Red Trinidad Scorpion Moruga Powder 1 oz         

The dried Trinidad Scorpion Moruga powder is one of the hottest you will find on the market today! With average heat well over 1,400,000 SHU it is even hotter than Ghost Pepper powder. Supplies are limited. ...[Read More]
Our Price: $10.00 On Sale [Add to Cart]



          Red Trinidad Scorpion Moruga Powder 1lb        

The dried Trinidad Scorpion Moruga powder is one of the hottest you will find on the market today! With average heat well over 1,400,000 SHU it is even hotter than Ghost Pepper powder. ...[Read More]
Our Price: $110.00 On Sale [Add to Cart]



          Dried Red Trinidad Scorpion Moruga Peppers 1 lb        

The Trinidad Scorpion Moruga was our most popular fresh pepper in 2013. Weighing in at nearly 1,500,000 SHU it is only surpassed by the Carolina Reaper! 1 pound bulk bags are perfect for your restaurant or small batch sauce making....[Read More]
Our Price: $110.00 On Sale [Add to Cart]



          Black Rock        
Black Rock
author: Amanda Smyth
name: Kinga
average rating: 3.35
book published: 2009
rating: 3
read at: 2009/11/02
date added: 2009/11/04
shelves: caribbean, family-secrets, interracial-relationships
review:
Drama, drama, drama. This reads like a Brazilian soap opera.
I quite liked it even if I knew exactly where it was going around the page 120. This is your typical story about women with its usual themes of love, betrayal, pregnancy, motherhood.
What I liked most about the book is probably the setting which is Trinidad and Tobago. It was written in the first person in a rather simple style but the descriptions were captivating.
It definitely calls for a sequel.

          INTERNACIONAL EM QUATRO DÉCADAS        
 Jari Litmanen: a serviço de seu país em quatro décadas




Nos dias de hoje é cada vez mais improvável um jogador manter o alto nível ao ponto de ser convocado para a sua seleção nacional por 5, 10 ou 15 anos. E quando chegam a mais de 15 e até 20 ou mais anos? Aí sim vira um fato digno de nota. Poucos foram os que ultrapassaram tais números, mas nenhum outro conseguiu o feito do finlandês da foto acima.

Este jogador é Jari Litmanen, ex-meiocampista do Ajax, Liverpool e Barcelona e que ganhou quase tudo o que o um jogador profissional sonha disputar. O ex-atleta, afora os incríveis 21 anos de serviços prestados à sua seleção, é o único da história do futebol até hoje que detém a marca de atuar internacionalmente em quatro décadas distintas.

Nascido em Lahti, capital da região de Päijänne Tavastia na Finlândia, em 20 de fevereiro de 1971, a bola já estava no DNA do então garoto, pois seus pais eram jogadores profissionais de futebol no país. Seu pai, Olavi Litmanen, foi um meia de sucesso no Reipas Lahti e da seleção da Finlândia nos anos 60 e 70. Sua mãe, Liisa, também era futebolista do Reipas Lahti - atuava de líbero no time feminino nos anos 70 e também foi bem sucedida. Ou seja, "filho de peixe, peixinho é" como diz o conhecido ditado popular.

Tanto que aos 6 anos Litmanen já dava seus primeiros chutes no clube que revelou seus pais, o Reipas. Foram vários anos nas categorias de base sempre enchendo os olhos dos treinadores e olheiros com sua habilidade rara para um país com pouca expressão no futebol. Sua estreia como profissional se deu em 1987 na Liga Finlandesa. Mesmo com todo seu talento, o novato por pouco não começou sua carreira de forma melancólica, já que seu time terminou a competição em 10º lugar - uma acima dos rebaixados KePS Kemi e Koparit Kuopio.

Depois de 13 anos entre base e profissional no Reipas Lahti sua condição de grande jogador já merecia vôos mais altos, apesar de não ter conquistado nenhum título com o clube. Tanto que em 1991 assinou contrato com o HJK, maior time da Finlândia. Porém, sua relação com os azuis da capital durou apenas uma temporada em sua primeira passagem, mas de muito sucesso com seus gols e assistências, apesar do modesto 5º lugar da equipe na liga nacional. O MyPa foi o próximo destino de Litmanen, onde conseguiu seu primeiro título como jogador profissional em 1992 com a Copa da Finlândia.

Nesta decisão da Copa contra o FF Jaro, inclusive, havia um olheiro do poderoso Ajax de Amsterdã observando o então jovem e talentoso camisa 10 da equipe da cidade de Kouvola. Resultado final: 2 a 0 para Litmanen e companhia e um gol do astro finlandês que convenceu o holandês a contratar o jogador.

Apesar das ótimas recomendações, Jari Litmanen chegou ao Godenzonen para atuar entre os reservas - o treinador era o polêmico Louis Van Gaal. Entretanto, o meiocampista começou a ganhar seu espaço substituindo o ídolo local Dennis Bergkamp que sofreu uma contusão. O jogador não perdeu a oportunidade e agradou o técnico, que passou a utilizá-lo muitas vezes no time titular.

Com a saída de Bergkamp para a Internazionale de Milão em 1993, Litmanen ganhou definitivamente o posto de titular e não demorou para se tornar o principal jogador da equipe de Van Gaal nas próximas temporadas.



"Litti" na sua fase áurea com o Ajax




Jari Litmanen não só herdou a idolatria da torcida de Bergkamp como também sua camisa 10 e fez jus à mítica do número às costas. Retribuiu a confiança e expectativas de Van Gaal sendo artilheiro da Liga Holandesa na temporada 1993/94 com 26 gols. Não só ajudou o clube da capital a faturar o título nacional como foi eleito o jogador do ano no país.

Litti, como ficou conhecido, foi peça chave no tricampeonato holandês entre 1993 e 1996 e na conquista da Liga dos Campeões e do Mundial de Clubes em 1995. O meia cravou seu nome na história nesta ocasião tornando-se o primeiro jogador da Finlândia a ser campeão continental e mundial de futebol. Ainda ficou em 3º lugar na eleição do melhor jogador do mundo naquele mesmo ano.

Os anos passavam-se e a contribuição de Litmanen para o Ajax só crescia com seus números. Entretanto, um vilão viria começar a atrapalhar a trajetória do jogador: as constantes contusões. Não à toa também ficou conhecido como Homem de vidro tamanha sua facilidade de contrair lesões. Sua primeira passagem pelo Ajax terminou em 1999 com a ida de Louis Van Gaal para o Barcelona, que aproveitou a viagem e levou na bagagem o talentoso finlandês junto com outros holandeses como Bogarde, Kluivert, Ronald e Frank de Boer, Cocu e Reiseger. Foram 136 gols em 7 anos em Amsterdã, sendo 26 deles em competições europeias.

No Barcelona Jari Litmanen passou muito longe de reeditar as atuações genais dos tempos de Ajax, muito por conta das recorrentes contusões. Foram pouco mais de 20 jogos, apenas 3 gols em dois anos na Catalunha e nenhuma conquista. Com a saída de Van Gaal e a chegada de Llorenç Serra Ferrer no comando técnico dos Blaugranas em 2001 acabou definitivamente a estada do meiocampista no Campo Nou.

O caminho de Litmanen depois da Espanha foi a Inglaterra para atuar pelo Liverpool. Em Anfield Road chegou a ter boas atuações e aumentar sua galeria de troféus como a Liga Europa, a Supercopa da Europa e a FA Cup. Contudo, novamente o fantasma das contusões fazia uma marcação implacável no jogador, que ficou de fora em diversas ocasiões de partidas dos Reds. Desta forma clube e jogador acharam por bem acabar a relação em 2002 após uma temporada e incríveis cinco títulos pelo clube inglês.

Já diz o ditado que "o bom filho à casa torna", e eis que Jari Litmanen voltou a vestir a camisa alvirrubra do Ajax em 2002. A Holanda sempre foi o refúgio das grandes atuações do meia finlandês, tanto que foi fundamental para a excelente campanha do time na Liga dos Campeões na temporada 2002/03, quando chegou às quartas de finais, até voltar a sofrer com as insistentes lesões que o impediam de atuar no seu costumeiro alto nível. Por conta de sua passagem mais constante no departamento médico do que no campo de jogo, não teve seu contrato renovado em 2004. Assim Litmanen resolveu voltar para sua terra natal.

Voltando para a Finlândia, Litmanen foi recebido como um verdadeiro rei pela torcida do FC Lahti, clube oriundo do Reipas, que fundiu-se com o FC Kuusysi em 1996 para criar o novo clube. Tamanha a reverência que o jogador recebeu a alcunha de Kuningas Jari Litmanen, ou rei na língua finlandesa.

Após um ano no FC Lahti sua carreira começou a declinar em clubes de menor expressão na Europa como Hansa Rostock da Alemanha, Malmö FF da Suécia, Fulham da Inglaterra, retornando ao Lahti e, finalmente, encerrando a sua brilhante carreira aos 40 anos no HJK de Helsinque em 2011. Neste último conquistou o seu único título da liga finlandesa.



Camisa de Litmanen exposta no Museu do Esporte da Finlândia




Mas foi na carreira internacional que Litmanen chegou ao seu grande marco. Por jogar numa seleção com pouquíssima tradição no futebol ficou alijado de grandes competições como Eurocopa e Copa do Mundo. Tal dificuldade também pode ser observada em grandes jogadores como o galês Ryan Giggs, o liberiano George Weah, o norte-irlandês George Best, entre outros. Ainda assim conseguiu entrar para a história com a camisa da seleção da Finlândia.

Sua trajetória com os Huuhkajat (corujas, como é conhecida a seleção finlandesa) durou 21 anos como já citado. Porém, a diferença é que o período compreendeu-se entre 1989 a 2010 que o torna o único jogador da história a atuar por sua equipe nacional em quatro décadas diferentes. 

Sua estreia se deu com apenas 18 anos em outubro de 1989 contra Trinidad Tobago num jogo amistoso. Apesar de seu grande talento o primeiro gol só saiu quase dois anos depois numa partida diante de Malta. Em 1996 assumiu a braçadeira de capitão da equipe e só veio largá-la quando a deixou em 2010. Sua marca histórica de quatro décadas diferentes defendendo a Finlândia foi alcançada em 19 de janeiro de 2010 na derrota por 2 a 0 para a Coréia do Sul em jogo amistoso. Sua última atuação, e último gol, pela seleção aconteceu na goleada por 8 a 0 contra San Marino em 17 de novembro do mesmo ano pelas eliminatórias da Eurocopa 2012. Nesta mesma partida chegou a outra marca: o de jogador mais velho da Finlândia e da história da fase qualificatória para o torneio continental a balançar as redes.

Ao todo pela Finlândia foram 32 gols em 137 jogos que o colocam como o maior artilheiro e jogador que mais vestiu a camisa finlandesa em todos os tempos.

Abaixo, dados e estatísticas do craque finlandês que reinou absoluto nos gramados durante quatro diferentes décadas.


* Nome: Jari Olavi Litmanen

* Apelidos: Litti, Kuningas

* Nascimento: 20 de fevereiro de 1971 em Lahti/FIN

* Posição: Meia-atacante

* Clubes (10): Reipas Lahti (1987 a 1990), HJK Helsinki (1991 e 2011), MyPa (1992), Ajax/HOL (1992 a 1999 e 2002 a 2004), Barcelona/ESP (1999 a 2001), Liverpool/ING (2001 a 2002), FC Lahti (2004 e 2008 a 2010), Hansa Rostock/ALE (2005), Malmö/SUE (2005 a 2007) e Fulham/ING (2008)

* Títulos (18): Copa da Finlândia (1992 e 2011), Campeonato Holandês (1993/94, 1994/95, 1995/96 e 1997/98), KNVB Cup (1992/93, 1997/98 e 1998/99), Liga dos Campeões da Europa (1994/95), Supercopa da Europa (1995 e 2001), Mundial Interclubes (1995), Copa da UEFA (2000/01), FA Cup (2000/01), Copa da Liga Inglesa (2000/01), FA Community Shield (2001), Campeonato Finlandês (2011)

* Seleção Finlandesa: 32 gols em 137 partidas entre 1989 e 2010

* Principais honras pessoais: Jogador finlandês do ano (1990, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 e 2000), Jogador do ano na Holanda (1993), Artilheiro do Campeonato Holandês (1993/94) e Artilheiro da Liga dos Campeões da Europa (1995/96)



Fotos 1 e 3: Autor desconhecido
Foto 2: Fred Ernst/AP

          Comentario en Contacto por GUstavo        
Hola Alexander. Ayer me he pasado unas 12 hs viendo tus videos. Me gustaron mucho y siento que los haces desde el corazón. Primero déjame comentarte que mi fallecido padre desde pequeño me ha intentado instruir en la palabra de Dios. El era un testigo de Jeova expulsado de su congregación cuando mi madre queda embarazada de mí. Ya que ellos aún no estaban casados. Aunque la verdad he estado transitando por caminos equivocados los últimos años ya quiero volver a enderezar el rumbo antes de que sea tarde. Comparto casi la totalidad de lo que comentas en tus videos, pero me cuesta aceptar el tema de los "repilianos". Y yo acepto a Cristo Jesus como mi salvador y rey de todos los arrepentidios de sus pecados. Pero no comprendo lo de la trinidad. El se auto denomina hijo de Dios y habla de su padre en tercera persona. Comprendo y siempre acepte que Cristo tiene la potestad de hablar y actuar en nombre de Dios como una "prolongación" de su ser ya que es su hijo. Pero no comprendo como pueden ser el mismo ser. No escribo con ánimos de confrontación muy al contrario y como tu dijiste en algún video, yo también dudo de todo y trato de investigar a fondo antes de aceptar una afirmación. Por eso me gustaría Qué me recomiendes bibliografia o videos de estos temas. Saludos desde Argentina
          Now That’s Some Bullshit: How NOT to book @DefJamRecords, Trinidad James @TrinidadJamesGG        
I will admit defeat when it comes to me and today I am defeated. I have been in communication with the Trinidad James camp for at least 4 months. He’s been on my radar for quite some time. In fact, I was asked to find contact information on their camp months ago for a few music industry executives to contact them because they were interested in signing them. That path led me to a manager. This was “pre” video drop. […]
          Standhouden Tussen Makaslang En Kapasi        

Winston Jessurun, voorzitter van DA91 en van het presidium van Alternatief 1 (A1), likt zijn wonden na de ‘lafhartige' aanval door Nieuw Suriname. Maar de scheuring heeft A1 meer goed dan slecht gedaan, zegt hij. Het Front en Bouterse vormen een moeilijk te doorbreken ‘symbiose'. Toch wil A1 alles op alles zetten om het internationaal aangezicht van Suriname te herstellen. "Je moet in feite beginnen bij de basis: de mens."


Tekst Iwan Brave/dWTFoto Hijn Bijnen - de Ware Tijd van 24 maart 2005


Jessurun wil er niet te veel woorden meer aan vuil maken, aan de openlijke, persoonlijke aanval van de Radjen Nannan Panday. "Ik heb tegen mijn vrouw gezegd: als je de politiek ingaat, dan vertelt men altijd lelijke dingen over je, waar of onwaar. Wapen je ertegen. Maar om nu aan je privéleven te komen, je gezin te belasteren, waardoor het ook je vrouw en kinderen raakt, dan doet het .-.pijn. En als men liegt dan doet het nog meer pijn. Maar we hebben heel wat stormen overwonnen."
Volgens Jessurun heeft het uittreden van Nieuw Suriname de A1 meer goed dan slecht gedaan. De partij van de gebroeders Nannan Panday zou altijd al een beetje moeilijk hebben gezeten bij bepaalde delen van de achterban van de andere partners. Jessurun kreeg regelmatig van mensen persoonlijk te horen dat ze om die reden niet op A1 zouden stemmen. "Alles komt nu weer terug", zegt hij. Hij kreeg ook steunbetuiging van politieke opponenten uit ‘alle hoeken'. Nieuw Suriname heeft zich politiek ‘compleet uitgeschakeld', weet hij. "Het komt vooral door de lafhartige wijze. Als men het uitsluitend over de boeg van de positionering van Nieuw Suriname had gegooid, dan had het de A1 nog enige schade kunnen berokkenen omdat zo'n argument nog enige oprechtheid uitstraalt."
Maar dit is niet eerste wat ter tafel komt. Het is Jessurun die het gesprek direct op koers plaatst met een recente anekdote. Op straat vroeg een kennis hem: "Wat hebben we aan een eerlijke president die zijn kinderen geen eten geeft? Is het niet beter een president te hebben die steelt maar wel zijn kinderen te eten geeft?" Dit onderstreept volgens hem dat veel Surinaamse kiezers bitter zijn en het spoor bijster. "Ik heb anders geen andere verklaring voor dat de VVV en de NDP nog aanhang hebben, afgaand op de ervaring met deze mensen en de consequenties daarvan voor het land. Anders hebben we een probleem met de interpretatie van hun aanhang. Als we een goed bestaan hadden, dan was het nog te begrijpen. Maar gezien de chaos en financiële verdoemenis is het onbegrijpelijk."

Idol hungry
Zijn broer Rudy, die psycholoog is, verklaart dit fenomeen als ‘idol-hungry'. "Dat zou een verklaring kunnen zijn voor de aanhang van deze twee partijen", licht Jessurun toe. "Het gaat om mensen die zelf niet zo'n sterk ego hebben en daarom graag geleid willen worden." Maar dat er zo velen hunkeren naar een idool, wijt hij aan het ‘falend beleid' van het Nieuw Front. "We hebben binnen het Gestructureerd Samenwerkingverband – waarbij iedereen en alles aangesloten was – kans gezien in 1997-1998 ruim 100.000 mensen in verzet te brengen tegen het financiële wanbeleid van de regering-Wijdenbosch, met als lichtpunt het naar voren schuiven van een interim-regering met Telting als president en Jharap als vice-president.
In die troebele situatie heeft Wijdenbosch de verkiezingen met een jaar vervroegd. Op het moment van bekendmaking daarvan, waren zij van de oude politiek niet meer te vinden voor het idee. Zo erg zelfs dat ze sindsdien geen enkele vergadering meer van het Gestructureerd Samenwerkingsverband hebben bezocht." Het woord ‘verraad' neemt hij niet in de mond, maar het spreekt voor zich. "Toen de kiezers het Nieuw Front weer een mandaat hadden gegeven, hebben ze het gezamenlijk uitgangspunt verlaten en zijn hun eigen dingen gaan doen. Een toonbeeld van de arrogantie van macht. Wie bleef achter? Het teleurgestelde volk, bitter en verpauperd."
Jessurun wijst erop dat het Front in 1987 van de 51 zetels er 41 behaalde – een dikke absolute meerderheid – en 33 zetels in 2000 – op één na wederom een tweederde meerderheid. En nu vraagt het Front weer een mandaat om het karwei ‘af te maken'. "Hoeveel willen ze dan hebben om inderdaad uit te voeren van wat ze niet hebben afgemaakt?" vraagt Jessurun zich in gemoede af over de gemiste kansen met zo'n riante meerderheid het land naar je hand te zetten. "De kiezer gaat nu maar zijn heil elders zoeken. Dat een aanzienlijk deel van jongeren, die niet geconfronteerd zijn met de jaren '80 en eind jaren '90, naar andere politieke partijen of combinaties gaat van krachten die we steeds hebben afgewezen, is de schuld van het Front."
Jessurun wil niets over horen dat het ook een financieel vraagstuk is.
Volgens hem is er geen enkele regering geweest met ‘zoveel mogelijkheden' en ‘steun uit het buitenland'. Maar als je blijft vasthouden aan partijpolitiek en niet aan maatregelen die genomen moeten worden, dan kom je niet verder." De voorzitter van het A1-presidium, wijst op het verziekte investeringsklimaat dat in stand wordt gehouden. In 1994 werd de eerste Investeringswet geconcipieerd. Dat het daarbij bleef, lag volgens Jessurun destijds aan een ‘conflict' tussen de Ministeries van Financiën en van Handel en Industrie – "dus tussen NPS en VHP". Dan volgt in 2001-2002 weer een concept-Investeringswet die in ‘grote vaart' wordt besproken en een ‘hoop onduidelijkheden' bevatte. "Daarom heb ik me uit protest onthouden van stemming. Nu hoor je bij monde van de minister van Financiën dat de investeringswet niet deugt en worden dure consultants in de arm genomen om het werk dunnetjes over te doen. Hadden ze zich dat niet eerder kunnen bedenken." Volgens Jessurun rennen de meeste investeerders ‘gillend' weg. "Ik kan je verhalen en voorbeelden vertellen, maar dan praten we morgen nog. Je komt als investeerder geen stap verder door het bureaucratisch gedoe."

Niet luisteren
Jessurun stelt dat je overigens voor geld bestemd voor productiedoeleinden op de kapitaalmarkt terecht kan. Daarnaast moet er flink worden geïnvesteerd in infrastructuur, onderwijs en gezondheidszorg, want dat is de basis voor een gezond volk om te produceren. "Maar deze regering wil sparen, en is het een volgende regering die dan het geld weer opmaakt." Tegelijkertijd dient men te participeren door middel van aandelen in de exploitatie van de grondstoffen. Overigens is Jessurun van mening dat Suriname de goudsector zelfstandig tot ontwikkeling kan brengen. Het is voordeliger om buitenlandse deskundigen te betalen die een mijn voor je opzetten, waarvan de opbrengst geheel aan jou toekomt.
Al deze zaken worden door DA91 aangekaart in de Nationale Assemblee. "Maar als iets van de oppositie komt, wil men niet luisteren", zegt Jessurun. Uit gesprekken met toppers uit de coalitie, blijkt dat het binnen het Front nogal aan wereldkundigheid schort. Ook bepaalde partijvoorzitters komen er niet genadig van af. Hij geeft tal van voorbeelden. Sommige liever ‘off the record'. "Bepaalde dingen wil je niet zo in pers gooien die je met elkaar in de wandelgangen bespreekt, dat kan pas als ze ook in de vergadering aan de orde komen. Sommige ministers hebben totaal geen idee om welke schaalverhoudingen het in de wereld gaat, omdat ze zo gefixeerd zijn op de enge partijbelangen."

Staatsgarantie
Regelmatig kloppen buitenlandse investeerders bij Jessurun aan omdat ze eenvoudig weg geen gewillig oor bij de regering vinden. Zoals die ene consultant uit Hong Kong, die ten tijde van herinlijving door China met 170 miljoen dollar te leen liep tegen een staatsgarantie, een looptijd van 20 jaar en een zeer milde rente van 5 procent. Het geld moest coute-que-coute weg uit Hong Kong. Via Jessurun werd het aan Suriname aangeboden. "Ik heb het aan Rodgers doorgespeeld; er is uiteindelijk niets mee gebeurd."
En dan die miljardair uit Hong Kong die interesse had getoond om honorair consulair voor Suriname te zijn. Een investeerder met aanzien. "Als hij ergens investeerde, dan gingen anderen er achteraan", vertelt Jessurun. "Hij wilde elk feasable project in Suriname financieren tegen een 30-70-verhouding. Dit was ter sprake ten tijde van de regering-Venetiaan I en regering- Wijdenbosch. Bij deze regering is het weer ter sprake gekomen. Maar men heeft er geen oren naar. Een partijgenoot werd benoemd. En dat ‘killed' het land."
Ook in het plan West-Suriname had er voor Suriname veel meer ingezeten. "De man komt met zijn private-jet uit Pittsburg", vertelt Jessurun over de president van Alcoa. "Dan blijkt de immigratiedienst van Zanderij hiervan niet op de hoogte. Er moet eerst een brief van BUZA komen dat ze binnen mogen. Hoewel ze lang moesten wachten, komen ze alsnog met een aanbieding om 4 miljard dollar in Suriname te investeren, want in de VS is een wet die geïnvesteerd geld vrij stelt van belasting. Terwijl onze regering talmt zijn de Amerikanen ook tegelijkertijd bezig in IJsland waar er wel beslissingen worden genomen. Dat heb ik toen in het parlement aangekaart. In 2004, twee jaren later, komt er eindelijk een MOU." Inmiddels is besloten door Alcoa een smelterij in IJsland op te zetten, ook komt er een smelterij in Trinidad. "Het is maar de vraag of smelterij in West-Suriname er nog komt, want veel zal afhangen van ontwikkelingen op de wereldmarkt", zegt Jessurun. "Die traineringen, bureaucratie en ondeskundigheid maken dat we keer op keer de boot missen."

Twee uitersten
Jessurun spreekt over het Nieuw Front en de NDP van een ‘symbiose', die moeilijk te doorbreken is. "Het Front houdt Bouterse in stand en gebruikt hem om de mensen te bewegen om op hun te stemmen, waarbij Bouterse wordt afgeschilderd als een gevaar. Zonder Bouterse zou er geen Front zijn." Jessurun haalt een andere broer aan – Arti van Trefpunt 2000 – die een vergelijking maakt met de ‘makkaslang en de kapassi' die samen in één hol leven, waarbij de kapassi het hol graaft. "Alternatieven die zich opmaken hebben het moeilijk zich daartussen overeind te houden, omdat we ons – ook de media – focussen op deze twee uitersten", aldus Jessurun.
Intussen holt Suriname sociaal-economisch achteruit. In 1967 – volgens de ‘laatste officiële' cijfers – verdienden we 1 miljard Amerikaanse dollars. Nu, 37 jaar later, verdienen we met zijn allen 1,1 miljard dollar. Jessurun: "In al die jaren zijn we geen stap vooruit gekomen. Als we de geldontwaarding erop loslaten, dan verdienden we in 1967 zes miljard dollar. We zijn erop achteruitgegaan ondanks de verdragsmiddelen, de garantiemiddelen en alle andere donormiddelen die zijn opgegaan, alles bij elkaar zo'n vier miljard dollar."
Maar hoe valt dit te doorbreken dan te door breken? Jessurun: "Je moet in feite beginnen bij de basis: de mens. Daarbij moeten we de vraag stellen: waar willen we naartoe. Ons onderwijs moet naar een topniveau op basis van de ontwikkelingsdoelen. Willen we aan landbouw doen, dan moet er op zijn minst een landbouwhogeschool zijn. We hebben niet eens lage landbouwschool. Willen we de dienstverlenende kant op, dan moeten we ons onderwijs daarop afstemmen en zorgen dat we qua landbouw zelfvoorzienend zijn."
Maar ook het huidige politieke bestel moet op de helling. Op grond daarvan heeft A1 ook een concept-grondwet geschreven met ‘betere machtsverhouding' tussen wetgevende en uitvoerende macht, een ceremoniële president en een uitvoerende minister-president die verantwoording verschuldigd is aan het parlement. Nu hebben we een executieve president – naar het Amerikaans voorbeeld – maar zonder dat we onze president rechtstreeks kiezen. Ook het huidige aantal van zestien ministeries moet drastisch omlaag door middel van ‘clustering', waardoor je onder meer krijgt een ministerie van Welzijn (nu Volksgezondheid, Arbeid en Sociale Zaken), een ministerie van Productie (nu NH, HI en LVV) een ministerie van Opbouw, Verkeer en Waterstaat (nu OW en TCT). Ook Regionale Ontwikkelingen en Binnenlandse Zaken dienen te worden samengevoegd.

Leven en dood
Ondertussen is de NDP weer in opmars. Onbegrijpelijk voor Jessurun. "Bouterse had in 1980 tot 1987 absolute regeringmacht en kon beslissen over leven en dood, wat hij ook deed. Hij kreeg van de Nederlandse regering een half miljard tot zijn beschikking, meer dan welke regering ook. Wie geeft mij nu de garantie dat hij nu met weinig geld en een absolute oppositie iets zal kunnen betekenen. Je kan alleen slagen met leiderschap, visie en contacten in wereld."
Dat laatste kan Bouterse in elk geval naar fluiten, nu de VS duidelijk hebben gemaakt geen banden te zullen onderhouden met regering ‘geleid door een veroordeelde drugscrimineel'.
Wat vindt Jesserun van deze ‘inmenging' van binnenlandse aangelegenheden? "Als land mag ik zeggen met wie ik hand in hand wil lopen. We maken ons allemaal op als moraalverdediger. In een goede democratie zonder etnische en maatschappelijke kloven had zo'n Amerikaanse uitspraak niet gehoeven. Maar dat is bij ons niet het geval, met name als we kijken naar de rechtsstaat die nog steeds niet is hersteld. Je hoort mensen roepen: ‘Isolement of niet; Des for pres, neks no fout'. Maar de VS zeggen bij voorbaat dat álles fout is. Het is natuurlijk niet leuk voor Suriname, net als bij de 100-procentcontrole. Maar we hebben er zelf een puinhoop van gemaakt. We moeten het herstellen. Daarom is A1 er; voor het herstellen van het aangezicht van Suriname in de wereld."


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(BULK PRICING AVAILABLE) CONTACT FOR PRICE & BULK COUPON 100% organic Non-GMO Cocoa. Harvested from naturally grown Cocoa Trees in Grenada & Trinidad Cocoa – A Culinary Gift: Cocoa has been treasured worldwide for its usage in the manufacturing o
          Lonely Planet's Best in Travel 2014 - top 10 cities        
1. Paris, France


2. Trinidad, Cuba


3. Cape Town, South Africa


4. Riga, Latvia



5. Zuerich Schwitzerland



6. Shanghai, China




7. Vancouver, Canada



8.Chicago, Illinois, USA



9. Adelaide, Australien



10. Auckland, New Zealand




To see the article click here. 









          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 06-01-2017 with Haley Hodgkins        
Playlist:

The Movement- Gift - Side By Side
Architecture In Helsinki- Wishbone - In Case We Die
Mates Of State- Goods - All Day EP
- voicebreak -
Nick Walker- Wintergirl Saint Frances - Wintergirl
Archy Marshall- Ammi Ammi feat Jamie Isaac - A New Place 2 Drown
Coco Mamba- Breathe - Out Of Pocket
- voicebreak -
Quadron- Neverland - Avalanche
Stevie Wonder- Uptight Freddie Joachim Remix - Freddie Joachim Remixes
Max Graef- Running feat Wayne Snow - Rivers Of The Red Planet
Tom Misch- Beautiful Escape feat Zak Abel - Beat Tape 2
- voicebreak -
IAMDDB- Back Again - Vibe Volume 2 EP
Full Crate- Vogue feat Trinidad James Bryn Christopher - Vogue EP
Colonel Abrams- Heartbreaker Ruff Flow Mix - Heartbreaker
Michal Menert- In The Morning - Dreaming Of A Bigger Life
- voicebreak -
Artsaves- Trouble - Rbma
Herbie Hancock- Kawaida - The Jazz Masters
Boombox- Tonight - Visions Of Backbeat
- voicebreak -
Third World- Roots With Quality - Hits Anthology
RY X- Only - Dawn
Segun Bucknor- Who Say I Tire - Who Say I Tire
Sister Sledge- Thinking Of You - We Are Family
- voicebreak -
Tyrone Evans- Rise Up Discomix - Rise Up
Ronnie Jones- You And I - Ronnie Jones
Lauryn Hill- I Gotta Find Peace Of Mind - MTV Unplugged No 20
- voicebreak -
Melba Moore- Standing Right Here - The Essential Melba Moore
Tapes n Tapes- Insistor - The Loon
Built To Spill- Fling - Theres Nothing Wrong With Love
Why- Rubber Traits - Elephant Eyelash
- voicebreak -
The Avalanches- Sunshine - Wildflower
Steinski- Swan Lake - What Does It All Mean 19832006 Retrospective
Ryan Adams- To Be Young is To Be Sad Is To Be High - Heartbreaker
Jax Transit Authority- Life Is A Miracle - Life Is A Miracle Single
Telana- Migr8 - Aerbourne EP
- voicebreak -
Mason Jennings- Empire Builder - Use Your Voice
Boo Boo Davis- If You Aint Never Had The Blues - What Kind Of Shit Is This
The Sleepwalkers- New Thang Deep Late Session Mix - New Thang EP


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2017-06-01
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 11-04-2014 with Barry Roark        
Playlist:

- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
David Bowie- Shake It 1999 Remaster - Lets Dance
The Rural Alberta Advantage- 4533 - Mended With Gold
The Black Keys- 10 Lovers - Turn Blue
- voicebreak -
Freeman- I Couldnt Play The Guitar Like A Man - Freeman
- You Can Make Me Feel Bad - Master Mix Red Hot Arthur Russell
Daniel Lanois- The Maker - My Music For Billy Bob
Salmonella Dub- Tui Dub - Inside The Dubplates
Meat Beat Manifesto- Supersoul - Ruok
Alberta Hunter- Nobody Knows When Youre Down And Out - Alberta Hunter Jazz At The Smithsonian
Restoring Poetry In Music- Pockets And Change - Dream Awake
Kasabian- Switchblade Smiles - Velociraptor
Joe Henry- Ohio Air Show Plane Crash - Trampoline
Abstrakto- Pistolero - Abstrakto
Pest- Slap On Tap - Necessary Measures
Eric Clapton- Same Old Blues - Behind The Sun
Spoon- Knock Knock Knock - They Want My Soul
Prince Jammy- Throne Of Blood - Kamikazi Dub
The Boomtown Rats- Up All Night - Ratrospective
- Cajun Moon - Country Funk Volume II 19671974
- Tulsa Turnaround - Country Funk Volume II 19671974
Goat- Bondye - Commune
Robyn Hitchcock- Night Ride To Trinidad - Groovy Decay
- Downbound Train - Dead Mans Town A Tribute To Born In The USA
Compilation- 2001 Love - Johnny Was Vol 2 Reggae From The Film
Dub Syndicate- Green Stick - Echomania
The Only Ones- Oh Lucinda Love Becomes A Habit - The Big Sleep Live
Grant Lee Buffalo- Dixie Drug Store - Fuzzy
Blur- Beetlebum Live Acoustic Version - Blur Special Edition
Richard Hell The Voidoids- Love Comes In Spurts Remastered Version - The Richard Hell Story Remastered
Stereo MCs- Fade Away - Live At The BBC
Arctic Monkeys- Teddy Picker - Favourite Worst Nightmare
Bethany Curve- Jettison - Flaxen
The Waterboys- Sgt Peppers onely Hearts Club Band - Fishermans Box


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2014-11-04
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-13-2013 with 99 & Barry        
Playlist:

Marisa Monte David Byrne- Waters Of March - Red Hot Rio
The Mighty Diamonds- Let Jah Sun Shine - Reggae Anthology Pass The Knowledge
Don- Sunshine Day - Thai Beat A GoGo Vol 3
Guano Padano- One Man Bank - 2 feat Mike Patton
Mulatu Astatke- Metche Dershe When Am I Going To Reach There - thiopiques Vol 4 Ethio Jazz Musique Instrumentale 19691974
The Lee Thompson Ska Orchestra- Nepolian Solo - The Benevolence Of Sister Mary Ignatius
- voicebreak -
Sainkho Namtchylak- Let The Sunshine - Stepmother City
Los Mustang- Please Please Me - Los Nuggetz 60s Punk Pop And Psychedelic From Latin America
- Anbafo - Live From Festival Au Desert 2012 Timbuktu
Red Hot Chili Peppers- Higher Ground - Higher Ground Remastered Single
Carla Kihlstedt- Flash Flood - 2 Foot Yard
Galactic- Dark Water - YaKaMay
Primus- Jerry Was A Race Car Driver - Sailing The Seas Of Cheese
The Hot 8 Brass Band- Homies - Tombstone
- voicebreak -
Baka Forest People Of Southeast Cameroon- Water Drums 1 - Heart Of The Forest
- Trinidad Steel Drummers Cissy Strut - Steel Funk
Fanfara Tirana Transglobal Underground- Shtojzovalle - Kabatronics Bonus Track Version
Family Atlantica- Arena - Family Atlantica
Skip Die- Jungle Riot - Riots In The Jungle
Ceramic Dog- Mr Pants Goes To Hollywood - Your Turn
- voicebreak -
Elvis Costello The Roots- Wake Me Up - Wise Up Ghost Deluxe
Count Stocky The Upsetters- To Hell And Back - The Sound Doctor
Andre Williams The Sadies- America You Say A Change Is Gonna Come - Night Day
Jon Madof- Holy Brother - Zion80
- voicebreak -
Rabbit Rabbit- After The Storm - Rabbit Rabbit Radio Vol 1
Eugene Chadbourne- Storms Never Last - Longview
Deb Hyer- Bridge Over Troubled Water - One Man Band
Chico Buddy- You Wont Miss The Water - The Detroit Funk Vaults
Herbie Hancock- Rain Dance - Sextant
Fela Ransome Kuti- Water No Get Enemy - Expensive Shit He Miss Road Remastered
- voicebreak -
Pseudo Nippon- Universal Brotherhood Cops Say Ow - Colorama
Melt Yourself Down- Tuna - Melt Yourself Down
Darth Vegas- Things That Go Bump In The Night - Brainwashing For Dirty Minds
Solomon Socalled- Hiphopkele - Hiphopkhasene


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2013-09-13
          Trinidad Swilling         
Trinidad Escalantes Swilling Shumaker was born in Hermosillo, Sonora, of Spanish parents. Her father, a sea captain from Cadiz named Ignatius Escalantes, and his wife, Petra Mejia, were shipwrecked off the west coast of Mexico. They made their way to Hermosillo, where Trinidad was born in 1847. Ignatius died while Trinidad was a child, and eventually she and her mother joined a wagon train headed for a new life in Tucson.
          "Nike"        



"Nike." That's all the Cuban teenager said as he walked past me on the cobblestoned streets of Trinidad de Cuba, a colonial-era mountain village and UNESCO World Heritage Site near Cuba's south coast. I had fallen behind the other members of my research delegation, staring in awe at the quaint beauty of this pristine village.

I knew he was referring to the grey Nike trail running shoes with bright orange Nike swooshes I had on. Several times while wearing them back in Havana and elsewhere on the island, I noticed young Cuban men casting pensive glances at my feet. Little things like that are constant reminders of a half-century U.S. embargo keeping so many brands and products we take for granted out of bounds for the people of this long, skinny island.

I decided I didn't want this young man to get away so easily, since he was the first to actually say something about my shoes, as opposed to just staring at them. I caught up to him and asked, "Que tipo de zapatos tienes tu?" ["What type of shoes do you have?"] I had to repeat it twice before he understood me. 'Zapatos,' like 'dificil' remains one of the hardest words in Spanish for me to pronounce smoothly.

He said his were jogging shoes. They were some Chinese brand and featured even more bright orange (my favorite color) than mine. The next word out of his mouth was 'cambio,' and before long we were trading our shoes. We lined our left feet up next to each other to ensure a decent fit, then sat on the sidewalk to take off and trade our shoes.

As we walked to where my delegation was meeting for its next tour, I got to to know a little bit about this young man. His name was Miguel Alejandro, seventeen years old, finishing school and training to work as a chef. His favorite sports: snorkelling and track and field, especially long distance running. He said he lived in a small house down the block with his mom and sister (so many young Cubans I met had no fathers at home; many said their fathers were living in the United States; I imagine some fathers were serving time among Cuba's large prison population.)

I asked Miguel Alejandro how he liked life in the small town of Trinidad de Cuba, and in Cuba in general. He told me it was great. Before parting, we exchanged e-mail addresses and promised to keep in touch. Of course, like most Cubans, he didn't have an e-mail address or a computer to access the Internet, but he had a friend with both and said he would reach me that way.

We waved goodbye, and as he rounded the cobblestoned corner to his home, I imagined this young man someday making Cuba proud in a future Olympics or Pan American Games.

          Lecturas        

El exceso de café provoca temblores en las manos, el estómago se achica y empiezas a discurrir saltarinamente sobre algunos temas sin detenerte demasiado en ellos, sin ejercer tampoco ninguna autocrítica, pues no hay paciencia. La sobredosis de cafeína te convierte en un ser nervioso e intranquilo, de atolondradas neuronas. Hay, desde luego, síndrome de abstinencia, esa ansiedad mañanera que nos embiste cuando aún aletargados, sin distinguir bien entre la sal y el azúcar, buscamos entrar a la realidad del día a través de una taza. Que sirva esta disculpa, hoy que voy por la séptima taza, para suavizar el juicio del lector visitante.

Ayer la Comisión nos dejó sin luz durante cuatro horas y tuve que encender algunas velas. Leer los “Diálogos con Leucó” (la edición de Tusquets no acaba de convencerme, hay algo anómalo, quizá el mismo Pavese, quizá la traductora –aunque estoy consciente de que muchos pueden considerar una apostasía cuestionar a la traductora de Camus, Verne, Italo Calvino, Zola y un incómodo etcétera-), leer los “Diálogos” a la luz de las velas me recordó la última ocasión en que leí, esa vez voluntariamente, con la luminosa asistencia de las velas. Era insoportablemente joven y permeable, cuando abría un libro sufría un proceso mimético, es posible que mis carencias me llevaran a una ingenua apropiación de referencias externas. (Todavía hoy, con carencias vigentes, me sucede, pero en menor medida, he dejado de ser un lector cándido para convertirme en un lector interesado) Así, mis diecisiete años no me habían preparado para los Padres de la Iglesia, para Justino, Orígenes y Tertuliano, para Proclo, Clemente y Agustín de Hipona. Preparando el ensayo final de la asignatura y en la compañía de las magníficas ediciones de la BAC –aún recuerdo la placentera textura de las páginas de las “Confesiones”- me vi, sin entenderlo ni oponerme, sumergida en un horario nocturno de silencios y ardidas velas, imponiéndome las mismas limitaciones de una celda monacal, el ayuno y la redacción iban de la mano en un extraño experimento de purificación, la lectura de los Padres era catártica, quizá más para el cuerpo que para la mente. Las exquisitas especulaciones en torno al misterio de la Trinidad, los préstamos que la Patrística tomaba del neoplatonismo, el colorido conceptual de la teología, atiborraban tanto que sólo necesitaba arroz una vez al día.

