quchani berhasil meraih derajat ijtihad. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya, beliau kembali ke Iran.

Di saat para ulama Iran terjun di medan perjuangan yang dikenal dengan nama gerakan Masyrutiyat, Agha Najafi Quchani juga ikut terlibat. Banyak karya penulisan yang ditinggalkannya di antaranya, Siyahate Sharq, Siyahate Ghrab, dan Odzr Badtar az Gonah.

28 Rabiuts-Tsani
Adibul Mamalik Wafat

Tanggal 28 Rabiuts-Tsani tahun 1336 hijriyah, Adibul Mamalik Farahani, penulis dan sastrawan terkemuka Iran meninggal dunia. Sebagai penulis yang amat menyenangi profesinya, dia menerima tawaran sebagai penanggung jawab penerbitan surat kabar Adab, Majles, dan surat kabar Aftab. Selain di bidang penulisan dan penerbitan, Adibul Mamalik juga aktif di dunia politik. Dia bergabung dalam kelompok para pejuang gerakan Revolusi Konstitusional. Syair-syair Adibul Mamalik lebih banyak menceritakan kehidupan sosial dan aktifitas politiknya.

29 Rabiuts-Tsani
Ibnu Muqassim Wafat

Tanggal 29 Rabiuts-sani tahun 354 Hijriyah, Ibnu Muqassim, seorang cendekiawan dan ahli hadis muslim terkemuka, meninggal dunia. Ibnu Muqassim dilahirkan di Bagdad dan menuntut ilmu dari ulama-ulama besar di kota itu, di antaranya Abbas bin Fadhlur-Razi. Ibnu Muqassim banyak meninggalkan karya-karya penulisan, umumnya di bidang ulumul quran, di antaranya berjudul Al Anwar fi Tafsiiril Quran.
          Policy Forum Discusses the Politics of Globalization        

Distinguished panel of experts includes former U.S. Ambassador Jennifer Brush

Jennifer Brush

The increasingly global nature of nearly every aspect of society has had a significant impact on politics and policy, both in the United States and around the world, as evidenced by the 2016 U.S. presidential election and the global reaction to it. To better assess the impact of global politics on local, state, national and international governance, Cleveland State University will host the policy forum “The Impact of Globalization on the World and Cleveland,” Thursday, April 6.

The event, which will be held from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. on the CSU campus in Fenn Tower, Rm. 303, will feature a distinguished panel of experts who will discuss globalization’s impact on everything from the economy and politics to immigration and the international refugee crisis. Participants will include Ambassador Jennifer Brush, who served as U.S. Chargé D'affaires in both Serbia and Turkmenistan; Danielle Drake, community relations manager for US Together a refugee resettlement agency in Cleveland; Steven Hook, professor of political science at Kent State University and author of U.S. Foreign Policy: The Paradox of World Power; and Kathryn Lavelle, the Ellen and Dixon Long Professor in World Affairs at Case Western Reserve University and author of Legislating International Organization: The U.S. Congress, the IMF, and the World Bank.

The forum was conceived and developed by a team of graduate students in the Master of Arts in Global Interactions program within CSU’s Department of Political Science. The team sought to enhance understanding of the changing dynamics of the politics of globalization while engaging key stakeholders to ultimately improve U.S. foreign and domestic policy.

“This forum is an excellent example of how the MAGI program combines first class instruction in international relations with opportunities for students to make a difference in the world around them,” adds Neda Zawahri, associate professor of political science at CSU.

The event is free and open to the public. For more information about the MAGI program at CSU, visit http://www.csuohio.edu/class/political-science/master-political-science-global-interactions.

###


          Sejarah Timnas Indonesia pada Piala Dunia        

lika-liku Timnas Indonesia pada ajang piala dunia cukup panjang, berikut jejak langkah Indonesia di Pra Piala Dunia :

Pra Piala Dunia 1938 (dengan nama Hindia Belanda)
Hindia Belanda vs India, menang WO langsung lolos putaran final

Putaran Final Piala Dunia 1938 Prancis
5 Juni 1938 (babak pertama) Hindia Belanda 0-6 Hungaria

Pra Piala Dunia 1958
(babak preliminary) Indonesia vs Taiwan, menang WO

Babak pertama kualifikasi AFC/CAF
Indonesia berada di grup 1 bersama Cina dan Hong Kong. Hong Kong mengundurkan diri
- 12 Mei 1957 Indonesia 2-0 China
- 2 Juni 1957 Cina 4-3 Indonesia
- 23 Juni 1957 (play off) Indonesia 0-0 China
(Indonesia lolos ke babak kedua unggul selisih gol)
- Babak kedua Indonesia segrup dengan Sudan, Mesir, dan Israel. Indonesia mengundurkan diri karena tidak mengakui kedaulatan negara Israel.

Pra Piala Dunia 1962
Indonesia satu grup dengan Korea Selatan dan Jepang, dan langsung mengundurkan diri

Pra Piala Dunia 1974
Indonesia tergabung dalam zona B grup 2 kualifikasi AFC/OFC bersama Irak, Australia, dan Selandia Baru.
- 11 Maret 1973 Indonesia 1-1 Selandia Baru
- 13 Maret 1973 Australia 2-1 Indonesia
- 16 Maret 1973 Irak 1-1 Indonesia
- 18 Maret 1973 Indonesia 1-0 Selandia Baru
- 24 Maret 1973 Australia 6-0 Indonesia
(Indonesia finish di posisi 3 dengan 4 poin hasil 1 menang, 2 imbang, 3 kalah dan gagal melaju ke babak selanjutnya)

Pra Piala Dunia 1978
Indonesia tergabung di grup 1 bersama Hong Kong, Thailand dan Singapura
- 28 Februari 1977 Indonesia 1-4 Hong Kong
- 3 Maret 1977 Indonesia 0-0 Malaysia
- 7 Maret 1977 Indonesia 2-3 Thailand
- 9 Maret 1977 Singapura 0-4 Indonesia

Pra Piala Dunia 1982
Indonesia tergabung di grup 1 zona AFC/OFC bersama Selandia Baru, Australia, Taiwan, dan Fiji.
- 11 Mei 1981 Indonesia 0-2 Selandia Baru
- 20 Mei 1981 Australia 2-0 Indonesia
- 23 Mei 1981 Selandia Baru 5-0 Indonesia
- 31 Mei 1981 Fiji 0-0 Indonesia
- 15 Juni 1981 Indonesia 1-0 Taiwan
- 28 Juni 1981 Taiwan 2-0 Indonesia
- 10 Agustus , 1981 Indonesia 3-3 Fiji
- 30 Agustus 1981 Indonesia 1-0 Australia
(Indonesia finish di posisi 3 dengan 6 poin hasil 2 menang, 2 seri, 4 kalah dan gagal melaju ke babak selanjutnya)

Pra Piala Dunia 1986
Babak pertama, Indonesia tergabung dalam grup 3B AFC Zona B bersama India, Thailand, Bangladesh
- 15 Maret 1985 Indonesia 1-0 Thailand
- 18 Maret 1985 Indonesia 2-0 Bangladesh
- 21 Maret 1985 Indonesia 2-1 India
- 29 Maret 1985 Thailand 0-1 Indonesia
- 2 April 1985 Bangladesh 2-1 Indonesia
- 6 April 1985 India 1-1 Indonesia

Indonesia lolos ke babak kedua sebagai juara grup dengan 9 poin. Di babak kedua, yang merupakan empat tim terbaik Asia Timur, Indonesia bertemu Korea Selatan dengan format kandang-tandang.
- 21 Juli 1985 Korea Selatan 2-0 Indonesia
- 30 Juli 1985 Indonesia 1-4 Korea Selatan
- Korea Selatan lolos, agregat 6-1

Pra Piala Dunia 1990
Babak pertama Indonesia tergabung dalam grup 6 zona AFC bersama Korea Utara, Jepang, dan Hong Kong
- 21 Mei, 1989 Indonesia 0-0 Korea Utara
- 28 Mei 1989 Indonesia 0-0 Japan
- 4 Juni 1989 Hong Kong 1-1 Indonesia
- 11 Juni 1989 Japan 5-0 Indonesia
- 25 Juni 1989 Indonesia 3-2 Hong Kong
- 9 Juli 1989 Korea Utara 2-1 Indonesia
Indonesia finish di posisi 3 dan gagal melangkah ke babak selanjutnya

Pra Piala Dunia 1994
Babak pertama Indonesia bergabung dengan Korea Utara, Qatar, Singapura, dan Vietnam dalam grup C zona AFC
- 9 April 1993 Qatar 3-1 Indonesia
- 13 April 1993 Indonesia 0-4 Korea Utara
- 16 April 1993 Indonesia 0-1 Vietnam
- 18 April 1993 Indonesia 0-2 Singapura
- 24 April 1993 Indonesia 1-4 Qatar
- 28 April 1993 Indonesia 1-2 Korea Utara
- 30 April 1993 Indonesia 2-1 Vietnam
- 2 Mei 1993 Singapura 2-1 Indonesia
Indonesia finish di posisi 4 dan gagal melaju ke babak selanjutnya

Pra Piala Dunia 1998
Indonesia tergabung dalam grup 5 zona AFC bersama Uzbekistan, Yaman, dan Kamboja
- 6 April 1997 Indonesia 8-0 Kamboja
- 13 April 1997 Indonesia 0-0 Yaman
- 27 April 1997 Kamboja 1-1 Indonesia
- 1 Juni 1998 Indonesia 1-1 Uzbekistan
- 13 Juni 1997 Yaman 1-1 Indonesia
- 20 Juni 1997 Uzbekistan 3-0 Indonesia
Indonesia finish di posisi 3 dan gagal melaju ke babak selanjutnya

Pra Piala Dunia 2002
Indonesia tergabung di grup 9 bersama Cina, Maladewa , dan Kamboja
- 8 April 2001 Indonesia 5-0 Maladewa
- 22 April 2001 Indonesia 6-0 Kamboja
- 29 April 2001 Kamboja 0-2 Indonesia
- 6 Mei 2001 Maladewa 0-2 Indonesia
- 13 Mei 2001 China 5-1 Indonesia
- 27 Mei 2001 Indonesia 0-2 China
Indonesia finish di posisi 2 dan gagal melaju ke babak selanjutnya

Pra Piala Dunia 2006
Indonesia langsung lolos ke babak kedua, tergabung di grup 8 bersama Arab Saudi, Turkmenistan, dan Sri Lanka
- 18 Februari 2004 Arab Saudi 3-0 Indonesia
- 31 Maret 2004 Turkmenistan 3-1 Indonesia
- 9 Juni 2004 Indonesia 1-0 Sri Lanka
- 8 September 2004 Sri Lanka 2-2 Indonesia
- 12 Oktober 2004 Indonesia 1-3 Arab Saudi
- 17 November 2004 Indonesia 3-1 Turkmenistan
Indonesia finish di posisi 3 dan gagal melaju ke babak selanjutnya

Pra Piala Dunia 2010
Babak pertama, Indonesia menang WO melawan Guam
Babak kedua, Indonesia bertemu Suriah dalam format kandang-tandang
- 9 November 2007 Indonesia 1-4 Suriah
- 18 November 2007 Suriah 7-0 Indonesia
- Suriah lolos ke babak ketiga, agregat 11-1

Pra Piala Dunia 2014
Indonesia langsung lolos babak kedua dan berjumpa Turkmenistan dalam format kandang-tandang
- 23 Juli 2011 Turkmenistan 1-1 Indonesia
- 28 Juli 2011 Indonesia 4-3 Turkmenistan



