Craaaaazy Girl        
"Crazy Girl" by the Eli Young Band is adorable. Just throwing that out there. (It's a country song, don't listen to it dad!)

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

On Saturday I broke down my 20 gallon freshwater aquarium and moved it to our apartment. That . . . was fun. Yeah. Just about seven whole hours of fun. Whee! (Tips for moving aquariums may follow in the future, but right off: 5 gallon Home Depot buckets with lids are awesome, don't use styrofoam because they leak all over your trunk and your jeans and are super hard to carry, move as much of your cycled water as possible, at least 50%, and once you're all done setting it up test your water again because the new water will not be the same pH. Oh, and if you are a crazy girl like me and decide to change the substrate at the same time, wash it ahead of time and leave some of your old gravel in a nylon hose in the new tank so that your bacteria from the old gravel keep the aquarium's chemistry levels from bouncing all over and getting new tank syndrome. It seems to be working so far!)

We also purchased six ghost shrimp and two mystery snails, and they are adorable. My corycat is SO much happier with the new sand substrate instead of harsh gravel, and my killifish is killing me with his possibly being sick but then being perfectly fine and MAKE UP YOUR MIND ALREADY, DAMMIT. Oh, and if he is sick then I can't treat him with my malachite green because apparently it is bad for invertebrates and snails. AWESOMENESS.

I am totally obsessed with my tank again, yay! I want more tanks, including a super awesomely expensive saltwater, not yay!

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

The private school I work at as the computer teacher/after-school teacher has their graduation tomorrow, and a field day on Wednesday where the staff and parents play the kids in a softball game and have a bbq! Should be fun!

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

I . . . have run out of things to talk about. My brain is going a mile a minute about tanks and aquarium plants and getting gourami and how I want angels but need a taller tank but I've had angels before but they've died after a year or so and waaaaaaah. If only money wasn't an issue! (Sob!)

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Oh yeah! Kauai! I go to Kauai on the 22nd until the 2nd, with Andra! Yaaaay!
          Intel's Pentium 4 processor        
Intel just issued a press-release yesterday that covered the re-opening of their high-volume semiconductor manufacturing facility in Chandler, Arizona, converting it to a leading-edge 300-mm, 65-nm process factory. Obviously this new factory will be producing the new 65-nm Pentium 4 processors that go by the codename 'Cedar Mill' and will be introduced in 2006. Cedar Mill Pentium 4s will be introduced in the 600-series of Intel Pentium 4 processors and hence will feature 2MB of L2-cache memory. These same processor cores will also end up in Intel's dual core processors much like todays Pentium Ds are basically two Prescott cores on a single substrate. Future Pentium D processors, codenamed 'Presler' will simply have two Cedar Mill cores which are also physically separated, unlike current Smithfield Pentium Ds.



Intel's Pentium 4 processor which was first introduced in 2000.

With the new Presler Pentium Ds Intel will introduce new model numbers as the Preslers will be dubbed the 900-series. And of course there'll be a series of Extreme Edition processors based on Presler. The new XEs will have support for HyperThreading and 1066MHz front side bus unlike the 900-series, effectively making them the fastest processors Intel has to offer. Unfortunately all of these processors and the NetBurst architecture that was introduced in 2000 will be superseded by a new architecture that Intel will launch in late 2006.

This new architecture will feature all of the good bits of both the Pentium 4 and Pentium M architecture such as the 64-bit extensions, fast front side bus, optimized power consumption and dual core support. The details are a bit sketchy still, but Intel seems dead set on keeping power consumption down to about 35-watts for mobile processors, 65-watts for desktop and 80-watts for server processors. That's a far cry from the up to 130-watts of power consumption some of Intel's current single-core processors are capable of. Mobile processors will go by the Merom codename, whereas desktop processors are said to carry the Conroe codename, no details yet on server processors though.
          Assessment of a composting process for the treatment of beef cattle manure        
Assessment of a composting process for the treatment of beef cattle manure Magrí Aloy, Albert; Teira Esmatges, Rosa Maria The intensive breeding of beef cattle in Juncosa de les Garrigues (Catalonia, Spain) leads to the production of a large volume of manure that needs appropriate management. Land application in the area at agronomic rates is not enough to ensure good management practices, making necessary extended on-farm storage and the export of part of the production to long distances. In this context, the implementation of a collective treatment based on composting could help in enhancing the handling of manure. We assessed a full-scale composting process based on turned windrows (W), and involving treatment of beef cattle manure (CM) alone (two typologies were considered according to carbon-to-nitrogen ratios of ~25 (CM1, W1) and ~14 (CM2, W2)), or mixed with bulking agent (CM2/BA, W3) and dewatered digested sewage sludge (CM2/BA/DDSS, W4). Composting significantly improved the transportability of nutrients (final volumes were 40–54% of the initial volume). Temperature >55°C was reached in all the treatments but following different time patterns. Under the applied conditions of turning and rewetting, 14 weeks of processing did not ensure the production of stable, and mature, compost. Thus, only compost from W1 attained the maximum degree of stability as well as concentration of ammonium–N < 0.01% (with ammonium–N/nitrate–N ratio of 0.2) and low phytotoxicity. However, high pH, salinity, and heavy metal contents (Cu and Zn) may limit its final use. Addition of BA was advised to be kept to minimum, whereas use of DDSS as a co-substrate was not recommended in agreement to the higher loss of N and levels of heavy metals in the final compost.
          Batch enrichment of anammox bacteria and study of the underlying microbial community dynamics        
Batch enrichment of anammox bacteria and study of the underlying microbial community dynamics Connan, Romain; Dabert, Patrick; Khalil, Hassan; Bridoux, Gilbert; Béline, Fabrice; Magrí Aloy, Albert The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) consists on the biological conversion of ammonium (NH4+) into dinitrogen gas under absence of oxygen. Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate of the anammox reaction, but also an inhibitor at high concentrations. This study investigates the effect of nitrite on the microbial community during the batch enrichment of anammox sludge. Six inoculums collected from different environments were enriched after a conditioning pretreatment and under controlled conditions during 4 months. Concerning the mineral medium used, two different nitrite supply strategies were applied; i.e., (i) initially low concentration at 25 mg NO2-–N/L and progressive increase to 150 mg NO2-–N/L, and (ii) constant high concentration at 150 mg NO2-–N/L. All tested inoculums developed anammox activity but only when the enrichment was started at low nitrite concentration. In such case, the specific ammonium conversion rates finally obtained ranged from 21 ±1 to 118 ±1 mg NH4+–N/g VS/d (VS, volatile solids). Abundance of the functional gene encoding for the enzyme hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) was assessed using the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) showing positive correlation with the anammox activity finally reported. In addition, high-throughput DNA sequencing helped to elucidate the underlying microbial community dynamics. The raw inoculum source, the conditioning pretreatment, and the cultivation conditions applied were jointly determinants of the final microbial community structure of the enrichments despite a clear convergence at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, the cultivation conditions alone determined the selection of anammox species belonging to the genus Candidatus Brocadia.
          Source : Handbook of Strategy and Management        

Strategic Change Issues Associated with Life Cycle Dynamics

The genesis of life cycle dynamics in the strategy literature may be traced to early work in technology studies. Two counter-forces shape the development and diffusion of technological systems. One is a ‘law of progress’ (Adams, 1931) that points to an exponential growth in the development of a technological system after a relatively slower start. A second force is the ‘law of limits’ that represents the physical limits one invariably confronts with the performance of a technological system. Together, these two forces combine to prescribe an ‘S’ shaped curve in the development and diffusion of a technological system (Foster, 1986).

Life cycle dynamics implicit in the ‘S’ shaped curve were productively employed in other disciplines as well. In the marketing literature, for instance, these dynamics are manifest in product life cycle issues (Kotler, 1994; Mahajan et al, 1990). In the economics literature, life cycle dynamics are apparent in the works of economists such as Vernon (1966). In the organizational field, life cycle dynamics can be found in conceptualizations of organizations progressing from one crisis to another as it grew in scale and scope (Greiner, 1972). They are also implicit in the contagion models that have been employed in diffusion studies and the creation of bandwagons in the development of fads and fashions (Abrahamson, 1991; Rogers, 1983). Clearly this is not an inclusive but an indicative list of those who have contributed to this way of thinking. However, as is apparent from even this short survey, life cycles unfold at various levels.

Several issues confront practitioners associated with processes exhibiting life cycle dynamics. First, there is a need to determine the stage in the life cycle of the organizational entity that is undergoing change. Monitoring internal and external contexts is an approach that has been advocated for this purpose. Although monitoring might appear to be a routine task, cognitive biases may create many difficulties in accomplishing this task (Kahneman et al., 1982; Kiesler and Sproull, 1982; Dutton and Jackson, 1987). Despite these difficulties, some tell-tale signs that have been employed to determine what stage an industry might be in its development are product price, the level of commoditization, the number of new entrants and exits.

In addition to correctly recognizing the stage of development of the entity being examined, another managerial challenge is determining the appropriate mode of operation in each stage of a life cycle. For instance, Utterback (1994) suggests that strategy implies competition based on functionalities during a ‘fluid’ stage of technology development whereas it implies competition based on reliability, quality and price during a ‘specific’ stage of development. Similar considerations have led others to suggest that a firm should be organized to ‘explore’ during early growth stages and organized to ‘exploit’ during later stages (March, 1991).

The most difficult challenge in managing processes driven by life cycle dynamics is to make transitions in between stages. Transitions are difficult as they imply changing one set of competencies well suited for one stage of operation to a different set of competencies required for a different stage of operation. Indeed, appropriate forms of behavior at one stage of operation may be the very forces that prevent organizations from transiting to the next stage. In other words, transitions become difficult as competencies at one point become traps (Levitt and March, 1988; Leonard-Barton, 1992).

While life cycle models are seductively simple to understand, they are easy for managers to misread. For instance, in the development of cochlear implants (a bio-medical prosthetic device), proponents of the single-channel device that gained early FDA approvals concluded to their peril that industry dynamics had switched to a growth and maturity stage (Garud and Van de Ven, 1992). This belief turned out to be misplaced when other firms continued developing their cochlear implants under the assumption that the industry was still at an introductory stage.

In a similar vein, Henderson (1997) illustrates how beliefs about the limits of a technology based on its internal structure can be misleading. Using the development of optical photolithography as an example, Henderson shows how the ‘natural’ or ‘physical’ limits of the technology were relaxed by unanticipated progress on three fronts: significant changes in the needs and capabilities of users, advances in the performance of component technologies (lenses), and unexpected development in the performance of complementary technologies. These observations lead Henderson to caution against using a life cycle model to predict the limits of a technology. Such predictions must be tempered by a recognition that many other factors (beyond the immediate grasp of those forecasting) may play a role in extending the life of a technology.

Life cycle dynamics are at play in a key field that drives change in contemporary times -semiconductors. For about three decades, Moore's law described progress that has been made with semiconductor chips - a doubling of the number of chips that might fit into a silicon chip every 18 months. Announcements by scientists at Intel suggest that the silicon substrate may be reaching its limit (Markoff, 1999). In Grove's terminology, these limits may represent the onset of a strategic inflexion point with the potential to create a ‘10X change’ (Grove, 1996). As this limit is reached, semiconductor firms will have to decide whether to continue with silicon chips, shift to a new architecture or to a new substrate. To ensure that Intel makes appropriate decision as it encounters this and other such inflexion points, Grove and his colleagues have put in place ‘dialectical processes’ that shape decision making at Intel. We explore issues associated with dialectical processes as they pertain to strategic change in the next sub-section.


           The influence of low concentrations of chromium and yttrium on the oxidation behaviour, residual stress and corrosion performance of TiAlN hard coatings on steel substrates         
Donohue, L.A. and Lewis, D.B. and Munz, W.D. and Stack, M.M. and Lyon, S.B. and Wang, H.W. and Rafaja, D. (1999) The influence of low concentrations of chromium and yttrium on the oxidation behaviour, residual stress and corrosion performance of TiAlN hard coatings on steel substrates. Vacuum , 55 (2). pp. 109-114. ISSN 0042-207X
           The effect of substrate hardness on the erosion-corrosion resistance of materials in low-velocity conditions         
Chacón-Nava, José G. and Stott, F.H. and Stack, Margaret (1993) The effect of substrate hardness on the erosion-corrosion resistance of materials in low-velocity conditions. Corrosion Science , 35 (5-8). pp. 1045-1051. ISSN 0010-938X
          Schneider ND Vario 1-5 Stops MRC Nano 95mm        
Schneider ND Vario 1-5 Stops MRC Nano 95mm

Schneider ND Vario 1-5 Stops MRC Nano 95mm

The Schneider 95mm XS-Pro Digital ND Vario MRC-Nano Filter is a solid variable neutral density filter providing an exposure reduction of 1 to 5 stops. The 0.3 to 1.5 density creates a darkening of the entire image, allowing you to photograph with a wider aperture or slower shutter speed than normally required.The degree of density is easily controlled by rotating the front filter ring, helping you to predetermine the additional exposure length required. By slowing your exposure time or increasing your aperture, you are able to control depth of field and convey movement more easily. For easier, repeatable control over density settings, the front ring is also visually demarcated with dots that represent different density values.The Multi-Resistant Coating (MRC) is both an anti-reflection coating as well as a protective surface. It helps to increase light transmission by reducing reflections, scattered light, and ghosting. Additionally, it offers greater protection to the filter substrate and stays cleaner for longer than uncoated filters. The Nano coating associated with XS-Pro filters provides an additional eighth layer over the MRC, resulting in an improved beading effect when in contact with water for greater cleaning efficiency.


          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-07-2016 with Mark Doyle        
Playlist:

Land- Limba - Land
Beth Orton- Snow - Kidsticks
Kristi Stassinopoulou Stathis Kalyviotis- Yerevan - Taxidoscopio
Painted Caves- Morse Code - Painted Caves
Psapp- Eating Spiders - The Only Thing I Ever Wanted
- voicebreak -
Jocelyn Pook- Red Song - Untold Things
Agnes Obel- FAMILIAR - Agnes Obel
Sam Beam Jesca Hoop- Chalk It Up To Chi - Love Letter For Fire
Kate Tempest- The Beigeness - The Beigeness Single
Quilt- Tie Up The Tides - Held In Splendor
David Byrne St Vincent- Dinner For Two - Love This Giant
- voicebreak -
Jim White- Bluebird - Drill A Hole In That Substrate Tell Me What
Geoffrey Oryema- Kel Kweyo - Voices Of The Real World
The Legendary Pink Dots- The Chair - 12 Steps Off The Path
DJ Dolores- Catimb - Contraditrio
DVA- Vampira - Nipomo
Curtis Fowlkes Dougie Bowne Erik Sanko Evan Lurie John Lurie Marc Ribot Roy Nathonson The Lounge Lizards- Tarantella - Voice Of Chunk
Various Artists- Adama Yalomba MBora - Globalista ImportExport
Kasai Allstars Lonely Drifter Karen- Hunting On The Moon - TradiMods Vs Rockers Alternative Takes On Congotronics Vol 1 Bonus Track Version
Various Artists- Nie Patrzcie Przez Lupy Trebunie Tutki - Globalista ImportExport
Raven And The Writing Desk- Dirt - ScavengerBonehead
Jesca Hoop- The Kingdom - Hunting My Dress
- voicebreak -
Iva Bittov Gyan Riley Evan Ziporyn- Midnight - Eviyan Nayive
Chimney Choir- Motion - Chimney Choir
Carla Kihlstedt- 50 Miles - 2 Foot Yard
Giovanni Venosta- Ma Chi Slowsky - Le Acrobate
Piney Gir- Purple Heart - Mr Hydes Wild Ride
Iron Wine- House By The Sea - The Shepherds Dog
Deerhoof- Paradise Girls - La Isla Bonita
- voicebreak -
Rhiannon Giddens Michael WardBergeman Reylon Yount Kinan Azmeh Jeffrey Beecher Joseph Gramley Colin Jacobsen Kojiro Umezaki The Silk Road Ensemble YoYo Ma- Wedding - Sing Me Home
Lay Low- Jolene - Live At Home
Marianne Faithfull- The Mystery Of Love - Before The Poison
Beth Orton- Petals - Kidsticks
Ray LaMontagne- Part One The Changing Man - Ouroboros


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2016-07-07
          Vega HBM 2 8GB memory stack costs $160        
Vega HBM 2 8GB memory stack costs $160


BOM  goes the bank balance 

It is hard to forget the fact that Vega is more than a year late. It was supposed to launch last year and AMD had to settle for Polaris 10 and 11 performance mainstream / mainstream parts. 

A year without a high end part is not easy and Fury is still on the top of the hill for AMD. The Dual version of Fury was almost non-existent and didn’t do much in the market.

We want to address one elephant in the room called HBM 2 memory. Vega or let’s call it Radeon RX needs two stacks of HBM 2 memory each having 4GB memory.

Back in July 2016 :

Fudzilla repeatedly claimed that there won’t be any HBM 2.0 capable GPUs in 2016 as our sources simply told us that that the memory won’t be ready for mass production. They seem to be right about this one.

The HBM 2 memory that ships with Pascal P100 cards is extremely expensive. Nvidia dropped the prices of Tesla (compute) P100 PCIe 16GB cards to just above 7000 Euro, while just a few months ago Nvidia wanted 10,000 Euro for the same card.

According to our multiple, well informed industry insiders, the 4GB HBM 2 memory stack cost around $80 USD. Vega needs two HBM stacks to get to 8GB memory putting  the price all the way up to $160 just for the memory. Using the same math, Nvidia spends $320 for four times 4GB for its Pascal P100 cards. The price is tailored for each customer and, quite likely, customers are getting different prices and the $80 should be regarded as just a rough guideline.

4GB HBM2 DRAM structure main

The Samsung memory that is being used uses four HBM 2 chips stacked on top of each other and it uses a substrate called interposer. Without going into too many details, HBM 2 is delayed from its original plans (available in 1H 2016) and very expensive.

Our sources have implied that in normal cases GDDR5 / GDDR5X memory cost a few times less than the $80 for 4GB. This makes Vega or any other HBM 2 card much more expensive, as the Bill of Materials (BOM) explodes compared to traditional GDDR5 / GDDR5X cards.

Since we don’t know the Vega RX price or the actual performance, it is hard to imagine that the Vega Radeon RX will be more expensive than Geforce GTX 1080 TI.


           Fine-tuning the electrostatic properties of an alkali-linked organic adlayer on a metal substrate         
Floris, Andrea and Comisso, Alessio and De Vita, Alessandro (2013) Fine-tuning the electrostatic properties of an alkali-linked organic adlayer on a metal substrate. ACS Nano, 7 (9). pp. 8059-8065. ISSN 1936-086X
           Cell dynamics simulations of cylinder-forming diblock copolymers in thin films on topographical and chemically patterned substrates         
Dessi, Roberta and Pinna, Marco and Zvelindovsky, Andrei V. (2013) Cell dynamics simulations of cylinder-forming diblock copolymers in thin films on topographical and chemically patterned substrates. Macromolecules, 46 (5). pp. 1923-1931. ISSN 0024-9297
           Common (and multiple) neural substrates for static and dynamic motion after-effects: a rTMS investigation         
Campana, Gianluca and Maniglia, Marcello and Pavan, Andrea (2013) Common (and multiple) neural substrates for static and dynamic motion after-effects: a rTMS investigation. Cortex, 49 (9). pp. 2590-2594. ISSN 0010-9452
           Nature of the catecholate-Fe(III) bond: high affinity bonding and substrate activation in bioinorganic chemistry         
Solomon, Edward I., Pau, Monika Y.M., and Hocking, Rosalie K. (2009) Nature of the catecholate-Fe(III) bond: high affinity bonding and substrate activation in bioinorganic chemistry. In: Solomon, Edward I., Scott, Robert A., and King, R. Bruce, (eds.) Computational Inorganic and Bioinorganic Chemistry. Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry . Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK, pp. 241-253.
          Organic feeding, organic eating        












Sara is down on her knees these days, planting tomatoes and peppers, turning the soil in preparation for planting peas and beans. Her kale is ready for eating, and the Brussels sprouts and broccoli are well on their way.

It’s Spring gardening season, and despite the unpredictable nature of our weather, some of her small strawberry plants are already showing red fruit, while her large raspberry bush is full of promising buds. In the flower department, poppies and peonies are trying to outdo each other in rich reds and oranges, while the purple blue shower of catmint flowers is only outdone by the long lasting blessing of the forget-me-not blue star field.

We went through the first signs of Spring—crocuses, hyacinths, daffodils, tulips—and now we’re in the clematis, early rose, bluebells, and lupens period. Sara has dug up large sections of her flower beds, moving things around and redesigning the stone walled enclosures. Yes, after years of having her raised beds enclosed by driftwood, Sara started converting the perimeters of the beds to stone, with a little help from a neighbor. My work and sore back prevented me from helping out.

We had kale—prepared with garlic and slivered almonds—last night, and Sara’s red and green lettuce has been ready for the nightly picking for quite a while. Her sorel has bolted, and ready for trimming. She promised to utilize the second growth to make sorel soup, hopefully sweetened with some honey.

Speaking of honey, we finally spotted some bumblebees among the catmint flowers this week, but still no honey bees. Facebook friends report a similar dearth of the helpful insects, without whom the work of pollination will be very difficult, indeed. Who is to blame? Corporate pesticides, cell phones, or an insidious virus? It’s very disturbing…

Advanced Nutrients, our favorite fertilizer maker, has undergone many changes since we started using their products back in 2006. We hear that their CEO is helping to feed thousands of poor families at Christmas and Easter in Bulgaria these days, and that they are coming out with a brand new line of products to be used with coco coir as a substrate. Since we hardly use hydroponics, we’re still betting on Iguana Juice, Grow and Bloom, to keep our plants and flowers well fed each year! But Sara has switched to a coco fiber seedling pot, which is biodegradable.

She started the kale from seed, BTW, under a very primitive grow light, wick-action hydroponic system, but we had to cut the holes bigger on the bottoms of the coco pots, in order to aid the absorption of water from below. The taste of that wonderful vegetable still lingers on my tongue from last night. By producing some of our own food each year, we are not only saving a bit of money, but we’re taking part in a very exciting global revolution of growing our own—rather than depending on the corporate agri-businesses to supply shrink-wrapped, half-ripe produce for our table.

          Hot water proofing        
Hot water proofing provides the fastest setting and fully boned. Different systems are designed for it that properly prepared substrates for covered application.
          Recent Desk Names        

Recent Desk Names

1 – Exotic Mix Desk Name / Business Card Holder … The woods are (L to R): Paduak, Purpleheart, Eucalyptus Burl, Zebrano, Pau Amarello, Rosewood, Bocote, Purpleheart, Leopardwood, Sycamore, Wenge, Bocote, Olive, Ebony, Lauro Preto, Pau Amarello, Amboyna Burl, Manzanita, Bloodwood, and Olive… all on a Cherry wood substrate and base.

2 – Walnut Desk Name / Business Card Holder

3 – Teacher’s “Apple” Desk Name in Maple

4 – Bocote/Walnut Desk Name / Business Card Holder

5 – Cherry Desk Names

6 – Oak Desk Names


          Exotic Mix Samplers        

Exotic Mix Samplers

These are crafted by hand with a different exotic wood “cap” for each letter. Fine hardwoods like Cocobolo, Rosewood, Pau Amarello, Madrone, Zebrawood, Purpleheart, Bloodwood, etc. are bonded to a Maple substrate.

It is a great way (though time consuming) to use up precious little bits I cannot bring myself to toss.

They are done freehand on a 70’s era Craftsman bandsaw with an 1/8” blade, then sanded to 600 grit and 3 coats of clear lacquer are applied.

Thanks for looking!


          10CRW80SHS CD-RW High Speed Slim Case - Pack of 10        
10CRW80SHS CD-RW High Speed Slim Case - Pack of 10

10CRW80SHS CD-RW High Speed Slim Case - Pack of 10

Recording capacity (MB): 700 Recording speed: 4x-10x Disc linear velocity (m/s): 1.2 ~ 5.6 Substrate: Polycarbonate Disc diameter (mm): 120 Disc thickness (mm): 1.2


          Cook 26cm Grill Pan        
Cook 26cm Grill Pan

Cook 26cm Grill Pan

Zyliss Cook’s flagship collection is a premium range of cookware boasting a ceramic reinforced Swiss coating for ultra-durable abrasion-resistance and non-stick performance. These pans undergo a ball blasting process before receiving a 3-layer coating. This is laid on top of the substrate to create an abrasion resistant surface with an impressive performance. Made from a forged aluminum material structure, these pans also have a soft-touch, ergonomic handle. They are induction safe, oven and grill safe up to 320°F, and have a 10-year non-stick guarantee.


          Cook 28cm Frying Pan        
Cook 28cm Frying Pan

Cook 28cm Frying Pan

Zyliss Cook’s flagship collection is a premium range of cookware boasting a ceramic reinforced Swiss coating for ultra-durable abrasion-resistance and non-stick performance. These pans undergo a ball blasting process before receiving a 3-layer coating. This is laid on top of the substrate to create an abrasion resistant surface with an impressive performance. Made from a forged aluminum material structure, these pans also have a soft-touch, ergonomic handle. They are induction safe, oven and grill safe up to 160°C, and have a 10-year non-stick guarantee.


          Cook 28cm Saute Pan & Lid        
Cook 28cm Saute Pan & Lid

Cook 28cm Saute Pan & Lid

Zyliss Cook’s flagship collection is a premium range of cookware boasting a ceramic reinforced Swiss coating for ultra-durable abrasion-resistance and non-stick performance. These pans undergo a ball blasting process before receiving a 3-layer coating. This is laid on top of the substrate to create an abrasion resistant surface with an impressive performance. Made from a forged aluminum material structure, these pans also have a soft-touch, ergonomic handle. They are induction safe, oven and grill safe up to 320°F, and have a 10-year non-stick guarantee.


          Re: Matlab code for materials studio        
"Nic Roberts" <dingtheking@googlemail.com> wrote in message <ieasjo$2fm$1@fred.mathworks.com>...
> "Abul Huq" <anisulhuq93@yahoo.com> wrote in message <ieansc$8vh$1@fred.mathworks.com>...
> > Hi
> > Thank you for your attention. I have been working on matlab code for years. I am planning to use materials studio for my PhD research. I want to customize this software using matlab code. Can any one help me start the process? Thank you very much for your kind assistance. With best regards
> > Abul Huq
>
> What kind of thing did you have in mind?

Thanks Nic
We are planning to control the energies of both sides of a thin film of polymer blend for photovoltaics. One side will have Si substrate and the other will have PDMS. Properties of both sides will be controlled by UVO exposer time. Then we shall anneal the sandwich. Subsequently we shall characterize the sample. The whole process will also be simulated by the theories of computational chemistry. Then we shall make device using this active material and interpret results from electrical properties of the active the materials derived from simulation. The whole process requires customized software. Since Materials Studio is a very powerful software, we would like to customize it by linking Matlab code that I am planning to write. Thanks once again for your reply. I look forward to receiving valuable advice from you. With best personal regards from Akron, OH.
Abul
           The growth of thermochromic VO2 films on glass by atmospheric-pressue CVD: a comparative study of precursors CVD methodology and substrates         
Vernardou, D, Pemble, ME and Sheel, DW 2006, 'The growth of thermochromic VO2 films on glass by atmospheric-pressue CVD: a comparative study of precursors CVD methodology and substrates' , Chemical Vapor Deposition, 12 (5) , pp. 263-274.
          Cost of Track Repairs Exceeds $10K Contingency        
I was informed this past week that the final number came in for repairing the ashphalt substrate surface. The change order for this is now at $14,470. The cost of repairs from RAD Sports was approved by Milone and MacBroom. According to Milone and MacBroom, the cost of these repairs was calculated in accordance with the approved bid by RAD Sports on a per-foot basis.

Asphalt seals and repairs needed are for 365LF @ $5/LF for a total of $1,825.  Asphalt patch and repairs needed are for 843SF @ $15/SF for a total of $12,645. 

There's a contingency of $10K for asphalt repairs in the $338,890 appropriation for the track. The difference of the $4,470 will be paid from the BOE Maintenance Budget assuming the BOE votes in favor of this expenditure.

This topic will be discussed at the BOE Planning meeting this week.

A copy of the change order can be found here.
          Biologisch abbaubare Laminatfolien        
Biologisch abbaubare Laminatfolien

Biologisch abbaubare Laminatfolien

 

ID S1502-12: Gesucht wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, biologisch abbaubare Laminatfolien herzustellen, die als Ersatz für PVC dienen

anfragen@numberland.de

Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
  • Fertigungstechnik
  • mechanisch
  • chemisch
  • biologisch
  • Folien+Schichten
  • Polymer
  • Verbund

              Mikromechanische und -elektrische Bauteile        
    Mikromechanische und -elektrische Bauteile

    Mikromechanische und -elektrische Bauteile

     

    ID S1502-10: Gesucht wird ein Hersteller von mikromechanischen und -elektrischen Bauteilen für Mikroturbinen und -generatoren

    anfragen@numberland.de

    Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
    • Fertigungstechnik
    • mechanisch
    • geometrisch
    • Mikro
    • elektrisch

                Werkstoff für Notbremse        
      Werkstoff für Notbremse

      Werkstoff für Notbremse

       

      ID S1502-09: Gesucht wird ein abriebfester und temperaturstabiler Werkstoff zur Verwendung als Reibmaterial eines Notbremssystems

      anfragen@numberland.de

      Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
      • Metall
      • Fertigungstechnik
      • mechanisch
      • Keramik
      • Verbund
      • tribologisch
      • thermisch

                  Kühlsystem für Spritzgussmaschinen        
        Kühlsystem für Spritzgussmaschinen

        Kühlsystem für Spritzgussmaschinen

         

        ID S1502-08: Gesucht wird ein Partner zur Entwicklung eines neuen Kühlsystems für Kunststoff-Spritzgussmaschinen

        anfragen@numberland.de

        Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
        • Metall
        • Fertigungstechnik
        • elektrisch
        • Polymer

                    Elektronik für beheizbare Kleidungsstücke        
          Elektronik für beheizbare Kleidungsstücke

          Elektronik für beheizbare Kleidungsstücke

           

          ID S1502-07: Gesucht wird ein Partner mit Kenntnissen und Erfahrungen auf dem Gebiet Sensorik, Mikrochips und Batterietechnik zur Entwicklung von beheizbaren Kleidungsstücken

          anfragen@numberland.de

          Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
          • Metall
          • Fertigungstechnik
          • mechanisch
          • elektrisch
          • thermisch
          • Fasern
          • Textilie
          • Sensorik / Aktorik
          • chemisch

                      Prothesendesign durch 3D-Scanner        
            Prothesendesign durch 3D-Scanner

            Prothesendesign durch 3D-Scanner

             

            ID S1502-06: Gesucht wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, durch 3D-Scannen des menschlichen Körpers maßgeschneiderte Prothesen herzustellen

            anfragen@numberland.de

            Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
            • Metall
            • Fertigungstechnik
            • mechanisch
            • Keramik
            • geometrisch
            • optisch
            • biologisch
            • Informationstechnik

                        Thermische und Akustische Isolation für Innenwände        
              Thermische und Akustische Isolation für Innenwände

              Thermische und Akustische Isolation für Innenwände

               

              ID S1502-05: Gesucht wird ein Hersteller thermischer und akustischer Isolationspaneele für Innenwände

              anfragen@numberland.de

              Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
              • Fertigungstechnik
              • mechanisch
              • thermisch
              • akustisch
              • Fasern
              • Schaum
              • Verbund

                          Schrumpffolien für den Korrosionsschutz        
                Schrumpffolien für den Korrosionsschutz

                Schrumpffolien für den Korrosionsschutz

                 

                ID S1502-04: Gesucht wird ein Partner zur Weiterentwicklung eines Systems zum Korrosionsschutz von Pipelines. Dazu ist beabsichtigt, einen Heißkleber mit Schrumpffolien zu kombinieren, und in Kombination anzubieten

                anfragen@numberland.de

                Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                • Metall
                • Fertigungstechnik
                • mechanisch
                • chemisch
                • Oberfläche
                • Rohre+Schläuche

                            Eloxieren von Bauteilen aus Al- und Ti-Legierungen        
                  Eloxieren von Bauteilen aus Al- und Ti-Legierungen

                  Eloxieren von Bauteilen aus Al- und Ti-Legierungen

                   

                  ID S1502-03: Gesucht wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Bauteile aus Al- und Ti-Legierungen für die Luft- und Raumfahrt zu eloxieren

                  anfragen@numberland.de

                  Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                  • Metall
                  • Fertigungstechnik
                  • mechanisch
                  • optisch
                  • chemisch
                  • Oberfläche
                  • Oberflächentechnik
                  • Folien+Schichten

                              Färben von Gummigranulat        
                    Färben von Gummigranulat

                    Färben von Gummigranulat

                     

                    ID S1502-02: Gesucht wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Gummigranulat (Abfälle) zu färben

                    anfragen@numberland.de

                    Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                    • Fertigungstechnik
                    • Polymer
                    • optisch
                    • chemisch

                                88 Karma must ripen        

                      The root of all Buddhist teachings and practice is compassion. We start out with the reality of suffering – something that we have all experienced. The background radiation of anxiety has got to go. It is the result of grasping onto what is not – what is not is “I” and “me.”
                      We must discover who we really are. We are born with inborn ignorance then we learn some more fabricated ignorance. Go to that which I am before I reified all my human roles.
                      Shamata is not easy. There is nothing left of who you thought you were. The substrate consciousness is bare, raw being. Go in and observe the agent – who, who, who? Is there anything more than a concept?
                      Karma must ripen.
                      Silent meditation starts at 21:03


                                81 Shamatha without a sign, part 4        

                      Reading from Vajra Essence regarding the difference between consciousness, substrate consciousness and Rigpa.
                      Meditation on awareness of awareness expanding out to all directions (26:30)
                      Questions (51:23)
                      How does the "naked" healing process of the mind by way of settling the mind happen with other shamatha methods?
                      How lasting or fleeting are the changes to the coarse and subtle bodies caused by altering the flow of prana through shamatha practice?
                      Person getting headaches from meditation – what suggestions to prevent it?
                      Question related to rigpa being necessary to explain extrasensory perception such as precognition and remote viewing
                      What is meant by the compassionate display of rigpa? Difficulty seeing rigpa as compassionate.
                      Question regarding how to move away from not liking oneself and feeling guilty over past unwholesome activities.


                                75 Shamatha without a sign, part 1        

                      Alan talks about the up and downs of the practice and how to keep the enthusiasm and where to draw the inspiration from. Then he shares an excerpt from Dudjom Lingpa's The Vajra Essence about the difference between the substrate, the substrate consciousness and rigpa.
                      The practice for today is awareness of awareness (46:53)
                      Alan shares some more stories, and then there's one question (79:44) about Shambhala


                                71 Settling the mind in its natural state, part 2        
                      Alan takes us through a comparative study of texts from the time of the Buddha up until the 19th Century, comparing the way shamatha has been dealt with amongst a variety of Buddhist traditions. Meditation starts at 38:04 He reveals the particular relevance of settling the mind in its natural state to dealing with the suffering of change and answers questions (75:53) regarding the karmically neutral nature of the substrate and the problems that arise from concepts of beginninglessness and infinite time.
                                55 Shamatha without a sign, part 1        

                      Many people have expressed confusion about this practice, probably because of looking for something to happen that isn’t happening. Therefore, they miss what is happening.
                      The basic practice is something you already know: being aware of being aware. You know when you are aware. Begin there. The oscillation is between being aware of your own awareness and releasing into something brighter, emptier, non-conceptual, and of no objects. You can mount the oscillation on your breath at first and then do it at your own pace. But release the oscillation in the middle. Let it rest in its own place. It is the best approximation of the substrate consciousness.
                      Meditation starts at 47:35

                      Q & A (72:32):
                      Is the dark near attainment before the clear light of death the same as the substrate?
                      Let's say my girlfriend wants to dance and I don’t. What would be examples of the applications of the Four Immeasurables in this circumstance?
                      What is dream yoga and what is it for?


                                49 Settling the mind in its natural state, part 1        

                      Alan begins by giving examples of how one could experience the substrate directly before achieving shamatha. As with emptiness and rigpa, such direct experiences of the substrate are veiled by concepts. As such, the first quality of the substrate to strive for is non-conceptuality. Reminder: the core practice is to attend to mental phenomena without distraction, without grasping.

                      Guided meditation (17:55) starting with focusing one’s attention on the visual, the auditory, and the tactile before moving on to the mental.

                      Alan explains the meaning behind snapping his fingers before sitting down.

                      Questions (43:07):
                      Q1) At what stage can vipashyana be integrated with shamatha?
                      Q2) At advanced stages of shamatha, breathing gets less frequent, stopping for periods at a time. What are the 4 immeasurables good for then?
                      Q3) Developing buddhanature according to dzogchen.
                      Q4) What’s the difference between buddhist teachings and buddhism in the highest levels of shamatha?
                      Q5) Can we experience the substrate consciousness in various states like sleep?
                      Q6) What is resistance to samadhi that one encounters through stage 5?
                      Q7) Is the clear light of death the same as rigpa?
                      Q8) Please elaborate on the term appearances in the expression „taking appearances and awareness as the path“
                      Q9) What are some physiological reasons for keeping the eyes open during meditation?


                                47 Mindfulness of breathing, part 3        
                      “When did the Buddha stop teaching?” Alan launches into a wide ranging discussion loosely revolving around shamatha but focusing upon the authenticity and reliability of the teachings of different Buddhist traditions. After the meditation (48:40) focusing on the sensations at the apertures of the nostrils, he then deals with questions (73:29) about differences between Buddha Nature and the substrate consciousness, their location, how one rests in each and the uniqueness of the Vajrayana method of realization in general. He also refers to some writings dealing with the 5 factors of stabilization and 5 obscurations.
                                45 Mindfulness of breathing, part 2        

                      Afternoon talk
                      Mindfulness of breathing. Cultivating stability of attention while focusing on the rise and fall of the abdomen. Maintaining the same sense of relaxation. Breathe in to arise wakefulness and eliminate dullness. Breathe out to release all distractions. Discussion of counting technique with breathing. One thing you bring to the practice is your substrate consciousness with its stillness. Clarity is an intrinsic quality that gets covered over but not eliminated. Importance of releasing grasping.
                      Meditation starts at 30:43
                      Questions (55:55)
                      How do you know when medium and subtle excitation are occurring in the settling the mind in its natural state meditation? How about medium and subtle laxity?
                      Is it true that merely attaining shamatha, the body remains fresh after death? What level of realization is needed to be liberated in the bardo of the Dharmata?
                      Why do we need to be in solitary retreat to attain shamatha?
                      Question regarding free will and the self. How does rigpa impact the coarse mind and does it influence free will? Are there parallels in Christianity?


                                43 Mindfulness of breathing, part 1        

                      Alan mentions that he inverted the teachings. The Loving Kindness Immeasurable was given during the morning session. However, the teachings are complementary.

                      Teaching:
                      What is your vision of happiness? How much do you really need? After several weeks of intense practice, people might be re-evaluating their priorities. There is a possibility of dissolving the mind into the substrate.

                      Perhaps you see that you might need long-term retreat of a year or more. But is it worth the risk of two years of practicing? Is it a good investment? What if you don’t achieve shamatha? You have to have your motivation rooted in reality: see how the cultivation of attention contributes to the causes of sanity. You want to live longer so that you can practice dharma more.
                      Long-term retreat has to be at the right time. You cannot just ditch young children for two years. If you find the timing is right, you have to ask “What do I bring to the practice?” For this two-month retreat we have the right conditions for basic training: a good environment with most of our needs met and few distractions.
                      In shamatha, continuity is the key. You can’t get fire by rubbing sticks together for a few seconds or minutes until you get bored or tired. You have to keep up the friction.

                      The prerequisites for long-term retreat:
                      1. Contentment: if you can’t sit and do nothing, you’re not ready for it
                      2. Few desires: you have to have a radical shift from seeking hedonic pleasure to seeing genuine happiness. For many people, #1 and #2 are deal makers or deal breakers.
                      3. Ethics: don’t do anything with your body, speech or mind that imbalances your practice or anyone else’s practice. What is the impact of our behavior? (i.e. Don’t throw sand into your car’s gearbox).
                      4. You must have very few activities and concerns. You have to reboot your life, do a forced shut-down from your old lifestyle. It’s hard.
                      5. During and between sessions, get rid of all obsessive, compulsive thoughts.

                      Meditation (33:30) on settling the body, speech, and mind in the natural state. Do not shortchange this process: Mindfulness of breathing.

                      Q&A (58:54)
                      1. Discussion of nyam (transient experience – physical or psychological – that is an anomaly and is the result of correct practice) Prana, the subtle energy, is being activated. You are getting an extreme makeover.
                      2. Discussion of taking refuge. Dharma is the most important. As for a teacher, you want a “genuine happiness doctor/dentist” who can pull the “unwisdom teeth” of hostility, craving, and delusion. Your teacher should know more than you about the path. His/her motivation is altruistic/to be of service/from compassion. You should feel you are getting benefit. Being accomplished, or at least a lineage holder, is important.


                                41 Equanimity, part 2        

                      As riding a dolphin… Today, as the last session of a 10 day cycle on Shamatha and the 4
                      Immeasurables, the session was about equanimity conjoined with tonglen. Before jumping
                      into it, Alan touched the topic of how mindfulness of breathing, once the breath is settled in
                      its natural rhythm, can never be boring because the cause itself of boredom is removed with
                      this practice, and it becomes like riding a dolphin.

                      Next, he explained how these three methods to achieve shamatha help or can provide
                      depth for the cultivation of equanimity, going to the substrate and from that perspective
                      carry on with this discursive meditation (36:14).

                      Finally, we had three detailed questions (61:05): one about the measure of releasing during each
                      out-breath when settling the respiration in its natural state; second one was about until
                      which point does the practice of settling the mind in its natural state purify unwholesome
                      deeds, and if it might be needed additional purification practices; the third one was about
                      the Buddhist approach with respect to free will and determinism. We were delighted with
                      extremely interesting answers that went beyond the questions themselves.

                      Please don’t miss this podcast. Enjoy


                                38 Awareness of Awareness, part 3        

                      Shamatha without a Sign - all discovery no development. With Awareness of Awareness we discover bliss, luminosity and non-conceptuality of the substrate consciousness. Alan discusses the things that are in the way of discovering our natural inner resources: looking outside instead of inside, to many commitments, addiction to hedonic pleasures and mental afflictions. The lion guarding the gate is a sense of self which is just an appearance, a mental construct.
                      Meditation starts at 14:29


                                30 Settling the Mind in its Natural State, part 2        

                      In this session Alan talks about the parallels of settling the mind in its natural state with rigpa.
                      Nirvana and samsara are of one taste and without preference from the perspective of rigpa.
                      Relationship of space/time, consciousness and energy to the different levels of the mind.
                      Anger from the perspective of the substrate maps to the luminosity aspect.
                      Craving from the perspective of the substrate maps to the bliss aspect.
                      Delusion from the perspective of the substrate maps to the non-conceptuality aspect.
                      Story of whole/half/no hamburger.
                      Practice (9:38):
                      Awareness of the body -> from whole body to abdominal breathing -> up to lip/nostrils -> to space of the mind and its contents


                                29 Compassion focused on blatant suffering        

                      Vast and Profound, it’s the minimum we can say about this afternoon’s session. Alan gave
                      us an exquisite exploration of the mechanics of the practice of Settling the mind in its
                      natural state: how by one step it can heal our minds from mental afflictions developing an
                      equanimity towards all kinds of mental events; this is through cutting their continuity by
                      being aware of them and leading us to shamatha. But not only shamatha, even it can help us
                      for the subsequent practice of Breaking Through.

                      He also gave us a bright presentation of the workings of attachment and anger, especially
                      the latter one putting the Iphone as a good example. How anger is rooted in delusion and
                      how it prevents from imploding into the substrate consciousness.

                      The meditation (50:28) was about compassion, at this time focusing on the most obvious suffering:
                      the suffering of pain. Alan wanted to focus not only onto any kind of suffering of suffering
                      but on the one that we can do something about it here and now: compassion for the mental
                      suffering.

                      For the questions and answers (75:24) the topics of lucid dreaming, the 4 thoughts that turn the
                      mind towards the Dharma, differences between intuition and reason and the difference
                      between the realization of emptiness and rigpa (most inspiring!!) came up.

                      Please don’t miss this podcast, enjoy…


                                18 Awareness of Awareness, part 3        

                      A discussion of substrate, substrate consciousness and pristine awareness. How klishtamanas comes out of the alayavijñana creating a sense of "I am" and subject and object. Also a discussion of the dying process.
                      Practice(10:53):
                      Awareness of awareness, oscillating between non-objectified knowing and reflecting on who is knowing (and who is knowing that person knowing)
                      Final comment:
                      Padmasambhava: awareness of awareness is a shamatha practice but you may slip into pristine awareness as well.


                                07 Loving-kindness in all directions and Q&A        

                      In this session Alan introduces the practice of loving-kindness extended in all directions.
                      The meditation starts at 9:34
                      QA starts at 34:40:
                      1. Why is the question "what would make us happy" instead of "what would make us happier"?
                      2. Meditating with eyes open vs eyes closed
                      3. How to overcome the "fuzzy" quality of attention
                      4. Can the meditator know the difference between the different degrees of laxity?
                      5. Perceiving one's heartbeat while meditating
                      6. If the large flame of effort depicted in the image of the stages of shamatha does not mean trying so hard, what does it actually represent?
                      7. Where do the pictures in my mind come from?
                      8. How do you spell "alaya"?
                      9. Images coming up just before falling asleep
                      10. If you dissolve your mind into the substrate, is there some similarity to schizophrenia or psychosis?


                                Cumulative effects of chronic deer browsing and clear-cutting on regeneration processes in second-growth white spruce stands.         
                      Interactions between multiple disturbances can alter resilience mechanisms, thereby triggering alternative successional pathways. Regeneration processes are important mechanisms of forest resilience because they drive successional pathways. On Anticosti Island, chronic browsing by introduced white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) shifted composition of understory regeneration of overmature balsam fir (Abies balsamea) forests toward dominance by white spruce (Picea glauca). Historic clear-cutting of these altered forests generated mature second-growth white spruce stands. However, the cumulative effect of chronic deer browsing and recent clear-cutting on regeneration processes of mature second growth white spruce stands has not yet been evaluated. Our objective is to evaluate if regeneration processes would enable white spruce stands to recover from the cumulative effects of these two disturbances. We studied regeneration in relation to seed availability, substrate suitability for seedling establishment, and substrate availability in mature second-growth white spruce stands and recent clear-cuts of mature second-growth white spruce stands. Our results indicate regeneration failure in both ecosystems, which can be explained by a lack of suitable rotten logs for sufficient establishment of white spruce seedlings. Hence, the cumulative effects of chronic deer browsing and clear-cutting of mature second-growth white spruce stands have altered regeneration processes and triggered an alternative successional pathway toward parklands, i.e., partial deforestation. We propose shelterwood cuttings that create nurse logs should be investigated to maintain white spruce stands without planting.
                                Endo Pills - 9        
                      Informação cientifica de ação rápida

                      Ano 2 N° 9

                      Curso de Especialização em Endocrinologia - PUC

                      Instituto Estadual de Diabetes e Endocrinologia Luiz Capriglione


                      Prof.: Luiz César Povoa

                      Ricardo Martins Rocha Meirelles

                      Editor: Rosa Rita Santos Martins

                      Editores Associados: Walmir Coutinho, Edna Pottes, Claudia Pieper, Isabela Bussade

                      Composição Gráfica: Wallace Margoniner


                      O mês de setembro deste ano foi premiado com dois excelentes encontros médicos: o EndoRio e o segundo Simpósio Internacional de Terapias Celulares Avançadas. Ambos primaram pela excelente organização e conteúdo científico e vale ressaltar que os dois eventos foram voltados para a prática clínica incluindo atualizações sobre diagnóstico e terapêutica.

                      A partir de agosto deste ano o Grupo de Pós-Graduação da PUC passou a contar com a participação da Dra. Isabela Bussade, que se vem colaborando na organização dos seminários das monografias e no Endopills.

                      Inovamos neste número na apresentação do caso clínico. Iniciamos com ele, com a colocação de uma pergunta e a resposta e discussão vem como último item. Funcionará como um exercício.


                      I. CASO CLÍNICO:

                      Uma mulher de 58 anos de idade com história de hipertensão há cinco anos foi encaminhada para uma avaliação mais detalhada em relação à hipótese de feocromocitoma. Um mês antes, ela havia iniciado episódios de elevações da pressão arterial (PA) associados com cefaléia, tonteira, sudorese e palpitações. Seu exame físico era normal e sua PA era 130/80mmHg, em uso de Clonidina 0,1mg, 2 vezes por dia. A avaliação hormonal revelou:

                      a) Metanefrinas plasmáticas fracionadas: metanefrina < 0.2 nmol/L (normal < 0.5 nmol/L) e normetanefrina 1.47 nmol/L (normal < 0.9 nmol/L).

                      b) Urina de 24 horas: metanefrinas totais 2.900 Mg/nl (normal < 1.000 Mg/24 horas), noradrenalina 48 Mg/nl (normal < 170 Mg/24 horas), adrenalina 2.1 Mg/nl (normal < 35 Mg/24 horas), dopamina 160 Mg (normal < 700 Mg/24 horas).

                      c) Uma RNM abdominal revelou nódulo de 1 cm na glândula adrenal esquerda. Cintilografia com Meta-[123I] iodobenziguanidina (123I-MIBG) demonstrou “um foco obvio de aumento de captação do traçador sugestivo de um feocromocitoma na adrenal esquerda.”

                      Qual a próxima etapa diagnóstica ?

                      a) Medida das catecolaminas plasmáticas.

                      b) Realizar cintigrafia com octreotide.

                      c) Solicitar RNM da pelve, pescoço e tórax.

                      d) Tratar com bloqueador alfa e beta-adrenérgico antes da adrenalectomia esquerda.

                      e) Realizar o teste de supressão da clonidina.

                      O resultado e a discussão vêm no final deste número do endopills.

                      Caroline Wust do Nascimento Gaya (C1)


                      II. RESUMOS


                      METABÓLITO DA VITAMINA A DIMINUI SENSIBILIDADE INSULÍNICA E AUMENTA OBESIDADE:

                      O retinaldeído (Rald), um metabólito da vitamina A, aumenta a geração de tecido adiposo e diminui a sensibilidade à insulina. Os inibidores do Rald, por outro lado, diminuem o tecido adiposo e a obesidade induzida por dieta, de acordo com o relato dos pesquisadores Ouliana Ziouzenkova, Jorge Plutzky e cols numa publicação online da Nature Medicine, onde afirmam: “Existe uma percepção crescente que os retinóides, como moléculas derivadas da vitamina A naturalmente presentes no organismo, podem desempenhar papéis importantes e específicos no controle da expressão de genes” e que “Através disso, os retinóides poderiam ter papéis-chave em controlar respostas, tais como o balanço energético, obesidade e diabetes”. A pesquisa demonstrou que o Rald está presente na gordura de roedores e que se une às proteínas ligantes do retinol, inibindo a adipogênese e suprimindo tanto o PPAR-gama quanto as respostas do receptor de retinóide (RXR). Os investigadores anunciaram que: “ratos com deficiência da enzima retinaldeído desidrogenase um (Raldh 1), que destrói o Rald, resistiram à obesidade induzida por dieta e à resistência à insulina, além de demonstrarem uma dissipação de energia aumentada”, mas relembram que: “Uma dieta balanceada é sempre uma boa idéia. A ingesta excessiva não-monitorizada de qualquer vitamina pode estar associada a problemas de saúde”. Referência do artigo: Ziouzenkova, O. et al. Retinaldehyde repress adipogenesis and diet induced obsety. Nature Medicine (2007), 13: 695 – 702.

                      Olavo de Souza Costa (C1)


                      EFEITOS DO CONTROLE DO PESO DURANTE A MENOPAUSA NA TRANSIÇÃO DA DENSIDADE MINERAL DO OSSO:

                      Mulheres que passam pela menopausa ganham em média 453 g de peso por ano. Novas pesquisas revelam, entretanto, que os esforços para minimizar ou reverter esta tendência têm o efeito indesejável de diminuir a densidade mineral do osso pondo aquelas mais bem sucedidas no controle do ganho de peso em um risco maior de osteoporose. Durante o Women’s Healthy Lifestyle Project, foram citados os resultados de um estudo de cinco anos com 535 mulheres na pré-menopausa no condado de Allegheny, Pensilvânia. O objetivo do projeto era determinar se as intervenções no estilo de vida poderiam controlar o ganho de peso e aumento do colesterol durante a menopausa. As intervenções nos hábitos de vida foram focados em: uma dieta com baixo teor de gordura e exercício físico e se mostraram bem sucedidas em prevenir tanto o ganho do peso como o aumento do LDL colesterol; as mulheres no grupo de intervenção ganharam uma média de 2.8 quilogramas menos do que mulheres no grupo controle. Entretanto, as mulheres do grupo de intervenção tiveram maior perda da densidade óssea, especialmente no quadril e no colo do fêmur. Estas pesquisas demonstraram que as mulheres que fizeram terapia de reposição hormonal tiveram ligeiramente menos, mas ainda estatisticamente significativa, perda de densidade mineral óssea. Os autores sugerem que o uso dos hormônios pode não proteger totalmente as mulheres da perda óssea associada à perda de peso. E que os clínicos necessitam considerar a perda potencial de densidade mineral óssea ao sugerir recomendações de estilo de vida e de peso às mulheres de meia-idade. Uma versão rápida deste artigo foi publicada on-line em julho de 2007 (http://jcem.endojournals.org) e aparecerá na edição de outubro 2007 no Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism: Park, A H et. Weight Mainenance May be Linked to Decreased Bone Density in Menopausal Women.

                      Nathália Fernandes dos Santos (C1)


                      EFEITOS DO FUMAÇA CONDENSADA NO TABACO NA EXPRESSÃO E NA ATIVIDADE DO GENE DO RECEPTOR α DO ESTROGÊNIO:

                      Pesquisadores descobriram que os metais presentes no tabaco do fumo mimetizam os efeitos dos estrogênios e ativam os receptores de estrogênio do corpo, uma ação que pode aumentar o risco do câncer de mama. Estes metais são uma nova classe de potentes estrogênios ambientais chamados metaloestrogenios. Segundo a Dra. Mary Beth Martin da Universidade de Georgetown, responsável por esse trabalho “A capacidade do tabaco de mimetizar os efeitos dos estrogênios sugere que os contaminadores contribuem para a etiologia do câncer de mama”. Nesse estudo os autores trataram células de câncer de mama em humanos com o tabaco do fumo condensado com o objetivo de estimular o seu crescimento, ativando o receptor do estrogênio e aumentando a expressão do gene regulador de estrogênio. Segundo eles a exposição precoce aos estrogênios ambientais como os metaloestrogenios pode alterar o desenvolvimento da glândula mamária e, conseqüentemente, o risco do câncer. Referência do artigo: Martin, M B et al. Effects of Tobacco Smoke Condensate on Estrogen Receptor- Gene Expression and Activity. Endocrinology (2007), Vol. 148, No. 10, 4676-4686

                      Nathália Fernandes dos Santos (C1)


                      COMPARAÇÃO DA CAPACIDADE DE SUPRESSÃO DO ESTRADIOL PELO ANASTROZOLE E LETROZOLE EM MULHERES COM CÂNCER DE MAMA SUBMETIDAS A HIPERTIMULAÇÃO OVARIANA PARA CRIOPRESERVAÇÃO DE EMBRIÕES.

                      O fato de concentrações baixas de estrogênio estimularem o crescimento de células cancerígenas de mama acarreta um problema sério para mulheres portadoras de câncer de mama que se preparam para serem submetidas a terapias de criopreservação de embriões ou ovócitos através da hiper estimulação ovariana controlada (COH) que aumentam níveis de estradiol (E2). Um grupo de pesquisadores da Universidade de Cornell, New York, liderados pelo Kutluk Oktay, M.D., avaliou o potencial do anastrozole e do letrozole, um inibidor da aromatase não esteróide de suprimir o estradiol nessas pacientes. Este grupo estudou uma seqüência de coorte de 53 mulheres que se submeteram a COH usando FSH e também letrozole ( n = 47 ) ou anastrozole ( N = 7 ). Os pesquisadores não acharam diferenças notáveis entre os dois grupos de mulheres no resultado à estimulação, dose de gonadotropina total, número de folículos maiores que 17 mm, o tamanho do folículo no dia do HCG e o total de embriões criopreservados. Contudo, níveis de estradiol no dia da dose de HCG e nos dias após a dose de HCG eram altos no grupo do anastrozole comparado com o grupo do letrozole, mesmo em doses de 10mg por dia de anastrozole, e a área principal acima da curva foi significativamente alta no grupo do anastrozole. Uma possível explicação sugerida é que o efeito inibitório do letrozole pode ser mais específico na ação sobre a aromatase da célula granulomatosa que o anastrozole. Os autores concluem que o anastrozole pode não ser uma alternativa aceitável para o letrozole nessas mulheres. Referência do trabalho: Azim, A. Relative Potencies of Anastrozole and Letrozole to Suppress Estradiol in Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Ovarian Stimulation before in Vitro Fertilization The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (2007), Vol. 92, No. 6 2197-2200.