Este curioso hábito, menos notorio años atrás, me llevó a leer “La Náusea” –en una edición de pasta dura que heredé de mi padre- repetidas veces, hasta dibujar la patética escena de una estudiante de secundaria empecinada en sentir e interiorizar esa famosa náusea francesa cuando subía a los autobuses. El tiempo, más que la lectura de Sartre, me la traería sin buscarla. Qué decir, indulgente lector, de mi platonismo encendido durante los primeros años de licenciatura, de mi vocación analítica luego de leer a Quine y a Tarski, de los obligados silencios a los que me indujo Wittgenstein. Creí en la filosofía como arma para la revolución bajo la influencia de Althusser mientras soñaba con la selva chiapaneca. Jugué a montar y desmontar argumentos y falacias, llevé mis clases de lógica al hogar, donde pude –por fin- decirle a mi padre que su “porque lo digo yo” era un razonamiento ad verecundiam. Nunca llegué, puedo decir a mi favor, a usar el disfraz negro de los nihilistas, ni me rapé a lo Foucault, tampoco usé el recurso de la cita indiscriminada –para toda ocasión sirve Nietzsche-. La ortodoxia y los clubes ideológicos siempre me causaron recelo. Sí sufrí, en cambio, por no jugar ajedrez, hasta que Edgar Allan Poe me consoló (privilegiaba el “sencillo juego de damas” sobre “toda esa primorosa frivolidad del ajedrez”).

No puedo extenderme aquí en las transformaciones que me acarreó la lectura de Kafka, de Ibsen, de Mann, de –oh, ésta fue de las peores- Dostoievski, de Rulfo, de Goethe y tantas otras. Cada libro era una nueva mutación que se añadía a las anteriores, una herida. Rimbaud (en la edición bilingüe de Hiperión), Hölderlin, Borges, Heidegger –con toda su odiosa, incomprable y cuasi infinita Gesamtausgabe- me cosieron los labios durante mucho tiempo.

Estas confesiones son, también, el resultado de haber leído “Una historia de la lectura” de Manguel, libro que terminé hace un par de días. La obra tiene muchos datos y anécdotas sabrosas, no es una “historia” con mayúsculas (¿la hay?), pero incluye algo de historia, de reflexión, de autobiografía y de pasión por la lectura. El capítulo final, sin embargo, parece haber sido escrito con prisa, demerita el arduo trabajo de investigación y memoria que le precede. Quizá Manguel lo hizo a propósito, para que el lector mejorara, modificara o construyera su propia historia de la lectura. Disfruté en especial los pasajes sobre Kafka, el medioevo, las relaciones entre escritor y lector, la traducción…

Una de las metáforas de la lectura que Manguel ofrece se remonta a la sociedad judía medieval, es una imagen tan poderosa que vale la pena reproducirla: dentro del ritual de aprender “se untaba miel a la pizarra y el niño la lamía, asimilando de esa forma, físicamente, las palabras sagradas. También se escribían versículos en huevos duros ya pelados o en pastelitos de miel, que el niño comía después de leerle al maestro los versículos en voz alta.” Es verdad que se devora un libro, que hay lecturas indigestas y que se degustan las palabras (¿no has repetido, camarada, una palabra o un nombre de tal manera que la sensación es casi física, no la pronunciación oral que involucra el paladar, los dientes, la lengua y los labios, sino la articulación mental que se vuelve guturación palpable y resuena interiormente?). Lamer las palabras, como el niño, para poder lograr la posesión no sólo de su grafía y su significado, sino de su misterio.

Hoy volví a casa con un libro “nuevo”, no puedo decir que me aguardaba, pero nadie lo había comprado en la librería de viejo, así que al menos él esperaba a alguien. Como siempre que tengo un libro en las manos, un sentimiento de indignidad me atraviesa, el libro no me esperaba a mí, esperaba a otro, a un lector mejor. El libro tiene que resignarse, tiene que conformarse con mi afecto y olvidar otro futuro más apasionado. Su título es “Nuevo método para aprender latín” por el Doctor Schnitzler; no conozco al Doctor, pero me convenció la editorial: Herder. Estudié latín con el “Florilegio latino” de Luis Penagos, cuya imagen de portada recuerda más a un Ben Hur en el circo romano guiando a sus caballos blancos que a Séneca o a Cicerón. No me entusiasmó ese libro, no recuerdo mucho de él, más allá de traducir maniobras militares romanas. Sin embargo, durante el curso de latín volvió a mis manos –como un guiño demiúrgico- una gramática latina que perteneció a mi padre. La gramática había desaparecido de la biblioteca estudiantil de papá hace muchos años, quizá como un préstamo nunca devuelto; casi tres décadas después mi profesor de latín encontró la gramática en una venta de libros usados con el familiar “ex libris” escrito en su primera página, me lo entregó generosamente. Y así se cerró el círculo, la gramática volvió a los anaqueles estudiantiles de la familia, y me ayudó a dejarme transformar por la lectura de Catulo, Ovidio y Virgilio.

Lo que me lleva a un último salto: las sortes virgilianae. Manguel nos habla de ellas en su libro, las sortes eran un arte oracular que consistía en utilizar pasajes de Virgilio para conocer nuestro destino o predecir nuestro futuro. Virgilio era la fuente preferida para la adivinación, pero podían usarse otros libros con el mismo fin (está la cleromancia evangélica o sortes biblicae, la sortes homericae y, por qué no, algún aventajado habrá inaugurado las sortes de Proust, de T. S. Eliot, de Cervantes, el Ulysses en lugar de la Eneida o el Breviario de Podredumbre en lugar de la Iliada). Una versión más elaborada aparece parodiada en el “Pantagruel” de Rabelais, cuando Panurgo se pregunta si debería o no casarse Pantagruel le aconseja elegir una página al azar, tirar tres dados y su suma indicaría la línea de esa página que resolvería su duda. ¿Es un método descabellado? No más que el tarot, el I Ching, las runas o la numerología.

Mi biblioteca está escindida en tres partes, curiosa metáfora especular. En este momento sólo puedo echar mano de la “Antología de textos clásicos grecolatinos” publicada por la UNAM para buscar el augurio. La pregunta, para no cansarte, amabilísimo lector, me la guardo. Va la respuesta: “Si quieres salir vencedor, preciso es que emplees todos tus ardides”… cortante como la obsidiana, la frase pertenece al coro de “Las avispas”, Aristófanes zahorí.

Termino la octava y fría taza de café con esta sentencia heraclítea de Manguel, una de las mejores del libro: “Nunca volvemos al mismo libro y ni siquiera a la misma página.”
          BP Artist Talk: Peter Doig and Adrian Searle in Conversation        
To coincide with Tate’s major Peter Doig retrospective exhibition, the artist is in conversation with Adrian Searle talking about his substantial body of work including paintings made in the last five years since his move to Trinidad in 2002.
          FIESTAS Y COMIDAS TIPICAS DEL ESTADO DE OAXACA.,        
Comidas:
Tamales
Pan de yema
Quesillo
Mole
chileatole
Champurrado
Tejate: bebida prehispanica elaborada a base de maiz, cacao, flor de cacao, hueso de mamey y coquito de sarozo
Atole de panela
Tlayuda: Tortilla de gran tamaño. Por lo general se le unta aciento y frijoles, se le agregan diferentes verduras como el repollo o lechuga, aguacate y jitomate, se le agrega quesillo o queso fresco y se acompaña con tasajo, cecina, cecina enchilada, salchicha oaxaqueña, chorizo o chapulines.
Tortillas con aciento: Al igual que las tlayudas, las tortillas son untadas con aciento y frijoles, y se les agrega lechuga, aguacate, jitomate quesillo o queso fresco y se acompañan con alguna carne.

Chileajo: Guiso hecho a base de chile pasilla, ajo, papa, ejotes y chícharos.
Molotes: Hechos de papa con chorizo y envueltos en masa, para después ser fritos. Encima se les puede agregar frijoles o guacamole, repollo, queso fresco y salsa.
Tasajo
Higaditos de mayordomía
Salchicha Oaxaqueña
Chicharrón
Biuses
Chichilo
Caldo de gato: Caldo hecho con carne de res, pollo y puerco.
Empanada de Amarillo: Empanada rellena de mole amarillo.
Empanada de San Antonino: Empanada rellena de masa, pollo, amarillo y cilantro.
Empanada de flor de calabaza: Empanada rellena de quesillo y [flor de calabaza]].
Sopa de Guías: Caldo preparado con elote, flor de calabaza, guías, calabacitas y chochoyotes
Frijoles con hierba de conejo
Memelas: Tortillas de menor tamaño hechas a mano, rellenas de aciento, frijoles, queso o quesillo y se les puede agregar algún tipo de guiso.
Chiles rellenos: Hechos con chile de agua o chile guajillo cubiertos de harina y huevo. Se pueden rellenar de picadillo de pollo, picadillo de res o queso.

Aciento: Se obtiene de la manteca del puerco, suele untarse en las tlayudas y en las tortillas.
Chochoyotes: Bolitas de masa y manteca, suelen servirse en la sopa de guías y en los frijoles con "hierba de conejo".
Garnachas
Dulces Regionales
Nenguanitos: Especie de galletas, se presentan apiladas una sobre la otra.
Mamones: Especie de pan hecho a base de huevo y miel.
Borrachitos: Parecido al Mamón y con un ligero sabor a Mezcal.
Barquillos: Dulce regional relleno de lechecilla.
Empanadas dulces: Pueden estar rellenas de piña, coco o lechecilla.
Turrón: Cilindro hecho a base de una fritura de trigo, con relleno a base de huevo.
Cocadas: Tiene una base de fritura de trigo, con coco espolvoreado por encima.
Tarugo: Bolitas de dulce de tamarindo con azúcar.
Gollorías: Dulce hecho a base de azúcar, canela y nueces.
Lechecilla: Especie de natilla.
Nicuatole: Especie de gelatina hecha a base de maíz.
Nieve de sorbete: Nieve hecha con vainilla y huevo
Nieve de leche quemada
Nieve de pétalo de rosa: Hecha a base de los pétalos de las rosas.

Fiestas:
1 Enero: Festividad de la Santísima Trinidad: En la Parroquia del ISSSTE: Es costumbre entre el pueblo católico que el día primero de cada mes se hagan peticiones para que no falte casa, vestido y sustento, por lo que el primer día del año reviste de mayor importancia, ya que en esta ocasión se realizarán las peticiones para todo el año.
Se lleva a cabo novenario, calenda, actividades religiosas y fuegos artificiales.
2 de Febrero: Festividad de la Virgen de la Candelaria:Convite, novenario, calenda, actividades religiosas, fuegos artificiales, rosario de aurora (estandartes), procesión, actividades deportivas y culturales, baile popular, juegos mecánicos, audición musical, mañanitas, antojitos populares.
19 de marzo: Festividad de San José: Patrono de los carpinteros de la ciudad. Se desconoce la fecha en la que dejaron de realizarse los festejos profanos. Novenario, actividades religiosas, antojitos populares.
21 de Marzo: Aniversario del natalicio de Don Benito Juárez: Coincide con el inicio de la Primavera, se celebra con actividades cívicas, culturales y deportivas en Guelatao, población de la Sierra donde nació el Benemérito. En la ciudad también se llevan a cabo ceremonias y actividades diversas.
Fecha variable en marzo:
Viernes de Dolores:Fiesta de gran arraigo en la ciudad, de origen europeo. Según la tradición esta costumbre se extendió hacia Puebla, México, Guadalajara y otros.
Era costumbre erigir altares en los domicilios particulares en los cuales se ofrecía a los visitantes un refresco para agradecer la visita.
Bendición de palma , "Domingo de ramos": Después de la santa misa los fieles van retornando a sus hogares con las palmas benditas, reliquias custodias de la casa, conservadas devotamente tras las puertas.
Jueves santo: "Visita a los siete altares": Participan todos los templos de la ciudad.
Viernes santo:Viacrusis y Ceremonia del encuentro.
Solemne Vigilia Pascual: Participan todos los templos católicos.
Sabado de Gloria.
Fiesta de resurrección25 de abril: Aniversario de la elevación de Oaxaca al rango de ciudad.
1 de Mayo: Feria de la tortilla: Muestra y concurso sobre la elaboración de productos a base de maíz.
3 de Mayo: Festividad de la Santa Cruz.

          TJ Trinidad        


          TJ Trinidad        


          Mexico wins 1st World Cup qualifier in US since 1972         
  • Mexico's Hector Herrera, right, falls to the ground as United States' Matt Besler looks for the ball during the second half of a World Cup qualifying soccer match Friday, Nov. 11, 2016, in Columbus, Ohio. (AP Photo/Jay LaPrete)

COLUMBUS, Ohio (AP) — A pro-American crowd of 24,650 chanted "Dos a cero!" at the start.

Mexican supporters yelled "Dos a uno!" as they left.

Rafa Marquez scored a tiebreaking goal on a header in the 89th minute, giving Mexico a 2-1 victory Friday night and its first victory at the United States in World Cup qualifying since 1972.

After winning four straight home qualifiers against Mexico by 2-0 scores — all in Columbus — the U.S. hoped to open the final round of the North and Central American and Caribbean region with another victory. Instead, the Americans began the hexagonal with a loss for the second straight cycle, and they play Tuesday night at Costa Rica, where they have never won in qualifying.

"It gets a sense of anger in us. It gets a sense of absolutely urgency," U.S. coach Jurgen Klinsmann said. "It's not a problem, but it's obviously disappointing."

Miguel Layun put Mexico ahead in the 20th minute, but Bobby Wood tied it in the 49th.

The U.S. dominated the second half before the 37-year-old Marquez, unmarked and drifting across the penalty area at the near post, got a glancing nod on Layun's corner kick. The Mexican captain lifted the ball over goalkeeper Brad Guzan for his 17th international goal.

Mexico's previous win at the U.S. in qualifying was also by a 2-1 score, at the Los Angeles Coliseum.

"I think we deserved this match," Layun said. "We were focused."

Klinsmann said John Brooks was supposed to mark Marquez on the corner kick. Jozy Altidore blocked the defender from getting there.

"We lost him there. Individual mistake," Klinsmann said.

The Americans had been 30-0-2 at home in qualifying since a 3-2 loss to Honduras at Washington's RFK Stadium in September 2001.

"They're very good in terms of when they have a little time circulating the ball, and they start to find space," American captain Michael Bradley said.

Guzan had lost the U.S. goalkeeper job to Tim Howard, who started at the last two World Cups. But Howard pulled a muscle in his right leg on a goal kick and was replaced in the 40th minute.

Howard was to have a scan Saturday, a day before the U.S. travels, and Klinsmann said Howard likely will miss the match at Costa Rica.

"He knows it's not looking that good," Klinsmann said.

The top three teams in the six-nation round qualify for the World Cup, and the fourth-place country advances to a playoff.

With the U.S. struggling early in what Klinsmann called a 3-4-3 formation, Mexico could have led 3-0. Howard tipped Jesus Corona's 10th-minute shot off a post and Carlos Vela's 25th-minute header hit a crossbar.

"Out midfielders didn't get into the one-on-one battles we expected them to," Klinsmann said, citing Jermaine Jones and Bradley.

After switching to a more familiar 4-4-2 in the 27th minute, the Americans began to find their rhythm, and Wood scored off a pass from Altidore.

It was 44 degrees at game time, half the 90-degree temperature for the 2013 match in Columbus, when the U.S. clinched its seventh straight World Cup berth.

Mexico went ahead after Bradley and Giovani dos Santos battled for the ball 30 yards out. The ball skipped to Layun, who took a touch, and his right-footed shot deflected off Timmy Chandler past Howard's left for his fourth international goal in 46 appearances,

Wood tied the score after Brooks forced a turnover. Altidore turned his defender and passed to Wood, who took two touches as he split defenders. His 8-yard, left-footed shot deflected off a leg of Layun for his eighth goal in 28 international appearances. Wood also scored against Mexico last fall during an extra-time loss in the playoff for a berth in the 2017 Confederations Cup.

Altidore and Wood have combined for seven goals in 11 games they've started together.

Notes: All three visiting teams had victories in their openers. Costa Rica won 2-0 at Trinidad and Tobago on goals by Christian Bolanos in the 65th and Ronald Matarrita in second-half injury time, and Panama won 1-0 at Honduras on Fidel Escobar's 22nd-minute goal. ... CONCACAF and Fox extended their Gold Cup agreement to cover the 2017 and 2019 tournaments. ... Mexico's Carlos Salcedo is suspended for Tuesday after receiving two yellow cards late in the match.

 

Section: 

          Hány ország van a földön?        
Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

Afganisztán - Kabul
Albánia - Tirane
Algéria - Algiers
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Angola - Luanda
Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
Argentína - Buenos Aires
Örményország - Yerevan
Ausztrália - Canberra
Ausztria - Vienna
Azerbajdzsán - Baku
Bahamák - Nassau
Bahrein - Manama
Banglades - Dhaka
Barbados - Bridgetown
Fehéroroszország - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Belize - Belmopan
Benin - Porto-Novo
Bhután - Thimphu
Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
Botswana - Gaborone
Brazília - Brasilia
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgária - Sofia
Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
Burundi - Bujumbura
Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
Kamerun - Yaounde
Kanada - Ottawa
Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
Csád - N'Djamena
Chile - Santiago
Kína - Beijing
Kolumbia - Bogota
Comore-szigetek - Moroni
Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
Costa Rica - San Jose
Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
Horvátország - Zagreb
Kuba - Havana
Ciprus - Nicosia
Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
Dánia - Copenhagen
Dzsibuti - Djibouti
Dominika - Roseau
Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
Ecuador - Quito
Egyiptom - Cairo
El Salvador - San Salvador
Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
Eritrea - Asmara
Észtország - Tallinn
Etiópia - Addis Ababa
Fidzsi - Suva
Finnország - Helsinki
Franciaország - Paris
Gabon - Libreville
Gambia - Banjul
Grúzia - Tbilisi
Németország - Berlin
Ghána - Accra
Görögország - Athens
Grenada - Saint George's
Guatemala - Guatemala City
Guinea - Conakry
Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
Guyana - Georgetown
Haiti - Port-au-Prince
Honduras - Tegucigalpa
Magyarország - Budapest
Izland - Reykjavik
India - New Delhi
Indonézia - Jakarta
Irán - Tehran
Irak - Baghdad
Írország - Dublin
Izrael - Jerusalem
Olaszország - Rome
Jamaica - Kingston
Japán - Tokyo
Jordánia - Amman
Kazahsztán - Astana
Kenya - Nairobi
Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
Dél-Korea - Seoul
Koszovó - Pristina
Kuvait - Kuwait City
Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
Laosz - Vientiane
Lettország - Riga
Libanon - Beirut
Lesotho - Maseru
Libéria - Monrovia
Líbia - Tripoli
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Litvánia - Vilnius
Luxemburg - Luxembourg
Macedónia - Skopje
Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
Malawi - Lilongwe
Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
Maldív-szigetek - Male
Mali - Bamako
Málta - Valletta
Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
Mauritánia - Nouakchott
Mauritius - Port Louis
Mexikó - Mexico City
Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
Moldova - Chisinau
Monaco - Monaco
Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
Montenegró - Podgorica
Marokkó - Rabat
Mozambik - Maputo
Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
Namíbia - Windhoek
Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
Nepál - Kathmandu
Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
Új-Zéland - Wellington
Nicaragua - Managua
Niger - Niamey
Nigéria - Abuja
Norvégia - Oslo
Omán - Muscat
Pakisztán - Islamabad
Palau - Melekeok
Panama - Panama City
Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
Paraguay - Asuncion
Peru - Lima
Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
Lengyelország - Warsaw
Portugália - Lisbon
Katar - Doha
Románia - Bucharest
Oroszország - Moscow
Ruanda - Kigali
Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
Santa Lucia - Castries
Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
Szamoa - Apia
San Marino - San Marino
São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
Szenegál - Dakar
Szerbia - Belgrade
Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
Sierra Leone - Freetown
Szingapúr - Singapore
Szlovákia - Bratislava
Szlovénia - Ljubljana
Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
Szomália - Mogadishu
Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
Spanyolország - Madrid
Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
Szudán - Khartoum
Suriname - Paramaribo
Szváziföld - Mbabane
Svédország - Stockholm
Svájc - Bern
Szíria - Damascus
Tajvan - Taipei
Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
Thaiföld - Bangkok
Togo - Lome
Tonga - Nuku'alofa
Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
Tunézia - Tunis
Törökország - Ankara
Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
Uganda - Kampala
Ukrajna - Kyiv
Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
Egyesült Királyság - London
Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
Uruguay - Montevideo
Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
Vanuatu - Port-Vila
Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
Venezuela - Caracas
Vietnam - Hanoi
Jemen - Sanaa
Zambia - Lusaka
Zimbabwe - Harare

          Nov 26, Leyendas: Un Duende        
Mi madre me dijo que vio a un duende en Beni - Trinidad - cuando ella estaba jugando con sus hermanos. Ellos corretearon dejándola sola, y dice que apareció
          QualityStocksNewsBreaks – ProBility Media Corp. (PBYA) Advances on International Expansion Strategy with Acquisition of Cranbury International        
EdTech innovator ProBility Media (OTCQB: PBYA) has completed its acquisition of Cranbury International, a Vermont-based exporter of educational and training materials to governmental institutions and the private sector in 40 international markets, including Brazil, Mexico, Columbia and Trinidad. “This acquisition is a major step in our geographic expansion plan. Once again we have found a […]
          32 convicted sex offenders nabbed on Long Island, held by ICE.         


ICE officials collected 32 convicted sex offenders on Long Island.

ICE officials collected 32 convicted sex offenders on Long Island.

  (U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY)
During a sweep, immigration agents nabbed 32 convicted sex offenders on Long Island and held them for deportation.
The offenders, with convictions ranging from sex abuse to attempted rape, were grabbed during a 10-day crackdown that ended Aug. 3, Immigration and Customs Enforcement officials said.
The initiative was dubbed “Operation SOAR,” an acronym for Sex Offender Alien Removal.
“These actions focus our resources on the most egregious criminals and promote public safety in the communities in which we live and work,” said Thomas Decker, ICE’s Enforcement and Removal Operations field office director for New York.
Twelve of the nabbed are registered sex offenders, including a 24-year-old man from El Salvador arrested for sexual contact with a 4-year-old girl in Wyandanch, ICE officials said.
Twelve of the nabbed are registered sex offenders, including a 24-year-old man from El Salvador arrested for sexual contact with a 4-year-old girl in Wyandanch, ICE officials said.

Twelve of the nabbed are registered sex offenders, including a 24-year-old man from El Salvador arrested for sexual contact with a 4-year-old girl in Wyandanch, ICE officials said.

  (U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY)
A 36-year-old Guatemalan man was picked up Aug. 2 in Brentwood because he had a rape conviction involving a 13-year-old girl.
A 32-year-old Honduran man who was convicted of having sex with a 15-year-old girl was arrested in Brentwood on Aug. 1.
Others from El Salvador, Haiti, and Trinidad with convictions involving children were also swept up in places including Riverhead, Mineola, and East Hampton, ICE officials said.
ICE doesn’t provide further details or identify the people it rounds up — a departure from what police departments do as a matter of course when they make arrests.


          Haiti        
"The chairman of the World Bank visited Haiti this past week. This man, Robert Zoellick, is an expert finance-capitalist, a former partner in the investment bankers Goldman Sachs, whose 22,000 ‘traders’ last year averaged bonuses of more than $600,000 each.

Goldman Sachs paid out over & 18 billion in bonuses to its traders last year, about 50% more than the GDP of Haiti’s 8 million people."


read more
          Hotbox - 300 Doubles        

the client wanted an animated spot that would be instantly memorable for the launch of a new street food business. For this spot we jumped right into the thick of Trinidadian culture, meeting a customer with a very eccentric and passionate vendor.
Though the client never used the spot because their business took to targeting a different demographic, i still think this spot is both hilarious and effective.

Cast: schongashing


          A propaganda enganosa do PSDB pedindo “desculpas”        



O teaser da propaganda do PSDB pedindo “desculpas” não é enganosa apenas pela contradição em termos.

Afinal, se o problema é fazer parte de um governo corrupto em que eles mesmos meteram o Brasil em conluio com o PMDB, basta tirar os ministros e sair. Mas aí, como sabemos, é pedir demais.

O buraco é mais fundo.

Ao longo do meio minuto do vídeo, os tucanos admitem que erraram, mas não revelam no quê.

Enfileiram, ao contrário, os “acertos”. E, mesmo aí, apresenta-se uma coleção de falsidades.

a) não foi o PSDB que criou o Plano Real, e sim o governo Itamar Franco.

b) a anistia aconteceu em 1979 e a campanha das Diretas Já em 1984. O PSDB foi criado apenas em 1988.

Se o mea culpa fosse para valer, Aécio Neves entraria falando sobre a Lista de Furnas, a censura em Minas, o golpe que fomentou ao perder a eleição, as malas de dinheiro do Joesley, a amizade com o Gilmar.

Informaria sua mudança para Trinidad e Tobago e sua saída da vida pública em nome da democracia: “Foi mal, pessoal”.

Em resumo, é a propaganda mais sincera que o PSDB já fez em sua história: só contém mentiras.

Kiko Nogueira
No DCM
          Volley, World Gran Prix Donne: tre gare in programma        

Volley, World Gran Prix Donne: tre gare in programma
LaQuotaVincente.it.

Continua il World Grand Prix Donne di Volley. In programma ci sono tre partite.

Portorico-Bulgaria è la prima sfida. Si affrontano due formazioni inserite nel Gruppo 2, con la Bulgaria quinta a 10 punti e il Portorico a quota 5, ma capace di vincere le ultime due partite con il Canada (al tie break) e Repubblica Ceca. La Bulgaria, invece, è tornata alla vittoria dopo le ultime due sconfitte in cinque set. La Bulgaria cerca di rispondere alla Corea del Sud e alla Repubblica Ceca per conquistare il terzo posto, che vale l'accesso al gruppo finale.

Venezuela-Ungheria è la seconda sfida. Si affrontano due formazioni inserite nel Gruppo 3, con la prima che affronta la seconda. Finora, nessuno è riuscito a fermare le magiare, capaci di perdere un solo set contro l'Australia. Il Venezuela, a -1 a causa della sconfitta al tie break con la Francia, seconda, è costretta a vincere se vuole puntare al primo posto, ma la qualificazione al gruppo finale è al sicuro: 7, infatti, sono i punti di vantaggio su Camerun e Messico.

Trinidad e Tobago-Camerun è la terza sfida, l'ultima di questa giornata del World Gran Prix di Volley. Si affrontano, nuovamente nel Gruppo 3, la quarta e la settima in classifica. Il Camerun, vincendo, andrebbe a -4, se la capolista dovesse battere in tre set il Venezuela, riaprendo momentaneamente i giochi per il terzo posto. Il Trinidad e Tobago, penultimo con una sola vittoria (contro l'Australia), cerca invece l'aggancio a quota 6.

Volley, World Gran Prix Donne: tre gare in programma
LaQuotaVincente.it.


          Constituyente tembleque: sin violencia es mejor        
La quema de dos gandolas en la Francisco Fajardo en la protestas por la libertad de expresión, a los 10 años del cierre de RCTV (no se repitió el cuento del "cese de la concesión") empañó la marcha, tituló Runrunes.
A los "valientes" ya no sólo los fotografían desde Reuters, AFP o medios locales digitales, sino también periodistas de medios oficiales y comunicadores populares que muestran una versión desde el lado de los GNB, aunque sus fotos y videos a veces son retuiteadas y recontextualizadas de nuevo. La lógica digital de la 2.0.
Esta violencia le sumó a la narrativa del gobierno, pero la golpiza y heridas propinadas a Capriles y su equipo por perdigones, lacrimógenas y cascos elevaron al gobernador a un nuevo momentum mientras sembró nuevas dudas sobre la nacionalidad y/o decencia de los efectivos. En ambos casos, la violencia le restó al que la aplicó.
Capriles reafirmó por su Periscope lo que ya se había colado en Aporrea en una republicación de CafeyCafe.com, con una presunta transcripción de una reunión de generales que casi al unísono rechazaron la Constituyente: la FAN desaprueban la movida presidencial. Horas antes María Corina Machado había adelantado por su Twitter, al estilo del periodismo dateado, que el canciller cubano le dijo a Delcy en Antigua que era mejor retirar la Constituyente por descontento militar.
Anoche Juan Barreto, exalcalde y del partido Redes, también llamó "espuria" a la Constituyente, como decía antes Capriles, por no tener referendos consultivo y aprobatorio. Lo mismo que pidió la exDefensora del Pueblo, los magistrados y un tercer exmagistrado (2005-2015) que además añadió en entrevista con NotiMinuto que no lo dejaron conocer los expedientes de la demanda de fraude de Capriles en 2013 para decidir aceptarlas o no.
Esta mañana Ravell aseguró que García Carneiro, Rodríguez Chacín, Rafael Ramírez y Rangel Gómez se reunieron en Vargas para sobrevivir a Maduro, o que el chavismo lo haga después de él. Por redes acusan a ANROS (de Germán Ferrer y esposo de la Fiscal) de ser la plataforma de Luisa Ortega para su futuro político.
El derrame petrolero de Trinidad llegó a Aruba después de pasar Bonaire y Curazao. Aunque estos gobiernos también han dejado casi solos a ambientalistas y voluntarios limpiando playas, esto coincide con un escándalo en el parlamento arubeño por el reportaje de Bloomberg en que Ruperti admitió que fue parte de una movida para refinar petróleo sirio en la isla para venderlo en EEUU. Y la refinería tuvo un incendio.
Muchos se indignan y dicen que sin violencia no habrá oportunidad de vencer, de hacerle frente a represión y abusos. Anoche el sociólogo (UCV) Javier Biardeau, que ha recordado el diario de debates de la Constituyente de 1999 sobre la necesidad de referendo para la Constituyente, y cómo Escarrá defendió que no hacía falta más artículos que los 347 y 348 porque era "transversal" en toda la CRBV que siempre mandaba la soberanía popular, así que no hacía falta aclarar procedimientos, citó a Norberto Bobbio sobre el poder y la legitimidad.
El profesor, claramente de izquierda, usó el mismo autor italiano que la Fiscal citó nebulosamente el día del libro para recordar la relación entre poder y legimitidad. Establece que el que ejerza el poder debe ser legítimo (derecho de tenerlo) y legal (hacerlo según reglas). Lo contrario es el poder arbitrario. Y que la legitimidad se puede perder por la desobediencia civil y la rebelión. Así mismo dice que si alguien toma el poder por la fuerza, no es legítimo ni legal, por tanto enfrentará al pueblo. Esto lo podemos entender en el Carmonazo.
(Insertemos aquí de nuevo el estudio de dos siglos que demuestra que la no-violencia es dos veces más efectiva para cambiar gobiernos, y además que los cambios sean democráticos y permanentes).
El anuncio de una escalada en la protesta reunificó a la oposición. MCM y Julio Coco "volvieron". La primera, más política, respalda crítica de Borges a la viveza financiera y sin escrúpulos de Goldman Sachs (aunque ya Venezuela había recurrido a fondos buitre que actuaron en Argentina como Fintech). Vente borró el tuit sobre el rechazo al referendo. Ya no hacía falta. El dirigente de las "redes disidentes" felicitó que Capriles suspendiera marcha hacia embajadas. Dijo que también conocía del plan de ataque para inculpar a la oposición.
Capriles repitió que quienes hoy marchan hacia el MIJ con los estudiantes pueden hacerlo directo y sin tener la pinta obvia. Eso funcionó ayer para llegar a la Av FFAA, en La Candelaria. No tragaron lacrimógena ni recibieron perdigonazos, pero paramilitares los rodearon, golpearon y robaron, para luego entregarlos a la GNB. Se gana algo, pero no se reduce completamente el costo de la represión. Estudiantes dicen que harán protestas improvisadas y sorpresa: una aquí, allá, como flashmobs, para reducir posibles bajas y arrestos.
Freddy Guevara y Pizarro mandaron a estar preparados, que lo que viene es protestas de mayor duración mientras se reúnen con sectores no partidistas para una convocatoria más amplia. No se puede decir "dictadura" en televisión aunque sea obvia. Así que no hace falta decir lo obvio, pero parenle, parenle mucha atención.

                  
Introducción.
Hay una gran cantidad de personas que no se confiesan y aluden los más variados motivos, entre los cuales tenemos:

· Que yo no tengo pecados porque no he robado ni he matado
· Que no me sale del corazón
· Que yo me confieso directamente con Dios
· Que los curas también son pecadores
· Que eso no aparece en la Biblia
· Que ha habido curas inmorales y por lo tanto no dan el ejemplo
· Que la Iglesia está en contra de mis creencias políticas
· Que la confesión es un invento del Vaticano
· Que eso no te va a salvar
· y algunos aducen que en el pasado la Iglesia actuó con terror en la época de la Inquisición.

¿Cuál de estas es la tuya?

Te explico por qué ninguna de esas excusas es válida, y de paso definimos lo que es la Confesión.

La Confesión es uno de los siete Sacramentos instituidos por Cristo y que todo cristiano debe cumplir. Consiste en que Dios por medio del Sacerdote perdona nuestros pecados si nos confesamos arrepentidos y hacemos el propósito de enmendarnos. Es también llamado Reconciliación porque de esta manera nos reconciliamos con Dios.

Fíjate que no es el Sacerdote el que perdona los pecados, es Dios quien lo hace pero a través del Sacerdote.

Ahora bien, si nos llamamos cristianos es porque seguimos a Cristo y toda su enseñanza. No es que unas enseñanzas las sigo y otras no. Tampoco es que unas me gusten y las sigo y las que no me gusten no las hago.

Tampoco es aceptable ser un cristiano light. Se debe seguir a Cristo en todo.

Los mandamientos no son consejos, son mandatos, de ahí viene su nombre y hay que cumplirlos así no nos gusten. Y lo mismo pasa con los Sacramentos, debemos seguirlos porque proceden de Cristo quien los instituyó.

Déjate de Excusas.
Mira, se han escuchado de casos de curas con feos delitos sexuales contra menores de edad, los cuales deben ser castigados y el mismo Jesús se los advirtió: “habrán escándalos pero ¡ay! de aquellos que los cometan, mas le valdrían que le ataran una gran piedra de amolar en el cuello y lo lanzaran al mar antes que meterse con uno de estos pequeños inocentes”.

Y también dijo: “Al que mucho se le concede, mucho se le exigirá”. Por lo tanto En el otro mundo un castigo para un Sacerdote será muchísimo más feroz que a otra persona a quien no se le haya confiado tanto.

Dios se encargará de eso. Pero los sacerdotes que esta maldad hacen son una minoría. Por eso no puedes agarrarte de esa excusa para no confesarte.

La Iglesia ha cometido errores en el pasado y ha pedido perdón por esos pecados. Hace unos años pidió perdón por lo ocurrido con Galileo y por 300 Casos más.

De todos modos cuando te presentes ante Dios para ser juzgado no te valdrá de excusa la conducta incorrecta de los demás. Se te preguntará si cumpliste los mandamientos, no si los demás los cumplieron.

Por lo tanto ninguna excusa es buena para no confesarse porque la Confesión fue instituida por Nuestro Señor Jesucristo.

Es menos concebible que sea un católico el que no quiera confesarse. Es de recordar que el católico tiene un credo, que es llamado credo de los apóstoles. En él se dice, entre otras cosas: “creo en el perdón de los pecados”; y ese perdón viene a través de una confesión con un Sacerdote como lo enseña la Iglesia.

Tu análisis contra la inteligencia de los Sabios:
Algunos no desean pararle a la Iglesia porque dudan que ella haya hecho una buena interpretación, pero es que no se puede interpretar la Biblia como uno quiere sino como la Iglesia Católica lo enseña.



Y la razón es sencilla de entender: hay pasajes bíblicos que no son sencillos, otros hay que interpretarlos según el contexto, hay otros que a primera lectura son completamente incomprensibles. Por ejemplo el Apocalipsis. ¿Quien puede decir que lee el Apocalipsis por primera vez y lo entiende todo?

Lo que La Iglesia Católica enseña es porque lo ha sometido a una gran revisión de los eruditos, poniéndose antes en gran oración para ser inspirados por el Espíritu Santo. Estos temas son examinados minuciosamente por un grupo de expertos durante muchos años antes de dar sus conclusiones que nuevamente son sometidas a deliberación.

Muchos de estos temas de la Iglesia han sido tratados por los Doctores de la Iglesia.

Ahora fíjate, si caes en el error de hacer un análisis superficial que te lleva a decir: “la confesión que vale es la que se hace directamente con Dios y no con un cura”, entonces debes preguntarte: ¿De dónde sacaste esa conclusión? ¿Se la escuché a alguien o es producto de mis reflexiones? ¿La meditaste cuanto tiempo? ¿Crees que esa conclusión tuya es más razonada que la que han enseñado los grandes Doctores de la Iglesia?

Recordemos que a los Doctores de la Iglesia se les ha llamado así por sus extraordinarios escritos llenos de sabiduría y que han contribuido a la doctrina y al fortalecimiento y comprensión de la Fe. No son títulos que se les conceden por adulación porque son concedidos después que han muerto.

Por ejemplo San Alfonso María de Ligorio es un Doctor de la Iglesia que escribió 99 libros, todos muy bien documentados, razonados, apoyados en la fe. Sus libros son producto de una gran recopilación de información.



Solo para escribir su monumental obra “Las Glorias de María” estuvo escribiendo y recopilando información por catorce años (14), información proveniente de fuentes confiables y creíbles. Escribió tantos libros porque aprovechaba al máximo su tiempo. Su lema era “No perder ni un minuto de mi tiempo”.

Tenemos también a Santo Tomás de Aquino que escribió no solo de religión sino que incursionó en otras ramas del saber con muy grandes aportes, incluso en economía todavía se estudian sus ideas sobre la usura y el lucro cesante.

También tenemos como Doctor de la Iglesia a San Agustín que incluso representantes de otras religiones como Calvino y Lutero han reconocido su gran sabiduría y lo han estudiado.

¿Acaso consideras que sabes más que los grandes doctores de la Iglesia que han estudiado el tema con inteligencia, oración y dedicación por muchos años? Si tu respuesta es afirmativa te pido entonces que trates de ser más humilde. No te pido que seas un descerebrado que no debe indagar sobre las dudas.

No es malo tener dudas. Muchísimos santos tuvieron dudas y todas las fueron aclarando a través de la instrucción, la oración y pidiendo luces a nuestro Señor. San Agustín no entendía la Santísima Trinidad, Santa Teresa no lograba interpretar ciertos pasajes de la Biblia, otros santos se cuestionaban otros temas pero todos se instruyeron metódicamente. No sacaron conclusiones poco meditadas.

Repito: no es malo tener dudas. Pero trata de instruirte sobre la opinión de la Iglesia y no te apresures a sacar conclusiones sin tener una base sólida y bien fundamentada en Cristo. Tampoco trates de tener una religión a tu medida, que se amolde al estilo de vida que tu deseas y que justifique tus errores.



Con todo y esto, los santos doctores de la Iglesia no inventaron la Confesión. Lo que ellos hicieron es ayudar a interpretar temas que generaron dudas. Como ya se dijo la Confesión fue instituida por Jesucristo y aparece en la Biblia.

No es un invento de los curas, aparece en la Biblia:
Aparece en el Evangelio según San Juan (20,22) donde dice Jesucristo: “Recibid el Espíritu Santo, a quienes les perdonen los pecados les quedan perdonados y a quienes se los retengan les quedan retenidos“.

También en el Evangelio según San Mateo (16,19) en la que Cristo hablando con Pedro le dice: “lo que ates en la Tierra quedará atado en los Cielos y lo que desates en la Tierra quedará desatado en los Cielos”.

Lo repite en Mateo 18,18.

Por eso cuando un Sacerdote te absuelve los pecados en nombre de Dios esos pecados son borrados tanto en la Tierra como en el Cielo, igualmente cuando un Sacerdote le retiene los pecados a uno que no hizo una buena confesión o que no da muestras de arrepentimiento, esos pecados no quedan borrados ni en la Tierra ni en el Cielo.

Importancia de la Confesión:
Es importante confesarse porque de esta manera nos ponemos en paz con Dios. Dios quiere nuestro arrepentimiento. Las ventajas de una confesión son una conciencia tranquila. Cuando uno se confiesa siente que se ha quitado un gran peso de encima.

Solo habiéndose confesado es que puede recibirse el Cuerpo de Cristo en la Eucarística. No se debe recibir la hostia estando en pecado porque sería tragarse su propia condena. Y así lo enseña la Iglesia.