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          17 DAYS GREAT SILK ROAD TURKEY - UZBEKISTAN - TURKMENISTAN - IRAN - ARMENIA TOUR        
When you book your Combined Country Tour with us, you have our TravelShop guarantee that no promise will be broken. We make your dreams come true!
          TURKMENISTAN: “I WANT TO KNOW IF I CAN IMPORT RELIGIOUS BOOKS”        
Turkmenistan continues to impose strict censorship on religious literature brought into the country, and copies data from personal computers, Forum 18 News Service has been told. “Which commission decides this?” a Protestant complained, commenting that “they don’t have the right to interfere in my own private life.” Officials always point to an unspecified “commission” which […]
          Smiley looking for a travel buddy        

7125048 Alter 39 Von Prague, Czech Republic
Frau Suche ein Mann

I like to think I am clever, honest and kind, with a great sense of humor. Photography is my biggest hobby and for past several years also my job, I freelance for different magazines and companies. I have won several awards, nationally and internationally too. I love animals - dogs, cats and horses in particular - I am also an equestrian journalist and translator. I love to travel and explore new places, and I could use a buddy to travel with or to enjoy a glass of good wine (or a great cocktail) together. Non-smoker. I do enjoy reading a good book or watching a movie (especially great sci-fi) or a nature documentary. I graduated from a University with masters degree in animal husbandry so yes, I do know how to milk a cow. I love horseriding and skiing - and even the combination of the two, skijoring! :-) When traveling I am not that much about spending days on the beach, I prefer to see stuff and to explore the local nature, culture and traditions. I have been fortunate enough to travel to more than 20 countries already, including China, India, Seychelles, United Arab Emirates or even Turkmenistan. My bucket list is full with places to visit, with Falkland Islands/South Georgia/Antarctica, Pantanal, Alaska, Spitsbergen/Greenland, Iceland or Bhutan topping the list.I would love to see the northern lights, the great wildebeest migration, an erupting volcano and many more natural wonders. Would love to learn scuba diving, dogsledding, and finally improve my French! Still believe I can find a like-minded man for all these adventures. ENTP.


                  

          Meteor Showers: Fire and Water        
A flash of our past and our future: the meteor impact near Chelyabinsk, Russia, early Friday morning.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=thQ2PDE3rnU&feature=endscreen

This meteor was about 55 ft. in diameter, weighed 10,000 tons, and is a remnant of the dust and rocks that swirled around the early sun 4.5 billion years ago, according to the Wall Street Journal.

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323764804578312264130040432.html?mod=WSJ_hps_LEFTTopStories

Comets hitting Earth brought our water, eventually building to our oceans.  

Meteors peppered earth early in its 4.45 billion year history, one impact causing a chunk of earth and debris to rebound away and become our moon.  

Even now 100 tons of material the size of sand or smaller still hits Earth every day, reports Phil Plait on on Slate.   http://www.slate.com/blogs/bad_astronomy/2013/02/11/asteroid_2012_da14_space_rock_will_miss_the_earth_by_17_000_miles.html 

When I walk on the beach tomorrow morning, I'll thank God for the gift of oceans.

I'll be waiting for the sunset bypass of Asteroid 2012DA14--17,000 miles from Earth and the size of a football field.

In 1908 a meteor exploded above Siberia, flattening trees over a 25-mile area.

The meteor that caused extinction of the dinosaurs about 60 million years ago was about the same size as the asteroid that will pass us by on Friday.

"It is only every 2,000 years or so that an object the size of a football field descends to Earth and causes significant damage, according to NASA," reports the Wall Street Journal, referring to the meteor fly-by on Friday.


As if humans were keeping a list in 4,000 BCE, 2000 BCE, and the turn of the first millennium CE.


http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324162304578305163574597722.html

In contrast, a much smaller meteor like the one over Chelyabinsk causes damage on Earth about once every one hundred years.

Thank God that 2012DA14 will not be returning us to the dust from which we were formed.

Note of correction: 

In the first hours after the meteor passed over Chelyabinsk, some pranksters posted on YouTube videos of a gas crater in Darwaza, Turkmenistan, claiming it to be the site of impact of a part of the meteor.  I fell for it and posted the link below on my blog.  The footage also appears in the first link above of various Chelyabinsk videos pasted together, some from news broadcasts.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cd47Q44igI

In this YouTube video someone walks through the snow around the edge of gas crater nicknamed "Gates of Hell."

Weratu Nectur posted this explanation of the 1971 crater on YouTube on Feb. 16:

In 1971 near the village of Darwaza, geologists discovered an accumulation of underground gas.  As a result of excavation and drilling, they stumbled on an underground void.  Then the earth collapsed and formed a large hole filled with gas.  

The fumes did not go out, so they decided to burn.  Geologists expected the fire would go out after a few days, but they were mistaken.  Since 1971, the natural gas coming from the crater stays lit day and night.

At any rate, this gas crater gives us a glimpse of what the meteor crater in Arizona near Flagstaff may have looked like when it happened between 20,000 and 50,000 years ago.  http://www.universetoday.com/32619/arizona-crater/





          Beautiful Wedding Dresses Photos Picturces Pics Images        

BEAUTIFUL WEDDING DRESSES DEFINITION

Source(google.com.pk)
In Kyrgyzstan culture marriage is one of the most important decisions and acts of person's life. To get a clearer picture of what a Kyrgyzstan wedding looks like, I have decided to describe two real weddings, one  Blogs of the World . The Wedding Capital: Read the story and see photos of a visit to Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan by Travel Pod member silkscreen.The destination for planning the most beautiful wedding. . Lover.ly helps you discover and save wedding ideas in one, easy place.  People's Republic of, Korea, Republic of, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia .Leading and award-winning designer label of wedding gowns. . Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Luxembourg, Moldova . of protracted absence," citing a study by another researcher in a different part of Kyrgyzstan. However, these rituals, especially weddings and . Travel ling Kyrgyzstan in April is like a big bosom ed lady at the end of an aisle standing there in her wedding dress. Covered in white, you know TV, social networks, mass media, blogging, songs and . in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan so .Beautiful Full Birdcage Veil as seen in the Style Me Pretty wedding blog-- Ready to Ship. Beautiful Full Birdcage Veil as seen in the Style Me Pretty wedding blog.Kyrgyzstan is a small landlocked country bordering China where traditions run deep. . The opinions expressed on the BUST blog are those of the authors themselves and do not . Wedding Makeup - Light but defined .Hundreds of wedding-themed articles, on-line recommendations of stylists and wedding . And the idea was rapid and clear – I should launch a blog or a web-site. . Here in Kyrgyzstan Internet is not that popular and I have to remind the target.
Festive season is all around in the world, the countdown to Christmas has also begun and festivals bring a lot of happiness and excitement along , we always imagine lot of colors, glitters and sparkles with our happiness. Winter is also a season of weddings and parties and parties always insist us to think about our beauty and outfits. You always would have felt a warm excitement and thrill for decorating yourselves for these evening parties.  Some times it does happen that the sort of dress you have in mind, isn't available easily, but how about an amazing place where you get countless of such evening dresses which are far more beautiful than your imagination and when you keep your step in the party lounge, all eyes refuse to stay away from you.
Feeling excited.
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BEATIFUL WEDDING DRESSES PHOTOS PICTURES PICS IMAGES
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          Why Sweden Should Accept More Immigrants, Not Less        

The Chinese are filtering and blocking internet information. The governments in a dozen other counties are also internet enemies: Bahrain, Belarus, Burma, Cuba, Egypt, North Korea, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam and Yemen.
And the Iranian government has installed a national firewall that blocks almost everything of value.
These countries are not really the Innovation Hall of Fame.
Some don’t care if they aren’t on the list, but some do. For example the Iran government claims they are a high-tech country. Saudi Arabia has an innovation policy and I’ve been briefly involved in a project to build an “innovation city” outside Medina. But they got cold feet when we insisted that women were prerequisite for innovation.
None of these countries can ever explore innovations. All of them can imitate, but create new radical innovations? No.
To begin with most of them discriminate half of the population. Secondly they think you can buy innovation or create innovation by organization. And thirdly they don’t understand that a free flow of information is absolute necessary for innovation, as well as free research and democracy. And by the way they all use western technology, such as Nokia, Siemens, Google and Microsoft, to filter the Web and emails.
China is today the factory of the world. But with their censoring mindset they can hardly move to become the world laboratory for innovations. Once you start censoring the internet, you restrict the ability to imagine and innovate. The Chinese government is telling young Chinese that if they really want to explore, they need to go abroad.
We should be taking advantage of this. For example in Sweden the medical education at universities are dominated by immigrants. It’s the same trend as in Silicon Valley. Not bad, right?
Recessions have always been a time when new technologies and companies get born. We might be able to stimulate our way back to economic stability, but we can only invent our way back to prosperity. Europe in general and Sweden in particular should have the borders wide open to these immigrants.
Photo: http://www.blameitonthevoices.com/2008/07/made-in-china_24.html

          Good news from Afghanistan, part 16        
Note: Also available from "The Opinion Journal" and Winds of Change. As always, big thanks to James Taranto and Joe Katzman for their support of the series, and to all my readers and fellow bloggers whose encouragement has kept it going for over a year now.

Across Afghanistan, good news for the farmers, and the rest of the population:
The country's farms are alive again.

Seven years of drought had left fields monochrome plains of brown dust. But good snows and rains have many Afghans seeing color again -- seas of golden wheat undulate in the breeze, green apricot trees are plump with yellow fruit, melons of every hue dot fields.

It is much-needed relief for impoverished farmers as well as the estimated 3.4 million Afghans who have been relying on food handouts from overburdened international aid groups.

One wheat farmer sees the end of the drought as a sign that God is pleased with the country's fledgling democracy.

"Since the fall of the Taliban, Afghanistan has started to recover from the drought and people's lives have been getting better," said Fazah Rahman, 36.

"In previous years, no one even bothered to plant crops because our lands were dry like a desert, but that has all changed and everyone is sowing their land," he said.

Mohammed Sharif-Sharif, a senior official at the Agricultural Ministry, said the harvest is exceeding expectations.

"This year, we will be in need of less food aid from other countries," he said. "In the past seven years, nearly all our wheat was imported. But fortunately, it will significantly drop this year."
Whether or not God is indeed finally smiling on the long-suffering people of Afghanistan and blessing their new democracy with rain, the things are definitely becoming interesting for this, one of the poorest countries in the world. With parliamentary election coming up soon, the world's attention is slowly - though one fears, judging by the past experience, briefly - returning to Afghanistan. The political, security, economic and social challenges facing the country are enormous, but progress have been slowly and often painfully made, much of it missed by the media, and thus the Western audiences.

If you have been following this series for the past year or so, this will not come as a surprise. Below, another four weeks's worth of stories from Afghanistan, which so often got lost in the usual media chatter about drugs and violence.

SOCIETY: The authorities have officially announced on August 15 the start of the election campaign:
"The official campaign period for the Wolesi Jirga, or lower house, and provincial-council elections will begin on 17 August," UN-Afghan Joint Electoral Management Body spokesman Sultan Ahmad Baheen said. Candidates will be allowed to campaign until 15 September, when a 48-hour moratorium will be imposed. More than 10 million Afghans are reportedly eligible to vote. Candidates will be allowed to hold rallies, distribute posters and leaflets, and appear in private and state-run media. 'Each Wolesi Jirga candidate will be allocated an advertisement of five minutes to be broadcast twice on radio or one advertisement of two minutes to be broadcast twice on television,' Baheen said. Baheen said candidates for provincial councils will get one advertisement of four minutes broadcast on radio or one advertisement of two minutes broadcast on television.
More on the election on the airwaves here.