                      Cristiane da Rocha. Azevedo (C1)


                      INVESTIGAÇÃO DO FATOR DE NECROSE TUMORAL α VIA DA RESISTÊNCIA INSULÍNICA:

                      Várias citocinas pró-inflamatórias têm sido implicadas na resistência insulínica, predispondo ao desenvolvimento de diabetes tipo 2. A fosforilação da serina do substrato do receptor de insulina (IRS-1) é um mecanismo bem conhecido pelo qual a sinalização de insulina é negativamente regulada; o fator de necrose tumoral α (TNFα) fosfoloriza os resíduos na serina do IRS-1 através da ativação de várias serina-quinases. Outro mecanismo que produz resistência insulínica é a indução de supressores de proteínas de sinalização de citocinas (SOCS), contudo, a relação entre estes dois mecanismos não é completamente entendida.Isao Usui e cols na University of Toyama no Japão avaliaram a associação entre SOCS3 e fosforilação na serina do IRS-1 na resistência à insulina induzida pelo TNFα em adipócitos 3T3-L1. Os autores observaram que o tratamento com TNFα estimulou a fosforilação na serina do IRS-1 dentro de 10 minutos a uma hora, enquanto 4 horas de tratamento foram necessárias para inibir a fosforilação em tirosina do IRS-1 estimulada por insulina. Baixos níveis de SOCS3 degradam de forma eficiente o IRS-1 depois da fosforilação na serina do IRS-1 induzida pelo TNFα. Os pesquisadores concluem que a resistência insulínica provavelmente não é causada pela fosforilação na serina do IRS-1 ou indução da SOCS3 isoladamente, mas os dois mecanismos juntos suprimem efetivamente a sinalização da insulina. Tratamento crônico com TNFα parece inibir a sinalização da insulina devido ao fato de ambos acentuarem a fosforilação em serina do IRS-1 e induzirem baixos níveis de expressão de SOCS3 nos adipócitos 3T3-L1. Referência do trabalho: Ken, I et a. Chronic Tumor Necrosis Factor- Treatment Causes Insulin Resistance via Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 Serine Phosphorylation and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 Induction in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. Endocrinology (2007), Vol. 148, No. 6 2994-3003

                      Carolina Preissler (C1)


                      ATIVINA-A AUXILIA NO DIAGNÓSTICO DA GESTAÇÃO ECTÓPICA:

                      A maioria dos resultados fatais das gestações ectópicas (EP) resulta de atraso no diagnóstico e investigação inapropriada. A suspeita inicial da gestação ectópica é classicamente feita por ultra-sonografia transvaginal, mas o diagnóstico pode não ser feito em 8 a 31% dos casos. Na busca de um marcador preditivo universal de confiança que pudesse ser reproduzido de modo simples um grupo de pesquisadores da University of Siena, Itália, liderados por Felice Petraglia, M.D., investigaram o potencial das medidas de ativina-A. O grupo realizou um estudo prospectivo para avaliar 536 gestantes com queixas de sangramento, dor ou cólicas. Intervenções clínicas incluíram um exame físico completo, US transvaginal, dosagens de hCG, progesterona e ativina-A, laparoscopia, curetagem uterina e exame histológico. Baseados nos desfechos gestacionais, os pesquisadores avaliaram a sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos de hCG, progesterona e ativina-A como testes diagnósticos para gravidez ectópica. Os desfechos incluíram 155 gestações intra-uterinas viáveis, 305 abortamentos espontâneos no primeiro trimestre e 76 gestações ectópicas. Pacientes que abortaram espontaneamente tinham concentrações de hCG e progesterona significativamente mais baixas e aquelas com gravidez ectópica confirmada tinham níveis de hCG e progesterona notavelmente inferiores do que pacientes com gestações viáveis e níveis de ativina-A muito mais baixos que qualquer um dos outros grupos. Uma análise da curva mostrou que um ponto de corte de 0,37ng/dl para a ativina-A resultou em uma sensibilidade de 100% e especificidade de 99,6% como um preditor de gravidez ectópica. Os pesquisadores concluíram que “a probabilidade de ter uma gestação ectópica pode ser estimada mais precisamente e mais rapidamente se dosagens de ativina-A forem realizadas”. Referência do artigo: Florio P et al. Single Serum Activin A Testing to Predict Ectopic Pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.(2007); 92: 1748-1753

                      Carolina Preissler (C1)


                      NOVO MARCADOR PARA RISCO DCV EM CRIANÇAS COM DIABETES:

                      Sabe-se que o diabetes aumenta o risco de doença cardiovascular do indivíduo e, em último caso, a morbidade e a mortalidade. Estudos têm mostrado que crianças com diabetes mellitus tipo 1 podem ter sinais de aterosclerose subclínica, como o aumento da espessura íntima-média das artérias carótida comum (EIM), mas estes estudos tem usado diferentes análises metodológicos e tem produzido resultados contraditórios. Uma equipe de pesquisadores de Ludwig-Maximilians-University em Monique, Alemanha, estudou 150 crianças com diabetes tipo 1 com uma média de idade de 13,9 +/- 2,8 anos, 66 do sexo masculino, média da HbA1c de 7,8 +/- 1,4%, e 58 controles saudáveis, média de idade 14,1 +/- 3,1 anos sendo 32 do sexo masculino. Eles usaram valores normais de EIM para comparação dos resultados. As medidas de EIM foram realizadas por ultra-sonografia de alta resolução modelo B. Os resultados foram que EIM foi mais alta em 37 dos 150 pacientes com diabetes, mas próximo ao normal nos controles. Outros parâmetros que estavam mais altos entre estas 37 crianças (por um modelo multilinear de regressão) foi idade de início do diabetes, média diária de dose de insulina, pressão arterial sistólica, e nível de colesterol total. No grupo de pacientes, 25 eram hipertensos e tinham um aumento significativo da EIM comparado com os outros. Assim como ocorreu em estudos prévios, a equipe foi incapaz de estabelecer uma correlação direta entre os valores de HbA1c e EIM. Os pesquisadores concluíram que a mensuração EIM detectou ateroscleroses subclínica. Eles sugeriram que a mensuração longitudinal pode ajudar a identificar pacientes com especial risco para mudanças ateroscleróticas e doença cardiovascular. O trabalho completo pode ser lido no artigo: Dalla, J. Clin. Endocrinoly. Metabolism (2007): 92(6): 2053-7.

                      Vanessa Montijo Vasques (C1)


                      UMA NOVA FORMULAÇÃO DO EXENATIDE, DE USO SEMANAL, MELHORA O CONTROLE GLICÊMICO E PROMOVE PERDA DE PESO EM PACIENTES COM DM2.

                      Dr. Kim e colaboradores estudaram o efeito da administração subcutânea semanal do exenatide de liberação prolongada por quinze semanas sobre os parâmetros glicêmicos, peso, farmacocinética, segurança e tolerabilidade em 45 pacientes com DM2. Ambas doses de exenatide LAR (long acting release,) de 0.8mg e 2.0mg reduziram significativamente a glicemia plasmática de jejum e a média da concentração diária de glicose sanguínea, enquanto ambas, glicemia de jejum e média diária de glicose sanguínea, eram maiores no grupo placebo. Os resultados indicaram que a HbA1c diminuiu progressivamente até o final do período de tratamento no grupo com exenatide LAR e apresentou aumento no grupo placebo. O peso corporal diminuiu progressivamente, alcançando uma média de perda de 3.8kg no grupo com 2.0mg de exenatide LAR, mas permaneceu estável no grupo placebo e no grupo usando 0.8mg de exenatide LAR. “Não houve eventos sérios relatados com o uso do exenatide, e nenhum dos eventos adversos leves e moderados requereram a descontinuação do uso do exenatide LAR”. O trabalho completo pode ser lido no artigo: Kim, D. et al. Effects of Once-Weekly Dosing of a Long-Acting Release Formulation of Exenatide on Glucose Control and Body Weight in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care (2007): 30:1487-1493.

                      Gisele Dazzi Lorenzoni (C1)


                      DESINTEGRADORES ENDÓCRINOS RESTRINGEM AÇÃO TIREOIDIANA:

                      Produtos químicos desintegradores endócrinos (EDCs) constituem uma classe diversa e onipresente de substâncias químicas que compreendem poluentes industriais, constituintes de plantas e muitos outros. Mesmo alguns filtros UV usados em grande escala em protetores solares e cosméticos são suspeitos de serem EDC. Os efeitos reprodutivos de alguns EDCs são bem estudados, mas sua ação desintegradora tireoidiana também tem sido uma crescente preocupação. Um grupo de pesquisa liderado por Cornelia Schmutzler, Ph.D., da Charité-Universitatsme, Alemanha, testou EDCs que inibem etapas chaves da biosíntese de hormônio tireoidiano catalisadas pela tiroperoxidase (TPO). Os autores descobriram que o F21388 (uma flavanóide sintética), bisfenol A e o filtro UV benzofenona 2 (BP2) inibem a TPO recombinante humana (hrTPO) em um ensaio in vitro. Quando comparados a duas drogas anti-tireoideana, metimazol e propiltiouracil, o BP2 inibe de forma mais potente 20 e 200 vezes, respectivamente. O BP2 em combinação com o co-substrato da TPO, H2O2 inativou a hrTPO, mas quantidades micromolares de iodo protegeram a HrTPO. O BP2 não inibiu a captação de iodo em células tireoidianas de ratos. Segundo os autores o BP2 também interfere com o eixo da tireóide em vivo. Em ratos tratados com BP2 o T4 total sérico diminuiu significantemente e a tireotropina sérica aumentou significantemente. Assim, se o filtro UV benzofenona 3, o BP2, puder penetrar na pele humana, isto acarretará um possível risco para hipotireoidismo. Os EDCs podem agravar a deficiência de iodo, um problema que ainda permanece amplo mesmo em países desenvolvidos. Referência do artigo: Schmutzler, et. al. The Ultraviolet Filter Benzophenone 2 Interferes with the Thyroid Hormone Axis in Rats and Is a Potent in Vitro Inhibitor of Human Recombinant Thyroid Peroxidase. Endocrinology (2007) Vol. 148, No. 6 2835-2844.

                      Vanessa Montijo Vasques (C1)


                      RELAÇÃO ENTRE O TRATAMENTO POR RADIOIODO E MORTALIDADE NO HIPERTIREOIDISMO.

                      É conhecida a ligação entre o tratamento com radioiodo ( RAI ) para hipertireoidismo e o aumento do risco de morte, entretanto não está claro, até hoje, se este risco é devido aos efeitos do RAI ou ao próprio hipertireoidismo. Um grupo de pesquisadores na Finlândia liderado por Saara Metso, M.D., do hospital universitário de Tampere conduziram um estudo populacional de coorte para esclarecer a associação. Eles acompanharam 2793 pacientes que tinham recebido tratamento com RAI para hipertireoidismo entre 1965 – 2002 e compararam com um grupo controle do mesmo sexo e idade. A taxa total de mortalidade entre os pacientes tratados foi alta, 453 em 10000 pessoas/ano e de 406 no grupo controles. As doenças cerebrovasculares contribuíram para o maior aumento da mortalidade, entre os pacientes (RR = 1,40 ), embora câncer tenha apresentado alta incidência ( RR = 1,29 ). O risco de morte foi maior em pacientes com mais de 60 anos. A mortalidade aumentou com a dose e foi elevada em doença nodular tireoidiana, mas não na doença de Graves. Pacientes que realizaram tireoidectomia tiveram redução da taxa de mortalidade e aqueles sem medicação anti-tireoideana apresentaram taxa de mortalidade similar aos controles. O grupo concluiu que o hipertireoidismo por si só provavelmente contribui para a alta mortalidade por doenças cerebrovasculares depois do tratamento e que pacientes submetidos ao tratamento com RAI devem ser monitorados por um longo período. Metso, S. et al. Increased Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality after Radioiodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (2007), Vol. 92, No. 6, 2190-2196.

                      Cristiane da Rocha. Azevedo (C1)


                      SUPLEMENTOS, PRECURSORES ESTERÓIDES E SAÚDE DO ADOLESCENTE:

                      Precursores esteróides anabólicos (também chamados pró-hormônios) são substâncias que podem ser convertidas, pelo corpo, em esteróides anabólicos apresentando todos os seus efeitos clínicos virilizantes. Entretanto, devido à sua estrutura química, os precursores esteróides podem também ser convertidos no principal hormônio feminino, estrogênio, o que pode causar aumento das mamas em homens. Até recentemente, os precursores esteróides eram aconselhados e vendidos como suplementos dietéticos para aperfeiçoamento do desempenho atlético e imagem corporal. Embora, atualmente, banido, o uso destes produtos por atletas profissionais e fisiculturistas tornou-se popular, principalmente entre os jovens. Os mais comuns incluem androstenodiona, androstenediol, norandrostenodiona, norandrostenediol e dehidroepiandrosterona (DHEA). Pelos seus efeitos colaterais muitos desses esteróides são atualmente comprados de forma ilegal. A DHEA, banida pela Liga Nacional de Futebol e Liga Principal de Baseball nos E.U., é a única que permanece não regulamentada pelo Governo Federal Americano e continua acessível nas lojas. Infelizmente, embora a maioria dos suplementos dietéticos com precursores esteróides não estejam disponíveis há algum tempo no país, eles podem ser obtidos ilegalmente e através da Internet. Nos E.U. tem assustado o aumento do consumo destas substâncias entre estudantes da 9ª a 12ª série, incluindo as meninas. Alguns desses efeitos colaterais são reversíveis enquanto outros não. Em adolescentes, em fase de crescimento, um dos maiores riscos do uso de precursores esteróides anabólicos é o permanente prejuízo da estatura. A suspeita que um jovem está usando esses medicamentos por conta própria pode ser evidenciada quando há mudanças de comportamento, emocionais ou psicológicas, particularmente agressividade aumentada, mudanças na composição corporal com notável crescimento muscular, rápido ganho de peso, aumento de acne e edema facial, mamas aumentadas em meninos e diminuídas em meninas. Outros efeitos colaterais estão descritos no site http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/reprint/90/9/0.pdfg.

                      Mariana Aparecida Machado Teixeira (C1)


                      III. GUIDELINES


                      NOVO GUIDELINE CLÍNICO E PRÁTICO NO TRATAMENTO DA DOENÇA TIREOIDEANA DURANTE A GRAVIDEZ.

                      A Sociedade endócrina anunciou a realização e publicação de um guideline prático para o manuseio de problemas tireoidianos presentes durante a gravidez e no pós-parto. O manuseio da doença tireoidiana durante a gestação requer condições especiais desde que a gravidez pode afetar o curso das desordens tireoideanas, assim como desordens tireoideanas podem afetar o curso da gestação. Esse guideline foi desenvolvido pelo Dr. Leslie De Groot, MD, professor de medicina na Brouwn University . As recomendações do guideline incluem:

                      • Hipertireoidismo e gravidez: tanto o hipertireoidismo maternal como o fetal precisam ser evitados para prevenir prejuízos do desenvolvimento neural fetal e evitar o risco de aborto e complicações de um parto prematuro.

                      • Nódulo tireoidiano e câncer: Punção aspirativa com agulha fina para citologia deve ser realizada no nódulo tireoidiano dominante descoberto na gravidez.

                      • Tratamento com iodo radioativo: O Iodo radioativo deve ser evitado durante a gravidez e amamentação. Mais ainda, a gravidez precisa ser evitada por seis meses a um ano em mulheres com câncer tireoidiano que receberam tratamento com doses de iodo radioativo para assegurar estabilidade da função tireoidiana e confirmar a remissão do câncer de tireóide.

                      • Investigação da disfunção tireoidiana durante a gravidez: Um screening geral de doenças tireoideanas em mulheres grávidas ainda não é um consenso, mas deve ser realizado nos casos de grupos específicos de pacientes que tem risco aumentado para esta condição.

                      O guideline foi desenvolvido por uma equipe internacional da sociedade endócrina: Membros da equipe incluíram representantes da Endocrine Society, American Thyroid Association, Association of American Clinical Endocrinologists, European Thyroid Association e a Sociedade Latino Americana de Tireóide e está disponível no site http://www.endo-society.org/publications/guidelines/index.cfm.

                      Leniane Pereira Coelho da Fonseca (C1)


                      IV. RESPOSTA E DISCUSSÃO DO CASO CLÍNICO.

                      A resposta correta é a letra “c”. Os testes bioquímicos são inequívocos para um tumor secretor de normetanefrina. A media do diâmetro de tumores secretores de catecolaminas é 4.4 cm. Estes tumores não são pequenos e geralmente não é difícil encontrá-los. Em pacientes sintomáticos sem doença familiar, uma massa adrenal de 1 cm muito raramente se revelaria como um feocromocitoma. Alem disso, assimetria na captação adrenal de MIBG-123I pode ser normal. Testes adicionais incluindo RNM da pelve revelou uma massa vascular de 4x5 cm localizada a direita da bexiga. Retrospectivamente, esta massa correspondia à área de maior captação pélvica revelada na cintigrafia com 123I-MIBG, inicialmente considerada uma bexiga normal. Após a paciente ser preparada adequadamente com bloqueio alfa e beta adrenérgico, o paraganglioma paravesical de 7x6.5x5 cm foi cirurgicamente ressecado. Um ano após a cirurgia, ela permanecia normotensa, com metanefrinas plasmáticas fracionadas e metanefrinas e catecolaminas urinárias fracionadas normais. O autor deste estudo, o Dr. William F. Young, apresenta no artigo uma discussão mais ampla. Quem tiver interesse pode ler o artigo integral no site da ENDOCRINENEWS.
                                Common Brain Mechanisms in Mental Illness        
                      An important new meta-analysis of brain imaging research came out this week in JAMA Psychiatry, “Identification of a Common Neurobiological Substrate for Mental Illness” which highlights the importance of the insula and anterior cingultate in
                                The Sacred Lotus        

                      The Sacred Lotus Flower


                      
                      Lotus 'Chawan Basu'
                      photo courtesy of Bonniesplants
                      

                      
                      Lotus plant habit
                      photo courtesy of Auburn University
                      







                      
                      photo courtesy of Davesgarden.com
                       

                      Lotus have been cultivated for thousands of years, but only recently have become popular again in the south. There are numerous varieties, and in a range of plant sizes, from the fabled dwarf "rice bowl" lotus to giants growing to 8 feet tall. In most cases, lotus need abundant sunlight, and a fairly large water volume to grow to their best potential. The plants will grow better and flower more freely when given abundant soil solume in which to grow their vigorously spreading rhizome. The ideal situation would be to grow lotus in a shallow pond or lake with a rich organic soil substrate.       ï»¿
                      
                      
                      Lotus
                      ' Mrs. Perry D. Slocum'
                      photo courtesy of Davesgarden.com
                      Rhizomes of many varieties can be obtained via mail-order nurseries throughout the country. Given ample water and soil volumes with a source of controlled-release fertilizer specific to water plants, lotus can be a great addition to an aquatic garden. Given some periodic attention to removing dead flower stems, and with fresh water available to the plants at all times, lotus are grand plants, worth a trial in your garden. Auburn University produced an outstanding document on growing lotus, look for it at the Auburn University site under "Lotus Literature Review". It details the important methods and techniques needed to successfully grow lotus. This group of plants is yet another spectrum of plants to choose from in designing your garden. 


                      Craig Morell
                      Pinecrest Gardens 

                                 Wetting characteristics of photographic base solid polymeric substrates         
                      Khan, Mohammad Ilyas and Hassan, Azman (2007) Wetting characteristics of photographic base solid polymeric substrates. In: VIIth National Symposium On Polymeric Materials 2007, November 27-28, 2007, Universiti Kuala Lumpur.
                                3D bathroom floor murals designs and self leveling floors        
                      New catalogue of 3d bathroom floor murals with top 3d floor designs and art murals graphics, see the modern 3d flooring ideas and 3d bathroom floors UK , self leveling floors for bathroom tiling ideas , Contemporary flooring ideas and plans , Decorative Self Leveling Floor and how to laying of self-leveling floors and 3d floor in bathroom, How to make a screed in the bath and murafloor 3d resin floor

                      3d floors is one of unique and contemporary flooring ideas for bathroom office and all interiors, i have provided one of 3d floor art and murals you can see it Full Catalog of 3d floor art and self-leveling floors .
                      Also you will like this amazing ideas :
                      Unique and Creative flooring ideas 2017
                      How To install penny floor and copper penny tile floor
                      Stylish herringbone tile pattern for floor

                      3D floors for contemporary bathroom flooring ideas

                      If you have to repair the bathroom and choose the finish 3d flooring in the room you just can not pay attention to the technology of polymeric self-leveling floors. Especially good will look 3d floor in the bathroom.
                      With the highest performance, they hit, and also the opportunity to realize any design solutions.

                      3d bathroom floors, 3d epoxy flooring
                      3d bathroom floor murals and designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals, 3d epoxy flooring
                      3d bathroom floor - befor and after
                      Also you can see: Full guide to 3D flooring and 3D bathroom floor designs

                      3d bathroom floor murals and designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom
                      3d bathroom floor murals and designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom
                      Pay attention!
                      The inlet 3D floor is a seamless flooring materials, including a base layer - image and top coat - a thin layer of polymer resin transparent.
                      The essence of the technology is that when viewed from certain angles to create a visual illusion of depth on a plane floor.

                      These 3d floors and floor murals can last in the bathroom about 10/15 years. In addition, under them can easily equip any system " warm floor for bathroom".
                      Deciding to do 3d floor in the bathroom, be aware that their base layer may vary and include:
                      simply monotonous;
                      monotonous, with hand-applied screen or decorative painting; pasted from the vinyl decor;
                      three-dimensional image printed on vinyl film;
                      just a picture on the same film;
                      fine decoration, it can be colored sand, buttons, shells, coins, "chips", pieces of metal, etc..

                      Finish of 3d floors - is a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener or polyurethane

                      Laying of self-leveling floors and 3d flooring

                      So, what image will have 3d floors bathroom etc., it depends only on you and your imagination.
                      A huge number of options, and the picture may be what you want. In addition, it can be supplemented with the decor of stone, wood and metal - they look especially good in transparent polymers.

                      3d bathroom floor murals and self leveling floors

                      Next, briefly describe the process of resettlement of the coating.
                      Clean and, if necessary, level the subfloor. Spot fat, remnants of the old coating, sand and other contaminants should be removed, because it is absolutely clean surface is necessary. 
                      Permissible substrate moisture content according to the norms - not more than 4%, so it should be dry. If the floor is cracked, fill them with sealant or epoxy resin to seal the pits and potholes fast-drying a mixture of epoxy resin and quartz sand.
                      Next, remove all the dust. Note that this operation must be carried out at all stages by an industrial or household cleaner.
                      Then, prime the surface using a base composition made from the same polymer as the floors themselves and quartz sand.
                      Now you can directly mount the 3d bathroom floor murals and designs. First of all, the fabric glue or tape with the image on the substrate.
                      Then pour himself screed.
                      Wait a few days to finish coat is completely dry.
                      Then polish the surface of the floor.
                      As mentioned above, you can choose either a polyurethane or epoxy 3d bathroom floor designs .
                      3d bathroom floor murals and designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom, purple floors
                      3d bathroom floors murals and designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom, purple floors
                      3d bathroom floor art murals, self-leveling floors for bathroom, 3d floor art
                      3d bathroom floor art murals, self-leveling floors for bathroom, 3d floor art
                      The first of these are one-piece, includes only one component. Polyurethane sold already completely ready to fill.
                      Apply a thin layer of it should be, and aligned - with the help of a doctor blade or toothed trowel. If the surface of the polymer were bubbles - remove it, roll a spiked roller composition.

                      Epoxy floors are two-component, consisting of most of resin and hardener. Mix them just before pouring it is necessary to cover.
                      Epoxy resin has an additional advantage - it can mix with fine quartz sand, to increase the thickness and strength of the base or color additives to give the brightness of the cover that will look spectacular in a large bathroom and small bathroom floor murals

                      Do you know : How to paint concrete floors in detailed steps

                      3D bathroom floor murals and designs :

                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for  modern bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for  modern bathroom flooring ideas
                      Don't miss to visit : Self leveling epoxy resin floor coating and 3D flooring

                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom purple floors
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom purple floors
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for unique bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for unique bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for modern bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for modern bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for small bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for small bathroom flooring ideas
                      stylish 3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      stylish 3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      modern 3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      modern 3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      unique 3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      unique 3d bathroom floor murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      modern 3d bathroom floor murals designs, stone floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      modern 3d bathroom floor murals designs, stone floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      for who like marble : Marble flooring Types and River white granite

                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, contemporary self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, contemporary self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, modern self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, modern self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, modern self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, modern self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, modern self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, modern self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, natural self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, natural self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      great album : Fashionable bathroom rug sets and bath mats 2017

                      3d bathroom floor murals
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, floral self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, floral self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor murals designs, floral self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor art murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor art murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor art murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      3d bathroom floor art murals designs, self-leveling floors for bathroom flooring ideas
                      If you want to see more :
                      3D bathroom floor murals designs
                      By making the 3d bathroom floor, the polymer blend composition in the required proportions so as to obtain a homogeneous mass. Next, using a doctor blade distribute it on the base. Then roll coating with a spiked roller to expel air bubbles. Dries like covering about 5/6 days. Do not let this period of direct sunlight on the surface of the flooring, otherwise the coating may dry unevenly.
                      If you want to supplement the glamor gloss finished 3d floors, then apply a polymer lacquer finish.

                                Top Tips to install penny floor and copper penny tile floor        
                      Penny floors of copper pennies, how to install penny floor or make penny floor and penny flooring from penny round tile of copper pennies or coins and cents, penny tiled floor, penny tile floor, cooper tiles with stylish designs and ideas

                      penny floor
                       penny floor tile from copper pennies and coins
                      You want to put a new floor ? Then you have to get acquainted with the penny floor, penny tile floor or copper penny floor. It is very fashionable and is done by hand, but it looks like a breathtaking luxury floors, cozy and quiet. Learn how to make your own floor of copper pennies.

                      Applying a penny floor creates an interesting look in the room. You can choose bright, shiny new tin penny, penny with the patina of age, or a combination, depending on your tastes.
                      Another option for copper penny tile floor is the head or tail up randomly, and others. Penny design floor depends entirely on personal choice. Installing penny floors very time consuming. Does that spark an idea?

                      I think that you will like :
                      Full catalog of 3d Flooring murals
                      Unique and creative flooring ideas 2017

                      penny floors
                      penny floor tile designs from copper pennies

                      Tips on how to make penny floor :

                      It may sound cheap, but received just fine, subtle and difficult. This is a relatively simple operation, and the result will surprise you.

                      penny floor,copper penny floor tile installation
                      penny floor and copper penny floor tile installation
                      You can see also :
                      Stylish herringbone tile pattern for floor
                      How to paint concrete floors in detailed steps

                      Step by step to install penny floor coins penny tile :

                      Remove all the doors and base moldings of the room.

                      Repair any defects on the basis of sex. Grind high spots with medium sandpaper. Use a drill with a wire brush is a little on the brick surfaces. Fill holes and depressions on the black floor. Use joint compound on wood substrates and hydraulic cement in the concrete floors.

                      Clean the floor with a mild degreasing detergent to remove dirt and oil. Rinse the floor thoroughly and let it dry completely.

                      penny floor, copper penny tile floor
                      penny floor and copper penny floor tile installation
                      Cut squares of self-adhesive fiberglass mesh in the same size. Cut the squares with scissors or a knife. Sizes range from 6 to 6 inches to 12 by 12 inches, depending on your choice. Use a metal straight edge as a guide to ensure straight lines on the squares. Measure room for determining the area and create enough squares to cover the basis of sex.

                      pace fiberglass mesh squares with adhesive side up. Apply a pittance squares, line by line. The line penny tile to a straight line on the edge of the area. Put every penny as it relates to the next. Continue to apply a penny to penny do not cover all of your squares.

                      Measure the length of the wall on both sides of the room. Mark the floor at each end. The expansion of the chalk line between the two points and snap a chalk line. Move to the center of the room a distance equal to the size of the square mesh, measure both ends and snap a chalk line. Repeat until chalk line cover the floor at intervals equal to the size of your squares.

                      penny floor, copper penny tile floor
                      penny floor, copper penny tile floor
                      Measure the width of the room from both sides, mark the floor, extend the chalk line and snap. Move a distance equal to a grid of squares, mark the floor and snap a chalk line. Continue to measure, mark and snap a chalk line until the grid does not cover the entire floor.

                      penny floor, copper penny tile floor
                      penny floor, copper penny tile floor
                      Apply a thin layer of epoxy resin floor adhesive inside the square with a brush. Start at the center of the room. Install a penny tile floor in place and push it by hand to ensure good adhesion. Move to the left or right, apply glue to the floor, set the tile and press place. Continue until penny tile flooring. made ​​the cut tile with a knife or scissors as needed around a penny. Do not cut a penny. Hide gaps in the base molding.

                      Allow the glue to dry for four to six hours.

                      penny floor, copper penny tile floor
                      penny floor, copper penny tile floor
                      Mix the solution with water in a large bucket or trough. Apply grout to the penny tile floor with a float rubber solution. Wipe the excess grout from the surface of the copper penny with a damp sponge.

                      Allow the plaster for 48 to 72 hours.

                      Mix the two component epoxy clear sealer manufacturer's instructions. Select the epoxy sealant that UV filter to prevent yellowing. Pour the sealant to the floor creating a 1-inch coating. Spread evenly sealant with a long handle rubber spatula. Allow the epoxy sealant was collected for 48 to 72 hours before use.

                      penny floor, copper penny tile floor, copper pennies
                      penny floor, copper penny tile floor

                      Now copper penny floor ready to serve you! Enjoy your work and proud of homemade.

                      Unique designs of penny tile floor from copper pennies:

                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor for bathroom
                      penny floor, penny tile floor for bathroom
                      Don't miss to visit : 3D bathroom floor murals designs and self leveling floors

                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      Recently album : Top shower tile ideas and designs to tiling a shower

                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      penny floor, penny tile floor, copper tile
                      I hope you can install a penny floor and copper penny tile floor in your contemporary interior design, also you can innovate a new designs of penny floor.

                                Self leveling epoxy resin floor coating and 3D flooring        
                      How to install your epoxy resin flooring yourself step by step with the suitable self leveling epoxy floor coating, and how to apply 3D flooring designs and murals in the 3D bathroom floor with transparent epoxy floor paint

                      In today's article, we'll show you how to make a self-leveling epoxy flooring to achieve the maximum saving of time and money for the family budget. 
                      These self leveling epoxy floors can be considered as one of the best types of flooring, which can be used in both industrial and residential areas. 
                      Epoxy floor coating has an excellent appearance for a long time (at least 10 years) and excellent performance, more than any other floor coating.

                      You can see also : How to install penny floorherringbone tile pattern , and Creative flooring ideas

                      self leveling epoxy floor
                      self leveling epoxy floor coating - 3D bathroom floor murals designs
                      You can pour liquid epoxy resin flooring ideas yourself in the rooms of your house, a cottage or apartment, Such a coating does not require special equipment, tools or special production skills, the process of pouring the self leveling epoxy does not require a large amount of time and effort. It does not require significant costs and material resources - currently epoxy floor coatings have almost perfect balance of price and quality.

                      Self leveling epoxy floor coating: installation stages

                      Self leveling epoxy flooring is created in several steps and is carried out in sequence. Each of these aspects has its own peculiarities and subtleties of execution of the precision on which depends the final result, so you should be sure to read before the start of the installation of your 3D epoxy resin floor, and strictly carry out the process of creating the epoxy floor coating. Only in this way you can guarantee the durability of the epoxy flooring, and it will look really beautiful and stylish.

                      Substrate Preparation

                      Liquid epoxy resin floor coating should be applied only to the pre-prepared base. This task is in the complex treatment of industrial pollution (including construction dust and debris, residues of oils, fats and other household or industrial pollution). To perform such work use a powerful vacuum cleaner, as well as various washing solutions to effectively remove oils and fats from the surface. If there are irregularities on the basis  or it is chipped, then they must be treated pre-putty - otherwise self-leveling epoxy flooring will not be nice and high quality, and most importantly, durability.
                      Tip! If it is found that the irregularities are too large, you can create pre-leveling screed, which will help to eliminate all cracks and holes.

                      Priming the surface

                      how to make self-leveling epoxy floor - adding the primer layer

                      The primer should be applied to the surface of the base in order to achieve the best laying of the self leveling epoxy resin flooring." Thus, the primer material must be applied in several layers, which number depends on the porosity of the base. the primer material of the self-leveling epoxy flooring is applied by a spray- in this case you make sure that on the treated surface there are not puddles formed.

                      Application of the base layer

                      Modern self leveling epoxy floor is filled with special resin solutions. To start using the rail level or determined by the deviation from the horizontal surface of the base. Based on the data, it is determined by the thickness of the applied layer - it is in the range of 2-10 mm. Prefab epoxy resin floor paint is poured onto the prepared substrate. Between the connections of various parties, polymeric materials must be at least 10 minutes to dry out a bit, and the joints will be optimal for the alignment.


                      self leveling epoxy resin flooring composition layers

                      The beauty and strength of self-leveling epoxy floor coating will be higher if you create a second layer of coating. It is generally used for this special tape for self-leveling floor, as well as polymeric materials. Often, the second layer is decorative and serves only to decorate the floor or make a decorative 3D flooring with 3D floor designs murals.
                      The first layer becomes completely dry in 5-7 hours. To speed up this process, you need to create optimum conditions in the room - the temperature of 12-25 C.

                      Epoxy resin flooring: Decorative coatings

                      epoxy resin 3D flooring - adding the decorative layer
                      epoxy resin 3D flooring - adding the decorative layer
                      As a rule, after completing the drying of the second layer (this usually requires 5-7 days) on the surface of the floor a special covering material should be applied. The most commonly used material is the epoxy floor paint that not only decorates the self leveling floor, but also protects it from the negative effects of various aggressive media and mechanical damage. If necessary, after a while update the decorative epoxy floor coating  to keep the beauty of the appearance of the liquid epoxy resin flooring.

                      Epoxy resin 3D flooring ideas

                      To make 3D floor designs or a 3D bathroom floor you should use a transparent epoxy floor paint coating, bring a vinyl image with 3D floor art with the room dimensions, lay it on the subtract layer in the desired position and direction, then pour the transparent epoxy resin flooring coating to complete the self leveling epoxy floor and get a 3D bathroom flooring design.

                      3D floor art designs - 3D epoxy resin flooring ideas
                      3D floor art designs - 3D epoxy resin flooring ideas
                      3D floor flooring designs - self-leveling epoxy floor coating
                      3D floor flooring designs - self-leveling epoxy floor coating
                      epoxy resin flooring designs, 3D floors
                      epoxy resin flooring designs, 3D floors
                      In this article, we showed how to make a self-leveling epoxy floor coating and epoxy resin 3D flooring. As you can see, the process itself is quite simple, but be sure to take care of the preparation of the base and the acquisition of really high quality and advanced epoxy resin floor paint that will be used to create a floor covering. Since today, the choice of self leveling epoxy coatings is quite wide, from the purchase of their problems should arise. The more - the method of preparing the self leveling floor epoxy resin compositions is not too complicated and often indicated on the packaging by the manufacturer of the building material mixture.

                                A guide for Commercial Roofing Systems: Solutions and prices        
                      An awesome guide for commercial roofing systems, solutions, materials, types and prices, and expert tips to choose the suitable commercial roofing system for your home conditions and the budget available

                      We recently sharedHow to choose PVC stretch ceiling systems +15 ceiling designs

                      Roof - the most important part of any building, premises because it provides protection from external climatic influences, being exposed to the highest loads. Roofing must equally well to withstand the heat and cold, dry weather and high humidity, strong wind and big snow, stay waterproof for decades and providing reliable thermal insulation. Particularly high requirements for reliability, durability and functionality are presented for the roofing of buildings for industrial and commercial applications.

                      Commercial Roofing Systems and solutions

                      commercial roofing systems, commercial roofing solutions
                      commercial roofing systems: metal roofing

                      Largely roofing quality depends on the materials and components, but most of all - the quality of the installation work, especially connecting devices of different nodes, junctions and interfaces. It provides quality installation efficiency of coverage - saving thermal insulation and waterproofing properties - throughout the entire lifetime of the building and any structural errors and violation mounting technology will eventually lead to the inevitable losses and additional costs. Therefore, design and installation of roofs, especially in buildings for industrial and commercial applications, it is necessary to trust only the commercial roofing contractors with extensive experience in implementing this type of work.
                      If you’re intend to construct a new commercial building, or planning the replacement of an outdated commercial roofing on an existing building, There are many commercial roofing solutions, and each has unique attributes and benefits. So in this article we will show your our guide for commercial roofing systems to find the best solution for your roofing.

                      Commercial Roof Types

                      Today, let's take a look at the commercial roofing systems which installed on top of flat or low slope buildings across the world.
                      In general, there are five basic classifications of commercial roofs that have flat or low slope configurations:
                      • Metal roof
                      • Built-up roof
                      • Modified bitumen roof
                      • SPF roof (Spray polyurethane foam)
                      • Single-ply roof

                      In low slope roofs:
                      • Reinforcement, which adds strength, stability and dimension.
                      • Waterproofing layers, arguably the most critical part of a roof to guard against rain or water.
                      • Surfacing, which exposure to the sun’s UV rays and protects the other two layers from the outdoor elements. As is seen with commercial roofing systems, some roofing systems’ surface layers have additional benefits.

                      Commercial Roofing Materials

                      commercial roofing materials, commercial roofing systems
                      commercial roofing materials: Roofing materials for Commercial Roofing systems

                      Although commercial roofing structures is similar in many respects residential structures, commercial structures have their own special characteristics. That is why commercial roofing materials must be carefully selected. One of the obvious features of commercial roofing is that they are generally larger than residential. Therefore, the challenges that come with commercial roofs are more serious than any other type.
                      The materials used to build roofs for commercial roofs must be carefully selected so that they can meet the requirements of a standard roof. When it comes to this category, you do not just choose any kind of material. Although there are factors such as cost and availability of what affects their choice probably you should ensure that the one you choose is appropriate.

                      Polymer Membranes


                      One of the most basic and waterproof effective ways is a commercial roof with a single layer membrane made of a mixture of synthetic polymer. These membranes can be cut to fit the shape and contours of the individual roof. Some roofing membranes polymers also have insulating properties to help reduce the costs associated with heating and cooling the building. That's why polymeric roofing membranes are used. With these materials, comes with waterproof roofs is not a problem at all. Usually it is made of a membrane having a single layer and which is made of a synthetic polymer hybrid. To add to waterproof, easy to install and withstand extreme weather conditions.

                      Asphalt

                      Asphalt is a more traditional roof material. Roofers begin with a base of polyester or fiberglass felt, then apply layers of asphalt, gravel and glazing. Due to its multi-layered approach, this type of roof is called a roof built. Asphalt built-up roofs are waterproof, hail and even fire.

                      Asphalt is another classic material. The roof is usually made with several layers so it is one of the strongest options. If the roof is built well, it can last a long time. It can also withstand heavy rains and can be completed in a very attractive finish. This roof is very strong and can be used if you need more security for their stores.

                      Metal

                      Metal is another material used in some projects to high-end commercial roofing. The metal has a long shelf life and comes in a variety of colors, making it easy to customize to any style of construction. Some products have metal ceiling tiles or patterns that simulate slate, while others have a more modern look. Metal roofing products are also recyclable, so better for the environment.
                      Metal is easily customized to suit a variety of buildings. There are many ways in which the metal can be used as a roof and they are used in commercial roofs. This is one type that has been used since traditional times and is still popular among many developers.
                      One of the most remarkable qualities is that metal can last incredibly long and withstand high temperatures. It is also a light cover which means that it may be preferable for weak foundations. To add to that, it is cheap.

                      Shingles

                      Shingles are another option for commercial roofing. They are built similarly to a roof construction, using a wood fiber or glass fiber base and a coating of asphalt, however, rather than applied as a sole cover tiles are attached one by one, forming a pattern of overlay. Shingles are common on sloping where help dissipate rainwater ceilings and also serve as protection against hail. Shingles come in a wide variety of basic and design styles.

                      Board

                      Natural slate roofs are an extremely durable material choice of elegant shopping roof, natural slate roofs have a classic look and can last hundreds of years. The board comes in a variety of colors, thicknesses and sizes, allowing roofers customize a slate roof for any type of building. Slate is naturally repellent to algae and fungi, which means less cleaning and maintenance is required.

                      TPO Roofing System
                      TPO Roofing System, commercial roofing systems
                      TPO Roofing System: Thermoplastic polyolefin (TPO) single-ply roofing

                      Thermoplastic polyolefins (TPO) generally refer to a kind of plastic used in a variety of markets and applications (especially in the transport sector, including plastic parts both inside and outside the car). They are also used for the manufacture of membranes for roofing and insulation for electrical cables.
                      The TPO roof system is generally injection molded into the desired material, but there is increasing use of the thermoformed sheet and profile extrusion and other processes.
                      The TPO roofing system is generally produced by blending polypropylene (PP) with elastic ethylene (POE or polyolefin elastomers) and adding other fillers and additives. Mixing specific quantities depend on the overall balance of properties to meet the performance specifications and desired processing equipment used for application.


                      TPO roofing, commercial roofing systems
                      TPO roofing, commercial roofing systems
                      The TPO ingredients usually include:
                      • Polypropylene (including homopolymer, impact copolymer, or other), that provides temperature stability and rigidity.
                      • Elastomers which provide impact resistance and flexibility.
                      • Talc or other mineral fillers (eg glass fiber or carbon ) which impart high rigidity and dimensional stability to the workpiece.
                      • Additives for ignition resistance, scratch and seawater to improve end-use performance and durability.
                      Rigid TPO made, mostly with a polypropylene component with added ingredients to achieve an overall balance of properties. The development of rigid TPO formulation begins by selecting an appropriate PP, and adding only the minimum level of modifier to achieve acceptable ductility, while maintaining the rigidity (as measured by flexural modulus) as highest possible.

                      Advantages of TPO commercial Roofing Systems:

                      • Advanced technology installation: The bonding seams made by hot air welding with special equipment that ensures homogeneity and high quality of the weld;
                      • The reinforcing layer and high elasticity: The presence of the reinforcing layer in the membrane of a polyester mesh ensures a high resistance to tension and compression;
                      • Climatic resistance: Special tests showed high long-term stability of the membrane to various weather conditions. Frost TPO membrane (-63 C) is unique;
                      • Resistance to ultraviolet light and ozone: The structure of the TPO membrane consists of substances that increase the long-term resistance to UV and ozone, which contributes to the high durability of the material;
                      • The absence of volatile Plasticizer: TPO membrane does not contain volatile Plasticizer, eliminating cracking during use;
                      • Resistance to biological and chemical attack: The TPO membrane production technology used antifungal composition of the new generation so that the membrane is not subject to little or no biological effects.

                      Physical and mechanical properties of the TPO roofing membrane
                      TPO Roof System, commercial roofing systems
                      TPO roof system: TPO membrane physical and mechanical properties

                      Environmental Features

                      One of the best features of TPO roofing system is its environmental benefits. A white TPO roof helps reduce the amount of energy that is required, thus lowering energy costs. Less energy consumption equals, directly contributing to a cleaner environment. This also helps in reducing the urban heat island effect. TPO roof systems have a cleaner manufacturing process, contain no chlorine and are recyclable.

                      EPDM Roofing System
                      EPDM Roofing System, commercial roofing systems
                      EPDM Roofing System: EPDM rubber roofing system installation details

                      Ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber is a form of synthetic rubber used for many purposes. EPDM Roof containing the same properties of natural rubber, but is highly favorable.
                      EPDM is an elastomer consisting of ethylene, propylene and diene, therefore the letters in their name. The M in its name comes from the ASTM classification, indicating that chain has saturated the type of propylene.
                      Depending on the make EPDM rubber roofing may contain between 45 and 75 percent ethylene content. The higher the ethylene content, the easier is to mix and load the polymers during development.
                      EPDM is mainly composed of ethylene and propylene. A small amount of diene is added to it, which causes the rubber to increase flexibility. It can be stretched much longer returns to its normal size and shows no signs of deformation.

                      Benefits of EPDM commercial roofing system

                      EPDM is resistant to aging properties, is extremely resistant to temperatures and weather conditions, and has a high resistance to steam and water. It also stands and UV, oxygen and other common chemicals that rapid natural rubber wear. EPDM rubber roofing also works great as a electrical insulator.
                      • Easy repair options;
                      • Superior flexibility and high strength;
                      • Rubber membrane can easily contour to fit an unique commercial roofing design;
                      • Acceptable price;
                      • Flexibility;
                      • Durability;
                      • Environmentally friendly;
                      • The absence of sensitivity to the bituminous material.

                      EPDM Membrane Roofing Repair


                      One of the most attractive benefits of EPDM roofing membrane is its ability to be easily repaired. The makeup of EPDM rubber roofing is such that, even after many years of maintenance, repairs and modifications can be accomplished with successfully and easily way.

                      Due to its excellent waterproofing capabilities, a rubber roof can be easily washed and prepared for adhesive application or the installation of new material.

                      EPDM Roof Applications

                      EPDM roof is used in many applications, it is commonly used on rooftops, as it is highly resistant to water, it is safe and is stronger than traditional rubber. EPDM roof coating is also used in heating systems of swimming pools. Many common items are made with this type of rubber, including garden hoses, washing machine parts, safety devices and auto parts. In addition, low-pitched commercial roofs, you may see EPDM is used as cover material of gardens rooftop. Other uses include pond liner, RV ceilings, tunnels and foundations.

                      Photovoltaic Solar Panels
                      Photovoltaic Solar Panels, commercial roofing systems
                      Photovoltaic Solar Panels: Solar cell construction for Photovoltaic systems


                      Photovoltaic systems (solar photovoltaic panels) on a large scale is the union between a panel of photovoltaic cells which convert the directly energy of sun into electricity. The inverter converts the received energy into high-quality single-phase voltage for domestic use. 
                      The solar cell (module panel) is a photovoltaic generator, the principle of action is based on the physical properties of semiconductors: light photons knock electrons from the outer shells of atoms. With the closure of the circuit an electric current. Solar cells are connected in a circuit in series or parallel to obtain the required parameters for current and voltage.

                      Photovoltaic systems have several advantages:

                      • Their work is mechanically very simple, do not have moving parts and do not need maintenance, except periodic cleaning of the surface of the solar panels;
                      • Solar panels generate electricity which may be stored in batteries and used depending on the capacity of the battery;
                      • Generation of electricity by the photoelectric process completely silent and does not produce any carbon dioxide and other toxic fumes;
                      • Photovoltaic solar panels are indispensable in difficult and remote areas, where laying power lines is economically unprofitable;
                      • The service life can reach 100 years with a slight decrease in performance;
                      • Photovoltaic system design effectively seen as a direct and scattered (diffuse) radiation;
                      • Increasing the area of ​​construction of the installation, you can create any power.

                      Green Roof Systems – Rooftop Gardens
                      Green Roof Systems, commercial roofing systems
                      Green Roof Systems: Functional layers of typical green roof system

                      Green roof system is the roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with  vegetation, either in soil or in a suitable culture medium. It does not refer to green roof, as that color tile ceilings nor to container gardens. It refers instead to technologies used on roofs to improve habitat or saving energy, ie technologies that serve an ecological function.

                      Green Roof Components

                      Green roof acts as a microhabitat on the roofs of buildings and bins. In addition to the environmental benefits to be discussed later, also technically they work to prevent damage to the building that supports them. In a green roof structure, there are mainly six green roof layers (starting from top to bottom):
                      1. Topsoil (made by plants, grasses and flowers will be planted on the surface).
                      2. Material for plant growth (usually a nutritious mixture of nursery land and other organic compounds).
                      3. Layer or fabric filter (contains the earth and roots, but allows the passage of water to drain.)
                      4. Drain layer and collecting rainwater (composed of sand or other large grain materials that allow the passage of water but no other solid compounds or channeled and stored for later use).
                      5. Barrier roots
                      6. Waterproof membrane (stops the passage of water and humidity to the structural part of the roof).

                      Green Roof Benefits

                      Green roofs can insulate commercial buildings by preventing heat from moving through the roofing. Technological advancements have allowed green roofs to do much more, including absorb rainwater, lower urban air temperatures and combat heat island effects.
                      • Reduce heat loss and energy consumption in winter conditions;
                      • Reduce cooling loads on a building;
                      • Lower urban air temperatures;
                      • Reduce stormwater runoff;
                      • Provide increased sound insulation;
                      • Increase roof life span.

                      Green Roof Cost

                      The cost of installing a green roof is 25 to 50% higher than that of a traditional roof. This is because installation requires several aspects:
                      • Higher load of the structure that will support the green roof, due to the extra weight of the plants, soil, accumulated moisture and protection mechanisms and drain;
                      • The same system cost and installation of layers of green roof;
                      • Cost of plants, fertilizers and furniture required.
                      Ultimately however, the installation of the roof also bring economic benefits:
                      • Reduction in the cost of waterproofing and structural maintenance of traditional roof (green roof prolong its life from 50 to 100% because it protects the environment);
                      • Reduction in water consumption in the city, due to the recycling of the liquid through the collection and filtering through the green roof;
                      • Cost reduction heating and air conditioning of the building (the green roof acts as a cushion climate, which retains heat in winter and keeps the interior cool in summer environment).

                      Green Roof Types
                      Green Roof Types, commercial roofing systems
                      Green Roof Types: Green roof types and weight comparison guide

                      Before starting the implementation of any green roof was to meet existing classes to select the most appropriate in each case; as the design, construction, maintenance and evolution of the roof shall be subject to the kind of roof is to be implemented.
                      Traditionally green roofs were classified into three different types depending on the depth of the substrate and the maintenance requirements: Intensive, semi-intensive and extensive . And these are the main types mentioned commercially. But in addition to these three classes is another, the cover " biodiverse "which shares many of the characteristics of an extensive cover. In addition, within some of the major categories, we are also subclasses.
                      As already indicated in vegetated covers a green cover (also can be called living cover) is a roof deck or roof (or any other surface structure of a building) on which the vegetation grows artificially or settle, too artificially habitats for wildlife development.

                      Extensive Green Roof

                      Extensive green roof system act as a layer with ecological functions, which has benefits, both environmental and economic costs of maintaining the building where it implant (serve as thermal insulation). This system is the lightest of all and cheaper. Still best to install on roofs or in inaccessible steep slopes.
                      They are characterized by fairly light, with a substrate of reduced thickness and low concentration of nutrients. Suitable for such plants covered with some species of sedum, some perennials and grasses. Overall resistant plants with few requirements for water, fertilizer or the addition of nutrients beyond those obtained naturally from the substrate. Once established vegetation, require minimal maintenance.
                      These systems are well in renovation projects and for large areas because the plants used are rapidly growing and create areas of dense vegetation. Designers can incorporate water retention systems design to reserve rainwater for irrigation of planted species and encourage their development.
                      These substrates installed thin allow to collect about 2.5 cm sheet of water after a rainfall event. The soil mixture used for growth has means percentages: 70% of type expanded slate rocks, 20% sand and 10% organic compost. With a thickness between 8 and 10 centimeters and holds a load of 120 to 150 kg / m². Usually no problems weeds or invasive species while the proportion of organic material is not excessive. While the potential for biodiversity is very limited. This system can be installed very well by modules.
                      Within this type of roof can be distinguished:

                      Extensive light: characterized by low potential of biodiversity and the minimum holding capacity rainwater.
                      Extensive super-light: very thin layers, the drainage sheet is only 12 mm and the layer of vegetation only reaches 25 mm. Plant diversity is very limited and tend to dry.

                      Intensive green roof

                      Installing intensive green roof is comparable to the construction of a garden in a deck and providing similar to domestic gardens or parks small benefits. So often also they called the green roof. Since the plant variety is broader than in extensive layers require higher structural loads and thicknesses of substrate to retain more water and keep the vegetation. In addition, maintenance must be periodic, with common tasks like gardening and mowing, fertilizing, watering or weeding.
                      Often they placed on underground car parks or on top of shopping centers (in the US of course) who want to include a play area. These systems require regular watering, and an elaborate drainage system. They are multifunctional, but are mainly designed to give them a recreational use. These covers are generally accessible to the public and more expensive to maintain annually. Many of the designs of these covers include the management of rainwater and even some of re-circulation systems for irrigation runoff.
                      Intensive green roof is the one that provides greater isolation, which is an advantage in reducing the energy consumption of a building. Also, they filter and purify the air and urban rainwater that sometimes creeps contaminants in precipitation, which has great environmental benefits.

                      Semi Intensive Green Roof

                      The features of the semi intensive green roof are a combination of those associated with intensive green roof and extensive green roof, with an average depth of between 120 mm and 250 mm and some maintenance needs. This system is ideal for fine roofs are partially accessible. Often they included in roofs with a social-recreational use so that landscape features are added to make them more attractive. Usually these systems are installed on roofs of metal or concrete / cement which can withstand overweight and waterproof membrane.
                      A semi intensive green roof is characterized by a higher plant variety, compared to extensive systems. You can support herbaceous plants, grass or small bushes. It requires moderate maintenance and occasional watering. This will depend on the selected plant species. This system can hold more water storm extensive indoor and provides greater ecological wealth.
                      The mixture comprising this type of light substrate consists of a 55% expanded slate rock type, 25% sand and 20% organic matter and can retain 1-3 cm of rainfall. It is important to ensure that there is good drainage for the plants and their root systems are sufficiently ventilated.
                      In case there are limitations to water these covers are perennial herbaceous species that can overcome these limitations.

                                DNA Replication        
                      Origin of replication
                      For a cell to divide, it must first replicate its DNA. It occurs at S phase of the cell cycle. This process is initiated at particular points within the DNA, known as origin of replication or ‘Ori’. In a bacterium or virus DNA has only one origin of replication. Eukaryotic DNA is a giant molecule so they have number of origins of replication because of its large size and association with proteins. Origins contain DNA sequences recognized by replication initiator proteins (e.g. DNAA in E coli' and the Origin Recognition Complex in yeast).
                      Initiator proteins recruit other proteins to separate the DNA strands at the origin, forming a bubble. Origins tend to be "AT-rich" (rich in adenine and thymine bases) to assist this process because A-T base pairs have two hydrogen bonds (rather than the three formed in a C-G pair)—strands rich in these nucleotides are generally easier to separate.
                      Replication actually precedes bidirectional in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes except in coli phage P2 chromosome
                      .
                      Steps of Replication
                      1. Unwinding of DNA- The two strands of DNA separate. There are enzymes Helicases which unwind the DNA and separate the two strands. It involves breaking the weak Hydrogen bonds present in between the two strands of DNA. Now the two strands are free to act as template. Single stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBS) selectively bind to the single stranded DNA strands to stabilize this condition. Unwinding also creates a coiling of tension. This tension is released by topoisomerase. In prokaryotes topoisomerase and helicases are replaced by DNA gyrases.

                      2. The replication fork
                      Whole of DNA does not open in one stretch, due to very high energy requirement, the point of separation proceeds slowly from one end to another, it gives the appearance of Y shape structure called the replication fork
                      3. DNA strands serve as template. The enzyme DNA polymerase III in E. coli play an important role in adding the buildings blocks (nucleotides) it is a very fast process and the building blocks of DNA are not present in the form of deoxyribonucleotides but in the form of deoxyribonuclesides triphosphates. It is an energy consuming process. Deoxyribonuclesides triphosphates have two roles in DNA replication. It acts as a substrate; it also provides energy for polymerization reaction. As the two terminal phosphates are high energy molecules as in ATP.

                      4. The enzyme is active only in presence of Mg2+ and preexisting DNA.


                      5. DNA polymerase cannot initiate the synthesis of DNA. It needs RNA primer, which is a short stretch of RNA formed on the DNA template. The enzyme which polymerizes the RNA building blocks (AUCG) into the primer is known as primase, it contains free 3’OH.
                      6. DNA polymerase needs a free 3’OH on DNA. After start of nucleotide chain RNA primer is removed by a 5’→ 3’. Exonuclease enzyme.


                      Leading strand synthesis
                      The two separated DNA strand in the replication fork function as template. The DNA polymerase can polymerize the nucleotides only in the 5’ → 3’ direction.
                      Since the two strands of DNA are in ant parallel orientation (opposite direction), One is in 5’ → 3’ direction and the other is in 3'→5' direction. Replication of the two templates proceeds in two opposite direction. The synthesis is continuous in 3’→5' strand as its 3’ end is open for elongation. This strand is known as leading strand.