Es conveniente que hagas una buena confesión porque es un Sacramento. Si a conciencia se realiza mal un Sacramento se está cometiendo un pecado gravísimo llamado Sacrilegio.

Algo muy importante de la Confesión es que una persona en estado de gracia (osea sin pecado grave) le es más fácil vencer las tentaciones.

Para confesarse bien:
Los pasos para confesarse bien son los siguientes:
1- Examen de Conciencia
2- Dolor de los Pecados
3- Propósito de la enmienda
4- Decir los pecados al Confesor
5- Penitencia

En el Examen de Conciencia se debe llamar al Espíritu Santo para que nos ayude a recordar todos los pecados que hemos cometido desde la última confesión.

El Dolor de los Pecados es arrepentirse de haber ofendido al buen Dios, el no haber sido fiel a sus mandamientos, a haberle desobedecido.

El propósito de la enmienda es el que hacemos la intensión de no cometer más pecados y por lo tanto debemos tomar medidas para no recaer. La prudencia es un arma muy buena aquí. No se debe acercar a la tentación.

A la tentación se le vence huyendo de ella. Es la única guerra donde triunfan los cobardes porque huyendo es como se le vence. Como lo dice un gran Santo: “enfrentarse a una tentación y salir airoso es mayor milagro que revivir un muerto”

Confesarse o decir los pecados al confesor es llegarse hasta donde esté un Sacerdote y pedirle que le confiese. El no revelará nunca lo que escucha aún cuando se lo pidiera el Papa en persona. Ninguna ley tampoco puede obligarle a eso. La única manera de que un Sacerdote revele un secreto es con autorización de la misma persona que se confiesa y eso ocurre solo en casos muy especiales.

La Penitencia es una pequeña obra que manda hacer el Sacerdote. Es a discreción del confesor. A veces manda una pequeña oración.

Da vergüenza Confesarse:
A la mayoría le pasa que le da vergüenza confesar sus pecados y esto es normal, pero el no confesarse es tal vez el peor de los errores que una persona puede cometer. Piensen que si no se confiesan no quedan perdonados los pecados y ya saben ustedes cual es la pena por eso. No hay nada peor que caer en el infierno.

La vergüenza que da confesarse es algo por lo que hay que pasar y créanme que el Sacerdote está acostumbrado a oír cualquier cantidad de barbaridades y no se va a asombrar de nada que le digamos. A parte de que su función no es juzgarnos, el tiene el deber es de confesarnos y puede que nos de algunos consejos y orientaciones pero no va a juzgarnos.

El Secreto de Confesión:
Aquí les narro varios ejemplos acerca del secreto de confesión tomados de casos reales:


1) Una vez un sacerdote que confesó a un guerrillero fue solicitado por las autoridades para que contara lo que le había confesado aquel guerrillero. El sacerdote explica que eso no puede hacerlo y las autoridades recurren a la tortura y el sacerdote no suelta ni una sola palabra.

En eso las autoridades que realizaban su interrogatorio en una oficina le advirtieron al Padre: “Ahora si nos vas a decir todo porque te vamos a inyectar el suero de la verdad”. En lo que los interrogadores salieron de la oficina a buscar la inyectadora, el Sacerdote registró en todo el lugar hasta que encontró una hojilla y con la misma se cortó la lengua para no tener que faltar al secreto de confesión.

2) Otro caso fue el de un Sacerdote de un pueblo donde habitaba una señora que se había enamorado perdidamente de él y quería incitarlo a tener relaciones sexuales con ella. Como el Padre no accediera ella ideó un plan funesto.

Un día pidió al Sacerdote que la confesara y cuando comenzó la confesión ella le dijo que deseaba acostarse con el Padre y que si no accedía inventaría que el Padre la iba a violar y el Sacerdote no podría el defenderse porque se lo estaba diciendo en plena confesión.

Aún así el padre no accedió y la mujer quitándose la blusa empezó a gritar y cuando llegó la familia decidieron llamar a la policía a quienes el Padre solo dijo que no la estaba violando pero no pudo explicar que ese era el plan de la Señora porque lo había escuchado en una confesión.

Cuando el Obispo pidió ver al Sacerdote le preguntó los detalles sin saber que todo esto había ocurrido en una confesión. El sacerdote no pudo revelar nada y fue castigado enviándolo a un país lejano de África.

Transcurrieron muchísimos años y la mujer ya anciana en su trance de muerte se confesó y contó la maldad que había hecho con aquel Sacerdote y autorizó que se divulgara esa confesión.

El Obispo que había enviado al Sacerdote al África ya había muerto. El nuevo Obispo mandó a buscar al sacerdote al África y cuando lo encontraron ya muy envejecido lo trajeron de regreso y lo presentaron ante el Obispo quien arrodillándose ante el Sacerdote le besó los pies y le dijo: “Tú eres mártir de la Confesión”, y de esa manera quedó reivindicado.

Conclusiones y Exhortación

  • La Confesión es un Sacramento.
  • La Confesión la creó el mismo Jesucristo.
  • Debemos confesarnos con frecuencia. La Iglesia manda confesarse por lo menos una vez al año pero es recomendable hacerlo mucho más a menudo. Una vez al mes está bien. Cuando te sientes enfermo ¿no vas al medico? o ¿No buscas sanarte tomando alguna medicina? Lo mismo pasa cuando nos sentimos mal por el pecado que hemos cometido, debemos buscarle solución inmediata.

  • La Confesión debe hacerse con un Sacerdote, ninguna otra confesión es válida.
  • No debe comulgarse sin haber hecho antes una buena confesión porque cuando comulgamos estamos recibiendo el cuerpo de Cristo y eso no puede hacerse con un corazón impuro. Hay una presencia real de Cristo en la Hostia, no es una simbología.
  • La vergüenza que da confesarse no debe ser la causa de nuestra condenación.

Hermano mío no lo pienses más. Has los 5 pasos para confesarse bien y ve y confiésate. Repara el daño que hayas hecho. Y si vuelves a caer revísate en que fallaste, arrepiéntete y vuelve a confesarte. Llegará un momento que tus caídas se distanciarán.



Hay mucha alegría después de una buena confesión, cuando se camina con la conciencia tranquila se tiene una sensación maravillosa.

Recuerda que Cristo dijo: “Sean Santos como su Padre Celestial es Santo”. Y nadie llega a la Santidad sino cumple los mandamientos, hazlo así hermano mío que el buen Dios te lo premiará.



Chao, Los Quiero Mucho.

          Los cambios en el gobierno        
Y al fin llegó, después de tantos rumores Zapatero ha hecho el cambio de ministros. El cambio de Solbes por Elena Salgado me parece bastante bueno, Solbes estaba más que quemado y Elena Salgado es, en mi opinión, de las pocas que se salvan del gobierno, además la economía necesita de nuevas ideas para salir adelante, esperemos que la nueva ministra las tenga.
La vuelta de Chaves al gobierno, bueno, no la veo mala del todo. Personalmente Chaves no me gusta como político, aunque en Andalucía ha gozado de un apoyo mayoritario, por lo tanto, mal no lo ha tenido que hacer del todo. Además creo que un peso pesado del PSOE es una buena elección para lidiar con las ramas autonómicas y nacionalistas del partido. Esperemos que el gobierno y no las comunidades autónomas vuelva a dirigir el país.
José Blanco para fomento, bueno, era de esperar que a este hombre le dieran algún día un ministerio. Ha sido el arma de Zapatero en contra del PP desde hace años, al fín, Zapatero le ha pagado por sus servicios. Cuando vea cómo lo hace opinaré sobre si la elección es buena o no.
Ángel Gabilondo para educación, no se nada de este hombre, pero por lo menos me parece buena elección poner a un profesor de ministro de educación, esperemos que lo haga bien (por el bien de todos) y solucione el penoso nivel educativo que tenemos en España, que ya no debemos estar en la cola de Europa, sino en la cola del mundo entero.
Trinidad Jiménez en sanidad, pues no se que estudios tendrá o dejará de tener esta mujer, pero dudo que tenga ninguna idea de sanidad, así que la elección me parece desafortunada, aunque cuando daba guerra en Madrid parece que tenía bastante apoyo.
Ángeles Glez. Sinde para cultura. Bueno, aquí ya han empezado a llover críticas por ser una firma defensora de la SGAE y de luchar contra la piratería. En mi opinión una persona que se ha mostrado tan partidaria de la SGAE no debería ser ministra, peeeeeeero, eso es otro tema del que se puede hablar mucho y lo reservo para otro post.
Y ya está, esos son los cambios. En lineas generales no los veo malos. Lo que veo tremendamente negativo es que un año después de las elecciones ya haya que cambiar a 5 ministros, me parece muy poco serio, y creo que si Zapatero ve que ni él ni sus ministros son capaces de luchar contra la crisis, creo que debería ser valiente, reconocerlo y adelantar las elecciones. Pero todos sabemos que ni él ni ningún otro político del color que sea harán eso nunca, con lo cual espero que les vaya muy bien a los nuevos ministros, que eso será una buena señal para todos.
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          Paradise Lost, Paradise Found (St Lucia & Tobago Guide)        
Sunset in Castara - Never gets old
That’s it, another chapter and another four countries. Following the bicycle adventure and Canada/US road trip back to Denver, I left in October and made way to Guadalajara, which turned out to be a killer random trip exploring the cultural capital of Mexico. Met some great people, ate amazing food, drank too much tequila, etc. From there I flew down to POS airport in Trinidad. POS being a very appropriate call sign as Port of Spain airport is certainly not my favorite. 

I booked an apartment via AirBnB in Arima. Turns out this isn’t an area I’d recommend. Without transport you’re fairly limited, with transport you’re still fairly limited as there isn’t much to explore. If you know me, you know I’ve experienced some pretty sketchy situations in some of the many countries I’ve visited, but have to point out that Trinidad (Arima specifically) isn’t the safest place. In fact, I didn’t feel comfortable walking around after dark in certain areas. I know I know, sounds like a typical American unnecessarily worrying, and I hope you know that’s not my style, but there are dangerous pockets in Trinidad. Best to hire a guide, or be shown around with local friends. 

No Man's Land - Tobago
The only redeeming part of Arima was that my AirBnB host happened to be very nice and the auntie of Patrice Roberts, a famous Soca star. Soca is a style of upbeat music that dominates the West Indies. In fact, you’re hard pressed to hear anything else these days, especially leading up to Carnival, which is a party like no other starting with J’Ouvert in late February. You do occasionally hear older, lighter music from the likes of Calypso Rose and steel pan groups. 

Patrice, her aunt, their driver Richard, and I did a fair bit of exploring. We did a boat tour to see thousands of beautiful red herring in the Caroni Bird Sanctuary, which I’d highly recommend. We also ate a ton of food. I can’t count how many rotis I had, but doubles turned out to be my favorite. A little hard to explain, but basically a soft dumpling that serves as a ‘carrier’ for a spicy, slow roasted chickpea stew. Fun fact, fried chicken is very popular in Trinidad and the world’s busiest KFC is in Port of Spain. I’m fairly certain it’s the only business open 24/7 on the whole island. 

Argyle Falls - Tobago
From Trinidad I took the ferry over to Tobago for $6 US. The ride is around two hours, but not the Caribbean ‘out at sea’ experience I’d hoped for. The boat was packed with several hundred people, a lot of them moaning and getting sick in the bathrooms and off the back of the boat. However, once I arrived in Tobago I knew I was in an entirely different place. It’s like the super chill, stoned little brother of Trinidad. 

I’d been asked to build a website and do some general business consulting for a small hotel in Castara. One’s first drive in Tobago is a thrilling experience. The roads are narrow, full of blind corners, people drive too fast, and there are cliffs and landslides around every bend. You get used to it though, and soon enough I found myself behind the wheel ripping around the island like a local. The first drive from the port to Castara was a little intimidating however. 

Giving some sailing instruction in St Lucia
Castara itself is a sleepy little fishing village with approximately 600 residents. It’s about 3/4 of the way up the island on the leeward Caribbean (left/west) side. Most typical tourists (i.e. mandals, fanny packs, birdwatching hats, boozed up, all-inclusive loving, etc) choose to stay in the southern half of the island, Crown Point specifically. This is great because the north has been left relatively untouched and unspoiled. The culture, vibe, and cuisine all remains. 

Honestly I didn’t explore very much the first time in Tobago, but would be back soon to the Emerald Isle of the West Indies to explore and fall in love with its beauty and charm. I’m gonna go in chronological order, so will touch on that a bit later. For now let me hop over to the next country, St Lucia. In early November I chose to fly from Tobago to Trinidad to forego another experience on the vomit comet (aka the ferry). From POS, I hopped a Caribbean Airlines flight to St Lucia where Jen, the girl I was seeing had accepted a contract with the ministry of education. Little did I know it would turn out to be equal parts heaven and hell. 

View of the Pitons - St Lucia
St Lucia does have amazing things to see. The Pitons are beautiful and surreal, and the volcanic mud baths nearby are quite nice. Some of the smaller villages like Gros Islet and Soufrierre have amazing old houses and architecture. Speaking of Gros Islet, do NOT miss the weekly fish fry/lime there (lime = party/jump-up). The history, old military structures, and views from Pigeon Island are also a must see. 

For me the beaches of St Lucia are a major highlight. My favorites are Cotton/Plantation Beach, where Amy Winehouse hung out to pickle her liver in isolation. Donkey Beach is a strenuous hike past Cotton Bay, but totally untouched. Marigot Bay is beautiful and definitely worth a visit, but a little overrun with tourism. Anse Chastanet and Sugar Beach are both stunning, but both connected to very expensive all-inclusive resorts. The good news is because of the 'Queen’s Ring’ nobody can own the actual beach, so they’re all accessible. The resorts make it clear that you are second class, but can’t legally stop you from crashing the beach. However, the best part of St Lucia for me was the sailing.

I met a couple named Ben and Vicky who run a sailing training business (First4Sail), so decided to work with them to finally learn and become properly certified to sail. We ended up becoming good friends, so I was invited to several other events and races on Papagayo, the 40ft ‘one tonner’ race yacht that became my second home in St Lucia. We won our class in the Mango Bowl regatta, participated in the celebratory ARC flotilla conclusion, and I was even able to skipper an overnight to/from Martinique to give my passport a much needed stamp. In the end I now hold IYT (Int’l Yacht Training) Competent Crew, Flotilla Skipper, and Bareboat Captain certifications, can charter my own yacht, and have given sailing lessons of my own in Ben’s absence. If in St Lucia and you want to learn to sail or simply take a day trip, I would highly recommend First4Sail.

View from the top - Pigeon Island, St Lucia
So that’s the good, let’s get to the bad and ugly. In my opinion St Lucia is a country that has completely sold its soul. The disparity between rich and poor is blatant and disgusting. Every morning I would leave Ciceron, the neighborhood I was living. I would pass my neighbor Dermot who lives in a clapboard/tin shack. I’d hop a bus and be in Rodney Bay around 45mins later staring at $20mil mega yachts. There are countless all-inclusive resorts on the island (think $500+/night), three of them being the always-predictable and disgusting Sandals. Businesses are shuttered all over the island because tourists don’t leave their fenced retreats. They’d rather get drunk and cook their skin than get out to see the inner workings and culture of the country. From my experience it seems that a very small percentage profit from the larger resorts that dominate the island. The locals are left the scraps of a country that was once theirs. 

Marigot Bay - St Lucia
Although a new government led by Allen Chastanet has been recently put in place, crime is at an all-time high and the capital city (Castries) is a complete dump. The education system is set up in a way that benefits kids who live in better districts, and set up for failure in poorer districts. Private taxis are always filled with white folk, while inexpensive minibuses are filled with locals. A trip that would cost ~$1.25 US in a minibus costs ~$40 US in a taxi (a price set by the government). This means most locals are forced to ride the buses, which I did every single day for two months. I can report back that they are stuffed with people, hot, sweaty, and frequently unreliable. I was also concerned for Jen and glad I was there with her. In Ciceron and the city she was receiving comments and run-ups multiple times daily. I’ve never seen anything like it. Not in Africa, not in South America, not Stateside, nowhere. Furthermore, there aren’t many inexpensive local food options. There are more KFC, Church’s, and Domino’s Pizza choices unfortunately. There are rumblings of a Sandals being built in Tobago at present. I can only hope they don’t follow the poor example set by St Lucia. 

An example of the disparity in St Lucia
Charles Simonyi's $75mil US yacht pictured
When in St Lucia, I received a message from another hotel owner in Castara named Sharon that wanted a website built and some general IT and business assistance. She and I had become friends the last round, so she agreed to have me back as long as I wanted. The girl and I split in December (I’ll certainly take the blame for that - sorry J) and I was effectively done with St Lucia, so I decided to retreat back to the paradise of Tobago for five weeks to clear my head. I’m just wrapping up my time there (actually writing this from the flight out), and am feeling quite melancholy about leaving. I really grew to love Tobago, made a ton of amazing new friends, and felt like I have a second home. I also learned a ton about line fishing, pulling nets, spearfishing, and cleaning/cooking fresh seafood. In my free time I would sometimes help out at the beach bar and I became somewhat of a mainstay there. My smile returned in Castara chatting up folks, pouring drinks, laughing, and exploring. What I’m gonna miss most is waking up to the sound of the ocean, walking one minute from my balcony, and doing my daily yoga/meditation/work-out sessions on the beach followed by a swim with the lovely fish and rays. 

Taking in the mud baths - St Lucia
This round I was also able to fully explore the entire island. I became quite the tour guide and driver actually, and several tourists asked if I’d show them around. I think the moto racing background helped. I began to see the twisty roads as my own personal race circuit around the island. A sample day trip from Castara had us head north on the main road and stop briefly to enjoy Englishman’s Bay, which is a stunning untouched beach. From there on to Parletuvier and stop at Paradise Point, which is a bar owned by a nice older gentleman named Glasgow. The bar overlooks the bay with an amazing view. At the split in Parletuvier you can head up through the rainforest, which is a beautiful drive and will eventually take you to the windward/Atlantic (east/right) side of the island. Argyle Falls is just outside of Roxborough and is absolutely stunning. When there, be sure to hike up multiple levels to distance yourself from the tourists and enjoy the continuing falls.

After bathing under the falls at Argyle, you can continue to head north. Before leaving Roxborough I’ve found it best to fill up with gas at the station there. It’s always reliable, plus an added bonus, they sell peanut punch (my favorite drink on the island). You’ll wind your way through Speyside where you get a view of Goat Island and Little Tobago. Eventually you’ll make way to Charlottesville, which is another sleepy fishing village on the north tip of the island, and this is where it gets a little tricky. At the end of town there’s a sketchy dirt road (seriously, like Bolivian Death Road sketchy) that leads up to Pirate’s Bay, which is my favorite beach on the entire island. Seriously, a must see. There are no permanent structures, just a few sailboats and an old man that sells fresh lobster, coconuts, and beer. It’s what you would envision the perfect Caribbean day-on-a-beach experience would’ve looked like 25 years ago. 

Jay Star keeled over during the Mango Bowl - St Lucia
From Pirate’s Bay/Charlottesville you can head west and back down the other side of the island on a badly kept, but beautiful winding coastal road. This will eventually lead you past Bloody Bay and back to Parletuvier, where you can choose to see a second waterfall. It’s not quite as impressive as Argyle, but there’s never anyone there and a really nice second level pool for wading, swimming, and relaxing. From there it’s a short drive back to Castara where there is yes you guessed it, another waterfall. Warning, all of these things are very romantic and best shared with someone. I met a lovely Canadian girl named Dina and we experienced this on a day trip together. Dina, thanks for the lovely day. It was by far my favorite in Tobago. 

You can definitely spend another day exploring the much more trodden southern half of the island, but in my opinion the magic of Tobago is up north. Both Crown and Pigeon Points are worth seeing, but a bit too touristy for me. However, if locals aren’t your cup of tea, this is where you’ll find all the tourist eye candy. Also some good kite surfing spots and rentals. Mt Irvine beach is worth a visit as it’s the only surfing spot on the island. I only spent time in the capital Scarborough when I needed to do some shopping. Penny Savers is a chain and the best for this in my opinion. A boat trip is another mandatory way to spend a day in Tobago. It’s usually a day trip and typical stops are Buccoo Reef, No Man’s Land, and Nylon Pool. Note, BEWARE the rum punch! Although, it does seem to be a Tobago ‘right of passage’ to have too much rum punch on a boat tour only to spill out of the boat onto the beach at the end of the day. I won’t comment on whether or not this happened to me. 

Anyway, what an amazing, amazing experience I’ve had over the past five weeks. I can’t thank Sharon and Brenton enough for the hospitality. I’d highly recommend their guesthouse in Castara if you make way. The site I built for them, and info about their hotel can be found at www.BoatviewCastara.com. Also thanks to all the new friends that helped make my experience so wonderful this round. Too many too list, but you know who you are. I’m really looking forward to visiting Castara again sometime again in the future with friends to show them around. My guess is not much will have changed. Doesn’t seem like it has for 50 years. 

From here I’m headed to Panama by way of New York. Interestingly, it was cheaper for me to fly to NY then down to Panama, than direct from Tobago. Doesn’t much matter as I’m really looking forward to connecting with friends in NY I haven’t seen since I left on the bicycle to begin this round of travels in early June. Also, a slice from Prince St and haircut from Freeman’s are both sorely needed. I’ll be in Panama yet again for eight days this round. First exploring a small hotel in Bocas, land and the beginnings of an eco lodge in a small village an hour south of Bocas, then a few days down in Playa Venao to catch up with old friends. 

DJ David & Look-up in Parlatuvier, Tobago
After Panama I’m headed to Cali, Colombia for a month to dig in and investigate a boutique hostel/BnB/work/live project that’s for sale. Also, my good friends Paul and Josh are visiting separately to give me a second opinion and to get in some trouble together. Can’t wait to see them. If none of the business opportunities come to fruition then well, who the hell knows?!?! I do have a flight back to Denver on March 9th, which I intend to take. Will be great to see friends and family there as well. Plus, my boy and I Conrad have been kicking around a Denver based business idea. 

I guess that’s enough for now. About to land and be cold for the first time in four months! Catch everyone on the flip, 

Cheers, 

~ D

Little Bay - Castara, Tobago

View from Boathouse Beach Bar - Castara, Tobago

View from Mt. Dillon, Tobago

Caroni Bird Sanctuary - Trinidad

Caroni Bird Sanctuary - Trinidad

About to hop yet another delayed flight on Caribbean Airlines

View from Marie's Beach Bar - Rodney Bay, St Lucia

Pigeon Island, St Lucia

Looking towards Martinique - St Lucia

View of the Pitons - St Lucia

Trying to stay young at the mud baths - STL

Captain David making way to Martinique

Nice hotel pool overlooking Soufrierre, St Lucia

St Anne's Bay - Martinique

Headed into a squall in St Lucia

St Anne's - Martinique

A boy, a boat, and a beer

Jay Star sailing around Rodney Bay for the ARC Flotilla

Donkey Beach - St Lucia

Donkey Beach - St Lucia

One of the boats that got into a collision during the Mango Bowl

The minibuses weren't all that bad sometimes in STL

Looking down on Parletuvier Bay - Tobago

Typical sunset from Boathouse Beach Bar - Tobago

Untouched land just outside of Castara, Tobago

Yet another sunset from Castara, Tobago

And another...

And another...

Steps leading down to Pirate's Bay, Tobago

Argyle Falls - Tobago

Pigeon Point random view - Tobago

Road leading to Pirate's Bay from Charlottesville, Tobago

Freshly speared lunch courtesy of your bartender - Tobago

NOVENA A LA VIRGEN DE FÁTIMA



Ofrecimiento para todos los días


¡Oh Dios mío! Yo creo, adoro, espero y os amo. Os pido perdón por los que no creen, no adoran, no esperan y no os aman.


¡Oh santísima Trinidad, Padre, Hijo y Espíritu Santo! Yo os adoro profundamente y os ofrezco el preciosísimo cuerpo, sangre, alma y divinidad de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo, presente en todos los tabernáculos del mundo, en reparación de los ultrajes con que El es ofendido; y por los méritos infinitos de su Santísimo Corazón e intercesión del Inmaculado Corazón de María, os pido la conversión de los pecadores.


Oración preparatoria


Oh santísima Virgen María, Reina del Rosario y Madre de misericordia, que te dignaste manifestar en Fátima la ternura de vuestro Inmaculado Corazón trayéndonos mensajes de salvación y de paz. Confiados en vuestra misericordia maternal y agradecidos a las bondades de vuestro amantísimo Corazón, venimos a vuestras plantas para rendiros el tributo de nuestra veneración y amor. Concédenos las gracias que necesitamos para cumplir fielmente vuestro mensaje de amor, y la que os pedimos en esta Novena, si ha de ser para mayor gloria de Dios, honra vuestra y provecho de nuestras almas. Así sea.



Oración final
¡Oh Dios, cuyo Unigénito, con su vida, muerte y resurrección, nos mereció el premio de la salvación eterna! Os suplicamos nos concedas que, meditando los misterios del santísimo rosario de la bienaventurada Virgen María, imitemos los ejemplos que nos enseñan y alcancemos el premio que prometen. Por el mismo Jesucristo nuestro Señor. Amén
Para Cada Día
Virgen de Fátima
Día 1:
¡Oh santísima Virgen María, Madre de los pobres pecadores!, que apareciendo en Fátima, dejaste transparentar en vuestro rostro celestial una leve sombra de tristeza para indicar el dolor que os causan los pecados de los hombres y que con maternal compasión exhortaste a no afligir más a vuestro Hijo con la culpa y a reparar los pecados con la mortificación y la penitencia. Dadnos la gracia de un sincero dolor de los pecados cometidos y la resolución generosa de reparar con obras de penitencia y mortificación todas las ofensas que se infieren a vuestro Divino Hijo y a vuestro Corazón Inmaculado.
Día 2:
¡Oh santísima Virgen María, Madre de la divina gracia, que vestida de nívea blancura te apareciste a unos pastorcitos sencillos e inocentes, enseñándonos así cuánto debemos amar y procurar la inocencia del alma, y que pediste por medio de ellos la enmienda de las costumbres y la santidad de una vida cristiana perfecta. Concédenos misericordiosamente la gracia de saber apreciar la dignidad de nuestra condición de cristianos y de llevar una vida en todo conforme a las promesas bautismales. 
Día 3:
¡Oh santísima Virgen María, vaso insigne de devoción!, que te apareciste en Fátima teniendo pendiente de vuestras manos el santo Rosario, y que insistentemente repetías: «Orad, orad mucho», para alejar por medio de la oración los males que nos amenazan. Concédenos el don y el espíritu de oración, la gracia de ser fieles en el cumplimiento del gran precepto de orar, haciéndolo todos los días, para así poder observar bien los santos mandamientos, vencer las tentaciones y llegar al conocimiento y amor de Jesucristo en esta vida y a la unión feliz con Él en la otra.
Día 4:
¡Oh santísima Virgen María, Reina de la Iglesia!, que exhortaste a los pastorcitos de Fátima a rogar por el Papa, e infundiste en sus almas sencillas una gran veneración y amor hacia él, como Vicario de vuestro Hijo y su representante en la tierra. Infunde también a nosotros el espíritu de veneración y docilidad hacia la autoridad del Romano Pontífice, de adhesión inquebrantable a sus enseñanzas, y en él y con él un gran amor y respeto a todos los ministros de la santa Iglesia, por medio de los cuales participamos la vida de la gracia en los sacramentos.
Día 5:
¡Oh santísima Virgen María, salud de los enfermos y consoladora de los afligidos!, que movida por el ruego de los pastorcitos, obraste ya curaciones en vuestras apariciones en Fátima, y habéis convertido este lugar, santificado por vuestra presencia, en oficina de vuestras misericordias maternales en favor de todos los afligidos. A vuestro Corazón maternal acudimos llenos de filial confianza, mostrando las enfermedades de nuestras almas y las aflicciones y dolencias todas de nuestra vida. Echad sobre ellas una mirada de compasión y remediadlas con la ternura de vuestras manos, para que así podamos serviros y amaros con todo nuestro corazón y con todo nuestro ser.
Día 6:
¡Oh santísima Virgen María, refugio de los pecadores!, que enseñaste a los pastorcitos de Fátima a rogar incesantemente al Señor para que esos desgraciados no caigan en las penas eternas del infierno, y que manifestaste a uno de los tres que los pecados de la carne son los que más almas arrastran a aquellas terribles llamas. Infundid en nuestras almas un gran horror al pecado y el temor santo de la justicia divina, y al mismo tiempo despertad en ellas la compasión por la suerte de los pobres pecadores y un santo celo para trabajar con nuestras oraciones, ejemplos y palabras por su conversión.
Día 7:
¡Oh santísima Virgen María, Reina del purgatorio!, que enseñaste a los pastorcitos de Fátima a rogar a Dios por las almas del purgatorio, especialmente por las más abandonadas. Encomendamos a la inagotable ternura de vuestro maternal Corazón todas las almas que padecen en aquel lugar de purificación, en particular las de todos nuestros allegados y familiares y las más abandonadas y necesitadas; alíviales sus penas y llévalas pronto a la región de la luz y de la paz, para cantar allí perpetuamente vuestras misericordias.
Día 8:
¡Oh santísima Virgen María!, que en vuestra última aparición te diste a conocer como la Reina del Santísimo Rosario, y en todas ellas recomendaste el rezo de esta devoción como el remedio más seguro y eficaz para todos los males y calamidades que nos afligen, tanto del alma como del cuerpo, así públicas como privadas. Infundid en nuestras almas una profunda estima de los misterios de nuestra Redención que se conmemoran en el rezo del Rosario, para así vivir siempre de sus frutos. Concédenos la gracia de ser siempre fieles a la práctica de rezarlo diariamente para honraros a Vos, acompañando vuestros gozos, dolores y glorias, y así merecer vuestra maternal protección y asistencia en todos los momentos de la vida, pero especialmente en la hora de la muerte.
Día 9
¡Oh santísima Virgen María, Madre nuestra dulcísima!, que escogiste a los pastorcitos de Fátima para mostrar al mundo las ternuras de vuestro Corazón misericordioso, y les propusiste la devoción al mismo como el medio con el cual Dios quiere dar la paz al mundo, como el camino para llevar las almas a Dios, y como una prenda suprema de salvación. Haced, ¡oh Corazón de la más tierna de las madres!, que sepamos comprender vuestro mensaje de amor y de misericordia, que lo abracemos con filial adhesión y que lo practiquemos siempre con fervor; y así sea vuestro Corazón nuestro refugio, nuestro consuelo y el camino que nos conduzca al amor y a la unión con vuestro Hijo Jesús.

          Novena a Santa Joaquina de Vedruna        
Novena a Santa Joaquina
Entre otros pedidos, se le reza para tener la bendición de un hijo.


Se reza la oración para todos los días, el día correspondiente que se puede o no leer el pasaje bíblico, y la oración final.
Santa Joaquina de
 Vedruna

Oración para todos los días, antes de comenzar:
“Bendita sea la Santísima Trinidad que tiene misericordia con nosotros por medio de Santa Joaquina…
…Dios es Padre y conoce nuestros corazones, acudamos a Él con sinceridad y buena intención, y en todo nos consolará…
…Tengamos tranquilidad y confianza que el Señor nos dará remedio en nuestras necesidades…”
Amén.

Oración al finalizar el rezo de cada día de la novena:
Señor, Tú que has hecho surgir en la Iglesia, a Santa Joaquina de Vedruna, para la educación cristiana de la juventud y alivio de los enfermos, haz que nosotros/as sepamos imitar sus ejemplo, y dediquemos nuestra vida a servirte con amor en nuestros hermanos. Por Jesucristo, Nuestro Señor. Amén
Recemos: un Padrenuestro, un Ave María y tres Glorias.


Primer día: Pidamos que nos ayude a descubrir y aceptar su voluntad.
Lectura Bíblica: (Lc. 1, 26-38)

Joaquina nos dice: â€œUnamos nuestros corazones, elevemos nuestros 
espíritus entreguemos nuestras voluntades a la Santísima Trinidad…”
 â€œâ€¦Pongamos nuestro espíritu en Dios y emprenderemos lo que Él quiera…”
Por Jesucristo Nuestro Señor. Amén.
(hacer la petición)



Segundo día: Pidamos tener confianza en Dios.
Lectura Bíblica: (Mt. 6, 24-34)

 Joaquina nos dice:
“…Yo estoy dispuesta a hacer todo lo que sea del agrado del 
Señor y creo que Él me da buena salud para servirle en lo que sea su voluntad.
 No dudemos, el Señor bendecirá todo… 
tengamos mucha confianza, todo saldrá bien, aun mejor de lo que se puede pensar;
 en la medida que queramos hacer el bien, el Señor derramará sobre nosotros
 su gracia para que todo vaya bien…”
“¡Ánimo y confianza!, con Dios todo se puede.”
(hacer la petición)


Tercer día: Pidamos la sanación del cuerpo y del alma
Lectura Bíblica: (Mt. 26, 26-28)

Joaquina nos dice:
“…Todo lo que sufrimos es nada comparado con lo que padeció Jesús por nosotros...
en el camino de la cruz quien la lleva es Jesús, ¡vamos adelante! …
estoy segura que Él derramará sobre nuestros corazones las gracias y bendiciones que necesitamos…” Por Jesucristo Nuestro Señor. Amén  (hacer la petición)

Cuarto día: Pidamos, nos conceda la humildad.
Lectura Bíblica: (Mc.9, 33-37)

Joaquina nos dice:
“…La humildad ha de nacer del corazón...pensemos que los dones de Dios 
no son para creernos mejores, sino para servir a Cristo con actitud humilde
 y para no apegarnos a nada, sino al amor de Dios...” 
“No den demasiada importancia a las cosas, es decir, no tengan mucha 
satisfacción en las alabanzas, ni penas en las contrariedades.
 Recíbanlo todo de la mano de Dios con igualdad de ánimo y así vivirán en paz…”
(hacer la petición)


Quinto día: ¡Pidamos el don de ser agradecidos.
Lectura Bíblica: (Lc. 17, 11-19).

Joaquina nos dice:
“…Ocupemos nuestras potencias en ser agradecidos, que el Buen Jesús
 nos ha hecho muchos favores particulares, que ahora no comprendemos… 
Dios es tan bueno que da el ciento por una… 
¡Cuán agradecidas hemos de ser con aquel Señor que tanto
 nos ama!...” (hacer la petición)

Sexto día: Pidamos el don de la oración
Lectura Bíblica: (Mt. 6,6).

Joaquina nos dice:
“…Haz cada día un rato de oración porque en ese tiempo el Señor
 nos da sus dones, nos habla al corazón lo que quiere que hagamos, 
nos renueva y nos conforta para vivir en fidelidad…”
(hacer la petición)


Séptimo día: Pidamos fortaleza en las penas y contrariedades.
Lectura Bíblica: (Ecles. 3, 1-8)
Joaquina nos dice:
“Tengamos paciencia, que el Padre de Misericordia todo la hace bien;
 confiemos en su bondad.
Pon tu espíritu en Dios y emprenderemos lo que Él quiera.”  (hacer la petición)


Octavo día: Pidamos la perseverancia en el estilo de vida elegido.
Lectura Bíblica: (Salmo 22)

Joaquina nos dice:
“…Eres padre de familia, y pesan sobre ti serias obligaciones... 
pido al Señor te ilumine para que entiendas y cumplas como Dios manda…
que los sentimientos buenos que me ha dado a mí te los comunique a ti, 
para que consciente de tu misión de padre y con los sentimientos de un buen esposo,
 se los trasmitas a tu mujer y los dos  no teniendo más que un solo deseo,
 vivan guiados por un Señor tan bueno: Jesús.”
“…Sí, amadas hijas, procuremos desechar de nuestros corazones todo 
cuanto pueda impedir el puro amor de nuestro enamorado Jesús. 
Él nos llama sin cesar, y nosotras ¿nos haremos las sordas?... 
Procuremos tener los corazones muy bien dispuestos; 
que nuestra voluntad sea toda de Jesús, todas nuestras potencias 
y sentidos sean para el Señor…”  (hacer la petición)


Noveno día, elegir una de las dos oraciones, o las dos

Noveno día: Pidamos la asistencia en el embarazo o la bendición de un hijo.
Lectura Bíblica: (Lc. 2, 22-28)

Joaquina nos dice:
“…Ofrece a Dios el hijo que llevas en tu vientre; es suyo y siendo suyo, que lo haga santo…”
“…Ejercita el oficio de madre antes de dar a luz…”
“…En quien hemos de confiar, después de haber puesto todos los medios humanos, es en Dios…”
(hacer la petición)


Noveno día: Pidamos nos ayude a crecer en la fe y el amor.
Lectura Bíblica: (Lc. 5, 38-48)
Joaquina nos dice:
“…Hemos de trabajar mucho por nuestros hermanos,
 porque así lo quiere el Señor...
…Pongamos nuestro espíritu en Dios, quien todo lo puede y 
emprenderemos lo que Él quiera. El Espíritu de Jesucristo no quiere sino, 
practicar la Caridad, la Humildad, y vivir en Pobreza. 
Así pues, no temamos, todo nos sobrará…”(hacer la petición)

          Oración y letanías de los Santos        
Oración al Santo de nuestro nombre

Glorioso San.... que por tus virtudes fuiste elevado a la dignidad de cortesano del cielo, y a quien el Señor eligió por mi protector y abogado, ruega a Dios que logre imitarte en el exacto cumplimiento de los deberes de cristiano, para que de este modo no deshonre tu nombre, antes logre la dicha de ser compañero tuyo en la morada celestial. Amén.

Letanías de los Santos

Señor, ten piedad de nosotros,
cristo, ten piedad de nosotros,
Señor, ten piedad de nosotros,
cristo óyenos,
Cristo escúchanos,

                                          Respondemos Ten piedad de nosotros
Dios Padre celestial, ten piedad de nosotros,
Dios, hijo Redentor del mundo,
Dios Espíritu Santo,
Santa Trinidad un sólo Dios,
                                            Respondemos: Ruega por nosotros
Santa María,
Santa Madre de Dios,
Santa Virgen de las vírgenes,
San Miguel,
San Gabriel,
San Rafael,
Todos los Santos Ángeles y Arcángeles,
Todos los santos coros de espíritus bienaventurados,
San Juan bautista,
San José,
Todos los santos Patriarcas y profetas,
San Pedro,
San Pablo,
San Andrés,
San Juan,
Todos los santos Apóstoles y Evangelistas,
Todos los santos Discípulos del Seños,
San Esteban,
San Lorenzo,
San Vicente,
Todos los santos Mártires,
San Silvestre,
San Gregorio,
San Agustín,
Todos los santos Pontífices y confesores,
Todos los santos Doctores,
San Antonio,
San benito,
Santo Domingo,
San Francisco,
Todos los Santos Sacerdotes y Levitas,
Todos los santos Monjes y Ermitaños,
Santa María Magdalena,
Santa Inés,
Santa cecilia,
Santa Águeda,
Santa Anastasia,
Todas las santas Vírgenes y Viudas,

Todos los Santos y Santas de Dios, interceded por nosotros,

Senos propicio, perdónanos Señor.
Senos propicio, escúchanos Señor.

                                             Respondemos, Li branos Señor

De todo mal,
De todo pecado,
De la muerte eterna,
Por el misterio de tu santa encarnación,
Por tu advenimiento,
Por tu natividad,
Por tu bautismo y santo ayuno,
Por tu cruz y pasión,
Por tu muerte y sepultura,
Por tu santa resurrección,
por tu admirable ascensión,
Por la venida del Espíritu Paráclito,
En el día del juicio,

                                              Respondemos: Te rogamos óyenos

Nosotros pecadores,
Que nos perdones,
Que te dignes regir y conservar la Santa Iglesia,
que te dignes conservar en la santa religión a nuestro Padre, el Papa y a todo el clero,
Que te dignes humillar y convertir a los enemigos de tu Santa Iglesia,
Que te dignes conceder a los gobernantes cristianos la verdadera paz y concordia,
Que te dignes fortalecernos y conservarnos en tu Santo servicio,
Que recompenses a todos nuestros bienhechores con los bienes eternos,
Que te dignes darnos y conservarnos los frutos de la tierra,
Que te dignes conceder el descanso eterno a todos los fieles difuntos,
Que te dignes a escucharnos,
Hijo de Dios vivo,

Cordero de Dios que quitas el pecado del mundo, perdónanos Señor.
Cordero de Dios que quitas el pecado del mundo, escúchanos señor.
Cordero de Dios que quitas el pecado del mundo, ten misericordia de nosotros.









          JAN. 20, 2007 MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES MEETING        
MINUTES OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES MEETING
20 January 2007, PBC White Room, Baguio City


Present: Eusebio Tanicala, Santiago Sameon II, Eliseo Tangonan, Edwin Valencia, Pablo Lachica, Rachel Cabuenas & Rebecca Braga
Late: Arnold Zambrano
Absent: 1. Bonifacio Patricio Jr. – Albay mission/benevolence trip
2. Mardonio Bernardo & Rolando Dumawa – attended a burial of member
3. John Quiniones (BoA chair), Ex-Officio Member of BoT, has class.