And so, one year later, the Afghan authorities and the international community are facing up to the logistical challenge of another election:
Afghanistan is preparing for landmark parliamentary elections using a combination of stone-age and modern technology to get polling stations open in under six weeks time.

Mountainous and remote terrain, low levels of literacy and the sheer number of candidates -- almost 6,000 -- all add up to one of the most difficult elections the international community has ever organised.

"I don't think the United Nations have ever seen an election like this, with up to 400 candidates on each ballot paper," Julian Type, of the UN-backed Joint Electoral Management Body [said]...

Despite the challenges and the threat of violence from increasingly active Taliban militants, officials said they thought the lower house and provincial council elections on September 18 would go ahead on time.

"We are very confident we will be able to deliver the operation successfully and have all staff... in place," James Grierson, electoral head of logistical support, told a news conference in Kabul.

Some of Afghanistan's remote mountainous districts are only accessible by donkey, while airplanes must be used to freight the 135,000 ballot boxes, 140,000 bottles of ink and 403 tons of furniture to many of the country's 26,000 polling stations, the electoral body said.

Fourteen cargo planes will make deliveries across Afghanistan, in addition to the 1,200 deliveries by cargo trucks and flights by nine helicopters to remote areas not accessible by road.

"The topography dictates that we will have to use air, road and even donkeys to distribute our material across the country," Grierson added.

The furniture must be flown into Afghanistan for this election because the chairs and tables used at the country's first presidential polls in October have already been donated to local schools.
Being any one of the 6000 candidates is not the safest occupation in Afghanistan, but perhaps the most courageous among the lot are women:
Three-hundred-twenty-eight of the parliamentary candidates are Afghan women. Another two-hundred-thirty-seven women are provincial council candidates. “I want basic human rights for men and women,” says Sabrina Sagheb. Ms. Sagheb is the head of the Afghan Basketball Federation and a representative of the International Olympic Committee. She says she hopes to help end practices such as forcing women into unwanted marriages or forcing them to wear burkhas.

Journalist Noorzia Charkhi hopes to represent her native province in the new parliament. But like a number of Afghan women candidates, her life has been threatened. “I’m not going to quit," she said, "because I want to show people that a woman should be able to do these things.”

Extremists set fire to parliamentary candidate Zobaida Stanekzai's front door. “They were trying to scare me into dropping out,” she said, “but my decision to be a candidate is unshakeable.”
Meet one of the candidates:
Sitting on the floor of a nomad's tent on an August morning, out of the searing sun, an election candidate was making her pitch to a group of women, children and old men clustered around her.

Fareeda Kuchi Balkhi, who wants to represent Afghanistan's nomadic tribes in Parliament, campaigned recently among Kuchi tribesmen in Kabul.

"I want to serve you. I know the pain in your hearts, and if I do not serve you, I pray to God not to grant me success," she said. "I want schools. I want grazing lands for the Kuchis. I want mosques, clinics, we should have midwives and women doctors," she said, counting each item on her fingers. "I want you to have a peaceful life."

The candidate, Fareeda Kuchi Balkhi, is one of seven women campaigning to represent Afghanistan's nomadic tribes, known as the Kuchis, in the Parliament to be elected Sept. 18. Barely 4 feet 6 inches tall, with indigo tattoos marking her forehead and chin, and wearing a black veil and the traditional red and gold embroidered dress and baggy pants of the Kuchis, Mrs. Balkhi is undeniably a true representative.

Before the official opening on Aug. 17 of the election campaign, she traveled from her home in northern Afghanistan to campaign among the nomads who have pitched their tents on the dusty plains around Kabul, the capital.
While candidates campaign across the country, efforts are being made by the authorities to further educate the people about the election. Read this story about Afghanistan's only election info line:
When the centre opened last month, it handled nearly 500 calls a day on six telephones, said Abdul Manan Danish, the official in charge.

"Now the number of people asking questions has gone up to between 700 and 1,500 a day," he said, attributing this rise, and the resulting need for more telephones, to the publicity given to the 180 number.

Nadia Sultani, a female worker at the centre, says the focus of questions has shifted in the time since they opened.

When people were having to register to get voting cards, most questions centred on how this should be done. Now, most callers simply want to know how to vote.
There are other ways of reaching and educating voters:
In Bamiyan Province, where two historic Buddha statues one stood, a crowd has gathered to watch a very modern performance.

The audience laughs appreciatively at the actors' antics, but the play has an entirely serious goal.

It's to show what Afghan voters will go through when they cast their ballots on 18 September -- and to encourage people to go to the polls.

Shamsuddin Yousofzai, dressed in a pointed green hat with red tassels, takes time out from playing a clown to talk to Reuters.

"The purpose of this show is to inform and teach people about elections and the benefit of elections," Yousofzai said. "Through these shows we give instruction to the people, and also it is a way of also entertainment and fun for the people of Bamiyan who have suffered so much and I am really proud to be a part of it."

The Joint Electoral Management Body is using more orthodox means to reach potential voters, with messages on radio, television, and newspapers.

But the more unusual mobile theater is playing a key role, too, according to university student Akbar Khan.
Foreign assistance also continues to arrive for the elections. The United States has promised an extra $8 million towards the cost of conducting the poll. The Netherlands is contributing an extra 4 million euros ($5 million) on top of a previous contribution of 4 million euros, towards the logistical support in the elections. New Zealand is giving $0.7 million and Australia $2 million (with another $5 million to go towards reconstruction). Germany is contributing $3.24 million, and Belgium $1 million:
Furthermore, the Federal Foreign Office is financing projects organized by several non-governmental organizations in the sphere of political education. For example, the Free and Fair Elections Association, an Afghan umbrella organization focusing on the training and the work of national election observers, is receiving EUR 250,000 [$309,000] from the Federal Foreign Office budget. The Independent Parliamentary Association of Afghan Women, which supports female candidates for parliamentary seats, has been allocated EUR 59,800 [$74,000].
In election secuirty assistance, Slovenia is sending its largest so far peacekeeping unit. Overall, NATO is sending additional 2,000 troops for the duration of the elections, bringing its total commitment to 11,000. "The additional [International Security Assistance Force] troops would be from ten nations - Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Romania, Spain, Sweden and the United States."

And in another good news for election-day security, the Taliban have announced that they will not be targeting polling stations.

In the meantime, a symbolic gesture will bind Asia's biggest democracy with one of Asia's newest:
Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh will lay the foundation stone for Afghanistan's Parliament building, a gesture more than symbolic for the two nations.

That the Prime Minister of the world's largest democracy will be asked to do the honours seems natural, but Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai's choice also shows the distance the two nations have travelled in recent times.

The fact that the task of building the Afghan parliament has fallen on India's Central Public Works Department may also be another reason why Singh will be asked to lay the foundation stone.

Singh is scheduled to be in Afghanistan between August 27 and 29. The visit itself will make history of sorts as Singh will be the first Indian Prime Minister in almost four decades to travel to Afghanistan. Indira Gandhi had last gone there in 1969.
Afghanistan is working to acquire a new national anthem:
Afghanistan is looking for a new national anthem that the government hopes will bring harmony to the country after nearly three decades of conflict.

A panel of poets, writers and musicians tasked with writing a new anthem after seeking the views of all ethnic groups released a draft this week for public comment.

The current anthem -- a jaunty, martial tune -- is sung in Dari, the language of the Tajiks who made up the bulk of the Mujahideen government that came to power after the fall of the Moscow-backed regime in 1992.

But many Afghans feel the lyrics -- which praise the Mujahideen for defeating the Soviet Red Army -- are now outdated, and they want something more broadly nationalistic that would bring together the country's varied ethnic groups.

Afghanistan had no national anthem from 1996 to 2001 under the Taliban, who banned all forms of music as un-Islamic.
Here is the text of the proposed anthem. On a related topic, one of Afghanistan's best known singers Amir Jan Saboori is visiting Afghanistan: "Saboori is meeting with government officials and academics in an effort to create music schools where a new generation can learn about the traditions of Afghan music while safeguarding its future. 'The best way to help strengthen the field of music in Afghanistan is to establish schools where musicians both living here and in other countries can come together and exchange ideas,' he says."

There's more along the same lines:
In what could be described as a brave move, artistes have called for the government to initiate concrete measures for promoting the performing arts in the southern Kandahar province - a former stronghold of the vanquished Taliban regime.

Renowned singers and musicians argue a mass exodus of artistes from the country - induced by decades of strife and total neglect of art at the official level - has retarded cultural activities in Afghanistan in general and the southern province in particular.

Abdul Qayyum Naseh, a widely-acclaimed singer who has educated hundreds of students including girls in Kandahar, underlines the need for official patronage of music and greater facilities like training centres and cash incentives for musicians.
Much effort is being made to train the much needed professional cadres, which over the past few decades have been decimated by violence and emigration. USAID is training government officials: "In July 2005, USAID delivered eight different training seminars for Ministry of Finance personnel. Training topics included: value-added tax, business receipt tax, income tax coverage, income tax liability, and fixed/presumptive taxes. Since the beginning of 2005, USAID has facilitated training for approximately 833 Ministry of Finance staff members by conducting 45 different seminars). In addition, comparisons between "pre" and "post" examinations illustrate a 25% increase in staff comprehension."

USAID is also supporting female judges: "Twenty female judges received USAID-funded laptop computers at a ceremony held July 26 at the Supreme Court. Chief Justice Shinwari presided and the Chief Administrator and Chief of Personnel were on the dais. In contrast to a desktop, the laptops can be carried between home and court, charged wherever there is power, and used for 2-3 hours during power outages. USAID is also providing computer training classes for the women judges at an off-site USAID-funded computer lab. This is part of a larger USAID effort to increase the capability of Afghanistan’s legal professionals."

Tax officials are also getting trained: "Twenty-three commerce and law graduates, nominated by the Finance Ministry as tax officers, completed three months training... This was the first batch of the tax officers being trained ahead of September 23, date set for implementation of the new taxation law."

Refugees continue to come back to Afghanistan, providing the authorities with the challenge of integration. Japan has donated another $2 million towards the cost of repatriation Afghan refugees from Pakistan. On a smaller scale, "The UN refugee agency... assisted 183 returning families with building material for construction of houses in Orgun district of the southeastern Paktika province."

Read also, how this international initiative is trying to forster good relations and cooperation in Bamyan province, not just between different ethnic groups living there, but also between the old residents and the returnees:
In the village of Sar-i-Qul Topchi, near Bamiyan town, men representing Hazara, Tajik and Pashtun communities have gathered in the home of Haji Abdul Mohammed for one of their regular meetings. The 22 men are members of the local peace committee created as a result of a UNHCR co-existence project, implemented by the non-governmental organization, Save the Children Japan.

Each committee member has received training in conflict resolution and attended workshops where co-existence issues were discussed. The committee is designed to complement existing village authorities such as elders and local councils known as shuras. Once formed, families are encouraged to bring their disputes to the committee. The grievance is then investigated by a working group of five committee members before a decision is issued.

In Sar-i-Qul Topchi, as in other communities of mixed ethnicity, disputes are more often about access to land or water than religion. A second phase of the co-existence project ensures that the root cause of the dispute is addressed. In this case, water pipes and a small dam are being constructed to improve the volume of water provided by a mountain stream which serves the communities.

The construction work is a joint effort between the UN refugee agency, UN Habitat and the Afghan government's National Solidarity Programme.