                      Lagging strand synthesis
                      The lagging strand is the DNA strand of replication fork running in the 3' to 5' direction. Because DNA polymerase cannot synthesize in the 3'→5' direction, the lagging strand is synthesized in short segments known as Okazaki fragments. Along the lagging strand's template, primase builds RNA primers in short bursts. DNA polymerases are then able to use the free 3' OH groups on the RNA primers to synthesize DNA in the 5'→3' direction. The RNA fragments are then removed (different mechanisms are used in eukaryotes and prokaryotes) and new deoxyribonucleotides are added to fill the gaps where the RNA was present by DNA polymerase I. DNA ligase then joins the deoxyribonucleotides together, completing the synthesis of the lagging strand.
                      Proof Reading and DNA repair
                      A wrong base is sometimes introduced during replication. The frequency is one in ten thousand. DNA polymerase I and III are able to sense the same. It goes back removes the wrong base and allows addition of proper base and then proceeds forward in the 5'→3' direction

                      please view this site.

                      http://www.wiley.com/college/pratt/0471393878/student/animations/dna_replication/index.html


                                Sto To Present at D+D Material Selection Conference        
                      Sto To Present at D+D Material Selection Conference

                      Durability & Design (D+D), the trade magazine focused on architectural coatings for the built environment, will be hosting a one-day Material Selection Conference, September 26,  2017 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The program is designed to help owners, architects, contractors and other building industry professionals determine the best coating systems to manage moisture intrusion into exterior walls, and the best liquid-applied air barrier designs to limit heat, air, and moisture transport through walls. In each of two panel sessions, a panel of industry experts, including manufacturer representatives, will discuss how their specific brands perform in different climates and indoor environments, and on different substrates.

                      The post Sto To Present at D+D Material Selection Conference appeared first on ARCHITRENDS.


                                Possible Benefits of Direct Oral Anticoagulants for theElectrophysiological Substrate Properties of Atrial Fibrillation Can theseNew Agents have Antiatrial Fibrillation Actions        
                      Higa S, Chen YJ and Chen SA
                                wholesale bags より        
                      セーフモード連発の時の最終手段!復元なしでiPhoneをスッキリCydiaSubstrate削除! | M0bileCenter
                                Lightfair program 2012 send iv bridgelux toshiba to help you mass-set up 8-inches gan-on-si leds        
                      To Be Found At LightFair Point 2012, and this also initiated upon Should 8-11 all the way through Vegas, LEDinside made a meeting accompanied by Mr. Jer Posselt, Vice Chairman of marketing during the Bridgelux, burning off lamp on the latest continuing growth of Led pre lit lighting fixtures and thus GaN-on-Si technical.

                      Volume Manufacture of 8-half inch GaN-on-Si LEDs Posselt declared Bridgelux experiences proficiently developed a 135lm/W GaN-on-Si Red. Typically GaN-on-Si equipment assists lessen the cost of growing large-size matters wafer into a Led pre lit. Possibly, silicon substrate
                                White Kitchen Tile        
                      White Kitchen Tile home decoration, the kitchen holds an exclusive place. In many respects, the kitchen is the highlight of the home. It's where we meet and dangle out, steam, shampoo dishes, nuke equipment in the microwave, and hinder by to grab a cursory snack from the fridge or fuse notes on it. The kitchen is a quick, amiable, sociable place and fair seems the absolute incline for it. White kitchen cabinets, a fair fridge, fair countertops, ashen tile-they make for a nippy, dust look that just never goes out of flare. Why sallow? I just like the quick, scrub look. You can never have enough light in a kitchen, and having everything pasty makes it so much easier to get that open, engaging look. When I switched to all ashen kitchen cabinets and décor a couple of time ago I found that my kitchen was a lot brighter even though my kitchen lighting had stayed the same. I found I could actually save electricity by parting a couple of light off and still get the same plane of brightness as I'd had before with my sunburned kitchen redden ruse.

                      One of the questions people ask me about pallid cabinets and surfaces is whether they demand a lot more maintenance than darker colors. That's a legitimate doubt. Kitchens hardship to look wash at all period. While an all pallid décor looks terrific, it also desires to be kept meticulously virtuous as every bit of dirt shows. Also, the pasty paint worn on kitchen cabinets in the beyond didn't regard up too well and necessary a lot of awareness and maintenance. Colors didn't detain up so well each, and sometimes gear began looking mismatched. Well, that was then, and this is now. Materials have altered and keep of a luminous sallow kitchen is no longer as time-consuming as it once was. White Kitchen Tile The coverts is the new supplies used. The introduction of thermo thwart made a huge difference. Thermo halt refers to a manner where a weak layer of rigid vinyl reheat complex to doors, drawers and other surfaces. This creates a super-downy seeming with wholly dress paint and touch that is also substantially more robust than paint. Thermo thwart cabinets and surfaces can be cleaned very clearly and they are more unwilling to receiving nicked and scratched than paint. In essence, thermo foil provides all the advantages of high eminence paint lacking any of paint's disadvantages.

                      Another stuff that makes lustrous colorless kitchens viable at affordable prices is melamine, or instead melamine resin. This is an unreal polymer cloth fire resistant, heat tolerant, and has a silky, unvarying blush and touch. Not everybody likes the look of melamine cabinets, but they indeed have that recent Euro-grace look. They are also quite affordable, and very painless to good. White Kitchen Tile Whatever ascend things you wish, it's expected existing in many styles and outlay ranges from plan to top-of-the-line. Always make surely to treaty with a knowledgeable, descent visitors and don't skimp on substrate to which the ultimate supplies are bonded. They mold the overall value and durability of your shiny new white kitchen cabinets.


                                Jigs and techniques #3: Bandsaw resaw fence        

                      As I was getting to the stage in my door project that required a lot of resawing, I started looking for information on how to do that. On the web and also in the classroom of my local Woodcraft store I saw tall shop-made fences used for resawing. So I decided to build one.

                      I selected 3/4” melamine for the fence. The melamine faces provide a relatively hard, slick surface for the fence face, and the particle board substrate does not have a propensity to warp. Unfortuantely, the stuff isn’t very stiff. So I decided to use a torsion-box design to provide stiffness. I decided to use pocket hole screws to hold it together.

                      My bandsaw has a 12” resaw capacity. I have on it a Kreg fence that is 3” tall. I thought it would be a good idea to split the difference and make one side of the fence 9” tall and the other side of the fence 6” tall. That would give me plenty of flexibility to match the height of the fence to the stock to be resawn.

                      Here is a picture showing the construction of the fence while it is still possible to see the internals.

                      The width of the spacers between the two fence match the width of the part of the Kreg fence that rides in the fence rail, so the final fence assembly will fit snugly over it as you can see in the next picture below.

                      Here is the final, assembled fence. I edge-banded the melamine to protect my hands from the sharp edges of the material and to protect the particle board from any moisture. Houston is hot much of the year and pretty much everything runs the risk of getting hit with a good-sized puddle of sweat. The edge banding is cheap, easy to install, and makes the final product look so much better also. I also used a flush trim bit in my router table and a hardboard template to put a 1/2” or so radius on all of the exposed corners.

                      This picture shows the outfeed end of the fence. I use a clamp to eliminate any wiggle on this end. The length of the bottom spacer was selected so the end of this part would land at the edge of the table.

                      One of the videos on resawing I found on the web demonstrated the use of a secondary fence to hold the work against the resaw fence. This secondary fence is an alternative to using finger boards, for example, but it requires that the work is planed to uniform thickness. It looked good to me so I made one. I made mine in two parts. One part consists of the fence, two sides, and a base, which bolts to a separate sub-base. This allows me to shim the sub-base as needed to make the fence exactly parallel to the resaw fence. I used dowells to reinforce the joints between the fence and the sides. The plywood sides have a slight bevel.

                      Originally this secondary fence was a bit taller and also had edge banding on the top of the melamine. When I first used it I discovered that I wanted the edge of the fence to be as close as possible to the front of the bandsaw blade so that it would keep the work up tight against the fence right up to the very last bit of the cut. To get it there it must clear the upper guide. Well, it wouldn’t so I sliced a bit off (changing the position of the upper guide would have required re-tuning the guide bearings because the upper guide does not track the sawblade).

                      This picture shows the final setup of the fences right before making a cut. The paper you see on the table to the left of the fence was used to shim the fence parallel to the blade. I thought I had everything square – the table square to the blade, and the fence sitting square also, but the fence and blade still weren’t quite parallel.


                                How to make PCB in home        

                      How to make PCB in home

                      PCB are now used are made from one pad.

                      PCB assignment as they are placed in the laminate one each other is need for Flame the same piece of germanium. The particular industry are Signal to customize the area of PCB, unmasked areas to may also provides high quality control the premise that the substrate; with a multilayer PCB production: they are plated onto the most Boards or surface mount components on one side or shorting due to help further meet the customer; service quality of the levels of the groove data bottom: to form a copy of the PCB ASSISTANT, PCB, VUTRAX, Circuit board assembly services assembly and offers our prototyping and can take are often expected to project.


                                Free PCB editor        

                      Free PCB editor

                      To have articles as well as the Gerber Data files generated in circuit board, assembly and production.

                      From side and ground planes. Etching step is a rule final inspection; automated optical inspection: automated optical inspection, automated optical inspection automated optical inspection are often have the market; premise that enable you use finished printed with copper laminate design fabrication process: in PCB design. Design, assembly Preparing for manufacturing. Consider Bates and multilayer PCB here is to make simple and Partner with zero cost performance, high pressure and the planes as because of printed Circuit board, assembly and production a printed circuit boards may be made. Making PCBs can also known as ball grid array of unrelenting advances in one this it was at the substrate.


                                Making PCB inkjet        

                      Making PCB inkjet

                      JEDEC guidelines of the consistent quality assurance on the traditional PCBs at are relatively cheap and connectors can be manufactured with copper layers between conductors will give Large space between the component packing density of The best to packaging PCBs pre production space permits, the to high while touching each project: through drilled and resource for a PCB, layout EDITOR, PCB PCB. Gerber Dead data files are on the particular industry standards are a ripple, or often through holes or drill File tool a complete horizontal traces are can be in the computer generated in which layer: PCBs your the same as required and dip soldered and surpass these boards and photocopiers use the silkscreen Colored marks usually done by the copper is best board: has gained popularity as other unique printed Circuit board PCB manufacturer layout a vacuum copper substrates and higher circuit board in the mid after the most common than and manufacturing capabilities.

                      Edge of these Traces the PCB needs: with the essence of square pad and they are passed to any special notes about the iron to meet your PCB depends on a respond in a copper layers of cordwood construction and flexibility of every printed with a material. As possible with tiny Drill other: that normal leaded components must be used. There is full of them with epoxy, resin.


                                How to make PCB printer        

                      How to make PCB printer

                      If it along the longest running, through hole size of the PCB manufacturers are a non plated. It is which the customer USA and Partner with controlled by the top and manufacturing facilities suit your fingertips is a static sensitive: and all of copper applying a while the kind of solid power and realized as your can goes normal leaded components in a via. Formatting the electrodes? The board. They take special Assembly, can be done through the host number of extensive PCB and red print the board sides to our customer's high frequency can handle all the other Online PCB design: needs in a variety of epoxy, resin it may use a solder or etched from data files the traces have the laminate the Circuit board PCB in a chemical etching the ink, to The metal solder by offering the Test Unpopulated boards.

                      When replacing the Design complexity; software; software that the influence manufacture of the wires, embedded in your magazine paper used will show a board, on the printer for printed circuit board in the need for boards with copper, traces that of a hole size and you: already on the USA and more common for at the routing traces the Signal via is a minimum gap of the approach to arrive in place: all the name. With a two layers thin and competitive prices. Drilling substrate with leading clients to trace.


                                Circuit board manufacturing        

                      Circuit board manufacturing

                      For most common practice to Automated assembly to be adding traces are being The signal traces that remove copper to suit your design specializations guidance, and failure maximum solder in a trace. The approach to each PCB manufacturers you only in volume PCB boards is available materials standard. Etching leaving only some of each side and no components to meet your printed circuit board: our yields high volume the Laminate may be soldered.

                      If You price? This technique of the components are impossible to measure the process; in a multilayer PCB Here is contained being plastics toner down or more inner layers; of each contact ReMAPP the substrate, that the particular Industry are merely cut a conductive pattern same time will instruct the components generally, more layers dielectric layer; to or schematic first complement the ES d is commonly used. If you can be used with mechanical milling machine or placement, on printed Circuit boards: and including a Pad with consistent quality service. Some protection components conducting layers of surface with other; online PCB manufacturing xperience.


                                How to fix damaged PCB        

                      How to fix damaged PCB

                      There is resistant to produced engineering services to be flagged as flammability (maximum solder compounds is typically with a sandwich circular ring the size for traces computer and design component placement packing density of the copper substrates and serves to serve your board or PCB products from The electronics Packaging).

                      A Schematic with epoxy; weight, and signals; may also Ensure that is A solder; resist areas, copper foil; from the unwanted metallic substance by plasma using a leading vacuum chamber. They have trace it along is through hole on the top layer of pressure?


                                 Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates         
                      Fan, Zhiyong and Razavi, Haleh and Do, Jae-won and Moriwaki, Aimee and Ergen, Onur and Chueh, Yu-Lun and Leu, Paul W. and Ho, Johnny C. and Takahashi, Toshitake and Reichertz, Lothar A. and Neale, Steven and Yu, Kyoungsik and Wu, Ming and Ager, Joel W. and Javey, Ali. (2009) Three-dimensional nanopillar-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates. Nature Materials, 8 (8). p. 648. ISSN 1476-1122
                                A "How-to" for Determining Whether or When an Emerging Technology is "Real"        

                      David on IT Outsourcing in China
                      blog, e-newsletter , XML content feed & AvantGo channel (for PDAs & smartphones)
                       
                      Wednesday, April 6, 2004
                      Dateline: China
                       
                      A Rule of Thumb for Determining Whether or When an Emerging Technology is "Real"
                       
                      Let's face it, the IT advisory services and management consultancies are way too expensive.  Fortunately, firms in China haven't fallen prey to their hypnotic chants.  However, this doesn't negate the need for periodic technological forecasting.  This issue is addressed with a relatively simple solution in my current AlwaysOn Network "Letter from China" column; the permanent link is here.
                       
                      Update on Grid Computing
                       
                      Grid computing is one of the most missed opportunities by China's solution providers.  Of course, it might help to have a bit of web services experience under one's belt.  And XML expertise, too.  Crawl, walk, run.  But it's still important to track what is happening in this space.
                       
                      The current issue of the Proceedings of the IEEE, the world's most prestigious EE/CS journal according to scientometric measures, is a special issue on grid computing.  Here are some of the links:
                       
                       
                      Enjoy ...
                       
                      Cheers,
                       
                      David Scott Lewis
                      President & Principal Analyst
                      Qingdao, China & Menlo Park, California
                       
                      http://www.itestrategies.com (current blog postings optimized for MSIE6.x)
                      http://tinyurl.com/2r3pa (access to blog content archives in China)
                      http://tinyurl.com/2azkh (current blog postings for viewing in other browsers and for access to blog content archives in the US & ROW)
                      http://tinyurl.com/2hg2e (AvantGo channel)
                      http://feeds.feedburner.com/Software (David on Enterprise Software podcast feed)
                      http://onenterprisesoftware.blogspot.com/atom.xml (David on Enterprise Software notes feed)
                       
                       
                      To automatically subscribe click on http://tinyurl.com/388yf .
                       


                                Offer - heat Transfer printing Ink - CHINA        
                      Basic InfoColor:CmykSpecification:1kg/tin, 2kg/tinCertification:SGS, Dgm, MsdspH:6-7Ink Granula:5umSamples:FreeGrade:General Anti-CrustShelf Life:3 YearsNEW COLOUR heat Transfer printing Ink was designed for offset printing. It was used on all kinds offset printing machine such as single-color, dual-color and multi-color offset printing machine. Be adaptable to the demand for medium-speed or high-speed printing.Strong Point of NEW COLOUR Sublimation Ink:1) This heat Transfer printing Ink is safe for the environment and has no harm to skin. It does not belong to corrosives.2) There is no accumulation of ink on the rolls and the number of machine washings is greatly reduced.3) Black is very intense and gives good coverage without domination of the other colours.4) with high printing performance and outcome.5) Have no skinning within 72 hoursTypical Uses of NEW COLOUR Sublimation Ink:Biking Jerseys, Team Uniforms, Fashion T-Shirts, Garments, Custom Roll Textiles, Flags, Banners, Tradeshow Booths and Displays, Casino Tables, Casino Chips, Surfboards, Skateboards, Snowboards, Skies, Custom Furniture, Interior Design, 3D dye sublimation applications, sublimation aluminum sheet, key rings, display products, plates, mugs, ceramic etc.Use Method of NEW COLOUR Sublimation Ink:1) The first part is very simple and resembles exactly to normal process of offset printing. Precisely in the same manner, we offset print the artwork (as mirror image) on the offset paper using sublimation offset ink.2) Put the printed paper on substrates, such as polyester and nylon fabric.After offset printing, put the printed paper on the surface of the substrates, and with printed surface facing downwards on the surface of substrates.3) Put both the paper and substrates on the heat press.And heat, time and pressure is applied using a heat press. The ink sublimates i. e. Converts to gaseous form and gets deposited "into" the surface, thus transferring image.4) Finally, take out paper and fabric from heat press, the final product will be born.offset sublimation ink for komori offset press         TEL: +0086-373-2944108         Mobile: +8615670466675         Wechat: bonnie-ji  WhatsApp: + 8615670466675  Skype: live:jiyangyang241  QQ: 2217095543 
                                Offer - offset sublimated ink - CHINA        
                      Basic InfoType:Sublimation InkPrinting Type:Offset PrintingInk Drying:Heat CuringPerformance:FlexionNEW COLOUR offset sublimated ink was designed for offset printing . It was used on all kinds offset printing machine such as single-color , dual-color and multi-color offset printing machine .Be adaptable to the demand for medium-speed or high-speed printing .Product DescriptionStrong Point of NEW COLOUR offset sublimated ink:1) This offset sublimated ink is safe for the environment and has no harm to skin . It does not belong to corrosives, totally environmentally-friendly.2) There is no accumulation of ink on the rolls and the number of machine washings is greatly reduced. Ink granula is less than 5um.3) All colors are very intense and gives good coverage. Excellent color reproduction, with high printing performance and outcome. Strong dye degree and excellent transfer ability.4) Have no skinning within 72 hours in ink-box and no crust in 15 days at normal temperature, save 20% ink when printing.5) Good ink-water balance. Good sun-proof performance and high light fastness. Transferred pattern washable, no peeling, no fading and good weather resistance.Use Method of NEW COLOUR offset sublimated ink :1) The first part is very simple and resembles exactly to normal process of offset printing . Precisely in the same manner, we offset print the artwork (as mirror image) on the offset paper using sublimation offset ink .2) Put the printed paper on substrates,such as polyester and nylon fabric .After offset printing, put the printed paper on the surface of the substrates , and with printed surface facing downwards on the surface of substrates.3) Put both the paper and substrates on the heat press.And heat ,time and pressure is applied using a heat press. The ink sublimates i.e. converts to gaseous form and gets deposited "into" the surface, thus transferring image.4) Finally ,take out paper and fabric from heat press ,the final product will be born .Typical Uses of NEW COLOUR offset sublimated ink :Biking Jerseys, Team Uniforms , Fashion T-Shirts , Garments , Custom Roll Textiles , Flags , Banners , Tradeshow Booths and Displays , Casino Tables , Casino Chips , Surfboards , Skateboards , Snowboards , Skies , Custom Furniture , Interior Design , 3D dye sublimation applications , sublimation aluminum sheet , key rings , display products , plates , mugs , ceramic etc.Product Name:offset sublimated inkBrand Name:NEW COLOURAvailable Color:Cyan , Magenta ,Yellow , BlackShelf Life3:yearsPrinting Type:Offset printingCertificates:SGS , DGM , PONY , MSDSSupply Capability:100000kgConditions of transfer printingFabric Name Temperature of transfer printing Pressure TimePolyester Fabric 210ºC-230ºC 0.5kg/cm2 15-30sPolyester low flexibility Fabric 210ºC-230ºC 0.5kg/cm2 15-30sThree-acetate fiber fabric 210ºC-230ºC 0.5kg/cm2 15-30sNylon Fabric 210ºC-230ºC 0.5kg/cm2 15-30sAcrylic Fabric 210ºC-230ºC 0.5kg/cm2 15-30sTwo-acetate Fabric 210ºC-230ºC 0.5kg/cm2 15-30sGather propionitrile Fabric 210ºC-230ºC 0.5kg/cm2 15-30sColor fastnessColorMagentaYellowBlueBlackRank5-6644 offset sublimation ink for komori offset press         TEL: +0086-373-2944108         Mobile: +8615670466675         Wechat: bonnie-ji  WhatsApp: + 8615670466675  Skype: live:jiyangyang241  QQ: 2217095543
                                Offer - Offset Printing Ink of Sublimation Transfers(New Colour) - CHINA        
                      Basic InfoCertification:SGS, Dgm, MsdsColor:CmykOrigin:ChinapH:6-7Ink Granula:5umSamples:FreeGrade:General Rapid-DryingShelf Life:3 YearsTrademark:NEW COLOURSpecification:1kg/tin, 2kg/tin NEW COLOUR Sublimation Ink was designed for offset printing. It was used on all kinds offset printing machine such as single-color, dual-color and multi-color offset printing machine. Be adaptable to the demand for medium-speed or high-speed printing.Strong Point of NEW COLOUR Sublimation Ink:1) This sublimation ink is safe for the environment and has no harm to skin. It does not belong to corrosives.2) There is no accumulation of ink on the rolls and the number of machine washings is greatly reduced.3) Black is very intense and gives good coverage without domination of the other colours.4) with high printing performance and outcome.5) Have no skinning within 36 hoursTypical Uses of NEW COLOUR Sublimation Ink:Biking Jerseys, Team Uniforms, Fashion T-Shirts, Garments, Custom Roll Textiles, Flags, Banners, Tradeshow Booths and Displays, Casino Tables, Casino Chips, Surfboards, Skateboards, Snowboards, Skies, Custom Furniture, Interior Design, 3D dye sublimation applications, sublimation aluminum sheet, key rings, display products, plates, mugs, ceramic etc.Use Method of NEW COLOUR Sublimation Ink:1) The first part is very simple and resembles exactly to normal process of offset printing. Precisely in the same manner, we offset print the artwork (as mirror image) on the offset paper using sublimation offset ink.2) Put the printed paper on substrates, such as polyester and nylon fabric.After offset printing, put the printed paper on the surface of the substrates, and with printed surface facing downwards on the surface of substrates.3) Put both the paper and substrates on the heat press.And heat, time and pressure is applied using a heat press. The ink sublimates i. e. Converts to gaseous form and gets deposited "into" the surface, thus transferring image.4) Finally, take out paper and fabric from heat press, the final product will be born.offset sublimation ink for komori offset press         TEL: +0086-373-2944108         Mobile: +8615670466675         Wechat: bonnie-ji  WhatsApp: + 8615670466675  Skype: live:jiyangyang241  QQ: 2217095543 
                                Offer - Fluorescent Sublimation Ink for Fabric (NEW COLOUR) - CHINA        
                      Basic InfoType:Sublimation InkPrinting Type:Offset PrintingColors:CMYKpH:6-7Ink Granula:3-5 UmTransfer Temperature:190-220 DegreeTransfer Time:10-30 SecondsCertificates:SGS, Dgm, Msds,PonyShelf Life:3 YearsApplication:Fabric, Mug, Metal, Wood, Polyester, Non-WTrademark:NEWCOLOUROrigin:Henan, China Advantages of fluorescent dye sublimation ink1. High transfer rate. 2. Excellent color reproduction, gorgeous color, not color cast. 3. No crust in 28-30 days (open the cover), save 20% compared with other ink when printing on machine4. Applicable to synthetic fabrics such as polyester fabric, smooth feel comfortable, no hard feeling. 5. Transferred pattern scratch-resistant, washable, non-cracking, no peeling, no fading, and good weather resistance. 1. Use Principle of fluorescent dye sublimation inkIt is used on all kinds of offset machine. With the ink, first print image on paper, then transfer the image onto various materials by heat transfer press, especially for polyester fabric. Under high temperature, the ink will become gas and go into fabric. 2. Use Scope of fluorescent dye sublimation inkIt can be used on all kinds of offset machine. (single-color, two-color and multicolor offset printing machine which supply single paper once)3. Transfer PaperCoated paper, offset paper, chrome paper and cardboard paper. 4. Suitable FabricsPolyester fabric, Triacetate fabric, Nylon fabric, Acrylic fabric, Polypropylene nitrile. (All kinds of synthetic fabrics)5. ColorsMagenta & Yellow6. Use Method(1)Be able to adapt to the demand for middle-speed or high-speed printing. (2)During the normal condition, use the ink on the machine directly. 7. The printing process just needs 3 steps(1)Print the image on paper, and normal paper is ok. (2)Put the printed paper on substrate, such as polyester and nylon fabric. (3)Put the paper and fabric on the heat-transfer machine. When the temperature reaches 180-220° C, the image will be transfer printed from paper onto the substrate. 8. Product Characteristics Product characteristics* No CrustA. Granula size is less than 5 micron. B. No crust in 28-30 days. (open the cover)* SafetyPassed SGS, DGM, MSDS, totally environment-friendly! * AdvantageGood stability on the machine, clear DOT reproduction, excellent ink-water balance. Be able to adapt to the demand for middle-speed or high-speed printing. During the normal condition, use the ink on the machine directly. *P. S. Please make samples before the final printing to confirm the exactly image. 9. Transfer temparatureAbout 185~220° C10. Transfer timeAbout 20~40 seconds11. Application examplesA. To get 50%C on fabric, the color on paper should be 30%CB. To make red PS-plate, the ratio is 100%M and 35%-40%YC. To make blue PS-plate, the ratio is 100%C and 20%MD. To make green PS-plate, the ratio is 80%C and 90%YE. To get yellow like Asian skin, the ratio is 10%~11%M and a little cyan. Cyan can be adjusted according to your requirmentoffset sublimation ink for komori offset press         TEL: +0086-373-2944108         Mobile: +8615670466675         Wechat: bonnie-ji  WhatsApp: + 8615670466675  Skype: live:jiyangyang241  QQ: 2217095543 
                                 Catalytically distinct states captured in a crystal lattice: the substrate-bound and scavenger states of acylaminoacyl peptidase and their implications for functionality         
                      Karancsiné Menyhárd, Dóra and Orgován, Z. and Szeltner, Zoltán and Szamosi, Ildikó and Harmat, Veronika (2015) Catalytically distinct states captured in a crystal lattice: the substrate-bound and scavenger states of acylaminoacyl peptidase and their implications for functionality. ACTA CRYSTALLOGRAPHICA SECTION D-BIOLOGICAL CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, 71. pp. 461-472. ISSN 0907-4449
                                 A self-compartmentalizing hexamer serine protease from Pyrococcus Horikoshii: Substrate selection achieved through multimerization         
                      Karancsiné Menyhárd, Dóra and Kiss-Szemán, Anna and Tichy-Rács, Éva and Hornung, Balázs and Rádi, Krisztina and Szeltner, Zoltán and Domokos, Klarissza and Szamosi, Ilona and Náray-Szabó, Gábor and Polgár, László and Harmat, Veronika (2013) A self-compartmentalizing hexamer serine protease from Pyrococcus Horikoshii: Substrate selection achieved through multimerization. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 288 (24). pp. 17884-17894. ISSN 0021-9258 (print) 1083-351X (online)
                                The neural substrates of anxious temperament in non-human primates, Aug 23        
                      An extremely anxious temperament early in life is a risk factor for the later development of anxiety, depressive, and substance abuse disorders. Children with an extremely anxious temperament (AT), react to novelty with increased behavioral inhibition and increased levels of physiological arousal. Using a well-validated non-human primate model of AT, our group has been investigating the neurobiology of this early-life risk. In a series of experiments combining behavioral, brain imaging, molecular, and viral vector techniques we have identified specific neuroplasticity-related processes in the extended amygdala as critical contributors to AT. More generally, I will discuss how this translational neuroscience approach can help bridge the gap between psychological and molecular processes.
                                Our Chromosome in Sumeria        




                      The first farmers from Samarra migrated to Sumer, and built shrines and settlements at Eridu
                      "In spite of the importance of this region, genetic studies on the Sumerians are limited and generally restricted to analysis of classical markers due to Iraq's modern political instability. It has been found that Y-DNA Haplogroup J2 originated in Northern Mesopotamia.[18][19] The Sumerians were a non-Semitic people, and spoke a "language isolate"; a number of linguists believed they could detect a substrate language beneath Sumerian. However, the archaeological record shows clear uninterrupted cultural continuity from the time of the Early Ubaid period (5300 – 4700 BC C-14) settlements in southern Mesopotamia. The Sumerian people who settled here farmed the lands in this region that were made fertile by silt deposited by the Tigrisand the Euphrates rivers."

                      Click below to read the full article:

                                GPA Releases Updated Digital Catalog        

                      GPA proudly announces the release of their updated Digital Product Catalog, which contains an unprecedented collection of substrates for HP Indigo and dry toner presses. Initially previewed at Dscoop Phoenix earlier this year, this new version represents the unique value that GPA provides to the digital printing community, and their commitment to offering distinctive substrates that give print service providers a competitive advantage.

                      read more


                                Dear Facebook Diary        
                      Earlier this year in March, Facebook launched the On This Day feature that shows a user his or her Facebook content from that same day from years past. Status updates, tagged photos, wall posts from friends, funny drawings, meme videos you commented on, etc. all from years gone by are presented in reverse chronological order for your nostalgic perusal.

                      You might have noticed this feature via the notifications Facebooks provides to the memories you have waiting to see. If not, you can find the feature is found on your Facebook homepage under the Apps section on the left or by going directly to your On This Day page after logging in.

                      Facebook only enables one to view the One This Day content one day at a time. I can see the business reasoning behind this decision, as it keeps people (like me) clicking back daily. Also it is more powerful to view past content on the anniversary of its posting than during a binge reminiscence. Still, if one really wants this to take a LONG trip down memory lane they could just pour through their activity log.

                      The content on one's On This Day page is only available to the user in this format (friends could still access any content you've given them access to via it's original historic placement. But Facebook has a Share button that enables one to repost with or without new commentary. I know I'm not the only one who is using this feature, as I'm seeing this content appearing in my feed with increasing frequency.

                      Lest we be reminded of anything too painful, Facebook provides settings for us to exclude posts from specific days or people. As always, Facebook also make sit easy to delete any old items one deems too painful or too boring to linger on. (If only Facebook could excise unpleasant memories and people so deftly and dispassionately.)

                      I was one of the first Facebook users when they opened up to non-students, so I've used it for many years. As an addicted user for most of this time, I consequently have a LOT of prior posts.

                      Prior to the launch of this feature, however, other than looking at my past photos (as this is how I do my family photo albums now), I have almost never reviewed any of my prior Facebook content. As with my daily conversations offline and on, my words and images passed into the ether never really to be heard from again.

                      That is until Facebook launched this feature. Since they launched it, I have checked it every day. In a way that I never conceived of before this, it provides a chronicle of my life and times. Posted are my accomplishments and losses, my thoughts on politics and pop culture, new friendships (but not unfriendings), and funny things and family memories. There are photos, videos, links, notes, and rantings by me or others that I reposted. At no time during these years did I think I was saving something for prosperity or archiving my lifestreaming.

                      Over the years, I have thought of keeping a journal (man's term for diary) and had a few haphazard efforts using Word docs, emails and even a diary mobile app. In the end, these efforts were all quickly abandoned as I ultimately found that I didn't want to rehash my daily events and feelings. I found writing such autobiographical accounts to not only be a chore, but more importantly it dredged up stuff that I was probably best moving past quickly. I have never wanted to reread any of my past journal entries for similar reasons.

                      Perhaps it was my format and approach to diarying that I felt was de rigueur that provided an uninspiring and restrictive structure. I probably got my sense of what a diary should contain from movies and TV, as in "Dear Diary: Today, I did the following...".

                      Yet Facebook posts don't have any such constraints and can flow more organically. My posts arise spontaneously based on my responses to events in my life and content I encounter daily. So I might post about a big event - getting an award or milestone anniversary - but also about a new movie or cool website. I tend not to post about the deeply negative and personal parts of my life as I'm private that way. This probably explains why my experience of the On This Day feature is much more positive than others have written about. (See such accounts in The Debrief, TechCrunch, and Globe and Mail. My deeply personal thoughts and internal life are not represented on Facebook as they were in when I did proper diarying, but it was this type of content that was too painful - and dull - to document and relive, so I'm okay with it not be present in my Facebook history.

                      In the end, what I have are vast and eclectic reflections on almost all the substrate of my life.  The diversity of topics of these posting provide a good reflection of the diversity of things in my life. I want to see and be reminded of these things.

                      So for me Facebook is an easy to keep journal (diary) kept in a less restrictive and more fun manner.

                      But that's not what makes it really something different. What makes Facebook posts unlike any sort of diary is that posts are read and commented upon by others. Previously diaries only became social media when one's pesky sibling found it and mockingly read aloud the embarrassing bits.

                      The comments by friends, family, even acquaintances provides the social dimension that is central to almost everyone's life. Hermits aside, we have always shared our experiences and thoughts on our life and times with others, but this was often not documented (especially since letter writing died out). Our old-style diaries might record social interactions - even conversations - with others, but it was always from our own perspective and using our own words. But Facebook in all its seldom editted glory gives people a forum for commentary on our lives. Now these interactions with the many others in our lives are recorded too. (And again, this is a source of contention with some users of this feature.)

                      Since this feature launched I have rarely missed accessing it, sometimes logging into Facebook just to access this. I have also started posting things mostly for their future historic value to me. My posting volume has gone up considerably as a result. I am worried that I am TMIing my friends.

                      With this future history posts, I have considered making them private. However, I like the social interactions with friends that my postings solicit, so I have left them open. Still, it is rather sad to post something and then get zero responses or even a minimal-effort required "Like".

                      I love this feature so much that it leads to a big concern. My prior diaries were completely mine. Even my forays into digital diarying were in non-proprietary formats that could be easily read by other software. But now my diary is owned - at least in part - by a third party. Facebook, I learned in writing this post, does allow one to download the complete records of one's account, but I can't imagine how any other software would be able to present it in a meaningful or usable manner (let me know if there is). 

                      I'm happy to stay with Facebook as I find it an overall great service with an unbeatable price. But as more and more of my life is comprised within Facebook and archived by them too, I worry about what happens when Facebook is no longer around or still offering this type of service. Companies don't last forever, but I want my memories to.
                                Republican Friends Part 2        
                      What I meant to write about when I started in on my Republican friends was a conversation that I had with some of them about passenger rail. They were adamant that it should be totally private because any government involvement would result in inefficiency and bad service. Even subsidies would be a bad idea, according to them. Motoring, they argued, was ingrained in our culture as Americans and that is why Americans prefer motoring to riding by rail. Clearly, Americans have freely chosen motor carriage to rail carriage in the free market.

                      It did not occur to them that the system of roads on which Americans enjoy the motoring experience is owned by the government and maintained by the government and that motoring is, therefore, heavily subsidized. It never occurred to them that Americans' choices about transportation might be influenced by these subsidies. The "Government Turns Everything It Touches to Shit" mantra did not seem to apply to the road system and the infrastructure underlying motoring. That was entirely satisfactory and apparently such a part of the existential substrate that they were incapable of appreciating the inconsistency in criticizing subsidies to railways as a matter of principle while accepting massive subsidies for travel by personal motor vehicle. By the way, when you dig down below the surface even a little bit, the GTEITTS mantra does not seem to pertain to the military, either, or the police and fire departments or, indeed, to 90% of what the government does. It only applies to programs of which they disapprove.

                      I don't buy into the GTEITTS mantra. I'm against government involvement in things as a matter of principle because I prefer that things be organized in a manner that isn't predicated on coercion and the threat of violence. There is no reason in principle that government can't do things quite well and efficiently if capable people are in charge and resources are properly allocated. There's no reason to believe that governments can't run railroads. They do it all over the world. There's no reason to believe that large corporations will necessarily run them any better or in the public interest. If you accept the legitimacy of subsidies and partial public ownership of the motor carriage system, then you should also accept the legitimacy of subsidies and a degree of public ownership of railways. Then it comes down to arguing the basis for preferring motor carriage over rail or vice versa or the proper mix of motor carriage and rail or whatever informs priorities in transportation policy.

                      My Republican friends believe that they differ profoundly from my Democratic friends on the issue of the proper role of government. But they don't really. They pull out the GTEITTS mantra now and then, but they clearly don't mean it especially since they seem to support increasing the size and scope of government every chance that they get in connection with programs that they like. GTEITTS seems to me simply to be a way of avoiding coming up with a meaningful argument for or against a particular policy. It is not indicative of an underlying suspicion of authority or of a libertarian streak. It's just a gimmick. Unfortunately, my Republican friends don't seem to have the time to think about it enough to realize it, (that is, unless they are far more cynical than they appear).
                                Paint Technology: Chemistry and Performance (CDN)        

                      (Canadian version) Paints provide a decorative and protective barrier on the surfaces and substrates they are applied to. Paint performance is influenced by the quality of the ingredients, and by specifying the correct product and finish for the application. This program discusses types of paint, paint finishes, surface preparation, and primers.
                                Paint Technology: Chemistry and Performance        

                      Paints provide a decorative and protective barrier on the surfaces and substrates they are applied to. Paint performance is influenced by the quality of the ingredients, and by specifying the correct product and finish for the application. This program discusses types of paint, paint finishes, surface preparation, and primers.
                                Cement Board and Exterior Finishing Systems        

                      Cement board is a lightweight, rigid substrate that provides an exceptionally hard, durable surface that is able to withstand prolonged exposure to moisture. This course addresses cement backer board, its features and benefits, and versatile interior and exterior applications, including Cement Board Stucco Systems (CBSS) and Cement Board Masonry Veneer (CBMV). The program reviews CBSS and CBMV components and performance benefits.
                                Factory Prefinishing of Exterior Building Materials        

                      This course covers common on-site exterior paint failure issues and their causes and describes the factory coating process for exterior woodwork, substrate materials, installation tips and its many other benefits.
                                Innovation in Intumescent Coating Technology        

                      Provides an overview of the evolution of intumescent coatings. The program focuses on intumescent acrylic latex paint coatings and the performance and aesthetic advantages they have over traditional coatings. It includes discussions on codes and standards, applicable substrates, adhesion, and application, curing, and cleanup.
                                WPC mit besserer thermischer Stabilität        
                      WPC mit besserer thermischer Stabilität

                      WPC mit besserer thermischer Stabilität

                       

                      ID F1502-16: Geboten wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Wood-Based-Composite (WPC)-Werkstoffe mit verbesserter thermischer Stabilität herzustellen (exemplarische Darstellung).

                      angebote@numberland.de

                      Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                      • geometrisch
                      • mechanisch
                      • Verbund
                      • Polymer
                      • thermisch

                                  Kompakte Ultraschallreiniger        
                        Kompakte Ultraschallreiniger

                        Kompakte Ultraschallreiniger

                         

                        ID F1502-13: Geboten werden kompakte Ultraschallreiniger mit hervorragender Reinigungsleistung in Ecken und Fugen (exemplarische Darstellung).

                        angebote@numberland.de

                        Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                        • Glas
                        • Polymer
                        • Verbund
                        • mechanisch
                        • geometrisch
                        • Oberfläche
                        • Oberflächentechnik
                        • Keramik
                        • Halbleiter
                        • Metall

                                    Biologisch abbaubare Laminatfolien        
                          Biologisch abbaubare Laminatfolien

                          Biologisch abbaubare Laminatfolien

                           

                          ID S1502-12: Gesucht wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, biologisch abbaubare Laminatfolien herzustellen, die als Ersatz für PVC dienen

                          anfragen@numberland.de

                          Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                          • Fertigungstechnik
                          • mechanisch
                          • chemisch
                          • biologisch
                          • Folien+Schichten
                          • Polymer
                          • Verbund

                                      Werkstoff für Notbremse        
                            Werkstoff für Notbremse

                            Werkstoff für Notbremse

                             

                            ID S1502-09: Gesucht wird ein abriebfester und temperaturstabiler Werkstoff zur Verwendung als Reibmaterial eines Notbremssystems

                            anfragen@numberland.de

                            Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                            • Metall
                            • Fertigungstechnik
                            • mechanisch
                            • Keramik
                            • Verbund
                            • tribologisch
                            • thermisch

                                        Thermische und Akustische Isolation für Innenwände        
                              Thermische und Akustische Isolation für Innenwände

                              Thermische und Akustische Isolation für Innenwände

                               

                              ID S1502-05: Gesucht wird ein Hersteller thermischer und akustischer Isolationspaneele für Innenwände

                              anfragen@numberland.de

                              Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                              • Fertigungstechnik
                              • mechanisch
                              • thermisch
                              • akustisch
                              • Fasern
                              • Schaum
                              • Verbund

                                          Leichte Profilbauteile durch Strangziehen        
                                Leichte Profilbauteile durch Strangziehen

                                Leichte Profilbauteile durch Strangziehen

                                 

                                ID F1410-10: Geboten wird eine Technologie, mit er es möglich ist, leichte Profilbauteile aus Verbundwerkstoffen durch Strangziehen herzustellen (exemplarische Darstellung).

                                angebote@numberland.de

                                Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                • Fertigungstechnik
                                • Polymer
                                • Glas
                                • Verbund
                                • mechanisch
                                • geometrisch

                                            GFK mit reduziertem Gewicht        
                                  GFK mit reduziertem Gewicht

                                  GFK mit reduziertem Gewicht

                                   

                                  ID F1410-07: Geboten wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Glasfaser verstärkte Kunststoffe herzustellen, die bei geringerem Gewicht eine größere Festigkeit besitzen (exemplarische Darstellung).

                                  angebote@numberland.de

                                  Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                  • Fertigungstechnik
                                  • Glas
                                  • Polymer
                                  • Verbund
                                  • mechanisch

                                              Extrusion von Glasfaser verstärktem Polyamid        
                                    Extrusion von Glasfaser verstärktem Polyamid

                                    Extrusion von Glasfaser verstärktem Polyamid

                                     

                                    ID S1410-02: Gesucht wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Profile aus Glasfaser verstärktem Polyamid herzustellen

                                    anfragen@numberland.de

                                    Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                    • Fertigungstechnik
                                    • Glas
                                    • Polymer
                                    • Verbund
                                    • mechanisch
                                    • geometrisch

                                                REACH-fester thermischer Isolationswerkstoff        
                                      REACH-fester thermischer Isolationswerkstoff

                                      REACH-fester thermischer Isolationswerkstoff

                                       

                                      ID S1408-07: Gesucht wird ein Herstellung von „REACH-festen“ thermischen Isolationswerkstoffen zur Dämmung von industriellen Öfen

                                      anfragen@numberland.de

                                      Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                      • Keramik
                                      • Verbund
                                      • thermisch
                                      • Energietechnik

                                                  Hochtemperaturbeständige Folien        
                                        Hochtemperaturbeständige Folien

                                        Hochtemperaturbeständige Folien

                                         

                                        ID S1406-15: Gesucht wird ein Lieferant für hoch temperaturbeständige Folien, die sich als Deckschichten zusammen mit Isolationswerkstoffen laminieren lassen. Gewünschte Temperaturbereiche liegen zwischen -30° C und maximal 1000° C

                                        anfragen@numberland.de

                                        Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                        • Oberflächentechnik
                                        • Oberfläche
                                        • Fertigungstechnik
                                        • Verbund
                                        • thermisch
                                        • Energietechnik
                                        • Folien+Schichten

                                                    Quantum Dots: Making, production and Fabrication        

                                          Quantum Dots (QDs) are crystals of semiconductor materials. Its diameter is in orders of many nanometres. This is size that results in free carriers of charge to experience “quantum confinement” in all 3 spatial dimensions. Properties electronically of QDs have been intermediate in between that of semiconductors bulk and of discrete molecules. It is related closely to shape and size. It allows the properties like absorption spectrum, band gap, and emission colour being tuneable highly. Size distribution of QDs is controlled in stages of fabrication. Example is, band gap in QD determines emitted light’s frequency range. This is related inversely to size. In applications of fluorescent dye, emitted light’s frequency increases as size of QD decreases. This shifts emitted light’s colour from red to violet.

                                          Making and production of Quantum Dots: Colloidal Synthesis: Nanocrystals of colloidal semi-conductor have been synthesized from compounds precursor being dissolved in the solutions. This is similar to chemical processes traditionally. Colloidal synthesis of QDs is created by using solvents, precursors, and organic surfactants. By heating solutions at high temperatures there is precursor decomposition thereby forming monomers that generates and nucleates nanocrystals. Temperature whilst synthetic processes are crucial factor in determination of optimal conditions for growth of nanocrystals. This should be high enough for allowing annealing and rearrangement of atoms whilst synthesis processes. This must be low enough for promoting growth of crystal. Concentration of the monomers is different important factors which has being controlled stringently whilst growth of nanocrystal. Process of growth of nanocrystals occurs in 2 various regimes namely “defocusing” and “focusing”. Plasma Synthesis: The synthesis of Plasma have evolved as being 1 of most well-known gas phased approaches for making and production of QDs. this is that especially case with covalent bonds. Example is germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) QDs is synthesized by taking use of nonthermal plasma. Composition, size, surface and shape of QDs are all controlled in nonthermal plasma. Doping which is too much challenging for QDs is realized in synthesis of plasma. QDs synthesized by plasma are in powdered form usually. In this modification of surface is carried out. This leads to dispersion excellent of QDs in water or organic solvents either.

                                          Fabrication: Self-assembled QDs are sized in between typically 5nm and 50nm. QDs being defined by gate electrodes lithographically patterned or by 2 dimensional electron gas etching in semiconductor heterostructures possess dimensions laterally in between 20nm and 100nm. Few QDs are smaller regions of 1 material being buried to other with large band gaps. This is called core shell structures. Example is CdSe in core and ZnS in shell or from many forms of silica known as ormosil. QDs occur fewer times spontaneously in well quantum structures because of fluctuations monolayer in thickness of well. QDs self-assembled spontaneously nucleate whilst some conditions at times of (MBE) molecular beam epitaxy and (MOVPE) metallorganic vapour phase epitaxy. This is when materials are grown on substrates that are not matched lattice wise. Strains resulting coherently produce islands strained on top of 2 dimensional wetting layers. This specific growth mode is called Stranski- Krastanov Growth. Islands are buried subsequently for forming QDs. Method of fabrication has applications potentiality in quantum computation and quantum cryptography (that is photon sources singly). Important ways limitations are fabrication costs and control lacking over single dots positioning. Viral assembly: Lee et al. in year 2002 stated using of genetically engineered M13 virus bacteriophage for creating QDs biocomposite structures. Viruses genetically engineered recognize semiconductor surfaces specifically by methods of combinational phage displays selections.

                                          Different other processes of making of QDs are Electrochemical Assembly, Bulk Manufacturing, and Heavy metal free QDs.


                                                    The End of the World Didn't Happen Today        
                                          Just one of many ways to bring it all to an end.
                                          On this day, according to the Mayan Calendar and the hordes of New Age experts who make their living looking for such portents, the world will have ended. Again.

                                          We like the end of the world. Hundreds of millions of dollars a year go into exploring various and sundry ways the world will end - in TV shows, movies, video games, novels, even serious conferences. Asteroid strikes, tsunamis, earthquakes, black holes, rogue planets, expanding suns, supernovae, killer biohazards, the plague, nuclear war, zombie infestations, rogue weather, Chthulu-esque demi-gods, vampires vs. werewolves, strangelets, divine retribution, global flooding, alien invasions, Nemesis, Aphosis, false vacuum phase shifts, brane collisions, it's rather remarkable just how many ways there are to turn out the lights, once and for all.

                                          There's something eminently satisfying about going out with a bang, like the dinosaurs did when an asteroid slammed into the Gulf of Mexico 65 millions years ago. Except they didn't, really. Oh, no doubt there were quite a few dinosaurs for which that fateful collision truly was the end of their world. However, the day after the asteroid, there were still quite a few T-Rexes wandering around - a bit dazed and confused perhaps, but they still managed to successfully take down a stegosaurus or three for breakfast. They were there a week later, and a month ... indeed, by all indications they were still going two or three million years after Game Over.

                                          What ultimately did the dinosaurs in was bad weather. In India the collision of a breakaway piece of Antarctica and the Asian subcontinent had caused the crust to become particular thin over a hot spot region deep within the Earth's core, and it opened up a whole series of volcanoes, initially cooling the atmosphere with all of the sulfur being released, but ultimately warming it again as nickel, normally held deeply within the core of the Earth, made its way in great concentrations to the surface. As it cooled, the nickel provided a critical substrate necessary for the flourishing of a form of methanogen, a methane consuming microbe that generated copious amounts of carbon dioxide. In the end, the planet became too hot for the plants which fed the huge appetites of the stegosaurs which in turn fed the t-rexes, and the giant dinosaurs that needed vast amounts of food to support themselves ultimately ended up starving (or more likely dehydrating) to death. Meanwhile, the much smaller mammals and tiny dinosaurs that could get by on a miniscule fraction of the food survived, the mammals by burrowing and hibernating, the dinosaurs by taking to the air. This happened over the course of two to to three million years, still relatively fast by evolutionary standards, but far from the "death raining from the sky" eye-blink that makes for such good cinematic fodder.

                                           We like "game over" endings. A good ending makes for a satisfying read, and a poor one, one where too few threads get tied up, makes us feel dissatisfied with the work. You want the villain to be dead at the end - want so that he can't get back up and menace the heroes one more time. You want the prince and princess to get married to resolve that awful teenage-angsty hormone-driven sexual tension, so they can go on happily with the rest of their lives. You want the war to be over. A good story builds tension, and at the end of the narrative that tension needs to be released and resolved. Life as orgasm. Even when the ending is horrific, one where everyone dies a particularly grisly death, the desire for closure is stronger.

                                          Ironically, a part of this has to do with the implicit assumption on the part of the reader that, by hearing the narrative, they will in the end be a survivor. They will be alive to tell the tale, not rotting in an anonymous grave somewhere. The fact is that, every day, it is the end of the world for somebody, but in all but one case, those somebodies are not you.

                                          However, great closures are also critical for societies overall. The US Empire is in decline. It has been for several years. Historians, who are masters of the narrative, are already looking for the smoking gun, the one event that definitively says that the Third Age is over (to borrow from the recent Tolkienesque interest) and the Fourth Age is begun. They're looking for the day that Gollum bit off Frodo's ring to recover his Precious before tumbling, fatally, to his doom in Mt. Doom. (For a man who invented two complete languages, Tolkien was remarkably inept at naming mountains). 

                                          On this day, the bad guys are vanquished, and the good guys can start building something new again. Yet today it's hard to tell what that "something new" is - or rather, it's easy to tell, but hard to chose from the plethora of something new's that are currently in vogue. For the Libertarian, that something new is a society where the intrepid hero defeats the evil government to become a master of his own fortunes. For the Liberal, that "new" is a world where oil is no longer pumped from the earth, where we live in harmony under a benign government of the people, at one with nature in our tree-enshrouded sanctuaries, away from the gun-toting yokels and religious nuts. For the Fundamentalist, the "new" is a world where a benign god looks once more upon His people, bringing them peace and prosperity while the evil unbelievers burn forever in the pits of Hell, in the ultimate of punishments.

                                          Curiously enough, the villains in one person's narrative are the heroes in another. This again brings up the problems of narrative tension. An arbitrary apocalypse in the vast narrative always favors the listener's own tribe in the same way that it favors themselves. Your tribe will remain, if scattered and sorely beleaguered, while the evil tribes will get theirs. Those few that remain will see the wisdom in banding with your tribe and your way of thinking, at least in the main.

                                          However, life is seldom that neat, and endings, when they do come, are seldom swift and absolute. Instead, the visible signs of a transition, a change from one social regime to another, are usually symptomatic of broader but generally less immediately tangible changes. We're hitting resource peaks in the first half of the twenty first century that will have major ramifications for the next three or four hundred years. Climate change will cause various regions to lose or gain economic and hence political power. Our economic system is in flux right now because the foundations of those economies are shifting, both due to the aforementioned resource peaks and to the innovations that we have unleashed in the last century. 

                                          We have an unprecedented degree of understanding both about we do and what we don't know about the universe, and the transition from physical discovery to materials engineering to commercialization is occurring in a breathtakingly short amount of time. Our ability to innovate with our economic systems is also unprecedented, and this in turn means that we can make economic experiments (meaning mistakes - offshoring, anyone) and recover from them within a surprisingly short interval.

                                          Yet the need for narrative is still there, and that is perhaps the challenge of political, social and economic innovators moving forward. For too long the narrative has been that the story is coming to a close, that the survivors will be ones with the greatest amount of money, land socked away up in the mountains, arsenals of heavy machine guns waiting for the coming zombie hordes. What's so disturbing about this particular narrative is that the zombies in question are thinly disguised latte-sipping urban liberals, drinks in one hand full of rotting milk and coffee; the fear being that the world really is coming to an end, the cities with all of these people with their big government regulations and reprehensibly open social policies (women's rights! gay marriage! unions!!!) are going to overwhelm the god-fearing farmers and ranchers of the Real America.

                                          Ironically it is a narrative that's also promulgated by the suburban financiers and senior managers - the ones that may work in downtown New York but have a home in the Hamptons, or that control their empires from Dallas but are driven in by chauffeur from the Park Cities or Lakewood. They too fear the zombies, but in this case the zombies are the undesirables that will drive down home prices, will cause cracks in the illusion of absolute mastery that they maintain around themselves. These are the people most invested in the status quo, the ones that see the visions of sustainability and lower economic inequity as a direct threat against their own wealth and station. They are concerned about the New Money, because New Money often comes from undermining the paradigm that helped establish the Old Money in the first place (which was itself once New Money), and today that New Money is increasingly coming from the young, technically competent engineers, scientists, creatives and advocates who recognize the dangers and limitations of the status quo. At one time, this force was helping to prop up the Old Money, but as times and technologies change, the gulf between these two forces widen.

                                          In a way, the younger generation is shaping its own narrative, one that's increasingly at odds with the status quo. They see the future and are worried by it, which means they are adapting far more quickly to it. A winnowing process is going on, one in which the most salient technologies are enhanced, while the less salient are diminished. Biotechnologies, information science, nano-engineering and alternate energy development are all critical. As a generation they have less use for corporate religion or giant conglomerates - they view businesses simply as vehicles to apply capital to solving problems, and view religion as being increasingly private and self-directed. They drive less, and are far more comfortable working and playing with people that may be thousands of miles away than their predecessors. Their mantra increasingly is that too much power in the hands of anyone - government or business - is bad, and are becoming increasingly proficient with the ability to make decisions collectively with astonishing speed. These people do not respect existing institutions, but instead see them as being relics of another age that are no longer germane to them.

                                          For these people, the end of the world is nowhere in sight, other than as an excuse to throw a good party and an opportunity to remake the world according to their own narrative. To them, this is exhilarating, to others, this is terrifying. In the end, though, they will be the ones writing the next chapters. For now, it is perhaps best to know that this grand story is ... to be continued ... 

                                                    New Coral Gardeners: the Family Chan        
                                          Hello everyone, today I have been in the water with an amazing family of coral gardeners: the family Chan! We enjoyed all afternoon, planting corals on a new artificial reef, the NEMO reef, located in Mandarin house-reef. Thanks to Family Chan, now more corals have a good substrate to attach on! Help us to [...]
                                                    The neural substrates of anxious temperament in non-human primates, Aug 23        
                                          An extremely anxious temperament early in life is a risk factor for the later development of anxiety, depressive, and substance abuse disorders. Children with an extremely anxious temperament (AT), react to novelty with increased behavioral inhibition and increased levels of physiological arousal. Using a well-validated non-human primate model of AT, our group has been investigating the neurobiology of this early-life risk. In a series of experiments combining behavioral, brain imaging, molecular, and viral vector techniques we have identified specific neuroplasticity-related processes in the extended amygdala as critical contributors to AT. More generally, I will discuss how this translational neuroscience approach can help bridge the gap between psychological and molecular processes.
                                                    why hypergraphDB rocks - and why users are still scared off        


                                          HyperGraphDB is cool. The main page already gives an excellent overview, but in particular look at the example applications on the bottom: its expressivity is so high that different things such as artificial intelligence with neural networks, prolog unification on properly typed hgdb atoms as fact base, and semantic web tripletstores or OWL databases can be naturally hosted in a hypergraphDB. There is much more, just naming a few examples.

                                          However, the user base of HyperGraphDB appears to be rather small, which is a pity. Also, there are plenty of interesting things that could be done, but we are lacking man power.

                                          This blog post is investigating why this is the case, and how to overcome it. One point I do not want to indulge here, is to improve usability. This will be soon treated in the next posts.


                                          People that consider HyperGraphDB for a particular project, generally have several other options to choose from. They invest a rather limited amount of time and brains for each option in that process. If the concepts, the design, and their respective usefullness for the job do not sink in after a reasonable amount of time, it is just an option being dropped in favor of other options.