Food was served by Eusebio & Liza Tanicala, Prayer for the food was expressed by
brother Eliseo Tangonan.

BUSINESS MEETING:

1.Meeting was called to order at 1:30pm.
2.November 25, 2007 minutes read and approved.
3.Follow-up of previous assignments:
a.BOT members reminded of their 2x2 picture for the bulletin board
b.Ex-officio Chair John Quiniones Sr. always absent during meetings.
His text reason is that he has a class every Saturday. Will write brother
Cristino Sacayanan that he will meet the Board of Advisers and select
Chairman to be the ex-officio in the BoT.
c.Collection of BOT PBC Scholarship contributions= Php 4,500 (Cash=Php2,000 + Php2,500= check) by Mrs. Braga.
d.Report on mailing of General Assembly meeting: 2 mails & 1 e-mail out of the 42 letters sent.
e.T-shirts ok from brethren Edwin Valencia & printing from Boni Patricio Jr.;Reading glasses – wait for brother Arnold Zambrano. Ok.
f. Pay Php 300 membership fee to avail of t-shirts & reading glasses.
g.Forum Topics: Ok
h.DOST on Livelihood projects presentation c/o brother Ishmael Gurtiza.
Letter was read to the body. Write brother Gurtiza what specific live-
lihood project his group will present.
4.New Business:
a.Proposal of brother Arnold Zambrano on preacher’s training and raising
of funds – tabled for next meeting.
b.Masteral Program proposed by brother Sameon – create a committee for curriculum development. Recommended members: Bob Buchanan, Eusebio Tanicala, Dr. Santiago Sameon II, Felix Bravo, Dr. John Quiniones, Sr., Butch Boniel, Dr. Teofilo Alcayde & Dr. Sammy Cariaga with possible tie up with Sunrise Christian College.
c. Enrichment of current PBC curriculum – tabled
d. Initial ideas for the October 2007 Alumni & Church Leaders’ Forum – next
meeting.

5.May 1, 2007 activities 8:00-8:30 Devotional – Brother Bob Buchanan
8:30-9:30 Topic #1
930-1030 Topic # 2
10:30-11:00 Break
11:00- 12:00 Topic # 3
Lunch Break
1:30- 3:00 Topic # 4
3:00- 5:00 Fun & Games
6. Sister Perse Trinidad – Wrote to her about the lifetime membership fee.
7. Proposal of brother Pablo Lachica on Alumni & Preachers seminar on Encoding,
E-mail, Internet, Power Point, etc. Approved - February 17, 2007 at PBC library, 8:00-12:00nn
- hands on for those who have computers
- brother Edwin Valencia will ask the permission for the use of the library,etc
- teachers brethren Pablo Lachica & Eliseo Tangonann
- merienda by brother Eusebio Tanicala
8. February 17, 2007 meeting – PBC White Room, 1 PM
9. March 10, 2007 BOT meeting – Santiago Sameon II residence.
10. Demar Elam –

Meeting adjourned at 3:15PM with a prayer led by brother Santiago Sameon II.


Certified correct:

REBECCA BRAGA
Secretary


Noted:


EUSEBIO TANICALA
President
          PBCAA Board of Trustees Resumes Monthly Meeting; Minutes of June 24 Meeting.        

PBCAA Board of Trustees Resumes Monthly Meeting; Minutes of June 24 Meeting.

Because of the many congregational activities like regioncal fellowships, forum, camps, retreats, gospel meetings and gospel campaigns in the months of April and May the board of trustees suspended the monthly meetings for two months. On June 24, in Baguio City, the monthly meeting was resumed. It was hosted by brother Eusebio Tanicala.

MINUTES OF THE JUNE 24, 2006 BOARD OF TRUSTEES MEETING

Present:

  1. Eusebio Tanicala
  2. Bonifacio Patrico, Jr.
  3. Eliseo Tangunan
  4. Rolando Dumawa
  5. Arnold Zambrano
  6. Rachel Cabuenas
  7. Rebecca Braga
  8. Mardonio Bernardo

BOA Member Present: Cristino Sacayanan

Absent:

  1. Edwin Valencia, BT Member
  2. Pablo Lachica, BT Member
  3. John Quiniones, Sr, Ex-Officio Member

Lunch was served/hosted by Eusebio/Liza Tanicala. Prayer for the food was expressed by brother Arnold Zambrano.

Proceedings:

  1. There being a quorum, the meeting was called to order at 1:15PM by brother Eusebio Tanicala.
  2. Minutes of the March 4, 2006 was reviewed. Upon motion of Rachel D. Cabuenas which was seconded by Ely Tangunan, the minutes of the 4 March 2006 Meeting was approved as read by the secretary with the following reminders:
    1. Board of Trustees members are reminded to submit 2”x 2” pictures for the organizational chart;
    2. A thank you card received from Florence Batobato who was financially helped was read and accepted.
    3. Bro. Cris Sacayanan has not been able to talk to brother Pablo Lachica to clarify issues.
  3. Minutes of the March 31, 2006 PBCAA General Assembly Meeting was read. Upon motion of Arnold Zambrano which was seconded by Jun Patricio, the minutes of the 31 March 2006 General Assembly meeting was approved as read by Rachel D. Cabuenas who acted as secretary during the general assembly deliberations with the following updates:
    1. The promised book donation from Salvador Cariaga has been delivered through brother Jun Patricio. PBC administration is encouraged to write a letter of acknowledgement and appreciation. Brother Cris Sacayanan writes the said letter.
    2. In conjunction with donations, brother Cris Sacayanan revealed the plan of some Korean brethren to bring in used computers. Because of customs duties and expenses in converting the programs from Korean to English, the donors should be advised of other possible forms of donations. Brother Cris Sacayanan will relay the ideas brought out in the meeting.
  4. Evaluation of the March 31-April 1, 2006 General Assembly Meeting and Fellowship.
    1. During years the Panagkakadua is held in Baguio, the PBCAA general assembly & fellowship should be held proximate to the former to lessen expenses and time.
    2. End of March is much too early, so consider holding it after the annual National Ladies Retreat about the end of April.
    3. Consider eliminating the registration fee. Those attending will buy own food and stay at PBC or anywhere they choose to.
    4. Consider organizing chapters in Mindanao and the Visayas and the BT will go meet the alumni. It was revealed by Jun Patricio that brother Gabriel Valdez is planning on organizing a fellowship of Mindanao alumni. Because of this plan, the Board of Trustees should write a letter encouraging the plan to realization.
    5. More information dissemination that should include benefits members could derive from attending the fellowship.
    6. Consider handing giveaways like Tshirts, caps, reading glasses, sunglasses, etc
  5. Submission of PBCAA Business Plan. Brother Arnold Zambrano will again present the PBCAA Dream which he presented during the general assembly last April.
    1. Consider integrating in the PBC curriculum the idea and practice that congregations should be involved in employing and working with graduates.
    2. Consider conducting seminars for church leaders to promote congregational involvement in employing and working with graduates.
  6. PBCAA Scholarship Fund campaign for three PBC students:
    1. No response yet from alumni to the appeal letters that were sent to them.
    2. Bro Sacayanan suggested that the PBCAA support 5 students since there are no graduates who are going to the preaching field, but it was revealed that the funds available is good for three students.
    3. The BT will write a letter to the members of the Board of Advisers to also sponsor PBC students under the umbrella of the PBCAA.
    4. Since the PBCAA has not formulated guidelines for the selection of PBCAA scholars, it was agreed that PBCAA scholarship funds will be handed to the PBC administration to be given to those accepted and approved students who may enjoy the privilege of receiving the monthly stipend of two thousand pesos each.
    5. Each PBCAA BT member will contribute five hundred pesos each month during the school calendar months. Contributions should be handed to the treasurer at the last Saturday of each month when the regular meeting is held.
  7. PBCAA sponsored continuing education (Ministerial Educational Enhancement). Because brother Sameon could not locate his file where his plans are placed, discussion on this matter is tabled for next meeting.
  8. PBCAA will again write sister Perse J. Trinidad explaining the Php10,000 death benefit she expects from the association in relation to the payment of a “Lifetime Membership fee” because of a duplicate letter complaint shown to the board. Since there is no formal letter complaint that was received that is directed to the Board of Trustees, writing will be done later.

New Business

  1. Bro Jun Patricio suggested that accreditation for Philippine Bible College be worked out with CHED. Brother Sameon suggested that we should first know what Baguio Church is planning for the school because it is useless to discuss and make plans since the PBCAA does not own and control the school and the facilities. Brother Cris Sacayanan is asked to check up with the Baguio church about this matter.
  2. It was suggested that brethren Pablo Lachica and John Quiniones be asked to attend the July 29, 2006 meeting so that they could shed light on the complaint of sister Perse J. Trinidad.
  3. Sister Rachel Cabuenas will host the July 29 meeting in Baguio.

Adjournment

Meeting was adjourned at 5:15 pm and prayer was said by brother Eli Tangunan.


Certified correct: (Sgd) REBECCA E. BRAGA
Secretary

Noted: (Sgd) EUSEBIO TANICALA
Presiding Officer


          Imperial Margarine: critique of books by Niall Ferguson        
by Robin Blackburn [from New Left Review 35, September-October 2005]

http://www.newleftreview.net/NLR26908.shtml



The often disappointing results of decolonization have bred a revisionism that forgets why colonialism was discredited in the first place. The British historian Niall Ferguson became an outstanding popularizer of this current with the publication of Empire: How Britain Created the Modern World and Colossus: the Rise and Fall of the American Empire. Written as if to teach us statesmen and citizens how to be good imperialists, they have become bestsellers, and an obligatory reference point in debates on empire. Their author—who in an important earlier work, The Pity of War, had shone a withering spotlight on the patriotic militarism of the Great War—has gone in quick succession from Oxford to New York University, and thence to Harvard.


Ferguson’s attention to economic history is welcome, since it is a sub-branch of the discipline ignored only at great intellectual cost. He is more cautiously to be commended for calling empire by its name. He believes that Britain invented capitalism and, with it, what he sees as the most valuable ideas and institutions of the modern world—the English language, private property, the rule of law, parliamentary structures, individual freedom and Protestant Christianity. Admirers would see inclusion of Protestantism as an example of impish fun, tweaking the tail of the politically correct, but we can be sure that Ferguson is quite serious. The complacent British self-regard of Empire easily segues into endorsement for American national messianism in Colossus, with the Anglo-American imperial formula—which he dubs ‘Anglobalization’—offering the colonized the best hope of capitalist success. As a historian of the English-speaking peoples Ferguson seeks to rescue Winston Churchill’s account from its contemporary entombment in countless forbidding leather-bound volumes. He offers a pacier narrative, garnished with good quotes from the great man; but the neo-conservative gloss he adds to the Churchillian vision would surely have inspired reservations in someone who, after all, helped to found Britain’s welfare state. By contrast, Ferguson sternly insists in Colossus that if the us is to make a success of empire it will have to cut social programmes to the bone.


Ferguson’s claim about the decisive contribution which empire makes to development is meant to hold for the future as well as the past. But the evidence he relies on is very selective: the only empires he really has time for are those of Britain and the United States. His failure to introduce any proper comparative dimension is in striking contrast to the serious attention he gives to all the major belligerents in The Pity of War. While he exhibited a command of a wide range of German and Austrian sources in that book, the bibliographies of Colossus and Empire do not include a single work not in English. The overall decline in the quality of Ferguson’s work between Pity and these two later books is a performative rebuttal of his faith in the magic of the market, since they were hastily produced in response to demand.


While good yarns make Empire readable, Ferguson misses, or misconstrues, crucial aspects of imperial logistics and political economy. It is quite a feat to write the history of the British empire and omit any real discussion of the Royal Navy during the critical period 1650–1815. This is Henry v without the battle of Agincourt. Only a quite modern state could have built, manned and supplied a permanent force of over a hundred ships of the line. If Ferguson has consulted the work of N. A. M. Rodgers—an author whose outlook he would find very congenial—he could have given readers a glimpse of what life aboard an 18th-century warship was really like and explained why the British outgunned the French. And if he had consulted Robert Brenner’s Merchants and Revolution and John Brewer’s Sinews of Empire—authors he might find less congenial—he could have achieved a better grasp of the economic foundations. Likewise, Ferguson gives a lively sketch of the us empire in the days of ‘manifest destiny’ and the ‘big stick’ in the early chapters of Colossus, but pays little attention to the huge diplomatic and economic effort that subsequently went into the construction of a global chain of military bases (an aspect well covered by Chalmers Johnson in Sorrows of Empire). The suspicion grows, confirmed by his enthusiasm for Bush’s invasion of Iraq, that Ferguson, like other neo-conservatives, is seduced by the romance and rhetoric of empire, but when it comes to its logistics and economic rationale he is in denial.


The rhetoric and romance are dark-hued. Ferguson allows that Anglo-American empire involved much destruction and atrocity—but with ultimately beneficial results. His case is that dragging the world into modernity was—is—bound to be a very difficult and ugly proceeding. Those on the receiving end of Anglo-American imperialism are lucky since at least British and American imperial tutelage proved more benign than that of other modern empires, such as the Germans, the Japanese, the Soviets, or even the French, Portuguese and Spanish—though little is heard of these. If you could find an Algonquin or native Tasmanian descendant they would probably not agree. Ferguson does not shrink from considering the crimes of colonization—one chapter in Empire is called ‘White Plague’—but he constructs a sort of cosmic balance sheet in which, as with the Bank of England in its heyday, the credits comfortably outweigh the liabilities; the empire’s misdeeds are redeemed by its eventual achievements. Someone had to foster the advance of capitalism and representative institutions, and the international order has to be policed by someone. Surely John Bull and Uncle Sam did—and do—a better job than any likely alternatives?


Ferguson more than once reminds us of the culminating moment, justifying all that had gone before, when the British empire stood alone against Nazi barbarism. His apology for the imperial past is projected into an unending future, as if we were forever frozen in the year 1940, facing the grim alternatives that were then present. (There are, of course, still many Britons—some, like Ferguson, not even born in 1940—who will go to their graves stammering about the ‘finest hour’.) While he rightly draws attention to the imperial nature of Britain’s war effort he fails to register the growing disenchantment with empire of many Britons, especially soldiers—as witness the proceedings of the Cairo ‘armed forces parliament’ in 1944.


The empires of the modern period slighted the humanity of subject peoples, and sacrificed the latter to the insatiable demands of a capitalist accumulation process. In these respects they marked a step down from their supposed model, since Rome did not foster racial hierarchy, did not expose peoples’ livelihoods to market forces and eventually extended citizenship to all. Ferguson sees it differently. He admits that Britain’s ‘first empire’ was marred by pillage and rapine, with a swollen slave trade from Africa, looted cities in the Americas and horrendous famine in Bengal. But the settlement of the North American littoral was a great achievement and a more responsible imperialism, born in the 1780s, was able to purge the empire of its early excesses and to discover more graceful ways of letting go than were in evidence in 1776.


This approach misses the systemic features of imperial exploitation of the colonized and enslaved. Consider Ferguson’s treatment of colonial slavery. He readily acknowledges that the slave trade was an abomination and briefly evokes the ‘sweet tooth’ of the British consumer. But he fails to explain why there were so many more British than, say, Spanish or French, consumers, even though the obvious answer is that his beloved capitalism had made far greater inroads in Britain than on the continent. At one point in Empire he bizarrely says, of a country that had blazed the trail of capitalist agriculture, that it was ‘economically unremarkable’ in 1615.


Ferguson’s favoured theme is empire’s economic success and yet he ignores the enormous contribution made by plantation slavery to British economic growth in the 18th and early 19th century. Empire contains no account of the working day of slaves on Caribbean sugar plantations, nor of how such slaves kept body and soul together, nor of the value of slave produce in imperial and European trade—around a third in 1801–2. Attending to these aspects would have confirmed some of his most cherished theses—but at the expense of others. Thus trade with the plantation zone furnished Britain with a large mass of profits, elements of a new world of exotic consumption (sugar, tobacco, dye stuffs) and the crucial raw material for the Industrial Revolution (cotton), as well as an important market for British manufacturing exports. Other parts of the Atlantic system—the fisheries, the New England provision merchants, the slave traders—all contributed to an Atlantic boom based on slave toil as much as on domestic wage labour. If he wished, Ferguson could have gloried in the fact that this Atlantic traffic in slaves and slave produce was propelled by the momentum of free trade, spilling beyond the borders of an increasingly ineffective mercantile system. The very term laissez faire was coined by a colonial trader. But he overlooks this and instead exaggerates the role of the chartered companies.


Ferguson’s focus on the slave trade and neglect of what fuelled it gives a new twist to the dictum of a great imperial historian, whose work he ignores. Eric Williams, the West Indian nationalist leader, author of Capitalism and Slavery (1944) and long-time prime minister of Trinidad, once observed that British historians often wrote as if their country had only undertaken the largest branch of the Atlantic slave trade of any colonial power ‘in order to have the satisfaction of suppressing it’. Ferguson is light on sanctimony—unabashed relish in imperial might is more his style. But he offers consolation too: ‘what is very striking about the history of the Empire is that whenever the British were behaving despotically, there was almost always a liberal critique of that behaviour from within British society.’ His method here is uncannily reminiscent of what Roland Barthes, in Mythologies, called ‘Operation Margarine’:

take the established value which you wish to restore or develop and first lavishly display its pettiness, the injustice which it produces . . . then . . . save it in spite of itself, or rather by the heavy curse of its blemishes . . . the Established Order is no longer anything but a Manichean compound and therefore inevitable, one which wins on both counts, and is therefore beneficial.


Barthes’s term is an hommage to a French fifties tv ad which first concedes that the oily yellow spread is an unappealing substitute, but then insists that those brave enough to try it will be pleasantly surprised. The analogy strikes a chord here both because British consumers bought margarine from Unilever, a quintessentially colonial company, and because colonialism was, at best, an inferior substitute for modernization.


Ferguson’s abstracted account of the slave trade is followed by a salute for evangelical abolitionism, nicely evoked in the life of John Newton, and for the spirit of the Clapham Sect. We never learn how or why the abolitionists eventually prevailed, nor does he describe the contribution of the anti-Establishment brands of Non-Conformity, whose role in the 1830s was more important than that of the Clapham Sect. Ferguson is happier recounting the brutal deeds of pirates and slave traders than he is with taking the measure of an accumulation process that sponsored a gigantic—and in some ways very modern—system of forced labour, with meticulous record-keeping and close invigilation. Ferguson’s own moral book-keeping is suggested by a brief comment on the colonial contract labour of the late 19th century: ‘There is no question that the majority of [indentured labourers] suffered great hardship . . . But once again we cannot pretend that this mobilization of cheap and probably underemployed Asian labour to grow rubber and dig gold had no economic value.’ Or as ‘Operation Margarine’ has it: ‘What does it matter, after all, if Order is a little brutal or a little blind, when it allows us to live cheaply?’


India was the mud-sill of the second British empire just as slavery had been of the first. Modern scholarship endorses nationalist historiography’s bleak verdict on British rule in the sub-continent, which de-industrialized India and fatally weakened its agriculture. The work of Amartya Sen, recently extended and developed by Mike Davis, has now given us some explanation for the recurring famines in British India, with millions dying of hunger in the 1870s, 1890s, 1900s and 1940s. A political order that excluded the huge majority of Indian subjects, and a colonial government blinded by laissez-faire economics and Malthusian beliefs about over-population led to repeated disaster. Ferguson, however, treats the famines of the 19th- and 20th-century Raj as a minor issue, taking place off-stage and quite uncharacteristic of the exalted conduct of the Indian Civil Service. After a sympathetic account of the lordly but lonely status of the imperial official running a province, Ferguson observes in a footnote: ‘It is fashionable to allege that the British authorities did nothing to relieve the drought-induced famines of the period.’ The belittling use of the word ‘fashionable’ apparently excuses him from addressing the argument. Instead he supplies an example of another lone Magistrate of the Second Class, rendering the angst and ‘hearty breakfast’ of the ics man with feeling while leaving unplumbed the reasons for the hopelessly inadequate official response. Ferguson believes that decolonization was hasty and premature nearly everywhere, and likes to point to the often disappointing results of independence as justification for a new imperialism. But in the case of India he fails to confront the fact that independence did end the ravages of mass famine. The empire’s failure simply to keep many millions of its Indian subjects alive is a profound challenge to his central argument.


Without leaving the familiar confines of national historiography, Ferguson would nevertheless like to make large claims for British, and later American, empire. He draws on David Landes’s Wealth and Poverty of Nations to establish the key preconditions of economic advance. Distilling what he has gleaned from Landes, Ferguson identifies a set of crucial institutional ingredients for successful development. The ruling power should secure rights of private property and personal liberty; enforce rights of contract; and provide stable, honest, moderate, efficient and non-greedy government. Colonial rule delivered these conditions and persuaded investors that their money was safe.


If we assemble a list of the most dramatic examples of economic breakthrough and advance it soon becomes clear that the items listed by Ferguson and Landes are optional; indeed, that candidates should be advised, like those taking an old-fashioned exam paper, to attempt only two questions. Britain 1750–1830; the United States 1790–1860; Germany 1870–1923; Japan 1880–1940; Russia 1890–1914 and 1930–50; France 1950–70; Spain 1960–90; the South East Asian ‘tigers’ 1960–90; China 1980–2004. It is regrettable but true that several of these industrializing societies scored highly on corruption and greed, and would have low marks for human rights, democracy and clarity of property rights. But indubitably each of these states was possessed of that real independence which, by definition, colonies do not enjoy. Indeed these transformative episodes bear out Paul Baran’s classic argument in The Political Economy of Growth (1954) that autonomous states would be best able to attain economic progress.


Notwithstanding an empire that covered a quarter of the world’s land surface, the British had little success in spreading the institutional package Ferguson mentions except to colonies of settlement in North America and Australasia. (The survival of parliamentary democracy in India could be counted only in part, since it was, after all, the Indian nationalist movement which pressed for and utilized representative structures in the colonial period.) As Ferguson acknowledges, the economic advance of these regions was based on wholesale dispossession of the natives. Apparently he sees the latter as redeemed in the long run by the economic and political progress that it made possible, rather as fellow travellers believed that Stalin should be condoned because of the Dneprostroi Dam and victories of the Red Army.


The destruction of native peoples by European conquerors provoked the memorable indictments of Las Casas and Montaigne, Voltaire and Chateaubriand. But these are not mentioned by Ferguson—perhaps on the grounds that they were insufficiently Protestant and Anglo-Saxon. Instead he asks rhetorically how the settler–native encounter could have had any other result. And however brutal the history of Anglo-Saxon settler colonialism and ethnic cleansing, he urges that it was not as deliberate and cruel as Nazi and Stalinist imperialism. Formerly, enlightened apologists of empire would lament the disappearance of indigenous peoples. But today’s imperial realists have no time for such mawkishness. Ferguson brusquely insists that the ‘Anglicization of North America and Australasia’ was one of the British empire’s great achievements.


The subtitle of Empire—How Britain Made the Modern World—should have given Ferguson some pause since the sad state of the world does indeed reflect the legacy of Britain’s empire and of other modern imperiums. Many of the most intractable communal divisions were deliberately fostered, if not invented, by the imperial policy of divide and rule; while at a deeper level, the division of the world into rich and poor regions was first established by empire. Any enumeration of the world’s most dangerous and difficult communal conflicts would include the stand-off between Pakistan and India, and the Arab–Israeli clash. The partition of Cyprus and the still unresolved conflict in Northern Ireland, the deep racial tensions in Guyana and Fiji would also figure on such a list. In the post-apartheid era, the racial legacy of empire and colonization is being gradually dismantled in South Africa, but problems remain in many parts of the continent. Ferguson urges that ethnic sentiment and division long preceded colonization. He rightly observes that expatriate colonizers were often the driving force behind injurious racial privileges and distinctions. Yet liberal imperial strategists from Locke to Gladstone went along with colonial racism because that is what empire was based on. Nor does he register the fondness of imperial administrators for cultivating the so-called ‘martial races’ at the expense of other colonial subjects. Whitehall policy-makers did not always like the results their strategies produced and the communal fault lines were not always of their making, but imperial favouritism nevertheless has much to answer for—after all, they were in charge. (Likewise, today’s neo-imperialists bear some responsibility for aggravating communal divisions in the Balkans and Iraq.)


The division of the world into rich and poor regions roughly follows the former boundaries between imperial and colonized areas, even though it has sometimes been partially counteracted or qualified by resistance or by prior institutional or natural endowments. The colonial experience weakened the ability of the colonized to negotiate an advantageous relationship to the emergence of a capitalist world market, and often condemned them to subordination and neglect. In Colossus, Ferguson cites the disappointing performance of most ex-colonies as part of his case for empire, when it would be more logical to conclude that the empires did not, in fact, really equip the colonized with survival skills. The poor record of Britain’s African former colonies leads him to plead that ‘even the best institutions work less well in excessively hot, disease-ridden, or landlocked places’. He concedes that India’s overall annual rate of growth between 1820 and 1950—0.12 per cent—was pitifully low but refuses to hold selfish imperial arrangements responsible because ‘the supposed “drain” of capital from India to Britain turns out to have been comparatively modest: only around 1 per cent of Indian national income between the 1860s and the 1930s, according to one estimate of the export surplus.’ But obviously a country growing at only 0.12 per cent a year would have had many good uses for that 1 per cent lost annually. Ferguson himself points out that Britain’s school-enrolment rate was eight times that of India’s in 1913.


Empires did not invent the uneven development of capitalism but they did much to consolidate it. Having inherited or established a hierarchical structure of advantage, they reinforced it. Plantation slavery, for instance, brought great wealth to some in the Atlantic colonies, but it did not generate sustained and independent growth in the plantation zone, as the post-emancipation experience of the us South, Caribbean and Brazilian North-East testify. The infrastructural improvements made by empires were those needed to facilitate the movement of troops and the export of commodities; other purposes were disregarded, often to catastrophic effect. In a process which Mike Davis has called ‘the origins of the third world’, Western incursions into China from the Opium War onwards weakened the Qing authorities and prevented them from maintaining the country’s vital system of hydraulic defences. With its customs service run by a consortium of foreign powers, China suffered a de-industrialization almost as severe as that of India.


Ferguson’s neoliberal agenda leads him to scant the way that non-Anglo-Saxon empires promoted economic integration and coordination by non-market means. In an off-the-cuff remark in Empire explaining ‘why it was that Britain was able to overhaul her Iberian rivals’, he fails to explain the source of Spanish wealth but says of Britain that ‘she had to settle for colonizing the unpromising wastes of Virginia and New England, rather than the eminently lootable cities of Mexico and Peru’. Both the Spanish and the British certainly looted American silver and gold. But Ferguson does not explain how this rival species of empire worked and seems to regard it as economically less impressive than the record of British settlement. Spanish administrators were, in fact, innovators who mainly relied on wage labour to mine and process the silver ore. In place of simple ‘looting’ they adopted a tribute system, echoing Inca and Aztec arrangements, which required native villages to supply either labour, foodstuffs or textiles to the royal warehouses. The king claimed a fifth of the silver mined. But he garnered much more by offering mining concessions and selling the tribute food and clothing in his warehouses to the wage-earning miners. It was this ingenious system, not looting, which sustained a highly profitable system of exploitation for nearly three centuries. This was just one example of the productive organization promoted by Iberian imperialism and explains why the Mexican and Peruvian elites were so reluctant to break with empire. With Spanish American independence all such coordination ceased, and entry into Britain’s informal ‘empire of free trade’ led to economic stagnation or regression.


Empires could promote a limited and usually self-interested species of colonial development. Often, as today, the imperial impulse stemmed from overweening confidence and missionary zeal as much as from sober calculation of material gain. When empires spread they did so partly because they could, partly because they were operating within a rivalrous multi-state system, and partly because, in metropolitan regions where capitalism was taking hold, consumers wanted colonial products. The Chinese imperial authorities did not bother to colonize Africa, though it would have been perfectly possible for them to do so. Starting with the Portuguese, the European maritime empires entered the lists, firstly because they saw an advantage they did not want to yield to others and secondly because those newly in receipt of rents, fees, profits and wages had a thirst for exotic commodities.


The emphasis which Ferguson puts on the imperial export of a neoliberal institutional package places him squarely in the camp of those who believe that modernization and bourgeois democratic revolution can be introduced from outside. But in Colossus he warns that, as presently configured, the American imperial project suffers from fatal flaws since the us public is not willing to make the sacrifices necessary for it to succeed. On the one hand, very few elite or middle-class Americans are willing to spend many years of their life in far-away places introducing the natives to the secrets of Anglo-Saxon civilization. On the other, and despite mounting deficits, the us voting public is wedded to increasingly expensive entitlement programmes like Social Security and Medicare which simply leave no budgetary room for extensive overseas imperial missions.


Ferguson argues that Ivy League graduates will not flock for duty in distant and inhospitable outposts as graduates of Oxford did in the early 1900s: ‘America’s brightest and best aspire not to govern Mesopotamia but to manage mtv; not to rule the Hejaz but to run a hedge fund.’ Like a number of his sallies this may be amusing, but also misleading. In a new book, Imperial Grunts, his fellow conservative Robert Kaplan shows how the us political economy and commercial culture furnish conditions which offer many openings to Army recruiters. From Kaplan one learns that in the newly occupied lands, the visiting embedded journalist will be greeted with the cry, ‘Welcome to Injun country!’ Kaplan evidently finds the soldier’s life as stimulating as do, he believes, those who signed up because they could not find other work or because it might offer them the chance of a college education later. He writes that those who have not experienced combat have missed something of the ‘American experience’, something ‘exotic, romantic, exciting, bloody and emotionally painful, sometimes all at once’. Indeed Kaplan writes that ‘it was ironic to keep reading stories about unhappy, over-deployed reservists, because those in the Special Operations community whom I had met here and in Eastern Afghanistan were having the time of their lives’. Kaplan is no Kipling, but Ferguson underestimates the culture industry’s ability to maintain a supply of ‘imperial grunts’.


He likewise underestimates the ability of the us education system to act as a magnet for overseas students who, under certain conditions, may well act as servants of American corporations, or ambassadors for liberal institutions or neoliberal economics, when and if they return to their home countries. So the personnel deficit may not, in itself, be decisive. There is the difficulty, however, that overseas graduates and PhDs may be convinced liberals yet fail to see how us imperialism is really promoting the values they have imbibed in its universities and colleges. They could well be swift to detect hollow or cynical uses of the rhetoric of liberation, especially if they remain affected by the national culture of their homeland.


Ferguson believes that the United States today faces a classic ‘guns or butter’ dilemma. If it faces up to its world responsibilities—as he hopes it will—then he believes it must take the axe to its domestic social programmes; ‘guns and margarine’, as it were. If Americans can steel themselves to sacrifice comfort at home they might just be able to live up to their destiny overseas. The ‘entitlement crisis’—the difficulty of honouring the promises embodied in the Social Security and Medicare programmes—is greatly exaggerated by Ferguson and neo-conservative economists like Peter Peterson and Laurence Kotlikoff. On the other hand, liberal and radical analysts often go too far in playing down the likely cost of baby-boomer retirement and medical care in an ageing society. After all, the number of Americans aged over 65 is set to rise from 36 million in 2002 to 70 million in 2031.


Of course, a rich society like the us could absorb all likely ageing costs if it was prepared belatedly to follow the advice tendered by Representative Schuyler Colfax in 1862 and find a way to exact a levy on the presently untaxed mass of large share-holdings. (Colfax advocated a levy on stock-holdings in the same speech as that in which he successfully pleaded for an income tax, the first in us history.) The real problem is not an absence of resources to be mobilized but, as with France’s Ancien Régime in 1788, the ability of wealthy individuals and corporations to protect themselves from effective taxation. As I have suggested elsewhere, the best way of forcing corporations to pay their share to the upkeep of a social infrastructure from which they all benefit would be to adopt the share levy proposed by Rudolf Meidner, the former chief economist of the Swedish trade unions. Requiring corporations to donate shares each year equivalent to a tenth of their profits to collective social funds would be one way to prepare for the financial strains of an ageing society.


Ferguson’s hostility to Social Security chimes in with Bush’s floundering attempt to initiate privatization of the programme, as demanded by so many neo-cons and neoliberals. It is almost as if war and empire are not being undertaken for the stated reasons, but for domestic purposes, because only war fever, and a climate of fear, can render acceptable the sacrifice of working- and middle-class social protection. Thus regime change and aggression abroad sets the scene for social counter-revolution at home. In The Shield of Achilles, Philip Bobbitt, perhaps a more influential writer and thinker than Ferguson, chillingly announces that a defining feature of the new ‘market state’ will be that it will no longer feel bound to protect the welfare of its citizens. There is a further synergy here between domestic and foreign policy. Just as it used to be said that Britain’s empire was ‘a system of out-relief for the aristocracy’—who filled all those governorships—so today the string of overseas bases is workfare for those who cannot find a decent job at home.


Many of the flaws and fantasies of the neo-imperial project stem from the domestic revolution which it seeks to project on the wider world. Thus the government of an advanced country can raise real resources through the privatization of national assets. But in the context of an underdeveloped, even if resource-rich, society, a programme of privatization simply benefits the large foreign companies who have the money to buy state assets. Ferguson exaggerates the gains made by colonized peoples in the imperial epoch. But the colonial states not only built railways and harbours; they also set up marketing boards and stabilization funds for key colonial products. The neo-imperial project wants to make such state initiative impossible.


Ferguson supported the overthrow of Saddam Hussein and the occupation of Iraq because they would help to bring the Middle East under American control—he still argues this as justification for the war in Colossus. In pursuit of this objective the occupation has dismantled much of the Iraqi state, established a lien on its assets, partitioned the country and set the scene for a tangle of bloody conflicts, some nationalist, some anti-imperialist, and some virulently communalist. The occupation has incurred the hostility of huge numbers of Iraqis who loathed Saddam. This became clear on the second anniversary of the overthrow of Saddam on 10 April 2005, when 300,000 Iraqis demonstrated in Baghdad for the withdrawal of the occupying forces. So far as the scourge of terrorism is concerned, the illegitimate us presence has only served to exacerbate the problem. The jihadis led by Al-Zarqawi are neither numerous nor popular but they can only be isolated by a strong, indigenous, broad-based and unimpeachably Iraqi government—not by an uneasy alliance of us lackeys and Iranian stooges. The us invasion has cost 100,000 lives and brought about a rapid deterioration of public services that were already badly damaged by bombing raids and sanctions. Oil output is trickling and vulnerable. Only Kurdistan might offer the us the possibility of secure bases—but then it would have done so without an invasion. A hard-boiled observer such as Ferguson should have to conclude that the game is not worth the candle.
          5 años para capturar en Madrid a Jorge Emilio Pérez de Morales Sante cubano acusado de lavar 238 millones de dólares del Medicare        

5 años para capturar en Madrid a cubano acusado de lavar 238 millones de dólares del Medicare

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El modus operandi era suministrar las ganancias a través de empresas pantalla en Canadá y México, pasando por Trinidad y Tobago y Cuba, donde el régimen comunista mediante sus militares es el dueño de las empresas.
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Redactado por Armando de Armascon información de ABC,
Caféfuerte y ....
Agosto 07, 2017

Jorge Emilio Pérez de Morales Sante, empresario cubano al que reclama la justicia de Estados Unidos, ha sido arrestado en Madrid por la Unidad Central Operativa (UCO) de la Guardia Civil Española, informa el diario ABC.

Morales Sante es acusado de haber blanqueado 238 millones de euros procedentes del Medicare mediante un entramado empresarial. Llevaba 5 años residiendo en España, junto a su familia, indica ABC. Aunque tenía residencia en la isla, según la ficha de Interpol, ubicada en 5ta. Avenida No. 26606, entre 266 y 268, Santa Fe, municipio Playa, La Habana.

Su hermanastro, Eduardo Pérez de Morales, cumple condena de tres años de cárcel en Estados Unidos por el mismo delito, al declararse responsable de participar en el entramado.



La policía española hizo efectiva la orden de arresto el 28 de julio al existir una circular de Interpol para la captura de Jorge Emilio Pérez de Morales Sante, nacido en La Habana el 7 de junio de 1964.

En octubre del 2012 fiscales federales en Miami presentaron cargos contra el cubano fundador de la compañía de envío de dinero Caribbean Transfers, a través de la cual fueron a parar al a los bancos cubanos 30 millones de dólares robados al programa Medicare en el sur de la Florida. Además de la ciudadanía cubana poseía la nacionalidad dominicana.

Según documentos de las autoridades estadounidenses, entre octubre de 2006 y aproximadamente marzo de 2011, Jorge Emilio y su hermanastro Eduardo, de 29 años, junto a Óscar Sánchez, Felipe Ruiz, Kirian Vega y otras personas no identificadas utilizaron la empresa para lavar un total de 238.067.956 dólares (202.198.026 euros, al cambio actual).

El «modus operandi», según el Ministerio Público y el propio juez del caso, consistía en utilizar Caribbean Transfers para inyectar grandes cantidades de dinero a defraudadores del sistema Medicare en Estados Unidos. Estos, a cambio, suministraban las ganancias a través de empresas pantalla en Canadá y México, pasando por Trinidad y Tobago y Cuba, donde el régimen comunista mediante sus militares es el dueño de las empresas.

El papel de Pérez de Morales Sante habría sido el de proveer de dinero limpio (que realmente eran las remesas que los exiliados cubanos de Florida enviaban a sus familiares a la isla caribeña) a esos estafadores del servicio médico en el mencionado estado, además de Michigan, Tennessee y Nueva York.

La manera que tenían de engañar al Medicare era enviando facturas falsas a ese seguro de salud. Después de recibir millones de dólares por ello, firmaban cheques o realizaban transferencias a cuentas bancarias de los mencionados países americanos.

Esas cantidades eran vueltas a enviar a Cuba (donde estaba radicada la empresa del encausado, cosa que sólo es posible con el visto bueno de las autoridades) y, luego, los Pérez de Morales desembolsaban el efectivo a los defraudadores originales.

El FBI estima que docenas de estafadores del Medicare han huido a Cuba donde han encontrado santuario seguro desde hace varios años. Se calcula que unos 150 cubanos acusados de estafa al Medicare están en la isla con el beneplácito de las autoridades.
En la Florida florecen casos de fraude

El Instituto de Estudios Cubanos y Cubano-Americanos de la Universidad de Miami, hizo público en 2011 una evalución hecha por la investigadora Vanessa López sobre el estudio realizada por su proyecto Cuba en Transición, en relación con el multimillonario fraude al Medicare en EE.UU, el cual apunta a la complicidad de las autoridades comunistas con el mismo.

Menciona el caso del ex teniente coronel Vicente Renier Rodríguez Fleitas, que sirvió en las Fuerzas Armadas de Cuba. Rodríguez Fleitas estuvo en Angola y el Congo bajo la bandera cubana, y sin embargo, se encontró viviendo en la Florida, cometiendo fraude al Medicare.

Entre diciembre de 2009 y marzo de 2010, su compañía, Pirifer Farmacia y Descuento, facturó a Medicare $ 1.8 millones en reclamaciones falsas. La defensa de Rodríguez Fleitas alegó que éste no era más que un peón de los demás. Sin embargo, sus relaciones con Cuba han levantado algunas banderas rojas y el FBI continúa investigando el caso.

Parece claro que el Gobierno cubano es parcialmente responsable por el número desproporcionadamente elevado de casos de fraude al Medicare en la región, apunta el estudio de UM. "Su asistencia a este delito grave y costoso que no puede pasarse por alto, y su constante complicidad con los criminales de EE.UU, sólo por su beneficio económico, es ofensivo para los ciudadanos de EE.UU. respetuosos de la ley que en última instancia, deben pagar por los miles de millones de dólares en el fraude que se deriva de la asistencia prestada por el Gobierno de Castro.”.

En el caso de los hermanos Benítez se destaca que llegaron a Estados Unidos en 1995 y se hicieron ciudadanos cinco años después.

Otro estudio publicado en Caféfuerte en el 2014 señala a 27 cubanos cuya pista era seguida por la Interpol a pedido de EEUU, Ecuador, Panamá, República Cubana y la propia Cuba. Muchos de los implicados tenían cuentas pendientes relacionadas con fraude al sistema de salud de EEUU.

(Redactado por Armando de Armas con información de ABC, Caféfuerte y ....



                  


Drawing the line -and I'm not talking arty fun. 


It was a challenging morning with X displaying to the entire congregation that I have no authority over her whatsoever. I took her out of the service twice to give her talking to but it didn't modify her behaviour and she wrestled with me at the altar. It was all rather undignified. I got so angry that I told X she wouldn't be allowed to go to a party later. This was stupid as I was pleased she had been invited. I didn't know whether to follow through with the punishment or not.  It was a mess. 


I tend to shirk taking authority but I also don't want my child to be disrespectful. I find the balance hard.  This is also confused by the fact that X is highly opinionated and disrespectful with me but is so unconfident  at school and in new situations that she rarely speaks and I am constantly told she needs more confidence. Maybe her teachers would feet differently had they seen the way X demanded my communion wafer at the altar and created a riot when I wouldn't give it to her. 