"The three-month building project is aimed at providing people in these villages with irrigation water, short-term job opportunities, and, of course, promoting co-existence among the different communities," says Mustafa Hussaini of UNHCR in Bamiyan.

For Amir Dud, a peace committee member, the end result is straightforward. "Having access to water means ending disputes among the different tribes in this area," he says.
In health news, USAID is helping to improve the quality of medical training: "To improve the capacity of health providers, USAID focuses on designing and delivering training and professional development courses. In June, a total of 571 doctors, nurses and midwives completed refresher training courses in newborn care, family planning, infectious disease and antenatal/postnatal care. USAID delivered Essential Obstetric Care (EOC) courses at Malalai Hospital, Kabul and Mazar-i Sharif Civil Hospital to update the knowledge and standardize the skills of 30 participants in key safe motherhood practices according to national clinical standards. In addition, a two-day community mapping refresher training course was conducted in Herat province for 30 staff from Herat and Faryab provinces."

USAID is also working to improve access to health care throughout rural areas:
USAID’s Rural Expansion of Afghanistan’s Community-based Healthcare (REACH) program sent monitoring teams to visit 65 health facilities and 803 community health workers (CHW) in Baghlan, Paktia, Herat and Ghazni between July 31 and August 13. During the same time period, approximately 6,700 basic health kits and 18,000 bars of soap were distributed to CHWs and provincial hospitals.

In early August, REACH conducted re-orientation seminars on proper case management of Acute Watery Diarrhea in the four main Kabul hospitals: Infectious Disease Hospital, Indira Ghandi Children’s Hospital, Maiwand Hospital, and Khair Khana Hospital. A total of 80 participants (doctors, nurses, and chiefs of service) were trained.

REACH is supporting the MOPH in the first revision of the original Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS), published and released in March 2003. The revised version, which reflects two years of BPHS experience and incorporates elements of care formerly designated "second tier" (i.e., mental health and disability) will be termed "BPHS-2005". In this revision, BPHS is expected to continue to be the foundation of the Afghan health system in providing quality basic health services to its primarily rural population for the coming years.
This initiative is also saving lives: "Since opening last week, the World Vision Afghanistan-sponsored neonatal unit in Herat has saved the lives of at least 20 newborn children. However, more funding is needed so the unit will be able to save even more children." In related news:
Midwives represent a new hope for the survivability of infants and mothers. Many rural communities in Afghanistan rely on midwives as the only professional care provider for pregnant women.

The Medical College of the University of Nangarhar in eastern Afghanistan graduated 61 midwives recently and about 200 students in other medical professions so far. This class of graduating midwives comes from Nangarhar, Konar, Laghman and Nuristan provinces.
In education news, USAID's help for Afghan education system continues:
As part of its comprehensive education program, USAID has printed and distributed 35.7 million textbooks for grades 1-12 since 2002. An additional 6.2 million have been printed and are ready for distribution. However, the Afghan government often receives specific and unexpected requests from its constituents. The following collaborative effort demonstrates USAID’s agility and dedication in helping the central government respond to provincial requests.

During a visit to Bamiyan in late July, Afghan President Karzai met with students who informed him that they were in need of more 8th and 9th grade textbooks. The president promised the students that they would have the additional textbooks within 10 days. Upon return to Kabul, the President informed the Minister of Education. USAID and the Ministry of Education (MOE) collaborated to ensure that the students’ needs were met within the deadline. At the time of the request, USAID’s printers had all the subjects needed for 9th grade. Another printer had printed 4 subjects for 8th grade. He agreed to immediately switch to print the remaining subjects needed for 8th grade. The partial set of 8th grade and all of the 9th grade textbooks were delivered to the MOE on August 2 and the remaining 8th grade textbooks will be ready by August 8 and will then be delivered to Bamiyan. The Minister was extremely appreciative of USAID’s ability to respond so quickly.
Young people are flocking to IT and English language courses:
Ten-year-old Asad doesn't look any older than his age, but he has already been offered work by several non-governmental organisations, NGOs. His secret? A strong command of English and some computer skills.

Just a few streets away, at 28-years old and with a degree in engineering from Kabul University, Abdul Hadi Shahidzai vainly looks for work in a land trying to rebuild from years of wars.

His problem? No English and little knowledge of computers...

Asad, a level four student at the private National English and Computer Centre in Kabul, is now expanding his computer skills. He is part of an army of young people who see this as their future.

The centre opens at six in the morning, and Asad arrives to polish his English before going to school for normal lessons, and then returning for computer studies at five in the evening.

"I have been asked several times by NGOs to work with them but I'm too young really, and my family wouldn't let me," he told IWPR. Every day outside this and hundreds of other centres in the capital and elsewhere, dozens of students gather in groups, practising their English or discussing computer programmes as they wait for classes where between 30 and 40 students, both male and female, work together.

The centres have mushroomed in the past four years, although some go back much further. The first such school, called Ariana, opened its doors as an English language school in 1971 during the reign of King Mohammad Zaher Shah.

Since the 2001 fall of the fundamentalist Taleban regime, with its ban on educating girls and prohibition of the internet, there has been a huge growth in computer courses. And as most IT lessons are given in English, the two skills go hand in hand.

Today, a total of 760 computing and English language centres throughout Afghanistan are registered with the education ministry, according to Sadruddin Ashrafi, the ministry's head of curriculum matters. Of these, he said, 235 are in Kabul.
India, meanwhile, is renovating Kabul's historic school:
The Habibia School here, one of Afghanistan's premier institutions devastated by the civil war and the diktats of the Taliban, has been restored to its former glory by a team of Indian engineers.

Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, who will pay a two-day visit to Afghanistan Aug 28-29, will inaugurate the school building, restored at a cost of $5.1 million (Rs.220 million).

But the task of rebuilding the school was not an easy one. When the Indian team began its work, the four-storey building spread over 15,000 square metres looked like a building used for target practice for all types of weapons, ranging from AK-47 assault rifles to rockets.

Project director A.K. Aggarwal said his team removed 10,000 tonnes of rubble, including live and spent ammunition, from the building before beginning repairs.

Educationists say Afghanistan's former Taliban regime had killed the soul of the school when it issued diktats that forbade the teaching of subjects like science. It also sacked the highly respected principal, Sayed Naasir Askarzada.

Today the school has a brand new building, complete with the restoration of all damaged elements, new floors, marble walls in corridors, aluminium windows, a new central heating system, new furniture and laboratory equipment as well as a large computer room.
Elsewhere in the country, "the Afghan Education Foundation (AEF) has trained 800 teachers including 295 female on modern teaching methods and techniques in the southern Kandahar province." Also in Kandahar province:
The Ghazi Abdullah Khan School in the Spin Boldak district of the southern Kandahar province was inaugurated after reconstruction on Tuesday.

Reconstructed with financial assistance from an NGO, the school has 36 classrooms. Senior education department official Pir Mohammad told Pajhwok Afghan News the renovation work had been initiated last year.

Students' problems will be resolved with the opening of the school, he hoped, recalling around 1,600 pupils were enrolled in the school before the reconstruction work was launched.
Free from the Taliban suppression, Afghanistan's free media has a chance to develop and expand. Recently, Tolo Television, Afghanistan's private TV channel, has expanded transmission to cover Kandahar City. It's another step in the channel's short but successful history:
[Director Saad Mohseni] said their programmes were now reaching more than 13 million people across the country. He said apart from Kandahar, their programmes had been visualising in Kabul, Herat and Mazar-i-Sharif while it would cover the eastern city of Jalalabad within the next two weeks.

A statement issued from the TV station said Tolo TV also broadcasted via satellite across the region, covering Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, India, Gulf States, Turkey, and Central Asia...

Asked about the widespread criticism from clerics, especially the Ulema Council led by Afghanistan's Chief Justice Fazl Hadi Shinwari, Mohseni said 80 per cent of people were watching the programmes and they liked it.
And now Tolo is to give Afghanistan its own Oprah:
Afghanistan is to get its own Oprah Winfrey-style chat show touching on taboo women’s issues, a television station said... in a move likely to anger hardliners in the conservative Islamic nation.

Called Bonu, the Persian word for women, the show will be launched by privately-run Tolo Television, which has drawn condemnation from mullahs for airing music videos of scantily clad women and for accepting large US grants.

Tolo was the subject of international attention in May when the female host of its most popular music programme was found dead with gunshot wounds in a mysterious killing, for which no one has been charged.

The station said in a statement that the new chat show would examine topics such as education, changing social norms, marriage, leadership, motherhood and physical and mental health

Female host Farzana Samimi will be joined by psychiatrist Dr Yassin Babrak to talk about issues affecting women, it said.

“Our aim is to drive social change through open and frank discussions regarding the issues facing women in Afghanistan today,” Samini was quoted as saying. Tolo Television was launched in October 2004 and has become the nation’s most popular station, reaching an estimated 15 million Afghans in Afghanistan alone as well as others across the region by satellite.

Director Saad Mohseni said: “Our programming is about building Afghanistan’s future, that is why we have Bonu as well as our news and current affairs programmes examining the way forward.”
Meanwhile, in another recent initiative to help the development of Afghan journalism:
A new institute to promote investigative journalism will soon be established in Afghanistan.

The proposed institution, unregistered thus far, currently training 10 Afghan journalists on investigative reporting.

The moving spirit behind the project Abdul Ghafoor Liwal said this was the first venture of its nature in the war-ravaged country as compared to other states across the world. He said investigative reporting was a well developed technique in modern world playing a major role in solving problems of society.
Also: "Two Afghan trainers participated in a two-month training course for Asian and African journalists held in Berlin. The course, held at the International Journalism Institute (IIJ), got under way on June 8 and concluded on August 9, with 15 participants from Asian and African countries."

While some damage can't be unmade, some memories can be at least brought back:
When the former Taliban regime in Afghanistan destroyed two 1,600-year-old Buddha statues carved into Bamiyan Valley's soaring cliffs, the world shook with shock at the demise of such huge archaeological treasures.

Now, artist Hiro Yamagata plans to commemorate the towering Buddhas by projecting multicolored laser images onto the cliff sides where the figures once stood.

"I'm doing a fine-art piece. That's my purpose — not for human rights, or for supporting religion or a political statement," said Yamagata, whose other laser works include a permanent display at the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain.

Against a canvas of desert darkness, 14 laser systems powered by solar panels and windmills will project 140 overlapping faceless "statues" sweeping four miles across Bamiyan's cliffs in neon shades of green, pink, orange, white and blue. Each image will continuously change color and pattern.
First Special Olympics have been held in Afghanistan in late August, with 360 athletes with intellectual disabilities participating in athletics, bocce and football. Says Mr Troy Greisen, Managing Director, Special Olympics Asia Pacific: "One of our goals in Afghanistan is to establish new local programmes in communities across the country. We are here to expand this movement and spread the message of hope to parents and families of persons with intellectual disabilities. Through these Games we will demonstrate that these capable individuals that have hurdled such difficult circumstances can not-only be proven as great athletes, but can also be fully accepted, empowered to serve as leaders and that their abilities can actually outshine their disabilities."

Lastly, Afghanistan gets its first Mr Afghanistan:
Khosraw Basheri feverishly pumped iron for years, toning his body so it rippled with muscle and veins. His hard work paid off when he claimed a historic title in his war-battered country -- Mr. Afghanistan.

The 23-year-old businessman from western Herat province flexed and grinned his way to victory Saturday in Afghanistan's first-ever national competition to select a top bodybuilder.

"I will never forget this day, the day I became Mr. Afghanistan," said Basheri, sweat and makeup streaming down his massive frame. "This has been my hope for the past two years, since I started preparing myself for this."...