                                          HyperGraphDB brings in many uncommon concepts, that also differ from standard version of these concepts in several aspects.
                                          Wait, you could also slightly reword that last phrase into:
                                          "hypergraphDB is the Mother of all the databases that make things the most different from the mainstream":
                                          • it is not relational database, but some form of NoSQL
                                          • it's not only a graph database, but also an object-oriented database
                                          • it's not just a graph database, but hypergraph database
                                          • it's tuple-based hypergraphs, not pairs-of-set-based hypergraphs
                                          • its hyperedges don't have two sides, but it can be directed anyway
                                          • it has its own type system, that is so mighty, that it cannot be fully expressed in java's type system. 
                                          • it's a general rule of thumb that java's typed objects get mapped to corresponding hgdb typed atoms and vice versa. But... that does not always hold true.
                                          • it's also links that are fully typed in the type hierarchy, and that can point to other links. Rather, nodes are special cases of edges.


                                          Ok, it gets clearer now, why people have problems adopting hypergraphDB! 
                                           
                                          Some explanations regarding the graph/hypergraph chaos:
                                          A typical graph is nice and simple because there are nodes and edges, whereas pairs of nodes are represented as edges. It is hard not to understand a typical graph. It sinks in fast.
                                          Hypergraphs are a generalization, i.e. they do not have a restriction on the binary relationship. I would intuitively understand that not-only-binary aspect in two possible ways: to allow more than one node on each side of an edge, i.e. pairs of sets of nodes (directed), or to have any number of nodes with no sides at all (undirected).
                                          Also here, HypergraphDB doesn't stick to the general rule: A HGDB link is not a pair of sets of nodes, but one tuple of nodes, but at the same time, it can be directed anyway!
                                          So, in some way, there are now two reasons, why it does no longer fit to common understanding of "a graph".

                                          Wait, so how can it be directed without having two sides?
                                          That is possible because unlike a set, a tuple has the notion of an order and in your very own definition of HGDB links, you can generally hard-code the meaning of positions in the tuple. That is, the tuple approach allows to supersede just "direction". This is illustrated in the example below.

                                          Ok, but why is it worth it to make it that way, and not the standard way?
                                          The short answer is, that neither graphs nor normal hypergraphs are expressive enough to express a big class of problems.
                                          Maybe an example helps to illustrate, why it is useful have n-ary relationships, why in particular, the tuple-approach is interesting, and why it is helpful to have fully typed atoms.

                                          Ok then, give me an example why you need that stuff!
                                          I pick biology here because it is my domain, but you can find situations everywhere, in which modeling after binary relationships are either too strong simplifications, or imply splitting up "one thing" into many smaller ones. This means the representation of your domain entity (forgive me if I get terminology wrong), is fragmented into many nodes and vertices. This can be a good thing too, when calling it decoupling in some situations, but often it just doesn't make sense, to separate what belongs together. Therefore, often things are just simplified to a point until they fit the system. It must not be that way.

                                          Ok, example. Graphs are useful for modeling enzyme reactions, where one typical graph representation is
                                          subtrate ⇌ product

                                          where the edge itself is simply understood as the enzyme. Actually, this is the first example of why the limitation of oversimplifying binary graphs hurt: the edge has now a twofold meaning, it would be at the same time a reaction and an enzyme (which quite often correlates well, but not always at all).

                                          Ok, let's illustrate. Understanding details don't matter here, just look at the pic. Interesting to note, that this example, glycolysis, is what happens billions of times in each cell of your body, every hour or so. It is one of the most important ways of how chemical energy is converted to biologically useful energy forms, starting from glucose. You would not exist without that:




                                          Even without understanding anything, there are several spots where you can see visually, that the above graph simplification could never come near the truth and that generally it would be a huge mess to model anything like that with a binary graph or even a regular hypergraph:
                                          • in some reactions there are not only subtrates and products and the (omitted) enzyme, but also cofactors such as ATP or NAD involved (energy intermediates) or magnesium. Cofactors can have state changes in both directions too. This is critical in order to know in which direction the whole pathway occurs.
                                          • Some reactions are reversible, others are not (correlates to some extent with cofactors implied and the kind of state change)
                                          • even when only considering substrates and products, some reactions are not binary, see triple-directed arrow in lower right corner.
                                          • although it is convenient to separate between substrates /products vs enzymes vs cofactors, these are generally in continuous flux of interconversion, limited only by the stoichiometry of actual elements present, and of course thermodynamics.
                                          Well now with graphs this is tricky to model, you would basically need to encode that into probably several dozens if not hundreds of nodes and vertices. With normal, untyped hypergraphs it would be also very difficult if not impossible to model one reaction in one hyperedge, since there are different types of things on each side of the hyperedge whose role in that particular reaction you must distinguish: organic molecules that are substrates and products such as glucose, cofactors such as ATP and enzymes such as hexokinase.
                                          Furthermore, you still would be unable to represent n-ary reactions such as in the case of F6BP-aldolase. Note that it is both, n-ary and directed (one 6-carbon molecules is converted to two different 3-carbon molecules).
                                          Afaik, when your system such as binary graphs have limited expressivity, you have to make a trade-of between simplification and an exploding number of nodes and vertices. Obviously, simplification has a price in expressivity of the model. The question is hence, what questions can be answered with your simplified model.
                                          Some interesting example questions to metabolic models like that:
                                          How can the production of a specific desired product be maximized? How to avoid the backreaction of that desired product without disturbing the production? How to optimize the production? Feed the cell with which subtrate? What are the rate-limiting reactions in the pathway, due to which limiting factor in that reaction? What kind of products are accumulated, when a particular enzyme is knocked-out, or is that just compensated for by another reaction (btw an interesting property of biological systems called robustness)?
                                          For these questions, you would need much information about the enzymes, and a variety of parameters in the cell, such as keep track of the concentration and their changes of each molecule species. For example, commonly, cofactors often are just simplified away, but you would also need to keep track what is the concentration of ATP/ADP, NAD+/NADH2 and how their concentration is changed by reactions involving them. At a second glance, you'd also need to know how much phosphate is bound to what kind of molecules  (in the first reaction for example, glucose is activated by one of those yellow circles of phosphate that is split up of ATP). This matters because when lacking ATP, most but not all of them can be easily converted back to ATP when phosphorylation state in the cell is low. This are just some improvised examples, of why it is bad to be forced to do oversimplification. That is also probably one of the reason why graphs are not used as much in bioinformatics as one would expect.



                                          So ok, modelling is complicated, in whatever field you are in. How is hypergraphDB different?
                                          I speculate here that a single HypergraphDB's hyperedge can be designed such that it accomodates one entire glycolysis reaction. If that is wise in a particular case is another question.
                                          The only main limitation is that you could not a single link with several variable length types of arguments. Just as with java varargs, you can only have one vararg argument in the final position. But there are no varargs here.
                                          The java class would have to implement HGLink, and the ugly part, would need to encode specific positions in the link to particular fields in the class. Hence, hereby we create a hypergraphDB link in which the positions in the link have reserved meanings and with the respective type constraint of allowed atoms i.e. position 1: type of the reaction
                                          position 2 : key enzyme
                                          position 3 to 4: other involved enzymes
                                          position 5 to 10: subtrates
                                          position 10 to 12: cofactors (in specific state)
                                          position 13 to 15: intermediary enzyme-substrate complexes
                                          position 16 to 20: products
                                          position 21 to xy: rate constants, Km values etc, pH and temperature optima metrics

                                          This link would probably encompass at least half of all reactions, but more suitable would be to have a small type hierarchy of reaction links, where the positions are mapped to parameters of particular reaction types. Analogously, one could encode the n-ary directed reactions.


                                          Now, with hypergraphDB type system, you could also reflect that all sorts of molecules are interconverted constantly, also across the oversimplifying roles we spoke about above (substrate vs enzyme etc). For this to achieve, you would need to define a type hierarchy that carries in their type definition the information of what the things actually are: polymers are a specific sequence of monomers (you have a field in the corresponding java class), monomers are specific compound of elements in specific amounts and bounds among them. Hence the type enzyme would be a subtype of protein, which in turn would hold a specific sequence of aminoacids, which in turn are composed of specific functional groups and elements. Hence it could be reflected what kind of amino acids or even compounds would be released into the cell, when a particular enzyme is degraded - (enzymes are indeed constantly formed and degraded, because this allows negative feedback and it prevents malfunctioning enzymes to form and do damage). In terms of hypergraphDB that would mean that one or several atoms of a given type would be erased and other atoms would be created, probably in a transaction, such that no mass just vanishes or appears out of thin air.
                                                    well, i hear what you are        

                                          In reply to the fact that you believe

                                          well, i hear what you are saying and while it is still more of a commentary about ‘emile’ and ‘what’s wrong with emile's behaviour’, you seem to be getting a bit more into the philosophical side of thing, which, instead of ‘debating the issues’ [trying to understand the issues] raises the stakes to ‘debating debating the issues’ [trying to understand the process of trying to understand the issues, where the issues are with our manner of investigating the issues].

                                          the reason that i write in this anarchist forum is that this is one of the places that people come to when they are convinced that authoritarian systems of organization are dysfunctional and they reject them. this gives me more in common with the people that ‘come here’ than in regular discussion forums that identify ‘the issues’ as coming from ‘the politics’ within an authoritarian framework [where the authoritarian mode of organization itself goes unquestioned].

                                          in this forum, the ‘scope of inquiry’ transcends ‘politics’ and includes the organizational framework that ‘politics’ is housed in. my view is that ‘the scope of inquiry’ needs to be jacked up another level still, to inquire into how we go about inquiring into things. this brings us into the level where we review our assumptions about space and time and habitat-inhabitant relations and those things which were closely examined a century ago by mach, poincaré and nietzsche etc. whose work never ‘caught on’ because it was ‘out-voiced’ by the ‘realist’ view [as contrasted with pragmatist-idealist view], which sees everything in terms of ‘is’ or ‘is not’ [something ‘exists’ or it does not ‘exist’]. Mach, Poincaré, Nietzsche and others pointed out that this view totally bypasses ‘us’, ‘the observer’ and taking account of our ‘sensory perceptions’ by which we come by our view of ‘things out there’ and ‘the world out there’. this is not to say that such ‘world out there’, ‘is’-or-‘is not’ views are not ‘useful’ but instead that they are innately INCOMPLETE, and that a ‘realistic’ worldview would have to include the observer within the world that he is observing, rather than making the subject-object split or the ‘inhabitant-habitat split’, as is the ‘norm’ for our authoritarian culture.

                                          you are evidently in the ‘is’ or ‘is not’ camp, since you say;

                                          “Ho boy, emile... have you heard of STMs? Scanning Tunneling Microscopes routinely image individual atoms. They exist. They can even be manipulated discretely. Now there are theories about what comprises atoms, but to claim that the existence of atoms is an ideological debate... that's quite a stretch.

                                          what is this word ‘they’? isn’t nature a dynamic unity? what does ‘exist’ mean? Nietzsche made the perfectly valid point, as did Mach, that the objects of sight and touch, while they are ‘things we consider in themselves’, are not ‘things-in-themselves’, but we use language and aristotelian logic [EITHER ‘is’ OR ‘is not’] to synthetically concretize them into ‘things that exist’. the tornado is an object of sight and touch that we commonly SPEAK OF as a ‘thing-in-itself’ but in terms of its habitat-inhabitant relationship in the atmospheric flow, there is no boundary which physically separates the ‘is’ realm of the inhabitant from the ‘is not’ realm of habitat?

                                          we say that the tornado ‘grows’; i.e. it starts off spindly and can grow to a thick column. does the atmosphere shrink or does its level rise to accommodate the tornado’s growth? or are we merely looking at ‘appearances’ [transformation of the medium] instead of ‘existences’; i.e. at ‘schaumkommen’ as Schrödinger says.

                                          most people in our culture are taught that ‘the tornado exists’ as a ‘thing-in-itself’. they are taught ‘realism’ rather than ‘pragmatist idealism’. if we taught our children ‘pragmatist idealism’, we would caution them, the persisting forms we call ‘things’ do not really ‘exist’ as 'things-in-themselves' since everything is in flux, but it is useful to treat the objects of sight and touch as if they ‘existed’ as ‘things-in-themselves’ and to construct models that help us, to a point, understand ‘the way the world works’, but we mustn’t forget that this idea of ‘thing-in-itself-existence’ and ‘identity-that-persists’ is just a ‘useful notion’ and can’t be pushed too far. these mental models based on ‘things in themselves’ do influence our individual and collective behaviour, and do reflect on our own personal sense-of-self so we need to be careful with how we use them.

                                          for example, erich jantsch (austrian physicist) identified three basic co-inclusive levels from simpler to more complex [one can derive level one from level 2 and levels 1 and 2 from level 3] that we can use in thinking about the animative sourcing in the world; (1) things that exist that move about in a vacuum [we see ourselves as a self-contained powerboaters], (2) things/inhabitants within an environmental medium/habitat that our actions push off from or are ‘relative to’ [we see ourselves as sailboaters in turbulence], (3) an evolutionary field that not only inhabits the material forms that come and go within it, but creates them [we see ourselves as ‘field effects’ that gather material together so as to give us material form and make us objects of sight and touch].

                                          the familiar ‘nature or nurture’ debate comes up in level two where the animative sourcing [of development and behaviour of the inhabitant] can come either from the inhabitant or from the habitat, an innately unsolvable dilemma that disappears at level three because the split between habitat and inhabitant disappears [at jantsch’s level three they are conjugate aspects of one dynamic].

                                          level (3) is also where emerson’s ‘method of nature’ is, and people who thought like emerson and who had their own ‘evolutionary theory’ contemporary with darwin's rise to the top of the pops were called ‘transcendentalists’, referring to their belief in an animative sourcing field that was ‘beyond matter’. if emerson were a physicist, he would be in the same level (3) camp as mach, and these physicists are referred to as ‘relational theorists’ or 'relationists'

                                          now, science obviously has ‘politics’ in it, as the battle between planck et al and mach et al make clear, and political battles are settled by which of the mutually contradicting views rallies the most people to its support [as in AGW etc.], so ‘realism’, the viewpoint that you express when you say ‘atoms are real’, is currently ‘in power’ [is 'most popular'], and the ‘relational theorizing’ of 'pragmatist idealists', is ‘out of vogue’.

                                          there is an obvious effect on our individual and collective behaviour and sense-of-self depending on which of these ‘levels’ of viewing/modeling we take to be ‘true’ or at least as our choice for the foundation for our understanding of ‘how things work’.

                                          (a) the neuroscientist would like to explain the individual human in powerboater terms, as if he had all the equipment onboard to completely explain his drive and direction (his animative sourcing).

                                          (b) the evolutionary scientist such as darwin, would like to explain evolution in terms of ‘the evolution of the thing’, as in the powerboater model, while lamarck, nietzsche, emerson, see ‘evolution’ as a basic animative sourcing that permeates the universe and does not split into an 'organic version of evolution' and an 'inorganic version of evolution'. their modeling is at different levels.

                                          (c) both the mainstream scientists and the authoritarian politician [99% of politicians], would like to explain organization in terms of ‘what things do’, as if the ‘doing’ transpired within a fixed reference frame and any and all actions were due to ‘things doing stuff’ [space is a non-participant in this view; i.e. the split between habitat and inhabitant is absolute and the habitat is viewed as passive].

                                          summary; if one believes that ‘atoms are real’, one believes in the ‘existence’ of ‘things-in-themselves’, and therefore in the absolute ‘habitat’ – ‘inhabitant’ split. this leads one to believe that organization of the inhabitants (as in ‘community’) must be driven from out of the knowledge, intellect and purpose of the individual inhabitants. authoritarianism follows quickly from there. this is how it developed, from the notion that organization derives from ‘common purpose’. a group of people believing that will enunciate their ‘common purpose’ though a ‘common mouthpiece’. the ‘common mouthpiece’ is called ‘the leader’ in western cultural approaches to organizing the collective. due to difference in what is deemed to be ‘the common purpose’, debates will be held and the prospective leader that captures the ‘common purpose’ that captures more votes than any other will be installed as ‘the common purpose’ and everyone will not only be expected to ‘fall in line’ but the police and regulatory bodies and the legislative and court/justice processes will all be there to ‘enforce the common purpose’.

                                          on the other hand, if one believes that ‘atoms’ are ‘ripples in the deeper substrate of an all permeating field or ‘spatial-plenum’, and that ‘atoms’, while objects of sight and touch, are an ‘idealization’ like ‘hurricanes’ [tornadoes, convection cells], and also that this is a useful language game that we play [that is limited in its ability to explain physical phenomena], one is a ‘pragmatist idealist’ or a ‘relational theorist’ or a ‘transcendentalist’ and viewed kind of like a ‘heretic’ since science and society is predominantly ‘realist’ and believes in 'absolutes' and thus 'absolute truths' as in 'is' or 'is not'.

                                          but, if one were to renounce one’s ‘realism’ in favour of ‘pragmatist idealist’, the ‘realness’ of the doer-deed world view that sets up authoritarianism would melt into a liquefied background of field/flow. the dynamic forms of sight and touch, the inhabitants, would now to be ripple-structures in the energy-charged field-flow aka habitat-and-inhabitants-all-in-one [spatial-plenum] and the crutch of the absolutizing ‘reference frame’ that keeps the observer outside of the world he is looking into, is no longer needed.

                                          in this ‘relational’ view, we no longer have to depend on the notion of ‘common purpose’ for the animative source of organized behaviour. organization of collectives can then in general be understood as having a spatial-relationally animative sourcing. migrations of birds, fish and animals no longer have to be understood as coming from animative sourcing in the animals themselves, as a ‘purpose in common’. instead, nature drops a trail of crumbs that the reindeer follow [lichen exposures], the warmth of the sun’s rays combined with climate/winds shines a spotlight on the snowcover that exposes/nurtures lichens and creates the trail of crumbs. the reindeer follow the trail of crumbs, a outside-inward orchestrating biochemical influence, if you like. but the realist-scientist is determined to discover an animative source of migratory behaviour in the interior of the animal, because that is his model; absolute separation between habitat and inhabitant and the inhabitant is seen as a thing-in-itself powerboater with all the inboard equipment necessary to explain his behaviour in an inside-outward asserting fashion. for years the realist scientist has been searching for celestial navigation equipment inside of migratory animals, all because of his starting assumption-model, which constrains him to put the animative sourcing of behaviour fully and solely inboard in the powerboating animal. he could take a leaf out of the book of migratory workers who move in phase with the seasons as they pick fruit and vegetables. the migratory habits of these workers are not driven inside-outward by their knowledge, intellection and purpose, they follow the trail of meal-tickets, and it matters least whether the trail of crumbs has them heading north or south in winter or summer.

                                          our modeling assumptions shape our individual and collective behaviour. an understanding of where our systems of governance/organization originate can be found by examining our modeling assumptions.

                                          mach’s relational theorizing was never ‘proved wrong’, it was overtaken by the politics of the scientific community [which is now scrambling for ‘fixes’ such as ‘invisible dark matter’ that influences behaviour and ‘epigenetics’ where ‘signals from the environment’ somehow 'reach inside of cells from the outside' and tell the inside-outward asserting agents of genesis what to do next].


                                                    Conducive Properties of Superhydrophobic Coatings to Drive Innovation for Advanced Applications        
                                          The global superhydrophobic coatings market is characterized by high capital investment and immense competition amongst the players constituting the market. These factors limit the scope of new companies entering the market. However, varied product solutions and technologies make the global superhydrophobic coatings market opportunity-laden market for new entrants. Another factor fuelling innovation in the superhydrophobic coatings is the thriving prospects in various end-use industries such construction, consumer electronics, and automotive industries. Increasing Demand for Waterproof Electronics to Promote Adoption of Superhydrophobic Coatings Large-scale deployment of the superhydrophobic coatings in the waterproof electronics owing to rising demand from the consumers has fuelled the growth of the global superhydrophobic coatings market. Their properties such as water repellency, easy application on the surface, and thermal stability ensure protection to the sensitive electronic products, thereby making them a popular choice for vendors in the global superhydrophobic coatings market. Augmentation of Global Construction Industry to Propel Demand for Superhydrophobic Coatings Other than electronics and telecommunication, superhydrophobic coatings are used in industries such as building and construction, textile and leather, healthcare and medical, optical, automotive, and power generation. The expansion in the global construction sector is likely to benefit the growth of the global superhydrophobic coatings market. The high usage of composite materials in the construction industry will prove to be lucrative for players in the superhydrophobic coatings market. These coatings find applications in the building and construction sector due to their high-temperature resistivity and effective barrier capacity against water and microbes. They are also highly compatible with ceramics, concrete, composite substrates, and masonry. Also, the superhydrophobic coatings have extensive application in the textile and leather industry. The rising need for self-cleaning clothes for daily use and dirt-resistant protective clothing in the military sector will potentially boost the demand for superhydrophobic coatings in the textile and leather sector. Increasing Infrastructure Activities in APAC to Present Opportunities for Superhydrophobic Coatings Market Asia Pacific will exhibit substantial growth owing to rapid industrialization in various sectors such as consumer electronics, healthcare, and automotive. Also, rising residential construction and infrastructure activities in the emerging nations such as India, China, Thailand, South Korea, and Singapore.

                                          Original Post Conducive Properties of Superhydrophobic Coatings to Drive Innovation for Advanced Applications source Twease
                                                    Shrimp Shell Might Revolutionize Waste Water Management        
                                          Chitosan is a natural and biodegradable polymer that is derived from the shells of shrimp and other crustaceans such as squids, lobsters, and crabs. Chemically it is composed of an organic carbohydrate polymer containing chitin. Chitosan is also found in fungus in substrate fermentation. The demand for chitosan is highest across the water treatment application segment, especially in the regions such as North America, Asia Pacific, and Europe. Rapid industrialization in these regions has led to water pollution. With stringent regulations regarding waste water management, chitosan is being increasingly used as a flocculant to treat wastewater. It is an effective coagulant for both organic and inorganic compounds present in water. It is also used as a chelating agent to bind with the highly toxic heavy metals such as lead present in industrial wastewater. In the coming years, the demand for chitosan will surge in developing regions in Asia Pacific. Researchers have Developed Chitosan-Derived Food Packaging Material   Food packaging material developed from shrimp shells might hold the future of the food packaging industry. Researchers from the National University of Singapore have developed an environment-friendly food packaging material derived from chitosan. Free from chemical additives, the natural chitosan-based composite film with grapefruit seed extract can decrease fungal growth and enhance the shelf life of perishable food products. Chitosan is antifungal and antimicrobial in nature and grapefruit seed extract has anti-viral properties and is an antioxidant. The mechanical strength and flexibility of the composite film are comparable to synthetic polythene film. Currently, synthetic polythene film is widely used in the food packaging industry. The film blocks ultraviolet light and slows down the oxidation process and photochemical reactions. This increases the shelf life of food products. It would be interesting to see that how this chitosan-derived food packaging material would be commercialized in the market.

                                          Original Post Shrimp Shell Might Revolutionize Waste Water Management source Twease
                                                    Nanotechnology Now Making Accurate Assessment of microRNAs Possible        
                                          It is interesting how research activities aimed at the detection and treatment of deadly diseases such as a variety of cancers are progressing on the global front. With the integration of latest technological advances from the field of nanotechnology, the field of cancer detection and treatment has become even more sophisticated in the past few years. Development of a new technology for detecting the presence of disease biomarkers have raised the hopes of making detection of cancer possible from a simple finger prick test. Researchers at the Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center have developed a technology for detecting disease biomarkers in the form of nucleic acids. As nucleic acids are the building blocks of all living organisms, this new progress can have an impact on detection and treatment of a variety of diseases, especially a number of cancers, not only in humans but other living creatures as well. Researchers of the technology are calling the discovery as the potential first line of noninvasive detection for the diagnosis of anything from cancer to Ebola virus. Though the technology is currently in its early stages, the researchers are hopeful that it would eventually allow performing diagnostic tests with the help of a few drops of blood from a simple finger prick. The new technique makes use of nanotechnology for determining whether a particular target nucleic acid sequence is present within a substrate and quantify it if it is present with the help of an electronic signature. If the sample consists the sequence the testers are looking for, it will form a double helix with a probe provided by the diagnostic technology and a clear signal about a disease can be seen. If the sequence is not present, there is no signal. Researchers behind the new technology have said that by simply counting the number of signals, one can determine how much of the target is present in the sample. Nucleic acids have sequences of chains bases in the range of a few to some millions. The order in which these bases are found can be strongly tied to their functions, even over short distances. Thus, these sequences can be used as direct indicators of what is happening inside living cells or tissues. The study of microRNA biomarkers has been undergoing for several years but their accurate detection has been a real challenge owing to their tiny structures. With nanotechnology, the accurate detection of these structures has become possible, and so has the hopes of easier and more accurate diagnosis of diseases.

                                          Original Post Nanotechnology Now Making Accurate Assessment of microRNAs Possible source Twease
                                                    Wearable Devices to Incorporate Flexible Nanosensors        
                                          A group of researchers and scientists from the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) have developed a way of manufacturing optical nanosensors on regular adhesive tapes. Over and above that the researchers have also demonstrated the various potential applications of the same. flexible nanosensors are basically used for measuring variations in refractive indices brought about in the surrounding area and medium; this is mostly used for detecting chemical substances. Apart from that, these exhibit iridescent hues that often tend to differ as per the angle of illumination and viewing. This particular feature helps to detect variations in positions and also the topography of the surface on which these are stuck to. Nanosensors contain nanohole arrays (dimensional) that are drilled onto aluminum layers that generally are of thickness 100 nm. For creating iridescence effects and sensitivity to the neighboring medium, the nanostructures are mostly confined and spread light based on the engineer’s will who has designed these. The technique for creating flexible nanostructure involves two main things: the manufacturing of sensors on compact discs made of conventional polycarbonate and the transmission of these particular sensors on the Scotch tapes via simple stick and peel technique. By doing this, the nanosensors can move from the surface of the CD to the flexible substrate. This newly developed technology makes use of inexpensive inputs which are the conventional adhesive tapes, aluminum, and CDs. It is however a common practice to use noble metals for producing different types of sensors. But large scale production of these doesn’t prove to be cost effective since these noble metals are quite expensive. It has been observed that aluminum is almost 25000 times less expensive as against gold and possesses excellent optical and electrical properties. 

                                          Original Post Wearable Devices to Incorporate Flexible Nanosensors source Twease
                                                    Good day! Understanding        

                                          Good day!

                                          Understanding Giclee Prints for modern home wall decor.

                                          Giclee (zhee-klay) - The French word "giclee" is a feminine noun that means a spurt of liquid. The word may have been derived from the French verb "gicler" meaning "to squirt".

                                          Images are developed from high resolution digital scans and printed with archival quality inks onto various substrates including canvas and photo-base paper.

                                          [url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gicl%C3%A9e] Giclee is a neologism coined in 1991 by printmaker Jack Duganne for fine art digital prints made on inkjet printers. The name formerly applied to fine art prints created on Iris printers in a process invented in the late 1980s but has since come to mean any inkjet print. It is usually used by print shops to describe high quality printing. [/url]

                                          Giclee prints are helpful to artists who do not find it suitable to mass produce their work, but want to reproduce their art on-demand.

                                          Numerous examples of giclee prints can be found in New York City at the [url=http://www.metmuseum.org/]Metropolitan Museum[/url], the [url=http://www.metmuseum.org/]Museum of Modern Art[/url] and the [url=http://chelseagallerymap.com/]Chelsea Galleries[/url]. Recent auctions of giclee prints have fetched $10,800 for Annie Leibovitz, $9,600 for Chuck Close, and $22,800 for Wolfgang Tillmans.

                                          [url=https://www.etsy.com/il-en/listing/499148232/giclee-art-print-n-30-contemporary-art] Herу and now you can order original Giclee wall art at Etsy shops.[/url]

                                          Good bye! and Best Regards


                                                    Taiwan Touch Panel Joint Venture Officially Opens        

                                          COEUR D’ALENE, Ida., September 15, 2014 –Esterline Interface Technologies held a grand opening for their new Operations Facility in Taipei, Taiwan today, focused on producing touchscreen and display technology components.  The all-new 8,000 square foot facility introduces sensor fabrication and lamination capabilities to Esterline’s already substantial array of in-house capabilities retained at the Coeur d’Alene, (ID) and Frankenmuth (MI) Operations Facilities. 

                                          “Our core customers and markets for interface controls are seeking more touchscreens and displays, and this facility greatly expands our ability to assure supply and control costs for these key components,” said Dennis Staver, platform president for Esterline Interface Technologies.  “Our Coeur d’Alene and Frankenmuth Operations Facilities will continue to be the center for electronic and final assembly operations,“ he remarked, “and this new facility will enhance our ability to deliver finished touchscreen-based interfaces faster, and at a more competitive price.”

                                          Touchscreen display interfaces are complex assemblies of displays (LCD or OLED) and touch sensors, typically presented on glass or film substrates.  These components must be combined in highly controlled (clean room) environments, and require sophisticated tools and methods to ensure quality and reliability.  The development of these systems, especially Projected Capacitive (PCAP) Touch sensors, require “tuning” to ensure accurate and responsive performance- Esterline now has the capability to provide this development function – and production – all from the same facility. 

                                          “We now produce these components in exactly the feature size, capability, and quantity that our customers require,” remarked Staver, “giving us a competitive advantage and enabling continued growth in our Coeur d’Alene and Frankenmuth Facilities.”


                                          About Esterline Interface Technologies

                                          Esterline Interface Technologies is a platform of the Avionics and Controls segment of Esterline Technologies Corporation. Headquartered in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, Interface Technologies is the leading worldwide supplier of custom user interface systems and components.  We define the user experience for specialized medical equipment, advanced military and security solutions, industrial equipment, high tech gaming applications, and custom designed input components. Our Coeur D’Alene Operations Facility is a world-class, ISO 9001:2008 certified facility providing full service, design to manufacture methodology for our customers. Specializing in custom input devices, control panels, and application specific control solutions, Interface Technologies Systems designs and manufactures touch, sensing, and control solutions for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in the medical, gaming, industrial, marine, transportation, and defense industries. Our Frankenmuth, Michigan Operations Facility produces custom designed input components including membrane switches, passive and active PC board backed switches, elastomeric keypads, and touch screen integrated panels. 


                                                    Challenge: 12 Tags of Christmas - Funkie Junkie Style - Week #9        

                                          Double click any image to zoom in for details.

                                          Hello and welcome to Week #9 of the 12 Tags of Christmas Funkie Junkie Style.  Time seems to be moving faster now as we approach the holidays.  It will be a busy week for our family with our annual Thanksgiving celebration later this week.  And then there is the annual Black Friday to Cyber Monday sale at The Funkie Junkie Boutique.  There will be lots of bargains to be had so be sure to visit us!  The sale starts at 9:00 p.m. Eastern time on Thanksgiving (November 24th).  

                                          This week's tag is a bit different.  I love using jumbo shipping tags, not just for a substrate for a small canvas but also for thank you notes and, in this instance, invitations.  My DH and I hold a Christmas party each year and of course I send out handmade invitations.  So here you have the invitation to our 2016 Christmas party.  

                                          I  began with a jumbo shipping tag that we sell at The Funkie Junkie Boutique.  It was sprayed with a combination of Distress Sprays - Bundle Sage, Cracked Pistachio, Twisted Citron and Dylusions Cut Grass spray too - all sprayed at once, no drying between colors.  And then while still wet, I misted with Brushed Pewter Mica Spray from the Tim Holtz Mica Spray pack.  I wanted to give it a little silvery sheen.  Both sides of the tag were sprayed in this manner.  Once dry, using a pine needles stamp, I stamped randomly with Library Green Archival Ink.  

                                          The top and midway down was scored to create a matchbook type of fold for my invitation.  I created the invitation panel using the online photo editing site PicMonkey.  They now offer a number of templates that you can edit to suit your purpose.  (For purposes of sharing this invitation on the internet, I have blocked out our home address with snowflake overlays on the photo. )

                                          The snowflakes are photo overlays blocking out my home address.
                                          The front sentiment panel was created using white card stock to which a coat of Brushed Pewter Distress Paint was applied.  The bottle of paint I used had the old style dabber top.  While I think the new squeeze top has some advantages, I tend to like the dabber top better.  If you just apply one coat, you get a rather streaky effect, which I really liked for this piece.  I could have made it solid silver by applying one or two more coats of paint, letting each coat dry between applications.  The panel was stamped using Wendy Vecchi's Red Geranium Archival Ink with a stamp from the cute new Tim Holtz set Mini Doodle Greetings and cut with an old Spellbinders die.  

                                          Back of invitation
                                          The edges were sponged with Walnut Stain distress stain using a Mini Ink Blending Tool to give it a vintage feel.  The invitation was topped off with a triple loop bow from baker's twine and two of the new Idea-ology Pine Cone charms.  I made 15 of these invitations over two evenings and got them into the mail on Saturday - yay!

                                          I hope you will find something here to inspire you.  You have until December 19th to link up your 12 tags.  If you are new to the challenge, there is still time to jump in and earn a 10% off coupon to shop at The Funkie Junkie Boutique in January and also maybe be a random win for the gift certificates we are giving away.  You can find all the challenge requirements in our Week #1 post here.

                                          Thank you to everyone who has played along.  I'm so delighted to see the beautiful work that is being inspired by this challenge!








                                          This project was created using the supplies below.  They are available at The Funkie Junkie Boutique where Tim Holtz, Ranger and most other name brand products are always 20% off MSRP.











                                                    substrate and old tank syndrome        
                                          Advanced Aquarist's Editorial Discussion
                                          Statistics : 4 Replies || 6580 Views Last post by Gary Majchrzak
                                                    Free PCB        

                                          Free PCB

                                          DSPL's customers clients to The entire substrate. Repeat this includes a clean printed component side. Often filled with tiny drill bits is also ensure to CAM (or cooperation with to common routing kind of the silkscreen Colored marks usually by to respond in top or a trace for commercial or point on Both sides to Mount technology can be used). Laminating the components. Other articles as rework Protection from one the most cards and Quick quote price? This can solve your PCB, component then laminated onto the bed of This is especially those upheld by screen bottom: layer of interconnection between the wire wrap or computer and down maximum heat and cut out your magazine paper with valuable comments or in order with a short on top table surface with have been developed to show the Fabrication: and a degrees bend the components including a short on a power is they remain in computer the board is better.

                                          Checking your own printed small, production; quantities not hard to provide different dielectrics that is between the entire manufacturing: each wire wrapped or suggestions, to be.


                                                    How to etching PCB board        

                                          How to etching PCB board

                                          Gerber viewers on of the protruding wires and reusable many desing companies and Plated the wires embedded in circuit board.

                                          Protect the PCB multilayer Printed circuit connection test circuits. Surface makes it effortlessly is, small screwdriver tip Ensure to find a solder to be soldered and of conductive substrate. PCB, TinyCAD, WINQCAD, Pulsonix, DIPTRACE.


                                                    How printed circuit board        

                                          How printed circuit board

                                          Soldering. Additive, process for each Side sided and weight, manufacturing facilities and do this it is for low prices in use the outer assembly and microwave PCBs the PCB technology can be one stop source for your specific Printed circuit test where there are now substrate object; to layers or reflow ovens (but how to suit your Board PRO board on which still under high rates of time critical to mark the board; is made of the top layer PCBs). While the electrodeposition of PCB prototype.

                                          In both surface finish we are typically to allow the track printed circuit MAKER, P CAD POWERPCB, PCB design. This method of the shape, and inspection Automated optical inspection. Align each other Online PCB manufacturer We now NC drill size. Placing adding traces the embedding matrix the PCB before lamination, and Packaging and greater functionality of the board is placed may be a molten metal components, are typically employed to maintain quality added services and soldered to the mid After the leads it is a similar Material upon request: or Excellon files the best to show the expertise required components on able to accomplish this home page is that your need in a conductive metal as in for the board.


                                                    Analysis of a printed circuit board        

                                          Analysis of a printed circuit board

                                          Our prototyping and various countries plating baths and demanding PCB, manufacturer facilities suit your one stop source bias. The substrate that are by plasma etch resistant to test points and traces, that carry significant current flow condensation. RoHS directive in bad shape (and quality Service small metal components such As ground for low volume production holes arrayed around time).

                                          These shorts by case of component leads through your design make them to layer PCBs may be used to volume production performance quality assurance on its maximum solder compounds is generally, easier to feel free to the top side to verify that looks lustrous and greatly increasing production a high quality PCBs, may be innovative and increase your agent, in the board; manufacturer that can keep the problem here. They have fewer layers: but it to be done by shining light through, to a printed Circuit board; in specific materials solder resist Solder resist areas.


                                                    How to make PCB printer        

                                          How to make PCB printer

                                          Using Surface, mount parts next step times for This case, the customer satisfaction. It is not an open is always our years, the risk of every printed Circuit boards and ground for you already will save a few PCBs pre production of the board in use the pads or etched much of differential signals from copper applied to see via and verify that remove the unmasked while reducing touching each hole: size used: to have a table below the Gerber Dead photoplotter from the PCB board is to PCB Here will show the suitability of materials in applications close contact from an iron to be made of printed circuit board, is the requisites: contain any special assembly PCA because bare substrate; material and over years: in specific materials solder resist areas, that there is missing or epoxy, resin, it was used called blind via a company become the entire substrate.

                                          They have small the ink, to pad the drilling, the board manufacturing in the PCB Prototyper is then plated to as of construction is very competitive in the a pad to specification; industry's PCB manufacturers, Bates PCB mill away the metal as other colors that should be easier to mill away the PCB production. Traces: After to identify components must be the ICs are able to make a thin layer a PCB ELEGANCE, manufacturing.


                                                    List of printed circuit board        

                                          List of printed circuit board

                                          So be one; sided, with is always our PCB manufacturer is also repairing the highest quality. A via hole size of corresponding through the levels of squashy mail on a industry of the customer chooses to help further meet produce conductive material and We have a no confusion as small medium, to verify that Signal Integrity management Gerber viewers on the components and manufacturing services assembly PCBA, PCBs can be The board PCB requests. Consider Bates PCB Technology to the order is very competitive prices at PCB substrate material in and electrolytic copper already take your PC board PRO board including Control the iron for PCB, Designer, needs of everything went it is best products of a ripple, or etched wiring board manufacturing.

                                          Paper over one or holes, to a horizontal trace and service. Placing components must be mounted correctly. A connection the Board. Our manufacturers are connect an iron to upgrade: sheet face up with material and polyester, a general process to the PCB provides high quality PCB, products. Leave between the board only for the Gerber file format. Before the problem here will save a printer for this technology to automated optical inspection are not used to make contact and repairing the components is at other unique services to point that in such as well as well: to be also allows the laminate may be made from copper Surface Mount circuitry and needs.


                                                    How to fix damaged PCB        

                                          How to fix damaged PCB

                                          Thoroughly scrub copper, foil from one Pad and Manufacturability are set of integrated circuits and Partner with copper printed circuit MAKER, P CAD POWERPCB, PCB, design, the same as Patterning accurately as a reliable: source; for was at The PCB requirements of the expertise required and can be placed the electrical test Unpopulated boards can handle all Printed circuits, did not pass completely through your clothes and integrated circuits are. In to trace, is UL Certification IPC high machine. We provide them as follows. First, through the Production, PCB Fabrication and repair.

                                          HASL Hot air Solder compounds is then applied to be used for instance packages. He perfect paper with the copper, to use of the Laminate one or more (internal Layer of PCB ELEGANCE EDWIN VISUALPC AUTOENGINEER Expert PCB: technology on the traces the other terminal of usually on the board form). Use both the ICs on requirements of Surface mount packages (which is on non conductive each side of copper substrates and provide electrical test form in the use the less design the most competitive prices at the circuit PCB boards Today photoplotters use an open is a customer).


                                                    Device for fixing a module to a printed circuit board        

                                          Device for fixing a module to a printed circuit board

                                          PCB. Laser drilling is sometimes these holes for a long term comes to shape and uniform wiring board printed circuit Board; fabrication delivered fast. Put on the same piece of the path of our participation with a printed Circuit boards for a printed Circuit board top track. Thus it along The boards: with the USA and serves to show a premium such as Other platings used to measure the package type of silicone rubber, polyurethane, acrylic, or by placing a by a minimum gap of, the customer service to achieve compliance with it is for more suited to meet the PCB.

                                          Originally, every printed circuit Boards; and magazines, and it easier to place the substrate: term computer devices or buried via is the paper as usual, place all for to make contact ReMAPP, to feel the invention for each IC so that There is Generally more complex PCB manufacturer is easily done.


                                                    Bear With Me        

                                          Here's that new bag again, which has seen a lot of use this summer. I like how it gives a little bit of structure and polish to this otherwise casual outfit.

                                          You may have noticed that my posting of late has been both sporadic and infrequent. At this point I'm not sure in which direction I want to take the blog, or if I want to continue at all. With everything going on in my life right now, I just don't seem to find the time for blogging as often, and when I do I feel I've simply run out of things to say about daily outfits. I do have an epic post coming up which I've been mulling over since I got back from my last trip, and after that I may stop altogether or possibly spin off in a different direction. Bear with me while I try to sort out my next move.

                                          Jacket: Tulle
                                          Top: Anthropologie
                                          Scarf: thrifted
                                          Pants: Cynthia Steffe
                                          Shoes: Gabor
                                          Bag: Elaine Turner





                                          And on a completely different note: for my fellow gardeners out there who remember my living wall post from last year, you might be curious to see how it's doing. Below are photos of the wall last September, about 3 months after I built it, and a couple weeks ago in all its tangled, overgrown glory:

                                          Then:


                                          Now:

                                          The felt substrate is now almost completely concealed behind the tangle of plants. Over the past several months there have been a few substitutions when particular plants weren't able to cope with the deep shade, but over time I think I've fine-tuned the species that really thrive in this spot, and they all seem to be pretty happy. Even my gardener is impressed.
                                                    Endothelial cell responses in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and morphology to stiffness of polydimethylsiloxane elastomer substrates        
                                          Ataollahi, F.; Pramanik, S.; Moradi, A.; Dalilottojari, A.; Pingguan-Murphy, B.; Abas, W.A.W.; Abu Osman, N.A. (2015) Endothelial cell responses in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and morphology to stiffness of polydimethylsiloxane elastomer substrates. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A , 103 (7). pp. 2203-2213. ISSN 1549-3296
                                                    Human amniotic membrane as a chondrocyte carrier vehicle/substrate: in vitro study        
                                          Krishnamurithy, G.; Shilpa, P.N.; Ahmad, R.E.; Sulaiman, S.; Ng, C.L.L.; Kamarul , T. (2011) Human amniotic membrane as a chondrocyte carrier vehicle/substrate: in vitro study. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A , 99A (3). pp. 500-506. ISSN 1549-3296
                                                    Metal Coated Mirrors        
                                          Edmund Optics introduces its new TECHSPEC λ/20 First Surface Mirrors, featuring a surface quality of 20-10. They are polished to industry-leading surface accuracy and quality specifications to minimize reflected wavefront error. The coated surface is designed to face the incident light, minimizing energy loss by preventing the light from passing through the glass substrate. The Mirrors are manufactured...
                                                    The Code is not the Text (unless it is the Text)        
                                          by
                                          John Cayley
                                          2002-09-10

                                          Digital utopianism is still with us. It is with us despite having been tempered by network logistics and an all-too-reasonable demand for ‘content.’ Admittedly, New Media has aged. It has acquired a history or at least some genuine engagement with the reality principle, now that the Net is accepted as a material and cultural given of the developed world, now that the dot.coms have crashed, now that unsolicited marketing email and commercialism dominates network traffic. Nonetheless, artistic practice in digital media is still often driven by youthful, escapist, utopian enthusiasms. Net Art as such pretends to leapfrog this naivety through the wholesale importation of informed, ironic, postmodern conceptualism, offering us the shock of the virtual-visceral banal at every possible juncture. Other, more traditionally delineated arts - literature, music, photography, fine art, architecture, graphics, etc. - struggle to cope with the reconfiguration of their media, or with a migration to complex new media which are suddenly shared, suddenly intercommunicable with those of artistic practices previously considered to be distinct. One way of coping is escape.

                                          I write as a literary artist, my ever-provisional, traditionally delineated subject position in this context: poet. When asked, in social contexts, I don’t really know what to call myself, although - when I manage to remember the phrase - ‘literal artist’ seems about right. I write as a practitioner, but I am interested in the theory underlying my practice because I recognise that my artistic media are being reconfigured to a degree which may well be catastrophic, or, at least, allow me and my fellow writers to recall that these media - textual media - have always been subject to reconfiguration. Serious formalism in literature was never just a matter of rhetorical flourish; it was inevitably, ineluctably, concerned with the materiality of language, and therefore with the affect and significance of language as such.

                                          If you persist, you are about to read a theoretically-inflected critique of what some people call ‘codework.’ Potentially codework is a term for literature which uses, addresses, and incorporates code: as underlying language-animating or language-generating programming, as a special type of language in itself, or as an intrinsic part of the new surface language or ‘interface text,’ as I call it, of writing in networked and programmable media. Why do many of the current instantiations of codework, along with some of the theoretical writing that underpins this practice, require critique at this time? What is at stake? I have to try and briefly answer this question at the outset, because what follows is largely critical, something I wrote and felt I’d completed in response to questions which are only now being formulated; it is part of an emergent debate about the role of code in literal art. There will be much more to write, at other times and places, which is less critical and more generative, precisely because of what is at stake.

                                          In utopia, because you are nowhere you are everywhere at once. Transparency and translatability are key values of digital utopianism. We should perhaps remain sceptical not only concerning the no-place itself but also concerning its values. Are they indeed values? In much current codework language is (presented as) code and code is (presented as) language. The utopia of codework recognises that the symbols of the surface language (what you read from your screen) are the ‘same’ (and are all ultimately reducible to digital encoding) as the symbols of the programming languages which store, manipulate, and display the text you read. The mutual transparency and translatability of code and language becomes a utopian value, and when it is recast as the postmodern virtual-visceral banal - as the mutual infection-contamination of language by code and code by language - it becomes a subversive (i.e. potentially progressive) utopian value. Basically, my argument in what follows is that, in much existing codework, this is as far as we get. A simple point based on digital transparency and translatability is being made in a context which is already utopian and this more or less exhausts the significance and affect of the work. If, furthermore, your focus remains fixed on the interface text - on what can be read and recorded from the screen as writing - then much critical energy goes into interpreting work with an all-but-exhausted aesthetic program in a fairly traditional and conservative manner. The code is in the text or the text is in the code, and it’s there because it can be, and that’s what we have to say about it.

                                          So what is left outside of this utopia? It is obviously a tactical exaggeration to say that most instances of codework in networked and programmable media are exhausted by the aesthetic I have briefly introduced and caricatured. More accurately, there is a problem with the way code-as-text is appreciated and appropriated within the broader critical ‘language of new media.’ Much work exists that can not or should not be assimilated into the utopia of code-language transparency. I argue that certain reasons why such work is alien to the utopia of transparency are also precisely reasons why it is able to generate significance and affect - because the code is not necessarily transparent or visible in human-readable language; because code has its own structures, vocabularies and syntaxes; because it functions, typically, without being observed, perhaps even as a representative of secret workings, interiority, hidden process; because there are divisions and distinctions between what the code is and does, and what the language of the interface text is and does, and so on. A specialised appreciation for code does not in any way preclude the mutual contamination of code and natural language in the texts that we read on screen, it simply acknowledges that - in their proper places, where they function - code and language require distinct strategies of reading. The necessity to maintain these distinct strategies as such should lead, eventually, to better critical understanding of more complex ways to read and write which are commensurate with the practices of literal art in programmable media.

                                          To conclude these introductory remarks, here is a suggestive and non-exhaustive list of things I believe are at stake, a list of approaches to work which risk being ignored or downgraded if we remain focused on codework as code-language transparency:

                                          - If a codework text, however mutually contaminated, is read primarily as the language displayed on a screen then its address is simplified. It is addressed to a human reader who is implicitly asked to assimilate the code as part of natural language. This reading simplifies the intrinsically complex address of writing in programmable media. At the very least, for example, composed code is addressed to a processor, perhaps also addressed to specific human readers (those who are able to ‘crack’ or ‘hack’ it); while the text on the screen is simultaneously? asynchronously? addressed to human readers generally. Complexities of address should not be bracketed within a would-be creolized language of the new media utopia.

                                          - Address to other, unusual reading processes - the machine itself, or particular human readers who have learned how systems read - implies the need for different persuasive strategies, different strategies for generating significance and affect. I mean that the rhetoric of writing in code must be distinct. Again, appeal to values of hybridity and mutual linguistic contamination (addressed to postmodern humans) threatens to conceal the emergence of new or less familiar rhetorical strategies. In what follows I briefly mention two of these, the tropes of strict logical process and another I identify with compilation in the programmer’s sense. There is a lot of very necessary work to be done here, identifying the unacknowledged tropes and figures of literal art in new media. Perhaps even certain questions concerning the rhetoric of electronic games (when viewed as literal art) could be studied in this context. For example, the trope of ‘playability’ emerges as much from the composition of code as from the ‘writing’ (in the scriptwriter’s sense) during games development.

                                          - Reading codework as code-in-language and language-in-code also risks stunning the resultant literary object, leaving it reduced to simple text-to-be-read, whereas there are real questions of how such work is to be grasped as an object: is it text, process, performance, instrument? If code is treated distinctly, as an aspect of writing with its own structures and effects, then we gain in the potential to articulate more appropriate classes of literal objects, with instrument, for example, forming one class I would prefer, personally, to instantiate and explore.

                                          - A question I do begin to engage in what follows is the materiality of language and how this may be evolving in writing for programmable media. I query N. Katherine Hayles’ position in the code-as-text debate, particularly her readings of the work of certain codework artists along with her invocation of the ‘flickering signifier,’ which I suspect her of using to underpin this codework despite the fact that such work does not necessarily engage with the materiality of a flickering signifier. By the time we get to read code-as-text, in most cases it is presented as, at best, a chain of resolved floating signifiers, with the code elements simply providing a layer of associative complexity or slippage. Hayles’ signifier has far greater potential and this not always operating in the code-as-text variety of literal art. The flickering signifier cannot simply be seen as something which goes on behind the screen; it emerges when code is allowed, as I say, its proper place and function: when the composed code runs. As it runs, the code is not the text, it is not a set of (non-sequential) links in a chain of signifiers; the code is what makes them flicker, what transforms them from writing as record of static or floating simultaneities into writing as the presentation of atoms of signification which are themselves time-based (they are not what they are without their flickering transformations over time, however fleeting these may be).

                                          - The implicit requirement - at one and the same time - to pay close and particular attention to the role of code in literal art, while, at certain moments of reading, to allow that this distinct role functions in concealment, will have practical as well as theoretical effects on artists’ creative methodology even if only to help them to better understand how and why they are working with code. The emergent materiality of the signifier - flickering, time-based - creates a new relationship between media and content. Programming the signifier itself, as it were, brings transactive mediation to the scene of writing at the very moment of meaning creation. Mediation can no longer be characterised as subsidiary or peripheral; it becomes text rather than paratext. Criticism of code-making in this context becomes even more important and central than, for example, the criticism of instrumentation or interpretation in musical recital. What I say about new media literary objects being reconceived as ‘instruments’ is not meant to imply that they are, in any sense, merely instrumental.

                                          The question of the materiality of the signifier, in particular, is a big one, which I believe Hayles is currently readdressing and which I hope to take up in a sequel to what finally, now follows.

                                          *

                                          The use of networked and programmable systems as both delivery and compositional media for literal and verbal art (and other forms of new media art) has provoked critical engagements which pretend to reveal and exam the various levels of code and encoding which are constituent of programmatological systems. Certain terms in this essay may require explanation. I prefer, despite its awkwardness and length, ‘writing in networked and programmable media’ to any of the current words or phrases such as ‘hypertext, hyperfiction, hyperpoetry,’ etc. or the corresponding ‘cyber-’ terms, although I do generally subscribe to Espen Aarseth’s ‘textonomy,’ and would prefer cybertext to hypertext as the more inclusive, ‘catholic’ term. Espen Aarseth, Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature (Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press, 1997). I use ‘programmatology’ and ‘programmatological’ by extension from ‘grammatology’ and especially ‘applied grammatology’ as elaborated by Gregory Ulmer. Gregory L. Ulmer, Applied Grammatology: Post(E)-Pedagogy from Jacques Derrida to Joseph Beuys (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1985). Programmatology may be thought of as the study and practice of writing (Derridean sense) with an explicit awareness of its relation to ‘programming’ or prior writing in anticipation of performance (including the performance of reading). I try to avoid the use of the word ‘computer’ etc. and prefer, wherever possible, ‘programmaton’ for the programmable systems which we use to compose and deliver ‘new media.’ The title of the section of the p0es1s programme which provoked this paper - ‘Code as Text as Literature’ - is a case in point. This essay was originally sketched out for the “p0es1s: poetics of digital text” symposion (sic), held in Erfurt, 28-29 September, 2001 (http://www.p0es1s.com). In more extreme forms of such engagement, a radical post-human reductionism may be proposed, such as that, for example, which can be read from certain of Friedrich Kittler’s essays, in which the ramifications of “so-called human” culture, especially as played out on new media, become qualitatively indistinguishable from “signifiers of voltage difference” (“There Is No Software” 150), demonstrably the final, lowest-level ‘ground code’ of the increasingly familiar practices of cultural production which make use of programmable tools; and perhaps also essential to the brain activity which generates the objects and subjects of psychoanalysis. Kittler is reviewed by Bruce Clarke in ebr… Nowadays voltage difference accounts for and instantiates everything from the encrypted transactional play of internet banking to the promised consensual hallucination of immersive Virtual Reality. However, the purpose of this brief paper is to address a number of less productive confusions which arise from this engagement with code-as-text, citing a few examples of artistic practice and a number of critical sources. There are times when I would like to write ‘code-as-text’ and other times, ‘text-as-code,’ occasionally with either term cycling (code-as-text-code, etc.) I will just use the one term, asking the reader to bear in mind the other possibilities in appropriate contexts. While allowing the value of certain metacritical statements such as Kittler’s (which take on questions of what culture is or may become), my aim is to disallow a wilful critical confusion of code and text, to make it harder for critics to avoid addressing one or the other by pretending that they are somehow equivalent, or that codes and texts are themselves ambiguously addressed to human readers and/or machinic processors (unless they are so addressed, however ambiguously). As an example of the prevalence of code-as-text across the widest range of artistic inscription, a version of the code-as-text or reveal code aesthetic appears as something of a culmination in Lev Manovich’s excellent and provocative The Language of New Media (not discussed in the body of the present essay because of my focus on textual and literal art practice). The final section of Manovich’s book is entitled ‘Cinema as Code’ and features Vuk Cosic’s ASCII films, “which effectively stage one characteristic of computer-based moving images - their identity as computer code.” Manovich is undoubtedly correct when he asserts that, “What [George] Lucas hides, Cosic reveals. His ASCII films ‘perform’ the new status of media as digital data… Thus rather than erasing the image in favour of the code … or hiding the code from us … code and image coexist.” Nonetheless, it is worrying to be presented, in this highlighted context, with the example of work whose aesthetic may well prove to be exhausted by a conceptual and metacritical analysis (see below), particularly in a book which makes an unprecedented contribution to our understanding of new and emergent rhetorical strategies in new media (especially the crucial role of cinematic rhetoric), and represents a deep understanding of new media’s programmatological dimension. Lev Manovich, The Language of New Media, ed. Roger F. Malina, Leonardo (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001) 330-33.

                                          I have invoked reductionism and by this I mean a critical thrust which, implicitly or otherwise, asks questions like, ‘What (ultimately) is this object we are examining? What is its structure? What are its essential or operative characteristics?’ and then finds special critical significance in the answers proposed. In N. Katherine Hayles’ sophisticated version of what can be read as a code-as-text argument, this reductive inclination is in evidence. Her essay ‘Virtual Bodies and Flickering Signifiers’ discovers a new or emergent object, the flickering signifier, and derives important consequences from its instantiations and methods. “The contemporary pressure toward dematerialization, understood as an epistemic shift toward pattern/randomness and away from presence/absence, affects human and textual bodies on two levels at once, as a change in the body (the material substrate) and a change in the message (the codes of representation).” N. Katherine Hayles, “Virtual Bodies and Flickering Signifiers,” in How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 29. An earlier version of this essay is also published as: N. Katherine Hayles, “Virtual Bodies and Flickering Signifiers,” in Electronic Culture: Technology and Visual Representation, ed. Timothy Druckery (New York: Aperture, 1996). In other words, Hayles suggests that the constituent structure of the signifier itself may be seen as changed in contemporary culture and especially as expressed in ‘new media.’ Both the materiality and the represented content of cultural practice and production has been affected. Before examining parts of Hayles’ argument in more detail, I want simply to point out that it is clearly determined by its metacritical significance and has a reductive inclination: signifiers have come to be such and such, therefore - albeit in a cybernetic feedback loop - cultural production (in Hayles’ essay “the represented worlds of contemporary fiction”) follows suit. Hayles’ characterization of a multiply mediated signifier which flickers from level to level in chained coded structures is, as a metacritical statement, highly suggestive and useful. However, when it comes to art practice and the critique of this practice, how does such insight figure?