My issue was voiced the other day by her friend K's father who said, in his soft Trinidadian accent: "I want him to understand the boundaries but I don't want to stunt his spirit." However,  screaming at the altar was the boundary for me. I had to draw a line.


I spoke to my mother and sister about my behaviour- and X's. I moaned to my mother that it is harder as a single parent as she feels she has a more equal relationship with me than other children as she gets involved in choosing more with me: what tv we watch, eat, and the like. "Yes, well, lets just say we all got a bit worried when you insisted she have an opinion over which new car you bought and she was only two," said my mother in a soft yet important way that indicated this had been discussed quite a bit. But then my mother has only to whisper and all her children sit up straight, even though we are all now over fifty. 


I talked to my sister. Our conversation was naturally informed by our own upbringing: "I  totally know why you don't want to be authoritarian," she said, "but every time I've held back from taking control with my children it has come back and bitten me in the bottom later."


Hmmm, talking of biting, I had an email from the Ex this week reminding me of Big Biting Incident in which X bit the-soon-to be--Ex in church which led to him acting like a modern-day version of Mr Murdstone and our relationship unravelling as fast as the hem on a Primark dress. But-just for the record- I still feel that once a child has said sorry and clearly means it then that should be The End of the matter. 


While I'd been talking to my mother and sister  X had been having a quiet poo and a little think: "If I'm not allowed to go to the party does that mean I can have the present for myself?" she asked, eye firmly fixed on the main chance. Oh, and by the way, she now wants to be called Tinkerbell- Angelina, which doesn't strike me as a name for a shy retiring wall-flower. 


Did Tinkerbell-Angelina learn any lessons today? Not sure. All I can say is that I tried my absolute best to exert quiet authority and insist on respect and it was exhausting. It is so much easier to be yelled at or just do a bit of pointless yelling. But Tinky-Angie taught me a lesson the other day when she told me that she thought K's father was the best daddy she knew. I asked why. "Because he tells him off when he's naughty." This little fairy seems to be asking for some stronger discipline, it seems to me. Out of the fairy-horses mouth, with bells on. 























Just so I never forget
like the rest of the world she likes to sing Adele in the car. 

          PC Magazine's Swimsuit Edition?        
The verdict is in, and Verizon is the nation's fastest mobile network, according to PC Magazine's latest study.

That is, if we:
  • Rely solely on the results from tests done in 30 cities, and
  • Ignore the 59 million people living in rural America

Verizon "won" about half of the cities, with the rest going to the other three carriers -- AT&T, T-Mobile, and Sprint.

PC Magazine's report reads like a combination of the Sport Illustrated swimsuit edition ("Who's Hot This Year?") and recreation swim league, where everyone gets a ribbon.

To provide contrast, I thought it would be instructive to show what we're seeing in rural California, and profile not only speeds, but also latency, mean opinion score (MOS), and video quality.

Here are three rural locations, chosen randomly from the 1,990 locations we tested last month.

1. Location 1020: Cahuilla Reservation, California

Analysis:
AT&T, Sprint, and Verizon all demonstrated low latency and high speeds. All three had high standard deviations for downstream speeds; only Verizon had low standard of deviation for upstream. All three appear to support HD-quality video for streaming from a west coast server for both smartphone and tablet, however only AT&T and Sprint were able to support HD-quality video for conferencing from an east coast server.

 2. Location 1768: Blythe, California

Analysis:
Mobile performance in Blythe was a mixed bag with both AT&T and Verizon demonstrating fast speeds, and Verizon upstream standard deviation falling below 20% of the mean. AT&T's latency was sub-200 milliseconds for both west and east coast servers. Both providers appear to offer voice-grade quality VoIP with Mean Opinion Scores greater than 4.0, but only Verizon appears to support HD-quality video for the smartphone.

 
3. Location 1011: Trinidad, California

Analysis:
The area north of Trinidad showed no connection for Verizon, and very slow speeds for all providers. AT&T was able to deliver sub-200 millisecond latency for both west and east coast servers; T-Mobile for west only.

 



          12-3-2012. Paraguay. Sureste. Encarnación        


   Antes de nada tengo que decir que me encuentro en un autobus por Uruguay. Y tiene internet el autobus. Es la primera vez que lo veo y estoy escribiendo directo en el blog. Yo creo que esto es como un regalo por todas las veces que escribi viajando de mala manera. No creo que pueda poner muchas fotos pero bueno, Aqui les tienes a los uruguayos con internet en el bus. Que grandes

   Continuo contando un poco este viaje por la costa del Atlantico que esta acabando con mis ultimos dias de aventura. Anteriormente me quede por Iguazu. Alli pare lo justo para ver las cataratas y con la misma volvi a bajar por donde subi pero con la idea de parar para meterne unos dias en Paraguay


Ver mapa más grande

                                         
  300 kms para llegar hasta un pueblo argentino llamado San Ignacio. Aqui hice una parada de unas horas para ver unas ruinas jesuitas.
Las ruinas de San Ignacio de Mini son las ruinas argentinas mejor conservadas. El paisaje en un contraste total del verde de la vegetacion y del rojo de la tierra.

                      

  Esta reduccion fue creada por los jesuitas en el siglo XVII con la idea de evangelizar a los guaranies mediante la cultura. Artesania,  musica,  arquitectura, pintura, ect..
  En el siglo XVIII llego a tener 30000 habitantes pero debido a la expulsion de los jesuitas en 1768 , estas fueron abandonadas y destruidas por los paraguayos

   Un buen lugar para echarse una siesta debajo de un arbol, que es lo que hice yo.













  Tengo que decir que el calor era muy fuerte y no apetecia andar nada. Me largue en el siguiente autobus para intentar pasar la noche en Paraguay . Encarnacion es una ciudad grande  de unos 200.000 habitantes. La frontera la crea un rio gigante, el Parana, y cuando pasas el puente ya estas en Paraguay.



  Mi objetivo era pasar aqui un dia para ir a ver unas ruinas jesuitas que estaban a unos kms de Encarnacion. Al final me quedé dos dias ya que hice amigos y todo se animo un poco.
   Una mañana estuve andando por toda la ciudad












 Al mediodia pare a toma una cerveza en un super y dio la coincidencia que el dueño que era paraguayo hacia medio año que venia de pasar 5 años en Madrid. Egidio se llamaba y David su hijo.
   No se si llegue sobre la una de la tarde y me marche sobre las 7  con 5 cervezas en vez de 1. Charlamos mucho y pase una tarde muy buena.
  Me fui a merendar algo para coger fuerzas por que a la noche ibamos a tomar unas botellas de vino y a cenar. La tienda la tenian abierta hasta la una de la mañana.Se dedicaba a vender bebida y hacer pinchos morunos. Para que os hagais una idea de como estan los precios en Paraguay, vendia los pinchos a 2500 guaranies( 0,40 euros)




Este vecinos se nos junto a la fiesta y estuvo como dos horas sobre la biblia. Se la sabia de memoria








   Una de mis curiosidades al entrar a Paraguay era ver lo que costaba comer y dormir. Yo venia pagando en Argentina 13 euros por habitacion compartida. Aqui pase a pagar lo mismo por una habitacion privada con baño, sin tele y con ventilador.




   El tema de comer. Un dia me comi un asado de costilla con Yuca por 3 euros.





  Al dia siguiente me fui a ver las reducciones jesuitas. La primera a 30 kms de Encarnacion, las ruinas de la Santisima Trinidad de Paraná

Esta es considerada la mayor de todas las ruinas . Fue creada en 1715 y fue la que mas me impresiono. Con los mapas uno se podia imaginar como vivia la gente. Dentro de las ruinas tenian colegio, una plaza, huerta y las viviendas de las familias guaranies. Esta  bastante bien conservada.















  De ahi me fui a las ruinas de Jesus de Tavarangué. Mientras vas avanzando, uno se pude ir fijando en los pueblos que hay por esa zona . Sus casas son curiosas. El rojo teja que siempre esta por todos los lados y la gente sentada debajo de los arboles esperando que baje el calor. Autobuses que son verdaderas reliquias y todo un sin fin de contrastes que le hacen a uno viajar con la mirada.




Las ruinas de Jesus de Tavarangué se crearon en 1685. La iglesia, una de las grandes de la epoca, no pudo ser acabada ya que carlos II expulso a los jesuitas y no les dio tiempo . Aun asi el lugar merece una vistita. Tengo que decir que cuando estaba alli era el unico que estaba visitando el lugar.










   Y asi acaba mi visita a Paraguay. Corta pero me alegro entrar y conocer una pequeña parte. Espero volver a LationAmerica y dedicar mas tiempo a este pais

          Candidatos que sortean entradas para Rihanna        
Juan Soler, candidato del partido en Getafe y el diputado de la Asamblea de Madrid que se mofó del acento de Trinidad Jiménez, está usando anuncios de Facebook para promocionar su página. Pero no son anuncios al uso: guardan un premio. El candidato sortea entradas para el concierto de Rihanna y para el partido de la Liga BBVA entre el Getafe y el Atlético de Madrid. Si los usuarios no vienen a ti, llámales con un filete.
          Las claves del nuevo Gobierno de Zapatero        
¿Por qué nueve cambios y no uno? ¿Qué ha llevado a Zapatero ha abordar una remodelación en profundidad de su Gobierno? ¿Dónde ha quedado su intención, expresada de forma pública, de acometer sólo un cambio? Esas son las cuestiones que planean tras la toma de posesión de Alfredo Pérez-Rubalcaba, Manuel Chaves, Valeriano Gómez, Leire Pajín, Rosa Aguilar, Ramón Jáuregui y Trinidad Jiménez en sus nuevas funciones ministeriales.
          Trini, un nuevo sabor… para la comunicación        
Ha sido en el marco de esta contienda en el que un diseñador ha visto en Trinidad Jiménez el nuevo sabor para Madrid. La similitud entre el nombre por el que es conocida, Trini, y una conocida marca de refrescos, ha llevado al profesional a crear una nueva imagen que coincide con el propio objetivo político de Jiménez y su candidatura: dar un nuevo sabor, un nuevo aire, al PSM y a la Comunidad de Madrid. La anécdota quedaría ahí si no fuera por el gesto que tuvo la ministra al recibir un delantal con esa imagen en un acto este fin de semana. Al igual que Obama, no dudó en agradecer el gesto y posar con él, con una franca sonrisa.
          Trinidad & Tobago: First Peoples Public Holiday announced        
First Peoples Public Holiday announced
...Gov't comes good on promise

Published on May 11, 2017

Chief Ricardo Bharath Hernandez

IN October 2016, Prime Minister Dr Keith Rowley promised the First Peoples of Trinidad and Tobago that they would be given a one-off national holiday in recognition of their contribution to the islands.

On Thursday, Government announced that Friday October 13 had been approved as the public holiday.

The call for a public holiday had been made by Ricardo Hernandez Bharath, representing the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community. He said that the holiday would be in recognition of the history of indigenous peoples.

The disclosure of the public holiday came in a statement from, the Ministry of Community Development, Culture and Arts, which noted that the First Peoples have been calling for greater recognition of their history and customs.

Click on the image below for the full story as it appeared in the print edition:


          New Book: Narratives of Amerindians in Trinidad & Tobago, by Selwyn Cudjoe        
Another new book to have come out this year is Selwyn Cudjoe's Narratives of Amerindians in Trinidad and Tobago; or, Becoming Trinbagonian, published by Calaloux Publications. As I wrote in my commentary/endorsement of this volume: "Thanks to Selwyn Cudjoe's intimate knowledge of the history of Trinidad and Tobago, he provides the reader with a fascinating compendium of key documents on the narration of the Amerindian presence in Trinidad. There is much to be learned here, by both the novice and those with an advanced knowledge of the country. Professor Cudjoe has a keen eye for what is unique, central and foundational, coupled with great skill in bringing to light that which is little known at present. I would not want to begin, or continue, a study of the narrative history of Trinidad's Amerindians without the aid of this wonderful resource. In addition, this work is a testament to the efforts undertaken by Trinidadian scholars in deepening and broadening national self-knowledge, in redefining what Trinidadian means, and in revealing the deep roots of the nation". The book brings together a wide range of materials, from poems to plays, stories, and autobiographical essays that directly relate to the Amerindian presence during the end of the 1800s and the start of the 1900s, as well as providing some critically important colonial historical documents.

          New Book: The Indigenous Peoples of Trinidad & Tobago, by Arie Boomert        

This year has seen the publication of a comprehensive new study by Dutch archaeologist, Arie Boomert, titled The Indigenous Peoples of Trinidad and Tobago: From the First Settlers until Today, published by Sidestone Press, and available for free reading online. The book covers the many changes experienced in the lives of the Amerindian peoples who lived or still inhabit the islands of Trinidad and Tobago, from the earliest occupants, ca. 8000 BC, until at present. Using archaeological, ethnohistorical and linguistic data, it discusses the social, political, economic, and religious development of indigenous society through the ages. The Amerindian struggle with European colonization is chronicled in detail, following centuries of independent existence during pre-Columbian times, as well as the survival of the current people of indigenous ancestry in the twin-island republic. The text has also been endorsed by Ricardo Bharath Hernandez, Chief of the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad: “This book is a welcome addition to the literature we are now seeking to inform our work here at the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community, as it brings to light important aspects of our buried history. Of particular interest is the information on the involvement of the Dutch in the struggles of the First Peoples, and the connection with Hierreyma, our great Nepuyo Chieftain. It is an inspiration to those of us who are currently engaged in efforts to secure the rightful place of the First Peoples of this land – Kairi.”

          Being Amerindian in Trinidad        
My name is Tracy Assing and I’m the only Amerindian in Town [Editor: in Trinidad, "Town" means the capital, Port of Spain].

I only have one brother but I think of myself as coming from a large family in Arima. Because my extended family has always had a huge presence in my life. I live in Cascade now.

My mom’s family lived at the top of the hill and my dad’s at the bottom, along the river bank, lots of aunts and uncles in-between. The Carib Queen, Valentina Medina, was my grandfather’s sister. I spent my early childhood up the hill, down the hill, exploring the river, watching it change with flooding and quarrying and pollution.

All the women in my family were schooled under the Catholic church from the time of the Arima Mission. I went to Catholic school. I understood it as formality and ritual. But I wasn’t “raised Catholic.” The forest is a temple. The waterfall is a place of worship. Nature takes its course. After we die, we go on to feed other life. Life everlasting.

Around the world, indigenous people have been swelling Catholic ranks for centuries. A common conversion tactic was the replacement of the Earth Mother with a Catholic representative: the Virgin Mary, Santa Rosa, etc. So they would, we would, go to church, but still hold on to our belief systems. I had formal religious instruction at the church and at school. I was very good at it.

For us, our Amerindian heritage is a way of life. Relationships with the river and the forest, with animals we raised and hunted were cultivated  very consciously. I didn’t think it particularly unique until I started going to school. First history lessons are inevitably that the island’s first inhabitants were decimated and the indigenous then disappears from the historical record.

I pray all the time. To the sun. The moon. The ocean. The river. The mountains. The land, so things can grow. The plants. I give thanks for everything I encounter, good and bad. I go in the forest. I am distracted by my worries. I stump my toe and fall down. I learn to pay attention to where I am going. I learn patience.

I was diagnosed with hyperactive thyroid at age 13 and docs wanted to put me on lithium and radiation. But I don’t take any of the classically—read “medically”—prescribed treatments. My dad started me on yoga and New Agey/Amerindian potions and crystals, changed my diet and for the most part it has worked. But it is hard for me to relax. I can’t even float. The closest I get to relaxation is having a hand-rolled “bush cigar” in the forest.

Instead of a teddy bear, I had a teddy cat. I share my apartment with a cat called “Cat.” I wanted to honour her wild, natural life and didn’t give her a “human name.” Although the landlady calls her Ninja. We talk often and she likes it when I call her, “Wild Girl” or “Sweet Girl”. (The cat, not the landlady.)

As I grew into being a writer and recognised the power of published work, I felt compelled to write the indigenous back into the story of these islands. My documentary, The Amerindians premiered at the Trinidad and Tobago Film Festival in 2010. It won best short documentary at Toronto’s Caribbean Tales last year and is being used in Caribbean Studies and Indigenous Studies classrooms at several schools in North America.

There were many reasons for indigenous people not to stand up before: being called uncivilised or cannibal. A beer is a Carib, right? And Arawak sells chicken. I think we will find that indigenous blood runs through the veins of a greater section of the population than we have allowed ourselves to imagine.

Being Amerindian is important to me and to my family. It isn’t all that I am but it is the who I am that I will always represent.

The best thing about being the only Amerindian in Town is that no one asks any questions when I disappear into the bush. The worst thing is (dealing with) the people who treat the place like they’re visiting. And they are terrible visitors at that. The other day I found a beer can stuck in the stone underneath a waterfall.

“Trini” is the title conferred to someone born here.

My blood is in the soil of Trinidad and Tobago.

Originally published on August 3, 2015, by the Trinidad Guardian


          The First Peoples Narrative in Trinidad and Tobago        
The First Peoples narrative

Originally published here
By Bridget Brereton
November 5, 2014


In my last few pieces, I’ve been writing about different narratives of T&T’s history—last time I looked at the Chinese-Trinidadian narrative.
 
There’s another old/new narrative of our past which is rightfully gaining much more public recognition these days. This is the Amerindian or First Peoples narrative, which puts the indigenous (aboriginal) inhabitants of the two islands at the centre.

A magazine type supplement was published by the Lloyd Best Institute of the West Indies and printed by the Express last month, in connection with the First Peoples Heritage Week 2014. Its several essays provide an in-depth version of the narrative. The authors include community leaders like Ricardo Bharath Hernandez and Rabina Shar, historians or archaeologists (the late Peter Harris and Angelo Bissessarsingh), and younger activists like Tracy Assing, who made the excellent film The Amerindians in 2010.

The narrative has a political (not party politics) agenda: to write the First Peoples back into the national (and regional) story. For too long, the “extinction narrative” has prevailed in T&T and the Caribbean islands (not in Guyana or Belize). This insists that all the Amerindians were “wiped out”, they “disappeared”, and they are no longer part of the living history of these islands. (As someone who has written about T&T’s history, I am as guilty as anyone).

This “extinction narrative” was linked to an argument about “purity”: No “pure” Amerindian descendants have existed in T&T since the 1800s, and mixed-race people with surnames like Bharath or Assing have no right to claim indigenous identity. We need only to think about the nature of T&T’s present-day population to see how ridiculous this argument is.

It’s the group led by Bharath Hernandez, originally called the Santa Rosa Carib Community and more recently renamed the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community, which has done the most over many years to insist that the story of our indigenous peoples is the foundation of the nation’s (and region’s) existence. And, more than that, to insist there are still thousands of people in T&T today who are descended from those peoples, even if they don’t (yet) know it. There is also a newer organisation, the Elders Council of the Warao Community, which is based in the south and represents the Warao people.

In 2005, Canadian anthropologist Maximilian Forte published an excellent book with a very long, typically academic title: Ruins of Absence, Presence of Caribs: (Post) Colonial Representations of Aboriginality in T&T. This book narrated the history of the islands’ Amerindians during the colonial period, and documented the efforts of the Santa Rosa Carib Community to claim indigenous identity and to seek greater public recognition for the people it spoke for.

Of course this is an academic work, with a limited readership, so the supplement published last month, with its short, simply written essays, is very welcome. Hopefully, it introduced many readers to the First Peoples narrative of the nation’s history, and informed them about the efforts being made to raise public awareness of our indigenous heritage.

Speaking at the launch of First Peoples Heritage Week last month, President Anthony Carmona called it a “statement of resilience” and expressed a “sense of pride in history emanating from them” (the representatives of the First Peoples). Past wrongs can’t be altered, he noted, but we can influence the present and future. (Sunday Express 12 October).

It’s important to understand and support the multi-faceted movement to ensure our First Peoples are re-inserted into the historical narrative of T&T. The statement from the Ministry of National Diversity and Social Integration (co-sponsors of the Heritage Week along with the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community), “The foundation of our society is built on the legacy of our First Peoples”, should be taken seriously.

          Trinidad: First Peoples Heritage Week, 2014        

          Yurumein (Homeland): A Documentary on Caribs in St. Vincent        
(Director) Andrea E. Leland. Yurumein (Homeland). January 2014. 50-minute documentary / DVD format / 4:3 aspect ratio / surround sound.

Resistance, Rupture, and Repair: The Story of the Caribs of St. Vincent in the Caribbean

 

Yurumein by Andrea E. Leland effectively begins twice: first it begins in St. Vincent, and then, as a reflection of the contemporary relocation of the Garifuna, it begins again in Los Angeles, which probably has the largest number of Garifuna people outside of Central America and the Caribbean. The core of the film ostensibly follows the journey of Cadrin Gill, a Los Angeles family doctor, who self-identifies as Carib and who was born in Sandy Bay, St. Vincent, one of the residential areas of the island that contains a sizeable Carib population. Focusing on the reclamation of pride in Carib identity, and the beginnings of a cultural resurgence that happens in part as a transnational process of reconnecting indigenous communities in the Caribbean region (in this case the relinking of Honduran Garifuna and Vincentian Caribs), this film serves as an important document of the contemporary presence of indigeneity in the Caribbean. The film thus helps to fill in the map of indigenous cultural resurgence in the Caribbean, of indigenous communities that did not simply vanish due to European colonization, but that resisted and repaired what they could. In this sense the documentary helps to further challenge centuries of writings, and even modern historiography, whose emphases have been Carib decline and extinction. In addition, as there has been so little produced, whether in film or in writing, about the Caribs/Gairfuna of St. Vincent, apart from the occasional thesis or conference paper offered within regional institutions, this film further serves to fill in the gaps in our knowledge.

Yurumein represents part of a growing series of films on indigenous Caribbean topics, but is unique as one that focuses on St. Vincent. As a contribution to documentaries about the indigenous Caribbean, this film joins Last of the Karaphuna (Philip Thorneycroft Teuscher, 1983, focusing on the Dominica Carib Reserve); Caribbean Eye: Indigenous Survivors (UNESCO/Banyan, 1991, focusing on contemporary indigenous communities in Guyana, Trinidad, Dominica, and St. Vincent); The Garifuna Journey (also by Andrea Leland, 1998, focusing on Belize); The Quest of the Carib Canoe (Eugene Jarecki, 2000, focusing primarily on Dominica’s Caribs, but also bringing special attention to Trinidad and Guyana); Three Kings of Belize (Katia Paradis, 2007, focusing on Belize, including a focus on a Garifuna musician); and The Amerindians (Tracy Assing, 2010, focusing on Trinidad’s Carib Community).

“That paradigm has changed,” Dr. Gills says in the film, a change in paradigm that involves increased recognition of “our history and our heritage.” It is an important point, as he adds that this has happened “only recently.” Indeed, we are now in the third decade of a region-wide indigenous resurgence in the Caribbean, one that arguably began at least on a formal, organizational level in St. Vincent itself in 1987, with a conference on the indigenous peoples of the region that would later result in the formation of the Caribbean Organization of Indigenous Peoples (COIP), whose first president was the Belizean Garifuna anthropologist Dr. Joseph Palacio.[1] (Coincidentally, in my own research context in Arima, Trinidad, 1987 was the first year that Trinidad’s Carib Community received delegates from seven different Guyanese indigenous tribes.[2])

On a local level in St. Vincent, this paradigm change has also occurred. “We were brought up as Englishmen, so we had an English mentality,” Dr. Gill explains, “and consequently there was not much knowledge about my history…. [I]n my days, it was not ‘fashionable’ to be called ‘Carib.’” Echoing what I found in my research in Trinidad, the film presents a series of individuals in Sandy Bay who explain that they did not know of their Carib ancestry until they reached adulthood, while others did know and could not hide it and were thus targeted for discrimination in the wider society as “ignorant,” “backward,” “warlike” and “cannibal” people, leading some to suppress their own identification as Carib. (Unfortunately, this juxtaposition of lack of self-awareness as Carib, while the wider society discriminates against them as Carib, is a paradox left unexplored in the film.) While there is now a positive acknowledgment of their ancestral ties (and explaining why this has happened recently exceeds both the scope of the film and this review), Caribs in this film also reflect on what they say is their own lack of personal knowledge of Carib history and language. While they point to a number of surviving traditions, such as the making of cassava bread (which one woman claims, without much credibility, to have learned to do all on her own), it is clear that the identity is also understood in racial terms, with a not infrequent reference in the film to phenotypical markers, specifically dealing with one’s face and one’s hair. The kind of racialization that historically distinguished the Caribs of northern St. Vincent, especially in the towns of Orange Hill, Oven Land, Sandy Bay, Point, Owia, and Fancy, from the Garifuna or “Black Carib” of the southern town of Greggs (which is never mentioned in this film), is not confronted in this film. Indeed, the seemingly inexplicable adoption of “Garifuna” for all Carib descendants was one of the surprising things I learned from this film, and as a local historian explains, this is “relatively new” (but we are not informed as to why it has happened).

On an international level, the film speaks of examples where Caribs today are still stereotyped as “wild cannibals” in a few yet influential quarters. Here the film showcases Disney’s Pirates of the Caribbean (2003- ) as one of the latest examples of this malignant stereotyping. Those presented in this documentary explicitly comment on their task as one of combating the influence of Hollywood.

What “loss” means, what constitutes “knowledge,” and knowledge of loss, are all difficult questions that the film brushes against on occasion. If the Vincentian Caribs do not know what “was” their culture, how do they know what was “lost”? Rather than risk diving into and drowning in an essentialist exercise of trait-listing, I prefer the formulation of the New Zealand anthropologist Steven Webster, who argues that “Maori culture is not something that has been lost, it is the loss; being ‘a Maori’ is struggling to be a Maori.”[3] There is more to this however, as some knowledge of what it means to be “Carib,” that is actually in line with its original political meaning in the first century of European imperial invasions, is knowledge that persists. As Odette Sutherland, a Vincentian Carib, says in the film: “They were rebellious people. They didn’t want to work as slaves. The Caribs always liked to be independent and work to help themselves and their family,” then adding as she continues working in her yard, “I am proud to say that I am a Carib.” Another person declares: “That is our king … the chief of the Caribs … Joseph Chatoyer. He fight for the Carib country.” Cadrin Gill expands on this theme of resistance in remarking that during colonial rule in the Caribbean, “St. Vincent was the mecca of freedom,” where escaped slaves from nearby territories often sought refuge and were welcomed by the Caribs. This historical knowledge, of the Caribs as the original anti-imperialists of the modern world system, is further attested to in a dramatic fashion, on display for tourists and all visitors, at Fort Charlotte. There a sign states, “built by the British as the chief defence against the indigenous people and their allies,” and all of the cannons are pointing not out to sea, but inland. (It is also possible that the message of anti-imperialism is simultaneously lost by being displaced into talk of centuries past, focusing on the British, as Dr. Gill does not seem conflicted about displaying a portrait of Barack Obama behind his desk.)

One of the unresolved tensions in this film is that of claiming lack of knowledge on the one hand, yet currently producing knowledge of contemporary Caribness that in some senses accords with the original political content of the identification. Colin Sam, Gill’s nephew, repeats the complaint of a lack of cultural knowledge of self. Yet he and his fellow Caribs clearly know a great deal, but it is not formatted, packaged, and labeled in the same way that academics produce cultural history in writing. Hence, rather than a detailed report produced by an archaeologist, in this film we have: “the Caribs were here ever since.” It is simple, perhaps, but it is also an understanding that is necessary for any sense of indigeneity. In addition, among those speaking in the film is Nixon Lewis, a Carib researcher who spends his spare time doing archival research during annual trips to London, and when not there, then being “on the Net all the time.”

Further adding weight to the idea of a paradigm shift are the words of the prime minister of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Ralph Gonsalves, who in speaking of the brutality of British rule declares: “let us not mince words: genocide by the British.” What is significant is the occasion on which these words were spoken: National Hero’s Day—an annual public commemoration of Joseph Chatoyer, a long sought-after national holiday first demanded by the Committee for the Development of the Carib Community (CDCC), an organization not mentioned in this film.[4] Demands for such a commemoration were rejected by the government for numerous years. In one scene of the film, we can barely make out a banner in the background on which these words are painted: “Indigenous People’s Day Rally.” Indigenous People’s Day is another of those events that Sherelene Roberts explained the CDCC had long pursued.

Some shortcomings of this film should also be noted, aside from some of the gaps and silences noted above. We are told that 2 percent of St. Vincent’s 120,000 people are Caribs, but the source for this not indicated, nor is the deeply problematic issue of counting such a contested and suppressed identity considered. Moreover, Roberts reported a figure of 3.1 percent reporting themselves as Carib during the 1991 Population Census.[5] The film might then lead some to believe that there has been a decline since then. The film also reports that there are a total of 400,000 Garifuna in the United States, Central America, and Caribbean combined, which is a very significant size (again, a source would have been useful). Aside from these points, there is no debate in the film about the problems with attempting to phenotypically define Caribness by the quality of one’s hair, and whether this could mean an implicit rejection of one’s Africanness. The film in fact generally ignores the African dimension of Garifuna identity and history (even when some of the traditions being taught by Honduran Garifunas to their Vincentian hosts are creole Afro-Caribbean ones). The fact that a largely African-descended population is the only population in the region to have kept the Island Carib language alive is surely one of the most spectacular stories of Caribbean history, and a key sign of trouble for any attempts to racialize indigeneity or to distill it out of larger processes of creolization. There is also no discussion in the film about the relations between Garifuna/Caribs and the national government. We hear Prime Minister Gonsalves delivering a stirring speech about British genocide against the Caribs, but then the film ends by pointing out that the Vincentian island of Balliceaux, where the Garifuna were imprisoned in 1795 before their exile to Honduras, rather than being safeguarded as land the Garifuna consider to be sacred has instead been put up for sale to private buyers. Also in the context of Balliceaux, the narrative in the film first claims that a radical cultural eradication occurred, but that then the survivors carried their culture intact to Honduras. Left like that, the statement makes no sense, and we should expect that a project that lists dozens of contributors in its credits would permit the opportunity for some to review and point out such contradictions that sometimes rendered the film’s narrative a bit too shaky.

In summary, several aspects of Andrea Leland’s Yurumein documentary are particularly noteworthy. One is the emphasis of an acute consciousness by Vincentian Caribs of their “cultural loss” and at the same time a renewed pride in their Carib ancestry. Another is the dimension of transnational resurgence, with Garifuna from Central America (originally from St. Vincent) returning to spearhead a renewal of Carib pride and to share traditions. A third observation we can make is about the degree to which this documentary is a nonacademic production, moreover one that is not mediated or narrated by any academic expert. A fourth notable aspect is the extent to which the project involved in making this documentary was locally constituted.
While the film’s gaps and the level of the narrative are bound to receive mixed reviews from academic audiences, this documentary could be useful for first- or second-year students in the North American university/college setting, and for the general public. With twenty years of immersion in indigenous Caribbean research, my own special interest has me enthusiastic to see just about any serious attempt at a documentary on the region’s indigenous peoples, given the paucity of such materials and my continued inability to complete my own long overdue video productions. One has to recognize the considerable effort that went into the making of this documentary, especially given its broad-based network of local contributors, the abundance of available narratives, the political implications of those narratives, the numerous topics deserving special attention, coverage of key local events, and on top of it all an effort to insert the viewer into some aspects of the daily lives of today’s Vincentian Caribs. With so many “moving pieces,” frustration and even failure are more likely than success. This documentary instead succeeds in encompassing a wide range of contemporary issues and historical processes, in a visually engaging manner, and really without trying to tell viewers what to think. In this last respect, it becomes ideal for the classroom setting because it leaves gaps to be filled in by a lecturer, and the work of interpretation open to discussion in the classroom.

I do not think, however, that this documentary should be viewed alone in the context of a course on the Caribbean or on indigenous peoples (or both), that is, in the absence of any other scholarly materials in this topic area. Having said that, it is at present the best current filmic resource on an indigenous community in the Caribbean, one that has long been virtually invisible in the academic literature and documentaries. Others may have done more, but they are becoming increasingly dated. That this documentary has already received some excellent reviews, including by specialists in Garifuna studies, further underscores its virtues.

Notes


[1]. Joseph O. Palacio, “Caribbean Indigenous Peoples’ Journey toward Self-Discovery,” Cultural Survival Quarterly 13, no. 3 (1989): 49-51.
[2]. Maximilian C. Forte, Ruins of Absence, Presence of Caribs: (Post)Colonial Representations of Aboriginality in Trinidad and Tobago (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2005).
[3]. Steven Webster, “Postmodernist Theory and the Sublimation of Maori Culture,” Oceania 63, no. 3 (1993): 222-239.
[4]. Shereline L. Roberts, “The Integration of the Caribs into the Vincentian Society” (BA thesis, University of the West Indies, 1996).

Citation: MAXIMILIAN FORTE. Review of (Director) Andrea E. Leland, Yurumein (Homeland). H-Caribbean, H-Net Reviews. June, 2014.
URL: http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=41305

          â€˜Indigenous Guyanese youth facing racism, human trafficking challenges.’        
‘Indigenous Guyanese youth facing racism, human trafficking challenges’
By Michelle Loubon
Trinidad Express Newspapers | Oct 19, 2013 at 9:27 PM ECT

Unemployment and human trafficking are two of the major issues confronting indigenous youth in Guyana.

Michelle Williams, a youth leader among Guyana’s First Nation Peoples, made this comment during a 2013 panel discussion on International First Peoples at the University of Trinidad and Tobago (UTT) campus, O’Meara Road, Arima, campus earlier this month.

The theme of the conference was “Exploring Heritage, Consolidating Traditions and Creating A Legacy”.

The theme of the panel was “Youth, Gender and Elders of the First Peoples Communities”.

Williams said: “Our youths are finding it hard to get a job. There is human trafficking. Some of them are lured away with promises of good jobs. And they are often faced with a different dilemma when they are far away from home. Some opt to leave their homes and the capital of Georgetown and they are exposed to different threats.”

“They face other challenges like racism. They are called ‘bucks’. They do not mean Reebok. The Dutch called them buck because they are fleet footed. They say they move fast as a buck,” she added.

Apart from unemployment and human trafficking, Williams said there was the social problem of incest.

“Incest is taboo in Guyana. Cousin to cousin and they are having relationships. The Village Council has a role in ensuring it does not happen. Some youths feel there is no shame in doing it.”

Despite the challenges, Williams said: “It is important to work towards leaving a lasting legacy and creating a fortified regional approach to the treatment of First Nation peoples.”

At the end of her presentation, Williams presented documents on data about Guyana’s First Nation Peoples to Chief Ricardo Bharath, from the Santa Rosa First Peoples’ Community.

          First Peoples hold the key: Protection of our natural environment.         
First Peoples hold the key. Protection of our natural environment.
By Heather Dawn-Herrera
Trinidad Express Newspapers | Oct 17, 2013 at 12:58 AM ECT

As the events of Amerindian Heritage Week unfold we continue to be privy to smoke ceremonies, water rituals, and ceremonies to ancestral spirits of Anaparima or San Fernando Hill and much more. From the just concluded conference we learned much about the relationship between man and nature, how God manifests in all things natural.

The life of First Peoples the world over revolves around nature. In Central and South America, even as far as Australia, First Peoples are heavily dependent on nature. Here in Trinidad and Tobago, First Peoples have adapted to some extent to ways of life set upon us by our colonial past. Yet that is just on the face of things. Our First Peoples still practise their traditional ways of life as is evident in their contribution to our cuisine, spirituality, health and wellness of our natural environment, and much more.

My question is, is our natural environment being taken for granted in this modern day world even by our First Peoples?

As Dr Brinsley Samaroo observed at the conference, Nature was abundant before the coming of Europeans into the Caribbean. There was never a problem with lack of natural resources. There was generation and regeneration in the circle of life that our First Peoples lived.

Ricardo Bharath Hernandez Chief of the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community spoke of the intimate connection that First Peoples have with nature.

“First Peoples culture and spirituality is nature-based. God manifests through nature. We cannot exist without fire and water because we have these elements in us. Without them we cannot survive.”

My question is are we taking these basic gifts for granted in today’s world?

Because we live on two small islands Trinidad and Tobago, our lands are limited. We look around and see the extensive quarrying of our watersheds in important places such as Guanapo, Tapana and Blanchisseuse, some of our last remaining pristine areas.

Blanchisseuse is the very area where a minimal amount of land has been returned to our First Peoples. Our watersheds are not as inexhaustible as we may think especially in this period of the onset of climate change and the continuing abuse of man on our natural resources. We need water to survive. Water is life and it gives life.

We look around and see heavy deforestation across our landscape. We need our forested hills and valleys for food, shelter and medicines and much more. The threat of denudation of our natural landscape is very real. The air we breathe, the very survival of life forms that form the chain of life in our support system are threatened. This is far more serious than we think.

Cristo Adonis, Pyai of the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community gave some insights into protection of the natural environment as practised by our First Peoples, some of which are no longer present in today’s existence.

“We share the earth with other entities; fish, animals plants. We were taught to respond to all these things. Harmony in diversity. We ask permission of the plant when we approach it for medicinal uses. When we hunt, we hunt only for survival. All parts of the animal caught must be used and shared. Nothing is wasted because everything is sacred. This preservation of all things natural was destroyed by the invaders and now they are making more laws and setting boundaries.”

What needs to be done now is for a national call to be made for the protection of what remains of our natural environment. To this column’s mind, this is the most important decision that must be made before anything else. Preservation of what remains of our watersheds, our aquifers, and our rain forested hills and valleys must be enforced by declaring sanctuaries of them all.

The minimal amount of lands returned to the First Peoples does not have that vital presence of life support water, that precious element that is so basic for the activities that have been listed as part of the recreation of the life of the First Peoples Village.

Given the history of sustainable use of our natural environment, respect for nature and co existence with all forms of life, lands returned to our First Peoples must be increased to include a number of sanctuaries that only our First Peoples have the knowledge and practice to preserve.

As citizens struggling for equal importance in Trinidad and Tobago, our First Peoples must be given the chance to contribute to the health, wellness and productivity of our land. Our land must return to one of abundance as we see from the examples set by our First Peoples, examples that must be studied and emulated by all.

          First Peoples Conference in Trinidad and Tobago        

Two Vincentians are representing this country at the International Conference of First Peoples of the Caribbean and the Americas, which began today, Friday 11th October, and will run until Sunday 13th October, 2013, in Trinidad.

Mr. Edwin Johnson of the Greiggs Black Carib (Garifuna) Community, and Ms. Molena ‘Mel’ Nanton of the Sandy Bay Kalinago community are attending the Conference hosted by the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community of Trinidad, and held under the theme, ‘Exploring Heritage, Consolidating Traditions, Creating a Legacy’.

The Conference is being held in collaboration with The University of Trinidad and Tobago, and the Ministry of National Diversity and Social Integration, Trinidad and Tobago, and carries as its objectives, to: map the cultural continuity of First Peoples communities of the region, including governance systems, gender and the participation of youth; raise awareness of the indigenous spiritual traditions and world views; highlight and propagate the importance of sustainable living practices of First Peoples communities; regenerate the knowledge systems of First Peoples communities in preserving natural resources; revitalize the traditional skills associated with First Peoples culture for the larger usage by different communities; explore governance systems, politics and international affairs.

The Conference will be held at The University of Trinidad and Tobago, O’Meara Campus, and features seven working Panels, covering the areas of: Youth, gender and elders; Indigenous World Views; Approaches to Spirituality, Rituals and Festivals; Governance and Relationship with the Natural Environment.

In addition, there will be two Performance Panels, showcasing the music, song, dance, handicraft, cuisine and literature of the First Peoples.
St. Vincent’s Nelcia Robinson serves as the Conference Administrator.

          October 14, Amerindian Heritage Day: Keeping Up to Date on the Indigenous People of Trinidad & Tobago        
Today is Amerindian Heritage Day in Trinidad and Tobago, part of Amerindian Heritage Week celebrations, and in that spirit I am posting just a few glimpses of the many developments and activities taking place with what is now called the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community, formerly the Santa Rosa Carib Community.

First, the much-awaited new website of the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community. Also see and follow (by "liking") the active Facebook page of the Community.

Second, as some may already now, right now taking place in Trinidad under the auspices of the University of Trinidad and Tobago, is the International Conference of First Peoples of the Caribbean and the Americas. Also see here for more details on the conference.

Third, the new video introduction to the community: A Vision for the Indigenous People of Trinidad and Tobago.



Fourth and last, Amerindian Day of Recognition--Stills from the Amerindians:


          That Statue in Siparia.        
That Statue in Siparia.
By Marion O'Callaghan
T&T's Newsday | Monday, October 14 2013

What could be more simple a subject for a Trini film documentary than the statue Catholics call La Divina Pastora (The Divine Shepherdess) and Hindus call Siparia Mae (Siparia Mother)? There is the presence of Catholicism and of Hinduism as objects of devotion, in the same statue.

There is the illusive dream of a real Ganges meeting the real Nile of Rudder’s calypso. So it must have seemed to the two university students: a photographer and one of the M Phils in film.

We cannot be certain of how the statue arrived in Siparia. It is already an object of devotion for Amerindians of both Trinidad and Venezuela, and Siparia, a relatively important pilgrimage site in the early nineteenth century.