"The most popular sport after football (soccer) in Afghanistan is bodybuilding," said Sayed Mohammed Payanda, secretary general of Afghanistan's National Bodybuilding Federation. "Most people in Afghanistan, especially young people, like bodybuilding very much."

It's so popular, in fact, that Arnold Schwarzenegger -- the former bodybuilder and movie star turned California governor -- is among the most widely recognized Western celebrities here.

Modern gyms and athletic clubs have popped up in many provinces in recent years, Payanda said, adding that some Afghan bodybuilders have returned from neighboring Pakistan and Iran since the hard-line Islamic Taliban regime was ousted in 2001 and President Hamid Karzai subsequently took office.
RECONSTRUCTION: Afghanistan's public finances are improving: "Afghanistan’s Ministry of Finance released total domestic revenue totals for the first 3 months of Afghan calendar year 1384. The total is now $77.16 million, a 40% increase from the same period last year (Afghan year 1383). Of the $77.16 million, customs operations represent 53% of the total figure, with $41.45 million collected within the initial 3-month period. Taxes account for 10% of total domestic revenue, with $7.7 million collected so far. This shows considerable progress from last year (1383) and is promising for the remainder of the year."

Foreign assistance continues to arrive. India is a major helper in rebuilding Afghanistan: "Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, carrying offers of fresh aid and seeking to blunt rival Pakistan's influence in Afghanistan, heads tomorrow to Kabul for the first visit by an Indian premier in 29 years... India, one of the six top donors to Afghanistan, has pledged S500m in aid to Kabul since 2002 and Singh would unveil fresh assistance of $50m during the visit."

During the Prime Minister's visit, three accords covering education, healthcare and agricultural research were signed between India and Afghanistan, and an extra $50 million committed by India towards reconstruction.

Spain is also contributing more resources towards reconstruction:
Spain will allocate 10 million euros [$12.3 million] for the first phase of developing Afghanistan's infrastructure, a Spanish Foreign Ministry official said.

The Spanish Agency for International Cooperation under the Spanish Foreign Ministry will allocate the money for constructing water supply systems, roads, and hospitals in the poorest province of Badghis in northwestern Afghanistan.

A Spanish Foreign Ministry official and four experts of the agency will arrive in the country in early September to oversee the restoration of Afghanistan's civil infrastructure, a plan suggested by Spain.

A total of 125 Spanish peacekeepers are already in the Badghis province, restoring health services, water treatment facilities, and roads.
Russia, meanwhile, is considering various options for debt relief to reduce Afghanistan's $10 billion debt burden. And here's a retrospective on the Japanese contribution so far.

But reconstruction is also a local effort: "More than 400 local representatives from around Afghanistan [met] in Kabul to exchange development ideas and experiences from around the country. They are all involved in development projects through the National Solidarity Programme, NSP, a flagship programme created by the Afghan Government with the support of the World Bank."

Under the Kabul Urban Reconstruction Project, "the World Bank has provided $25 million of interest-free loan to the government for bringing improvement in the basic urban services in the most vulnerable areas of the central capital."

A major infrastructure project is now back on track:
The Washington sisterhood's campaign against the Taliban, led by the Feminist Majority Foundation, had thwarted ambitious plans by the US energy firm Unocal to build a strategic pipeline across the wastelands of Afghanistan.

But what a difference a war makes. In the new Kabul, the $US3.8 billion ($5 billion) gas project is being resurrected and one of the finer pairs of hands on this dog-eared brief are those of Mary Louise Vitelli, a fortysomething New York lawyer.

She explains that in the 1990s she was fighting a very different war. Far from the battlefields of Washington, she was working in Russia, on a World Bank attempt to reform the former Soviet Union's antiquated coal industry.

What she remembers of the US capital makes her prefer Kabul.

"Washington was the most sexist place I've ever worked," she said.

"Here the minister sets a different tone. He has women in key senior jobs and I'm welcomed in the provinces. I'm the team leader and there is no problem."

Her boss, the Minister for Mines and Industries, Mir Mohammad Sediq, brims with the kind of confidence that separates the stayers from the faint-hearted in the global resource development race.

Afghan optimism about the Unocal project is understandable. If the pipeline goes ahead, the Afghan Government might make up to $US300 million a year (the equivalent of its ostensible budget) purely from transit fees along a pipeline that will enter Afghanistan's north-west corner, follow the ring road that skirts the spread-eagled Hindu Kush and exit through the still restive south-east...

Representatives of the four governments that are a party to the pipeline project - Afghanistan, India, Pakistan and Turkmenistan - are to meet in the Turkmen capital, Ashgabat, soon, where they hope to sign off on Turkmenistan's capacity to supply gas and Pakistan's willingness and ability to buy it, and on the outline of a private consortium to build and operate the pipeline.
In other power news, a new Indian infrastructure project will bring more electricity by the end of the decade:
Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID) - a government of India enterprise - has bagged... international transmission project in Afghanistan. POWERGRID and ministry of external affairs, GoI, entered into an agreement to this effect on August 12...

Giving details the statement said the entire expenditure on the project shall be borne by GoI under the assistance programme to Afghanistan. The project will strengthen Indian presence and involvement in the reconstruction process in Afghanistan and will enhance international profile of POWERGRID. The project is scheduled to be completed by February 2009.

The project will enable Afghanistan to imort power from generating stations located in Uzbekistan to Kabul to bridge the gap in demand and supply. The project comprises construction of 220 KV double circuit transmission line from Pule-Ku i to Kabul (202 km) and new 220/110/20 KV sub-station at Kabul.

The transmission line is passing through snowbound tough hilly terrain, steep hills with altitude ranging from 1800 m to 4000 m above see level and temperatures as low as 30 deg C (a part of Hindu-kush mountain range). The materials of about 15000 MT required for the project shall be transported from India to Afghanistan by sea route via Bandar Abbas port in Iran and thereafter through 2500 km roads of Afghanistan.
In another cross-border project that could bring benefits to locals:
An Iranian delegation Wednesday held talks with provincial authorities on a proposed gas pipeline from Turbat-i-Jam to the western Herat province.

Representatives of the Non-governmental Gas Producer Association of Iran said they would launch the project following a green signal from the Iranian government. The delegation said the Herat officials would be informed in the next two weeks.

Speaking to Pajhwok Afghan News, Herat Mayor Mohammad Rafiq Mujaddedi said the 13-member team called on Governor Syed Hussain Anwary and expressed willingness to launch the project. He said the two sides agreed on signing a formal agreement after the go ahead from the gas and petroleum ministry of Iran.
In communications news, the cell phone network keeps growing:
Five more cell-phone companies have expressed their willingness to launch services in Afghanistan, officials told Pajhwok Afghan News.

Al-Kozay, National Kam International, Watan Mobile Company, and two firms from Germany and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are ready to launch operations in Afghanistan, where Roshan and the Afghan Wireless Communication Company (AWCC) are already active.

Earlier, the Communication Ministry had announced 80 companies were interested in getting licenses for launching services in Afghanistan. But in the final analysis, five of them have stepped forward to accept the government's terms and conditions.
The previously foreshadowed 300 public phones have now been installed across the capital: "Three hundred new telephone booths have been installed in the Afghan capital, Kabul. During the inauguration ceremony, the Afghan minister for communication, Amirzai Sangeen, explained that half the phone boxes were placed in the city's shopping areas, while the rest were installed in the more densely populated areas of the capital. Built by the German company Siemens, the booths cost 200,000 US dollars and were paid for by the Afghan government and installed by a local private company."

Here's another report about the Kabul public phones:
Like strange hooded aliens, sparkling yellow telephone stands have sprouted in Kabul's dilapidated streets, drawing curious looks and hesitant attempts to use them.

“Brother, how can I drop the coin in the phone?” a young man asked Jamaluddin as he left his work at the education ministry.

Jamaluddin explained that the new phones accepted pre-paid cards rather than coins.

Standing slightly taller than a man, the 300 new phones - comprising a central pillar and a cobra-like plastic shelter for the handset - bring a touch of progress to this city of more than three million people.

Half the phones are spread through the capital's streets, while the other 150 have been set up in ministries, public hospitals and police precincts for public use.

The phones, which went into service on August 11, have brought renewed hope of a way to communicate for the capital's countless poor, who cannot afford mobile phones or the more expensive Public Call Offices, PCOs.

Afghanistan got its first coin-operated public telephones in 1973. At that time, a call needed a single one-afghani coin fed into a slot. In addition to Kabul, the phones were installed in Herat, Kandahar and Mazar-e-Sharif.

But like so many other public services, the phone system fell into disrepair after the collapse of the communist regime in 1992 and in the subsequent fighting between rival mujahedin groups that devastated Kabul .

Now an Afghan-American company called Afghan Pooshesh (Afghan Coverage) has set up the network of public phones at a cost of 180,000 US dollars. The money has come from the communications ministry, which has signed an installation and one-year maintenance contract with the company.
In transport news, the Asian Development Bank will be funding the development of the civil aviation sector:
The Asian Development Bank will help improve Afghanistan's air transport system by boosting management of the country's civil aviation administration, through a technical assistance (TA) grant approved for US$1 million.

The TA will improve the air safety oversight of the Ministry of Transport (MOT) and maintenance of a financial management system that will be developed to enhance financial governance of airport operations.

It will help develop air safety regulatory frameworks to be adopted in a phased manner in coordination with other aid agencies, with the ultimate goal of establishing an independent civil aviation authority. It will also help draft a civil aviation act that will remedy the deficiencies of the existing acts, as well as other civil aviation regulations and safety orders needed.

Work manuals for airworthiness control, flight operations inspection, personnel licensing, air operator certification, and accident and incident investigation will likewise be developed.
There's also action on provincial roads: "The Afghan government, in collaboration with the World Bank, will is to start the reconstruction of 260 kilometres of roads that lead to villages in seven provinces, officials said on August 27. An agreement was signed between the ministers of rural rehabilitation and development, public works and the World Bank on the 15 million US dollar project. Sohrab Ali Safar, the minister of public works, said the programme will cover the reconstruction of roads for villages in Kabul, Herat, Bamian, Kunduz, Logar, Paktika and Parwan provinces, and will create jobs for 600,000 people."

Agriculture is still the major industry and the main employer throughout the country. Afghanistan's only sugar factory is planning not only to revive the local economy (and an old local industry) but also do its bit in the fight against drugs:
The factory is ready, the workers trained, but the rest is something of a gamble.

Will the farmers of Baghlan province, northwest of Kabul, plough up their poppies and swap the rich harvest of opium for sugar beet?

Many say that they will, even though poppies have been a reliable source of income over the years of jihad and civil war.

At a recently refurbished factory, the only sugar plant in Afghanistan, manager Abdul Karim Wazeri said he is trying to persuade all the farmers of the northern provinces to plant beet. If they do, he has pledged to buy their entire crop for the next two or three years.

He told IWPR that nearly 200 workers were already at the factory, being paid a wage of three US dollars a day, and that the plant could process 100,000 tonnes of beet a year from which 15,000 tons of sugar would be produced.

At least one farmer appears ready to make the switch.

"Even though we'll earn less than with poppies, it will be much better because we can cultivate and sell sugar beet freely, without any threats or restrictions," said Taza Mir, a 63-year-old farmer in the province.

Taza Mir is old enough to remember the days when beet was the major crop in Baghlan and the province was noted for its sugar.
There is also assistance under the US Department of Agriculture's Food for Progress program:
The U.S. Department of Agriculture today announced that it will donate 5,150 metric tons of soybean oil and 10,000 tons of soybeans to International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), a private voluntary organization, for use in Afghanistan.