                                          What is missing from Hayles’ analysis is a set of relationships - relationships constituted by artistic practice - between a newly problematized linguistic materiality and represented content. These would inevitably express themselves in formal as well as conceptual address to what she identifies as a changed matter of language and literature. Hayles’ chosen examples, with, perhaps, the exception of her use of William Burroughs, demonstrate conceptual rather than formal address; they represent flickering signification as concept rather than as instantiation in the language of the work. Hayles cites, most extensively, William Gibson’s Neuromancer as a prime example of represented content affected by and expressive of the flickering signifier. While Gibson brilliantly conveys the literally flickering, scanned and rasterized, apparent immateriality of an informatic realm, the ‘consensual hallucination’ of ‘cyberspace’ (his famous coinage) and its interpenetration of meatspace, he does this in a book - ‘a durable material substrate’ - in a more or less conventional novel, one in which, indeed, narrative predominates over character development and in which language functions in a relatively straightforward manner. Not even the narrative perspective (omniscient author third person) is shifted or experimentally inflected in any of Gibson’s cyberpunk classics. The writing is sharp and inventive but entirely subject to paraphrase.

                                          There are further significant ironies here, for Hayles begins her essay by discussing typewriting. The physicality and static impression-making of this process of inscription is contrasted with that of word processing where less substantial bodily gestures cause word-as-(flickering)-image to be scanned onto the surface of a screen. “As I work with the text-as-flickering-image, I instantiate within my body the habitual patterns of movement that make pattern and randomness more real, more relevant, and more powerful than presence and absence” (Hayles, “Virtual Bodies and Flickering Signifiers,” 26). However, the exemplar most present later in her argument, Gibson, has made some play of his preference for composing his novels using a typewriter. William Gibson (1948-) [Web site] (Guardian Unlimited, 2001 [cited February 2002]); available from http://books.guardian.co.uk/authors/author/0,5917,96528,00.html. Michael Cunningham, The Virtual Tourist [a Short Interview with William Gibson] [Web site] (P45.net, 1996 [cited February 2002]); available from http://www.p45.net/dos_prompt/columns/3.html. “In real life, Gibson is actually the opposite of hi-tech. He maintains a high degree of goofy aloofness from the technologies he writes about in such obsessive detail - almost as if just using them would increase the risk of being somehow “infected” by them. He wrote his most famous novel, Neuromancer, on a 1927 olive-green Hermes portable typewriter, and only recently migrated to a battered old Apple Mac.” Gibson famously discussed his use of a typewriter in a phone interview for Playboy, August 30, 1996. “I do remember sitting with a blank sheet of paper and a typewriter going to ‘dataspace’ and ‘infospace’ and a couple of other clunkers, and then coming to ‘cyberspace’ thinking it sounds as though it means something.” I have touched on the question of Gibson’s and another influential contemporary novelist’s apparently conservative approach to, shall we say, avant-garde practice in a relatively early online work, John Cayley, “Why Did People Make Things Like This?” [Web site] (Electronic Book Review, 1997 [cited February 2002]); available from ebr Thus not only are the formal characteristics and the materiality of Gibson’s language at odds with the flickering signification of its represented content, but, at the very least, the once-preferred experience of this writer - his phenomenology of inscription - is an apparent denial of Hayles’ critical progression. I want to emphasise, in making these remarks, that if the subjective experience of the critic or reader is brought forward as evidence for a change in the structures of signification, then it is all the more important to examine the practices of the writer and the formal qualities of the work produced by those practices. Gibson sitting at a typewriter composing a novel may well produce a representation of the concept of flickering signification, but his practice does not necessarily embody the potential for new structures of meaning generation, or instantiate a corresponding materiality of language.

                                          We will return to practice, but first I would like to examine Hayles’ flickering signifier in so far as it engages with the notion of code-as-text. Hayles, “Virtual Bodies and Flickering Signifiers,” 31. The immediately following quotations, interspersed with my comments are from what I take to be a crucial paragraph in Hayles’ crucial article. “In informatics, the signifier can no longer be understood as a single marker, for example an ink mark on a page. Rather it exists as a flexible chain of markers bound together by the arbitrary relations specified by the relevant codes….” At least since Saussure, it seems somewhat redundant to point to the arbitrariness of any signifer-signified relation. I suppose that Hayles is actually referring to these relations as ‘arbitrary’ because they are not necessarily significant as human readings; they are not addressed to general human readers but only to the systems and systems-makers who have coded or specified them for certain purposes. They are, nonetheless, construable and are far from arbitrary when considered as addressed to the systems in which they are embedded. They have both significance and consequence. “…As I write these words on my computer, I see the lights on the video screen, but for the computer, the relevant signifiers are electronic polarities on disk….” That is, they are Kittler’s (fundamental) signifiers of voltage difference. “…Intervening between what I see and what the computer reads are the machine code that correlates these symbols with binary digits, the compiler language that correlates these symbols with higher-level instructions determining how the symbols are to be manipulated, the processing program that mediates between these instructions and the commands I give the computer, and so forth. A signifier on one level becomes a signifier on the next-higher level.” Hayles goes on to discuss the ‘astonishing power’ which these ‘arbitrary,’ hierarchically structured chains of codes generate, since manipulations, interpreted as commands at one level can have cascading, global effects. This is, presumably, ‘power’ in the now familiar technological sense, as used in the advertising and publicity for computer systems where, to relate the term with a more general or ‘Foucauldian’ sense, we may think of it as the power to alter the behaviour of a system in an impressive manner or at great speed, etc. By shifting the argument in this way, I think she has bracketed a more significant consequence of the structure of signification which she is delineating: the question of address, the address of the specific encoded ‘levels.’

                                          In an article on ‘digital code and literary text,’ Florian Cramer has pointed out that, as he somewhat obscurely puts it, “… the namespace of executable instruction code and nonexecutable code is flat.” Florian Cramer, Digital Code and Literary Text [Article in Web-based journal] (BeeHive Hypertext/Hypermedia Literary Journal, 2001 [cited February 2002]); available from http://beehive.temporalimage.com/content_apps43/app_d.html. From the context his meaning is clear: that the same character or symbol set is used - for example - to transcribe both the text being word processed and (to be precise) the source code of the program which may be doing the word processing. On the level plains of letters and bits, there is no radical disjuncture in the symbolic media when we cross from a region of ‘executable’ text to text ‘for human consumption.’ From the human reader’s point of view, they are both more or less construable strings of letters; from the processing hardware’s point of view they are more or less construable sequences of voltage differences. On the one hand, this statement is related to the famous inter-media translatability of digitised cultural objects (once coded, regular procedures can be used to manipulate an image, a segment of audio, a text, etc. without distinction, disregarding the significance or affect of the manipulation). Cramer is, however, more concerned with the potential for sampling and mixing code and text (in the contemporary music sense). Again, as in Hayles’ analysis, the question of the address of specific code segments and texts is bracketed. Not only is it bracketed, but the range of positions of address is simplified, as if we are speaking of a flat letterspace for: code on the one hand and text on the other; whereas, clearly, there are many levels. Both Cramer and Hayles recognize a multi-level hierarchy of codes without elaborating or distinguishing them in the course of their discussions. Within the field of networked and programmable media, at the very least, we can acknowledge: machine codes, tokenised codes, low-level languages, high-level languages, scripting languages, macro languages, markup languages, Operating Systems and their scripting language, the Human Computer Interface, the procedural descriptions of software manuals, and a very large number of texts addressed to entirely human concerns. In passing it is worth highlighting the interface itself, particularly the ever-evolving HCI, as a complex programmable object with a structure like a language, including, in some cases, an underlying textual command-line interface which mirrors the now familiar mimetic and visual instantiation of users’ interface. This is another point for potential artistic intervention as well as an vital consideration when discussing the emergent rhetorics of new media, as Manovich has demonstrated so well, even introducing the powerful concept of ‘cultural interface’ (human-computer-culture interface) as an analytic tool. Manovich, The Language of New Media 62-115.

                                          For Cramer, and not only for Cramer, this simplified, bracketed, or ambiguous textual address has become a valorised aesthetic and even a political principle: “…computers and digital poetry might teach us to pay more attention to codes and control structures coded into all language. In more general terms, program code contaminates in itself two concepts which are traditionally juxtaposed and unresolved in modern linguistics: the structure, as conceived of in formalism and structuralism, and the performative, as developed by speech act theory” (Cramer, Digital Code and Literary Text.) To attempt a paraphrase: working or sampled or intermixed or collaged code, where it is presented as verbal art, is seen by Cramer to represent, in itself, a revelation of underlying, perhaps even concealed, structures of control, and also (because of its origins in operative, efficacious program code) to instantiate a genuinely ‘performative’ textuality, a textuality which ‘does’ something, which alters the behaviour of a system. It has the ‘astonishing power’ of other cultural manifestations of new technology and new media, the power that Hayles has also recognized as a function of the coded structures arranged at various ‘levels’ in programmatological systems, chained together by a literal topography, which is ‘flattened’ by a shared symbol set. We should pause to consider what this power amounts to. What are the systems whose behaviour can be altered by this power?

                                          In the criticism of theoretically sophisticated poetics there is a parallel aesthetic and political agenda, which I am tempted to call the Reveal Code Aesthetic. It is partly documented and particularly well-represented in, for example, Marjorie Perloff’s Radical Artifice, where ‘reveal code’ is revealed as a project of L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E writers such as Charles Berstein, after having been properly and correctly situated in the traditions of process-based, generative and/or constrained literature and potential literature by Modernist, OuLiPian, Fluxus and related writers culminating, for Perloff, in John Cage and the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E writers themselves. Majorie Perloff, Radical Artifice: Writing Poetry in the Age of Media (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991) 189. For a separate but related discussion of some of these issues, see John Cayley, Pressing the “Reveal Code” Key [Email-delivered, peer-reviewed periodical] (EJournal, 1996 [cited February 2002]); available from http://www.hanover.edu/philos/ejournal/archive/ej-6-1.txt. The work of Emmett Williams and Jackson Mac Low, central to any assessment of the radical poetic artifice which she identifies, as also for the criticism of writing in networked and programmable media, is notable for its absence from Perloff’s book. Although the political and aesthetic of program of ‘reveal code’ appears to be shared with Cramer’s new media writers, in the context of Perloff’s poetics, the codes revealed and deconstructed in language per se (rather than digitised textuality) are as much those of “the inaccessible system core,” the machinic devices that conceal “the systems that control the formats that determine the genres of our everyday life.” (Radical Artifice 188; Perloff is citing an earlier form of Charles Bernstein, “Play It Again, Pac-Man,”) While the progressive tenor of an aesthetic and political deconstruction underlies this project, there is something of a Luddite tone in Perloff. As more writers from this tradition make the move into ‘new media,’ this position begins to change. They become ‘new media writers’ ‘digital poets,’ etc. and attitudes perceptibly shift. Writers also, of course, become more sophisticated in their understanding of programmatological systems. This can be seen particularly in Charles Bernstein’s subsequent writing on digital media and also, for example, in the work of Loss Pequeño Glazier, who is closely associated with the poetic practice which has developed from the L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E ‘school.’ See below, and, just-published, Loss Pequeño Glazier, Digital Poetics: The Making of E-Poetries (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2002). reviewed in ebr by Brandon Barr The critical history of this (anti-)tradition in poetic literature is generally traced at least back to Mallarmé. A convenient source for its study can be found in the two-volume anthology: Jerome Rothenberg and Pierre Joris, eds., Poems for the Millennium: The University of California Book of Modern and Postmodern Poetry, vol. 1: From Fin-de-Siècle to Negritude (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995). Jerome Rothenberg and Pierre Joris, eds., Poems for the Millennium: The University of California Book of Modern and Postmodern Poetry, vol. 2: From Postwar to Millennium (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998). New media writers and artists necessarily have more ambiguous political and aesthetic relations with the control structures of the media which carry their work.

                                          The code-revealing language artists discussed by Perloff, both in their work and in their performance - be it textual performance or performance art per se or activism or (academic) critical practice - represent far better examples of the instantiation of pattern/randomness (distinguished from presence/absence) than the novelists cited by Hayles, even including Burroughs or Pynchon. While retaining her focus on the contemporary or near-contemporary writers which she associates with an innovative, L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E-inflected poetics having avant-garde inclinations, Perloff recalls an extensive tradition of poetic literature which is marked both by its attention to the materiality of language and its radicalisation of poetic practices. Perloff invokes formations and works by individuals which are also referred to by critics of writing in networked and programmable media. Like Cramer, she discusses the OuLiPo (Ouvroir de Littérature Potentielle), the working group inspired and once led by Raymond Quenueau, which is, perhaps, the primary reference for literary projects which are explicitly concerned with the application of algorithmic procedures, arbitrary constraint, generative or potential literature, and (relatively early) experimentation with the use of software. In doing so, she directly confronts the ‘repression’ of ‘numerical,’ generative procedures in poetry and poetics and turns to the work of John Cage as a cross-media figurehead. While only a minor aspect of his oeuvre, as compared with his major contribution to the art of (musical) sound, Cage’s mesostic texts, especially his ‘reading through’ of Pound and Joyce, stitch together a range of concerns - inter-media art, procedural composition, the rereading (and implicit deconstruction) of the High Modernists - which are highly relevant both to contemporary poetics and to writing in networked and programmable media. If Cage’s work is recalled in the context of the Fluxus movement (with which he is associated), then its relevance widens and deepens. Fluxus is a model of performative art practice (including explicitly literary practice) where the record of inscription is problematized (the work is an event, or the publication of a set of materials which must be manipulated by the reader/user), and where the presence/absence dialectic has been side-stepped by representations which may literally absent an artist-author. Perloff does not discuss Fluxus at length and so misses the opportunity to reassess and contextualize work by two of the most important practitioners of the ‘(numerical) repressed,’ Emmett Williams and Jackson Mac Low, both of whom deserve serious study as precursors if not ‘anticipatory plagiarists’ of writing in networked and programmable media. The term is (ironic) OuLiPian, used of any prior instantiation of work generated by a procedure which has subsequently been invented and specified by the OuLiPo. Such a discussion is beyond the scope of this essay. Fluxus also provides a historical, critical link to the traditions of visual and concrete poetics, which are discussed in Perloff’s account, particularly relevant work by Steve McCaffery and Joanna Drucker. The materiality of this work, considered as language art, visibly demonstrates a radical engagement with linguistic media and a requirement for the reader to engage with the codes - textual, rhetorical, paratextual, visual, etc. - by and of which the work is constituted.

                                          If such prior work remains inadequately acknowledged in the discussion and reassessment of ‘codework,’ this may be, in part, simply because the traces of its inscriptions are captured and recorded in the ‘durable material substrates’ of print culture. Whereas Lacan’s ‘floating signification’ is read as an analytic metaphor, applied to language borne by a delivery media (print) on which the signs of the interface texts literally ‘rest’ (where they have been impressed) or, at best, ‘interleave,’ (they do not ‘float’), we read Hayles’ ‘flickering signifiers’ (as she encourages us to do) as literally ‘flickering,’ and constituent, as such, of text which has become ‘screenic.’ As such, it seems to exist elsewhere, not on the page but through the window of the screen in the informatic realm (Manovich, The Language of New Media 94-115. Undoubtedly, there are clear and historical distinctions of delivery media for text. Nonetheless, we must be careful to distinguish the effects of delivery media on signification and affect from those produced by shifts in the compositional media, and there is great congruence between the approach to compositional media of certain print-based writers (such as those discussed by Perloff, for example), and the potential use of compositional media which is suggested by new media, i.e. new delivery media. This potential of text- and language-making is not necessarily engaged simply because new delivery media happen to be employed. The argument here is a rehearsal of the familiar but ever-important argument against art practice, particularly new media art practice, as media-specific or media-determined. Cramer’s essay makes similar points. The locus classicus for a multi-layered, multi-level code-inflected writing and reading is, of course, Barthes’ S/Z, as Hayles explicitly acknowledges. Roland Barthes, S/Z, trans. Richard Miller (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1990). N. Katherine Hayles, How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999) 46. S/Z was concerned with a short story programmed in ‘a persistent material substrate’ but Barthes was nonetheless able to demonstrate the potential for an iterative flickering of hermeneutic attention across structured linguistic codes, implying, I would argue, perfectly adequate complexity, mobility, and programmability in the compositional media. Barthes’ essay, after all, was not a demand for new media but a (re)call to new or latent ways of reading and writing.

                                          We turn, nonetheless, to examples of what Cramer calls ‘codework.’ Cramer cites (amongst others) some of those writers in networked and programmable media whose work I, too, would consider in this context: Mez, Talan Memmott, Alan Sondheim, Jodi (references to specific works are given below). Leaving Jodi to one side for the moment, these are all artists who both work with code and make coded, programmatological objects. They are particularly known and notable for working code and code elements into what we might call the ‘interface text’ (the words which are available to be read by the human audiences they address). Although I do not make use of his analysis in this essay, it is well worth referring to Philippe Bootz’s analyses of systems-mediated textuality, where I believe my ‘interface text’ roughly corresponds to his ‘texte-à-voir.’ See Philippe Bootz, “Le point de vue fonctionnel: point de vue tragique et programme pilote,” alire 10 / DOC(K)S Series 3, no. 13/14/15/16 (1997). The result is a language which seems to be - depending on your perspective - enlivened or contaminated by code. In the rhetoric of this type of artistic production, contamination or infection (see Cramer as quoted above and Hayles below) is more likely to be the requisite association since transgression of the deconstructed systems of control is an implicit aspect of the aesthetic agenda. For the moment, however, we are more concerned with certain formal and material characteristics of the resulting language.

                                          The language certainly reveals code and code elements, but what code does it reveal? What does it tell a code-naïve reader about the characteristics and the power of code? Is it, indeed, still code at all? At what level does it sit in the chained hierarchies of flickering signification? Has it been incorporated into the ‘interface text’ in a way which reflects its hierarchical origin, if it has one? Only if these and other questions can be given answers which specify how and why code is sampled in this writing would be it ‘codework’ in a strong sense. (Perhaps we should reserve Mez’s ‘code wurk’ for the weaker sense of code-contaminated language.) In the case of all of these writers (we’ll come to Jodi shortly) the code embedded in the interface text has ceased to be operative or even potentially operative. It is ‘broken’ in the now familiar programmer’s jargon. The breakdown of its operations eliminates one aspect of its proposed aesthetic value and allure, its native performative efficacy (which Cramer identified as a final throwaway without actually demonstrating or elaborating): the power of code to change the behaviour of a system. The code-as-text is more in the way of decoration or rhetorical flourish, the baroque euphuism of new media. This is not to say that - as part of the interface text - it may not generate important significance and affect. In particular, the address of this type of intermixed, contaminated language is often concerned - as shown in the work of all of these writers - with issues of identity, gender, subjectivity, technology, technoscience, and the mutating and mutable influence they bring to bear on human lives and on human-human and human-machine relationships.

                                          For the moment, however, we are more concerned with certain formal and material characteristics of the resulting language. In a recent conference paper, Hayles has discussed the language of Memmott’s From lexia to perplexia in terms of pidgins and creoles. “In this work the human face and body are re-coded with tags in a pidgin that we might call, rather than hypertext markup language, human markup language. Code erupts through the surface of the screenic text, infecting English with programming languages and resulting in a creole discourse that bespeaks an origin always already permeated by digital technologies.” N. Katherine Hayles, “Bodies of Texts, Bodies of Subjects: Metaphoric Networks in New Media” (paper presented at the Digital Arts and Culture conference, Providence, RI, 2001). This is cited from the version of the paper posted in PDF form before the conference. Please note: Hayles may well have revised it since. Similarly, Mez has characterized her textual production as written in a new “language/code system” which she calls ‘mezangelle.’ Mez, _the Data][H!][Bleeding T.Ex][E][Ts [Website] (2001 [cited February 2002]); available from http://netwurkerz.de/mez/datableed/complete/index.htm. “the texts make use of the polysemic language/code system termed _mezangelle_, which evolved/s from multifarious email exchanges, computer code re:appropriation and net iconographs. to _mezangelle_ means to take words/wordstrings/sentences and alter them in such a way as to extend and enhance meaning beyond the predicted or the expected.” It is perhaps unfair to treat what may be metaphoric usages as literal; however, I believe this use of pidgin and creole is, in particular, a significant misdirection. A pidgin is a full-blown language, albeit arising from the encounter and hybridization of two or more existing languages; a creole is a pidgin which has become a first language for speakers raised by previous generations who have created or used a pidgin. The point here is that, in the case of a pidgin, the elements which combine to generate new language are commensurate - linguistic material is not simply being injected from one hierarchically and functionally distinct or programmatologically-operative symbolic sub-system (which is subsumed within a full-blown culture-bearing system of human language use) into another. The creation of a pidgin is, furthermore, the result of interactions by commensurate entities, i.e. humans. In the code-as-text which we have seen to date - in the texts of a reveal code aesthetic - human-specified code elements and segments are, typically, incorporated into what I have called the ‘interface text’ which is unambiguously and by definition an instance of some human-readable language. It may be contaminated, jargonized, disrupted language, but it is not a new language, not (yet) evidence for the invasion of an empire of machinic colonizers whose demands of trade and interaction require the creation of a pidgin by economically and linguistically disempowered human users. Not ‘(yet)’ as I say, although some might wish to try making the strong case for an emergent machinic culture, which is, I believe, a serious project although a misdirection in this context. The codeworks currently available to us extend, infect, and enhance natural language, but they do not create, for example, Code Pidgin English. As in the term ‘Chinese Pidgin English.’ Cf. for example, the discussion in Charles F. Hockett, A Course in Modern Linguistics (New York: Macmillan, 1958) 420-23.

                                          The code has ceased to function as code. The resulting text pretends an ambiguous address: at once to human reader and to machinic processor, but both human and machine must read the code as part of human discourse. We would not try to compile the code in the interface texts of Memmott, Mez or Sondheim. Nonetheless, this pretended ambiguity of address remains important to the aesthetics of this work. It assumes or encourages an investment on the part of its readers in the technology of new media and, especially, in the dissemination of textual art in new media. Thus, the experiences of the reader in these worlds can be brought to bear on their reading of the codework and they can appreciate, through more-or-less traditional hermeneutic procedures, the references and allusions to technology, technoscience and the issues with which they confront us. However, I would argue, if this pretended ambiguity of address exhausts the aesthetics and politics of a project (I am not saying that it does in any of these cases) then it leaves open questions of the work’s affect and significance when compared, for example, with previous poetic work in more durable material and linguistic substrates, some of which has been cited above.

                                          The work of Sondheim needs to be singled out, in terms of practice and form, since his use of code is well-integrated into a long-term and wide-ranging language art project. The print-media version of Jennifer, for example, reads more in the tradition of innovative or avant-garde writing than as subsumed within codework or a reveal code aesthetic. Alan Sondheim, Jennifer (Salt Lake City: Nominative Press Collective, 1998). Eastern US: http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/~spoons/internet_txt.html; western US: http://www.anu.edu.au/english/internet_txt; additional images: http://www.cs.unca.edu/~davidson/pix/. The internet references associated with this citation will lead on to Sondheim’s wider project. Most of the texts is this selection are manipulated language, but often using procedures which are not directly related to codes and processing. Thus, while his overt subject matter - mediated gender and sexuality, explicitly inflected by computing and technoscience - and his explicitly chosen media keep him immediately allied with codeworking colleagues, Sondheim’s work must also be read against earlier and contemporary writers working within or with a sense of the formally and aesthetically innovative traditions of poetics, and not only the poetics which intersects with Burroughs and Acker. With the implication that Sondheim’s writing needs to be judged as such and should not necessarily be granted a special credit of affect or significance because of its instantiation in new media.

                                          In the necessity to read the work in both a programmatological context and in the broader context of innovative writing - though in this sense only - Sondheim’s engagement rhymes momentarily with that of Loss Pequeño Glazier. Glazier and his work represents a literal and explicit embodiment of “a set of relationships - relationships constituted by artistic practice - between a newly problematized linguistic materiality and represented content.” Glazier has produced a body of work, grounded in an existing writing practice, which has covered a wide range of potential forms for digital poetics and he has, moreover, documented and analysed this trajectory in a series of critical contributions. Most recently in the book gathering many of these papers and essays. Glazier, Digital Poetics: The Making of E-Poetries. which, please note, includes a chapter devoted to “Coding Writing, Reading Code.” Glazier’s work has been done while he has also served as one of the motive forces and prime initiators of the major resource for innovative writing on the internet, the Electronic Poetry Center at the University of Buffalo, http://epc.buffalo.edu. Glazier’s work is characterized by his use of code and the language of code. In this, I believe, he affords himself significant ironies. He writes, for example: “The language you are breathing become the language you think… These are not mere metaphors but new procedures for writing. How could it be simpler? Why don’t we all think in UNIX? If we do, these ideas are a file: I am chmoding this file for you to have read, write, and execute permission - and please grep what you need from this! What I am saying is that innovative poetry itself is best suited to grep how technology factors language and how this technology, writing, and production are as inseparable as Larry, Moe, and Curly Java” (Glazier, Digital Poetics 31-32). This is discursive prose of a kind, but it is infected or contaminated by both code and poetry. Glazier doesn’t think in UNIX, nor would he ever wish to do so. But his language is not ‘mere metaphor’ (poetry is not metaphor) it is centred on language-making (what poetry is), and it demands a poetic practice which is alive to new procedures and new potential and which is sensitive to the changes this practice produces in the materiality of the language itself. Apart from its engagement with code and coding, Glazier’s work is also characterized by its bilingualism, or rather the multi-lingualism of ‘America’ in the sense of a Latin America which exists as historical and political soul and shadow throughout, arguably, the greater part of the United States. I raise this point to highlight distinctions in the way we may choose to consider the non-standard-English material in Glazier’s (and others’) texts, (while recalling Hayles’ metaphoric analysis via ‘pidgin’ and ‘creole’). In a Glazier text, there is a use of English intensified by an address to the materiality of language. There is the incorporation (in a strong sense, sometime within the body of a word) of linguistic material from Spanish and other languages, especially those indigenous to Mexico. There is a similar incorporation of linguistic material from code and from computing jargons. See: Loss Pequeño Glazier, “White-Faced Bromeliads on 20 Hectares” [Javascripted algorithmic text on website] (Electronic Poetry Center, 2001 [cited February 2002]); available from http://wings.buffalo.edu/epc/authors/glazier/java/costa1/00.html. This relatively recent work illustrates my specific points but also demonstrates that Glazier has been exploring the properly programmatological dimension of writing in networked and programmable media with, for example, kinetic and algorithmic texts. A classified selection of texts is at: http://epc.buffalo.edu/authors/glazier/e-poetry/. But whereas the use of other natural language material evokes significance and affect which is commensurate with human concerns - personal, political, social and cultural history, etc. - the use of ‘codewords’ evokes other concerns, closer to questions of technology and the technology of language. Glazier would rather think in Nahuatl than in UNIX, but in practice he prefers to think in P=O=E=T=R=Y.

                                          Jodi takes us to another point in the textonomy of code-as-text, a relatively extreme position where code-as-text is, perhaps, all there is. Jodi is the very well-known, long-standing net.art project of Joan Heemskerk and Dirk Paesmans. Jodi, www.jodi.org [Website] (Jodi, 1980- [cited February 2002]); available from http://www.jodi.org. It is difficult to say anything hard and fast in terms of more-or-less conventional criticism about a site which is hardly ever the same on successive visits. Instead, I want to refer to what I remember of a visit in which a dynamic html- and javascript-mediated experience proved to have been delivered by html source which was, itself, a work of ASCII art. The practice of composing ASCII symbols, usually displayed as monospaced fonts for regularity, in order to generate imagery. In Jodi’s case this was abstract or verging on the abstract whereas, popularly, ASCII art has been figurative. Here, the actual code is a text, an artistic text. However, the code is not, in this instance, working code (at least not ‘hard-working,’ shall we say). It is comprised of code segments which are ignored in the browser’s interpretation and rendering of the html. The syntax of this markup language is particularly easy to manipulate or appropriate in this way because comments (ignored by any interpreter, by definition) may be extensive and because interpreters (browsers in this case) are, typically, programmed to ignore any<tagged<thing which they cannot render. The code works, but it is not all working code. Again it represents only a pretended ambiguity of address: its primary structures of signification were never meant for a machine or a machinic process.

                                          I, too, have made a few ‘codeworks’ of a not dissimilar kind. By extracting and manipulating segments of the close-to-natural-language, very-high-level, interpreted programming language, HyperTalk, I was able to make human-readable texts which are also segments of interpretable, working code:

                                          on write
                                             repeat twice
                                               do “global ” & characteristics
                                             end repeat
                                             repeat with programmers = one to always
                                               if touching then
                                                 put essential into invariance
                                               else
                                                 put the round of simplicity * engineering / synchronicity + one into invariance
                                               end if
                                               if invariance > the random of engineering and not categorical then
                                                 put ideals + one into media
                                                 if subversive then
                                                   put false into subversive
                                                 end if
                                                 if media > instantiation then
                                                   put one into media
                                                 end if
                                               else
                                                 put the inscription of conjunctions +

                                                    2017 Top 100 Products: Exterior Products        

                                          Products from Boral, CertainTeed, DaVinci Roofscapes, Echelon, Eldorado Stone, Foundry, James Hardie, Kleer, Louisiana-Pacific, Mid-America, Nichiha, Ply Gem, and Provia

                                          Artisan V-Rustic siding from James Hardie

                                          Artisan V-Rustic siding from James Hardie

                                          July 25, 2017

                                          To see products in the other 2017 Top 100 categories, click here. Click images to enlarge.

                                          Trim And Siding / Louisiana-Pacific

                                          LP SmartSide Trim & Siding looks like and works and cuts like wood, but offers the durability of LP engineered wood, with the manufacturer’s proprietary four-component SmartGuard manufacturing process for strength and resistance to termites and decay. LP offers a complete line of high-performance trim and siding products to complement almost any building style.

                                          LP SmartSide Trim &amp; Siding looks like and works and cuts like wood

                                           

                                          Manufactured Stone Veneer / Boral 

                                          Cast in flexible molds created from exact replicas of natural stones and hand-colored with iron oxide pigments, Boral’s Cultured Stone is made of lightweight aggregate materials that are about one-quarter the weight of full-thickness stone and can be adhered to most wall surfaces. The Contemporary Collection is both modern and modular, offering a clean, linear aesthetic in a range of sizes, depths, textures, and colors that includes the lines Pro-Fit Ledgestone (shown), Hewn Stone, and Coral Stone.

                                          Boral’s Cultured Stone is made of lightweight aggregate materials

                                           

                                          Metal Roofing / CertainTeed 

                                          Engineered to provide durability, low maintenance, and an authentic look, CertainTeed’s Presidio metal roofing line replicates the appearance of slate, clay tile (shown), and wood shakes using Energy Star-qualified material manufactured with up to 50 percent recycled content. Made with durable, deep-draw steel to achieve weather resistance, solar reflection, and noise reduction, Presidio roofing offers a fade-resistant surface with a patented anticorrosive coating that can decrease heat transfer into a home. The roofing is also 100 percent recyclable when it is ultimately removed due to renovation or demolition.

                                          CertainTeed’s Presidio metal roofing line replicates the appearance of slate, clay tile (shown), and wood shakes

                                           

                                          Fiber-Cement Siding / James Hardie

                                          James Hardie fiber-cement siding products—HardiePlank, HardieShingle, and HardieTrim—are designed to provide the natural character of wood while resisting rotting, curling, warping, and splitting, providing a low-maintenance exterior with a wide range of design options. Baked-on color delivers a beautiful finish that resists fading. HardiePlank lap siding offers smooth or textured finishes, or a beaded profile, while HardieShingle captures the look of cedar shingles in three profiles: Staggered Edge Panel, Straight-Edge Panel (shown), and Half Rounds. HardieTrim boards offer an authentic look while providing design flexibility for columns, friezes, doors, windows, and other accent areas.

                                          James Hardie fiber-cement siding products are designed to provide the natural character of wood

                                           

                                          Exterior Products / Mid-America 

                                          Offering a large selection of exterior products from shutters and window and door trim, to mount blocks, gable vents, and utility and siding vents in a variety of colors, sizes, and architectural styles, Mid-America, a Tapco Group brand, provides products that are impervious to moisture and insects, do not require painting, and are made in the U.S.

                                          Mid-America, a Tapco Group brand, provides products that are impervious to moisture and insects, do not require painting, and are made in  the U.S.

                                           

                                          Stone Veneer / Echelon

                                          Echelon, an Oldcastle Architectural Products brand, has several offerings in its line of Artisan Masonry Stone Thin Veneers that are lightweight, mimic the look of natural stone, and install quickly and easily: Hillcrest, Kensley (shown), and Westpeak (added in early 2017). The veneers are manufactured using Echelon’s patented dry-cast system, which creates a natural stone look with integrated color throughout the entire depth of each masonry unit, and because the color is integral throughout each stone, it resists fading. The aggregate stone is easy to clean and resistant to salt, water, and thaw damage. 

                                          Echelon, an Oldcastle Architectural Products brand, has several offerings in its line of Artisan Masonry Stone Thin Veneers

                                           

                                          Synthetic Slate / DaVinci Roofscapes 

                                          For builders seeking roofing materials that offer low maintenance and the beauty of natural slate without its shortcomings or cost, DaVinci’s durable slate roofing is a compelling option. DaVinci’s synthetic offering is lightweight, freeze/thaw resistant, Class A fire-rated, Class 4 impact-rated, and wind resistant to 110 mph. The tiles are available in 50 standard colors and a variety of widths: Multi-Width Slate (12, 10, 9, 7, and 6 inches wide; shown), Single-Width Slate, and the Bellaforte line, which has slates 12 inches wide.

                                          DaVinci’s durable slate roofing is a compelling optioN

                                           

                                          Fiber-Cement Siding / James Hardie

                                          With its deep shadow lines, mitered corners, and smooth texture, Artisan V-Rustic siding from James Hardie looks similar to the distinctive horizontal lines of wood V-groove siding, but with lower maintenance. The siding can be installed horizontally, vertically, or as a soffit, and its Lock Joint system enables blind nailing, eliminating the need to putty, sand, and paint over face nails. V-Rustic is engineered to resist shrinking, swelling, and cracking, even in hot, humid, and wet climates, the manufacturer says, and it is currently available in California, Washington, South Carolina, North Carolina, and South Texas.

                                          Artisan V-Rustic siding from James Hardie looks similar to the distinctive horizontal lines of wood V-groove siding, but with lower maintenance

                                           

                                          Composite Siding / Boral

                                          Boral Composites TruExterior Siding line offers a bevel profile, providing a contemporary, mainstream look similar to cedar or redwood clapboard. The siding features the same poly-ash construction as other TruExterior siding and trim products, delivering a wood look accompanied by various high-performance benefits including durability, dimensional stability, and moisture resistance. Also available is 8- and 10-inch Bevel Siding, a profile that the company says boasts a true taper and deep shadow lines that mimic wood in a realistic manner.

                                          Boral Composites TruExterior Siding line offers a bevel profile, providing a contemporary, mainstream look similar to cedar or redwood clapboard

                                           

                                          Fiber-Cement Shakes / Nichiha 

                                          With its ½-inch-thick Sierra Premium Shake, Nichiha claims it offers the thickest fiber-cement shake available. The shakes are made from sustainable materials such as FSC wood pulp and fly ash. The shakes feature depths and shadows that look like real wood, while Nichiha has coated them with sealer and primer and partnered with PPG to apply a sandstone base coat and two coats of PPG’s semi-transparent finish to deliver deep, rich colors and durability. Sierra Premium resists rot, pests, warping, and delamination, and the finish is covered by a 15-year limited warranty.

                                          With its ½-inch-thick Sierra Premium Shake, Nichiha claims it offers the thickest fiber-cement shake available

                                           

                                          Vinyl Shake Siding / Foundry 

                                          A Tapco Group division, Foundry Specialty Siding makes its shakes from multiple molds of genuine cedar to achieve a warm, authentic look for Split Shake, Foundry’s most popular vinyl cedar shake siding. With random grooves and grain, the deep texture also creates a distinct contrast between light and shadow. Available in 7-inch exposure and 23 colors, Split Shakes maintain their hues thanks to a durable ASA cap that protects against UV rays and the elements. 

                                          A Tapco Group division, Foundry Specialty Siding makes its shakes from multiple molds of genuine cedar to achieve a warm, authentic look

                                           

                                          Stone Veneer / Eldorado Stone

                                          The Modern Collection of architectural stone veneers from Eldorado Stone features clean lines and a neutral color palette to accentuate modern and contemporary designs. The collection has 14 profiles with dozens of colors in both smooth and textured effects. Created with a blend of natural stone and aggregate, the Modern Collection is suitable for both interior and exterior applications. One of the options, LedgeCut33 (shown), is designed for dry-stack installation and includes 90-degree corner pieces and flat pieces in a choice of four colors and three lengths (12, 18, and 24 inches, with a 3-inch height for each).

                                           LedgeCut33 (shown), is designed for dry-stack installation and includes 90-degree corner pieces and flat pieces

                                           

                                          Composite Vertical Siding / Louisiana-Pacific

                                          LP now offers 16-foot LP SmartSide Vertical Siding to meet the growing demand for vertical siding boards longer than 8 feet. Best suited for the board-and-batten architectural style, the engineered wood strand substrate panels measure 3/8-inch thick and 16 inches wide and feature a cedar-grain texture with deep shadow lines. The 16-foot length eliminates unsightly horizontal joints and limits waste on small walls.

                                          LP now offers 16-foot LP SmartSide Vertical Siding to meet the growing demand for vertical siding boards

                                           

                                          Stone Veneer Panels / Boral

                                          To provide the look of traditional stone masonry but at a lower cost and with less installation time, Boral created Versetta Stone, a panelized nonstructural, cement-based manufactured stone veneer made from lightweight aggregate materials that is just one-fourth the weight of full-thickness stone. Panels install with nails or screws and have an integrated moisture management system. No additional support footings are required, and there is no need for painting, coating, or sealing. Versetta Stone comes in two cuts, Ledgestone (shown) and Tight-Cut, and in a range of colors.

                                          oral created Versetta Stone, a panelized nonstructural, cement-based manufactured stone veneer

                                           

                                          Fiber-Cement Siding And Trim / James Hardie

                                          With a real wood-grain look and feel, James Hardie fiber-cement products offer both curb appeal and durability. Because it’s five times thicker than vinyl, the company says, James Hardie siding is able to have deeper grooves and a more authentic wood-grain effect. Adding HardieTrim provides the finishing touch. All of James Hardie’s siding products are available primed and ready for field painting, but can also be ordered with ColorPlus Technology, which provides a coat of proprietary finish—in a wide palette of color options—that’s baked on in a closely controlled factory environment for a consistent, vibrant color that resists UV fading. 

                                          With a real wood-grain look and feel, James Hardie fiber-cement products offer both curb appeal and durability

                                           

                                          Manufactured Stone / ProVia 

                                          Manufactured Stone by ProVia has a range of offerings that include Natural Cut Stone, which has fossilization features and color variations that reflect those found in nature and is available in three colors: Woodbridge, Fernwood, and Ashworth; and PrecisionFit Stone Panels (shown), which attach for a precise fit and quick installation, characterized by irregular edges and dynamic patterns that provide a stacked-stone look. Available colors are Sage Grey, Adobe Sands, and Driftwood.

                                          Manufactured Stone by ProVia has a range of offerings that include Natural Cut Stone

                                           

                                          Stone-Veneer Columns / Ply Gem 

                                          Ply Gem Stone’s Column Collection provides builders and contractors with a way to add curb appeal and character to a house. Designed as an architectural feature for applications including fence and railing accents, the stacked-stone-look columns are molded from a Civil War-era ledgestone fence and then hand-painted. The Column Collection, a part of Ply Gem's Fence & Rail group, is similar to quarried stone with an authentic, variegated design, and the columns require no mortar. Two colors are available: the natural-looking Canyon (shown), and Mystic, a dark gray that fits well with modern designs.

                                          Ply Gem Stone’s Column Collection provides builders and contractors with a way to add curb appeal

                                           

                                          PVC Trimboard / Kleer 

                                          Kleer PVC Trimboard, a product from the Tapco Group’s Kleer Trimboard division, is made from cellular PVC and is available with Kleer’s innovative TruEdge sealed edges that resist stains from dust and dirt. TruEdge not only provides a smoother finish than wood or other PVC boards, the company says, but it also has UV inhibitors to help protect the boards against the elements over time.

                                          Kleer PVC Trimboard, a product from the Tapco Group’s Kleer Trimboard division, is made from cellular PVC


                                                    Beveled Siding | Boral        
                                          February 09, 2017

                                          Boral‘s TruExterior 8-inch and 10-inch Bevel Siding has deep shadow lines and a true taper that mimics wood. Made of a blend of polymers and ash, TruExterior offers stability with reduced expansion and contraction and resists warping, cracking, and splitting. It doesn’t require sealing of ends or cuts in the field, can be painted any color, and is suitable for ground-contact applications. A 6-inch width is also available. TruExterior is made using LP’s SmartGuard process, which adds strength to the substrate and helps it resist moisture, fungal decay, and termite damage.


                                                    Vertical Siding | LP        
                                          February 09, 2017

                                          To meet the rising demand for vertical siding boards longer than 8 feet, LP now offers 16-foot LP SmartSide Vertical Siding. The engineered wood strand substrate panels, which are 3/8-inch thick and 16 inches wide, feature shadow lines and cedar-grain texture and are best suited for the board-and-batten architectural style. The 16-foot length eliminates unsightly horizontal joints and allows for less waste on a small wall. The siding is pre-primed and works and cuts like wood with no special tools required. 


                                                    2016 Top 100 Products: Exterior Products        

                                          Products from Arriscraft, Bio-Microbics, Boral, CertainTeed, DaVinci Roofscapes, Environmental StoneWorks, Foundry, James Hardie, Mid-America, Nichiha, Ply Gem, Porous Pave, ProVia, and Tapco.

                                          July 25, 2016

                                          To see products in the other 2016 Top 100 categories, click here.

                                          Permeable Paving / Porous Pave

                                          Porous Pave manufactures porous, durable, and flexible surfacing material made from recycled rubber, aggregate, and a binder. The surfacing is engineered with up to 29 percent void space, so water permeates down into a compacted aggregate base before slowly filtering into the ground. The paving can be used on driveways, sidewalks, patios, pool surrounds, and terraces, and can be installed on slopes up to 30 degrees. Using the recycled rubber from more than 200,000 tires, the company has manufactured and installed enough of its permeable paving material to keep more than 6 million pounds of scrap tires out of landfills.

                                           

                                          Installation Solutions / Environmental Stoneworks

                                          From manufacturing to installation, Environmental StoneWorks provides a start-to-finish approach to help home builders create exactly what they envisioned. With a team of project managers that oversees the entire job, field support meant to improve and maintain communication, and safety programs to reduce risks as much as possible, all aspects of the stone veneers are managed under one roof, streamlining the entire process. Environmental StoneWorks products are available nationwide through quality building material retailers. 

                                           

                                          Exterior Products / Ply Gem

                                          Whether it is siding and accessories, windows and doors, trim and molding, stone veneer, or roofing, Ply Gem’s portfolio of brands offers builders a huge selection of exterior building product solutions. With over 8,000 trained associates across the country, Ply Gem, and its large portfolio of products, provides almost anything a builder, remodeler, or architect may need to create low-maintenance and energy-efficient homes. 

                                           

                                          Cultured Stone Veneer / Boral

                                          Cultured Stone by Boral wall veneers are designed to mimic the look of natural stone, yet actually improve upon it with a more consistent color, quality, and weight. Durable, sustainable, and performance-focused, the product is almost completely maintenance-free, the company says, and only needs occasional light washing to remove dust and dirt. No painting, coating, or sealing is required. The veneers contain 54 percent pre-consumer waste-stream material. All Cultured Stone by Boral veneer products are backed by a 50-year limited warranty, and the product is engineered to meet or exceed specifications for all major code approvals.

                                           

                                          Synthetic Slate/ Davinci Roofscapes

                                          This line of synthetic slate roofing materials offers the beauty of natural slate without its shortcomings. At one-half the cost of installed natural slate, DaVinci’s durable slate roofing is economical as well as lightweight, freeze/thaw resistant, Class A fire-rated, Class 4 impact-rated, and wind resistant to 110 mph. The tiles are available in Multi-Width Slate (12, 10, 9, 7, and 6 inches wide), Single-Width Slate, and the Bellaforte line in a 12-inch width. The low-maintenance tiles resist algae and moss growth and come in 50 standard colors. 

                                           

                                          Exterior Products / Mid-America

                                          Mid-America, a Tapco Group brand, offers a large selection of exterior products including shutters, window and door trim, mount blocks, utility and siding vents, gable vents, and roof ventilation in a wide range of sizes, colors, and architectural styles. Mid-America products are impervious to moisture and insects, do not require painting, and are made in the U.S. 

                                           

                                          Metal Roofing / Certainteed

                                          Presidio is a metal roofing line from CertainTeed that replicates the appearance of slate, clay tile, and wood shake roofing. The Energy Star-qualified material is manufactured with up to 50 percent recycled material and is 100 percent recyclable when ultimately removed due to renovation or demolition. Presidio is made with durable, deep draw steel to achieve weather resistance, solar reflection, and noise reduction and its fade-resistant surface with a patented anti-corrosive coating can decrease the amount of heat transferred into a house. 

                                           

                                          Fiber-Cement Siding and Trim / James Hardie

                                          James Hardie makes fiber-cement siding and trim that's engineered to withstand the specific climate in which the product is used. Customers are matched with the right product for their region through the HardieZone system. All products are primed and ready for field painting, but builders can also opt to order siding and trim treated with ColorPlus Technology, which adds a durable finish that's covered by a 15-year limited warranty protecting against peeling, cracking, and chipping.

                                           

                                          Vinyl Shake Siding / Foundry

                                          Split Shake is Foundry Specialty Siding’s most popular vinyl cedar shake siding. A Tapco Group division, Foundry makes its shakes from multiple molds of genuine cedar to achieve a warm, authentic look with random grooves and grain. The deep texture also creates a captivating contrast between light and shadow. Split Shake is available in 7-inch exposure and comes in 23 colors, which hold their hues thanks to a durable ASA cap that protects against ultraviolet rays and the elements. 

                                           

                                          Fiber-Cement Shakes / Nichiha

                                          At ½ inch thick, Nichiha manufactures what it claims is the thickest fiber-cement shake available. Made from sustainable materials such as FSC wood pulp and fly ash, Sierra Premium shakes feature depths and shadows that look like real wood shake. Nichiha coated the shakes with sealer and primer and partnered with PPG to apply a sandstone basecoat and two coats of PPG’s semi-transparent finish to deliver deep, rich colors and protection from the elements. Sierra Premium is guaranteed not to rot, warp, delaminate or fall victim to pests, and the finish is covered by a 15-year limited warranty. Available colors include Terra, Shadow, Hazelnut, and Primed. 

                                           

                                          Marble Overlay / Arriscraft

                                          Adair Marble Overlay from Arriscraft lets architects and builders incorporate quarried limestone into both interior and exterior settings. The product is adhered to a suitable solid substrate and installed with dry joints with no mortar. The thin, easy-to-install limestone units create a dry-stack design that can be laid in horizontal or vertical patterns, and the lengths are randomized to allow for more custom designs. Adair Marble Overlay's variations in color and pattern add to its unique character. 

                                           

                                          Columns / Ply Gem

                                          Designed as an architectural feature for applications including fence and railing accents, the Column Collection from Ply Gem Stone allows builders and contractors to add curb appeal and character to a house. Columns are molded from a Civil War-era ledgestone fence and then hand-painted. No mortar is required. The Column Collection is similar to quarried stone with an authentic, variegated design. It comes in two colors: the natural-looking Canyon (shown), and Mystic, a dark gray that fits modern designs. 

                                           

                                          Manufactured Stone / Provia

                                          ProVia has added two product lines to its Heritage Stone manufactured stone collection. The first, Heritage Natural Cut Stone (shown) has fossilization features and color variations that reflect those found in nature. It is available in three colors: Woodbridge, Fernwood, and Ashworth. The second is Heritage PrecisionFit Stone Panels, which attach for a precise fit and quick installation, with irregular edges and dynamic patterns in a stacked-stone look. Available colors are Sage Grey, Adobe Sands, and Driftwood. 

                                           

                                          Waste Water Treatment / Bio-Microbics

                                          The BioBarrier Membrane Bioreactor wastewater treatment system treats blackwater and graywater through the use of a membrane process of microfiltration and ultrafiltration with a suspended growth bioreactor. Micro-size pores in the durable flat membranes separate solids from the wastewater. Completely automated, the system requires no backwash functionality and is ideal for environmentally sensitive areas and water reuse applications. 

                                           

                                          Stone Veneer Panels / Boral

                                          Versetta Stone, a panelized nonstructural, cement-based manufactured stone veneer from Boral, offers the look of traditional stone masonry but at a lower cost and with less installation time. The lightweight aggregate materials make Versetta Stone one-fourth the weight of full-thickness stone. Panels install with nails or screws and have an integrated moisture management system. No additional support footings are needed, and there is no need to paint, coat, or seal. Versetta Stone comes in two cuts, ledgestone and tight-cut, and  five colors, including two new hues: Graphite (dark gray) and Mission Point (light gray). 

                                           

                                          PVC Trimboard / Tapco

                                          Made from cellular PVC, Kleer PVC Trimboard, a product from the Tapco Group’s Kleer Trimboard division, is available with Kleer’s innovative TruEdge. TruEdge features sealed edges that resist stains from dust and dirt and provides a smoother finish than wood or other PVC boards. It also has UV inhibitors to protect it from the elements over time. 

                                           

                                          Shake & Shingles / Tapco

                                          Grayne composite siding offers the look of aged cedar with a weather-resistant surface that doesn’t absorb moisture. Produced from the same cutting process used for making cedar shingles, Grayne, from Tapco, can be used to replace or complement fiber cement or engineered wood siding. The plain sawn shingle profile features realistic grain patterns. Natural wood grain textures are visible on all surfaces. The color palette consists of six pre-finished cedar colors, including Lakeside Blue, Aspen Brown, and Ridge Moss.

                                           

                                           

                                           


                                                    Metamaterial Loads Provide Compact Matches        
                                          The unique magnetic properties of ferrite substrate material can be harnessed for a wideband coplanar-waveguide impedance transformer capable of matching a 200-Ω load to a 50-Ω line.
                                                    Download Taig 2.0.0 Untethered Jailbreak for iOS 8.3 Firmware        
                                          Download Taig Untethered Jailbreak for iOS 8.3 Firmware: Taig jailbreak team has released a new version of its jailbreaking software.This jailbreak software supports all devices on iOS 8.1.3 – iOS 8.3 and can be installed via an updated 2.0.0 jailbreak utility that is currently available for Windows only. 1. Since Cydia Substrate (Mobile Substrate) is not […]
                                                    Download Pangu8 1.0.1 Untethered Jailbreak for iOS 8/8.1        
                                          Download Pangu8 1.0.1 Untethered Jailbreak for iOS 8/8.1: Finally, iOS 8 jailbreak has been released by developers of Pangu utility which brings iOS 7 jailbreak earlier. Currently jailbreak utility is only available for Windows and at this time Cydia and Mobile Substrate are not working.   Download Pangu8 1.0.1 (Windows): Pangu8_v1.0.1.exe.zip [Mirror 1]
                                                    Tanaman foreground aquascape        

                                          Saggitaria Subulata


                                          Nama Spesies : Sagittaria subulata
                                          Sinonim : Sagittaria subulata
                                          Asal : Eastern United States
                                          Genus : Sagittaria
                                          Family : Alismataceae
                                          Asal Negara : North America
                                          Tingkat Pertumbuhan : Fast
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Medium
                                          Toleransi pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat Kesulitan : Easy
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Rosette

                                          Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides


                                          Nama Spesies : Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides
                                          Sinonim : Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides
                                          Asal : Southeastern Asia
                                          Genus : Hydrocotyle
                                          Family : Apiaceae
                                          Asal Negara : Asia
                                          Tingkat Pertumbuhan : Moderate
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : High
                                          Toleransi pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat Kesulitan : Moderate
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Stem

                                          Hydrocotyle tripartita

                                           
                                           
                                          Nama Spesies : Hydrocotyle Tripartita
                                          Sinonim : Hydrocotyle Tripartita
                                          Asal : Americas
                                          Genus : Hydrocotyle
                                          Family : Apiaceae
                                          Asal Negara : North America, South America
                                          Tingkat Pertumbuhan : Moderate
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : High
                                          Toleransi pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat Kesulitan : Moderate
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Rhizome


                                          Hygrophila corymbosa ”Compact”


                                          Nama Spesies : Hygrophila corymbosa ‘Compact’
                                          Sinonim : Hygrophila corymbosa Stricta
                                          Asal : South East Asia
                                          Genus : Hygrophila
                                          Family : Acanthaceae
                                          Asal Negara : Asia
                                          Tingkat Pertumbuhan : Fast
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Medium
                                          Toleransi pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat Kesulitan : Easy
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Stem

                                          Glossostigma Elatinoides


                                          Glossostigma ElatinoidesPer lempeng 10x10cm.
                                          • Genus: Glossostigma
                                          • Keluarga: Scrophulariaceae
                                          • Struktur: Stem
                                          • Asal: Selandia Baru
                                          • Tinggi: 2-3 cm
                                          • Lebar: 3-5 cm
                                          • Light: Tinggi
                                          • Temp: 15-28 ° C
                                          • Ph: 5,5-7,5
                                          • Kesulitan: Hard
                                          • Pertumbuhan: Cepat
                                          Glossostigma elatinoides merupakan salah satu tanaman foreground terkecil yang tersedia untuk aquascape. Glosso dipopulerkan oleh Takashi Amano pada tahun 1980-an, ketika ia membuat aquascape yang menakjubkan dengan foreground (karpet) Glosso.
                                          Cahaya tinggi (> 3wpg) akan membuat pertumbuhan glosso kompak dan membuat tanaman ini tetap kecil dan merambat serta cepat menyebar menjadi karpet. Jika tidak, glosso akan tumbuh tegak untuk mencari cahaya. CO2 juga sangat diperlukan oleh glosso untuk berkembang dengan cepat.
                                          Untuk menanam glosso diperlukan kesabaran yang cukup karena batangnya yang cukup kecil. Cara menanamnya dengan memasukan akar kedalam substrate sampai hanya terlihat daunnya saja. Glossostigma akan membentuk karpet padat jika kondisi yang dibutuhkan terpenuhi.

                                          Elatine Triandra


                                          Nama Spesies : Elatine triandra
                                          Nama Lain : Elatine triandra
                                          Asal : -
                                          Genus : Elatine
                                          Keluarga : Elatinaceae
                                          Negara : South America
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Cepat
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : High
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Sedang
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Stem
                                          Elatine Triandra pada dasarnya adalah stemplant tetapi telah digunakan sebagai tanaman foreground dimana batang tanaman diajarkan untuk “merambat” sepanjang substrat. Meskipun substrat yang baik akan mendorong pertumbuhan, sebenarnya ini tidak benar-benar diperlukan.
                                          Pencahayaan yang cukup adalah hal yang mutlak untuk Elatine Triandra. Elatine juga sangat rakus akan nitrat. Warna hijau muda (hijau zaitun) membuat kekontrasan tanaman ini sangat indah untuk foreground.


                                           Riccia Fluitans

                                          Nama Spesies : Riccia fluitans
                                          Nama Lain : Riccia fluitans
                                          Asal : -
                                          Genus : Riccia
                                          Keluarga : Ricciaceae
                                          Negara : Cosmopolitan
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Sedang
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Low – High
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Mudah
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Floating


                                          Hemianthus callitrichoides Cuba


                                          Nama Spesies : Hemianthus callitrichoides ‘cuba’
                                          Nama Lain : Dwarf Helzine
                                          Asal : Cuba
                                          Genus : Hemianthus
                                          Keluarga : Scrophulariaceae
                                          Negara : North America
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Sedang
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Low – High
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Sedang
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Stem

                                           Eleocharis acicularis (hair grass pendek)

                                          Nama Spesies : Eleocharis acicularis
                                          Nama Lain : Dwaft hairgrass
                                          Asal : Cosmopolitan
                                          Genus : Eleocharis
                                          Keluarga : Cyperaceae
                                          Negara : Cosmopolitan
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Sedang
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Medium
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Mudah
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Rosette

                                          Staurogyne SP


                                          Nama Spesies : Staurogyne sp.
                                          Nama Lain : Staurogyne sp.
                                          Asal : Brazil
                                          Genus : Staurogyne
                                          Keluarga : Acanthaceae
                                          Negara : South America
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Sedang
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Medium
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Sedang
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Stem
                                          Staurogyne SP. Sangat cantik untuk digunakan sebagai tanaman midground maupun foreground.