La Divina Pastora belongs to a number of miraculous statues, visions and miracles in Latin American of the time, the best known being Guadalupe in Mexico and the Crucifix in Ecuador.

These all include some feature that is clearly Amerindian: the peasant cloak at Guadalupe, the black Jesus on the cross, in Siparia a black Madonna.

It must be underlined however, that there is a tradition of black holy statues in medieval Spain and in medieval central France.

That statues in Catholic churches and shrines in Trinidad, with the exception of St Martin de Porres, are white, is explained by the fact that they often represent vision and/or piety of a later age and that they are mass produced in Paris by what has been called St Sulpician art.

The Latin American statues also mark the dislocation of internal colonisation and the integration of Amerindians into the commercial economy of the country, largely through religious fairs.

By the last half of the nineteenth century, the Amerindian population in Trinidad had declined and a Venezuelan vision and statue has emerged. La Divina Pastora becomes the place of pilgrimage of a Catholic population of former slaves, freed men and of a new population: Hindus.

The End of the World

It is the nineteenth century. It is a century of full-blown colonialism, of the emancipation of slaves, the colonisation of India and colonial wars in Africa. Racism is hammered into a biological theory which permeates from religion to popular culture to linguistic categories.

The end of the world was believed to be near. The coming of the Christ was held to depend on the acceptance of Christianity by all people.

As in many periods of religious hysteria there is sometimes the suspicion of the work of Satan where there is refusal to believe or to be baptised. This was one of the reasons for anti-Jewish pogroms in parts of Europe.

It has also been used against African religions. Was this at work with the Kali myth?

The Kali Myth

The name of the documentary: The Madonna Murti, was at best misleading.

It artificially links two traditions: the Madonna of European feudal courtly love, and the Hindu Murti by which the spirits of deities are within their representations. More worrying is the assumption that in Siparia Mae, Hindus at Siparia worship Kali.

This is presented as a fact by both commentaries in the October 6th Catholic News.

There is no evidence whatsoever that Hindus worship Kali in Siparia Mae. The written demands presented at the statue are presented only to Mother. Mother is a term of respect often given to Hindu female deities. Kali is the goddess of both destruction and of protection.

The same qualities are there in Durga, a deity being worshipped at this time in pujas around the country. Why, then, is there no outcry or fear of Durga? There is no concept like the Catholic belief of Mother of God and therefore Mother of the Universe as pertains to deities in Hinduism.

There is absolutely no evidence of satanic worship at Siparia Mae nor of the calling down of evil on enemies of Shiva.

The offering of body parts mentioned in one article is extremely rare in India. Kali worship did include animal sacrifice – usually a fowl – in the past.

This would be very rare today. Rather, fruit, flowers, coconuts are the usual offering, as indeed they are in India.

That some Hindus share with some Catholics the belief that this is some form of “evil” worship is not strange. Siparia Mae escapes the Hindu Trini orthodoxy established largely by the Maha Sabha but shared by say, Raviji.

This is a conservative strand of North of India Brahmanic Hinduism. Within this Siparia Mae is likely to be seen as a deota or lesser deity that is not linked to the major Hindu deities.

Or perhaps some Hindus now share the Trini dislike and suspicion of Black religious representations. This has a long history here and is illustrated by action in 1970. It is there I would start research.

          Call for Honour for First Carib Chief Hyarima.        
Call for honour for first Carib chief Hyarima.
By Michelle Loubon
Trinidad Express Newspapers | Oct 13, 2013

Dr Satnarine Balkaransingh, chairman for the International First Peoples Conference 2013, has said the first Carib chief who was named Hyarima should be given a posthumous award and the major aspects of the Parliament should be shifted from the Red House at St Vincent Street, Port of Spain.

He made these comments during his presentation “The Wounded Nation of the First Peoples of Kairi - Miscegenation, Race, Politics and Marginalisation”. This was day three of the Santa Rosa First People’s Community of Arima Heritage Week which runs until October 19 at UTT Campus, Arima.

He was among the panellists who spoke on the theme Governance and Politics: Contemporary Perspectives. These included Julie Guyadeen, Dominica’s Chief Garnette, Tommy Isaac, past principal of St Augustine Senior Secondary School, and Andrew Klauty.

On the issue of Parliament’s relocation, Balkaransingh said: “Give consideration to have the National Parliament shifted. We can’t move the bones because you are moving a whole cemetery. But you can move Parliament or the major aspects and leave other aspects and convert it to a natural museum and a national art gallery of international standards. Keep the register of births and deaths. These are alternatives. We are continuing to make decisions in the national interest sitting on a cemetery.”

Amerindian artefacts and bones were discovered recently at the Red House during renovations.
Parliament is currently located at Tower D of the International Waterfront Centre, Wrightson Road, Port of Spain due to ongoing renovations at the Red House which traditionally has been the seat of Parliament.

Moving to Chief Hyarima, Balkaransingh added: “ Recognise Hyarima as T&T first national hero for his courage and action in fighting foreign aggression and provide the highest award (Order of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago) posthumously.”

“Hyarima was the first person in 1637 with his warriors and with the help of the Dutch who sacked St Joseph and burned it to the ground actually chasing the Spaniards out of Trinidad. Nobody thinks about the people fighting and therefore Hyarima must be considered the first national hero.” Chief Hyarima’s statue is at Arima.

Asked for an update on the Conference, Ricardo Bharath, Chief of the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community, said: “President Anthony Carmona is expected to attend celebrations today. Nine people will be awarded and I will be making the call for three major things. The first is a call for a public holiday on October 14. I will speak about the other two today.”

The conference continues today. Below is the schedule
Today is First Peoples Heritage Day:
Dedicated to the Great Spirit Tamushi
6:30 a.m. to 8:15 a.m.
Smoke ceremony
Procession from Smoke Ceremony to the Carib Centre
Venue: Streets of Arima
3 p.m. to 5 p.m.
          First Peoples-Heritage Week begins Tomorrow.        
First Peoples-Heritage Week begins Tomorrow.
By Newsday Reporter
T&T's Newsday | Thursday, October 10 2013

The First Peoples indigenous community in Trinidad and Tobago will be hosting their 13th annual Amerindian Heritage Week, which runs from tomorrow (October 11) to October 19. Heritage Week will feature special events, including a conference themed “Exploring Heritage, Consolidating Traditions and Creating A Legacy”.

Tomorrow, Amerindian Heritage Week will be launched with an opening ceremony at the UTT O’Meara Campus from 6 pm - 9 pm. The opening ceremony will include a speech by Prime Minister Kamla Persad-Bissessar, greetings from a Nation Representative of the Caribbean Organisation of Indigenous Peoples, musical performance by the First Peoples of Suriname, as well as a cocktail reception with live entertainment by Los Alumnos de San Juan.

The week of activities will then continue with its inaugural International First People’s Conference on October 12 and 13, also at the O’Meara Campus. The two day conference will feature seven academic and performative panels and is being hosted by the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community of Arima (formerly known as the Carib Community) in conjunction with the University of Trinidad and Tobago (UTT) and the Ministry of National Diversity and Social Integration. Arima is home to the largest number of descendants of the Caribs, who were among Trinidad and Tobago’s first inhabitants, therefore home to the First Peoples.

According to Aurora Herrera, event coordinator of the Amerindian Heritage Week, the conference will feature a wide array of activities and honoured presenters.

“We have chiefs and other Indigenous representatives coming from all over the world for the conference,” she said.

According to the detailed conference calendar, conference attendees will be privy to presentations from countries such as Belize with Garifuna Songs, St Vincent’s basketry, Guyana’s presentations on youth and gender issues faced by the First Peoples and more from Dominica, USA and of course Trinidad and Tobago.

The International First People’s Conference’s press release states that the conference will deal with “the burning issues confronting First Peoples in an environment that remains ambivalent and hostile.” Such issues include the discovery of human remains beneath the Red House in Port-of-Spain, which, according to the First Peoples, indicates that it is a First People burial ground. “How the immigrant state deals with this question will say a lot about the future direction of relations between our First Nations community and their welcome or not so welcome guests,” said Herrera. She also noted that at the conference, “There will be presentations and discussions concerning First Peoples cosmology, philosophy and the various aspects of their way of life. We are also addressing questions of governance.”

The Heritage Week events also include a Smoke Ceremony at the Hyarima Monument, Arima and the Spiritual Sanctification of the Parliament Building at the Red House on Monday (October 14), as well as the Indigenous Water Ritual at Lopinot River, Arouca on Tuesday (October 15) and much more. The Conference is free to the public and it includes meals, however pre-registration is required before Wednesday 16 October. To register, go to www.santarosafirstpeoples.org

First Peoples Heritage Week Calendar of Events


Friday October 11:
6 pm - 8 pm - Launch of the First Peoples Heritage Week 2013

8 pm – 9 pm - Inauguration of the International First Peoples Conference, “Exploring Heritage, Consolidating Traditions and Creating a Legacy”
Cocktails with live entertainment by Los Alumnos de San Juan
Venue: UTT O’Meara Campus Auditorium

Saturday October 12:
8 am – 4 pm - International First Peoples Conference, Panel Presentations/Discussions
Venue: UTT O’Meara Campus Auditorium

Sunday October 13:
8 am – 4 pm - International First Peoples Conference, Panel Presentations/Discussions
Venue: UTT O’Meara Campus Auditorium

Monday October 14:
Dedicated To the Great Spirit Tamushi
6.30 am – 8.15 am - Smoke Ceremony
Venue: Hyarima Monument, Arima

8.15 am - Street Procession from the Smoke Ceremony to the First Peoples Community Centre
Venue: Streets of Arima

3 pm – 5 pm - Formal Ceremony to commemorate First Peoples Heritage Day
Venue: UTT, O’Meara Campus Auditorium

8 pm – 10 pm - Spiritual Sanctication of the Parliament Building, the Red House
Venue: Red House, Port of Spain

Tuesday October 15:
Dedicated To the Ancestors
7 am – 9 am - Indigenous Water Ritual
Venue: Lopinot River, Arouca

4 pm - Ceremony to the Ancestral Spirits of Anaparima
Venue: San Fernando/Anaparima Hill

Wednesday October 16:
Dedicated To The Indigenous Traditions
9 am – 3.30 pm - Open House Visits to the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community Centre, For School Children, Groups and Families**
Venue: 7 Paul Mitchell St Arima.

Friday October 18
Dedicated To Indigenous Traditions of Music, Dance, and Traditional Handicrafts
10 am – 5 pm - Heritage Cultural Fair

6 pm - 9 pm - Cultural Show
Venue: Santa Rosa Catholic Church Park

Saturday October 19:
Dedicated To the Indigenous Traditions on Local Self Governance
10 am – 12 noon - Meeting of the Caribbean Organisation of Indigenous People
Venue: Carib Centre

5 pm – 8 pm - Closing Ceremony and Thanksgiving
Venue: Santa Rosa First Peoples Centre
          Indigenous groups return to Red House to pray.        
Indigenous groups return to Red House to pray.
Trinidad and Tobago's Newsday | Tuesday, October 8 2013

AS indigenous groups plan to return to the Red House next week to pray for the peace of the ancestors they believe are buried there, no decision has yet been taken on declaring part, or all of the original seat of Parliament a heritage site.

Chief Ricardo Bharath Hernandez of the Santa Rosa First Peoples’ Indigenous Community informed Newsday his group, along with the Partners for First Peoples and the Warao indigenous groups, met about a month ago with the Red House Cultural Heritage Team chaired by House Speaker, Wade Mark.

On March 26 last, a number of skeletal remains, cultural and historical artifacts were discovered during initial excavation work as part of the restoration of the Red House. The bones date from 430 AD to 1390 AD.

The Red House Cultural Heritage Team, which includes Senate President Timothy Hamel-Smith and representatives of the National Trust, was appointed by Cabinet to manage aspects of the historical find.

The First Peoples groups believe the remains and artifacts are from their ancestors, and have written the team asking that the Red House be declared a heritage site.

Hernandez reported that the proposal was discussed at their meeting with the team and certain aspects were agreed upon, such as the treatment of the remains — they should be reburied and not exposed or displayed though the cultural artifacts can be — and that an insignia of the First Peoples would be included in the renovation.

He also reported that no decision had been taken on whether part or all of the Red House would be declared a heritage site.

They were informed that the process should be completed by the end of the year, and there were still more tests to be done.

He said, speaking for the Santa Rosa group, certain things were kept “secret” from them, recalling that when they asked to see remains they were told they are “well taken care off”’. “While on one hand we are talking, we still feel as First People we should play a more integral role in what is happening there,” he said.

The team informed them that they will contact them again when they are ready. Hernandez said as descendants of First People according to the United Nations declaration they have a right as it relates to the remains of ancestors but “we are not really given that opportunity fully, (it) still seems as the property of someone else”. “We are hoping at the end of it we will be satisfied,” he added.

He noted that they that they plan to write the Red House Cultural Heritage Team and the police today to request permission to hold a spiritual ceremony on October 17 at 5pm at the Red House. The ceremony is part of the 13th annual First Peoples Heritage Week which will be held from October 11 to 19.

          â€˜Stop Orange Grove aquatic centre’ ...historian calls for archaeological probe.        
‘Stop Orange Grove aquatic centre’...historian calls for archaeological probe.
By Charles Kong Soo
Trinidad and Tobago Guardian Online | Sunday, October 6, 2013
Topsoil being removed in the Orange Grove Savannah.

Historian Angelo Bissessarsingh says all construction work should be halted on the Government’s aquatic centre in the Orange Grove Savannah (also called the Eddie Hart Grounds) so that an archaeological investigation can be carried out. This was to determine if the area contained priceless historical and cultural artefacts dating back to Spanish colonial times or the First Peoples and can be declared an indigenous protected area.

Bissessarsingh said, “These spaces are very important to the history and culture of the area and by extension T&T. “When projects like these are undertaken, there should be an archeological investigation before anything is done given the lack of consultation with the community.

“When those construction equipment went in, I grieve for what might have been lost. My experience has taught me that when public spaces have existed for as long as the Eddie Hart Grounds has, there are usually artefacts such as coins and ornaments in the subsoil and topsoil.”

Approximately two lots of topsoil was removed from the Eddie Hart Grounds during excavation on September 20. Residents said they were told that the excavation was done without the knowledge of officials at the Sports Company of Trinidad and Tobago or the Tunapuna/Piarco Regional Corporation. Bissessarsingh said there were First Peoples’ settlements spread across that corridor leading into Arima.

He said during the 18th century onwards, there were Spanish encomiendas or plantations given to conquistadors along with an allocation of semi-enslaved First Peoples. Bissessarsingh said there were encomiendas at Tacarigua, Arouca and Caura and that certain spaces existed in perpetuity, especially cemeteries and public spaces such as the old Spanish Square in St Joseph, since 1595.

He said Palmiste Park in South was not as old as the Eddie Hart Grounds and treasures such as 19th-century coins, gun flints, pottery bottles and objects of great antiquarian value to the history of the Republic can still be discovered there.

Bissessarsingh said many people knew the savannah as the Eddie Hart Grounds but it was known long ago as the Orange Grove Sugar Plantation. He said the plantation was owned up to 1850 by William Hardin Burnley, who was the richest man in Trinidad, quite possibly the richest man in its history. Bissessarsingh said upon Burnley’s death, his net worth was probably millions of pounds.

When he died, the property was inherited by his son William Frederick who lived in England and could not come to Trinidad, so it was managed in trust by William Eccles, who founded the St Mary’s Anglican Church and the St Mary’s Orphanage in Tacarigua. He said parts of the estate were sold off to various private entities such as Caroni 1975 Ltd, parts became Trincity, Blue Waters, Trintoplan and Belgrove Funeral Home.

Bissessarsingh said the ground itself was not just a space, it was a social structure and gathering space where generations of people from the time of slavery to the present day met. He said he understood the need for growth and development, but he believed that more consultation with the people had to be done before the aquatic centre was built and not in an ad-hoc manner.

Belix: Protect indigenous peoples’ sites
President of the local indigenous peoples group Partners for First Peoples Roger Belix said the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples which was adopted by 144 member states, including T&T, stated quite clearly that burial sites and artefacts of indigenous peoples should be protected and returned.

Belix said, “These sites are sacred and also historical to the peoples of indigenous blood. While they would want to say we don’t exist, they should be preserved and be recognised as indigenous peoples’ sites and returned to the indigenous peoples by the people who now occupy our land.”

Resident: We were not adequately informed
Vernon De Leon, 63, a resident of Arouca for the past 43 years, said there was still no meaningful response from the Government, and the community was still at square one since consultation was limited.

De Leon said while the residents were not against the Ministry of Sports or the Government, appreciating that they had noble intentions, they believed, however, that they were not adequately informed about the implications of converting a section of the savannah into a car park for 300 vehicles, a swimming pool and a road running through the savannah. He said since the car park area was paved there was an increase in flooding on the southern side of the savannah.

De Leon said paving over and destroying the aquifer in the savannah will cause even more flooding in the area and negatively impact the water supply for a significant part of the country as it served WASA’s eight water pumps around the savannah and provided water to north, east and central Trinidad.

He said the low crime in the area was a result of having access to the facilities in the savannah for activities ranging from picnics, sporting events and elderly people coming from as far as Arima to walk leisurely in the outdoors. He feared that this may reverse. De Leon, whose children, Melissa and Marlon represented T&T in track and field, said they were part of “Buggy” Haynes’ football club before they went into athletics, and he used to take his daughter jogging on the field.

He said the area had a rich sporting tradition with the likes of Stern John, “Buggy” Haynes, Eddie Hart, Ellis “Puss” Achong and Keith Aqui and he feared the demise of that legacy with the loss of the savannah. De Leon said of historical significance was a Chinese Pistash tree that still stands in the savannah that dates back to the 1800s to the time of William Hardin Burnley. He said there were alternatives for the location of the aquatic centre and other facilities to be considered such as Trinity College East.

De Leon said there was enough space to accommodate all the proposed facilities in one location south of the Churchill-Roosevelt Highway, opposite Pan Trinbago and Blue Waters without “ripping out the heart of the community.”

          First Peoples getting ready for Heritage Week.        
First Peoples getting ready for Heritage Week.
Trinidad Express Newspapers | Sep 22, 2013 at 10:28 PM ECT

President/Chief of the Santa Rosa First Peoples’ Community Ricardo Bharath says the community is gearing up for its annual Amerindian Heritage Week of Activities from October 11 to 19.

According to a news release from the Community, Heritage Week will feature special events, including a conference themed Exploring Heritage, Consolidating Traditions and Creating A Legacy.

The conference is being held in conjunction with the University of Trinidad and Tobago and the Ministry of National Diversity and Social Integration. It comes on the heels of the month-long celebrations for the Santa Rosa Festival de Arima. A highlight was the procession of the Santa Rosa statue through the borough on August 25.

Arima can lay claim to being home to the largest number of descendants from the Caribs, who were among Trinidad and Tobago’s first inhabitants.

The release said: “The Community has gone one step further than in the past. It has engaged technical and professional expertise to assist it in planning and implementing various aspects of the Heritage Week. It is also engaging the business community, civil society groups and academic institutions in and around Arima to partner with it in making the week of activities very successful.”

Both Bharath and Carib queen Jennifer Cassar have enlisted the help of Arima businessman Balliram Maharaj, who has been working to influence other commercial entities to help.

Citizens can visit the Community’s new office and secretariat at 7 Paul Mitchell Street, Arima; call 664-1897, 776-0210 (c); or e-mail@santarosafirstpeoples.org.

          Give Red House bones proper burial.        
Give Red House bones proper burial.
By Miranda La Rose
T&T Newsday | Wednesday, September 18 2013


MAKING HER POINT: Deborah Koylass of Penal, makes a point 
at a meeting of the First People in Arima on Monday night...

A United Nations advisor to the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples is advising that the State turns over the remains of bones found recently under the Red House to the local indigenous people for a proper burial.

The advisor, St Lucian-born Albert Deterville is also advising that the remains should not be placed in a museum.

Addressing members of the Partners for First People’s Development on Monday evening at the Photo House building in Arima, Deterville said,

“Normally what happens, when the remains of indigenous peoples are found, the State turns over the remains to the descendants of the remains, or to indigenous peoples. I would hope that the State in its wisdom would do so.”

Stating he does know what the State will do, he said, “I hope that a proper burial would be executed for the remains that were found, and that they are not be placed in a museum.”

He has always questioned, he said “why anthropologists and archeologists are so interested in the history and past of the indigenous peoples, and like to keep their bones, but they do not take the bones of other ethnic groups.”

The bones of the dead, he said “are sacred and it is disrespect for the bones to be kept by somebody who has no relationship with it.”

Noting he will support the decisions of the indigenous community on what should be done about the historical remains, he said he intended to hold discussions yesterday with officials of the Ministry of Arts and Multiculturalism on the implications of the find, as well as, to raise a number of issues with respect to the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

On March 26, 2013 during initial excavation work undertaken as part of the restoration of the Red House — the country’s seat of governance — a number of skeletal remains, cultural and historical artifacts were found on the site. Subsequently, a composite of material comprising human bones, fragments of animal bones, shells, pottery and other artifacts were discovered and extracted from the soil in other areas at the Red House.

Another indigenous group, the Santa Rosa First People’s Indigenous Community on July 14 performed a spiritual ritual to “appease the spirits” of bones disturbed during works at the site. They were given approval by officials of the House Cultural Heritage Team, a Cabinet-appointed committee to manage aspects of the historical find.

The issue of land and land titles to indigenous communities, Deterville said was another “vexing problem” faced by indigenous communities, not only in TT, but in other parts of the region, and the world. He was surprised, he said, when last year, the UN representative in Geneva boasted that TT had granted 25 acres of land to the indigenous community in Trinidad.

The statement made by the representative in Geneva, he said, was made against the background that the Government of TT was protecting the rights of the indigenous peoples of TT, and as such gave them 25 acres of land. His statement evoked some laughter from the audience.

Noting that he was concerned about the dignity and respect for indigenous peoples, he said he questioned if the lands were titled and vested with the indigenous community and the response was in the negative.

“How many hundreds of thousands of acres of land are in Trinidad and Tobago for the Government to be handing over only 25 acres to the rightful owners of the country?” he asked.

          A Matter of Survival.        
A matter of survival.
By Heather-Dawn Herrera
Trinidad Express Newspapers | Sep 11, 2013 at 10:45 PM ECT

We visited the domain of one of our nocturnal species of avian wild life at a period when newborn chicks as well as those half grown are trying to adapt to the habitat into which they were born.

As we entered the cavern hundreds of pairs of red eyes peered down at us. The large white dots forming a distinguishing line at their sides were prominent in the darkness. Large birds squawked and click clicked as they flew around using echo location in the dark recesses of the interior. The roof and walls were just crowded with birds. This was the sanctuary of the oilbird steatornis caripensis and we were but mere disturbances of their peace at the moment.
Personally I wondered how a person coming here with the sole intention of poaching this harmless species felt when this colony guarded its territory so fiercely. Our visit alone felt like sinful intrusion.

We explored a part of the cavern wall that curved further inward to a series of ledges where a number of birds had built their nests. In the past we had retrieved gear used for ensnaring the birds here. Today all was well.

Presumably this would have been one of the caverns that the First Peoples had visited centuries ago to gather oil from the fat of the oilbird. At that time, it was a matter of survival.

Nearby, we found one shallow nest with three eggs in it and another with two tiny newborns that spun round and round in their limited space. Quite close by, a large bird snarled an apparent warning to us. We believed that this was the parent of these chicks.

There was a third nest with an extremely large ‘fatty’ ‘half grown’ that had feathers only on his head, wings and tail. We could see how our First Peoples got enough oil to satisfy their needs.

This larger chick spun round and round on his nest too. This seemed to be the typical behaviour of this species as we had noted the same spinning trait of the newborns.
On nests where adult oilbirds sat, we could see the usual rocking movement of their heads from side to side that we had come to be so familiar with. Someone called this a ‘Stevie Wonder move’.

On the other side of the cavern, another half grown got our attention as he landed with a loud thump and a flurry of half feathered wings having unsuccessfully tried to fly like his elders. Just about four months old, this bird was beginning his own quest for survival. He remained motionless for a while until regaining his initial will to try his wings again and again.

Our oilbirds are perhaps the least observed of our avian species in this part of the world because of their nocturnal life and the fact that their colonies thrive off the beaten track in the cavernous terrain of our mountains. When Alexander von Humboldt first discovered these birds in a cave in Venezuela’s north eastern mountains in 1799 their existence was virtually unknown to people other than immediate natives. This location eventually became Venezuela’s first national monument.

Today some caverns in northern South America have become tourist attractions. In Trinidad, this is so to a lesser extent because of the lack of manpower to effectively protect and manage these remote locations. So far, only the Asa Wright Nature Centre has been successful in protecting, promoting and maintaining its oilbird cavern as a tourist attraction.

It is always an amazing sight to see a large colony of oilbirds fly out from the home cavern in mass exodus at sunset. Their feeding grounds are sometimes located miles away from their home they being the only nocturnal fruit eating bird in the world and must find bearing palms and laurels.

On their return to the home cavern, we could well imagine the eager reactions of their dependent offspring to sustenance being served after spending a night alone. Soon, these chicks will follow in the habits of their parents as they too will continue the cycle of survival of this species.

          Who Is An Indian? Race, Place, and the Politics of Indigeneity in the Americas        
ZA_whoisanindian
“A significant addition to research, Who Is an Indian? provides an extended examination and a clear picture of Indigenous identity issues in the Americas. Among the book’s important contributions are its examination of the site of interface between the modern state and Indigenous peoples, as well as its analysis of how state discourses of identities are interpolated by Indigenous peoples and come to be important sites of tension.” --David Newhouse, Department of Indigenous Studies, Trent University
“Who Is an Indian? makes a strong and distinct contribution to the literature on Indigenous identities. The contributors examine imposed markers of distinctiveness, particularly those racial categories that have often been formulated by experts and imposed by dominant societies. This is a topic that is rife with controversy, but it is handled here with directness and historical acumen.”--Ronald Niezen, Department of Anthropology, McGill University
Who Is An Indian? Race, Place, and the Politics of Indigeneity in the Americas  is my newest edited collection, published by the University of Toronto Press. It completes a trilogy of edited volumes on indigeneity in the Americas that I began in 2006 with Indigenous Resurgence in the Contemporary Caribbean: Amerindian Survival and Revival, and in 2010 with the publication of Indigenous Cosmopolitans: Transnational and Transcultural Indigeneity in the Twenty-First Century.

About this Book

Who is an Indian? This is possibly the oldest question facing Indigenous Peoples across the Americas, and one with significant implications for decisions relating to resource distribution, conflicts over who gets to live where and for how long, and clashing principles of governance and law. For centuries, the dominant views on this issue have been strongly shaped by ideas of both race and place. But just as important, who is permitted to ask, and answer this question?
This collection examines the changing roles of race and place in the politics of defining Indigenous identities in the Americas. Drawing on case studies of Indigenous communities across North America, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, it is a rare volume to compare Indigenous experience throughout the western hemisphere. The contributors question the vocabulary, legal mechanisms, and applications of science in constructing the identities of Indigenous populations, and consider ideas of nation, land, and tradition in moving indigeneity beyond race.

Genesis of the Project

This latest volume is probably the longest I have worked on any one publication project. It first began to take shape in 2006, as an effort exclusively focused on race, motivated by recognition of the fact that there were no volumes, treating the Americas as a whole, that compared and contrasted different ideas and applications of race in the definition of Indigenous identity. This was the basis for the first symposium in 2006, “Indigeneity and Race: ‘Blood Politics’ and the ‘Nature’ of Indigenous Identity,” organized under the auspices of the Canadian Anthropology Society’s annual conference, held at Concordia University on May 13, 2006. The same theme carried over into a following seminar, “Who Is an Indian? Race, Blood, DNA, and the Politics of Indigeneity in the Americas” involving 14 participants and hosted at the Clarion Hotel in Montreal, August 2-5, 2007, with the support of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. However, as a result of the discussions held at the second symposium, we came to the realization that race alone could not be the exclusive subject of our concerns in addressing who people have historically answered the question, “who is an Indian.” The role of place, land, and territoriality, and resistance to neoliberalism, figured prominently in a number of the papers to the extent that we concluded that both race and place should be our dual, framing concepts.

The original impetus for this project came from a very particular context of concern. My research in the Caribbean alerted me to the extent to which notions of “purity,” “blood,” and lately even DNA analysis came to figure prominently not just as ways of ascribing Indigenous identities, but also as means of claiming them in light of widespread, categorical assertions by colonial rulers and scholars that these peoples had vanished. To my surprise, similar politics of identity were being instituted in North America—indeed, the interest in DNA studies had spread from the U.S. to the Caribbean, and in North America as well I found a concern with blood, purity, and the stigma faced by “Black Indians” who were being rejected as claimants to Cherokee citizenship. In Canada, First Nations residents carry cards indicating what degree of Indigenous “blood” they possess. Also in Canada, I repeatedly hear Euro-Canadians refer to this or that Aboriginal figure as “not a real Indian…he looks white”. (I had encountered similar purist prejudices during my years in Australia, directed at some of the most prominent Aboriginal activists who, phenotypically and superficially appeared to be “mixed” if not “almost white”.) If race, blood, and DNA were so prevalent, could we find similar concerns spread out across all of the Americas? If so, why? If not, why not? Are race, blood, and DNA essentially the same thing? These were the very first, seemingly very simple questions that led to the emergence of this project.

Taking together all stages of this project, it included a total of as many as 21 scholars from across the Americas and from across the disciplines, only some of whom appear in this volume. In particular I would like to thank and acknowledge the advice, support, varying degrees of participation and interest, and correspondence of individuals who were involved at different stages of the project, including: Kimberly Tallbear, José Barreiro, Phil Bellfy, Marisol de la Cadena, Alice and Dennis Bartels, and the late Melissa Meyer who sadly for us passed away mid-way through the development of this project. We also benefited from the participation of Indigenous scholars, who comprised half the number of participants in the overall project. With an immense amount of research and writing taking place in the U.S., there was often a tendency to have greater American representation, more than Canadian, Latin American, and least of all, from the Caribbean. The result of this struggle, the constant revision and reinterpretation, we hope will offer some critical insights into the processes of making “race” out of (or against) Indigenous identity and the role of “place” in debates about Indigenous identity. The final product strikes some geographic balance, with two chapters on Canadian cases, two dealing with American Indians, two focused on Central America and the Caribbean, and two pertaining to South America.

What about DNA Testing?

The previous concern with DNA, represented by as many as four participants early on in the project, largely diminished and then vanished altogether, especially when we no longer had the same participants as in earlier stages of the project. This is not to say that DNA debates are absent in the volume as a whole, but rather that they no longer structure the volume as a leading focus, which in any case would be more relevant to the North American situation than elsewhere. Yet even that is not entirely accurate, as the use of DNA testing to determine Indigenous ancestry has traveled to Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and to my great surprise to the very community I studied for four years in Trinidad & Tobago, as the result of the work a team from the Molecular Anthropology lab at Pennsylvania State University and the National Geographic Genographic Project. In the past, similar studies have also been conducted among the Garifuna in Central America and recently in St. Vincent & the Grenadines, in the latter case again by the Penn State team.

Sidebar on U.S. "Science": DNA Testing for Indigeneity Comes to Trinidad
DNA testing comes in for severe questioning and criticism in the volume, and I would also add here to my public objections to the DNA research done in Trinidad. Aside from the more than just questionable merits of using genetics to prove cultural identities and political constructs such as tribal affiliations, I also pointed out that, "given the harvesting of biometric data by U.S. universities with research ties to the Pentagon, there is always the risk that this information could be put to uses of which the Caribs are unaware." Indeed, one of the researchers involved in the Trinidad DNA study, Jada Benn-Torres, from a military family, has conducted research in the field funded by the U.S. Department of Defense. I cannot see any reasonable purpose for conducting the study in Trinidad, as the local Carib community has been officially recognized for decades, and is not possessed by any self-doubts of their identity. Indeed, not all of the Caribs in Arima chose to participate in the study, which raises more questions about the extent to which those examined are representative of the community as a whole, and thus places in doubt even the basic scientific merits of the study. What has also not been made known is what is the ultimate purpose of the research, where the information is stored and for how long, and who has access to the database.

The Historical Importance of a Bad Question

The collaboration that produced this volume through much iteration has been focused on what is arguably one of the worst questions to be posed to or against Indigenous Peoples ("Who is an Indian?"), one that ultimately calls on them to give an account of themselves, for being who they are in the light of foreign invasions and occupations. It’s as if being who they are is a problem, and furthermore, it is a problem that they caused. Worse yet, they may not even be who they think they are.

As with all bad questions, one can expect to get a lot of bad answers. So why address such a question, going as far as making it the leading question of this project? The answer is simple: the question, however one may assess its epistemological qualities, is a politically important question (the most important perhaps), an institutionalized question, a governing question that structures people’s lives, their access to resources, and even their self-perceptions. It is also a key historical question, one that continues to be asked repeatedly, and one that will inevitably lose relevance. That this question has been raised across the Americas, in different forms (substituting, as the case may be, any number of cognate or tribal labels in the place of “Indian”), is due to a shared history of colonization and state-building and the dominance of European theories of citizenship, nationhood, race, and identity. Here we can start to look beyond the constraints and limitations of that question and in seeing past the constraints imposed today by states.

It was not the intention of the contributors of the volume to either advance academic expertise as the ultimate arbiter of Indigenous identities, to provide an easy-to-follow menu for “accurately determining” who is Indigenous, or to provide advice that caters to the functioning of government bureaucracies and their micro-management of Indigenous affairs. Our greater concern was with the politics that work to preserve the dominance of a “bad question,” a very “bad” and yet historically very important question: “Who is an Indian”? Our hope is that readers will come away from this effort with a determination to ask better questions—better in the sense of being more analytically productive and with implications that are more socially just and fair. Among the questions we would like to see posed are those that posit indigeneity as a historically specific type of relationality, that involve issues of power and affectivity, without searching for the elusive “one size fits all” solution. If, however, we overcame the stigmatization of being Indigenous only to then treat it as a category implying “privilege” and uniquely demanding “proof” of belonging, then we will not have gone far past the point of endorsing extinction.

Setting the Stage: Some Opening Quotes to Remember

“When they get off the boat, they didn’t recognize us. They said: ‘Who are you?’ And we said: ‘We’re the People, we’re the Human Beings,’ and they said: ‘Oh Indians,’ because they didn’t recognize what it meant to be a human being. ‘I’m a Human Being, this is the name of my tribe, this is the name of my people, but I’m a human being.’ But the predatory mentality shows up and starts calling us ‘Indians’ and committing genocide against us as a vehicle of erasing the memory of being a human being….Even in our own communities, how many of us are fighting to protect our identity of being an Indian, and 600 years ago that word, ‘Indian,’ that sound was never made in this hemisphere—that sound [‘Indian’], that noise, was never ever made! Ever. We’re trying to protect that as an identity, see, so it affects all of us”. —John Trudell, Lakota poet and activist. 
“It is one of the many ironies of the American experience that the invaders created the category of Indians, imposed it on the inhabitants of the New World, and have been trying to abolish it ever since”. —David Maybury-Lewis, co-founder of Cultural Survival. 
“There’s tremendous racism in Peru. In Lima, brown people, the descendants of Indigenous people, try to live as white as possible. That’s because of the influence of the media and government. If you embrace your Indian-ness, you’re shunned. You’re less than a third-class person. It’s an insult to call someone an Indian. It’s the equivalent of calling someone stupid”. —Benjamin Bratt, actor. 
“The question of my identity often comes up. I think I must be a mixed blood. I claim to be male, although only one of my parents is male”. 
—Jimmie Durham, Cherokee artist. “What does part Indian mean? (Which part?)….you don’t get 50% or 25% or 16% treatment when you experience racism—it is always l00%”. —Joane Cardinal-Schubert.

Contents

Preface, pages vii-ix

Introduction: “Who Is an Indian?” The Cultural Politics of a Bad Question, pages 3-51 Maximilian C. Forte (Concordia University, Sociology and Anthropology)


In this chapter I discuss the genesis, multiple meaning and historical applications of this "bad question," across the Americas. In the process I also defend the thesis that the Americas as a whole serve as the appropriate unit for analysis in understanding the colonial, "scientific," ideological, and (geo)political efforts to define Indigenous identities. While I outline how the racialization of indigeneity spread across imperial domains in the Americas, I also examine the centrality of place, of territoriality, and how place also intersects race. I discuss the emergence of "Indian" as a racial construct, and from there I proceed to build the larger theoretical and analytical narrative which the various chapters help to form. Who is the "real Indian" and issues of "race mixture" and the impact of slavery and the plantation system in North and South America and the Caribbean forms one level of analysis. Another has to do with kinship and science, with blood, DNA, and how these relate to ideas of "race purity." Going beyond "blood quantum" and race, I provide some context and the wider debate around the critically important contribution by Julia Coates in this volume, on the always timely issue of the Freedmen and the Cherokee Nation. Debates around self-identification, and tribal politics, progress toward a discussion of the many cases of "Indian non-Indians" and "Non-Indian Indians". Finally I end with an overview of the problems involved with "recognition", with some discussion of the geopolitics of recognition and then, pointing toward the Conclusion, looking beyond the politics of recognition.

Chapter One Inuitness and Territoriality in Canada, pages 53-70 Donna Patrick (Carleton University, Sociology and Anthropology and the School of Canadian Studies)


“The question of who counts as Aboriginal [in Canada],” explains Donna Patrick (this volume), “has long been linked to the question of who owns traditional Aboriginal lands”. Patrick’s chapter explores “the question of categorizing Indigeneity in Canada by examining the linguistic, political, and judicial processes associated with the notions of territory, ancestry, and belonging that shape Indigeneity today,” with a focus on the Inuit in Canada, situated within a broader analysis of Aboriginal identity in Canada. “Inuitness” in Canada, as Patrick tells us, followed a different trajectory from that of First Nations, in that the construction of Inuit identity has been guided not just by state policy but by Inuit attachments to both land and language. In Patrick’s chapter we learn that for the Inuit “the notion of ‘territoriality’ operates together with the notion of ancestry” in shaping the identities of Inuit living in urban centres of the Canadian South as much as those living in the Arctic. Donna Patrick observes that Indigenous ideas of identity in early colonial Canada “had little to do with race, biology, or ethnicity” and that Indigenous Peoples in fact demonstrated in practice that they were guided by a “notion of inclusivity” whose existence “has been supported by numerous accounts of Euro-American settlers and soldiers being accepted and adopted into First Nations groups”. While Patrick argues that we do not see in Canada a dominant discourse about the bio-politics of Indigenous identities to the same extent that we find in the U.S., she admits that a “‘covert’ or de facto blood quantum” has been part of policies governing Aboriginal, and in particular First Nations, peoples.

Chapter Two Federally-Unrecognized Indigenous Communities in Canadian Contexts, pages 71-91 Bonita Lawrence (York University, Equity Studies)


In her chapter Bonita Lawrence points out the cases of First Nations that span the Canada-U.S. border, where for example “the Passamaquoddy Nation of New Brunswick, or the Sinixt Nation, in British Columbia, have federal recognition in the United States but not in Canada,” which underscores the arbitrary, shifting, and inconsistent standards used by states to “appraise” indigeneity, as Lawrence argues. Bonita Lawrence explores identity issues among two federally-unrecognized groups—the Algonquins of Eastern Ontario and the Mi’kmaqs of Newfoundland—which have been the subject of her research for the last decade, providing a window into how the Canadian state produces unrecognized Aboriginals. As she explains, “most federally-unrecognized bands or nations are created by the nature of the treaty process itself,” while other bands are federally-unrecognized “because Canada has refused to honour historic relationships or has disregarded the traditional boundaries of Indigenous nations”. The primary means for such communities to gain federal recognition, to legally become Aboriginal again, is to assert Aboriginal title through the courts (if there is a treaty governing particular territory), or as Lawrence outlines in her chapter, “to take part in the comprehensive claims process if no treaty has been signed in the territory”. Otherwise, federally-unrecognized Indigenous peoples are “incorporated simply as ‘citizens’ within the wider nation-state dominated by settlers”.

Chapter Three The Canary in the Coalmine: What Sociology Can Learn from Ethnic Identity Debates among American Indians, pages 92-123 Eva Marie Garroutte (Boston College, Sociology) and C. Matthew Snipp (Stanford University, Sociology)


Eva Marie Garroutte and Matthew Snipp in their chapter in this volume titled, “The Canary in the Coalmine: What Sociology Can Learn from Ethnic Identity Debates among American Indians,” devote considerable attention to debating the racialization of indigeneity. As just one example of the kinds of interests vested in the non-recognition of “mixed” American Indians, Garroutte and Snipp point to Donald Trump: as a competitor against the newly recognized Pequots, and their plans to open a casino, he produced a definition of “who is an Indian” in phenotypical terms: “they don’t look like Indians to me. They don’t look like Indians to Indians,” injecting his racial bias by further calling them “Michael Jordan Indians”. This is useful in showing how ultimately one of the most common ways of assigning Indigenous identity in the Americas is focused on appearance, and where racial discourses prevail, a specific type of appearance: phenotype. Garroutte and Snipp  also discuss some of the additional, problematic conceptual issues raised by the quantification of identity, which can apply to both genetic testing and blood quantum. Quantification establishes distance as a prerequisite for measurement, “with the corollary that, at some point, individuals’ connection to American Indian forebears becomes exhausted”. Quantification of identity presupposes distance, and tends toward disappearance. It raises physical standards about ideational and subjective identities, even as it creates new subjectivities around the use of scientific resources. The right to measure involves a power to erase, just as the power to speak for Indigenous peoples, and to assign their identities, is the power to silence them, permanently. The two case studies at the focus of their chapter, the Mashantucket Pequots and Kennewick Man, make for highly engaging and illuminating reading.