IFDC will sell the soybean oil in Afghanistan, and sell the soybeans in Pakistan. Proceeds will be used over a two-year period to fund its technical assistance and market development activities designed to increase the quality and quantity of local wheat produced by the Afghan milling industry. IFDC also will provide a portion of the proceeds to the Afghan Ministry of Agriculture and its extension staff to conduct research trials to improve high-value crops. The proceeds also will be used to conduct on-farm demonstrations to improve crop technology for key high-value foods and wheat crops in seven provinces in southern Afghanistan.
USAID, meanwhile, is trying to assist the revival of the dried fruit and nut industry:
Before the Soviet invasion, exports of dried fruit and nuts were significant to the agricultural economy in Afghanistan. Today, as Afghan producers
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          Have the Kurds lied to Congress?        
Iraq’s Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) under the auspices of President Masoud Barzani has been undertaking a full-court press of lobbying in Washington in order to get direct provision of weaponry. The KRG has hired at least four lobbying firms, spending several million dollars, and has leveraged several former officials and businessmen hopeful to have KRG contracts to act as unofficial and, frankly, illegal lobbyists with Congress.

The crux of the Kurdish lobbying campaign is to convince Congress that:

Kurdistan lacks weaponry to fight the Islamic State. Iraqi Kurdistan may seek more weaponry, but a greater problem is that political bickering within the KRG is preventing the weapons from getting where they need to be. After Ramadi’s fall, the largely Kurdish city of Kirkuk is next in the Islamic State’s crosshairs. And yet, Masoud Barzani and his sons Masrour Barzani (chief of the intelligence service) and Mansour Barzani (a general) refuse to deliver weaponry to peshmerga in Kirkuk. The problem? Kirkuk did not vote for Barzani’s political party.The Kurds have acquired weaponry directly from Iran and several European countries. In the idea that he lacks weaponry, Barzani has found an effective tale, and he’s milking it to great effect. Alas, rather than use the weapons against the Islamic State, he is hoarding them for use against his Kurdish political rivals.

Baghdad does not provide weaponry to Kurdistan. Along the lines of the above point, the Kurdish line that Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi’s government is refusing to transfer weaponry to the Kurds is an outright lie. It’s simply false. Baghdad doesn’t itself have enough, but what it does get, it shares. Indeed, even the United States government recognizes that in some ways, the KRG is better armed than Baghdad. Check out this State Department press briefing from yesterday (emphasis mine):
“They [the Islamic State] wield these things [car and truck bombs] so they’re totally impervious to a lot of weapons systems that the Iraqis have to try to take them out. It was one of â€“ I have to say it was one of Abadi’s main demands when he was here. He needed a weapon system to defeat suicide VBIEDs. And we made the decision immediately while he was here to get 1,000 AT4 anti-tank systems to Iraqi Security Forces. And those are going to be arriving fairly soon. And that’s specifically, as I understand it – I’ll defer to experts on this, but that’s specifically a kind of close-in weapon system for a VBIED that is coming in your direction. The Peshmerga have been using them to good effect and we’re getting 1,000 to the Iraqi Security Forces.”
So, it seems that despite the complaints of no weaponry, the Kurds have AT4 missiles but have not shared them with Baghdad to help Baghdad defeat the Islamic State. And they are not giving them to Kirkuk, and they refused to provide them to the Yezidis before the fall of Mount Sinjar.

Kurdistan is pro-American and a bulwark against Iran.
 Kurds like America, but the Kurdistan government is opportunistic; it is not ideologically or culturally attached to the United States. Any Congressman who believes lobbyists who use concern about Iran to push deeper relations with Iraqi Kurdistan should request an intelligence briefing. The Iranians have penetrated as deeply into the Kurdish leadership as they have in Baghdad. Qassem Soleimani, head of the Qods Force, the elite unit of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) responsible for the deaths of hundreds of Americans, spends as much time as a guest of Masoud Barzani and Jalal Talabani’s Patriotic Union of Kurdistan as he did as a guest of former Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki. There is no intelligence which the United States provides the KRG that does not find its way to Soleimani within hours. Indeed, Barzani has previously betrayed American intelligence and plans to the IRGC. And, while Kurdish leaders say the right things to American congressional delegations in Erbil or during visits to Washington, they say the complete opposite in Iran and to Iranian delegations. Remember, the Kurdish leaders spent their exile years in Iran; ties are deep, even if they are less ties of the heart and more the result of Iranian blackmail and extortion.

Kurdistan is democratic. Most Kurds seek democracy, but its leaders do not. Masoud Barzani is a dictator who refused to step down at the end of his term. Given a choice to be Nelson Mandela or Bashar al-Assad, Barzani chose Assad. The only difference between the two is that American officials still believe the spin of reform when it comes to Barzani. Indeed, Barzani has modeled his Kurdistan Democratic Party after Assad’s Baath Party minus the Arab nationalism; it’s just what he knows. Journalists who criticize Barzani end up in prison or worse. Lobbyists and KRG officials may like to suggest that “Kurdistan is a new Israel.” Like Israel, Kurdistan does respect freedom of religion. But the similarities end there: Kurdistan is not democratic; it does not respect rule-of-law; it restricts press freedom; American and European firms have learned it no more upholds contractual commitments than do China or Turkmenistan; and it does not protect its own people from ISIS.

Every Iraqi should receive weaponry to fight the Islamic State, but Kurdish lies have consequence. Not only does a credulous Congress accepting Kurdish spin fail to correct the real problems preventing Kurdish success against the Islamic State, but it backfires and helps the Iranians. Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi has bent over backwards to accommodate US interests and nudge Iraqis closer to Iran. Congressional willingness to supply Sunni militias directly with arms (instead of respect the fact that Sunnis are fighting alongside Shi’ites in the Iraqi Security Forces) or to treat Kurdistan as a separate country, whether or not it deserves to be, have only strengthened the hand of the most radical pro-Iranian elements in Baghdad who rightly say that Abadi put his trust in the Americans, and the Congress responded to his outreach by undercutting Iraq. It’s time Congress has a real conversation about Iraq strategy, how best to help Kurdistan, and how to defeat the Islamic State. It should not allow itself to be duped by a family with a flag.

           Kreta, Südafrika, Turkmenistan: Reise-Infos für Urlauber         
Angebote im Überblick Neues für Urlauber: Während Tui einen Robinson Club auf Kreta angekündigt hat, entsteht an der Graskop-Schlucht in Südafrika ein Touristenzentrum. Und wen es nach Turkmenistan zieht, der muss jetzt eine Gebühr zahlen. Der Cluburlaub-Anbieter Robinson will eine weitere Anlage auf Kreta bauen. Die Tui-Tochter verkündete den Kauf eines Grundstücks an der Südküste der griechischen Ferieninsel. Es gibt bereits zwei Clubs der Marke in Griechenland, «Kyllini Beach» auf der griechischen Halbinsel Peloponnes und «Daidalos» auf der Insel Kos.
          Turkmenistan Airlines’ Ashgabat-Turkmenabat is #1 route; Dubai is fastest growing destination; Bangkok-Moscow most popular connection        

Turkmenistan Airlines has in the past 12 months increased its overall seat capacity by 1.6%. anna.aero takes a closer look into the airline’s developments (or lack of) during the past year, and investigates the carrier’s most popular connections via its Ashgabat hub. Turkmenistan Airlines was founded in May 1992, the year after the nation became […]

The post Turkmenistan Airlines’ Ashgabat-Turkmenabat is #1 route; Dubai is fastest growing destination; Bangkok-Moscow most popular connection appeared first on anna.aero.


          Mengenal Lebih Jauh Pelatih Indonesia Wim Rijsbergen        
Masih inget Pertandingan Indonesia Vs Turkmenistan kemaren? menurut kalian siapa yang berjasa membawa Indonesia bisa lolos sampai Babak ke-3 ini? jawaban paling tepat ditujukan buat Mr. Wim Rijsbergen melalui tangan dinginnya Indonesia dapat bermain dengan baik dan solid selama pertandingan . Di sini saya ingin memberikan Profil Mr. Wim Rijsbergen.

Wilhelmus ("Wim") Gerardus Rijsbergen (lahir di Leiden, Zuid-Holland, Belanda, 18 Januari 1952; umur 59 tahun) adalah seorang pelatih sepakbola dan mantan pemain bertahan yang berasal dari Belanda. Rijsbergen adalah asisten Leo Beenhakker pada Piala Dunia 2006 di Jerman, dan menjadi pelatih Trinidad dan Tobago setelah Piala Dunia berakhir. Per Desember 2007, posisinya sebagai pelatih diberhentikan sementara waktu oleh Federasi sepak bola Trinidad dan Tobago selama (6) bulan, sampai akhirnya digantikan pada 4 June 2007.[1]

Saat ini dia menjabat sebagai pelatih Indonesia.

Dia pernah bermain untuk Feyenoord Rotterdam, dan juga pernah menjadi bagian dari tim Belanda yang menjadi runner-up pada Piala Dunia 1974 dan Piala Dunia 1978. Setelah itu ia bermain di Liga sepak bola Amerika Utara, untuk New York Cosmos. Rijsbergen memulai karirnya di PEC Zwolle, dan mengakhirinya pada tahun 1986 di FC Utrecht.

Personal information

Full name Wilhelmus Gerardus Rijsbergen
Date of birth 18 January 1952 (age 59)
Place of birth Leiden, Netherlands
Playing position Defender

Youth career

VV Roodenburg

Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
1970–1971 PEC Zwolle 26 (0)
1971–1978 Feijenoord / Feyenoord 173 (1)
1978–1979 SC Bastia 24 (0)
1979–1983 New York Cosmos 86 (2)
1983–1984 Helmond Sport 21 (0)
1984–1986 FC Utrecht 18 (0)

National team
1974–1978 Netherlands 28 (1)

Teams managed
1986–1988 Ajax Amsterdam (youth coach)
1988–1989 DS'79 (youth coach)
1989–1991 VV Roodenburg
1991–1993 DWS
1993–1995 FC Volendam
1995–1997 NAC Breda
1997–1998 FC Groningen
1998–1999 Universidad Católica (youth coach)
1999–2001 Universidad Católica
2002 Al-Ittifaq
2003–2004 Club América (assistant)
2005–2006 Trinidad and Tobago (assistant)
2006–2007 Trinidad and Tobago
2011 PSM Makassar
2011– Indonesia

Semoga di bawah tangan dingin beliau Indonesia dapat Lolos Piala Dunia 2014 di Brasil, amin..





          â€œApplied Technologies Inc.”, (Ati-Rs)        
Applied Technologies Incorporated (ATI) was established and registered in 1996 in the country of British Virgin Islands and also later registered in UAE, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. ATI operates in the business-to-business segment with the industrial sector by offering distribution services and engineering products to various industries and trades people in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kirgizstan, […]
          Charlotte Strandberg var dagens gäst        
Det råder vattenbrist i Sverige, Charlotte Strandberg är dagens gäst, Hur gick egentligen valet till i Turkmenistan, vi grattar mello-vinnaren Mariette och Li pamp ger oss bakgrunden till ljusstaken.
          Analisis Muktahir MH370 : Segalanya Sudah Diketahui?        
Akhirnya, segala analisis dan pengalaman Datuk Kapten Nik Huzlan Nik Hussain membawa kita kepada kunci jawapan terhadap misteri kehilangan MH370 yang sudah menghampiri sebulan lamanya. Sama ada kita suka atau tidak - beliau telah bercakap benar dan jujur, sekali gus melenyapkan seluruh teori berkenaan dakwaan bahawa pesawat MH370 mengalami masalah teknikal atau kerosakan.