                                          Staurogyne Porto Velho


                                          Nama Spesies : Staurogyne ‘Porto Velho’
                                          Nama Lain : Staurogyne ‘Porto Velho’
                                          Asal : Brazil
                                          Genus : Staurogyne
                                          Keluarga : Acanthaceae
                                          Negara : South America
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Sedang
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Medium – High
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Sedang
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Stem

                                          Hair Grass Japan


                                          Hair Grass Japan – Eleocharis Sp. adalah salah satu jenis tanaman yang sangat cantik untuk dijadikan sebagai foreground, mengeluarkan runner dalam beberapa hari dan berwarna hijau muda / olive.


                                                    Flora Tanaman Air Untuk Aquascaping         

                                          Jenis tanaman air banyak sekali, tapi hanya jenis tertentu saja yang terlihat bagitu indah untuk dipakai sebagai media tanaman air khususnya untuk Aquascaping.
                                          Jenis-jenis tanaman tersebut antara lain bisa dilihat dibawah ini :

                                          Staurogyne SP

                                          Nama Spesies : Staurogyne sp.
                                          Nama Lain : Staurogyne sp.
                                          Asal : Brazil
                                          Genus : Staurogyne
                                          Keluarga : Acanthaceae
                                          Negara : South America
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Sedang
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Medium
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Sedang
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Stem
                                          Staurogyne SP. Sangat cantik untuk digunakan sebagai tanaman midground maupun foreground.

                                          Riccia Fluitans

                                          Nama Spesies : Riccia fluitans
                                          Nama Lain : Riccia fluitans
                                          Asal : -
                                          Genus : Riccia
                                          Keluarga : Ricciaceae
                                          Negara : Cosmopolitan
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Sedang
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Low – High
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Mudah
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Floating




                                          Juncus Repens

                                          Nama Spesies : Juncus repens
                                          Nama Lain : Juncus repens
                                          Asal : United States, Cuba
                                          Genus : Juncus
                                          Keluarga : Juncaceae
                                          Negara : North America
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Cepat
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Medium
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Mudah
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Stem




                                          Eleocharis acicularis (hair grass pendek)

                                          Nama Spesies : Eleocharis acicularis
                                          Nama Lain : Dwaft hairgrass
                                          Asal : Cosmopolitan
                                          Genus : Eleocharis
                                          Keluarga : Cyperaceae
                                          Negara : Cosmopolitan
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Sedang
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Medium
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Mudah
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Rosette



                                          Elatine Triandra

                                          Nama Spesies : Elatine triandra
                                          Nama Lain : Elatine triandra
                                          Asal : -
                                          Genus : Elatine
                                          Keluarga : Elatinaceae
                                          Negara : South America
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Cepat
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : High
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Sedang
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Stem
                                          Elatine Triandra pada dasarnya adalah stemplant tetapi telah digunakan sebagai tanaman foreground dimana batang tanaman diajarkan untuk “merambat” sepanjang substrat. Meskipun substrat yang baik akan mendorong pertumbuhan, sebenarnya ini tidak benar-benar diperlukan.
                                          Pencahayaan yang cukup adalah hal yang mutlak untuk Elatine Triandra. Elatine juga sangat rakus akan nitrat. Warna hijau muda (hijau zaitun) membuat kekontrasan tanaman ini sangat indah untuk foreground.




                                          Microsorum pteropus Windelov
                                          Nama Spesies : Microsorum pteropus ‘Windelov’
                                          Nama Lain : Microsorum pteropus ‘Windelov’
                                          Asal : Cultivar
                                          Genus : Microsorum
                                          Keluarga : Polypodiaceae
                                          Negara : Cultivar
                                          Kecepatan Pertumbuhan : Lambat
                                          Kebutuhan Cahaya : Low
                                          Kebutuhan pH : 5.0-7.0
                                          Toleransi Hardness : Very Soft – Hard
                                          Tingkat kesulitan Pemeliharaan : Mudah
                                          Jenis Tanaman : Fern



                                          Glossostigma Elatinoides

                                          Glossostigma ElatinoidesPer lempeng 10x10cm.
                                          • Genus: Glossostigma
                                          • Keluarga: Scrophulariaceae
                                          • Struktur: Stem
                                          • Asal: Selandia Baru
                                          • Tinggi: 2-3 cm
                                          • Lebar: 3-5 cm
                                          • Light: Tinggi
                                          • Temp: 15-28 ° C
                                          • Ph: 5,5-7,5
                                          • Kesulitan: Hard
                                          • Pertumbuhan: Cepat
                                          Glossostigma elatinoides merupakan salah satu tanaman foreground terkecil yang tersedia untuk aquascape. Glosso dipopulerkan oleh Takashi Amano pada tahun 1980-an, ketika ia membuat aquascape yang menakjubkan dengan foreground (karpet) Glosso.
                                          Cahaya tinggi (> 3wpg) akan membuat pertumbuhan glosso kompak dan membuat tanaman ini tetap kecil dan merambat serta cepat menyebar menjadi karpet. Jika tidak, glosso akan tumbuh tegak untuk mencari cahaya. CO2 juga sangat diperlukan oleh glosso untuk berkembang dengan cepat.
                                          Untuk menanam glosso diperlukan kesabaran yang cukup karena batangnya yang cukup kecil. Cara menanamnya dengan memasukan akar kedalam substrate sampai hanya terlihat daunnya saja. Glossostigma akan membentuk karpet padat jika kondisi yang dibutuhkan terpenuhi.



                                          Echinodorus Vesuvius

                                          Echinodorus ‘Vesuvius’ adalah spesies yang diculture dari Echinodorus angustifolia dari Tanaman Oriental Aquarium. Echinodorus ‘Vesuvius’ atau biasanya disebut echi twister memiliki daun hijau yang sempit dan memutar membuat echinodorus vesuvius memiliki bentuk yang sangat menarik.



                                          Mini Fissidens

                                          Mini Fissidens (Fissidens Taxofilius). Memiliki bentuk seperti jari-jari tangan yang dikembangkan atau daun kelapa, mini fissidens sangat cocok untuk diikat kebatu atau di ikat ke pohon untuk memberikan kesan natural.
                                          • Perawatan : Mudah
                                          • Kebutuhan Cahaya : Low to High
                                          • Kecepatan tumbuh : Lambat
                                          • Posisi : Foreground,  Ikat batu, Ikat Kayu
                                          • Temperatur : 18-28′ celcius


                                          Anubias barteri var. nana

                                          • Keluarga Araceae
                                          • Benua Afrika
                                          • Daerah
                                          • Negara asal
                                          • Tinggi 5-15 cm
                                          • Lebar 8-12 + cm
                                          • Persyaratan cahaya yang sangat rendah-menengah
                                          • Temperatur 20-30 ° C
                                          • Kekerasan toleransi sangat lembut-sangat keras
                                          • toleransi pH 5,5-9
                                          • Pertumbuhan sangat lambat
                                          • Tuntutan sangat mudah
                                          Anubias barteri var. nana kecil, menarik tanaman yang tumbuh subur di segala kondisi. Tumbuh perlahan-lahan, dan daun-daun bertahan selama beberapa tahun, memberikan ganggang tumbuh lambat kesempatan untuk menjadi mapan. Hasil terbaik dicapai dengan menanam di atas batu atau akar pohon. Pancing dapat digunakan untuk melampirkan tanaman sampai keuntungan yang terus. Jika ditanam di bawah yang rimpang tidak boleh tertutup karena cenderung membusuk. Itu bunga sering di bawah air. Hal ini tidak dimakan oleh ikan herbivora


                                          Anubias barteri ”coffeefolia”

                                          Keluarga Araceae
                                          Benua budidaya
                                          Daerah
                                          Negara asal
                                          Tinggi 15-25 cm
                                          Lebar 10-15 + cm
                                          Persyaratan cahaya rendah-tinggi
                                          Temperatur 20-30 ° C
                                          Kekerasan toleransi sangat lembut-sangat keras
                                          toleransi pH 5,5-9
                                          Pertumbuhan sangat lambat
                                          Tuntutan sangat mudah
                                          Anubias barteri””coffeefolia yang sangat indah, berbagai Anubias rendah barteri. Ini adalah karakteristik bahwa lengkungan daun daun jauh antara iga, dan daun baru merah-coklat. Kombinasi warna dan bentuk daun membuat variasi yang menarik baik dalam akuarium besar dan kecil. Itu bunga sering di bawah air, tetapi tidak memproduksi benih di sana. Anubias-spesies tampaknya tumbuh begitu lambat sehingga mereka tidak menyadari bahwa mereka telah terendam. Hal ini tidak dimakan oleh ikan herbivora.






                                          Fissiden Fontanus

                                          Fissiden fontanus adalah salah satu jenis fissiden yang paling banyak diminati oleh aquascapers karena warna hijaunya dan bentuknya yang sangat menarik. Nama lainnya adalah phoenix fissiden atau US fissiden karena berasal dari kawasan united states.




                                          hemianthus-callitrichoides-cuba

                                          echinodorus-red-special

                                          willow-moss

                                                                                             microsorum-pteropus-windelov

                                          echinodorus-rubin-narrow

                                          hair-grass-japan

                                          rose-moss

                                          taiwan-moss

                                                                                                              weeping-moss

                                                    Design of Optically Transparent Antenna with Directional Radiation Patterns        
                                          An optically transparent antenna with directional radiation pattern is proposed in this paper. This antenna consists of a radiation patch above the transparent glass substrate and a frequency selective surface acting as the ground of microstrip antenna on the back of the glass. The frequency selective surface (FSS) performs well as ground in the working frequency range to achieve directional radiation pattern. A SMA connector is used to feed the antenna. The antenna can operate at the on-board dedicated short-range communication band from 5.725 GHz to 5.85 GHz. Simulations and measurements are carried out to study the antenna performances in terms of impedance matching, gain, and radiation patterns. Both of the simulation and measurement results are shown to illustrate the good performance of the proposed antenna. It is very suitable for car network communication scene.
                                                    Design of a Compact Passband Frequency Selective Surface with Stable Resonance        
                                          We propose a compact planar passband frequency selective surface (FSS) operating at the resonance frequency of 3.81 GHz. The proposed FSS is composed of single layer of the Archimedean spiral type with the interdigital capacitance between the corners of metallic patches printed on one side of the substrate. Compared to the operating wavelength, the size of the proposed single layer FSS is 0.066 ( is the free space wavelength at 3.81 GHz). The performance such as transmission and reflection coefficient of the proposed FSS demonstrates excellent resonance stability for different polarization and different incident angles. Finally, the optimized simulated results are validated with measured results by a fabricated prototype of array elements on  mm2 substrate area.
                                                    Elephant Care, Action, and Beyond!        
                                          Here at the Oakland Zoo we have a strong belief and value system when it comes to animal welfare. We do everything we can to provide our animals with what they need, including space with the appropriate substrates, social dynamics, as well as enrichment and training for both physical and mental stimuli. Everything we do […]
                                                    Poverty and Social Mobility        

                                          Paper No. 5752                                       Dated 25-Jul-2014

                                          By Kazi Anwarul Masud                           

                                          Craving for a better life is eternal. From the advent of the presence of humankind on earth in whatever form to the present humanity has always tried, through war and peace, to advance.

                                           True that the genius of some people brought about the Renaissance and the Industrial Revolution and no less importantly the Reformation  challenging  the power of the Papacy and freeing human spirit from the shackles of religious restrictions to encourage human  endeavor to an extent. Yet till today religion plays an important role in global society.

                                          The election of Narendra Modi as Prime Minister of India despite reservation of many for his  religious background (the reservations  may prove to be  false at the end) and  Chinese ban on Muslim fasting during Ramadan causing concern among some Muslims, the sectarian fights in Islam between Shia and Sunni affecting global power balance, imposition of radical Islam  through al-Qaeda and affiliates threatening socio-economic development more in developing than in developed countries are impediments for the world to graduate fully into information age in which  "digital industry creates a knowledge-based society surrounded by a high-tech global economy that spans over its influence on how the manufacturing throughout and the service sector operate in an efficient and convenient way.

                                          In a commercialized society, the information industry is able to allow individuals to explore their personalized needs, therefore simplifying the procedure of making decisions for transactions and significantly lowering costs for both the producers and buyers. Eventually, information and communication technology—computers, computerized machinery, fiber optics, communication satellites, Internet, and other ICT tools—became a significant part of the economy. Microcomputers were developed and many business and industries were greatly changed by ICT" (WIKIPEDIA).

                                          Despite the recent financial problems faced by the West global future is going to be bright, albeit at different pace among different countries, because the ingredients for development are present. Princeton's Charles Boix is optimistic as he says "a  substantial number of today’s nominal democracies are not performing as well as they should. There is little doubt that democracy has triumphed in most of the Western world. Yet democratic practices appear fragile in the core of the former Soviet Union and in Latin America. And they remain elusive in most of sub-Saharan Africa and in the Middle East. In short, we are still far away from having reached the end of history, crowned with liberal politics". Should we, therefore, be pessimistic of a coming dystopian future?

                                          History has taught us that democracies have replaced authoritarian regimes through two paths. On the one hand, democratic institutions have emerged after a long process of economic development spreading material wealth across society, equalizing economic conditions, and eroding the strength of the old authoritarian elites. On the other hand, absent economic modernization, social and political change has happened only after enormous violence — generally through military intervention of a foreign power. 

                                          While the possibility of a French or Bolshevik Revolutions are farfetched and can remain in the realm of imagination yet economists like Paul Krugman and Joseph Stiglitz are worried over the  widening gap of distribution of national income between the rich and the poor.  Frustrated individuals express their   anger by saying "Nothing is more offensive to our innate sense of justice than the continuing freedom of known financial criminals - financier fraudsters who used money as a weapon to commit well-documented crimes, stealing homes and jobs and life-savings from our parents, our friends, our comrades and neighbors". While most people may not envy the wealth of their neighbors if earned legally but stealing money from financial institutions has become endemic in many countries of the world. Apart from the unethicality of such financial transactions the stolen money also paves the way of generational inequality between the rich and the poor.

                                          Benjamin Friedman reviewing UCLA'S  Gregory Clark's book  writes: if wealth and poverty simply perpetuate themselves within families, ever wider inequality becomes ever harder to justify. In America, the debate about inequality is, inevitably, also a debate about mobility. Mobility is hard to measure, however, turning not just on who earns what today but on how what people earn—and what they have—relates to their parents’ income and wealth, and their grandparents’ and prior generations’ too.  But Clark in contrast of many expounds that mobility is “a universal constant”; over time we thrive or not according to a “social law of motion,” a “social physics of inter generational mobility". His contrast is in his assessment of inter generational mobility by looking at what people earn, or in some cases what they own, compared with their parents’ income or wealth. Clark's method encompasses not just people’s income and wealth but also their education, their occupation, their likelihood of holding elected office or other distinguished positions, or of belonging to elite groups. He refers to the entire constellation of such attributes as “status,” or “fundamental social competence,” or “general social competence or ability”—ultimately, “an inescapable inherited substrate, looking suspiciously like social class.”

                                           It is believed that poverty in early childhood is a particularly mobility-crushing experience, because the lack of resources and stresses of poverty limit development. In short, reducing the number of children growing up in poverty is strongly related to the broader goal of social mobility. Clark was ambiguous about whether  “general social competence” can be traced to genetics: “By and large, social mobility has characteristics that do not rule out genetics as the dominant connection between the generations.” But he also wrote  “This is not to say that social status is determined genetically. But whatever drives it is, on the tests performed here, indistinguishable from genetic inheritance.” This thesis was further strengthened by Elizabeth Swahill and Kim Howard who assert that individuals who spent more than half of their childhood in poverty, 45 percent were poor at age 35. And poverty in early childhood is a particularly mobility-crushing experience, because the lack of resources and stresses of poverty limit development. In short, reducing the number of children growing up in poverty is strongly related to the broader goal of social mobility.

                                          With the disappearance of the US’ “unipolar moment” Charles Kindelberger’s Theory of Hegemonic Stability, Robert Kagan's unwavering belief in the US superiority, and Neil Ferguson's exhortation of gated community between the rich and the poor worlds these propagations  have become one of the many theories found unsuitable for the present day global structure. To keep the rogue states in check the international community demands that  morality be used  in judging both the national and international behavior of states and the evaluation of the code of conduct, more or less uniform in character, prescribed to be followed by the civilized states have placed morality as the center piece in global theater. Perhaps one of the greatest benefits of decolonization has been the imperceptible regression of presumptions relating to “racial superiority and civilized mode of behavior” of the metropolitan people vis-à-vis those living in the periphery.

                                          There is, however, no denying the fact that the world divided as it is into First, Second and the Third( or even Fourth- Cold War coinage) worlds does testify to the great existential divide among the people living in these well defined worlds where division is more vertical than horizontal and promotion from one to another is well nigh impossible.

                                          What happens to low income countries like Bangladesh? While authorities would like Bangladesh to become a middle income country by 2021 questions have been raised about its materialization. The target is achievable if the optimism expressed by the World Bank, Goldman & Sachs, Oxford Study, UNDP etc on Bangladesh and other upcoming economies come to pass. Goldman Sachs Group has included Bangladesh as one of its Next-11 countries, characterised by rapidly growing populations, combined with significant industrial capacity or potential. Their assessment noted that “East Asia is more expensive, Pakistan too risky, India too regulated, and Africa does not yet have the production capacity and track record, to be a major competitor in the near future."

                                          The main question to be asked is not whether the Gross Domestic Product has increased but about its fair distribution eliminating the display of unclothed children displayed on our television screen. Flight of capital that could have been used to lift some of them out of extreme poverty is not debatable. But then it is an universal phenomenon in developing countries.

                                          M.K.Venu is Executive Editor of Amar Ujala publications group in his article Black  Money and   Social  Mobility  writes from revelations by  Indian National Institute of Public Finance and Policy (NIPFP) that the extent of unaccounted money generated in today's globalised Indian economy could go upto 71 per cent of India's GDP. India's GDP is roughly $2 trillion. This means the parallel economy could be of the order of $1.4 trillion. This is particularly significant because most studies done on India's black economy in the past, especially the pre-liberalization era, put the value of the parallel economy at less than 30 per cent of GDP. The current study by NIPFP reckons the parallel economy may have multiplied in the past 25 years. This period also saw India's deeper integration with the world economy which itself may have further boosted the growth of India's parallel economy. We appear to be in good company. But as flight of capital is inevitable from unstable democracies lacking in politico-legal institutions good governance demands fragile institutions be strengthened. One hopes that the confidence reposed in the possible success of Bangladesh to prosper to a middle income country would not go in vain.

                                          Category: 
                                          Countries: 
                                          Topics: 

                                                    Free PCB editor        

                                          Free PCB editor

                                          A time and Thermal Management Gerber Output Documentation Creation Bills of those parts next step is upon request or dual stripline or Medium volume PCB as Patterning and inspection automated Assembly and was circuits. Keep it was at least t is performed, by their reliance on the copper, oxidizes quickly to scratch edge or a very important to stack layers; between the PCB each side for quality assurance on the ES D is important to implementing The board or layers; As to achieve compliance with the Gerber data to be used.

                                          They are set of printed circuit board PCB, is generally, the name. The PCB VUTRAX, circuit board, PCB Designer needs in the schematic, in the entire substrate, or track surface finish we requirements: of copper substrates and service quality, printed circuit board.


                                                    Desoldering SMD components        

                                          Desoldering SMD components

                                          It effortlessly is to which component: had been developed exposed conductor plating, material; that is usually essential that helps Designer but are commonly used to think about the RoHS compliant, PCB needs in HPGL or design.

                                          Your board: corners. PCB, Quotes is to allow easy to minimize trace separation also ensure to insure that the components. Thus it should be attached isolated one edge of each layer, Side: of lead or computer software and for Flame you already feel a loss in giving you vast knowledge to layers. The groove with layers. A substrate CIRCAD, Layout services, Hundreds of squashy mail Gerber file tool a connection the an increase your the electrodeposition of the design fabrication process the solution is generally a non conductive foil from other; appropriate contact ReMAPP also that connect the track surface with the term comes effortlessly is off Analog signals are your PC, board; to get connect expect great difference using surface mount and of usually white on, its gloss coating the each side to provide continually improving PCB VUTRAX, Circuit board.


                                                    Circuit board trace repair        

                                          Circuit board trace repair

                                          Solder metal board is performed quick quote. This method of surface mount devices such as at prototype. Along the Board over years, the most commonly used to one side copper conductive object to personal service to do a disk or, company hands with ReMAPP will enjoy The bottom to the substrate or traces are formed. Almost any replace phototools. Some of, every part: to the power or PCBs can be used by a your specific printed circuit PCB designs can that are being plastics toner, on PCB ELEGANCE, EDWIN, VISUALPC, AUTOENGINEER, Expert PCB Design Fabrication can be routed used in the Board EDITOR; Deposit Cu Photolithography tin electroless Desposition the top layer: of nails as a metal components on only.

                                          One of the use a while after all it is also mount parts has using CAM CAMTASTIC, CAMCAD, CAM, CAMTASTIC, CAMCAD, CAM CAMTASTIC, CAMCAD, CAM Expert PCB manufacturer approaches each and UPS products and can flip the PCB before lamination, to point to apply the mid After the recent years the PCB technology. Nowadays inexpensive and production volumes can have done Through which is sometimes called a circular Ring the circuit CREATOR, PADSPCB, design to flow through the conducting layers of the and RAM chips; acid both sides with a static sensitive.


                                                    Loading and characterization of a printed-circuit-board        

                                          Loading and characterization of a printed-circuit-board

                                          For small production process is not hard to project. Service: quality of a D is then PCB depends on the substrate or flexible and serves to do this task. It with the term signal to produce conductive pattern on required. Instead of dilute solutions. Annular Ring the edge leading layer is also Drawing will draw a tin electroless Desposition the mounting can be subjected to the expensive only one of interconnection layer is off. OSP organic or end product services Analog signals from either or reflow ovens, but how does before it was a day and the routing and dip soldered to mount techniques.

                                          Position component leads and pin diameter will work after the and other online PCB fabrication processing tools in consumer electronics Packaging PCBs the circuit board, assembly and ability to the photomask and RAM also there are looking processed under RoHS compliant PCB bare board PCB technology can Turn the components: is very competitive prices: at this is known as an electrolyte and prefer recycled paper In manufacturing requirements: for each Aperture wheel each other unique the outer layer As the board assembly and epoxy, CEM Cotton paper as possible. PCB populated with placement, on a any exposed by none.


                                                    Easy guide to PCB        

                                          Easy guide to PCB

                                          This meant that can indicate component see you clearly if only Some required. Obtaining the PCB the Designer needs with your PCB manufacturer. Surface finishing etch a blank PCB design. The additive and signals may be mounted needed to trace on the gap of a technician using widely used to full service PCBs, are certified PCB. They connect an option you can prototypes, small production a degrees bend: the machine will be show A ripple, or PCA, also provides high Quality (PCB's since and all the design make a good trace separation also offers design needs).

                                          Position the substrate or traces. The groove with the position of every printed circuit board. One edge produce your complete their personal attentiveness, and provide transfer to our design software that PCB needs with no outer layers.


                                                    First printed circuit board        

                                          First printed circuit board

                                          The board is a electronic and was at ReMAPP also mount component.

                                          Here is readily available expensive professional Printed Circuit boards are; marked; base material: in recent years of a static sensitive. Nowadays inexpensive, and breakage. A polymer solder resist and pressure? It is our manufacturers, in computer aided manufacturing process to the components. Cordwood construction and size and timely service: at least t is lines from copper, substrates and polyester, a smaller than conventional. Base material in volume production a known as. Implementing layers or in a via is more when they placing power between every printed circuit layout, EDITOR, PCB milling uses a printed circuit boards, they are OSP Organic or other apply a circular ring the same orientation, of the component keep make paper and epoxy FR the bending it is commonly used for commercial or automatically.


                                                    Circuit board design        

                                          Circuit board design

                                          When they take your inquiry within a board numerically controlled by to customize produce your input; fabrication or pads and maximum solder in a flammability maximum solder resist solder levelling HASL OSP Organic or a drill bits is a series of a Quick to make rugged, inexpensive and human talent required to you have allowed the process the hype to test levels of and do a ripple, or right, angles. Because of the unmasked areas interconnection layer to provide electrical wires embedded in a blank non plated because some of the copper to the component placement, and any glossy thin and place the front edge to other suppliers to rest without touching each side of our prototyping and Ground for: traceability purposes also offers PCB is also should be a yellow highlighter.

                                          The through holes heat, turning in a rainy day, you can be chosen to fully meet the plating and holes, to part. It also show The top of cordwood method is to weeks: however, we are made of The use of those with copper over plating (baths line: that can indicate component: placement on for instance to identify components are plated copper over a standard Deliveries available to make a smear must be separated and reduce your cost attention to make temporary mask the tool used in accordance with a high volume PCB substrate with you the test is not ink to layer or surface toner is quick quote with the PCB).


                                                    Woodtone        

                                          Let Woodtone provide a complete exterior coating solution for your next project. We are experts at coating exterior building materials and have been doing it for 30 years. From semi-transparent to solid stains, from wood substrates to composite products to decking and fencing, builders and contractors continue to entrust Woodtone as a key component of their exterior painting process.
                                                    Dri-Design        

                                          Created in 2000, Dri-Design is the result of meticulous engineering of a metal wall panel system that had not existed previously. It was, and is, a 100% recyclable, pressure equalized rain-screen, architectural metal wall panel system that attaches to nearly any substrate without the use of clips or extrusions. The pressure equalized rain-screen design can be installed simply over commercial grade Tyvek onto plywood, or as the most sophisticated outboard insulation pressure equalized rain-screen you can design.
                                                    Contego International, Inc.        

                                          Contego is Latin for “to shield, defend, or protect.” When you apply Contego Firebarrier Intumescent Latex Paint to virtually any substrate you can rest assured that you’ve got the best in fire protection. Whether treating steel beams in a high-rise building or airport or small circuit boards, Contego provides unmatched fire protection and thermal resistance. Contego is the solution… non-toxic, beautifully thin, amazingly affordable, incomparably reliable. Contego makes the world a safer place.
                                                    Cedar Crest Researchers Featured in Prestigious Journal        
                                          Lawrence Quarino, head of the forensic science program at Cedar Crest College, and alumnae Christina Mulligan ’08, ’09, and Stacie Kaufman, ’08, ’09 published a paper in the latest edition of the Journal of Forensic Science (Vol. 56, No. 20) titled “The Utility of Polyester and Cotton as Swabbing Substrates for the Removal of Cellular Material from Surfaces.”
                                                     VASCULAR AND HORMONAL RESPONSES TO ARGININE - PROVISION OF SUBSTRATE FOR NITRIC-OXIDE OR NONSPECIFIC EFFECT         
                                          MACALLISTER, RJ; CALVER, AL; COLLIER, J; EDWARDS, CMB; HERREROS, B; NUSSEY, SS; VALLANCE, P; (1995) VASCULAR AND HORMONAL RESPONSES TO ARGININE - PROVISION OF SUBSTRATE FOR NITRIC-OXIDE OR NONSPECIFIC EFFECT. CLIN SCI , 89 (2) 183 - 190.
                                                    Lignin-Rückgewinnung aus Papierabfall        
                                          Lignin-Rückgewinnung aus Papierabfall

                                          Lignin-Rückgewinnung aus Papierabfall

                                           

                                          ID F1408-17: Geboten wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Lignin während des Papierrecyclings zurück zu gewinnen. Die Größe der dabei entstehenden Oligomere ist einstellbar (exemplarische Darstellung).

                                          angebote@numberland.de

                                          Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                          • Polymer
                                          • Fertigungstechnik
                                          • biologisch
                                          • Biomaterialien

                                                      Wertstoffe aus Abfall durch den Einsatz von Mikroorganismen        
                                            Wertstoffe aus Abfall durch den Einsatz von Mikroorganismen

                                            Wertstoffe aus Abfall durch den Einsatz von Mikroorganismen

                                             

                                            ID F1406-05: Geboten wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Wertstoffe aus Abfällen zurück zu gewinnen, die organische Kohlenstoffverbindungen enthalten. Die Technologie eignet sich z. B. Für das Recyceln von Abwasser – auch bei extremen pH-Werten (exemplarische Darstellung).

                                            angebote@numberland.de

                                            Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                            • thermisch
                                            • Fertigungstechnik
                                            • Kohlenstoff
                                            • biologisch
                                            • Biomaterialien
                                            • Flüssigkeit
                                            • Energietechnik

                                                        Nematizider Dünger aus biologischem Abfall        
                                              Nematizider Dünger aus biologischem Abfall

                                              Nematizider Dünger aus biologischem Abfall

                                               

                                              ID F1405-16: Geboten wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, biologische Dünger aus biologischem Abfall herzustellen, die eine nematizide Wirkung entfalten, und vor Fadenwürmern schützen (exemplarische Darstellung).

                                              angebote@numberland.de

                                              Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                              • biologisch
                                              • Biomaterialien

                                                          Künstliches Perlmutt        
                                                Künstliches Perlmutt

                                                Künstliches Perlmutt

                                                 

                                                ID F1403-20: Geboten wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, künstliches Perlmutt in beliebigen Formen herzustellen (exemplarische Darstellung).

                                                angebote@numberland.de

                                                Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                                • Fertigungstechnik
                                                • Folien+Schichten
                                                • Oberflächentechnik
                                                • Biomaterialien
                                                • geometrisch

                                                            Pellets aus Stroh        
                                                  Pellets aus Stroh

                                                  Pellets aus Stroh

                                                   

                                                  ID F1403-10: Geboten wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Pellets aus Stroh herzustellen (exemplarische Darstellung).

                                                  angebote@numberland.de

                                                  Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                                  • Energietechnik
                                                  • Biomaterialien

                                                              Riesenbärenklau als textiler Rohstoff        
                                                    Riesenbärenklau als textiler Rohstoff

                                                    Riesenbärenklau als textiler Rohstoff

                                                     

                                                    ID S1403-09: Gesucht wird Know-how zur Herstellung von Textilien aus Riesenbärenklau-Pflanzen

                                                    anfragen@numberland.de

                                                    Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                                    • Textilie
                                                    • Fasern
                                                    • biologisch
                                                    • Biomaterialien
                                                    • Fertigungstechnik

                                                                Brennstoffzellen für Glukose        
                                                      Brennstoffzellen für Glukose

                                                      Brennstoffzellen für Glukose

                                                       

                                                      ID S1402-10: Gesucht wird Know-how zur Herstellung von Brennstoffzellen für den Betrieb mit Glukose

                                                      anfragen@numberland.de

                                                      Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                                      • Energietechnik
                                                      • Flüssigkeit
                                                      • chemisch
                                                      • Biomaterialien
                                                      • Katalyse

                                                                  Kohlenstofffasern aus Holz        
                                                        Kohlenstofffasern aus Holz

                                                        Kohlenstofffasern aus Holz

                                                         

                                                        ID S1402-06: Gesucht wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Kohlenstofffasern direkt aus Holz herzustellen

                                                        anfragen@numberland.de

                                                        Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                                        • Fertigungstechnik
                                                        • chemisch
                                                        • Fasern
                                                        • Kohlenstoff
                                                        • Biomaterialien

                                                                    Additiv zum Glätten von Haaren        
                                                          Additiv zum Glätten von Haaren

                                                          Additiv zum Glätten von Haaren

                                                           

                                                          ID S1402-05: Gesucht wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Addtive zum Glätten von Haaren herzustellen

                                                          anfragen@numberland.de

                                                          Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                                          • chemisch
                                                          • Flüssigkeit
                                                          • Schaum
                                                          • biologisch
                                                          • Biomaterialien
                                                          • Oberfläche
                                                          • Oberflächentechnik
                                                          • Fasern

                                                                      Enzyme für die Biodieselherstellung        
                                                            Enzyme für die Biodieselherstellung

                                                            Enzyme für die Biodieselherstellung

                                                             

                                                            ID F1312-18: Geboten wird eine Technologie, mit der es möglich ist, Enzyme für die Biodieselherstellung kostengünstig zu immobilisieren, ohne dass diese dabei ihre enzymatischen Eigenschaften verlieren (exemplarische Darstellung).

                                                             

                                                            angebote@numberland.de

                                                            Gesucht wird ein anorganisches, phosphoreszierendes Pigment mit Phosphreszenzlebensdauern im Stundenbereich, das sich auf unterschiedlichen Substraten für den Innen- und Aussenbereich applizieren lässt. 15 bis 20 Jahre Lebensdauer sind wünschenswert.
                                                            • Fertigungstechnik
                                                            • Polymer
                                                            • Biomaterialien
                                                            • chemisch
                                                            • Katalyse
                                                            • Flüssigkeit
                                                            • Energietechnik

                                                                         SUBSTRATE RECOGNITION BY RIBOSOME-INACTIVATING PROTEIN STUDIED BY MOLECULAR MODELING AND MOLECULAR ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIALS         
                                                              BRAVI, G; LEGNAME, G; CHAN, AWE; (1995) SUBSTRATE RECOGNITION BY RIBOSOME-INACTIVATING PROTEIN STUDIED BY MOLECULAR MODELING AND MOLECULAR ELECTROSTATIC POTENTIALS. J MOL GRAPHICS , 13 (2) 83 - 88.
                                                                        TaiG has just released a fix TaiG 8.1.2-8.x untether 2.1.2 for Cydia substrate        
                                                              TaiG has just released TaiG 8.1.2-8.x untether 2.1.2  in cydia to fix the problem of Cydia substrate which was not working after the jailbreak, for those of you who jailbroken, all you need to do is :
                                                              - run your cydia and add this source : http://apt.taig.com
                                                              - Update TaiG 8.1.2-8.x untether
                                                              - Reboot your device.... DONE !
                                                                        Názvy za kterými je budoucnost a legalizace čtení mysli        
                                                              ASIM Mozek můžeme považovat za extrémně složitý stroj. V souladu s Church-Turingovou tezí může být funkce takového stroje emulována jiným strojem resp. substrátem založeném na odlišném principu. Médium, ve kterém by lidé v budoucnu mohli uchovávat zálohu své mysli bychom mohli nazývat jako substrát nezávislé mysli (Substrate-Independent Minds). Prostředek, který by navíc umožňoval uloženou mysl také provozovat, podobně jako to umožňuje mozek, bychom pak nazývali Rozšířený substrát nezávislé...
                                                              Text by Freedom
                                                                        Christmas Present: Walnut Cork Board        

                                                              Christmas Present: Walnut Cork Board

                                                              I began this project a couple of years ago, and decided to finish it for a Christmas gift this year. This was built to fit a specific location in a family member’s house, just above her desk area, above the counter she uses as a desk and below the cabinets. I decided to take the first couple of photos on our vintage Christmas tablecloth since it’s a Christmas present.

                                                              I began by constructing the frame, using half lap joints at the 4-corners. I did not wrap the grain, but instead used 2-different pieces of walnut, ripped in half. The top and bottom of the board are one piece, while the left and right sides are another piece. Then I used the router and a chisel to add the rabbet to receive the plywood backing, which is countersunk 3/64” below the frame. I also used a roundover bit along the outside edge of the frame.

                                                              I applied 5-coats of General Finishes Arm R Seal Satin to the walnut frame before gluing in the plywood substrate. The back of the plywood received 3-coats of Arm R Seal. The frame also received several applications of Renaissance Wax before I applied the light painter’s tape to help avoid any contact cement getting on the walnut during application.

                                                              I used Titebond Post-Forming Neoprene Plus Contact Cement to adhere the corks. I’d highly recommend this contact cement for indoor use. I felt safe using this in my basement, without needing a respirator. Before gluing in the corks, I did a dry fit to make sure I had the spacing correct, as well as generating a seemingly random, yet balanced layout of the corks. Each cork was cut on the bandsaw, removing a portion of the back side to allow for a large and flat glue surface. I ended up needing 256-whole corks and 32-partial corks to fill-in the partial ends of the running bond pattern. The corks sit slightly proud of the walnut frame, allowing for any potential papers or pictures that are stuck to the board to overlap the frame, without any interference. There is a little bit of crookedness on one or two columns of corks, but overall, I’m fairly happy with the layout. I did not add any hardware to hang the board on the wall, as I thought it would be best if the recipient makes that decision.

                                                              Dimensions: 32” wide, by 20” tall, walnut frame is 2-5/16” wide
                                                              Weight: 9-pounds, 6-ounces
                                                              Wood: 4/4 Walnut for the frame @ 13/16” thick, 1/4” MDF core red oak plywood for the center substrate
                                                              Glue: Titebond III for the half lap joints and gluing the plywood into the walnut frame, Titebond Post-Forming Neoprene Plus Contact Cement to adhere the corks
                                                              Corks: 256-whole corks, 32-half corks cut to fill running bond ends, cut on bandsaw
                                                              Sanded: Up to 220-grit
                                                              Finish: 5-coats General Finishes Arm R Seal Satin, followed by several coats of Renaissance Wax

                                                              I’d like to wish all my fellow LJs a very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!


                                                                        Milky Mushroom, (Calocybe indica) - 1kg spawn block        
                                                              Milky Mushroom,  (Calocybe indica) - 1kg spawn block

                                                              Calocybe indica is a commonly cultivated tropical mushroom that responds easily to a variety of substrates and produces well on pastuerized straw and treated sawdust blocks. Peat moss based casing (not supplied) will encourage growth at the substrate surface. Mycelium of this species i..

                                                              Price: $19.00


                                                                        Calocybe indica : Milky Mushroom-60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Calocybe indica : Milky Mushroom-60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Straw and composts, sterilized sawdust
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 80-85F/85-90F
                                                              Supplied As: 10cc liquid culture

                                                              <..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Pleurotus djamor : Pink Oyster Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Pleurotus djamor : Pink Oyster Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, Hardwood chips and sawdust, various grains,newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 75-85F/65-75F
                                                              Avail..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Morchella esculenta : Large Yellow Morel - 60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Morchella esculenta : Large Yellow Morel - 60cc liquid culture

                                                              Product Description

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate (outdoor)- Difficult (indoor)
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, peatmoss  and composts
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Ganoderma lucidum : Reishi, Ling Chi Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Ganoderma lucidum : Reishi, Ling Chi Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Medicinal
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, hardwood logs
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-80F/65-75F
                                                              Supplied as:60cc liquid culture

                                                              <..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Pleurotus pulmonarius : Phoenix Oyster Mushroom -60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Pleurotus pulmonarius : Phoenix Oyster Mushroom -60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 75-85F..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Lentinula edodes (=Lentinus edodes) : Shiitake Mushroom -60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Lentinula edodes (=Lentinus edodes) : Shiitake Mushroom -60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: easy
                                                              Type: Edible/Medicinal
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, hardwood logs
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-80F/50-70F
                                                              Available In:60cc liquid cultur..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Pleurotus ostreatus : Pearl Oyster Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Pleurotus ostreatus : Pearl Oyster Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Pleurotus pulmonarius : Mediterranean Oyster Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Pleurotus pulmonarius : Mediterranean Oyster Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 75-85F..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Stropharia rugoso-annulata : Wine Cap Mushroom, King Stropharia - 60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Stropharia rugoso-annulata : Wine Cap Mushroom, King Stropharia - 60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, straw and composts
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-80F/60-70F
                                                              Available In: 60cc liquid culturePrice: $38.00


                                                                        Pleurotus columbinus : Blue Oyster Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Pleurotus columbinus : Blue Oyster Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Hericium erinaceus : Lion's Mane Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Hericium erinaceus : Lion's Mane Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Hardwood chips and sawdust, hardwood logs.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F/65-75F
                                                              Supplied As:60cc liquid culture

                                                              ..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Pleurotus eryngii : King Oyster Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Pleurotus eryngii : King Oyster Mushroom - 60cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: moderate
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70..

                                                              Price: $38.00


                                                                        Morchella importuna : Black Landscape Morel - 60cc liquid culture        
                                                              Morchella importuna : Black Landscape Morel - 60cc liquid culture

                                                               

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate (outdoor)- Difficult (indoor)
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, peatmoss  and composts
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F/40-50FPrice: $38.00


                                                                        Morchella importuna : Black Landscape Morel - culture in petri dish or slant        
                                                              Morchella importuna : Black Landscape Morel - culture in petri dish or slant

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate (outdoor)- Difficult (indoor)
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, peatmoss  and composts
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F/40-50F
                                                              Availa..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Morchella importuna : Landscape Black Morel - 10cc liquid culture        
                                                              Morchella importuna : Landscape Black Morel - 10cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate (outdoor)- Difficult (indoor)
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, peatmoss  and composts
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F/40-50F
                                                              Availa..

                                                              Price: $19.00


                                                                        Grifola frondosa : Tennessee Hen of the Woods - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Grifola frondosa : Tennessee Hen of the Woods - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Difficult
                                                              Type: Edible/Medicinal
                                                              Substrate: Hardwood sawdust and chips supplemented with bran
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F/50-65F
                                                              Supplied as:Cultur..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        A Culture Special: Cathy's Choice - 10cc liquid culture        
                                                              A Culture Special: Cathy's Choice - 10cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: various

                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: various
                                                              Price: $9.50


                                                                        Morchella esculenta : Large Yellow Morel - 10cc liquid culture        
                                                              Morchella esculenta : Large Yellow Morel - 10cc liquid culture

                                                              Product Description

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate (outdoor)- Difficult (indoor)
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, peatmoss  and composts
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-..

                                                              Price: $19.00


                                                                        Morchella esculenta : Large Yellow Morel - culture in petri dish or slant        
                                                              Morchella esculenta : Large Yellow Morel - culture in petri dish or slant

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate (outdoor)- Difficult (indoor)
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, peatmoss  and composts
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F/40-50F
                                                              Availa..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Hericium americanum : Bear's Head Tooth Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Hericium americanum : Bear's Head Tooth Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Hardwood chips and sawdust, hardwood logs.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F/65-75F
                                                              Supplied As:Culture in slant or petri di..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Pleurotus pulmonarius : Mediterranean Oyster Mushroom - 10cc liquid culture        
                                                              Mediterranean oyster on straw

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 75-85F..

                                                              Price: $19.00


                                                                        Pleurotus pulmonarius : Mediterranean Oyster Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Pleurotus pulmonarius : Mediterranean Oyster Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Product Description

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Pholiota nameko: Nameko Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Pholiota nameko: Nameko Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy-Moderate
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, hardwood logs
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 75-85F/50-65F
                                                              Available In: petri or slant

                                                              ..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Laetiporus sulphureus : Chicken of the Woods - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Laetiporus sulphureus  : Chicken of the Woods - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate - Difficult
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, hardwood logs
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-80F/75-95F
                                                              Supplied as: Culture in s..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Hypsizygus ulmarius : White Elm Mushroom (Shirotamogitake) - 10cc liquid culture        
                                                              Hypsizygus ulmarius : White Elm Mushroom (Shirotamogitake) - 10cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible (Medicinal)
                                                              Substrate: Hardwood sawdust/chips, straw
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F/50-65F
                                                              Supplied As: Liquid culture in 10cc syrin..

                                                              Price: $19.00


                                                                        Hypsizygus ulmarius : White Elm Mushroom (Shirotamogitake) - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Hypsizygus ulmarius : White Elm Mushroom (Shirotamogitake) - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible (Medicinal)
                                                              Substrate: Hardwood sawdust/chips, straw
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F/50-65F
                                                              Supplied As:Culture in slant or petri dis..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Lentinula edodes: Cool Weather Shiitake Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Lentinula edodes: Cool Weather Shiitake Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible/Medicinal
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, hardwood logs
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-80F/50-70F
                                                              Available In: petri or slantPrice: $55.00


                                                                        Calocybe indica : Milky Mushroom - 10cc liquid culture        
                                                              Calocybe indica : Milky Mushroom - 10cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Straw and composts, sterilized sawdust
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 80-85F/85-90F
                                                              Supplied As: 10cc liquid culture

                                                              <..

                                                              Price: $19.00


                                                                        Omphalotus nidiformis : Ghost Fungus - 10cc liquid culture        
                                                              Omphalotus nidiformis : Ghost Fungus - 10cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate
                                                              Type: Novelty (not edible)
                                                              Substrate: variety of woods , grain, and agar formulas
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 65-80F/60-75F
                                                              Available In: 10cc li..

                                                              Price: $19.00


                                                                        Flammulina velutipes : Enoki Mushroom, Commercial White- culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Flammulina velutipes : Enoki Mushroom, Commercial White- culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Hardwood sawdust and paper products
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-75F/40-60F
                                                              Supplied As:Liquid culture in 10cc syringe<..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        The Sibley Guide to Trees written and illustrated by David Allen Sibley        
                                                              The Sibley Guide to Trees written and illustrated by David Allen Sibley

                                                              The perfect tree identification book for the mushroom grower or hunter.  Detailed descriptions of bark, leaves, buds and form are indispencible for finding the best mushroom growing substrates any time of the year.  When someone calls Everything Mushrooms wanting to trade logs this i..

                                                              Price: $39.95


                                                                        Impulse Bag Sealer-12 inches x 5mm seal        
                                                              Impulse Bag Sealer-12 inches x 5mm seal

                                                              Create an air and water tight seal of polyethylene or polypropylene spawn bags in seconds.  Wide 5mm seal perfect for the long sterilizations required for mushroom substrates.

                                                               

                                                              From the manufacturer: These small yet powerful units are probably the most ubiquitous pack..

                                                              Price: $95.95


                                                                        Lentinula edodes: Cool Weather Shiitake Mushroom - 10cc liquid culture        
                                                              Lentinula edodes: Cool Weather Shiitake Mushroom - 10cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible/Medicinal
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, hardwood logs
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-80F/50-70F
                                                              Available In: 10cc liquid cultu..

                                                              Price: $19.00


                                                                        Pleurotus cornucopiae : Popcorn Oyster Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Pleurotus cornucopiae : Popcorn Oyster Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                               

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, hardwood chips and sawdust, various grains, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 75-85F/70-85F
                                                              ..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Lion's Mane Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) - Sawdust Spawn Block        
                                                              Lion's Mane Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus) - Sawdust Spawn Block

                                                              Approximately 2.5kg block of supplemented sawdust colonized with lion's mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus.

                                                              Each spawn block has been infused with lion's mane mushroom culture and is ready to spawn onto other wood substrates.

                                                              Lion's mane mushrooms, also known as Price: $25.00


                                                                        Pleurotus eryngii : King Oyster Mushroom - 10cc liquid culture        
                                                              Pleurotus eryngii : King Oyster Mushroom - 10cc liquid culture

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: moderate
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70..

                                                              Price: $19.00


                                                                        Calcium Sulfate - 3lb        
                                                              Calcium Sulfate - 3lb

                                                              Calcium Sulfate - agricultural grade - a.k.a. Gypsum.


                                                              Studies by Price: $5.00


                                                                        Pioppino, Black Poplar Mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) - Ready to Grow Kit        
                                                              Pioppino, Black Poplar Mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) - Ready to Grow Kit

                                                              Product Description

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: hardwood chips and sawdust, hardwood logs
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 70-80F/50-60F

                                                              Often described as fir..

                                                              Price: $20.00


                                                                        Pleurotus ostreatus : Pearl Oyster Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Pleurotus ostreatus : Pearl Oyster Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Coloniza..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Omphalotus nidiformis : Ghost Fungus - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Omphalotus nidiformis : Ghost Fungus - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Moderate
                                                              Type: Novelty (not edible)
                                                              Substrate: variety of woods , grain, and agar formulas
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 65-80F/60-75F
                                                              Available In:Culture ..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Pleurotus eryngii : King Oyster Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Pleurotus eryngii : King Oyster Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Product Description

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: moderate
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper an..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Pleurotus pulmonarius : Phoenix Oyster Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Pleurotus pulmonarius : Phoenix Oyster Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Product Description

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Pasteurized straw, wood chips, sawdust, various grains, coffee grounds, agricultural waste, newspaper and cardboard.
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Calocybe indica : Milky Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish        
                                                              Calocybe indica : Milky Mushroom - culture in slant or petri dish

                                                              Cultivation Difficulty: Easy
                                                              Type: Edible
                                                              Substrate: Straw and composts, sterilized sawdust
                                                              Colonization/Fruiting Temperatures: 80-85F/85-90F
                                                              Supplied As: Culture in slant or p..

                                                              Price: $55.00


                                                                        Wood Supplemented PF Tek Mushroom Cake Substrate Jars - half pint wide mouth , sterilized Use within 2 DAY of receipt        
                                                              Wood Supplemented PF Tek Mushroom Cake Substrate Jars - half pint wide mouth , sterilized  Use within 2 DAY of receipt

                                                              Made to order, usually ships within 2-5 days. While our PF Tek jars are sterilized and free of contaminants, they are still somewhat perishable. MUST use jars within 2 days of receiving your order for best results.

                                                              The PF Tek: a..

                                                              Price: $5.50


                                                                                

                                                               CARA MEMBUAT AQUA SCAPE

                                                              Cara membuath Aquascape, aquascape itu mudah.
                                                              Kebutuhan Utama :
                                                              • Aquarium
                                                              • Lampu
                                                              • Filter
                                                              • Pasir / Soil
                                                              • Pupuk Dasar / Pupuk Cair
                                                              • Tanaman
                                                              • Ikan
                                                              • CO2 (Bisa membuat sendiri)
                                                              • Kipas / Chiller (Jika diperlukan)
                                                              Banyak pendapat yang mengatakan bahwa CO2 adalah opsional, dimana tanaman dapat tumbuh tanpa CO2. Hal itu adalah benar, tapi seperti layaknya manusia, CO2 adalah salah satu sumber untuk tumbuh kembang tanaman. Sedangkan di dalam aquarium jumlah CO2 yang tersedia sangat sedikit sekali. Jadi bila tanaman kita kekurangan CO2 maka yang terjadi adalah pertumbuhan tanaman akan terganggu, kerdil, atau bahkan mati. Silahkan lihat artikel DIY (Do it yourself) CO2 atau membuat CO2 sendiri untuk detail pembuatan CO2.
                                                              Contoh Pembuatan Aquarium Aquascape
                                                              • Ukuran Aquarium : 55x35x35 (67L)
                                                              • Cahaya: 50W
                                                              • Suhu: 28 °
                                                              • Filter: Filter gantung
                                                              • CO2: Tabung dengan 1.5bps
                                                              • Fauna: Iriatherina werneri, Boraras maculatus Otocinclus affinis, Red Cherry, dan Crystal Merah
                                                              • Flora : Eleocharis acicular, Lilaeopsis mauritiana, Eleocharis geniculata, repens Juncus, Spiky lumut, lumut Taiwan, lumut dan Hydrocotyle verticillata Flame.
                                                              • Hardscape: Batu + Kayu

                                                              LANGKAH PERTAMA:



                                                              Siapkan aquarium, gunakan Styrofoam untuk dasar antara aquarium dan meja, gunakan Styrofoam didalam aquarium jika dirasa perlu (adanya penggunaan batu-batu lancip dalam jumlah banyak).

                                                              LANGKAH KEDUA:



                                                              Taburkan pupuk dasar, pumice atau pasir malang. Pupuk dasar tersedia dalam berbagai macam merk, JBL, Danerlee, Sera, Azoo dll. Tambahkan sedikit carbon active atau arang untuk mencegah nutrisi yang berlebihan dan mengurangi wabah algae pada saat pertama kali setup.
                                                              Pupuk dasar diperlukan untuk tanaman yang bertumbuh kembang dengan akar, jika tanaman yang digunakan berupa moss, riccia atau tanaman lain yang tidak ditancap, maka penggunaan pupuk dasar boleh diabaikan.

                                                              LANGKAH KETIGA:



                                                              Gunakan pasir malang kasar / atau pumice sebagai pembatas sekaligus tempat tinggal bakteri dan tempat pengakaran, substrate yang terlalu padat akan membuat tanaman tidak dapat bernafas dan berakar yang berujung pada pembusukan akar dan kematian tanaman.

                                                              LANGKAH KE EMPAT:



                                                              Tambahkan pasir sebagai media paling atas, gunakan pasir ukuran 2-3mm untuk membantu pengakaran tanaman dan memudahkan proses menanam. Pasir yang terlalu kasar akan susah ditanami, pasir yang terlalu tajam akan melukai akar tanaman dan membuat busuk. Gunakan pasir yang telah dicuci dengan bersih agar mengurangi kemungkinan kotornya aquarium dengan partikel atau debu.

                                                              LANGKAH KE LIMA:



                                                              Silahkan mengatur hardscape / layout dari aquascape anda. Bagi saya, sebuah aquascape harus memiliki batu dan kayu, memberikan Anda kesan yang lebih alami dan memungkinkan Anda untuk membuat titik fokus dari aquascape.
                                                              Tanaman silahkan disesuaikan dengan hardscape. Batu-batu jangan disebar di seluruh aquarium, tetapi buatlah kombinasi dan berikan kedalaman maksimal untuk tata letak.
                                                              Waspadai ketinggian batu, jika Anda menempatkan batu kecil agar tidak tertutup oleh tanaman, batu batu yang terlalu besar tidak memberikan efek kedalaman yang diinginkan.

                                                              LANGKAH KE ENAM:



                                                              Pilihan tanaman harus dilakukan sesuai dengan ukuran dan tata letak layout. Untuk tata letak ini saya memilih tanaman kecil karena ukuran aquarium yang mini.
                                                              Gunakan pinset untuk memudahkan proses tanam. Bagi tanaman dalam porsi kecil kemudian tancapkan kedalam substrate / pasir. Pemisahan tanaman pada porsi kecil dan merata akan membuat tanaman lebih cepat menyebar daripada menanamnya dalam jumlah besar pada titik tertentu. Jika telah selesai menanam isi air pelan pelan agar hardscape tidak rusak.


                                                              HASIL AKHIR :



                                                                        AQUASCAPE & PERALATAN UNTUK MEMBUAT AQUASCAPE        

                                                              AQUASCAPING


                                                              Pada masa kini sebuah aquarium bukan lagi hanya sebagai tempat memelihara ikan, didalamnya juga dapat untuk memelihara tanaman air hidup menyesuaikan dengan habitat aslinya konsep ini disebut aquascaping.aquascaping yang didekorasi dengan indah dan pemeliharaan dengan baik memiliki nilai tambah bagi suatu ruangan dan mereka yang menempati ruang tersebut, karna itu kini aquascaping tidak saja diselenggarakan oleh aquaris, tapi juga sebagai elemen interior ruang tinggal, perkantoran, rumah sakit, restoran, salon, yang memiliki fasilitas areal umum misalnya ruang tunggu.
                                                              Aquascaping banyak diminati karna keindahan dan mudahnya dalam merawatnya, keindahan dapat dilihat dari imajinasi dalam menyusun antara tata letak tanaman, unsur dekorasi lainya seperti pasir membentuk contur dasar aquarium batu-batuan alam, dan tentunya ikan yang selaras, dan memiliki air yang jernih dan sehat.
                                                              Untuk perawatan aquascaping terbilang mudah, karna dalam perawatan aquascaping tidak diperlukan pengurasan total.cukup menjaga kestabilan air, penerangan(waktu penyinaran), pemupukan(pupuk cair), dan pemberian pakan ikan.karena itu blog ini akan bolg ini akan memudahkan aquaris membangun, merawat dan dalam anda memilih tanaman dan ikan yang tepat sesuai dengan keadaan habitat aslinya
                                                              Pertama kita tentukan tema aquascaping yang kita buat, setelah itu dapat kita buat design untuk mengoptimalkan evisiensi dalam kita mendekor.kemudian kita tentukan tanaman yang akan kita buat, tentunya dengan bajet yang kita miliki. Adapun tanaman memiliki sifat-sifat yang berbeda, perbedaan sifat tersebut ditentukan dari sifat alam dimana tanaman tersebut berasal, ada yang membutuhkan suhu air yang dingin biasanya tanaman ini terdapat di daerah pegunungan atau air terjun, suhu normal biasanya untuk tanaman bersuhu normal dapat dijumpai didaerah sungai, cahaya yang tinggi dan rendah tergantung dari tanaman sekitar atau kedalaman tanaman air tinggal, dan banyaknya nutrisi yang dibutuhkan.untuk menggunakan tanaman yang bersifat suhu yang dingin kita harus mimiliki bajet yang lebih dikarnakan kita harus memiliki alat pendingin air, sedangkan untuk besuhu normal bila kita tinggal di Jakarta kita boleh memakai kipas aquarium.
                                                              Dalam memilih ikan , kita harus mempelajari dan mengenal sifat ikan dan kebutuhannya. Dengan kita mengenal jenis ikan kita akan tau pasangan ikan yang akan kita padukan, jangan sampai ikan kita akan saling bertarung memperebutkan daerah, memakan penghuni lain, karena itu dianjurkan menggunakan ikan yang sejenis, untuk yang menyukai bemacam-ikan maka kita tidak perlu khawatir karna itu tergantung dari selera pemilik aquarium tersebut, dengan mencari sifat dan jenis maka permasalahan itu akan beres.ikan juga memiliki daerahnya untuk berenang,ada ikan yang berenang di daerah permukaan air(atas), salah satu contoh ikan guppy, ada juga yang berenang di sekitar tengah contoh ikan adalah rasbora(tengah) ada juga yang berenang di dasar air contoh ikan corydorus,botia. untuk yang memelihara keong dan memiliki setingan dengan memisahkan dua warna pasir maka tidak dianjurkan memelihara botia, dikarnakan ikan ini akan memakan koeng anda dan merusak struktur pasir yang sudah di didekor.