Chapter Four “This Sovereignty Thing”: Nationality, Blood, and the Cherokee Resurgence, pages 124-150 Julia Coates (University of California Davis, Native American Studies)


Julia Coates strongly and productively challenges a number of prominent, published perspectives that have been critical of definitions of Cherokee identity by the Tribal Nation’s government. Coates argues that legal definitions are often overlooked in discussions of indigeneity, while race and culture gain greater attention. Yet, as she explains, many tribal governments in the U.S. regard legal definitions, not as artificially imposed from external colonizing institutions, but as internally achieved definitions of nationality and their sovereign statuses. While the Cherokee Nation’s lack of cultural requirements are frequently not understood by non-Indians and derided by other tribal nations, the Cherokee Nation has continued to assert that nationality derived from their specific history of tribal citizenship is a more inclusive category for contemporary times than race or cultural markers. This is almost a reversal of arguments criticizing the Tribal Nation’s exclusion of certain persons. Based on interviews with what Coates calls “a particularly challenging group of Cherokee nationals,” the 60 percent of the citizenry living outside the tribal core in northeastern Oklahoma, her chapter examines the potential of nationality as a basis for self-identification for those in the Cherokee diaspora, and the role the concept of citizen plays in the contemporary Cherokee resurgence. Coates points to problems with a debate that “focuses on identity construction as located in race, heritage, DNA, and cultural attributes and expressions” and that leave out law and sovereignty. She says that one reason why the cultural, racial, and ethnic aspects of identity may be the primary sites for investigation and discussion, for many Indigenous Peoples is the fact that many of them are not formally organized into nominally sovereign political entities with an internal jurisdiction. Speaking of academics, Coates suggest that one reason most academics seem to differ from tribal governments’ rigid determinations of citizenship, is that academics tend to be more inclusive in their view of who is an American Indian, not wanting to serve as identity police and imposing definitions of Indigenous identity on Natives. Her emphasis is on nationality as a potential for retention and resurgence (or what some call resilience), rather than simply acting as a colonialist mechanism of control and exclusion.

Chapter Five Locating Identity: The Role of Place in Costa Rican Chorotega Identity, pages 151-171 Karen Stocker (California State University, Anthropology)


Designating a special place as the locus of persons with an Indigenous identity can be a way for an assimilationist state, one that historically rejected the Indigenous presence as in the case of Costa Rica, to create the illusion that indigeneity is minimal and marginal. As Karen Stocker explains in her chapter in this volume, in Chorotega some residents of what later became the reservation opposed reservation status given their “tremendous resentment at being the only community in the region officially designated as Indigenous when the whole area had Indigenous roots, and aversion to the stigma attached to Indigenous identity in a country that often projected an image of whiteness and European heritage”. The Costa Rican government’s imposition of an Indigenous identity on residents of Chorotega was a convenient way of removing that label from everyone else who resided outside of that particular place, using the assigned indigeneity of some to reassure others of their Europeanness. Karen Stocker’s chapter, based on ethnographic research carried out between 1993 and 2007, addresses how various residents of the Chorotega reservation, those who live just outside the reservation, scholars, legal discourse, historical discourse, those who have resided or studied in other Costa Rican reservations and, more recently, the tourism industry have “defined Indigenous identity in contradictory ways, and in manners that have had varying consequences for those labeled as Chorotega in Costa Rica”. She addresses the history and impact of these multiple competing definitions. Stocker traces the ways in which “one set of customs has gone from Indigenous to non-Indigenous, national custom, and back again, as a result of the shifting of discourses around it”. Stocker spotlights what she finds to be “a common thread through all of these definitions and interpretations of indigeneity,” and that is “the role of place, and how the same concept that mired inhabitants of the Chorotega reservation in discrimination now serves to authenticate its practices”.

Chapter Six Carib Identity, Racial Politics, and the Problem of Indigenous Recognition in Trinidad and Tobago, pages 172-193 Maximilian C. Forte (Concordia University, Anthropology)


My own chapter in this volume, based on four years of ethnographic research and ethnohistoric research dating to early colonial times, shares some features similar to both those by Donna Patrick and Karen Stocker. On the one hand, the state’s recognition of only one single, organized Indigenous community in just one of Trinidad’s 16 former mission towns—the Santa Rosa Carib Community in Arima, on the island of Trinidad—makes it seem, however implausibly, that indigeneity was somehow contained and delimited (which instead reflects the state’s bias in how indigeneity ought to be controlled and secluded). On the other hand, in articulating their own indigenous identity, members of the Carib Community point to a multitude of factors, beyond but including race, to include a history of residence in Arima. The structure of this chapter follows three basic lines of argument: first, that the political economy of the British colony dictated and cemented racializations of identity. Second, the process of ascribing Indigenous identities to individuals was governed by the economic rights attached to residents of missions, rights which were cut off from any miscegenated offspring. There were thus political and economic interests vested in the non-recognition of Caribs, and race provided the most convenient justification—a justification that took the form of a narrative of extinction. Third, over a century later, while racial notions of identity persist, current Carib self-identifications stress indigeneity as a cultural heritage, an attachment to place, a body of practices, and recognition of ancestral ties that often circumvent explicitly racial schemes of self-definition. State recognition of the Caribs occurs within this historical and cultural context, and therefore imposes limits and conditions that simultaneously create new forms of non-recognition.

Chapter Seven Encountering Indigeneity: The International Funding of Indigeneity in Peru, pages 194-217 José Antonio Lucero (University of Washington, The Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies)


As José Antonio Lucero explains in this volume, “blood” is already incorporated in national ideologies of race-mixture, and is not specific and particular enough to be used as part of the regimes of identifying the Indigenous. As Lucero adds, “in a region where ‘everyone’ has native blood, but not everyone is ‘Indian’ the social category and social fact of Indianness rely, necessarily, less on biology or blood than on the intersecting socio-cultural workings of politics, language, place, class, and gender”. More specifically, Lucero's chapter takes the work of Oxfam America as the focus of his case study, as it has been among “the earliest funders of Indigenous activism”. His chapter examines two different moments in the interactive process of legitimation between organizations such as Oxfam America and Indigenous political organizations in Peru, “as actors on both sides of the development encounter shape discourses over the meanings of development and indigeneity across local and global scales”. The “geopolitics of recognition” is what Lucero conceptualizes as regimes of indigeneity that span local, national and global scales. Lucero discusses how Indigenous people throughout the Americas (and beyond) have often found it inevitable, and sometimes useful, to engage a variety of legal, economic, and political systems. “Since the first contacts with missionaries,” he writes, “the state, and agents of global capital, Indigenous people have found that new systems of domination are not without points of entry within which they can contest the very terms of domination,” and in the present context, “the rising importance of non-state actors in the wake of aggressive neoliberal economic reforms (which shrank already weak states) provided an additional set of opportunities that Indigenous people have been able to use” (Lucero, this volume). However, one of the problems for Indigenous actors bound in relationships with external agencies is that the reconstruction of indigeneity that results is often Janus-faced, where “some discourses are for external consumption and have little to do with the lived ‘social fact’ of indigeneity at the local level”.

Chapter Eight The Color of Race: Indians and Progress in a Center-Left Brazil, pages 218-223 Jonathan Warren (University of Washington, International Studies, Chair of Latin American Studies)


Jonathan Warren begins by telling us that "since the 1990s a large number of Brazilian Indigenous communities have been federally recognized, successfully acquired land, established their own schools, and achieved a higher degree of autonomy and self-determination. Furthermore, anti-Indian violence is no longer condoned by the Brazilian government; racism has been officially acknowledged; race-cognizant government policies, such as affirmative action, have replaced race-neutral ones; and a number of antiracist commissions and initiatives have been established at federal, state and municipal levels. Finally, the first centre-left politicians in Brazilian history, Luiz Ignacio Lula da Silva (2003–2010) and Dilma Rousseff (2011–present), both of the Workers’ Party, have controlled the executive branch of government for almost a decade. Given these substantial changes, one could be forgiven for expecting a positive report on the state of Indigenous affairs in contemporary Brazil. Unfortunately, the outlook is rather dim. Perhaps most surprising is that many of the culprits are from the centre-left, namely the Workers’ Party, social scientists, and sectors of the movimento negro". Jonathan Warren’s chapter reveals to us that in Brazil, the racial question, and thus conceptions of antiracism—like much of “critical race studies,” he adds—simply removes the Indian from analysis, as if Indian subjectivities were entirely irrelevant. A key example of how this has occurred in critical race studies comes from Howard Winant’s very own analysis of racism in Brazil, which singles out Africans. This is odd, as Warren finds, given that as many as a third of Brazilians have some Indian ancestry. As Warren explains in this volume, Brazilian Indians are removed from the racial question in Brazil: “race is reduced to a question of blackness”. Indeed, throughout Latin America, Warren sees that Indigenous peoples are “not considered germane to race matters,” and quoting Peter Wade he adds: “the virtually unquestioned assumptions [prevails] that the study of blacks is one of racism and race relations, while the study of Indians is that of ethnicity and ethnic groups”. Warren also shows that phenotype is present in Brazilian estimations of “authentic” and “real” Indigenous identities, with those who have African and European features routinely dismissed as “racial charlatans,” in ways that echo experiences both in the U.S. and the Caribbean. Warren’s chapter is critical to this volume’s contention that race is a problem that needs to be studied in connection with indigeneity, not apart from it. His argument is critical not only for developing critical race studies, but also for political practice: the antiracist movement in Brazil cannot be just a Black movement.

ConclusionSeeing Beyond the State and Thinking beyond the State of Sight, pages 234-241 Maximilian C. Forte (Concordia University, Sociology and Anthropology)


Rather than restating or summarizing the contents of this volume, the Conclusion helps to sketch some of the ways in which critical Indigenous perspectives have sought to develop alternative ideas and practices of indigeneity and indigenization. In a hemisphere which sees, in most cases, Indigenous Peoples moving to cities, and an increased decoupling of indigeneity and territoriality, along with the incursion of the industrialization of ethnic ascription--the commerce in genetic identities--these issues become especially important. The volume closes with a sharp reminder of why "Who is an Indian?" is a bad question that produces even worse answers, and what our task as intellectuals ought to be when confronted with such questions.

Contributors, pages 243-246
Index, pages 247-254

A Little About the Contributors

Julia M. Coates (Cherokee Nation, Tahlequah, Oklahoma) is presently at the University of California, Los Angeles. Her title is Senior Writer/ Oral Interviewer in American Indian History for the Center for Oral History Research of the Charles Young Research Library. At the time of writing she was an assistant professor in the Department of Native American Studies at the University of California, Davis. Her research interests cover Native American diasporas, history, identity, women, and politics. She has conducted participant-observation fieldwork with hundreds of Cherokee citizens in California, Texas, and New Mexico. Coates also helped to form numerous Cherokee community organizations throughout California and in other states. For over six years, she was the project director and lead instructor for the award-winning Cherokee Nation history course, which brought her into personal contact with most of the employees of the Cherokee Nation, along with thousands of Cherokees in northeastern Oklahoma communities and throughout the country. She also serves on the Tribal Council of the Cherokee Nation as its “At Large” representative. At UC Davis she teaches the Introduction to Native American Studies as well as classes on race, women, development and history within Native America.

Eva Marie Garroutte (Cherokee Nation) is an associate professor in the Department of Sociology at Boston College. She has a background of research and publication related to the study of Native American issues, health and aging, racial/ethnic identity, and religion. She is the author of the influential book Real Indians: Identity and the Survival of Native America (University of California Press) and various articles in sociological and health-related journals. In collaboration with Cherokee Nation Health Services, she has conducted a series of research projects funded by the National Institute on Aging to examine medical communication needs among American Indian elders using tribal clinics. Her current service on editorial advisory boards includes the Journal of Native Aging and Health, American Indian Quarterly, and the University of Arizona Press series Critical Issues in Indigenous Studies. She is a past Area Commissioner of Indian Affairs in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Bonita Lawrence (Mi’kmaw) is an associate professor at the School of Social Sciences of the Atkinson Faculty of Liberal and Professional Studies at York University in Toronto, Canada, where she teaches Indigenous Studies and anti-racism. Her research and publications have focused primarily on urban, non-status, and Métis identities, federally unrecognized Aboriginal communities, and Indigenous justice. She is the author of “Real” Indians and Others: Mixed-Blood Urban Native People and Indigenous Nationhood (UBC Press), and co-editor of Strong Women’s Stories: Native Vision and Community Survival, a collection of Native women’s scholarly and activist writing (Sumach Press). She is a traditional singer who sings with groups in Kingston and Toronto at Native social and political gatherings.

José Antonio Lucero is an assistant professor in the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies, at the University of Washington in Seattle. He is the author of Struggles of Voice: The Politics of Indigenous Representation in the Andes (University of Pittsburgh Press) and the editor of Beyond the Lost Decade: Indigenous Movements, Democracy, and Development in Latin America (Princeton University Program in Latin American Studies). He teaches courses on government, politics, and social movements in Latin America, among others. His research interests focus on comparative politics, Latin American politics, democratization, social movements, and the politics of race and ethnicity.

Donna Patrick is professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology and the School of Canadian Studies at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. Her current SSHRC-funded research focuses on multiliteracies, identity, and community-building among urban Inuit in Ottawa. Her other interests lie in the broader area of Indigeneity and urban Aboriginality in Canada, as well as in the political, social, and cultural aspects of language use, with a focus on language endangerment discourse and Aboriginal languages in Canada. Her 2003 book, Language Politics and Social Interaction in an Inuit Community (Mouton de Gruyter), examines these issues in Arctic Quebec. She teaches courses in language, culture, and power and in Aboriginal and northern issues, with a focus on the Arctic. In teaching and research, Donna approaches the study of Aboriginal issues, language, and discourse through an interdisciplinary lens, focusing on historical, geographical, and social processes.

C. Matthew Snipp is a professor in the Department of Sociology at Stanford University where, among other positions, he has been the director of the Center for Comparative Studies of Race and Ethnicity. He teaches courses in contemporary and historical American Indian Studies as well as rural sociology. He is the author of American Indians: The First of the Land (The Russell Sage Foundation, New York), which was selected as an academic book of the year by CHOICE.

Karen Stocker is an assistant professor in the Department of Anthropology at California State University, Fullerton. She is a scholar of applied anthropology with interests in education, the social constructions of race and ethnicity, language, and Latin American ethnography. She is the author of “I Won’t Stay Indian, I’ll Keep Studying”: Race, Place and Discrimination in a Costa Rican High School (Colorado University Press).

Jonathan W. Warren is an associate professor in the Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies at the University of Washington in Seattle, where he is also the director of the Latin American and Caribbean Contributors Studies Program. Within the broad area of critical race studies he has focused on Whiteness, racism literacy, racial identity formations, and the links between everyday practices and racism in the U.S. and Brazil. He is the author of the highly regarded book Racial Revolutions: Antiracism and Indian Resurgence in Brazil (Duke University Press).

...and myself.

          Return of the First Nations.        

Return of the First Nations.
By Angelo Bissessarsingh
Trinidad Guardian | Sunday, August 18, 2013

A Warao homestead in 1900

"In parts of Trinidad, there are places with the names Indian Trail or Indian Walk. These have nothing to do with Indo-Trinidadians but with the first peoples of the nation. Many roads that wind sinuously atop ridges also follow old footpaths beaten out through centuries of traversing. In the 17th century, encomiendas or estates were formed by the Spanish colonists where the native Amerindians were herded to become de facto slaves. Only slightly better were the missions established by Capuchin monks from 1687-90 and 1758-86. By 1770, the Amerindians had been decimated by disease and ill usage. Those belonging to the old missions in the north were marshalled in 1786 to a new allotment around the church of Santa Rosa in Arima and the arrangement was described thus in 1857 by Louis A DeVerteuil: “The village of Arima was, for a long time, an Indian mission. Soon after the settlement of the colony, these Indians had been formed into two missions, at Tacarigua and Arima. But as the formation of ingenios, or sugar estates, was proceeding eastward, they were removed to the quarter of Arima, where a village was formed, and houses built by them, on about one thousand acres which had been granted for the formation of a mission, along the right bank of the river, and as the full and unalienable property of the inhabitants. The mission of Arima was settled and governed on the same plan as all such establishments in the Spanish colonies. The Indians had their own municipal government, the first and second alcalde being chosen from among themselves, but under the control of the missionary priest.”

"In the same year, those settled in the south at the foot of Mt Naparima were sent to the Mission of Savanna Grande (Princes Town) in order to make way for the new town of San Fernando. While the people of Arima prospered and mixed into other populations, those at Savanna Grande were seized by apathy due to abuse from those appointed to oversee their welfare. By the time the mission was scrapped in 1840, the Amerindians had fled to South America to live among the Warao of the Orinoco Delta or else had retreated to the high woods. By 1850, there remained almost no evidence that Savanna Grande was once home to the second largest indigenous population in Trinidad. Nevertheless, a strange return occurred every year which saw first peoples coming out of the mangrove swamps of the mainland to visit Trinidad hinted at by EB Underhill in 1862: “The village retains the name of “The Mission,” and has still its Catholic church; but the Indians have long abandoned it, a few only once a year coming over from the continent of South America to pay a brief visit to the graves of their ancestors, and to gather the fruits of the forest in which they formerly lived. They bring with them a few rude baskets and mats for sale.”

"With the passing of the years, those who left Trinidad died but this did not stem the flow of communication between the first peoples and the land from which they were driven. San Fernando Hill (Annaparima) is a sacred place to the Warao and regular pilgrimages were made to this place. The landings would take place on beaches of the south coast such as Erin and Quinam with the silent men and women scantily clad, as was their custom, making their way along long-forgotten pathways to visit their ancestral places and also to trade. San Fernando was a major destination and their arrival never ceased to cause a stir as the ladies of the town sometimes cast clothing on the women to cover their nakedness. Baskets, hammocks and parrots were the trade goods and sometimes gold nuggets from the El Callao mines. Into the well-stocked mercantiles of High Street they went and bartered for shirts, cloth and sometimes fancy items like alarm clocks. Once, an intolerant inspector of the constabulary had a hapless band of these people arrested for indecency owing to their nakedness. These visits were common well into the 1930s but seemed to wane with the advent of World War II and the heavy military presence in the waters around Trinidad. All the same, there are sources who tell that as late as the 1960s canoes were beached at Puerto Grande near Erin and these ancient peoples wended their way across paths known only to them, returning before sunset and departing over the horizon."

          First Peoples Lament Scarcity of Timite Palm.        
First Peoples lament scarcity of Timite palm.
By Heather-Dawn Herrera
Trinidad and Tobago Express | Aug 7, 2013 at 10:42 PM ECT

"Many of us only see the Timite palm when its leaves cover the roof of the Benab of the First Peoples. To locate growing Timite you have to travel to such areas as Tapana and Matura where there is soil that is poorly drained and swampy. This is the true habitat of the Timite manicaria saccifera
The leaves of the Timite are harvested by our First Peoples to thatch their Benab, a large conical hut or shelter used as a meeting place.

"Cristo Adonis, Pyai of the Santa Rosa First Peoples Community, formerly known as the Santa Rosa Carib Community, has been harvesting Timite leaves since younger days.

“Sankarali Trace in Tapana was always the place where Timite grew profusely. The wet soil conditions supported an abundance of this palm. Some people wonder why we use the Timite and not carat as other groups do.

"The Timite leaf is one of the largest in the palm species. This means that it covers a wider area and you use less leaves as a result. It is also preferred because of its durability, coolness and water proofing.

"This is an example of how the First Peoples practise sustainable use of their natural environment. When we harvest the Timite, we collect the larger leaves on the outside, then a few of the younger leaves closer on the inside. The younger leaves are used for the top of the Benab and the larger for the sides. We do not harvest all the small leaves because you need to leave them for the palm to continue healthy growth. We clear away the vines that might be threatening to fester the palm. Again, this is our way of living sustainably.”

"What Adonis and the other men of the community now find when they go to harvest the Timite is that there is an alarming scarcity.


DESTROYED: Quarrying has destroyed much of the natural vegetation of Tapana. 
—Photo: Heather-Dawn Herrera

“We now have to search further for the Timite because most of the areas where this palm used to flourish are now being quarried on a large scale. We also find that not only quarrying is causing the destruction of these habitats but an influx of ad hoc gardens. People have entered the area and cut down large tracts of native vegetation. Permits are issued to us by the Forestry Division to harvest the Timite but I doubt that these gardeners get permission to use the land in like manner.

"What these people don’t know is that when they clear these areas, this leads to the drying out of these habitats. The resident vegetation cannot survive in drained soil. They need swampy conditions for successful growth. We now see a scarcity of the Timite. We see one Cocorite palm here and there fighting to survive but of the Timite, there has been significant loss.

"Timite grows by the seed and if there are no bearing trees to disperse seed into the water for new plants to grow then this is the beginning of the end for this palm that is so important to us First Peoples. It takes three years for the Timite to be mature enough for harvesting and six years for us to get those really large leaves

"Twenty five acres of land have been returned to the First Peoples by the State. This land is in an area where the eco-systems are vastly different from that that supports growth of the Timite. We therefore cannot transfer the Timite to this area because it would disturb the balance of the hilly natural environment.

"What might be possible and more feasible is for the State to grant us at least five acres of land at Tapana where we can maintain a thriving Timite plantation. We see this as saving that part of our landscape from certain desertification, preventing the total disappearance of the Timite palm, and ensuring the continuity of our intangible heritage.”

“Some people don’t care about maintaining a clean environment. They are making the Tapana area the alternative dump to that of Guanapo. It is shameful to meet all types of garbage dumped along the roadway into the area. We need to preserve this part of Trinidad and not destroy it.

"When these habitats have been destroyed and the Timite has been lost forever, then the First Peoples way of life will be seriously impacted. The art of sewing the Timite for thatching is not generally known outside the community and we are in the process of passing this information on to those who are interested. This is all part of our intangible heritage and we fear that this might soon be lost if the present rate of destruction of landscapes continues.”

          EL OPIO VERDE        
Por Julio Arturo COUOH

La gran mayoría de los ojos mediáticos y de los aficionados está puesta en lo que hará la selección mexicana varonil en San Pedro Sula, en contra de Honduras. Una apuesta de bajo nivel futbolístico, pero de gran potencialidad en pingues ganancias.
Podríamos decir que tanto en esta eliminatoria como en la eventual calificación a la siguiente ronda millones están en juego, y es que a nivel selección, Concacaf se ha convertido en un auténtico casino, mientras que a nivel clubes, lo es la participación de los representantes del balompié azteca en la Conmebol.
En cuanto a amistosos, es preferible jugar en Estados Unidos, donde sin lugar a dudas y en cualquier lugar que se presente el tricolor, es un hecho que los aficionados mexicanos que residen al otro lado dejarán lo poco o mucho que puedan traer en sus carteras en las arcas de Soccer United Marketing (la compañía operativa que maneja la promoción de la selección) y por ende en la Federación Mexicana de Fútbol.
Aunque ahora resulta un poco más complicado ante el hecho de la crisis que ha causado estragos globalmente, e inclusive ha hecho que se tomen decisiones en organismos como la propia Femexfut para fijar los contratos de los jugadores en pesos y no dólares, como ya se había estandarizado.
Mucho se habla de Nery, de los “europeos” o los que militan en el extranjero, de que si Ericksson fue la elección correcta o resultó precipitada, de que si se calificará realmente a la siguiente fase hexagonal para llegar a Sudáfrica 2010, aunque también se encuentra un fantasma que continuamente reaparece.
Ese es el fantasma de los tristemente célebres premundiales de Haití, cuando se perdió por goliza ante Trinidad y Tobago, o el de principios de los 80’, en aquella eliminatoria celebrada en Honduras, cuando no se pudo llegar a España 82.
Los antecedentes los hay y el fantasma se esconde, se pasea entre las redacciones de los diferentes diarios, entre las ondas hertzianas, entre los tonos primarios en amarillo, magenta y cyan de las señales televisivas.
Se habla de ello, pero no se desea, así de sencillo. Pero, por el otro lado se encuentra un capítulo del que muy poco se habla, especialmente cuando se trata de balompié femenil, al ver los grandes retos que con no mucho presupuesto tratan de afrontar los entrenadores Leonardo Cuellar y Andrea Rodebaugh.
Independientemente de los resultados y en sus proporciones respectivas, ambos (Rodenbaugh y Cuellar) son ejemplos de continuidad en un camino largo y quizá mucho más difícil que el de la selección mayor, en la que sin lugar a dudas hay mayores intereses de por medio, a cargo de las televisoras y de las firmas patrocinadoras.
No es mucho lo que se maneja en torno al hecho de que en cuestión de días se llevará a cabo el mundial femenil Sub-20 en territorio chileno, hacia donde partirá un equipo mexicano en cuyas filas se encuentra una jugadora oriunda de Baja California, como es el caso de Inglis Hernández.

          Record-breaking 47 young trade unionists participate in May Day brigade in Cuba        


The British and Irish 2017 May Day brigade delegation
A record-breaking 47 young trade unionists and activists from Britain and Ireland participated in the 12th annual Cuba Solidarity Campaign (CSC) young trade unionists’ May Day brigade to Cuba.
The largest ever CSC delegation - representing millions of workers from across the British and Irish trade union movement including delegates from Unite, UNISON, TSSA, GMB, RMT and CWU - took part in a full programme of solidarity and agricultural work, conferences, meetings, visits and exchanges with the Cuban people.
A total of 286 brigadistas from 29 countries – demonstrating the excellent range of international solidarity with Cuba – attended the brigade where they took part in solidarity work and learned how they could support Cuba’s ongoing struggle to end the illegal US blockade of the island.
The brigade was mostly spent at the Julio Antonio Mella International Camp (CIJAM) in rural Cuba,near Caimito, Artemisia province, 40km away from Havana. Conditions on the camp were basic, with shared dormitory accommodation, basic meals and cold water showers, but the delegates fully embraced the inspirational atmosphere on the camp of internationalism and solidarity.
Performing agricultural work
All continents were represented at CIJAM, with brigadistas attending from countries including Chile, Brazil, Congo, Zambia, Switzerland, Korea, Australia, Ukraine and many more. For the first time ever, a United States delegation took part in the brigade, with 50 activists representing the US, including Black Lives Matter activists from Chicago alongside solidarity activists from Chicago, LA, Philadelphia and New York.
In addition to the opportunity to speak to Cubans about their lives and experiences under US blockade, the international camp was an excellent environment for the young members to share ideas and exchanges with trade unionists and activists from all around the world.
Delegates took part in agricultural work based locally to the camp included weeding, cutting crass, cleaning and clearing rocks and sticks. Grass was cut by hand using machetes, giving the young members a brief insight into the difficulties of agricultural work under the blockade in Cuba, as many resources are difficult to obtain.

Brick making at a co-operative in Artemisa
The brigade visited local co-operatives in Artemisia, which are playing an increasingly significant role in Cuba’s economy. Agriculture is the largest sector in Artemisia province, and the co-operatives visited produced a variety of fruits such as coconuts and mangoes, vegetables, sugar, cattle, milk and beans. The co-ops also produced non-agricultural products, such as brick making. Over 330 workers were employed at the cooperative the brigade visited, where the workers were paid a monthly salary plus shares of the profits.
May Day
Havana May Day march
The highlight of the brigade for many of the young workers was the spectacular May Day rally in Havana, under the banner of “Unity is our Strength”. Over 800,000 Cubans from the Havana province marched through the capital - and other huge marches took part in each of Cuba’s 16 provinces.
May Day 2017 in Havana
Half of the delegation joined the huge rally, where they marched alongside the Cuban workers in Havana, and the other half watched from the tribune at Revolution Square alongside hundreds of international guests and trade unionists, where they stood near to the Cuban President Raul Castro, Ulises Guilarte CTC (Cuban TUC) General Secretary and four of the Miami Five Cuban heroes.
This was the first May Day since the passing of the historic leader of the Cuban Revolution, Fidel Castro. The event featured many tributes, images and banners celebrating the leader, and chants of ‘Viva Fidel!’ and ‘Yo Soy Fidel!’ erupted from the crowd.
International Solidarity with Cuba Conference
On May 2 the brigade participated in the International Solidarity with Cuba Conference at the Palace of Conventions in Havana. This unique opportunity, as official guests of the CTC, allowed young members to participate in a conference in a prestigious venue where Cuba’s parliamentarians meet and state visits are held.

International Solidarity with Cuba Conference
The conference featured many high level Cuban politicians and trade unionists and was attended by over 1,000 international solidarity activists and trade unionists from around the world.
Esteemed guests and speakers included Salvador Valdés Mesa, a vice president of the Council of State, Ana Teresita González Fraga, Vice Minister for Foreign Affairs, Raymundo Navarro, International Secretary CTC (Cuban TUC), Teresa Amarelle Boué, General Secretary of the Federation of Cuban Women (FMC), José Ramón Balaguer Cabrera, member of the Secretariat of the PCC Central Committee and head of its International Relations Department, Fernando González Llort, President of the Cuban Institute of Friendship with Peoples (ICAP), and the General Secretary and Vice President of the World Federation of Trade Unions, George Mavrikos and Valentin Pachu.
Ana Teresita González gave a detailed update on Cuban foreign policy and the island's relations across the globe. The Vice Minister stressed that despite the 2015 re-establishment of diplomatic relations with the United States, the US blockade of the island remains in place and Guantanamo Bay continues to be illegally occupied by the US.
Furthermore, Miami Five hero Fernando González said; “When we hear in the media that the U.S. government is improving its relations with Cuba, it does not mean that the blockade has been eliminated, the blockade against the Cuban people continues.”
Highlighting the importance of international solidarity - which he said played a key role in the successful struggle for his and all the Miami Five’s freedom - Fernando called on those present to continue their support for the end of the blockade and the closure of the Guantánamo Naval Base and the return of this illegally occupied territory to the Cuban people.
UNISON Scotland delegate Jenni Gunn was interviewed by the national Cuban paper Granma International at the Conference. “You hear a lot about the politics of the Revolution but it really transcends into the social aspect of Cuba as well… the people of Cuba are just some of the warmest people I’ve ever met,” Jenni said in the interview. Unite Ireland delegate Conor McGuinness also gave an interview to Cuban television during the conference.
Cienfuegos
Doctor at the Cienfuegos Hospital
A three day trip to Cienfuegos was included in the programme to visit hospitals, universities and communities in the region. The delegation stayed at Hotel Pasacaballo, a hotel which recently was used to accommodate patients as part of Operation Miracle, a joint Cuban-Venezuelan initiative which restored the eyesight of 4 million people across Latin America, the Caribbean, Africa and Asia.
Before visiting Cienfuegos, the brigade the visited Che Guevara Memorial and the Armoured train in Santa Clara - the site of the Battle of Santa Clara, where Che’s battalion attacked a train carrying weapons for Batista, a defining moment which ultimately led to the triumph Cuban Revolution.
Medical students from Western Sahara
Visits in Cienfuegos included the Dr Gustavo Alderguia Lima University General Hospital, where the delegates were given a presentation from a doctor at the hospital and later met with medical students from Cuba and overseas.
In addition to free university and medical school education that Cuba provides for its own citizens, the socialist island also offers free medical scholarships to young people from across the developing world. At the University Hospital in the delegation met with students from a wide range of countries including South Africa, Venezuela, Bolivia and Western Sahara.
At a welcome event in Cienfuegos, featuring performances by local musicians and artists, Unite Ireland delegate Conor McGuinness spoke on behalf of the delegation, calling on the US to end the blockade of Cuba and sending solidarity greetings on behalf of the British and Irish trade union movement.
Conor McGuinness speaks on behalf of our delegation
A local CDR (Committees for the Defence of the Revolution) in Cienfuegos welcomed the entire 286-strong brigade to their community with welcome songs, dancing, speeches and food for their international guests.
The event provided a great opportunity to speak to the Cuban people about their lives, politics and society, with some brigadistas welcomed into the homes of the community, including one with a plaque that was visited by Raul Castro and Hugo Chavez, the late Venezuelan President. The community’s houses visited were built as part of a joint Cuba-Venezuela project to host international delegates at the 2007 Petrocaribe Summit in Cienfuegos. The newly built houses were then provided to the local community following the end of the conference.
Many trade unions had raised material aid for their delegates to take over with them to the island, as due to the blockade Cuba struggles to obtain many essential items. The material aid included sanitary products, condoms, pens, paper and notebooks. Some of the material aid was presented to the Co-ordinator of the CDR, and more material aid was re-distributed by ICAP in Artemisa.
Amongst a packed schedule there was also free time to explore, visit museums, historical sites and practice speaking Spanish in Havana, Cienfuegos and Trinidad.
International Solidarity with Cuba
The brigade saw first-hand the achievements of the Cuban Revolution; world class hospitals, universities training Cuban and international medicine students for free; hundreds of thousands of proud Cubans marching in unity and celebrating their achievements; and trade unions and mass organisations directly involved in the running and legislation of their country. Yet if the blockade was to be lifted, Cuba could achieve so much more.
With the recent election of US President Donald Trump, who has appointed some key pro-blockade lobbyists into leading roles in his administration, the Cuban people made clear that international solidarity with the island is now more important than ever.
TSSA delegate Gary Kilroy spoke on behalf of the delegation at a concluding meeting at CIJAM. He spoke of the delegation’s inspiration that they had got from the brigade and their commitment to campaigning in their trade union and in CSC on their return home to end the US blockade and return the Guantanamo Bay area to the Cuban people.


Brigadista feedback:
“Visiting Cuba with CSC has been an inspirational opportunity to see the benefits of progressive, people-focused politics first-hand. It was incredible to witness the achievements of Cuban society in terms of health, education and social well being, despite the harsh limitations imposed by the blockade. Despite recent improvements in diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba, the island is still under economic siege from its giant neighbour. The illegal and inhumane US blockade of Cuba must be lifted, and international solidarity and support will be key to achieving this.” Conor McGuinness, Unite Ireland
“Witnessing first hand the strength and resolve of the Cuban people, and their commitment to their revolution was awe-inspiring… This small Caribbean Island stands as a beacon of hope for all oppressed people across the world and it certainly has filled me with the determination to take the message of the revolution home with me - that it is possible to feed every hungry child, that it is possible to guarantee that every citizen has the right to a world class education and the right to a long and healthy life. It has shown me the importance of international solidarity and how these bonds are essential in challenging the US blockade and supporting the sovereignty of the Cuban people in their struggle at Guantanamo. This trip has been life changing, and has given me the determination to get more active within my own union and in the Cuba Solidarity Campaign, to spread the word that Cuba needs our solidarity now, more than ever.” Jenni Gunn, UNISON Scotland
“I’m hugely thankful to have been given this once-in-a lifetime opportunity to see a side of Cuba that most tourists won’t. It was a real privilege to meet so many local community activists along with delegates from different countries all over the world, with an absolute highlight being able to attend the May Day parade in Havana. Overall, the experience has certainly strengthened my resolve to help towards building a fairer society over here too, and I really hope to return to Cuba one day.” Katie Roskams, Unite North East, Yorkshire & Humberside Region
“All in all, Cuba is an amazing and extremely interesting country that has a lot to be proud of. Top class health care, astounding education system and not one homeless person in the whole country. Viva Cuba!” Danie Chance, Unite East Midlands
“Cubans are so proud of their country and it’s so clear why, because I would be too! The brigade made me passionate about promoting the end to the blockade and the closure of Guantanamo Bay. Not enough people know about what’s happened in Cuba and the massive injustice Cubans have suffered, and I want to help put that right.” Cathy Kamara, Unite National Publishing Branch
“Visiting Cuba has inspired me and given me hope. It's reinforced that there is a viable and adequate alternative to what the majority of us currently live under - something that can and will supersede the greed of capitalism. Cuba has made great achievements in health care and education, despite the US blockade and their continued attempts to destabilise the. If the blockade was listed the country could achieve so much more. This wouldn't only benefit the Cuban people, but the rest of the world. Solidarity is crucial and we must continue to educate ourselves and others about the real situation with Cuba.” Jamie George, CWU
“Going to Cuba with CSC was a fantastic experience I have come home with a lot more knowledge on Cuban history and how the country runs now and how important helping to campaign and fight the illegal blockade that the USA has imposed on the country. Going forward I want to get branches affiliated to CSC and get more young members the opportunity to go to Cuba with CSC and give them the experience I had volunteering with agricultural work seeing the hospitals and see how real socialism works. This whole experience has given me so much more enthusiasm and a fresh way of looking at campaigning back home. I encourage everyone to go to Cuba and see this amazing country and the amazing people who live there." Rebecca Mitchell, GMB Birmingham and West Midlands Region
“Going to Cuba with an open mind has enthused and enriched me politically by allowing me to see what can be achieved in a country where everyone is fighting for the same cause. Seeing first-hand the successes in public healthcare and education, it can only beg the question of what may be possible without the harsh blockade imposed by the USA, affecting every Cuban daily. Lifting the blockade will allow Cubans to have viable links to international markets, particularly its closest neighbours, the US. Without the blockade, Cuba would be able to export its products to the US and import essentials such as medical supplies and food, therefore benefiting everyone. International solidarity is critical for Cuba, to show that they are not on their own in their struggle for a fair society, to show that we do not support the unlawful blockade and to ultimately pressure the USA into ending it, as this is the only way Cuba will be able to develop and succeed to their full potential.” Harry Gibb, TSSA
"Cuba has achieved so much in every single sector despite the illegal blockade from the USA. Healthcare, education and social security are the sectors that Cuba sets an example to all countries. Being a brigadista with the CSC May Day brigade was an honour, having the chance to experience first hand the simple life and values of Cuban people and their everyday struggle to overpass the difficulties caused by the illegal blockade… Solidarity to everyone with common interests, without discrimination - that is Cuba's message to the world. Solidarity to the unions everywhere, to every government and movement trying to do the best thing for its people and solidarity to Cuba! That is the message as a brigadista that I will try to pass on.” Naya Posotidou, Unite National Publishing Branch

 â€œFor all the warmth, welcome and love that the Cubans shared with us, we need to return their solidarity by dispelling the myths about their country. We need to double our efforts to put political pressure on our MP’s to campaign for the United States to finally lift the blockade. We need to show our practical solidarity and organise to support them any way we can. I have huge admiration of the Cuban people and their achievements, but even more could be achieved if the blockade was lifted and Cuba could trade its goods with the world.” Chris Trestrail, Unite Scotland

"The experience of visiting Cuba has broadened my horizons beyond U.K politics and helped me to begin to develop an understanding of socialism in practice. British trade unions have a long history of solidarity with Latin America and I am incredibly proud to be a part of that tradition. It is inspiring to see a country put the well-being of its population first. Health, education and housing are not treated as extras but as fundamental rights. I have made friends for life through my involvement in the Cuba Solidarity Campaign. I will continue to express solidarity with the Cuban people until the blockade is lifted and Guantanamo is returned". Gwen Cross, Unite South East Region

“Overall, my trip to Cuba was hugely influential and really inspiring… The Brigade showed us all aspects of Cuban life from Health to Education to Agriculture and to be able to participate and work alongside them not as tourists but instead as friends and supporters was a hugely humbling and powerful experience.” Luke Addison

“Going to Cuba with an open mind I was blown away with the people that I met and the knowledge I gained. From start to finish it was educational and entertaining. My eyes were opened by talking with the Cuban people. Their struggle to end the blockade is a bigger struggle than many people will ever face in a lifetime, but they were happy and full of optimism for the future. The passion they showed for their struggle will live with me forever and for that reason I will be hoping to return in 2018, hopefully seeing Cuba marching forward to victory in ending the blockade! VIVA CUBA!” Ciaran Dwyer

For more brigade photos, visit the CSC Flickr page

For more information on Cuba Solidarity Campaign, visit the CSC Website
If you are interested in attending the 2018 May Day brigade, please get in touch with Ollie Hopkins, CSC Campaigns Officer

Gwen Cross, Unite South East delegate on May Day
UNISON delegates march on May Day


GMB Delegates Rebecca Mitchell and Joe Spicer on May Day

          Action Alert: Petition Philippine Government to Halt Attacks on Civil Society Groups        
Cultural Survival and the Cordillera People's Alliance issued action alerts for the disappearance of indigenous activist James Balao. The contents of Cultural Survival's petition are copied below. We encourage our readers to consider signing the petition:

Philippine indigenous activist James Balao went missing on Sept. 17th in La Trinidad town in Benguet province. His disappearance could be connected to his work as a defender of human rights among the indigenous people of northern Luzon. Balao is the founder of the Cordillera People's Alliance (CPA). Members of military intelligence and police have been linked to his abduction. He is the second CPA member to disappear since 1987. Two other CPA members were murdered by unidentified assailants two years ago. For more information: www.cpaphils.org.