Pada peringkat awal kehilangan MH370 - dengan segala data dan bukti yang ada dalam tempoh seminggu sejak peristiwa kehilangan pesawat ini berlaku, Datuk Kapten Nik Huzlan telah membuat beberapa kesimpulan yang lain daripada pakar-pakar penerbangan paparkan. Beliau seolah-olah lebih cederung mengaitkan kehilangan MH370 dengan perbuatan "yang tidak bertanggungjawab" yang dilakukan secara sangat rapi dan terancang. Antara kesimpulan awal Datuk Kapten Nik Huzlan adalah seperti berikut : 

  • Mustahil sebenarnya untuk sebuah kapal terbang seperti MH370 terputus isyarat atau komunikasi kerana setiap pesawat ada 3 peringkat komunikasi dan ketiga-tiga ini memang berkualiti.
  • Selaian daripada itu, agak mustahil juga untuk kita semua mengatakan pesawat MH370 mengalami total ‘electrical shutdown’ dan sekiranya berlaku sekalipun, pesawat ada masa yang sangat cukup untuk buat pendaratan kecemasan. Bukan sahaja itu, setiap pesawat mempunyai banyak bateri dan bateri ini mampu menjana tenaga untuk pesawat.
  • MAS adalah syarikat penerbangan terbaik dari segi ‘maintainance’ kerana menurut kapten, Amerika Syarikat juga meminta MAS bantu dari segi ini.
  • Kualiti juruterbang MAS juga adalah yang terbaik, bahkan menurutnya, juruterbang MAS sering “diculik” oleh syarikat penerbangan lain.
  • Seorang juruterbang itu akan buat SEHABIS BAIK selagi ada harapan,untuk selamatkan pesawatnya,walaupun gunung ada di depan.Bukan semudah itu untuk mereka putus asa.
  • Setiap pesawat boleh terkena petir,itu biasa. Namun aliran arus elektrik itu akan mengalir mengikut bentuk pesawat dan keluar ke belakang.
  • Kapten Nik Ahmad Huzlan sempat menemplak laporan berita luar negara yang membuat berita yang cukup “nonsense & dongeng” apabila mengatakan pesawat MH370 MAS Malaysia Airlines telah pergi ke Rusia sedangkan untuk ke sana MH370 perlu melepasi Banjaran Himalaya termasuk pancaran radar dari Turki, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan
  • Datuk Kapten Nik Huzlan juga mendakwa bahawa, radar-radar di negara Thailand, India, Myanmar (mungkin ) dan negara-negara ‘tan’ di belakang, amat serius dan akan mengambil tindakan jika berlaku sebarang aircraft yang tidak dikenali di dalam airspace mereka. Negara seperti ini, sangat berbahaya jikalau dapat mengesan pesawat yang menceroboh kedaulatan negara mereka. Kecanggihan peralatan ketenteraan mengawasi ruang udara negara mereka tidak boleh dipermainkan. Begitu juga radar negara India “sangat-sangat berbahaya”.
  • Negara seperti Singapura memiliki radar sangat hebat serta mampu mengesan sebarang pesawat sehingga ke Kota Kinabalu.
  • Hanya pilot sahaja yang boleh mematikan transponder atau mmsg dalam mode tertentu.
  • Dan hanya orang yang berpengalaman mengenai koordinat dan tahu susur alur setiap jalan di udara.
  • Cara plane MH370 buat turning back seperti profesional kerana masa tepat dan kelajuan pesawat adalah stabil, tidak laju, tidak perlahan dan tidak terhuyung-hayang.
  • Datuk Kapten Nik Huzlan Nik Ahmad Hussain mengatakan andaikata MH370  dirampas, ia tidak mungkin dilakukan seorang. Pasti ada yang membantu yang mana bergerak dalam kumpulan. Siapakah dia?
  • MH370 boleh dirampas dengan syarat kumpulan tersebut arif dengan kokpit, besar kemungkinan “authorised person” yang mana dilakukan dalam bentuk terancang yang ‘mungkin’ digerakkan ala-ala komando
  • Datuk Kapten Nik Huzlan mengatakan kapal terbang MH370 berpatah balik, mungkin diterbangkan oleh seseorang yang mahir dengan laluan dan sangat berkemahiran tinggi untuk mengelakkan daripada dikesan radar.
  • Andaikata MH370 dirampas, ia tidak akan dilakukan oleh penumpang. Sangat tipis kerana pintu masuk kokpit ada kod rahsia. Hanya kabin krew yang tahu kod rahsia itu. Apatah lagi, di dalam kokpit mempunyai CCTV untuk pilot/co-pilot melihat disebalik pintu tersebut.
  • Tetapi Kapten Nik Huzlan ada mengatakan sekiranya salah seorang penumpang adalah orang yang sangat arif tentang kapal terbang, dan memang ada agenda konspirasi tersendiri, jadi tidak mustahil berlaku insiden MH370 dirampas.
  • Sekiranya berlaku rampasan MH370 sekalipun, mereka masih ada masa untuk bersedia menghantar isyarat kecemasan.
  • Datuk Kapten Nik Ahmad Huzlan tidak menolak kemungkinan sekiranya MH370 dirampas oleh kabin krew (pilot/co-pilot/pramugara/pramugari), cuma tidak dipastikan apakah motif mereka
  • Datuk Kapten Nik Ahmad Huzlan mendedahkan jikalau MH370 pergi arah Kazakhstan, memang boleh mendarat di sana, tetapi radar masih boleh kesan sebab untuk pergi ke sana perlu melalui banyak negara
  • Jikalau MH370 pergi Lautan Hindi (Indian Ocean), memang tiada kapal terbang yang pernah lalu di sana
  • Datuk Kapten Nik Ahmad Huzlan juga ada mengatakan bahawa terdapat banyak radar yang bolehmengesan  MH370, sekiranya pesawat tersebut melakukan "turn over" ke arah Barat menuju ke Andaman Sea (Laut Andaman) Jika MH370 turun ke bawah menuju ke Diego Grasia ke arah apa yang dipanggil ‘lonely sea‘ iaitu Lautan Hindi, maka barulah kata kapal terbang MH370 hilang, kerana tiada radar yang berdekatan sana yang mampu menangkap dan mengesan pesawat MH370 ini.
Jelas, pada awal analisis Datuk Kapten Nik Huzlan - beliau secara sangat berhati-hati menganalisis cara MH370 dikendalikan. Melalui cara itu, maka hipotesis boleh dibuat dengan lebih kemas. Jika MH370 dipandu dengan cara cekap dan profesional semasa ia hilang daripada kawalan rada - maka MH370 sebenarnya tidak mengalami sebarang kerosakan teknikal atau mekanikal - sebaliknya ada sesuatu yang berlaku di luar jangkaan kita semua.

Terkini, setelah hampir sebulan MH370 tidak ditemui, dan dengan pendedahan data terbaharu berkenaan gambar yang dirakam pada sesi penerangan yang datangnya daripada pihak berkuasa kerajaan Malaysia termasuk Malaysia Airlines kepada keluarga mangsa penumpang di China - telah membawa kita kepada satu tahap kesimpulan yang lebih menyakinkan. Dan sekali lagi hipotesis Kapten Nik Huzlan menjadi sandara. Sebenarnya secara tidak langsung, Kapten Datuk Nik Huzlan telah pun memadamkan segala teori dan hipotesis sebelum Ini! Sudah lebih 3 minggu berlalu, dan dunia termasuk pakar-pakar yang terlibat terus memerah buah fikiran bagi mencari jawapan disebalik tragedi MH370 yang mengandungi pelbagai persoalan yang terus dibiarkan “tergantung” sehingga ke hari ini. Dan melihat kepada bukti terbaru ini, maka sekali lagi Kapten Datuk Nik Huzlan mengukuhkan hujahnya seperti berikut :


  1. Nampak terang di sini pesawat MH370 kelihatan berpusing disebelah kanan pada kedudukan 270 darjah
  2. Kapten Nik Huzlan menilai pusingan pesawat MH370 adalah “pusingan yang sempurna dan tiada cacat celanya” dan terus merentas semula laluan yang pernah dilakukannya sebelum itu dan pusing semula di sebelah kiri dan seterusnya menuju ke arah Pulau Pinang
  3. Dan ini bermakna pesawat MH370 tidak mengalami sebarang kerosakan seperti yang dipercayai oleh seorang juruterbang berpengalaman.
  4. Kapten Nik Huzlan sendiri terkejut dengan maklumat terbaharu ini dan sekaligus bercanggah dengan informasi dan maklumat yang mengatakan selama ini pesawat MH370 hanya melakukan pusingan kiri sahaja.
  5. Buat pertama kalinya, pesawat MH370 dikatakan telah melakukan pusingan kanan.
  6. Kapten Nik Huzlan mengatakan pesawat MH370 melakukan pusingan kanan sebaik sahaja co-pilot Farid mengucapkan perkataaan “Alright, Good Night” dan terus merentasi ke arah Teluk Siam dan terus pergi ke Pulau Pinang.
  7. Jikalau pesawat MH370 mahu pulang semula ke Malaysia, MH370 hanya perlu pusing kiri terus ke Malaysia.
  8. Jikalau pesawat MH370 dalam keadaan kecemasan mengapa perlu MH370 melakukan satu pusingan disebelah kanan secara perlahan-lahan dan kemudian merentas laluan yang dilakukan sebelumnya? Mengapa?
  9. Kapten Nik Ahmad Huzlan merasakan perbuatan dan cara pengendalian MH370 seperti dirancang dengan cukup-cukup teliti.
  10. Dan, jikalau ada kecemasan sekalipun, mengapa juruterbang atau pembantunya tidak berhubung dengan mana-mana pusat kawalan trafik udara? Mengapa?
  11. Bahkan Kapten Nik Huzlan mengatakan dari IGREX, cara pesawat MH370 terbang pun sangat-sangat meragukan kerana dilihat mahu mengelak Laut Sumawi dan Pulau Nicobar dan memotong jalan merentasi terus ke selatan Lautan Hindi yang mana laluan tersebut adalah merupakan laluan yang tiada satu pun berada di bawah kawalan radar.
  12. Cuma Kapten Nik Huzlan mula merasa pelik dan merasakan tidak logik untuk pesawat MH370 sampai ke IGREX pada 2:15 pagi (8 Mac 2014). Pesawat MH370 buat pusingan kanan pada pukul 1:31 pagi. Pergi ke Pulau Pinang dan seterusnya ke VAMPI dan signal point yang terakhir ke IGREX pada pukul 2:15 pagi. Apa jawapan Kapten Nik Huzlan? Pesawat MH370 tidak akan dapat sampai pada IGREX dalam tempoh hanya sekitar 40 minit sahaja melihatkan tahap kelajuan yang boleh dicapai pesawat MH370 dan juga pusingan kanan dan kiri yang telah dilakukan oleh pesawat MH370 ini. Berdasarkan kajian Kapten Nik Huzlan, kelihatan teori Human Interferance (perbuatan yang disengajakan) amatlah kuat melihatkan pesawat MH370 sebenarnya “under full control” kerana ia mampu membuat corak pusingan kanan dengan baik ditambah pula mampu merentas semula laluan yang perlu dilakukan sebelum itu.
Kapten Nik Huzlan mengatakan dengan pendedahan bukti terbaru ini bakal menghapuskan teori dan hipotesis yang dicanang selama ini kononnya pesawat MH370 mengalami kerosakan tidak benar.