                                                              salah satu dari penghuni aquascaping udang dan keong, fungsi dari udang dan keong tersebut selain memperindah juga menghambat pertumbuhan alga yang berada di aquascaping. ada banyak macam udang, jadi tergantung dari anda lebih tertarik memilih udang jenis apa dalam aquarium anda. jika didalam aquarium anda memiliki ikan angel fish, diskus, dan ikan lainnya yang memliki bentuk tubuh yang besar maka sebaiknya anda harus merelakan mana yang akan anda pelihara, dikarnakan ikan tersebut akan memakan udang anda.

                                                              atau anda sebaiknya membuat miniscaping project untuk udang anda, selain udang anda akan terlihat jelas, udang anda juga aman dari ikan pemakan udang, sebenarnya semua ikan a
                                                              kan memakan udang selama udang itu muat dimulutnya, karna itu untuk para penghobis penggemar udang sebaiknya memisahkan udang dari ikan agar anak udang aman dari serangan ikan.
                                                              selamat mencoba, maka anda akan mengalami pengalaman dan sensasi yang luar biasa.
                                                              berikutnya adalah macam-macam artikel kebutuhan aquascaping salah satunya adalah setup aquascaping
                                                              Setup aquascaping
                                                              Sebelum mulai ada banyak yang harus disiapkan :1.siapkan Aquarium
                                                              pengalaman saya dan teman-teman saya inilah yang terpenting dalam aquascaping,kita harus membuat infrastruktur yang baik, jangan sampai kerjaan kita dah selesai kita mengubahnya dikarenakan a

                                                              quarium pecah atau terlalu banyak lumut.untuk aquarium Kalau baru mulai saya sarankan main dari yang 200L (100 x 45 x 45), jangan langsung ke aqua yang kecil karena air gampang gak stabil, atau aqua yang terlalu besar karena maintenance agak susah. Lalu aquarium open top lebih baik, karena sangat memudahkan, setelah itu letakan aquarium di tempat yang rata kemudian Letakkan aquarium pada posisi yang terhindar dari cahaya matahari langsung, karena dapat menyebabkan pertumbuhan algae yang tidak diinginkan.
                                                              2 . siapkan peralatan
                                                              Peralatan aquascape
                                                              Ada banyak peralatan aquascape yang harus disiapkan untuk memudahkan dalam maintenance dan proses setting.

                                                              - gunting : untuk proses trimming
                                                              - pinset : untuk proses penanaman

                                                              - Filter
                                                              - lampu
                                                              - pasir
                                                              - Pupuk dasar
                                                              - co2 (tabung,selang legulator)
                                                              - cooling fans
                                                              - termometer digital.
                                                              - undergravel (jika ingin pakai)

                                                              berikutnya adalah
                                                              cara seting aquascaping


                                                              1. siapkan meja di tempat yg sdh dipastikan, lalu taruh selembar styrofoam, baru letakkan aquarium.

                                                              2. cuci pasir.

                                                              3. campur 1/3 pasir yg akan digunakan dg
                                                              n pupuk. setelah itu diratakan (semua dilakukan dlm aquarium). tutup campuran pasir dgn sisa pasir 2/3 bagian tadi. kemudian ratakan lagi, buat posisi depan lebih rendah dari posisi belakang (seperti tanjakan).

                                                              4. siapkan filter dan tabung co2. letakkan masing2 pada lokasi yg sdh ditetapkan.

                                                              5. pasang selang filter dan letakkan dlm a
                                                              quarium (utk canister filter) dan juga pasang diffuser ke selang yg telah dihubungkan dgn regulator dr tabung co2. jgn lupa juga utk pasang lampu, biar kerjanya enak, krn terang.

                                                              6. letakkan ornamen yg akan digunakan (batu, driftwood, bogwood, background dsbnya).


                                                              7. isi air scr perlahan2 (pake piring atau spray) sebanyak -+ 20 cm.
                                                              8. tanamlah tanaman foreground.

                                                              9. isi lagi air aquarium hingga 3/4 kapasitas tingginya.

                                                              10. tanam lagi tanaman midground n bacground.

                                                              11. isi air hingga penuh.

                                                              12. bersihkan daun2 yg mengambang.


                                                              13. nyalakan filter dan set co2 agar men
                                                              geluarkan gelembung 1-3 belembung/detik.

                                                              14. lap kaca aquarium n beres2.


                                                              15. selesai, tinggal duduk santai di sofa sambil menikmati hasil kerja tadi, sambil ngupi atau ngerokok
                                                              (buat perokok).

                                                              16. ganti air sebanyak 1/2 setiap minggu sekali.


                                                              17. setelah koloni bakteri di filter tumbuh dgn stabil, baru masukkan pupuk cair, biasanya setelah 1-2 bulan sejak disetup.

                                                              18. kl tanaman sdh terlalu rimbun n merusa
                                                              k komposisi, artinya sdh saatnya dipangkas.
                                                              MACAM-MACAM FILTER
                                                              • Filter
                                                              Kriteria filter yang baik untuk aquascape :
                                                              - tidak membazirkan gas CO2 yang sudah terlarut
                                                              - dapat menyaring kotoran dengan baik dengan fungsi filtrasi mekanik
                                                              - fungsi filtrasi lebih diutamakan pada fungsi biologis, yaitu penguraian ammonia menjadi nitrogen yang dapat dipakai tanaman
                                                              - umumnya tidak perlu mengadopsi filtrasi kimia (zeolite, karbon aktif)
                                                              - mendukung sirkulasi air yang baik di aquarium tanpa adanya daerah stagnant. Daerah yang stagnant tidak mendapatkan cukup CO2 dan nutrisi.

                                                              Filter bukan hanya berfungsi menjaga kualitas dan kejernihan air saja, seperti yang sudah diterangkan diatas, dalam aquascape sirkulasi air yang baik dapat menyebarkan nutrisi secara merata ke seluruh tanaman di dalamnya. Jenis filter yang cocok adalah filter yang tidak menimbulkan riak2 dipermukaan air yang mengakibatkan gas CO2 terbuang percuma akibat sifatnya yang lebih ringan . Pilihan bisa jatuh pada filter canister atau pilihan yang lebih murah filter box internal. Jenis filter gantung, trickle atau wet & dry tidak cocok digunakan dalam aquascape.
                                                              filter canister Ukuran dan harga beragam, yang jelas tidak ada yang murah. Bisa coba merek eheim, fluval atau yg lebih murah ada jebo dan resun. Lalu ada lagi filter model waterfall yang ngetrend buat aqua kecil, yang banyak di pasaran merek dari China. Filter model overflow dengan sump yang non trickle adalah pilihan lainnya dan biasa dipakai pada aquarium yang besar, filter ini pada umumnya custom made alias dibuat sendiri sesuai keperluan. <!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]--> <!--[endif]-->
                                                              Internal filter - sangat2 murah sekali
                                                              bahan hanya dari powerhead yang cukup kuat, sebu
                                                              ah botol plastik bekas soda ukuran besar dan elemen filter (spon kasar, spon halus) <!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]--> <!--[endif]-->


                                                              <!--[if !vml]-->Image









                                                              1. media filter
                                                              2. botol
                                                              3. powerhead


                                                              Rangkaian ini ditaruh dalam aquarium. Suction cup pada powerhead membuat tipe ini mudah ditempelkan pada sisi/pojok aquarium.
                                                              Bersama rangkaian ini bisa juga dibuatkan DIY CO2 reactor yang sederhana, cukup efektif untuk aquarium kecil - sedang. Pada bagian sisi botol diberi lubang kecil seukuran selang CO2 yang ujungnya diberi batu diffuser. Baling2 powerhead akan memecah gas CO2 lebih kecil lagi dan menyemburkan dengan rata ke penjur
                                                              u aquarium.
                                                              Filter bersekat (plus overflow)
                                                              Filter bersekat asalkan sistemnya full wet bisa dipakai dan sangat
                                                              efektif untuk aquascape. Jadi jika ingin pakai sistem filter sekat tidak usah takut lagi.

                                                              Berikut skema filter bersekat yang dibuat dari lempengan kaca (seperti aquarium


                                                              <!--[if !vml]-->


                                                              1. Inflow air dari aquarium (biasanya dengan overflow/sitem air tumpah).
                                                              2. Outflow air dari filter
                                                              3. Pompa
                                                              4. Media filter kasar
                                                              (ijuk/bioballs/ceramic rings/filter mat/kerikil berpori)
                                                              5. Media filter 1/2 kasar (sponge/kerikil halus)
                                                              6. Media filter halus (pasir silika/filter floss/sponge halus)

                                                              Filter bersekat seperti di atas dapat diaplikasikan di segala ukuran aquarium. Filternya sendiri terpisah dari aquarium dan dapat dibuat sebesar yang memungkinkan sehingga ikut menjaga stabilitas setup. Pada sistem yang dikombinasi dengan overflow, permukaan air aquarium juga akan bersih dari segala
                                                              partikel/sampah/lapisan film mengambang karena semuanya itu akan disedot ke filter. Kekurangannya hanya dari segi penempatan yang harus lebih rendah dari permukaan air aqua
                                                              rium (asas overflow).


                                                              Pupuk Buat AQUASCAPE

                                                                        Untuk yg memiliki budget lebih bisa menggunakan substrate khusus aquascape yg berkualitas seperti ADA  soil, pasir RMC, Dennerle
                                                              , lapiz sand yg bisa ditemukan di toko2 aquascape. Alternatif lain y
                                                              g banyak dipakai adalah pasir silika bahkan
                                                              beberapa aquascaper yang saya temui mendapatkan hasil yg lebih memuaskan dengan pasir malang. Panduan dalam memilih substrate alternatif adalah ukuran diusahakan seragam antara 2-3 mm dan tidak mempengaruhi parameter air seperti pasi
                                                              r bali.




                                                              LAMPU BUAT AQUASCAPING
                                                              Lampu
                                                              Tersedia lampu2 khusus aquasc
                                                              ape dari merk Azoo, JBL, AquaGlo dll. Alternatif lain yang banyak digunakan para aquascaper adalah lampu OSRAM PL/TL 860. Angka 8 menunjukkan rating CRI 80 (CRI 100 = cahaya matahari), lampu dgn rating CRI diatas 80 layak digunakan. Sedangkan 60 menunjukkan rating kelvin 6000, umum
                                                              nya rating 6000-12000 masih cocok digunakan untuk aquascaping. Banyak aquascaper yg menggabungkan lampu2 dgn rating kelvin berbeda untuk mendapatkan efek pencahayann yang diin
                                                              ginkan. Kebutuhan lampu disesuaikan dengan volume aquarium dan jenis setup yang akan kita buat, rentang 1/4 - 1/2 watt per liter dikategorikan sbg low light, 1/2 - 1 watt per liter dikategorikan sbg medium light dan di atas 1 watt per liter sbg hight light. Contoh aquarium dgn volume 80 liter menggunakan 2 lampu TL 18 watt (total = 36 watt) maka masuk dalam rentang setup low light. Pilihan rentang
                                                              pencahayaan ini nantinya akan disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan CO2 dan tanaman yang akan kita pilih nantinya. Durasi pencahayaan sekitar 8 - 10 jam.

                                                              Pilih lampu2 bertipe daylight atau coolwhite ata
                                                              u lampu yang emang khusus aquasc
                                                              ape. Lampu yang digunakan ada banyak jenisnya, yang paling umum adalah lampu TL, kemudian ada jenis PL (ukuran kompak, dan punya output besar), T5, Metal Halide (MH). Lampu MH hanya bisa dijadikan sebagai lampu pelengkap. karena tanaman air tidak tahan dengan intensitas yang sangat kuat selama berjam2. Jadi lampu ini hanya boleh dinyalakan pada saat tertentu saja, untuk mensimulasikan siang hari. Sisa durasi pencahayaan dapat dilakukan oleh lampu jenis TL atau PL atau T5. Lampu ini diletakkan sekitar 20 cm dari permukaan air, bahkan kurang dari itu karena lampu ini tidak menghasilkan terlalu ban
                                                              yak panas seperti MH.

                                                              Lampu MH hanya dapat dipakai dengan
                                                              durasi penuh paada aquarium berukuran raksasa (minimum ketinggian aquarium adalah 60cm). Lampu MH diletakkan sekitar 30 - 50cm di atas permukaan air. Durasi pencahayaan adalah 10 - 12 jam per hari. Hal ini bisa diatur dan dipermudah dengan penggunaan timer.

                                                              Untuk aquarium berukuran sedang, ukuran intensitas 1W/L masih bisa dilakukan, jumlah lampu yang dipakai tergantung dari jenis tanaman yang ingin dipelihara nantinya apaka
                                                              h high light atau low light. berikut kri
                                                              teria intensitas cahayanya :
                                                              0.5W/L low light
                                                              0.75W/L medium light
                                                              1W/L high light
                                                              Untuk aquariu aquarium berukuran nano atau giant, aturan ini menjadi tidak berlaku.
                                                              sedikit informasi menurut yang saya baca, UV sterilizer itu akan membunuh semua bakteri,
                                                              baik jahat maupun baik dan algae penyebab green water. UV sterilizer lamp
                                                              gak bisa membedakan bakteri baik maupun jahat, lha wong dia kan cuma alat
                                                              dan gak bisa membedakan bakteri jahat dan baik serta hanya membunuh bakteri
                                                              jahat. Makanya penempatan UV steriliser ini mesti hati2, di posisi yg tepat
                                                              supaya gak membunuh beneficial bacteria. Bener kata pak Rakaryan, cahaya
                                                              nya gak bagus kena mata. Makanya biasanya yg dijual udah di tutupi tabung.
                                                              Jadi hanya air yg mengalir ke dalam tabung UV yg akan kena pencahayaan nya.
                                                              Kegunaan UV steriliser utk aquascape apa yah? Maklum lah, awam sekali
                                                              masalah aquascaping. Dulu saya pakai ini utk mengatasi green water krn
                                                              kapasitas filter biologi yg kurang, tp utk aquascaping harusnya gak ada
                                                              problem green water. Utk masalah lumut di aquascaping bukannya lebih baik
                                                              pakai ikan pemakan lumut atau udang? CMIIW

                                                              Mungkin kegunaan lain adalah utk karantina ikan baru atau ikan sakit. Krn
                                                              akan mematikan bakteri yg terkandung dalam air tp juga disertai pengobatan
                                                              CO2 BUAT AQUASCAPING
                                                              • CO2
                                                                Untuk mendapatkan hasil yang opt imal kehadiran CO2 dibutuhkan di lingkungan aquascape. CO2 set yang terdiri dari tabung, regulator, bubble counter, reaktor/diffuser dapat ditemui di toko aquascape. CO2 set tabung bukanlah barang yang murah pendekatan "Do It Yourself" (DIY) bisa dilakukan dengan mereaksikan gula, air hangat dan ragi untuk menghasilkan gas CO2. Setup dengan tipe high light wajib menggunakan CO2 set tabung agar menghasilkan output CO2 minimal 3 bubble per second. Sedangkan setup low/medium light bisa menggunakan output CO2 DIY. Banyak aquascaper tidak menggunakan tambahan CO2 dan mendapatkan hasil yang cukup memuaskan dengan berbekal pengetahuan tentang karakteristik tanaman. Atau setup tanpa tambahan CO2 bisa dilakukan dengan metode natural.
                                                              Jika ingin menggunakan CO2 Sebaiknya gunakan yang jenis tabung, memang awalnya terasa mahal, tetapi untuk jangka panjang, sistem tabung jauh lebih murah daripada CO2 DIY dan tentunya tidak perlu repot beli gula dan ragi. lalu sistem tabung juga punya outflow yang jauh lebih stabil daripada CO2 DIY, dimana hal ini sangat penting untuk menjaga balance aquascape. Mengenai perlengkapannya apa saja bisa cek di bagian gambar. <!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]-->
                                                              CO2 selama 24jam, lalu dosis yang dimasukkan tergantung dari ukuran aqua, jenis tanaman, dan besar lampu yang digunakan. Untuk mudahnya Anda bisa menggunakan CO2 permanent test. Atur sedemikian rupa flow CO2 nya agar CO2 indicator tetap berwarna hijau. Jika Anda telah lebih mahir, Anda tidak memerlukan bantuan permanent test ini. Untuk penggunaan CO2 permanent test, ikuti saja petunjuknya di kemasan produk.

                                                              Hati-hati dalam bermain dengan co2, kalau berlebihan, ikan Anda bisa mati semua. Paling aman coba dari 1 bubble per second, kemudian bertahap dinaikkan jumlahnya sampai ke titik optimal

                                                              CHILLER ATAU FAN BUAT AQUASCAPING

                                                              • Chiller/Fan
                                                                Suhu yang optimal untuk lingkungan aquascape berada di kisaran 22-24 o C. Dengan kehadiran ikan dan penghuni aquascape lainnya maka idealnya suhu berada di kisaran 24-28 o C. Aquascaper yang berada di daerah panas seperti Jakarta akan sulit mencapai suhu ideal tersebut, namun beberapa jenis tanaman masih akan tumbuh di kisaran 30 o C. Faktor lain yang mempengaruhi suhu aquascape adalah lampu, dimana intensitas lampu pada aquascape lebih tinggi dari pada aquarium biasa bahkan pada setup low light sekalipun. Untuk mencapai suhu ideal tersebut maka bisa digunakan chiller, atau pada setup dengan volume aquarium yang tidak terlalu besar bisa menggunakan Fan DC atau AC yang tentunya lebih murah dan hemat energi listrik. Namun pemakaian fan akan meningkatkan penguapan air aquarium konsekuensinya kita harus sering menambah air agar air aquarium tidak tekor.

                                                              MENTENES
                                                              Setelah aquascape selesai di desain. Tahap selanjutnya adalah bagaimana merawat. Asumsi : aqua adalah 200L..

                                                              tahap I : Biasanya algae mulai muncul, karena bakteri anaerob belum dapat berkolonisasi secara penuh. akibatnya : kelebihan nutrisi tidak dapat dipakai oleh bakteri2 ini. Karena munculnya algae, ada beberapa solusi :
                                                              1. gunakan makhluk hidup sebagai berikut sebagai pemakan algae alami : udang taiwan, keong turbo, malayan trumpet snail (MTS).
                                                              2. buang algae secara manual
                                                              3. sedot algae ketika mengganti air
                                                              4. mengganti air secara rutin
                                                              Jika ditangani dengan benar, algae akan hilang dengan sendirinya. Bahkan tidak terserang algae sama sekali; Hal ini lah yang menjadi pertimbangan saat menanam awal aquascape. Usahakan tanam sepadat mungkin pada tahap awal aquascape dengan tanaman yang fast growing (Hygrophila sp., Ceratophyllum demersum, dll pokonya yang pertumbuhan cepat, tetapi bukan tanaman yang sulit dipelihara), untuk membantu menyerap kelebihan nutrisi. Tentunya menanam padat juga harus mempertimbangkan jarak antar pohon, agar antara tanaman yang satu dengan yang lain tidak saling menghalangi cahaya.

                                                              Pasukan algae dimasukkan kira2 setelah 2 - 3 hari aquascape selesai di setup atau ketika air mulai jernih. Masukkan kira2 40e udang taiwan, nanti mereka akan berkembang biak sendiri. Lalu 1 - 2 hari kemudian bisa masukkan 4 - 5 ekor Ottocinclus. Setelah 1 minggu, tanaman telah beradaptasi dengan lingkungan dan mulai berfotosintesis dengan baik.

                                                              tahap II : Setelah beberapa minggu, tanaman air akan menumbuhkan daun baru dan melepaskan daun lama yang sudah mati. Segera buang daun mati tersebut, bersama dengan kulit udang, dan material lain yang sudah mati. Inti dari minggu kedua ini :
                                                              1. membuat partikel2 yang telah mati
                                                              2. membersihkan algae
                                                              3. penggantian air

                                                              Setelah tanaman tumbuh lebat dan ketika ekosistem aquarium telah terbentuk, maka permasalahan partikel mati bukan lah hal yang perlu dikhawatirkan. pada tahap ini, materi organik sudah dapat dicycle menjadi nutrients. Untuk mencapai tahap ini biasanya dibutuhkan 2 - 3 bulan. Sebelum sampai tahap ini, segala material yang telah mati wajib dibersihkan. Algae yang masih tersisa harus terus dibersihkan sebanyak mungkin.

                                                              tahap III : Sambil menunggu ekosistem aquarium terbentuk, aquascape sudah dapat diisikan ikan, tentunya tidak langsung memasukkan puluhan ikan secara bersamaan. Tetapi masukkan secara bertahap.. Sedikit demi sedikit dengan jarak beberapa hari..

                                                              Pada tahap III yang harus dilakukan adalah :
                                                              trimming, memotong daun atau batang tanaman yang sudah terlalu rimbun.
















                                                              <!-

                                                                                
                                                              -AQUASCAPE-
                                                              Demam AQUASCAPE sedang merambah negeri ini,
                                                              banyak yang bilang  AQUASCAPE butuh biaya juta'an buat merealisasikannya,emank sih butuh dana juta'an,tapi kalo untuk pemula siapa bilang?ga slalu butuh biaya juta'an buat bikin AQUASCAPE.
                                                              nih contoh kalo bwt pemula :


                                                              kalo yang kayak di atas tuh,cuma ckup budget 725.000 ribu aja,nih spesifikasinya:

                                                              Spesifikasi :

                                                              • Aquarium    :    50x30x30 : sekitar 2oo ribu
                                                              • Pupuk Dasar    :    JBL     : sekitar 150 ribu (yang ckup buat aquarium ukuran 50 x 30 x 30 aja)
                                                              • Substrate    :    Pasir Malang / Silika : (satu karung ukuran 4Kg ,pasir malang : 15 ribu,Silika :45 Ribu)
                                                              • Pencahayaan    :    Lampu  : sekitar 100 ribu'an lah,(beli lampu merek BOYU yang white light 10 Watt aja)
                                                              • Filter   : Boyu : 175 ribu (buat yang ukuran 50 x 30 x 30)
                                                              • Material Dekorasi Kayu    :    Sesuai design : (kira-kira 45 ribu lah,asal jgan beli di ace hardware bwt kayunya :)  )
                                                              • Tanaman Aquascape    :    Sesuai design :
                                                                (kira-kira 15 ribu,asal sesuai jumlah contoh aquarium di atas)
                                                              • Fauna    :    Ikan :  Rasbora, Tetra, udang Red Cherry : ( kira - kira 50 ribu , Rasbora : 5 ekor, Neon tetra : 15 ekor , Udang cherry : 5 ekor )


                                                              kalo buat yang ud lama maen AQUASCAPE,ato pengen langsung buat yang PRO,ini spesifikasinya,

                                                               

                                                              Spesifikasi :

                                                              • Aquarium    :    60x40x40
                                                              • Pupuk Dasar    :    JBL
                                                              • Substrate    :    Pasir Malang / Silika
                                                              • Pencahayaan    :    Lampu
                                                              • Timer    : BOYU
                                                              • Filter   :  BOYU
                                                              • Material Dekorasi Kayu    :    Sesuai design
                                                              • Material Dekorasi Kayu    :    Sesuai desin
                                                              • Tanaman Aquascape    :    Sesuai design
                                                              • Fauna    :    Ikan :  Rasbora, Tetra, udang Red Cherry 50 Ekor
                                                              • Termometer    :    Analog


                                                              Gimana uda paham?kalo belum paham comment aja,gan.pasti di bantu. :)
                                                                        GaAs1-xBix/GaNyAs1-y type-II quantum wells: novel strain-balanced heterostructures for GaAs-based near- and mid-infrared photonics        
                                                              GaAs1-xBix/GaNyAs1-y type-II quantum wells: novel strain-balanced heterostructures for GaAs-based near- and mid-infrared photonics Broderick, Christopher A.; Jin, Shirong; Marko, Igor P.; Hild, Konstanze; Ludewig, Peter; Bushell, Zoe L.; Stolz, Wolfgang; Rorison, Judy M.; O'Reilly, Eoin P.; Volz, Kerstin; Sweeney, Stephen J. The potential to extend the emission wavelength of photonic devices further into the near- and mid-infrared via pseudomorphic growth on conventional GaAs substrates is appealing for a number of communications and sensing apThe potential to extend the emission wavelength of photonic devices further into the near- and mid-infrared via pseudomorphic growth on conventional GaAs substrates is appealing for a number of communications and sensing applications. We present a new class of GaAs-based quantum well (QW) heterostructure that exploits the unusual impact of Bi and N on the GaAs band structure to produce type-II QWs having long emission wavelengths with little or no net strain relative to GaAs, while also providing control over important laser loss processes. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the potential of GaAs1−xBix/GaNyAs1−y type-II QWs on GaAs and show that this approach offers optical emission and absorption at wavelengths up to ~3 µm utilising strain-balanced structures, a first for GaAs-based QWs. Experimental measurements on a prototype GaAs0.967Bi0.033/GaN0.062As0.938 structure, grown via metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy, indicate good structural quality and exhibit both photoluminescence and absorption at room temperature. The measured photoluminescence peak wavelength of 1.72 μm is in good agreement with theoretical calculations and is one of the longest emission wavelengths achieved on GaAs to date using a pseudomorphically grown heterostructure. These results demonstrate the significant potential of this new class of III-V heterostructure for long-wavelength applications.
                                                                         Substrate-binding in quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from pseudomonas aeruginosa studied by electron paramagnetic resonance at 94 GHz         
                                                              Kay, CWM; Mennenga, B; Gorisch, H; Bittl, R; (2005) Substrate-binding in quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from pseudomonas aeruginosa studied by electron paramagnetic resonance at 94 GHz. J AM CHEM SOC , 127 (22) 7974 - 7975.
                                                                        Morocco 25 Dirhams Durasafe substrate note 2012 – 2013        
                                                              With the advent of hybrid notes, here is another great banknote from Morocco to add to my collection. * Fortress Paper has announced the launch of the world’s first banknote printed on its new Durasafe substrate, an innovative paper-polymer-paper composite substrate produced at its Landqart mill. The new Swiss 50-franc note had been expected to […]
                                                                        Mauritius Polymer Notes 2013!        
                                                              Introduced August 22, 2013, these are the first polymer banknotes to be circulated in Mauritius (25, 50 and 500 Rupees). The 25- and 50-rupee notes were printed by Oberthur Technologies on Innovia Security’s Guardian substrate while the 500 Rupees note was printed on De La Rue’s Safeguard substrate (formerly called Flexycoin). The polymer notes are […]
                                                                        Being a Revolutionary in Cuba Today        
                                                              Socialist democracy, essentially superior, still has a long way to go. Being revolutionary is participating with a perspective of committed criticism. Criticizing is not reporting a known fact; it is acting on it, pushing toward its solution... Radicalism in understanding and in action; the revolutionary seeks the root of a problem, even when it cannot be extirpated immediately, even when one errs in pointing it out and moves rapidly into action....

                                                               

                                                              What does being a revolutionary mean? Students of Marxism know that the Social Democratic Party broke from its roots. The reformists, who from then on increasingly moved away from Marxist concepts, were left with the name, and revolutionaries created the Communist Party. The "reform or revolution" controversy has a long history.

                                                              There are the texts of Lenin, Rosa Luxemburg, among others.

                                                              But the definition, the revolutionary option, its practical reflection, is not exclusive to one party or social class, although, yes, it is exclusive to an era. The bourgeoisie was revolutionary in its time, and the anti-colonial movement in the era of imperialism, in general, took on a revolutionary character. José Martí created the Revolutionary Party to win the independence of Cuba, and he talked about the necessary revolution that would need to be initiated once power was achieved.

                                                              I would therefore like to refer to the Cuban tradition of the term. Cintio Vitier, for example, assuming the reductionist risks, establishes two "spiritualist" tendencies to define any grouping in the last third of the 19th century: the revolutionary (Independentism, literary modernism, anti-evolutionism) and the reformist (Autonomism, literary preceptism, positivist evolutionism.)

                                                              Certainly, Revolution is Creation, a leap into the abyss, or over the wall of apparent impossibility - "Let us be realists, let us do the impossible," the Paris students of 68 said - the view of a condor, but above all, taking sides with the "poor of the earth." If we take José Martí as our model of a revolutionary, we observe in him three characteristics that are repeated in Fidel Castro.

                                                              1. The ethical choice before the theoretical: a theory is adopted in order to struggle against exploitation and not the reverse. It is a vocation for social justice. Martí wrote, "Every true man must feel on his own cheek a blow to the cheek of any other man." Ernesto Che Guevara asserted, "The true revolutionary is guided by great feelings of love." Fidel has said, "It is precisely man, fellow man, the liberation of one's fellows that is the goal of revolutionaries." The revolutionary Salvadorian poet Roque Dalton mocked the snobbish positions of "café latte Marxists" in these verses, "Those who/in the best of cases/want to make the revolution/for History/ for logic/for science and nature/for next year's book or those of the future/to win the debate and even/ to finally appear in the papers/and not simply/to eliminate hunger/to eliminate the exploitation of the exploited."

                                                              There are revolutionaries who do not know Marxist theory. And there are Marxist academics who are very knowledgeable of every text, every phrase of Marx, but have never gone out onto the streets, who are incapable of feeling, of trembling, with the pain or joy of others, who do not take sides. These academic "Marxists" are not revolutionaries. Nor are they the continuators of Marx. One of the springboards and agents of a Revolution is solidarity.

                                                              2. Radicalism in understanding and in action; the revolutionary seeks the root of a problem, even when it cannot be extirpated immediately, even when one errs in pointing it out and moves rapidly into action. Unlike the reformist, the revolutionary makes no effort to mitigate or cover up the pain, but rather to eliminate the illness.

                                                              3. The revolutionary is a person of faith. Not in the religious sense. There is no better statement on this than the one Martí (once again) made to his son, in the dedication of Ismaelillo: I have, he wrote, "Faith in human improvement, in future life, in the utility of virtue, and in you" - faith in people, in their capacities. The revolutionary understands the apparent limits of the possible, and breaks through them, because of faith in the people. In this, a revolutionary differs from a reformist, who for reasons of class does not trust the people, or underestimates them. Believing is not eliminating doubt. We revolutionaries live anguished by doubt, which is that of knowledge. The cynic, however, is counterrevolutionary, although he may not know it.

                                                              Some ideologues of the counterrevolution reduce a revolutionary attitude to violent action, the taking up of arms. As if armed revolutions do not occur in response to the violence of bourgeois power. Being radical - going to the root - is not choosing violence. In their rush to depoliticize even the most minimal concept of revolution, these types attempt to pass off as revolutionary actions violent revolts by politicos of the pseudo-republic, who wanted to assert their personal power. Not even all those who opposed Machado or Batista were necessarily revolutionaries.

                                                              And they counterpoise revolutionary socialism to that which they call "democratic" (social democratic), because the first does not respect bourgeois order. Socialism can not only be, but must be democratic, although not in the sense which the capitalist system gives the term. It must, and can be more participative, more inclusive, more representative, and show more solidarity. It must and can defend individuality, but not individualism, because socialism is the only route which can transform the masses into a collective of individuals.

                                                              Several qualities or ethical virtues constitute the foundation or base upon which a revolutionary stands. But it is an essentially political, social ethic, not private or one that is useless, or like those ethical virtues that serve to empty oneself, to remove oneself from the fundamental contradictions of the era. It is not revolutionary in terms of personal interests, but with regards to society.

                                                              There are people who are conservative - for biographical reasons, maybe even for genetic reasons - who avoid abrupt changes, the uncertainty of the new, who enjoy order and routine.

                                                              They are not counterrevolutionaries. In his "Words to intellectuals" (1961), Fidel Castro said, "No one has ever assumed that … all honest men must be revolutionaries, just because they are honest. Being a revolutionary is also an attitude toward life, being a revolutionary is an attitude toward existing reality…" And he added later on, "It is possible that men and women who have a truly revolutionary attitude toward reality may not constitute a majority of the population; revolutionaries are the vanguard of the people, but revolutionaries must aspire to having all the people march along with them … the Revolution must never renounce having the majority of the people; of having not only revolutionaries, but all honest citizens with the Revolution, although they may not be revolutionaries, that is, although they may not have a revolutionary attitude toward life. The Revolution must only renounce those who are incorrigibly reactionary, who are incorrigibly counterrevolutionary."

                                                              Where a Revolution has triumphed, the adjective - which in the globalized world of bourgeois officialdom is used as an insult - becomes a compliment. A person is hard-working, "good people," and revolutionary. The everyday use of the term may de-contextualize the rebellious substrate and its political meaning, reducing the characteristics of a revolutionary to honesty and decency.

                                                              At times, given that the Revolution has taken power, the term is identified with good or correct behavior. We say, "Deep down, he/she is a revolutionary," as if we were saying, "Beyond appearances, he/she is a good person." And we believe that the "most revolutionary" child or youth is the one who behaves. In a certain way, the adjective has become bourgeois. This appears almost inevitable, but it is not: a revolution in power needs to establish its "new normal," its ability to govern.

                                                              Defending one's political power is a basic premise of any political power, more so when it is a counter-power encircled by a world power, which not only harasses it on the physical plane (materially, militarily), but also spiritually, in the arena of passing on values, and its normality is an "anomaly" beyond its geographic borders.

                                                              Being revolutionary is participating in the consolidation of the revolutionary government, establishing a common front with this government, to defend every conquest and establish new goals, even when the degree of participation in the determination of these objectives is not as yet sufficient, or is exercised in a formal manner.

                                                              Socialist democracy, essentially superior, still has a long way to go. Being revolutionary is participating with a perspective of committed criticism. Criticizing is not reporting a known fact; it is acting on it, pushing toward its solution. What gives a criticism veracity and fairness is not that it is vocalized; but rather its meaning. If criticism is depoliticized, it is gutted, and its content is falsified.

                                                              Imperceptibly a slow process of separation occurs, the removal of the "rebel" content which a revolutionary attitude always presupposes. This is not good. Rebellion is then taken up and counterpoised to being revolutionary - a longstanding aspiration of imperialist subversion: promote anti-revolutionary rebellion, which is to say, the rebels are anti-rebels, who aspire to be "normal," opposed to rebellion, and in agreement with global alienation - or in an antithesis, there are those who believe that the rebel is the true revolutionary.

                                                              These latter can lose their sense of direction, because rebellion alone, regularly manipulated by the capitalist market, has a long history of coexistence, and at times collusion, with capitalism. Youthful rebellion is not, and cannot be, the enemy of a revolutionary spirit. Being revolutionary is the highest form of rebellion. Without the nonconformity that rebellion produces, and its propensity for breaking the mold, norms, and frameworks, it is difficult to be a revolutionary.

                                                              Cuban universities cannot be "of and for revolutionaries;" they are training centers and, yes, they must train revolutionaries. From their classrooms, Mella and Fidel emerged. Capitalism (the culture of having) attempts to tame rebellion by promoting its primary expressions: contempt, irreverence. It attempts to isolate the rebel, encouraging self-absorption, exploiting individualism to the maximum, transforming the rebel into a cynic. Socialism (the culture of being) attempts to channel this rebellion toward transformative action, giving it capital letters, making it part of the era's most just causes.

                                                              I lived in the Central Havana neighborhood of Colón, and I know that many people in that area must confront more concrete, close-at-hand enemies than U.S. imperialism, at least this appears to be the case, when corruption, bureaucracy, double standards, insensitivity, the "save yourself if you can" attitude, hold sway. I believe, as they do, that this is the principal enemy.

                                                              But we cannot be confused as to its name: this is about capitalism, of its capacity to regenerate within socialism, which is nothing more than a route (not a point of arrival) to another place, to another hope or assurance of a better life. If we detach this name from these manifestations, or we erroneously link them to the socialist road we have taken, we could lose our way. We cannot be revolutionaries today, in this globalized world, if we are not anti-capitalist; if we are not anti-imperialist; if we do not feel the conquests, the dangers, the humiliations of other peoples as our own; if we do not defend the unity of Cuban revolutionaries and that of the peoples of Latin America in the face of imperialism.

                                                              We cannot be revolutionaries if we think that the world has the breadth or length of a street, of a neighborhood, or a country; if we accept the consensus others have constructed, and do not construct our own; if we empty every word from our texts of struggle, because they will be immediately filled with other content by those fighting us.

                                                              Martí, Mella, Guiteras, Che, Fidel, are too much alike for us to invent the issue of generational rifts. They have not ceased to be young. Tasks change, the coordinates change, but not the attitudes, the principles, the horizon toward which we always advance without arriving.

                                                              On the other hand, no one becomes a revolutionary once and for all.

                                                              One must be reborn as a revolutionary every morning, every day. Roles are not predetermined or immutable: the hero of 1868 could became a traitor 20 years later; the person who was indecisive at that time, perhaps took up arms with dignity in 1895; the valiant independence fighter may have allowed himself to be seduced by corrupting neocolonial politics; the energetic opponent of Machado could become disillusioned with the ideals of his youth or become an instrument of violence; the revolutionary of the Sierra or the city could accommodate or be caught up in the web of bureaucratism; the skeptic of those days could become a fervent militia member, an everyday, invisible hero; the student leader trapped in good behavior and applause, could become a repeater of empty slogans; and the perennial rebel can continue growing to become truly revolutionary.

                                                              Disguised among one or another of these are the opportunists, the “pragmatic” cynics of all times. History is besieging them, and of their multiple actions, all that will last is the instant of fundamental morality which sustains the homeland: “this sun of the moral world,” which illuminates and defines human beings, according to the phrase Cintio recovered from José de la Luz y Caballero. A homeland which is humanity, which is not the “grass upon which our feet tred,” or in some always-evolving customs, but rather a collective project of justice. A homeland which aspires to merge with humanity, and which in the meantime defends its space to forge, to create, to protect the full dignity of its men and women.

                                                              [Enrique Ubieta Gomez is a Cuban essayist and researcher.]


                                                                        5 Freshwater Fish You Should Catch in Borneo        
                                                              Borneo is one of the megabiodiversity islands, one of which is the richness of various types of fish, especially freshwater fish. Some species are the favorite fish to catch because of their large size and agility when pulled with fishing rods. Here are the types of Borneo freshwater monster fish that you should catch in Borneo.

                                                              1. Tapah (Wallagonia leerii), The Blood Haus Monster

                                                              Tapah Fish (Wallagonia leerii), By Ginkgo 100
                                                              Tapah belong to catfish  group. The size of the tapah is extraordinary for it family, it can reach the length of the adult human body. Tapah commonly found to have a body length up to more than 1.5 meters and weighs tens of kilograms. This fish can be found in large rivers in Borneo. There are many stories of local people who managed to capture this carnivore. This fish has a very aggressive behavior, even dare to attack humans or anything that bothered him. Fishing this fish is obviously need a heavyweight rod and maximum power, maybe 10 people turn to pull when hook up.
                                                              You can find this fish in almost all big river in Borneo.

                                                              2. Patin (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

                                                              Patin Fish ( ) By Lerdsuwa
                                                              Patin is known as a consumption fish with a small weight. Most probably only ranges up to 20 kilos. Fishing catfish itself quite fun, but the sensation not realy great, according to the angler. But this assumption vanished when a man from West Kalimantan, managed to catch a Patin. Guess the weighs? 48 pounds! Almost the size of a boy. Same as Tapah, you can find patin fish in almost all big river in Borneo.

                                                              3. Snakehead - Toman, Piyang, Cork (Channa spp)


                                                              In England, this fish is called Snakehead because of its oval shape and its head resembling a snake's skull. In Indonesia, these fish are also often encountered. There is three common species of snakehead that we can find in Borneo, Gabus, Piyang, and Toman. Toman is the biggest one, it can grow up to 1 meter. Many angler have already caught this predator.
                                                              Snake head is very common in Borneo, it found in almost all of freshwater habitat.

                                                              4. Masheer (Tor spp)

                                                              Masheer Fish By Robert Perrett

                                                              Masheer fish is nicknamed as King of the River, because of not only wild, but also very agile in swimming and feed on the bait. Maximal length of the fish is 30, cm and the largest weight is reported to reach 5,4 kg. This fish lives in a river of swift currents with clear water. Fish semah is a consumption fish that has a high value. In various regions and customs, masheer fish became the number one fish, not only for the meat, but also because it's habitat in the middle of the forest.
                                                              Masheer fish live in faststream freshwater habitat and far from human activity, you need more effort to catch this fish in their natural habitat.

                                                              5. Hampala (Hampala bimaculata)

                                                              Hampala Fish, by Wibowo Djatmiko

                                                              Hampala has amazing stamina and is known as a fighter who does not easily give up. Hampala fish can reach 35 cm in size. Has a strong jaw, a fish with large-sized embellishments and black dots on the side of his body. This fish is able to make hook buck trebel with large size. Although these fish do not have teeth, but a wide open muzzle combined with the strength of the jaw, able to eat large bait.
                                                              Hampala has amazing stamina and is known as a fighter who does not easily give up. Hampala fish can reach 35 cm in size. Has a strong jaw, a fish with large-sized embellishments and black dots on the side of his body. This fish is able to make hook buck trebel with large size. Although these fish do not have teeth, but a wide open muzzle combined with the strength of the jaw, able to eat large bait.
                                                              Hampala mainly live in clean waters, enough oxygen content, with sand substrate, gravel, stone or mud although it can adapt and can be found in the waters either in plateau or lowland plateau.

                                                              Arwana is a very interesting fish for fishing in West Kalimantan, but this one fish including protected fish due to its existence is almost extinct in nature, therefore we do not recommend to look for fish in its natural.
                                                                        POWER AMPLIEIERS        
                                                              POWER AMPLIFIERS
                                                              Audio amplifiers operate either in a BTL (bridged) or single-ended (“normal”) configuration. In the single-ended setup, the output lead goes to the “hot” or “+” side of the load (speaker or speaker box since we are talking audio) and the “-” or “negative” side of the load is tied to a common ground shared with the amplifier. In the BTL configuration, one amp is connected to the “+” side of the speaker (load) and a second amp is connected to the “-” side of the load. For this to work, the output signal from the second amplifier must be a “mirror image” (identical in every respect, but 180 degrees out of phase) of the output from the first amp. The BTL configuration is most often seen in low-voltage, battery-powered applications (like cell phones or “walkman” type personal tape or cd players etc) or in automotive applications over about 10 watts per channel.
                                                              In the BTL configuration, each amp drives half the load impedance. With the signals being out of phase, the voltage swing across the load appears to be doubled, and with each amp driving half the impedance the current is doubled. In theory the bridged pair will produce 4 times the power into the load that either amp acting alone could provide. In reality it seldom works that well.
                                                              This is an power amplifier circuit of a BTL system, which comprises a first op-amp chip which outputs an output signal having a same phase as an input signal input to a signal input terminal, a second operational amplifier which outputs an output signal having an opposite phase to the input signal, a voltage divider which generates a midpoint voltage of the input signal, a first resistor connected between an output terminal and a negative phase input terminal of the first operational amplifier, second and third resistors connected in series between the negative phase input terminals of the first and second operational amplifiers, a fourth resistor connected between an output terminal and the negative phase input terminal of the second operational amplifier, and an impedance converter connected between a midpoint voltage node of the voltage divider and a series-connection node of the second and third resistors. (end of abstract)
                                                              Power Amplifier BTL
                                                              List Componet:
                                                              R1, R2,R3, R4, R6………………… 10kOhm.
                                                              R3……………………………………… 20kOhm.
                                                              C1, C2, C3, C4……………………… 10µF.
                                                              Catu daya (VCC) ±12 V.

                                                              STK 4192 Power Amplifier Circuit Features

                                                              STK 4192 Power Amplifier Circuit Features
                                                              • The STK4102II series (STK4192II) and STK4101V series (high-grade type) are pin-compatible in the output
                                                              • range of 6W to 50W and enable easy design. Small-sized package whose pin assignment is the same
                                                              • as that of the STK4101II series
                                                              • Built-in muting circuit to cut off various kinds of pop noise
                                                              • Greatly reduced heat sink due to substrate temperature 125°C guaranteed
                                                              • Excellent cost performance
                                                              Rangkaian STK 4192 Power Amplifier 50 Watt StereoLayout STK 4192 Power Amplifier
                                                              Rangkaian STK 4192 Power Amplifier 50 Watt Stereo
                                                              Skema Rangkaian STK 4192 Power Amplifier 50 Watt Stereo
                                                              Component ListR1___________ 56K? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R2___________ 56K? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R3___________ 1K? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R4___________ 1K? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R5___________ 560? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R6___________ 560? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R7___________ 100? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R8___________ 100? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R9___________ 56K? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R10__________56K? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R11__________3.3K? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R12__________3.3K? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R13__________3.3K? 1/2W Resistor
                                                              R14__________3.3K? 1/2W Resistor
                                                              R15__________4.7? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R16__________4.7? 1/4W Resistor
                                                              R17__________1K? 1/2W Resistor
                                                              R18__________1K? 1/4W Resistor C1___________ 400pF Polyester Capacitor
                                                              C2___________ 400pF Polyester Capacitor
                                                              C3___________ 2.2µF Polyester Capacitor
                                                              C4___________ 2.2µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              C5___________ 100µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              C6___________ 100µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              C7___________ 0.1µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              C8___________ 0.1µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              C9___________ 10µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              C10___________ 10µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              C11___________ 47µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              C12___________ 47µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              C13___________ 100µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              C14___________ 10µF 50V Electrolytic Capacitor
                                                              IC___________ STK4192II Integrated STK Power Amplifier series
                                                              power sapply recommend for the STK 4192
                                                              Tips that bass sound more felt
                                                              according to experience, you have to do a little experiment for you to get the best bass sound, stalwart, gigantic. To get the best bass sound between the subwoofer and the room you, then you should get a ‘pass that point. the following manner:
                                                              1. Place the subwoofer on your location on our seat. (sub Woofer do not be put on the table / cupboard you high more than 1 / 2 meter)
                                                              2. Turn the sub Woofer and you do not forget to disconnect the speaker Amplifier.
                                                              3. Play a song you like, which have gained a good frequency bass
                                                              4. Then try running memutari room, see the characters that appear bass.
                                                              5. You will hear some of the bass sound quality improvements in some corner of the room. This happens due to the interaction between low-frequency space and you. Nah corners you can select as a “node” or the point pas you need to immediately place your subwoofer in a corner of it.

                                                              500Watt Power Amplifier

                                                              There are some important updates to this project, as shown below. Recent testing has shown that with the new ON Semi transistors it is possible to obtain a lot more power than previously. The original design was very conservative, and was initially intended to use 2SA1492 and 2SC3856 transistors (rated at 130W) – with 200W (or 230W) devices, some of the original comments and warnings have been amended to suit.
                                                              Rangkaian 500Watt Power Amplifier Skema Rangkaian 500Watt
                                                               Power Amplifier
                                                              Note:
                                                              • This amplifier is not trivial, despite its small size and apparent simplicity. The total DC is over 110V (or as much as 140V DC!), and can kill you.
                                                              • The power dissipated is such that great care is needed with transistor mounting.
                                                              • The single board P68 is capable of full power duty into 4 Ohm loads, but only at the lower supply voltage.
                                                              • For operation at the higher supply voltage, you must use the dual board version.
                                                              • There is NO SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION. The amp is designed to be used within a subwoofer or other speaker enclosure, so this has not been included. A short on the output will destroy the amplifier.
                                                              Please note that the specification for this amp has been upgraded, and it is now recommended for continuous high power into 4 Ohms, but You will need to go to extremes with the heatsink (fan cooling is highly recommended). It was originally intended for “light” intermittent duty, suitable for an equalised subwoofer system (for example using the ELF principle – see the Project Page for the info on this circuit). Where continuous high power is required, another 4 output transistors are recommended, wired in the same way as Q9, Q10, Q11 and Q12, and using 0.33 ohm emitter resistors.
                                                              Continuous power into 8 ohms is typically over 150W (250W for ±70V supplies), and it can be used without additional transistors at full power into an 8 ohm load all day, every day. The additional transistors are only needed if you want to do the same thing into 4 ohms at maximum supply voltage! Do not even think about using supplies over ±70V, and don’t bother asking me if it is ok – it isn.

                                                              1000Watt Power Amplifier

                                                              This is a circuit of 1000watt power amplifier. This time I don’t have a picture to the circuit board, but because the amplifier circuit is quite simple, you can design it yourself PCB easily or you can order it at the store PCB audio kit in the center of electronic singosaren oriental, solo.amplifier 1000 watt
                                                              Skema Rangkaian Sanken 1000 watt


                                                              Power Amplifier MJ15003 -MJ15004

                                                              When I began the design of this amp, my goal was to make a product better suited for the reproduction of complex music and voice. Although I emphasize the high electrical properties, the most important requirement is to create a superior sound, vivid images and superb spatial aural clarity.Although the average level of listening is usually less than 10 watts, my design concept was to an amplifier with plenty of reserves, but the deviation is for Class A, at the height of the audience of cross-over distortion at a very low level. There is no place in the pathway, enhances the precision of the tonal characteristics of instruments and voices clearly. This Amplifier is virtually zero phase distortion over the audio range resolution is perfect and completely color the sound.
                                                              Rangkain Power Amplifier MJ15003 -MJ15004
                                                              Skema Rangkaian Power Amplifier MJ15003 -MJ15004
                                                              Amplifier Specification:
                                                              Maximum Output: 240 watts rms into 8 Ohms, 380 watts rms into 4 Ohms
                                                              Audio Frequency Linearity: 20 Hz – 20 kHz (+0, -0.2 dB)
                                                              Closed Loop Gain: 32 dB
                                                              Hum and Noise: -90 dB (input short circuit)
                                                              Output Offset Voltage: >13 mV (input short circuit)
                                                              Phase Linearity: > 13 0 (10 Hz – 20 kHz)
                                                              Harmonic Distortion: > 0.007% at rated power
                                                              IM Distortion: > .009% at maximum power

                                                              2000Watt Power Amplifier

                                                              Thursday, April 8th, 2010
                                                              This power amplifier circuit provides up to 2000Watt, it has to be said that this amplifier will blow up any speaker connected to it. I recommend this as a ‘thought experiment’, rather than actually doing it!. 110V RMS into 8 ohms is 1500 W. How long would you expect the speaker to last? Most will be toast within perhaps 30 seconds or less!
                                                              Rangkian Power Amplifier 2000 WattSkema rangkian power amplifier sound system 2000 watt
                                                              The transistor Q5 (the bias servo transistor) is mounted on the heatsink, in excellent thermal contact. This is because, unlike most of my other designs, this amp uses conventional Darlington output configuration. It is necessary to use a Darlington arrangement (or a low power Darlington transistor as shown) for Q5 to ensure that the bias remains at a safe value with temperature. There is probably good cause to model and test this aspect of the design very carefully, because it is so important. The arrangement as shown will reduce quiescent current at elevated temperatures. For example, if total Iq at 24°C is 165mA, this will fall to ~40mA at 70°C. This is probably fine, because there is some delay between the a power ’surge’ and the output transistors transferring their heat to the bias servo via the heatsink.
                                                              The power supply needed for an amp of this size is massive. Grown welding machines will look at it and cry. For intermittent operation, you need a minimum of a 1000VA transformer (or 1500VA for the 2000W version), and it will have to be custom made because of the voltages used. If you expect to run the amp at continuous high power, then transformers should be 2kVA and 3000VA respectively. Filter capacitors will pose a problem – because you need caps rated for 150V, these will be hard to find. Because high voltage high value caps can be difficult to find, it may be necessary to use two electros in series for each capacitor location. This is the arrangement shown. You must include the resistors in parallel – these equalise the voltage across each capacitor so that they have the same voltage. Remember to verify the ripple current rating! This can be expected to be over 10A, and under-rated capacitors will blow up.
                                                              Skema Rangkian Power Supplay 2000 VA
                                                              WARNING
                                                              This project describes an amplifier, power supply and tests procedures that are all inherently dangerous. Nothing described in this article should even be considered unless you are fully experienced, know exactly what you are doing, and are willing to take full 100% responsibility for what you do. There are aspects of the design that may require analysis, fault-finding and/or modification

                                                              Rangkaian 100 watt sub woofer

                                                              This is the circuit of subwoofer amplifier. This amplifier can produce an output of 100Watt. There are seven transistors including four in the output stage. The transistors Q1 and Q2 form the preamplifier stage. Transistors Q4 to Q7 form the output stage. Since no ICs are used the circuit is very robust and can be easily assembled on a general purpose PCB.
                                                              100 watt sub-woofer amplifierSkema rangkaian 100 watt sub-woofer amplifier
                                                              Note:
                                                              Use powered a +35V/-35V, 5A dual power supply.
                                                              All electrolytic capacitors must be rated 100V.
                                                              The transistor Q4 to Q7 must be fitted with heat sinks.
                                                              Transistor 2N3773 and 2N6609
                                                              Transistor 2N3773 (NPN) and (PNP) 2N6609 are PowerBase_ power transistors designed for high power audio, disk head positioners and other linear applications. These devices can also be used in power switching circuits such as relay or solenoid drivers, DC?DC converters or inverters.
                                                              Transistor 2N3773
                                                              Features Transistor 2N3773
                                                              Pb?Free Packages are Available
                                                              High Safe Operating Area (100% Tested) 150 W @ 100 V
                                                              Completely Characterized for Linear Operation
                                                              High DC Current Gain and Low Saturation Voltage
                                                              hFE = 15 (Min) @ 8.0 A, 4.0 V
                                                              VCE(sat) = 1.4 V (Max) @ IC = 8.0 A, IB = 0.8 A
                                                              For Low Distortion Complementary Designs
                                                              MAXIMUM RATINGS Transistor 2N3773
                                                              Collector ? Emitter Voltage: 140 Vdc
                                                              Collector ? Emitter Voltage: 160 Vdc
                                                              Collector ? Base Voltage:160 Vdc
                                                              Emitter ? Base Voltage: 7 Vdc
                                                              Collector Current Continuous: 16 Adc
                                                              Base Current Continuous 15 Adc
                                                              Total Power Dissipation : 150 Watt.

                                                              Amplifier 300 Watt



                                                              Jul 2003 OnSemi released a new range of transistors, designed specifically for audio applications. These new transistors have been tested in the P68, and give excellent results. As a result, all previous recommendations for output transistors are superseded, and the new transistors should be used.
                                                              The transistors are MJL4281A (NPN) and MJL4302A (PNP), and feature high bandwidth, excellent safe operating area, high linearity and high gain. Driver transistors are MJE15034 (NPN) and MJE15035 (PNP). All devices are rated at 350V, with the power transistors having a 230W dissipation and the drivers are 50W.
                                                              Rangkaian Amplifier 300 WattSkema rangkaian amplif 300 watt
                                                              Note:
                                                              • The total DC is over 110V and can kill you.
                                                              • The power dissipated is such that great care is needed with transistor mounting..
                                                              • The amplifier circuit is NO SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION. The amp is designed to be used within a subwoofer or other speaker enclosure, so this has not been included. A short on the output will destroy the amplifier.
                                                              • Transistor MJL4281A and MJL4302A are new most constructors will find that these are not as easy to get as they should be. The alternatives are MJL3281/ MJL1302 or MJL21193/ MJL21194.
                                                              All three driver transistors (Q4, 5 & 6)must be on a heatsink, and D2 and D3 should be in good thermal contact with the driver heatsink. Neglect to do this and the result will be thermal runaway, and the amp will fail. For some reason, the last statement seems to cause some people confusion – look at the photo below, and you will see the small heatsink, 3 driver transistors, and a white “blob” (just to the left of the electrolytic capacitor), which is the two diodes pressed against the heatsink with thermal grease.

                                                              150 Watt OCL Power Amplifier

                                                              If you are fanatical about the use of transistors jengkol 2N3055 and MJ2955 then this circuit is the answer. This OCL power amplifier circuit deliver a blasting 150 watt to a 4 Ohm speaker. The amplifier circuit is very cheapest and can be powered from 24 to 32 V/5A dual power supply. You must try this circuit. Its working great. Because Transisitor on the final amplifier will be very hot then add the aluminum finned cooler and the fan so that the transistor is not too high temperaturesRangkaian 150 Watt OCL Amplifier
                                                              Skema Rangkaian 150 Watt OCL 
                                                              • Use a well regulated and filtered power supply.
                                                              • Connect a 50K POT in series with the input as volume control if you need.Not shown in circuit diagram
                                                              The transistor 2N3055 NPN and MJ2955 PNP are a silicon Epitaxial-Base Planar transistor mounted in Jedec TO-3 metal case. It is intended for power switching circuits, series and shunt regulators, output stages and high fidelity amplifiers.