Write a letter or send an email urging the government of the Philippines to probe the disappearance of Balao and to observe international covenants on human rights by halting attacks on members of civil society groups.
H.E. Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
President of the Republic
Malacañang Palace,
JP Laurel St., San Miguel
Manila Philippines
E-mail: corres@op.gov.ph / erermita@pop.gov.ph

Dear President Macapagal-Arroyo:

I am deeply disturbed about the "disappearance" of Cordillera Peoples Alliance co-founder and member James M. Balao on September 17, 2008, following months of surveillance. The circumstances of his abduction suggest that military intelligence agents had a role in it. Since then, his family has had no information regarding his whereabouts.

Since the Philippine government implemented its Operation Plan Bantay Laya in 2001, members and leaders of organizations working for Indigenous Peoples' rights, such as the Cordillera Peoples Alliance, have been unjustly labeled communist fronts and terrorist organizations. Their leaders have received death threats, and have been kidnapped and killed.

We urgently call for the democratic government of the Philippines to categorically reject the illegal and globally condemned practices of past military dictatorships; and urge you, as the Philippines Commander in Chief, to leave no stone unturned until James Balao's place of detention is identified, those responsible are arrested, and he is returned to his family and community.

Sincerely yours,
          Mycroft Holmes        
Mycroft Holmes
author: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar
name: Mark
average rating: 3.57
book published: 2015
rating: 3
read at: 2016/03/08
date added: 2016/03/08
shelves:
review:
Mycroft Holmes
Author: Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Anna Waterhouse
Publisher: Titan Books
Published In: London, England, United Kingdom
Date: 2015
Pgs: 328

REVIEW MAY CONTAIN SPOILERS

Summary:
Troubling reports are arriving from Trinidad; disappearances, odd prints in the sand, children’s bodies turning up drained of blood. The stories draw young Mycroft Holmes, his friend and Trinidad native, Cyrus Douglas, and his fiancee, Georgiana Sutton, all to Trinidad to investigate. A dark web of treachery and mysticism hides an evil phoenix beyond the lantern glow in the islands. This is the story of how Mycroft Holmes’ life was changed, how he became the founder of the Diogenes Club, and how he became a power in the British government.

Genre:
Adventure
Crime fiction
Detective
Espionage
Fiction
Law Enforcement
Mystery

Why this book:
I was a bit staggered when I saw Kareem Abdul Jabbar’s name on the cover and extremely intrigued. And Mycroft Holmes...doubly so.
______________________________________________________________________________

Favorite Character:
Cyrus Douglas, secret tobacconist, shop owner, and Trinidad native who puts Holmes on the scent of the mystery in his home country after their winning of a big bet and a run through the streets of London escaping a beating or worse at the hands of supporters of the other sculling team’s fans via a rain of effluvia from a gang of merry women cleaning out their chamber pots by throwing their contents out of windows. All before page 30.

Least Favorite Character:
The racist roughs who saw it as their duty to attempt to beat down Mycroft and Cyrus because they had won bets on the other team and, probably more, that they were friends across racial boundaries in that era. I know I’m supposed to be disgusted by them by design...and I am.

Georgiana Sutton, though most of her story takes place off camera, comes across as a villain of circumstance. She does evil of her own moral code and then is surprised and swept along by the consequences of those actions. When she bemoans Holmes having followed her, my thought was that without Holmes she would have wallowed in the evil that was there instead of having her moral compass, dinged though it may be, trouble her.

Character I Most Identified With:
I felt the old man’s feelings in the opening chapter. Very well written, chillingly even.

The Feel:
The opening with the old man overlooking the beach in Trinidad is creepy.

I’m not a fan of the micro-deduction that takes places incessantly where every thing that moves or breathes in the story seems to be dissected by Mycroft. It promotes a feeling of there not being air in the story, room for the imagination. The scene on the beach in Trinidad which occurred outside of Holmes’ direct intervention read completely differently than the rest of the story to this point. I believe largely due to Holmes not being directly there to micro-deduce, mycro-deduce, mycroft-deduce, every single thing about it.

The piling on is excessive. The villains are smacking the hell out of Douglas and Mycroft through all those who could or would help them. And “cleaning up” anyone who would stand in the breach with them or may turn evidence to them. A suspicion that there is more to Georgiana than Holmes is prepared to admit. Mycroft is a bit like a leaf in the wind through much of this story after showing himself to be well centered, focused, and determined in London, he spends the middle sections of the story after they take passage on the Sultana to Trinidad as the villains’ foil.

This story is a bit like tasting something that the cook is proud of, but realizing that something, some ingredient, is missing, something that you can’t quite identify.

Favorite Scene:
The opening chapter, whether intentional on the author's part or not, reads like a metaphor for growing old; the monsters lurking in the shadows luring out the youth to suck away their vitality and leave them lifeless and old, the survivors left old beyond their years until they too are dead, the monster, the flow of time.

Sherlock’s reaction when Mycroft announces his intention to marry Georgiana and presupposing that she was a pretty woman which though worded differently made me think of the lyric “if you wanna be happy for the rest of your life. Never make a pretty woman your wife. So from my personal point of view. Get an ugly girl to marry you.” Cracked me up. Though based on how the balance of the story begins to play out, perhaps Sherlock was right but from the wrong justification. Georgiana does appear to be something other than what she is portrayed as through Mycroft’s rose colored glasses.

The scene in the Royal Enclosure at Ascot. Great climax.

Pacing:
The pace is good, not incredible, but good.

Plot Holes/Out of Character:
Feel that there is a bit of marysue in the characters of Cyrus and Mycroft, but in modern literature, it is too much of a stalking horse to be able to pick that sort of thing out. So many works have that trope as part and parcel of their stories that to avoid it would mean throwing out perfectly good stories that despite that shortcoming are sometimes very good.

Douglas’s description of Holmes in the bow of the boat as they sail for First Island doesn’t ring true with all that has transpired to the character. It makes for a dashing image, heroic even. But that isn’t the Mycroft Holmes who was a part of this story just two pages previously. Given time, he would no doubt have become this man, but under the circumstance and grind this plot has placed on the character, while yes he would have changed from Douglas’s London friend into something else, he should be more haunted and less robust, his bearing more taciturn. Given the character’s personality to this point, this is a large transformation in a scant spate of hours.

Hmm Moments:
Mycroft in the Cambridge v. Oxford pre-race at the river seems very, very much like his more famous brother. Maybe it’s genetic.

When the other shoe drops as Holmes and Douglas are reviewing the scorched letters, that’s a horrid plot.

The villains of the piece seem to hold all the cards throughout. Mayhaps that is why the story feels off to me. And when there is light, another blast of darkness washes over the characters. A television viewing friend of mine refers to this as “if it weren’t for bad luck, they’d have no luck at all” mirroring Hee Haw. It is a gigantic trope of fiction across all media, but in the real world if evil held all the cards to this extent, then evil would win more often than not. This trope does strain believability to a degree. More an indictment of all media than just this book, which despite the trope is well written and characterized. I do care what happens with and to these characters, which is why despite my pointing out the shortcomings, I continue reading.

Casting call:
Would love to see Garrett Morris portray Emanuel. Tired, grizzled, beaten by the world, not being able to lift his hand to bury one more, not able to stay anymore in a place where death holds sway. I see Emanuel as a wire thin, old man, strong, but weathered. And the lighting up with joy at Cyrus’s return to Trinidad. Mr. Morris would be perfect for the part.

Idris Elba as Cyrus Douglas.

This Mycroft is described as robust, but I see Mycroft is in my head as Rhys Ifans, thanks to CBS’s Elementary, cause I love Rhys, and he was great going snob to snob with Jonny Lee Miller.
______________________________________________________________________________

Last Page Sound:
Love that.

Author Assessment:
I would give other work by these two a glance, either together or solo.

Editorial Assessment:
I do have a quibble or four with some of the story that could have been ironed out with a more close editing. But all in all, a good effort.

Knee Jerk Reaction:
glad I read it

Disposition of Book:
Irving Public Library, Irving, TX
South Campus

Dewey Decimal System:
F
ABD

Would recommend to:
genre fans
______________________________________________________________________________


          Asistencia técnica de UNESCO Quito a Bolivia en el análisis y la conformación participativa del “Reglamento de Difusión para la elección de las altas autoridades del Órgano Judicial y del Tribunal Constitucional Plurinacional"        

Las segundas elecciones de altas autoridades del Órgano Judicial y el Tribunal Constitucional del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia se llevarán a cabo el 22 de octubre de 2017. El Tribunal Supremo Electoral (TSE) de Bolivia solicitó expresamente la cooperación de la UNESCO para la conformación participativa del nuevo “Reglamento de difusión de méritos para la elección de altas autoridades del Órgano Judicial y del Tribunal Constitucional Plurinacional”.

En el marco de esta cooperación técnica especializada en el tema de información y comunicación para la ciudadanía, Erick Torrico, consultor de la Oficina de la UNESCO en Quito y Representación para Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador y Venezuela, bajo la coordinación del Sector de Comunicación e Información de esta Oficina, elaboró un documento de antecedentes y análisis del reglamento aplicado en octubre de 2011, cuando se llevaron a cabo las primeras votaciones de este tipo. En la fase de consulta de este proceso ampliamente participativo impulsado por el Tribunal Supremo Electoral (TSE), la consultoría organizó, en cooperación con el TSE, una serie de conversatorios con el propósito de conocer, recoger y sistematizar las opiniones, preocupaciones, sugerencias y recomendaciones de representantes de organizaciones de la sociedad civil, la academia y el periodismo en torno a las características y los alcances de la ley, en el marco del nuevo proceso de elecciones.


Conversatorio realizado en Santa Cruz el 12 de junio de 2017, con la amplia participación de representantes del Tribunal Supremo Electoral (TSE) y de organizaciones de la sociedad civil, la academia y el periodismo.

Durante los meses de mayo y junio de 2017, se realizaron conversatorios en las ciudades de Oruro, La Paz, Santa Cruz, Cochabamba, Sucre, Tarija, Trinidad, Cobija y Potosí, sobre la base de un enfoque para ampliar el proceso de consulta y propiciar una cobertura integral del mismo. Los conversatorios funcionaron como espacios de intercambio y expresión de opiniones acerca del proceso electoral. En este sentido, el TSE tuvo la oportunidad de informar sus tareas y atribuciones en la organización general del proceso de elección, en tanto que los participantes expresaron criterios y planteamientos para la consolidación de insumos diversos y plurales que enriquecen el proceso de elaboración de la nueva reglamentación, en el espíritu de la vigencia del derecho a la información y la comunicación establecido por la Constitución Política del Estado en Bolivia desde 2009. 


Conversatorio en la ciudad de Sucre, realizado el 14 de junio de 2017, en el marco del proceso de análisis y la conformación participativa del “Reglamento de Difusión para la elección de las altas autoridades del Órgano Judicial y del Tribunal Constitucional Plurinacional”, impulsado por el Tribunal Supremo Electoral (TSE).

Entre los aportes de los conversatorios, destaca la recomendación al TSE de acudir a los medios de información disponibles y difundir mensajes en los idiomas locales para alcanzar las zonas más recónditas de Bolivia, garantizando el acceso a la información de la población diversa del país. Esta recomendación también apunta a la construcción de acuerdos con los medios noticiosos y las organizaciones periodísticas a los fines de desplegar una tarea informativa concertada, de amplio alcance y eficiente.

La Ley 929 de 27 de abril de 2017 modificó la Ley 026 del Régimen Electoral, abriendo la posibilidad de que los medios, a diferencia de las elecciones del año 2011, puedan hacer entrevistas a los postulantes, así como generar espacios de análisis, opinión, diálogo y debate sobre el proceso de las elecciones judiciales y las postulaciones a los altos cargos de la estructura de la justicia en Bolivia.


          Inter-American Church Strengthens Special Needs Ministries with First Territory-Wide Congress for the Hearing Impaired        
More than two hundred deaf persons, interpreters, and special needs ministries directors from across the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Inter-America gathered for the first territory-wide Congress for the Hearing Impaired.

More than two hundred deaf persons, interpreters, and special needs ministries directors from across the Seventh-day Adventist Church in Inter-America gathered for the first territory-wide Congress for the Hearing Impaired.

The five-day event, held at Montemorelos University in North Mexico in July, sought to reassure deaf members and friends that they are valuable to God and the church, and provided training to church leaders on strengthening special needs ministries in churches and communities.

“Disabilities are not a problem for God, because God is the Creator of all of us and gives us abilities,” said Pastor Samuel Telemaque, Special Needs Ministries director for the church in Inter-America, as he addressed some 150 deaf persons in the audience. “Those abilities you have, the church needs today.”

The congress, in collaboration with the church in North Mexico and Montemorelos University, was part of Inter-America’s long-term initiative to bolster special needs ministries across the territory since it was established four years ago, said Telemaque.

“The church in Inter-America is moving beyond awareness to create a new paradigm to help people with disabilities to appreciate their value and understand who they are in the sight of God, as they take active part in the growth of the church,” explained Telemaque.

Pastor Larry Evans, special needs ministries director for the Adventist world church, spoke during the training event and restated that “the ministry is not about disabilities but about possibilities for those with special needs.”

Evans applauded the work of the church in North Mexico for their advocacy of special needs ministries with the local government and across hundreds of churches. He also spoke highly of Montemorelos University for offering a course in interpreting to students and ensuring that every deaf student on campus is able to understand each class they take.

“We should begin at every Adventist university to involve students in the special needs ministries,” said Evans. He also praised the work in Inter-America for being exemplary in special needs ministries around the world church.

Monica Vera is an interpreter and has been employed by Montemorelos University to teach students to sign and assist deaf students on campus and outreach activities in the community. She was delighted to coordinate the event and provide activities to deaf persons and more training to her interpreter students and church leaders, spreading the word that the Seventh-day Adventist Church is inclusive of all people with disabilities.

“We wanted to train persons with hearing impairment to be evangelists to persons with their same disability and for interpreters to be more skilled and excited to keep working with them,” said Vera.

The 150 deaf attendees from across the church in Mexico took part in fun activities, special lunches, musical performances and a communion service. Three were baptized during the event. In addition, Montemorelos University offered a full scholarship to three deaf persons starting in the upcoming school year.

The congress provided seminars for pastors and leaders on how to develop a culture of special needs in the church, from theology to principle, to values and methods, how to evangelize the deaf in the community, sign language courses for pastors, caregivers, interpreters, and more.

International speakers included Pastor Jeffrey Jordan, associate director of Deaf Ministries for the Adventist world church and Taida Rovero, Director of Deaf Ministries in Spain.

Church leaders from Costa Rica, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Jamaica, Honduras, Colombia, Spain, and the United States took part in the event.

Francisco Javier Diaz, who is the national lay coordinator of the Adventist Deaf Ministry in Mexico, taught many to sign and perform the hymns he interpreted on video during the congress. He works as an interpreter for the deaf in Chiapas, Mexico, and is proud that the Adventist Church is moving forward in involving the hearing impaired in the life of the church. Diaz has also translated the Faith of Jesus in sign language and trains church members to use sign language back home.

Attendees brought up resolutions and requests for the church regarding strengthening special needs in particular deaf ministries. The requests include a need for a full time worker in every union, more biblical resources for the deaf, and provide experts on sign language, and the like.

Times have changed and the church needs to move forward strengthening special needs ministries, emphasized Telemaque.

“The church has to be committed in integrating the deaf into services and the life of the church,” Telemaque said.

Plans are underway for Inter-America’s Special Needs Congress to be held next year on the campus of the Colombia Adventist University in Medellin, Colombia.

For more information on Inter-America’s Special Needs Ministries visit interamerica.org.

To view a photo album of the event, click HERE.

 

This article was written by Libna Stevens and originally published by the Inter-American Division.

Image Credit: Montemorelos University

 

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          El marañón, una fruta perdida        


Plantas de Venezuela: Merey por Jose Jaime Araujo.


Si un "logro" debemos a la revolución de los hermanos Castro, es la desaparición de frutas desde siempre conocidas y consumidas en Cuba. Y que al perderse de puestos y mercados, hoy son desconocidas por las nuevas generaciones de cubanos.

Una de ellas es el marañón, muy apreciado por su semilla, tan rica, nutritiva y sabrosa como el maní, la almendra o la avellana. Los habaneros solíamos comprar semillas de marañón tostadas, calienticas y por libras, en cualquiera de los varios Ten Cent existentes en la ciudad.

Con ese nombre también le conocen en Perú, Colombia y Costa Rica. En Venezuela al marañón le llaman merey. En España, anacardo; en México, nuez de la India y en República Dominicana, cajuil. En otros países lo identifican con nombres tan variados como jacote, alcayoiba, caracolí, casoy, nuez de caoba, panjí, oacajú, cayutero... Cashew le dicen en inglés, y anacardier en francés.

Castanha de Caju por Santinha - Casas Possíveis.

Brasil es uno de los mayores productores y su castanha de caju (foto) goza de fama mundial.

El marañón es muy rico en vitamina C y de sus propiedades medicinales se dice que es afrodisíaco, estimulante de la memoria y antioxidante. Su corteza y sus hojas son utilizadas en cólicos estomacales, inflamaciones, neuralgias, insomnio, diabetes, hemorroides y psoriasis. La resina sirve para curar y cicatrizar lesiones cutáneas.

Tras décadas perdido de los campos cubanos, en la Isla han empezado a sembrar marañón. Ojalá no sea sólo por cumplir metas. Y aunque apriete la boca, como dicen nuestros guajiros, no vuelva a faltarle a la población. Dejamos de verlo en las matas y sólo algunos campesinos lo seguían consumiendo, pero simbólicamente no desapareció. En Pinar del Río, La Habana, Las Tunas, Holguín y Guantánamo, entre otras localidades, existen pueblos, ríos y lomas nombrados Marañón.

Tanto su pulpa como su semilla se utilizan en la confección de las más variadas recetas, saladas o dulces. Aunque ninguna como el turrón que hacían -y todavía deben hacer- en Trinidad, patria chica del marañón criollo.

Pese a no ser una fruta tan extendida como la piña, el mango o la guayaba, le sirvió de inspiración al compositor Jesús Guerra, nacido en Cienfuegos en 1920, radicado en Francia desde los años 40 y autor de canciones populares como Bigote de gato. En 1953, Benny Moré interpretaría su número Semilla de Marañón.

Fotos: José Jaime Araujo y Santinha, Flickr.

          US Beats Trinidad 2-0 In World Cup Qualifying        
Pulisic rescued the United States with a pair of second-half goals, and the Americans beat Trinidad and Tobago 2-0 on Thursday night to move into third place at the halfway point in the final round of World Cup qualifying.
          Communique: Successful conclusion of the ITU/CTU Regional Radiocommunication seminar for the Americas        
Geneva: Jul 25, 2016 - Trinidad and Tobago Forum examined upcoming challenges and opportunities in spectrum usage ...
          FOTOGRAFIAMOS NUESTRO PUEBLO        
ESCUELA N°19 JUANA DE IBARBOUROU
SEXTO AÑO
TRINIDAD, FLORES, URUGUAY

"Ven te invito forastero a que conozcas mis pagos,
y sentirás el halago que te ofrece un poronguero
y también decirte quiero no necesitas golpear
basta con solo con llegar como todo aquel que pasa
tomá las llaves de casa desde ya puedes entrar"...

          HABLAMOS DE NUESTRO PUEBLO...        
ESCUELA N°19
6°AÑO
TRINIDAD, FLORES, URUGUAY



...to work on a little farm in exchange for our food and accommodation- it's a sort of modern-day consensual slavery. ;)

This will be my first time using Workaway, so I'll let you know how that pans out.

We'll probably stay on Trinidad for a while (and hopefully see some Leatherback Turtles) before heading down into South America. I can't really tell you exactly what we'll be doing or how long we'll be away for, as it was a one-way flight and we want to see how long we can make our money last, but it's a big continent that's sure to be full of ridiculous adventures. 

I'm excited. 

Thanks for reading and watch this space.

*Thank you so much!

In the mean-time you might want to have a look back at some of my favourites...
Hitchhiking Sydney to Melbourne.
Eight amazing seaside spots on the Isle of Islay- advice from a local.
Beg, Borrow and Steal your way out of Athens during a riot.
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Chris Cowan

USA


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Thet Naing Swe

UK


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/bianca-john.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Bianca and John Mayes

USA


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/john-wasylenko.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

John Wasylenko

UK


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/debbie-burch.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Debbie Burch

USA


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Gurdeep Sharma

India


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/kelly-lynch.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Kelly Lynch

Australia


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/chris-mccaw.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Christopher McCaw

USA


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/jodie-rimmer.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Jodie Rimmer

Australia


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/teco-desouza.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Teco de Souza

Brazil


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/r-grover.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

R. Grover

Singapore


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/johnny.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Johnny

Australia


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/chris-fry.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Chris Fry

USA


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/denise-bartram.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Denise Bartram

UK


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/armona-maxwell.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Ahmona Maxwell

USA


src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/review-images/justin-crook.gif" alt="." width="123" height="149" />

Justin Crook and Skye Brookes

Australia








style="margin-bottom: 15px;" />From the Desk of Jimmy Huber

SaleHoo Community Manager

12:55 pm, Saturday 13 December


Ihope you're paying attention,

because what you read in the next seven minutes could
save you a whole heap of time, money, and hair-pulling. Heaven knows, these are all precious commodities
these days!



You know, I've been in this business for what seems like ages now. I've seen people come and go.
I've seen some wonderful successes, and I've also seen people go running back to their day jobs.



Why do some people succeed and others fail?


It's pretty simple. Some people know where to look for advice, and they use the tools that are out
there. Others try to re-invent the wheel instead of jumping in the car and driving!



The way I see it, you have two options:



OPTION 1:

Go it alone. You're tough. You're smart. You can figure it out yourself. You'll probably end up
being suckered by a few con-artists along the way, but we've all been there and this is all part of the learning
experience! Really, what's a couple of thousand dollars to learn a very valuable lesson? Hopefully you'll be
lucky and choose a profitable product — many new sellers don't get this right — and even if you don't,
you'll learn! Years of trial and error should teach you what works and what doesn't, if you can stick at it.
You'll be ok... in time.



OPTION 2:

If you don't have that much time and money to burn — option 2 is the fast-track. It's about skipping
the hard-learning and getting straight to the earning.



  • Smart advice from people who know what they're talking about.
  • All the leg-work already done for you — over 5300 of the world's top suppliers laid out before you.
  • That's more suppliers than you're ever going to find in Google, by the way. And these ones are legitimate.
  • You can talk to other sellers, people in the same boat as you, and swap notes. This is a very, very smart

    thing to do.
  • You can get all this free training and information and save yourself a whole lot of time searching the web.
  • No-nonsense advice from a completely independent authority. Good luck finding such unbiased information

    anywhere else.


All this is right here in front of you. You just have to pay attention and keep reading.


I hope to see you inside!



Jimmy Huber









Introducing SaleHoo — Not just another wholesale directory! Inside you'll find:





  • Over 5,300 of the world's best, legitimate suppliers — all pre-screened and categorized

    so you
    can find what you want, fast.

  • Suppliers for every type of product imaginable — from electronics, DVDs, lingerie and

    clothing
    right through to plumbing supplies, dehumidifiers and baby strollers.


  • Suppliers for top brand-name products: GUCCI, SONY, APPLE, D&G, PANASONIC, NIKE, PRADA,

    LACOSTE, HP and
    more!

  • All types of suppliers — wholesalers, manufacturers, dropshippers, liquidators. Whether

    you're
    after just a few items or a thousand, we've got suppliers to suit.

  • Constantly updated database means you're not left holding stale information. In this industry

    suppliers
    come and go... we have a full-time team of researchers checking and re-checking our information.

  • Need international shipping? No problem. A large proportion of our suppliers are happy to

    ship overseas.

  • Low or no minimum order quantities! Not everyone has the purchasing power of a retail giant,

    so we've
    researched suppliers who are happy to deal in smaller quantities.


PLUS




EXCLUSIVE TO SALEHOO: The super-secure three-tier review system



One of the biggest concerns you'll have when choosing a new supplier is whether they can be trusted.
What is customer service like? Are the goods up to scratch? Is the packaging ok? Do they steal your money
and disappear into the night?



SaleHoo has a three-tier review system that allows you to read other people's experiences with a
supplier before you hand over your money. We review suppliers three different ways:




  • SaleHoo reviews: We anonymously purchase from suppliers and leave our

    findings on the supplier's info page.
  • Independent reviews: We have a team of eBay powersellers from around the

    world purchasing on our behalf, and also adding their reviews to the supplier's info page.
  • SaleHoo member reviews: Our members can write reviews and give ratings to

    suppliers as well. These also show up on the supplier's info page.

No other directory offers this level of feedback on suppliers!

(Surprised? Seems common-sense doesn't it?)





Want to take a peek inside?





src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/newsecrets/taketour.gif">















































title="Nintendo Wii Fun Bundle with Wii Play Game and Extra Remote"
alt="Nintendo Wii Fun Bundle with Wii Play Game and Extra Remote" width="130" height="130">

title="World Championship Poker: All In Wii Game"
alt="World Championship Poker: All In Wii Game" width="130" height="130" />

title="Nintendo Wii Console & The Legend Of Zelda Wii Game"
alt="Nintendo Wii Console & The Legend Of Zelda Wii Game" width="130" height="130" />
alt="Call of Duty 3 Nintendo Wii Game" width="130" height="130" />
Nintendo Wii Fun
Bundle with Wii
Play Game and
Extra Remote

RRP:

$799.99

Suppliers Price:
$409.99
World
Championship
Poker: All In
Wii Game

RRP: $39.99

Suppliers Price:
$19.99
Nintendo Wii
Console & The
Legend Of Zelda
Wii Game

RRP:

$749.99

Suppliers Price:
$409.99
Call of
Duty 3
Nintendo
Wii Game

RRP: $49.99

Suppliers Price:
$40.50
Nintendo Wii: 
<br />
<br />Marvel Ultimate Alliances
alt="Wholesale Nintendo Wii" width="130" height="130">
Nintendo 
<br />
<br />Wii: Tony Hawk's Downhill Jam
alt="Wholesale Nintendo Wii" width="130" height="130" />
Marvel Ultimate
Alliances Wii
Game

RRP: $49.99

Suppliers Price:
$40.50
Nintendo Wii
Sport Bundle &
2GB SD Card

RRP: $799.99

Suppliers Price:
$389.99
Tony Hawk's
Downhill Jam
Wii Game

RRP: $49.99

Suppliers Price:
$40.50
Nintendo Wii
4MB Memory
Card

RRP: $19.99

Suppliers Price:
$4.99


* Examples as of November 2008 - purchase prices may be much

lower now.



Order SaleHoo Now




But it doesn't stop there...



...What if you could also listen in on
conversations between successful sellers:
Hear their secrets, discover their favorite suppliers
ask all those questions you've been dying to ask...?




SaleHoo is also one of
the leading online communities for buyers and sellers on the internet
. We're not shy about blowing our
own trumpet here. This is where you come to get some first-hand advice from the people in the know.








  • Call upon a huge wealth of experience: Many SaleHoo forum regulars have been buying and selling
    online for years, and still find time to jump on the forum and dish out advice.
  • Thinking of using a particular supplier? Don't do anything without asking here first! Talking
    to others is the single easiest way to prevent yourself being burned.
  • Got an idea for a product to sell? Want to know if it's a good idea? Get advice

    here, but be
    warned ... our members won't sugar-coat facts. If your product is a sure-fire stinker, they will let you know!
  • Name them, shame them! With stories to make your toes curl, this is the section devoted to

    bad
    suppliers and bad experiences. Our members share their tales so that others can learn from them.
  • Share good suppliers: It's not all doom and gloom. We have a whole section dedicated to

    suppliers
    who go above and beyond the call of duty.
  • Want greater discounts? The forum is a great place to team up with other sellers and buy in

    bulk.

  • Dedicated staff: Overseeing everything is our super-experienced, straight-talking community

    manager,
    Jimmy Huber. You can count on Jimmy to leap in and set the record straight or give advice for tricky situations.
    He'll also nab any scammers or illegitimate suppliers who happen to make their way onto the forum, so you can be
    sure it's a safe place to seek advice.




Have you taken the tour yet?





src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/newsecrets/taketour.gif">



... But wait! There's more!

(No, it's not a set of steak knives...)



Come and join us today and you'll earn yourself

the 2008 SaleHoo Goodie Bag —

— Like CliffsNotes for traders, these guides

will have you up to speed in no time!





Bonus: Dropship Handbook 2008


Dropshipping is hugely

popular because it allows you to get started with very little money. After all... you
only have to pay for goods once you've actually secured a sale! Our dropshipping guide gives you a comprehensive
look into the ups and downs of dropshipping, so that you can really make the most of this fantastic system. The
guide includes...




  • The pluses and pitfalls of dropshipping: We know you don't want to hear about the pitfalls,

    but there are some. Once you recognize them, you'll be able to avoid them!

  • What to expect of your dropshipper: Know what your dropshipper should and shouldn't do, and

    what you should and shouldn't ask of your dropshipper.

  • Dropshipping strategies: Find out how to boost your dropshipping sales and avoid those

    pitfalls altogether!

  • SaleHoo recommended dropshippers: We've picked out the cream of the crop for your

    dropshipping pleasure!






Bonus: What to Sell 2008



This is a HUGE

decision -- are you well informed? In this guide we show you strategies for finding
profitable products and the tools that can help you make sense of everything. But not before we shatter
some of your biggest pre-conceptions! (And all before breakfast too!)




  • Think you know what's going to make you big bucks? You'll be surprised! We shatter the
    8 big myths of sourcing and selling and save you from making some costly mistakes. This is a

    must-read for any new seller, particularly if you're interested in electronics, brand-name products, music, movies

    or games...

  • What products are really profitable these days? (Here's a hint: Probably not what you're

    thinking!)

  • Market research tools: We shed light on some "tools of the trade" that you can use to decide

    if your product is going to sell or not.

  • How to find niche markets: You can earn big bucks by thinking outside the square. We give you

    tips for scooping these

  • How to make money on products where competition is fiercer than a fierce thing.

  • How you sell can be just as important as what you sell. Paying attention to these tips can

    dramatically increase your chances of making a sale, AND a tidy profit!

  • Ideas Vault 2008: Need some inspiration? SaleHoo's experts reveal 11 hot and upcoming markets for this

    year.







Bonus: Shipping Handbook 2008



We wax lyrical on all

aspects of shipping and importing. If you're new to selling (or even if you've
been around a while) this guide contains a ton of strategies for getting those costs down.




  • Discover how other sellers are able to offer such cheap shipping, and learn a few easy tricks

    to dramatically reduce your shipping costs.
  • How to find the best deals for land and sea freight.
  • How to import from US suppliers who don't actually ship to your country.
  • Easy ways to save money on local freight charges.
  • How much should you charge your customers for shipping? We try to clear up this curly

    question.
  • Tricks to recover your shipping costs on the sly so that you can offer reduced rates to your

    customers -- and make it easier for them to hit that "buy" button!
  • Best shipping services by country: We give you the low-down on shipping options in your

    neighborhood.






Bonus: Market Guides 2008






You asked for it... here it is. We've put together a bunch of market-specific guides for the biggest,
most popular markets amongst new sellers. We've got experienced sellers on board to contribute to these
comprehensive guides, both factual details and their own personal anecdotes.




  • Market at a glance:

    • What's hot
    • Average selling prices
    • Margins you might expect (are they huge or miniscule?)
    • eBay sell through rate (how many sales are actually completed)
    • Who is this market suited to? (do you need lots of capital? Is this one for experienced players only?)

  • Potential pitfalls: Every market has its ups and downs -- they're only an issue when you're

    walking blind. We reveal the dark side of popular markets and show you how to avoid the traps.

  • Marketing strategies: What's the best way to make money from these markets? We show you the

    best way to approach a sale so that you walk away with the most profit possible!

  • What to look for in a supplier: How to recognize the best suppliers in a market.

  • SaleHoo recommended suppliers: Start off on the right foot with these hand-picked,

    recommended suppliers.

  • Where to sell? It's not all eBay, eBay, eBay. In fact, for many markets eBay is a terrible

    place to sell. We reveal the most promising avenues for selling these products.





Bonus: How to Find Fantastic Suppliers



We show you how to successfully find and negotiate deals with suppliers on the internet.



Including...



  • 5 tell-tale signs that a supplier is no good! Suspect that a supplier might be spinning you a

    yarn? All but the most cunning of scam-artists can be uncovered with our five-point scammer-sniffing test.

  • Which type of supplier should you use? Manufacturers, wholesalers, light bulk wholesalers,

    dropshippers, liquidators... Each type of supplier has its uses and comes with its own set of pros and cons. Knowing

    the difference can save you a lot of time, hassle and money!

  • Six top tips for dealing with suppliers and making sure you get a great deal.

  • How to work out what the real wholesale price is. It's not as easy as it sounds! Know this,

    and you'll know when you're getting a good deal. Just be careful... there's one trap that almost every seller falls

    into, and it will send you barking up completely the wrong tree...

  • Keeping Safe — What to ask your supplier to avoid rack and ruin! These five quick

    questions could save you from a heartbreakingly bad deal at the hands of an Asian supplier.






Last chance for the tour!



src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/newsecrets/taketour.gif">





Who are SaleHoo? What do they know about trading?




Founded in 2005, SaleHoo Group is a young, tight-knit company based in Christchurch, New Zealand.
We think we're an excellent example of the globe-shrinking power of the internet — We have the privilege of
operating out of one of the most beautiful and remote countries on earth, yet we're still able to assemble a
team of clever individuals that stretches across the four corners of the world.

With staff in Europe, North
America, Australia and Asia, as well as our headquarters here in New Zealand's garden city, we think we've
got a unique global perspective on a distinctly global industry.



All

SaleHoo staff have experience
buying and selling online. Director Simon Slade has considerable experience buying and selling on both eBay and

New Zealand's
eBay alternative Trade Me, while Community Manager Jimmy Huber started selling DVD movies on eBay five years ago,

and
now operates one of the largest product distributors for online sellers in central Illinois, USA. We've all had

our own
ups and downs, and we've used this experience in creating and growing SaleHoo.



SaleHoo has been a member of the eBay Developer's Program since 2005 and the Better Business
Bureau Online (BBBOnline) Reliability Program since 2006.



We like fast internet, M&Ms, foosball tables and fair-trade coffee.





SaleHoo HQ, Christchurch, New Zealand








And now a word from our Community Manager...




Hi, Jimmy

Huber again.



If you've

made it this far down the page, I reckon there's a fairly strong chance I'll see you in
the SaleHoo members forum. For now just let me say this:


If there's one thing that annoys me more than people who make needlessly bad decisions, it's
people who can't make a decision at all.


The procrastinators. The perpetual browsers. The people who spend their days hunting for the
best option and never even get off the starting mat. If you're going to do it — do it!


Even if you don't decide to join us, I really encourage you to get out there and get started
in whatever way you can. The more time you spend waiting for the opportunity to present itself, the further behind

you fall. Stop procrastinating, take action, and do something to move yourself forward today!


To your success!



Jimmy Huber








Come join us today and get off on the right foot with your new career.
Here's all the good stuff you'll receive...





  • The SaleHoo supplier directory: Over 5300 pre-screened
    suppliers, complete with full info sheets, reviews and searchable database.
  • Access to the exclusive SaleHoo forum: One of the best and
    safest wholesale forums on the internet. Many members say that this is alone is worth the membership fee!
  • The SaleHoo Goodie Bag full of guides to all those particularly
    tricky or particularly interesting aspects of buying and selling online, including...



    • "Dropship Handbook 2008"
    • "Shipping Handbook 2008"
    • "What to Sell 2008"
    • "How To Find Fantastic Suppliers"
    • "Fashion & Footwear Market Guide 2008"
    • "DVDs & Movies Market Guide 2008"
    • "Electronics Market Guide 2008"






You can access to all this material within the next five minutes when you join SaleHoo.
When you join we ask for a one-time-only, tax-deductable membership fee of $67. Many
of our members tell us that they make this back within their first few sales.



Your membership gives you...



  • Unlimited access to our constantly-updated database for LIFE!
  • Unlimited member support for LIFE!
  • Unlimited access to the forum for LIFE!
  • One time payment. No monthly membership fee. No restrictions. (And did we mention that
    it's tax deductible?)



We think that's a pretty good deal considering the price you pay for shodding wholesale lists, and
considering the amount of time, effort and money you'll save when you hang out with us. We hope you agree!
And in case you're wondering...





Where does your membership fee go?





  • Helps to fund our full-time research team who hunt down and test out new suppliers for you and
    check up on the old ones to ensure that they are still reliable.
  • Helps to fund our customer support team who help you out if you can't find a supplier for
    a particular product.
  • Keeps the forum going and the forum moderators happy.
  • Funds our secret-squirrel review team.
  • Employs our extremely good-looking office staff, writers, video editors, freelance

    contributors
    , and
    ensures our web programmers have a steady supply of M&Ms.
  • Most importantly, your membership fee allows us to remain unbiased and independent. That's

    good for
    us, and it's good for you!





Your 100% Money Back Guarantee!


100% Satisfaction Guaranteed
height="153" style="float: right;" /> We're not bad guys, we know that money is tight these days. If (for any

reason) you decide that joining SaleHoo was not
the most effective use of your cash, for heaven's sake let us know! We'll happily give you a full

refund. You
can even keep the Goodie Bag to remember us fondly.


The
proviso here is that you must let us know within 56 days (8 weeks) of purchase. Unfortunately

our payment processer won't
allow refunds after that point.







Yes, I want to join SaleHoo and kick-start my business today!


I understand that by gaining access:




  • I get to access the full SaleHoo members area, plus members forum and all the bonuses, for

    a one-time only, lifetime membership fee of RRP $147 $67



  • And my SaleHoo membership is backed up by an iron-clad 56-day, "no questions asked"
    money back guarantee.



  • Joining only takes five minutes, and I'll receive instant access to everything SaleHoo has

    to offer.



  • I'm ready to get instant and unlimited access to 5,347 pre-screened wholesale suppliers of

    high quality products right now.





src="http://www.salehoo.com/images/join-salehoo.jpg" width="262" height="49" alt="Join SaleHoo" />


Click HERE to Join SaleHoo

Pay by Credit Card, Paypal or 
<br />
<br />ECheck











More SaleHoo members' stories




Real story!



"Through SaleHoo I found a safe seller with a good product and recovered the

money I spent very quickly."


Like many others, I started with

little money and not a lot of information. I was unsure about buying from overseas, and about giving my credit card

details out when there are all these scams around. I even procrastinated about SaleHoo.


But I took a leap of faith and decided to give it a go. Through SaleHoo I found a safe seller with a good product

and recovered the money I spent very quickly. Things are slowly but steadily climbing in the right direction, and

being an internet seller is a lot of fun. Hell, I'm 56 and I didn't know a lot about it, and I jumped in boots and

all. I just asked a lot of questions and here I am, doing OK.


I'm an average Joe with average intelligence looking for a way to improve my lot without risking a lot of money

(because I don't have a lot!). This is working so well that the wife has been picking my brain, wanting to try it

herself, so we've set her up with a different bank account and selling account. Now instead of arguments about

money, we're just arguing about who gets to use the computer.


Paul Evans-McLeod,

New Zealand











Real story!



"I joined SaleHoo and it's something I'll never regret. It gave me all the

wholesalers I could ever ask for."


I was a 16 year old high school student that

didn't have any time to go out and get an actual job. I wanted something that could provide decent money so I

wouldn't have to work. I had seen many people making a lot of money through eBay, so I thought I'd go ahead and try

it myself.


I tried finding wholesalers through wholesale lists on eBay, but quickly realized that I was wasting my money. I

would spend $5 on each list which would only give me 1 or 2 decent sources in the end. It's a real blow to your

confidence when you can't find decent suppliers, and I was beginning to think that I'd never find a reliable source.

Then I joined SaleHoo and it's something I'll never regret. It gave me all the wholesalers I could ever ask for.


When I joined Salehoo I was mainly looking for clothing/accessories. Once I joined though, I realized that there

were many other things besides clothing that could make me a dramatic amount of money. I branched out and
decided to go with anything that could make good profits.


The thing I like most about SaleHoo is the member forum. It's a great way to meet new people as well as share

information you have about various wholesalers. If you can't seem to find a product you can post what you're

looking for on the forum and someone will quickly respond with the information that you need to find your product.


Starting this business has really changed things for me. I can focus my time on schoolwork rather than working,

because I'm making more money than I would in a normal job earning $8/hour, even if I was working 40 hours a week! A

lot of people in my school know what I do, and I've taught many people how to make money by importing and selling on

eBay. When someone I don't even know comes up to me and asks me about what I do on eBay, it makes me realize how

great what I do really is. Starting this business has inspired me to possibly start my own larger business some day

after college. It has inspired me in ways that will benefit me for the rest of my life.


          LAS HISTORIAS DE UN ENCUENTRO