          Antisipasi Redenominasi Rupiah        

Zaim Saidi - Direktur Wakala Induk Nusantara

Beberapa hari ini masyarakat menghebohkan rencana Bank Indonesia (BI) untuk meredenominasi rupiah. Pada 18 Mei 2010 lalu rencana ini sebenarnya sudah terbuka kepada publik saat dimulai Penjualan SUN (Surat Utang Negara) Denominasi Rupiah di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI). Tapi, hingar bingar Piala Dunia menenggelamkannya. Yang terasa mengagetkan publik adalah respon Menteri Keuangan, Bpk Agus Martowardoyo, yang menyatakan tidak tahu-menahu rencana BI tersebut. Ada apa ini?

Pelaksanaannya sendiri, tentu saja, menunggu dana hasil penjualan SUN ini. Kenyataan bahwa sumber biaya redenominasi rupiah tersebut adalah hasil utang ini yang seharusnya justru jauh lebih mengejutkan ketimbang reaksi Menteri Keuangan di atas. Sebab, secara politik, BI memang bukan bagian dari Republik Indonesia, dan Gubernur BI (yang beberapa bulan lalu juga kosong) bukan bagian dari Kabinet RI lagi.

Wakil Presiden RI, Bpk Boediono, yang merupakan mantan Gubernur BI terakhir, pun cuma menegaskan: "Bahwa itu adalah kewenangan Bank Indonesia!" Tentu saja. Bukankah BI adalah bagian dari International Monetary Fund (IMF)? Apa yang bisa dibuat oleh Republik Indonesia?

Memahami Redenominasi

Bagi masyarakat pun tidak terlalu penting soal silang sengketa itu, tetapi akibat dari proyek redenominasi itulah yang perlu dimengerti dan diantisipasi. Sebab, masyarakat yang menerima akibatnya, maka masyarakat perlu memahami tindakan yang bisa diambilnya untuk menyelamatkan harta bendanya. Kalau redenominasi itu dilaksanakan, atau selama masa rencana ini, apa yang bisa dilakukan?

Redenominasi merupakan tindakan rekalibrasi mata uang. Langkah ini dilakukan karena dua alasan (1) inflasi atau (2) devaluasi. Atau, bukan karena keduanya, melainkan dengan alasan geopolitik tertentu. Ini terjadi, misalnya, ketika berbagai negara di Eropa bersepakat untuk memiliki mata uang regional euro, yang mengharuskan tiap negara pesertanya merekalibrasi mata uang nasional masing-masing. Bila karena inflasi ada dua variasi, yaitu hiperinflasi atau inflasi sangat tinggi dalam tempo singkat, atau inflasi kronis, yaitu inflasi yang terus-menerus terjadi dalam waktu panjang.

Secara teknis redenominasi mata uang nasional adalah rekalibrasi mata uang suatu negara dengan cara mengganti currency unit mata uang lama (yang berlaku) dengan mata uang yang baru, yang dipakai sebagai 1 unit mata uang. Bedanya dengan devaluasi adalah pada yang terakhir ini unit rekalibrasinya adalah mata uang asing, umumnya dolar AS. Kalau inflasinya sangat besar, maka rasioanya juga akan besar, bisa kelipatan 10, 100, 1000, atau lebih besar lagi. Dalam hal ini, proses itu lalu disederhanakan, dan disebut sebagai "penghilangan angka nol".

Nasib Rupiah

Sepanjang umurnya yang 65 tahunan rupiah sudah mengalami berkali-kali rekalibrasi. Yang dicatat dalam buku sejarah di sekolah adalah saat rezim Orde Lama pada 31 Desember 1965, memangkas nilai Rp 1000 menjadi Rp 1. Istilah yang populer untuk peristiwa ini adalah sanering. Penyebabnya adalah hiperinflasi. Sesudah Orde Lama jatuh, selama kurun pemerintah Orde Baru, rupiah juga mengalami berkali-kali rekalibrasi, dengan istilah berbeda, yakni devaluasi.

Atas desakan IMF dan Bank Dunia rupiah didevaluasi pada Maret 1983, sebesar 55%, dari Rp 415 per dolar AS menjadi lebih dari Rp 600 per dolar AS. Rupiah, kembali atas tekanan IMF dan Bank Dunia, didevaluasi lagi pada September 1986, sebesar 45%, menjadi sekitar Rp 900 per dolar AS. Dari waktu ke waktu nilai tukar rupiah lalu terus mengalami depresiasi sampai mencapai angka sekitar Rp 2.200 per dolar AS sebelum 'Krismon' 1997. Nilai rupiah kemudian 'terjun bebas' pertengahan 1997, dan sejak itu terus terombang-ambing - lagi-lagi atas kemauan IMF dan Bank Dunia - dalam sistem kurs mengambang (floating rate), dengan titik terendah yang pernah dicapai sebesar Rp 15.000 per dolar AS, di awal 1998, dan saat ini stabil di sekitar Rp 9.200 per dolar AS.

Jadi, munculnya gagasan untuk rekalibrasi rupiah kali ini, dengan cara redenominasi melalui penghilangan tiga angka nol-nya, yakni mata uang Rp 1.000 menjadi Rp 1, penyebabnya tiada lain adalah inflasi kronis. Tetapi bagi masyarakat umum apakah ada perbedaan implikasinya antara sanering, devaluasi, dan redenominasi?

Secara substansial, tentu saja, tidak ada bedanya. Ketiganya hanya bermakna bahwa mata uang rupiah kita semakin kehilangan daya belinya. Arti kongkritnya adalah masyarakat yang memegang rupiah semakin hari semakin miskin. Penghilangan angka nol dilakukan karena dua alasan. Pertama, alasan teknis, kerepotan dalam berbagai aspek pengelolaan mata uang dengan angka nominal besar. Kedua, alasan psikologis atau tepatnya psikis, karena pada titik tertentu masyarakat tidak akan bisa manerima harga dengan nominal yang sangat besar.

Penyakit inflasi (akut atau kronis) atau tepatnya penurunan daya beli mata uang kertas (depresiasi) bukan cuma diderita oleh rupiah. Semua mata uang kertas mengalaminya. Dolar AS telah kehilangan daya belinya lebih dari 95% dalam kurun 40 tahun. Euro, hasil rekalibrasi geopolitis, yang konon merupakan mata uang terkuat saat ini, dalam sepuluh tahun terakhir, kehilangan sekitar 70% daya belinya. Rupiah? Lebih dari 99,9% daya belinya telah lenyap dalam 65 tahun ini. Maka, fungsi rekalibrasi sebenarnya hanyalah untuk menutupi cacat bawaan uang kertas ini. Hingga publik tidak merasakan bahwa dalam kurun 65 tahun Indonesia merdeka, kita telah dipermiskin sebanyak 175 ribu kali! Rekalibrasi mata uang kertas adalah senjata utama para bankir untuk mengelabui masyarakat atas kenyataan ini. Dalam kurun sepuluh tahun terakhir ini saja belasan mata uang berbagai negara direkalibrasi: Turki, Siprus, Slovakia, Romania, Ghana, Azerbeijan, Slovenia, Turkmenistan, Mozambique, Venezuela, dll. Yang paling spektakuler, tentu saja, adalah dolar Zimbabwe, yang dalam kurun lima tahun terakhir mengalami tiga kali (2006, 2008, dan 2009) redenominasi, dengan menghapus total 25 angka nol pada unit mata uangnya!

Pilihan Masyarakat: Dinar emas dan Dirham Perak

Lalu adakah pilihan bagi masyarakat? Tentu saja ada. Yakni pilihlah alat tukar yang tidak bisa disanering, didevaluasi atau diredenominasi, artinya tidak dapat dimanipulasi oleh siapa pun, bukan cuma oleh bank sentral atau IMF, yakni alat tukar yang memiliki nilai intrinsik. Pilihan terbaik untuk itu adalah dinar emas atau dirham perak, yang kini mulai beredar luas di berbagai negara, termasuk Indonesia.

Kesultanan Kelantan, Malaysia, secara resmi akan me-launch dinar emas dan dirham peraknya pada 2 Ramadhan 1431 H (12 Agustus) ini. Ditargetkan pada Januari 2011 dinar emas dan dirham perak, termasuk yang beredar di Indonesia, akan mulai berlaku sebagai alat tukar internasional, dengan kurs tunggal. Jadi, inilah saat yang tepat bagi masyarakat untuk mengalihkan uang kertasnya menjadi dinar emas dan dirham perak. Alat tukar yang bebas inflasi, dan mustahil diredenominasi!

Catatan: tulisan ini telah dimuat di Harian Republika, 5 Agustus 2010, hal. 4, tetapi bagian terakhir yang sangat penting tidak disertakan.

http://wakalanusantara.com/detilurl/Antisipasi.Redenominasi.Rupiah/459/id

          FESTIVALUL TURCESC - FESTIVALUL MULTICULTURALITĂŢII, EDIÅ¢IA A III-A de ELENA TRIFAN        
FESTIVALUL TURCESC FESTIVALUL MULTICULTURALITĂŢII, EDIŢIA A III-A zilele de 21-23 iulie 2017, la Ploieşti, s-a desfăşurat cea de-a III-a ediţie a Festivalului Turcesc intitulat şi Festivalul Multiculturalităţii. Scopul acestuia a fost ca prin promovarea valorilor culturale ale mai multor popoare să se obţină o stare de pace, de iubire, fără discriminare lume, după cum a afirmat Nuri, unul din realizatorii festivalului. Prin spectacole, standuri şi expoziţii au fost evidenţiate aspecte ale vieţii culturale a popoarelor turc, turkmenistan şi bulgar. Cum muzica este limba universală a popoarelor şi unele melodii au fost interpretate limba engleză, se poate spune că spectrul multiculturalităţii a cuprins şi poporul englez. Aspectele vieţii materiale şi spirituale promovate au fost muzica, pictura, dansul, teatrul, artizanatul, gastronomia. Pe scena aer liber din parcarea Griviţei din Ploieşti timp de 3 zile s-au desfăşurat spectacole de nivel artistic, susţinute de copii şi tineri din Ploieşti şi din Bucureşti, care au ...
          The 62nd Meeting of the Council for the Railway Transport of the Commonwealth Member States in Minsk will be Arranged by the Belarusian Railway        

The decision on the venue of the next meeting was made at the 61st meeting of the Council held in October, 2014, in Baku (Azerbaijan).

The 62nd meeting of the Council for the railway transport of the Commonwealth Member-States will be held on May 20-21, 2015 in Minsk. The arrangement of the meeting and participation in its work is one of the most prominent events in the field of the international cooperation for the Belarusian Railway.

The representatives and CEOs of the railway administrations from Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Moldova, Russia, Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine, Georgia, Latvia, Bulgaria, Finland, Lithuania, Estonia and Iran are expected to attend the meeting in Minsk.


          Turkmenistan: Dystopia or Not?        
The dictionary definition of dystopia is as follows: an imagined place or state in which everything is unpleasant or bad, typically a totalitarian or environmentally degraded one.


Based on what we have learned about the leader, Niyazov, living conditions, and typical daily life in Turkmenistan, we have concluded that is indeed, a dystopia

  • The previous leader, Niyazov was a strong totalitarian leader. He forced his rules and decrees on his people, while they suffered. I don't know any other leader who would spend $12 million on a golden statue, while his people suffered in poverty.
  • Nothing in Turkmenistans seems to have anything positive for it, except for their huge amounts of oil. Schools, jobs, and homes are all run down and poorly kept for, because of the finical situation of the country. 




          A Video on Life in Turkmenistan