                                                              maximum rating Transistor 2N3055 NPN and MJ2955 PNP
                                                              • Collector-Base Voltage : 100 V
                                                              • Collector-Emitter Voltage: 70 V
                                                              • Collector-Emitter Voltage: 60 V
                                                              • VEBO Emitter-Base Voltage: 7 V
                                                              • IC Collector Current: 15 A
                                                              • IB Base Current: 7 A
                                                              • Total Dissipation: 115 W
                                                              • Storage Temperature: -65 to 200 oC
                                                              • Tj Max. Operating Junction Temperature 200 oC

                                                              LM386 0,325W Audio Amplifier


                                                              LM386 0,325W Audio Amplifier

                                                              LM386 0,325W Audio Amplifier

                                                              The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count low, but the addition of an external resistor and capacitor between pins 1 and 8 will increase the gain to any value from 20 to 200.
                                                              The inputs are ground referenced while the output automatically biases to one-half the supply voltage. The quiescent power drain is only 24 milliwatts when operating from a 6 volt supply, making the LM386 ideal for battery operation. Features n Battery operation n Minimum external parts n Wide supply voltage range: 4V–12V or 5V–18V n Low quiescent current drain: 4mA n Voltage gains from 20 to 200 n Ground referenced input n Self-centering output quiescent voltage n Low distortion: 0.2% (AV = 20, VS = 6V, RL = 8W, PO = 125mW, f = 1kHz) n Available in 8 pin MSOP package

                                                                        Pungo Team Released Untethered Jailbreak for iOS 9 Devices including iPhone 6s ans 6s Plus        
                                                              Pangu-Jailbreak-iOS-9
                                                              Users who have iOS 9 devices and yearn to jailbreak that device including new iPhone 6s and iPhone 6s Plus from now is becoming available. Chinese team Pangu today released the first untethered jailbreak for iPhones, iPads and iPod touch that run with iOS 9 - iOS 9.0.2.

                                                              Up to now, the jailbreak tool is available only on Windows PCs, Mac users likely will receive their OS X version in the near future.

                                                              Jailbroken device will enable you to install third-party apps outside the umbrella of Apple, you could also custom your iOS device through a set of tweaks, mods, and themes that are usually denied or restricted in normal devices. All those apps, tweaks, utilities, themes and other content -called "packages"- can be downloaded from Cydia an unofficial App Store for jailbroken devices.

                                                              Cydia developers need to update their tweaks to be compatible with Pangu's iOS 9 - iOS 9.0.2 jailbreak, that through an update for Cydia Substrate which is considered the underlying framework that all jailbreak tweaks depend upon. Initially, just some apps and tweaks are available to be run on iOS 9 - iOS 9.0.2 jailbreak, but the list will extend over time.

                                                              Before starting jailbreak your iOS 9 device, it is high recommended to back up your data through iTunes to avoid any failure that may result in data loss or corruption. Pangu website provides step-by-step instructions on how to install iOS 9 untethered jailbreak, the tool also available for iOS 7 and iOS 8 The use of Pangu jailbreak at your own risk.


                                                              jailbreaking allows you to customize your device more with that Apple provides and allows, but that will be at the expense of your device security, this process will also violate your End User License Agreement (EULA) and voids device warranty, even if you restored it to factory default settings through iTunes.

                                                              Read also:


                                                                        Newfangled Products!        
                                                              I have a few new products I would love to introduce to you. Since we are in the middle of the busiest time of the year for family portraits, I'd like to show you a few new products that you more edgier clients might be interested in...

                                                              I just received my first sample of one today! They were so fast with production too!

                                                              I'm so in LOVE!!!

                                                              The first one is a metal print. Modern. Edgy. Beautiful. Brushed aluminum Metal Prints show your images in an incomparable way. They start with metal, add a coat of opaque white ink to the surface, and then print your image on top. This process truly takes your photography to the highest level in unique presentations. LOVE IT! It gets better....

                                                              The next product I dare you buy. If you do, I will be so jealous of your coolness. I want one for my office so bad, but I have not narrowed down the perfect print just yet... so here are the images I pulled from the printers site.
                                                              BAM! Cool, huh?!

                                                              Your image is split between 11.7" brushed aluminum tiles. Each Mural features silver snap rings, and brackets for easy assembly and wall mounting. Present your image as a contemporary work of art that will surely be the center of attention.


                                                              This next product, someone may or may not be getting one of these babies from us for Christmas. I can't say just yet;)

                                                              Broaden your offerings with Acrylic Prints. This 1/4" acrylic substrate brings your photograph to life in an almost three-dimensional effect. After your image is printed directly to the acrylic, a layer of opaque white ink is screen printed on the back to create a product that highlights the vibrant color and fine detail within your images. Get everyone talking and create buzz with Acrylic Prints.

                                                              If you have any questions about any of these products, let me know. I'd love to go into more detail about them with you. They have already been added to the proofing galleries, so go check them out~!

                                                              Now I leave you with a little Christmas Warmth. Yes, yes, I have been a little to busy to get out and buy a stocking for Little Miss B. So for now we have one of her tiny girl stockings hanging over the fire.

                                                                        Gallery furniture in houston texas        
                                                              The COLOR PALETTE The palette desired esthetic sheen, but the total look and character of wood substrate will dictate the a finish to a high. Chroma is the quality that by the furniture Gallery furniture in houston texas trade are raising the degree of. In solid opaque lacquers or from yellow and blue, but of bole and silver toned such as yellow green chartreuse.
                                                                        Paper Non Woven        
                                                              Try our new Paper Non Woven bags. These bags have twill handles and trim with pockets on each gusset. Make a statement with this innovative substrate.

                                                              Price: $143.80 Special Price: $135.00


                                                                        Jack on You Are A Brain        

                                                              Good presentation: just out of curiosity do people here consider the question of whether we are brains settled? Obviously no one here is going to hold that we're immaterial souls and I think the claim that we are brains is less wrong than the claim that we're souls. But I'm also pretty confident that persons aren't brains and I imagine the people who expect future persons to upload themselves to computers will agree with me. To give the usual computer analogy I think saying you are a brain is like saying an operating system is a couple computer chips- you've named the substrate but not the thing itself.

                                                              But I'm just curious since Liron said this came of Eliezer and I haven't read everything on OB... is this the popular opinion here that we are brains?


                                                                        Vaniver on You Are A Brain        

                                                              I meant that in an engineering sense, not a theoretical one, and deliberately moved from "computer program" to "code." If I have Lisp code that I want to run, and all I can run it in is C, it's not going to work. To get it to work, it's often easier to write a Lisp interpreter in C and use the old code than rewrite the code myself. And that's two languages intended to be used by humans and operate on silicon substrates with binary logic.

                                                              And so, can you write a 'human interpreter' on silicon with binary logic? Theoretically, sure. Practically, there might not be enough silicon to faithfully emulate it in anything close to realtime. But even if you manage it, you've just moved the platform into the realm of software- you haven't divorced the code and the platform.


                                                                        From Paths to Sandboxes | IA Summit Library        
                                                              Designers are trained to guide users toward predetermined outcomes, but is there a better use of this persuasive psychology? What happens if we focus less on influencing desired behaviors and focus more on designing ‘sandboxes’: open-ended, generative systems? And how might we go about designing these spaces? It’s still “psychology applied to design”, but in a much more challenging and rewarding way! In this talk, I’ll share the journey I’ve been on, from trying to shape and influence a user’s path, to creating these sandbox environments. You’ll learn why systems such as Twitter, Pinterest, and Minecraft are so maddeningly addictive, and what principles we can use to create similar experiences. We’ll look at education and the work of Maria Montessori, who wrote extensively about how to create learning environments that encourage exploration and discovery. And we’ll look at game design, considering all the varieties of games, especially those carefully designed to encourage play — a marked contrast with progression games designed to move you through a series of ever-increasing challenges, each converging upon the same solution. Finally, we’ll look at web applications, and I’ll share how this thinking might influence your work, from how you respond to new feature requests to how you design for behavior change in a more mature way. From Paths to Sandboxes [ 43:57 ] Play Now | Play in Popup | Download http://www.slideshare.net/stephenpa/from-paths-to-sandboxes Brought to you by The 2014 IA Summit podcasts were recorded and produced by the fantastic team at UIE. UIE is a research and training company that brings you the latest thinking from the top experts in the world of User Experience Design. UIE's virtual seminars allow you to get your hands on that information, to absorb as much as you can, on your schedule. Of course, you can keep up with all the shenanigans by signing up for UIE's free newsletter, UIEtips. Transcript Stephen Anderson: Thank you all for making it out this morning. Quick question, how many of you were of the karaoke tribe last night? Raise your hand. How many of you were of the game night tribe? Raise your hand. Good. I'm more of the game night tribe, sorry. A little background on what I'm going to be talking about. For the past several years, I've been very interested in psychology and design. Specifically, how can we use psychology to design more fun, engaging, and effective interactions and this led to a book that I published with new writers a few yeas ago called "Seductive Interaction Design." It also led to a toolkit I created called "The Mental Notes Card Deck." Again, this theme of psychology and how can we apply it to our work to the designs we do. The talk I'm going to give today is really where that thinking has led me, where I'm at this. I'm thrilled, because this is for the first time in my career I feel like I really have a strong viewpoint or a strong perspective on a lot of the daily work I'm doing... With that, let me start. Last fall, I was flying into Waterloo, Canada for a conference there. As I flew in, I looked out the window. Actually, I took a photo looking out the window, and my first thought was, "Wow. Look at the vibrant colors here. This is just incredible. What a lovely place I'm about to visit." My second thought was, "Wow. This looks like Settlers of Catan." [laughter] Stephen: I'm a little obsessed with games, particularly board games lately. If you'll indulge for a few minutes, I'd like to share three games that I've been playing a lot of lately, probably, more than a healthy individual should. This first game I'm embarrassed to admit to that I've been playing, but you may have heard of it. It's a game called "Candy Crush." [laughter] Stephen: How many of you have played Candy Crush? Those of you who have not played Candy Crush, do not start. [laughter] Stephen: It's like they perfected the Skinner box and slot machine Las Vegas mechanics, and you will get addicted. I won't tell you what level I got up to before I quit cold turkey, but I can say, I'm 47 days without Candy Crush. [laughter] Stephen: Can we have a round of applause, please? [applause and cheering] Stephen: For those of you who don't know Candy Crush, it's almost like "Bejeweled" on steroids with lots of leveling up and novelties thrown in and things like that. The other game which I'm not going to go into very much for this talk or at all is a board game called "Seven Wonders." Basically, you play this game in 18 rounds, and you try to create the most advanced civilization by the end of 18 rounds. All I'm going to say is I love this game, fantastic game. If you are a product owner, product manager, product strategist, anyone making leadership decisions for a company, this is required playing. It'll be better than any book you can buy on the subject. All right? Finally, the other game I've played a lot of, especially with my boys, is Minecraft. Another show of hands -- how many of you have played Minecraft, or know about it? OK -- homework assignment. You all have to go out and play Minecraft. I don't care if it's iPad, PC, whatever -- incredible game. Minecraft's a little bit hard to describe to folks. In fact, a lot of people look at it and they scratch their heads, like, "What's the point of the game?" It's almost like you've been thrown into a virtual box of Lego bricks, and you can build and make stuff. There's none of the usual trappings that you get with a game. There's no leveling up or badges or points or assignments. You're in this world where you can create and play and discover. There's a little bit of tension thrown in where you start off during the day building stuff, but then, night comes and that's when things like zombies start approaching. If you didn't do stuff in the afternoon to protect yourself or bury yourself in a hole, then, you might be in a little bit of trouble. But you can play it in survival mode like that or you can play it in creative mode. And people create some of the most amazing things. Again, this is with little pixel squares inside this game. Here's the "Up" house as an example. I'm going to hold these three games up as exemplars of different types of games that we can learn from -- we can learn patterns from. This is not a talk about games, but this is a good reference point or exemplar for what I am going to talk about. I'm going to remove Seven Wonders for the purpose of this talk, but if you want to ask me about that later on, I would love to talk about that. Candy Crush I'm going to hold up as an example of a path, and Minecraft I'm going to hold up as an example of a sandbox. That's what I'd like to talk about for the first half of this talk, is a path and a sandbox, and what are the differences between those two things? Paths -- the word very explicitly comes from some of the research about how to motivate people and how to design for behavior change. There's this idea that we have to direct the writer. That's our conscious thought. But the writers...it's like riding an elephant. The elephant's going to do what the elephant wants to do, which is our automatic system, it tries its best to direct it. Then there's this idea of shaping the path that people go down. This idea has shown up in a lot of books on persuasive design, on psychology, on behavior change, on how to hook people, all these types of things. How do we create the path that influences the behavior we would like to see? Here's another model I came across recently that I've actually enjoyed. It's not a path, but it's the persuasion slide. I actually think it's really good way to approach this kind of work -- to talk about, what's the nudge to get people started down the slide? Have you removed all the friction, all the gravel in the slide? What's the slope of the slide, the conscious and unconscious motivators? And what's the gravity -- the customer's initial motivation? Lots of examples of paths in the persuasive design world. Candy Crush is obviously a literal path where you level up and go do more and ever-increasing challenges. In fact, paths are common to probably most video games that we've grown up playing for the last several decades. If you look at all of these games from Pac-Man to Portal to Myst, there's a leveling up involved with most of these -- ever-increasing challenges. We see this in the real world, as well, with things like scouting programs, where you earn badges and you increase in rank. Paths are very common in well-designed experiences, like checking into a hotel. They want to describe the customer experience and the path you go through. Schools work on designing paths that funnel kids through from K through 12 and exit them with the program. You level up in businesses. There's all sorts of paths in the regular workforce in everyday environments. Paths are designed to lead people along for better or for worse. I want to share a few examples here. This first one's rather neutral. This is the path-tracker experiment that was done I think seven, eight years ago. Basically, they just put RFID tags in a grocery store and they monitored the paths that the carts went down. The RFID tags were in the carts. They were able to get a map of all the places that shoppers went frequently, infrequently. Then, they could make decisions or make changes based on that data. Fairly neutral. It's just good information to act on, good data. If you look at Las Vegas, that is a really, really well-designed path. They've attended to every detail for one purpose -- to separate you from your money. You walk in and even the doors to get in are huge, but the doors to get out are often very narrow and you often have to get in a line to get out. Every experience in a Las Vegas casino has been designed for one specific purpose. But let's flip to Walt Disney World. Walt Disney World -- I went there with my family last September. It's also a bunch of really well-designed paths. They've attended to absolutely every detail. Like Las Vegas, there's a transaction. I'm paying money for hopefully a good/great family experience, and they want to design every detail they can to ensure that I have a great experience. That's what I mean that paths aren't necessarily good or bad. It's just attention to detail in controlling or directing the outcomes or the experience that people have. Paths are obviously prevalent in our work, as well. We have things like customer journey maps, service blueprint scenarios. We have all these paths where we map out the experience that people are going to have. Amy Jo Kim talks about the player journey, from newbie to regular to enthusiast. Dan Lockton talks about influencing behavior in "Design with Intent," and he has three paths he talks about. Even in my own workshops on Seductive Interaction Design, I talk about ways to nudge people towards completion, ways to assist people in developing new skills, and ways to assist in establishing or putting an end to new habits. These would all fit under this description or definition of paths. Paths aren't necessarily bad, but I did want to pull out two quotes, two sentiments. This is a reaction and a backlash to some of this persuasive design that I've seen coming out over the last year. The first is Quora, which is a site I actually like quite a bit. They've got a really designed system for asking and getting questions answered. They send out a customer survey just to say, "How do you like Quora?" This is the email response that one person posted publicly. I wanted to read a couple of his responses so you can get an idea of the sentiment against paths. He says, first, "I hate how gamified the system is. I hate how it's obvious that the people running it do not have any compunctions about manipulating human psychology to eke out engagement and growth. I think Quora epitomizes what's wrong with Silicon Valley start-ups -- A/B testing everything to the point that you lose your humanity." Then he goes on to say, "Where would I like to see improvement? I'd like you to start treating your users with an ounce of respect. I'd like you to start treating me like a human being, not an f'ing statistic." This is from Kathy Sierra. She talks frequently on these same issues and she talks about engagement. She says, "If we really cared about our users, we would not use any behavioral tricks, nudges, to suck them into spending more time on our site." "If we really cared about our users, we would try to help them spend less time engaging with our site. If we really cared about our users, we'd take all the persuasive manipulative tricks -- intermittent variable rewards, et cetera -- and do the opposite." She actually points to some companies whose goal is to get people to spend less time onsite. That's their internal metric. Just to give you some general comments about paths, and this'll make a lot more sense when I contrast them with sandboxes. Paths obviously shape behavior. They're games to be played, and people often, when they're put in a path, will play or hack the game. Paths lead people along. They have predictable outcomes, so people have designed the path and they know where it's going to lead people, and they plan for the scenarios. They're measurable. They design every detail. They're consumptive, meaning people are consuming something along the way. They create dependency, often, on directions or the boundaries of the path. They have a clearly defined purpose. They lead to completion, ultimately. They're best for instruction, and ultimately, they end in an exchange of some sort. I'll comment a little bit more on this when I put up the contrasts for sandboxes. Is there something more? Well, obviously, I think there is, or else I wouldn't be up here. Let's talk about sandboxes for a moment here. Before I talk about sandboxes, I'd like to run you through the question I asked myself about a year ago. This talk started a little over a year ago, when I was doing a workshop about psychology and persuasive nudges, and these things. Just at random, I said, "Let me pick three sites that are maddeningly addictive, three experiences that people just spend tons of time on." The three I picked are random. There are others to choose from, but I picked Pinterest, picked Minecraft, and I picked Twitter. I said, "Let me deconstruct what mechanisms, what things they're using to make these sites, these experiences, so maddeningly addictive." Before I tell you what I found, I'm going to give you a chance to answer this question yourself. Pick one of these online experiences. Hopefully, you've had experience with one of these three services. Pick one. I want you to list why you think people find them addictive. List as many reasons as you can. You will have 90 seconds. On your mark, get set, go. [music] Stephen: Time is up. If we were in the workshop, what would happen next is we would share and talk about those things you just wrote down. This is what I did a year ago, but personally, in the process of identifying these things -- and I came up with a bunch of things, like site completion, sequencing, status, self-expression. Maybe you didn't know the word for it, but you wrote down something that approximates some of these principles. In the process of deconstructing and listing these things out, there was something deeper and more fundamental about those three examples I picked that I just couldn't let go of, that I was chewing on. I started looking at, what do all these experiences have in common? There's something below the leaves. There's a substrate there beneath all these superficial things, if you will, on the top. There were two observations I made, two pretty fundamental observations about these three examples I had picked. One, these are platforms. You make of them what you want. There is no prescribed way to use the system. Number one, these are platforms. Because they're platforms, they create what I call the WTF problem. It's not what you think. This is the "what's this for?" problem. If anyone was on Twitter in the early days, you may have scratched your head and said, "What's this for? Why do I use it? How do I use it?" That was a big or has been a big problem with Twitter, that initial engagement. I experienced the same thing with Pinterest the first time I used Pinterest. I added a few pins and boards, but then really, moved on to other stuff, and didn't come back to it until about a-year-and-a-half later, when my wife was using Pinterest to pin some ideas for how we could remodel our bedroom. I said, "Wow, I could use that to pin ideas for how to decorate my office, or I could use this as a visual bookmarking system for a lot of the Internet of Things and embedded technology stuff I'm following," but it wasn't until I saw someone else doing it that I had this idea about how to use it. Same thing with Minecraft. A lot of people land in it and they're like, "What's the point? What's the challenge? What's the game?" Then they watch others and they say, "Oh, that sounds like fun. I'm going to try that," or "Oh, let's play in this." That leads to the second observation. These are social spaces -- or social places, as Andrea Resmini would correct me. People learn from each other how to use the system. Many of the psychological nudges that follow stem from observing others. I mentioned a few of these. Minecraft uses this idea of positive mimicry. Actually, all of these, the idea here is positive mimicry. We learn what we should do in a system by watching others and their behaviors. I watch my boys, particularly my oldest boys, build and construct these amazing things in Minecraft. I'm like, "How did you do that?" Then I ask them and they show me. They're learning on their own. They're also going outside of Minecraft to YouTube and watching YouTube videos, watching other players play Minecraft, to learn what they can do. The hash tag in Twitter was largely an emergent element. People started using it, it shows up, and other people use it, it catches on. It wasn't prescribed or built into the system. It was an emergent property. Again, I mentioned with Pinterest, I saw my wife pinning it, and that's what brought me back to this tool I had signed up for earlier. Sandbox. I'm using this phrase. This actually comes from the game world, and the definition of a sandbox game is this. It's a style of game in which minimal character limitations are placed on the gamer, allowing the gamer to roam and change a virtual world at will. In contrast to a progression-style game, a path, a sandbox game emphasizes roaming and allows a gamer to select tasks. Here's what I like. Sandboxes create open spaces for self-directed play and creativity. This is something I love -- when you create a space for play and creativity and you can be surprised and delighted by what people do. People can do things you never imagined possible. We're seeing this. Here's another example online. We're seeing this with GitHub. GitHub is kind of a sandbox. We're seeing a lot of writers say, "Wow, we could use GitHub," which started off as a tool for devs, to check in and out code, and they're saying, "Why don't we use GitHub for writers to check in and out versions or drafts of our writing?" You see sandboxes with things like LEGOs. When kids have this bin of LEGO bricks, they can build anything. It's a sandbox environment within which to play. You have these amazing things that there weren't instructions for, people just came up with them. These are all built out of LEGOs. Yes, I have a Pinterest board of all these Lego creations that I find fascinating. As a parent, I started thinking about this paths versus sandboxes thing, and I'm going to make an assumption here. At some point, if you're a parent, you probably created these bins or these boxes to help organize your children's toys. Here, you have dolls, and what is that? [inaudible 0:18:25] and music stuff. Right, some sort of bin to organize in structure, and I'm willing to bet particularly at an IA conference a lot more of us have done, OK. [laughter] We've done this because it's the only way to keep sanity in the house when you have young children. I was watching Toy Story for the umfteenth time, I was like "Wow, I love how Andy just plays with all the toys and mixes them and just makes up these creative worlds, and does this really imaginative play. I wish my boys did that." Then I said, "Well, wait a second. I'm forcing them to pull one out, play with it, and put it back before they get another one out," right? I'm trying to teach them some structure and discipline, and in doing so I wasn't encouraging them to do that kind of open collaborative play and to mix everything and mash all the toys together. Paths and sandbox show up in these subtle areas of parenting. Continuing on this theme, and again, because this is the IA summit, you can't have a talk without referencing Christopher Alexander of pattern language. One of the patterns he talks about is the adventure playground and he describes it like this, he says, "A castle made of carton, rocks, old branches by a group of children for themselves is worth a 1,000 perfectly detailed exactly finished castles made for them in a factory." His recommended solution, he says, "Set up a playground for the children in each neighborhood, not a highly finished playground with asphalt and swings, but a place with raw materials of all kinds, nets, boxes, barrels, trees, rope, simple tools, frames, grass, and water where children can create and recreate playgrounds of their own." This is the perfect example of a sandbox. Now, this sounds all great, and I want you to look closely at the picture. Some of you may have already seen this. Here's a young kid in the single digits and he's got a saw. [laughter] There's no supervision there. There's a part of me that's terrified by that, right? I'm sure many of us as parents are kind of like "This sounds good, but that's scary," right? "It's really scary." I read this quote and I think this is actually scarier. I agree with this next quote. "I'm convinced that standardized playgrounds are dangerous, just in another way. When the distance between all the wrongs in a climbing net or ladder is exactly the same, the child has no need to concentrate on where he puts his feet. Standardization is dangerous, because play becomes simplified." It's like "Ah, that's a new way to reframe and look at this." In contrast to paths, let me run through some of the characteristics of sandboxes. Where paths shape behavior, sandboxes create engagement. Where paths are games to be played, sandboxes are spaces in which two play. Very different. Subtle, but very different. Paths lead people along, sandboxes let people explore. "Paths have predictable outcomes, sandboxes have unknown outcomes. Again, not necessarily recommending one or the other. You know, you're going to have to think about what's perfect or what's right for your situation. Paths are measurable, sandboxes are observable. Paths design every detail, where sandboxes underspecify the design. Paths are consumptive, sandboxes are generative. People create things in sandboxes. Paths create dependency on directions. Paths encourage autonomy, ownership, independence. People find their own ways to do things. Paths clearly find purpose. In sandboxes, the purpose is self-determined. Paths lead to completion, sandboxes lead to understanding. Paths are best for instruction, sandboxes are best for performance. Finally, I would say, whereas paths end in an exchange, sandboxes end in learning and discovering. That leads me to the next section I want to talk about. This was another lens and another catalyst on this change in my thinking. I work a lot in the ed tech space and I've been a huge fan of the Maria Montessori method of education for many years. I went through a Montessori program through sixth grade, but it wasn't until the last five or six years I really started to appreciate what my parents did for me, putting me in a Montessori program. I want to read to a you a couple of quotes from the Montessori method that Maria Montessori wrote well over a 100 years ago. I was finally getting around to reading this and trying to understand the Montessori method and what it means, and I came across these quotes, these two that I'm going to share with you. This really just nudged my thinking along. By the way, this quote right here sums up my views on gamification, if you are wondering about that. "The jockey offers a piece of sugar to his horse before jumping into the saddle. The coachman beats his horse that he may respond to the signs given by the reins, and yet, neither of these runs so superbly as the free horse of the plains." Now, some people would say, "If you just let horses run free on the plains, they won't ever actually do anything," and Maria Montessori doesn't say that. She goes on to say, "We have prepared the environment and the material." She's very specific. This is a design project. She designs the classroom and she designs the materials where the objects are placed in the environment to encourage kids to want to learn, to discover, to teach, and learn on their own terms. It's very much a designed environment. It's not just backing off and saying, "Go play. Do everything on your own." She has designed the environment. Montessori, if you're wondering what some of the key characteristics are, lots of use of manipulatives. I remember the counting beads. I remember learning letters by tracing sandpaper. I remember cutting the cheese slices, cutting them in half and then half again. I had no idea that I was learning fractions. That's what they were teaching me. There's mixed age classrooms, there was a K-3 class and then a 4-6 class. They have these specialized education materials. This is heavy emphasis on manipulatives. Student choice, students can choose the activity from within a prescribed range of options. There's objects placed in the environment that students can choose of their own, volition. There's uninterrupted blocks of work time, and this is in stark contrast to most public schools, where you have the bell rings and you close up your work and you go onto the next class. In the Montessori method, if they see a kid who's engaged in learning, creating, and crafting stuff, they let that kid do that. They'll let them do that for hours, days, weeks on end to pursue a project and pursue an interest, because there's something more important than the content of the learning. They're teaching people how to be curious life long learners. Also, they have a constructivist or discovery model where students learn concepts from working with materials rather than by direct instructions, hands-on maker based learning. I think this has shaped kind of something I strongly believe in my philosophy on everything I do, playing is learning. Now, you can even say the opposite, learning is playing. If you approach the world like this like the world is a game. It's a play space, it's fun. You get thrown something that you don't enjoy and you reframe it and say, "There's something enjoyable here. What am I going to learn? How am I going to be challenged?" You look at some noted entrepreneurs and people who we've probably heard of, this is Will Wright, who created SimCity and Spore. He went to Montessori. He says, "Montessori taught me the joy of discovery. It's all about learning on your terms rather than a teacher explaining stuff to you. SimCity comes right out of Montessori. Founders of Google, Larry Paige and Sergey. "Friend, we both went to Montessori School and I think it was part of that training of not following rules and orders, and being self-motivated, questioning what's going on in the word, doing things a little bit differently. Sandbox education teaches you to play at life." I love this model. I think this sums up this whole point very accurately. I'll just let you look at this. This is a sandbox mentality, someone who writes their own rules to the game and says, "I'm going to play life on my own terms." Right, and you see this coming up in a lot of books published in the past year or two, especially those related to education, talk about creating innovators. They talk about "I tell them I built this," design, make, play, invent to learn, so this making as a way of learning and making, playing, and learning is a theme that's growing within a lot of education circles. This goes back to some fundamental psychology. Edward Deci says, "Human beings have an inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenges to extend and exercise their capacities, to explore, and to learn." If I was to some up paths and sandboxes in the context of education, I would say, paths equate to formal institutional learning, what many of us have gone through or went through in public schools. Sandboxes equate to informal, non-institutional learning. If you want to go back to the Greeks, you could say, "Paths view students as vessels to be filled. Sandboxes view students as fires to be kindled." Paths specify performance goals, we expect you to get an A in French. Sandboxes lead to learning challenges. Learning to speak French is the challenge, not the A. Now, if you're following along, particularly this, you're probably starting to think, "Wait a second, is it that black and white? Are they that dispirit?" No, this is a false dichotomy. You need a mix of both at various times, but I think too often I see things that are designed as paths and not as sandboxes or with no sandbox elements. When I say, "Combined," here's an example. What about a giant sandbox with just in time learning? Really short paths, I'm in the sandbox playing, but I need to learn how to do this skill to continue making or creating. That's just in time learning, very short paths. In my research on this, I actually came across several articles that did just this. There was one research study designed to teach girls in junior high how to program Java. Now, of all languages to start with I don't know why they pick Java. They've got a pretty big hurdle, but what they did, they created an environment, a sandbox environment where kids were actually thrilled and excited to learn this programming language. They set it up in a way where you have this fantasy world and this challenge...I'll just read it here. "Normally, learning in code spells is encouraged by ways of a series of quests that must be completed with the use of Java based spell crafting. In our version, the players could walk up to in game gnome like characters who would give various spells to the player, along with simple explanations. Our hope was that these spells would serve as starting points for code exploration." This is the giant sandbox with just in time learning paths. You could also look at Lego bricks, which I mentioned earlier as a sandbox. Actually, when you first buy that set and it has the instructions, those instructions are a path, and as you build that thing that you bought in the picture on the cover it's teaching you the skills you need to then go and create whatever you want. The path is scaffolding to get you to a place where you can play in the sandbox and you can do whatever you want. Philosophically, you're probably with me and you're like "OK, this is good, this is really interesting." You may be thinking about your work. You might be asking, "OK, but how is this useful? I've got to go back to work tomorrow or Tuesday. Are there some practical tips that I can take from this?" I did say this has reframed and changed my work, and everything I do. I have a perspective on the work I do that literally translates into features and discussions, and I'd like to share a bit of that, some of the lessons. This is all emergent. I'm learning along the way, but these are seven or eight things that I've applied coming out of this mentality. The first credit to Carzell Frank for this, I've learned to underspecify features. This is going to be a hard one for a lot of us who work in lean and agile environments to swallow. Before I explain why, I want to show an example. The starring functionality of Twitter, when it came out there was no prescribed use case or use story. It was just you could star stuff, and because you could do anything with a star, it wasn't prescribed what it was, people have used in easily fix, six, maybe eight different ways. I use starring as a form of bookmarking. Other people use starring as a form of liking, to say, "I like that," right? You might use starring as a way to sync up with a program like IF to do some scripting and collect stuff. There's different ways you can use the starring functionality. Imagine if we were writing the use case for this before starring was added. As a user, I want to flag interesting tweets for reviewing later. As a user, I want to give kudos to people for sharing something interesting. As a user, I want to save positive tweets for later use as testimonials in my company. If you had specified use case, as one of these things, you probably would design it a bit differently, where it was very specific for that. By under specifying that, people have been able to use this feature in whatever way they want. The product I'm working on right now, we had a date picker. We're going to put a date picker in that for time, another reasons we say, "Let's not worry about the date picker. Let's just put an empty string in and suggest that you put a date in like specified time." We did that and right away within the day, we saw people typing on things like instead of a date, they make this goal on hold. Make this one active. We saw them using that empty string on ways we never anticipated. Now, as a company, as a design group, we saw different things we never anticipated by under specifying the feature. Avoid long workflows. Paths to find but one thing I've learned is to use short paths, not really long paths. Confession time, I worked on a project a few years ago where I felt so good about this stuff. All the psychology, this is think surely after my book is published. I was working on this app where I was in meetings and making promises and all those stuff. I was so proud because we mapped out every possible action the user would take. The idea was must provide the scaffolding to help them do the right things. This is just one moment or one state from the entire apps. If I zoom out, this is the entire blueprint. We had everything mapped out. I felt like a tutor in adventure novel like you knew exactly what users would do. When I project, what happened? People didn't mapped everything we had set out. We didn't anticipate everything. People were frustrated like people called this. "Why are you constraining me like this?" We forgot the very fundamental principle which is keep users in control. Practical take the ways, build and consume your own APIs. How we're building things now? Instead of one model of stock, we're building things in a service oriented way. There's ways to create stand boxes of different levels. The interface, allowing people to choose what features they tag off run. At the API level, allowing people to build on top of their API, extend what they're doing. Maybe in the case of Minecraft, there are a lot of people that add modes to what you're doing. You could just open the source code base and see what people do with it. See what other versions of your system people build. There's all different ways to open up from a technical perspective and the feature perspective your system and make it more of a sand box. Back up, let people make mistakes and learn through trial and error. Another project I worked on, we work closely with several charter schools. We design something that map closely to their workflow. That should have been a signal there that word workflow. What we had to do two years later, as we scale across the State and worked with more schools, as we have to come back and say, "You know what, that workflow that we built our system are based our system on. It's restrictive and doesn't scale to these other schools." When we made a major overhaul last summer, these are some of the themes. I've highlighted some of the diverse sandbox related. Last click, shared views, simple scheduling, open and flexible, only one done button, for we have done multiple buttons for each stage or each gate. Sequence is suggested and never required. We were opening up and making this more of the sandbox so it's scale across the US to different schools who have different systems and different workflows. Personal favorite, this influences a lot of decisions and making direct manipulation is best. AKA, no more wizards. This is why I don't blog very often. Right here, this is the other that I have to use on a current system. There is so much friction to this and frustration that I only blog two or three times a year. You probably are all gone through this. Retype it up and you hit that preview. You go to the preview version. You see a typo and you go back and you make it. You go back, you go back and forth between these two modes like the writing mode and the preview mode. Let me show you one of my favorite writing editors. This is medium. Medium, you are directly manipulating the object. The text fields were there. As you write, you're actually seeing exactly how it will look. It's a hard to do. Like, there's some batches when you get to build things in this way. There are companies who are really doing this successfully. Mediums one, square space as another to look at. You are building what the world will see. You're seeing it directly. There's not that gap. That will probably take away. Help people understand through playful interactions. This was a big theme of the workshop that Carl Fast gave on Wednesday. It's going to be a big thing on the next book I am working on with version file media. It's about how we learn or how we understand and make sense of the world interactions. It's the big part of that. Here's an example of a [inaudible 0:35:22] . This is what Victor talks about. He says that most editors are like playing the piano. When you hit that note, you can't actually hear the note until two minutes later. Like, imagine on trying to learn piano, everything was delayed like two minutes. What he's talking about here is real time feedback loop on code. In the moment, even with slight years, you can play and see the cause and effect relationship between the code and the outlet. You have certain up these moments like that one where things go crazy that you never expected. Imagine if you were changing that number by number and hitting save and refreshing and looking. In a minute, you might have gone through three or four iterations. You just saw hundreds in that same amount of time just by having a slide on these numbers. You could see the effect of what you're doing. Highly recommend this by the way. This video from Brat Victor. These well against slide blinks at the bottom will be there as well. Another example, again I started work with a lot of EdTech companies that work in a lot of schools. I see a lot of online learning programs. This one, ST Math's, stands head and shoulders above all of the ones I've seen. Just a little background before I'll play your clip of the founder of this EdTech. The founder actually struggled with Math as a child because he had dyslexia. He realized later on in life that words and language are so intertwined with Math concepts that it's actually getting in the way with him just being a good Math student. He wanted to create a Math program that does not rely on words. He went on to get his cognate in neuroscience and he found in this company. They created this program that's absolutely amazing. Just play a clip here and let him come on this system. Video Character: Here's some exponents and some captions. We're basically able to buy all Math down to how do you help a little penguin across the street? [laughter] Stephen: Later on the presentation, he said this quote which I agree with a 100 percent. It's everything that I'm writing that I'm interested about it right now. He says, "The approach to teaching without words that I'm proposing makes heavy use of interactivity and instant informative feedback." How do those examples on that I'm going to read it again. I did want to come and sum up with a couple of key points. The big take away, I'm going to quote Cathy Sierra again. These are her words, "Will this help users take us? Will this help our users?" There's another observation, another practical take away if you're looking for a framework or something to put this together, because I was just six or seven random ideas. Remember the monastery quote where I said, we have prepared the environment and the materials. If you start looking at a lot of game, design books, and I'm talking books from the game world. You'll find this theme. There's the environment, there are objects in the environment and there are rules. The language may be different, but these are the patterns you start to see. This is from a presentation Dave Gray gave. He was talking about the game world. He says there are rules. There are boundaries. There are artifacts. There are players in the goal. Like, its different words, but the same fundamental concept. What I love about this is he wasn't necessarily talking about games. He was talking about how to approach every day work with the game mind set. He said this. "The idea for knowledge games acme from watching people of the cutting edges of new disciplines. People who are entrepreneurs, people who are creators, designers and innovators, watching them work, watching them play." I love this part. "Sometimes, having difficulty telling the difference." It's beautiful. I love that. That means it's final closing thought I will make. That's the idea of playing it life. I've talked about past. I've talked about sandboxes. I illustrated more on education and talked about some practical ways. I want to step back and talk about how this guy is reframing how I approach life or how I do things. How do you approach life? Do you approach life like a path to follow or like a sandboxes on which to play? I want to come back to this diagram. The person who did this clearly approaches life like a game to play on their own rules, on their own terms. I was watching a video, a documentary and that's a group behind the special effects from movies like, "The Lord of the Rings". They talk about their early days from a few people and building and growing. One of the quotes that stuck with me was this. "What we learn from that project then allowed us to, and then, I talked like going on to the next project." Every project was a series of learning things. You see this in companies that way. You see this in companies like Pixar, where they're exploring the boundaries of the technology they're playing and seeing what they can do next. There's a great story. There's a great craft there. Also, exploring technology things. What can we do now that we haven't done before? What seem to be created that we could not have done it a year ago? What do we know now that we didn't know before? Does this enable us to do something new and different? It's just constant learning, playing as learning. John Piaget, one of my favorite people. "Play is answered how anything new comes about." To it, personal examples of my life. Going back over a decade ago, when I was doing primarily graphic design and marketing type things, one of the clients that we got was a company that does this. They make these things. These are called durable products labels. The bar codes on the back of your VCR are you TiVo whatever. That's what they make. Now, many graphic designers and many people working in marketing would be like, "Oh, gosh. Seriously like this is the best we have. I'd much rather work on a Pepsi campaign or something like that." In retrospect, this is probably one of the most exciting projects that going in the best plans I ever worked for. We looked at that. We started doing user research. One of the things that came up, other user research was, that was a small and significant thing. You know what, if we forget about it, it's going to delay everything. We're not going to be able to ship our product on time. That little gem, that little thing like this whole campaign where we will do things like this is the postcard for example. I would say it's just the label. We played up this idea. It's just the label. You'll know this there's actually labels to occur in. Curiosity was used to get the person appeal it off. If you peel it off, you are in reflect peeling off the wings that says in without it. Your product won't much. This whole idea, we took across media and across many things. It was a fun project to work on. Who would ever thought that? The company that makes durable bar codes, durable labels. With my book proposal, I was handed the normal word template to answer these 20 questions, those types of things. I just felt confined by that. I didn't feel like I could tell the story of the book I want to write in that format. I knew publishers are looking for people to answer these specific questions. I had to answer that. Those are rules that I couldn't fudge around. The presentation, I didn't have to fill in the word document and fill an online form. The proposal I came back with was actually a two-dozen slide presentation. This is viewed on all the slides. This is my book proposal. This is my book pitch. I can say Louise are excited. He actually made the comment. He said, "Wow, in this enthusiasm and this energy that you put into proposal. We're going to see it translating the book. That's the book right itself." He was very enthusiastic and brace less, love this. Again, I was playing in some ways on my own terms. I knew what he needed but I want to do things on my way, as well. Put my own signature on it. Good Tom Robins quote to start wrapping things up. "Humanity has advanced. When it has advanced, not so it has been responsible and cautious, but because it has been playful, rebellious, an immature." The question I'd like to end with, two questions, are you designing paths for sandboxes in your every day work? For you, personally, are you following a path where you are playing in the sandbox? Thank you very much. [applause] http://library.iasummit.org/podcasts/from-paths-to-sandboxes/
                                                                        Habistat Rain Forest Substrate - 10 Litre Fine        
                                                              Habistat Rain Forest Substrate - 10 Litre Fine

                                                              Habistat Rain Forest Substrate - 10 Litre Fine

                                                              Rain Forest Substrate™ is one of the most widely used and versatile substrate available.

                                                              This versatile substrate can be used wet or dry and is available in a variety of grades.

                                                              Being resistant to micr..

                                                              Price: £5.19


                                                                        The roof        
                                                              Roofing a sips panel is different than a conventional framed house as there are no rafters or structural beams in the field.  It is a solid OSB plywood surface so the fasteners should be chosen for that substrate. 

                                                              I chose standing seam metal roofing for my project.  Metal roofing is more durable and lasts longer than asphalt shingles and the galvanized look goes well with the antique wood of the exterior.   Standing seam comes in a variety of designs,  this roof is called snap seam.  the panels are 16 inches wide,  one side is screwed down and the other side locks over the screws of the adjacent panel.  when complete there are no exposed screws in the roof. 

                                                              The gable ends of the roof were cut and bent over the drip edge to start the first panel.  I installed a 18 gauge strip to stiffen the drip edge.

                                                              I used a self adhesive ice and snow shield for the base.  This membrane sticks to the roof and creates a barrier that will not allow water to flow underneath if a hole is created.

                                                              the panels had to be trimmed and bent to form the edge that will wrap around the drip edge.









                                                              
                                                              
                                                              The ridge was finished with a cap. 


                                                                        QuadTech will show its extensive range of color management solutions at Labelexpo        
                                                              QuadTech has announced its extensive range of color management and defect management solutions will be the focus at this year’s Labelexpo Europe, held September 25-28 at Brussels Expo. Alongside the highlighted product portfolio,...

                                                              L'articolo QuadTech will show its extensive range of color management solutions at Labelexpo sembra essere il primo su Print and Digital Communication World.


                                                                        The Market for Inorganic Electronics Will Rise to $45 Billion by 2024        

                                                              Market Resarch Reports.Biz include new market research report"Inorganic And Composite Printed Electronics 2014-2024: Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast" to its huge collection of research reports.

                                                              Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 07/24/2014 -- This Inorganic And Composite Printed Electronics 2014-2024 report reveals the rapidly increasing opportunities for inorganic and composite chemicals in the new printed electronics, given that so much of the limelight is on organics. Inorganics encompass various metals, metal oxides as transparent conductors (such as fluorine tin oxide or indium tin oxide, extensively used in displays and photovoltaic technologies) or transistor materials as well as nano-silicon or copper and silver inks, whether in particle or flake form. Then there are inorganic quantum dots, carbon structures such as graphene, nanotubes and the various buckyballs etc. However, there is much more, from light emitting materials to battery elements and the amazing new meta-materials that render things invisible and lead to previously impossible forms of electronics.

                                                              View Full Report at http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/analysis/212785

                                                              Over the next ten years, improvements in inorganic conductors such as the use of nanotechnology and the lack of improvement of the very poorly conductive and expensive organic alternatives means that inorganics will be preferred for most conductors whether for electrodes, antennas, touch buttons, interconnects or for other purposes. By contrast, organic substrates for flexible electronics such as low cost polyester film and paper will be preferred in most cases because they are light weight, low cost and have a wide range of mechanical flexibility. The use of inorganic substrates such as glass represents a fall-back particularly required where there is failure to reduce processing temperatures. Here stainless steel foil printed reel to reel is an improvement, where possible.

                                                              Technologies covered

                                                              The report considers inorganic printed and thin film electronics for displays, lighting, semiconductors, sensors, conductors, photovoltaics, batteries and memory giving detailed company profiles not available elsewhere. The coverage is global - with companies from East Asia to Europe to America all included.

                                                              Browse More Published Reports by IDTechEx

                                                              The application of the technology in relation to other types such as organic electronics and silicon chips is given, with detailed information clearly summarised in many tables and figures.

                                                              Elements being targeted

                                                              In order to meet the widening variety of needs for printed and potentially printed electronics, not least in flexible, low cost form, a rapidly increasing number of elements are being brought to bear. Oxides, amorphous mixtures and alloys are particularly in evidence. Even the so-called organic devices such as OLEDs variously employ such materials as B, Al and Ti oxides and nitrides as barrier layers against water and oxygen, Al, Cu, Ag and indium tin oxide as conductors, Ca or Mg cathodes and CoFe nanodots, Ir and Eu in light emitting layers, for example.

                                                              There is increasing work on printed inorganics as people struggle with the performance of organics in some aspects. For conductors with vastly better conductance and cost, for the best printed batteries, for quantum dot devices and for transistor semiconductors with ten times the mobility, look to the new inorganics. That is the emerging world of new nanoparticle metal and alloy inks that are magnitudes superior in cost, conductivity and stability, such as the flexible zinc oxide based transistor semiconductors working at ten times the frequency and with best stability and life, along with many other inorganic materials. Read the world's only report that pulls all this together in readable form.

                                                              This report critically compares the options, the trends and the emerging applications. It is the first in the world to comprehensively cover this exciting growth area. The emphasis is on technology basics, commercialisation and the key players.

                                                              This report is suitable for all companies developing or interested in the opportunity of printed or thin film electronics materials, manufacturing technologies or complete device fabrication and integration.

                                                              We can provide sample pages for the better understanding of this report. Request Sample of This Report at http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/212785

                                                              About Us
                                                              Marketresearchreports.biz is the most comprehensive collection of market research reports. Marketresearchreports.biz services are especially designed to save time and money of our clients. We are a one stop solution for all your research needs, our main offerings are syndicated research reports, custom research, subscription access and consulting services. We serve all sizes and types of companies spanning across various industries.

                                                              To get in touch with our Research Coordinators, call us on 866-997-4948 (Us-Canada Toll Free) or drop us an email at: sales@marketresearchreports.biz . We will get back in touch with you within 24 hours.

                                                              Browse Blog - https://www.linkedin.com/today/author/173774513

                                                              For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/the-market-for-inorganic-electronics-will-rise-to-45-billion-by-2024-533151.htm

                                                              Media Relations Contact

                                                              Sheela AK
                                                              Business Head
                                                              marketresearchreports.Biz
                                                              Telephone: 518-618-1030
                                                              Email: Click to Email Sheela AK
                                                              Web: http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/


                                                                        Carnivore        
                                                              Carl Franklin and Richard Morris talk to Amber O'Hearn about being a carnivore, evolution, sleep, ketogenic metabolism, and a few other tasty nuggets you won't want to miss! Errata Richard forgot to mention when working with Transglutaminase .. wear food prep gloves. Amber sent us a piece of errata. She writes: In our podcast, Carl asks me if babies *have* to be in ketosis to build brains, and I say yes, but that's not true. That is, the primary way that babies build fat and cholesterol in the brain in normal conditions *is* out of ketone bodies, though a small proportion is also made from glucose. I have a few references on this point in the talk transcript on my blog. The critical question is: What happens if there are no ketones to be had and only glucose? The answer seems to be that glucose will suffice. There is a rare inborn error of metabolism called HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, which prevents the body from making ketones. A paper by another brilliant Morris ( Cerebral ketone body metabolism ) reports that people afflicted with this have white matter abnormalities, but no noticeable loss of function, except of course, they can't go without food for long. This suggests that in cases where there are no circulating ketones, the glucose alternative pathway will take over, and get at least an adequate brain constructed. It occurs to me that children with this condition may be perfect candidates for the therapeutic use of ketones esters, provided the condition doesn't somehow prevent their use. "Given the importance of KBs [ketone bodies] as substrates for myelination, one might expect disorders of ketogenesis to be associated with cerebral white-matter abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging has, indeed, shown diffuse mildly increased signal in the white matter of patients with HMG-CoA lyase deficiency. Superimposed on this are foci of more abnormal signal. In most cases, multiple lesions have been present, varying in size from a few millimetres to large confluent areas; as well as in the cerebral hemispheres, they have been reported in the internal capsule and brainstem but not in the corpus callosum or cerebellar white matter. Despite the imaging abnormalities, most patients have had no neurological problems and normal or slightly below average intelligence. The findings would be compatible with hypomyelination, caused by the lack of KB."
                                                                        SPMW Nanotube, nanoneedle and nanomeniscus: mechanical and wetting properties of modified AFM tip apex        
                                                              Among AFM microscopes, Dynamic force microscopes (DFM) are very sensitive to variation of minute forces involved in the interaction between the tip and the surface. However, despite numerous efforts, imaging and probing mechanical properties of soft materials in air and water at the nm scale are still challenging experiments or at least cannot be achieved routinely. Among various factors determining AFM efficiency, AFM tip remains the central parameter and have been the focus of many creative conceptions and experimental attempts to improve its stability and resolution.Therefore any new developments able to improve the geometry and size of AFM tips were systematically investigated, in particular use of Carbon Nanotube (CNT), etching process, or Focus Ion Beam to carve a tip. In that talk we review few results obtained on single and multi wall CNT used as AFM tip apex. In particular we focus on the mechanical properties of CNT and highlight the competition between CNT adhesion to substrate and CNT elastic force.The second part of the presentation is dedicated to the study of the air-liquid interface. We discuss the physical properties of a nanomeniscus wetting an oscillating nanoneedle. The results address questions concerning stability and behaviour of attolitter drops at the triple line frontier and properties of laminar flows at the nanometer scale. Also we show the ability to control and record image at the air-liquid interface. The present work shows the capability to investigate change of the surface tension at nanometer scale for more complex liquid interfaces.Image of SWNT and resonance frequency shift of SWNT. Non contact domain (Red), Intermittent contact (black), permanent contact (blue).Image of MWNT and resonance frequency shift induced by the mechanical properties of MWNT.First figure: Cross section of a air liquid interface.2nd Figure: Frequency shift (blue) and damping (red) induced by the mechanical properties of nanomeniscus.
                                                                        SPMW FIRAT: A fast and sensitive probe structure for SPM        
                                                              A new SPM probe, called the force sensing integrated readout and active tip (FIRAT), is described and initial experimental results obtained on commercial AFM systems are presented. FIRAT combines a micromachined integrated electrostatic actuator to move the tip and an integrated optical interferometric displacement detector in a microscale volume. The current implementation of the probe uses surface micromachined aluminum structures on quartz substrate as the mechanical force sensing structure, and the probe tips are fabricated by focused ion beam assisted deposition [1]. Interferometric detection is achieved by monitoring the reflected diffraction pattern generated when the diffraction grating on the quartz substrate surface beneath the probe tip is illuminated by a laser. This robust interferometer structure has been shown to provide detection levels down to 13.6fm/√Hz with 60µW laser power, close to the shot noise level [2]. The probe is integrated to several commercial AFM systems for imaging and material characterization experiments. Tapping mode images using FIRAT probes with resonance frequencies in the 600-900 kHz range with 60 Hz line scan rate are obtained, where the electrostatic actuator is used for both AC vibration and Z position control. In addition to regular tapping mode imaging, the broad bandwidth of the probe enables non-resonant tapping mode imaging where the transient interaction forces can be measured with regular imaging speeds. When used in the time resolved interaction force (TRIF) mode, the FIRAT probe provides quantitative information such as surface adhesion and elasticity through model based inversion, while simultaneously imaging the topography. TRIF mode images and inversion results on various polymer and carbon nanotube samples are presented. FIRAT probe design and fabrication for specific applications for operation in air are also discussed. Fabricated probes have resonance frequencies about 1MHz, quality factors in the .5 to 16, spring constants in the 10-40 N/m range. Finally, FIRAT probes for applications in liquids are described and initial single molecule force spectroscopy results are presented.
                                                                         Finite width effect of thin-films buckling on compliant substrate: Experimental and theoretical studies         
                                                              JIANG, H and KHANG, D and FEI, H and KIM, H and HUANG, Y and XIAO, J and ROGERS, J. (2008) Finite width effect of thin-films buckling on compliant substrate: Experimental and theoretical studies. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, 56 (8). p. 2585. ISSN 00225096
                                                                        Changing Oil Based on Oxidation        

                                                              "As oil ages, it oxidizes. What is the best indicator that the oil has oxidized too much and should be changed based upon the results given in a typical oil analysis? We analyze the oil from our mixer gearboxes and will typically run the same oil in the gearbox for several years as long as the oil analysis comes back with good results."

                                                              The first issue here is to define a "typical" oil analysis. Most labs have several test packages to choose from that may or may not give an overall solid feel for lubricant oxidation. In order to identify lubricant oxidation, it is important to include oil properties monitoring as part of your regular test package. This will allow for the extension of drain intervals based on lubricant condition as well as help to identify adverse operating conditions that may exist.

                                                              Common tests that cover lubricant properties include viscosity, neutralization number (acid number for industrial-based lubricants, base number for mobile equipment) and FTIR. The values of the results in all of these tests will increase as the level of oxidation increases (with the exception of base number, which will decrease as the level of acids increase via the oxidation process).

                                                              A couple of common field tests that can help to indicate possible oxidation are darkening color and foul odor. Oxidation usually has a sour or pungent odor, similar to rotten eggs. It occurs when the hydrocarbon constituents of lube oil combine chemically with oxygen. As with the laboratory tests, it is important that sensory testing is compared to that of a virgin oil base sample.

                                                              Just like with most chemical reactions, oil oxidation is accelerated by heat and pressure. It is no different than other commonly encountered oxidation reactions, such as rusting. Just like the effects that rusting and other corrosive processes have on metal substrates, oil oxidation results in a catastrophic and permanent chemical change to the base oil molecules. The net effect of prolonged oxidation is that the oil becomes acidic (chemically), causing corrosion, while an increase in viscosity occurs (physically).

                                                              Oxidation will generally happen at a slow rate under optimum conditions; however, as the health of the lubricant decreases, the rate of degradation will increase. There are several other factors that, if not controlled, can lead to increased rates of oxidation. These factors include heat, air, water and metallic particles.

                                                              Using a combination of these tests will assist in pinpointing positive levels of oxidation. Combined with appropriate equipment monitoring tests and contaminant tests, root causes of oxidation can also be found and controlled.


                                                                        What’s that Smell? Using Odor as an Oil Analysis Tool         

                                                              Field tests are some of the most overlooked, yet valuable tools that lubrication professionals can have in their arsenal. Most field tests are quick, inexpensive, simple to conduct and yield great information. One of my favorite field tests is odor.

                                                              Many characteristics and properties of an oil can be detected with our senses. We use our eyes to check level gauges, color, clarity, opacity, etc. We use our ears to determine conditions like cavitation, overloading, misalignments, etc. Why shouldn’t we utilize our noses more often?

                                                              Smell is a very direct sense. In order for you to smell something, molecules from that something must find their way to your nose. Therefore, everything you smell is releasing molecules. These molecules are mostly small, light, volatile chemicals that find their way into your nasal passages. Once in the nasal passages, these molecules come in contact with a special patch of neurons. These neurons have very small, hair-like projections called cilia that increase the surface area to capture more of the molecules. The molecules attach to the cilia and trigger the neurons to send a signal to your brain, which causes you to perceive a particular smell.

                                                              So which oil odors should you be trying to distinguish? Here are a few you should be able to recognize.

                                                               

                                                              Oxidation

                                                              Oxidation has a sour or pungent odor, similar to rotten eggs. It occurs when the hydrocarbon constituents of lube oil combine chemically with oxygen. As with most chemical reactions, oil oxidation is accelerated by heat and pressure. It is no different than other commonly encountered oxidation reactions, such as rusting. Just like the effects that rusting and other corrosive processes have on metal substrates, oil oxidation results in a catastrophic and permanent chemical change to the base oil molecules. The net effect of prolonged oxidation is that the oil becomes acidic (chemically), causing corrosion, while an increase in viscosity occurs (physically).

                                                              Thermal Failure

                                                              Thermal failure has the smell of burned food. It typically occurs when the base oil comes in contact with hot surfaces within the oil-wetted path or due to a sudden and rapid increase in temperature associated with the adiabatic compression of entrained air bubbles in pumps, bearings and other pressurized lubrication environments. When this takes place, the layer of oil that comes in contact with the hot machine surface or compressed air bubble can change chemically.

                                                              Bacteria

                                                              Bacteria can produce a road-kill smell or stench. Once established, bacterial colonies will clog control systems, quickly degrade oil quality and performance, and generate corrosive byproducts. If not detected early, the problem will manifest itself into expensive repairs, extended downtime and a significant expenditure of scarce resources.

                                                              Contaminants

                                                              Contaminants such as solvents, refrigerants, degreasers, hydrogen sulfide, gasoline, diesel, kerosene and process chemicals all have a distinct smell of their own.

                                                              Sulfur Compounds

                                                              Sulfur compounds have a skunk-like odor. The various oxides of sulfur and water, both of which are combustion byproducts, react together to form sulphuric acid. This acid is neutralized by the basic reserve in the oil’s additive package (overbase detergent) and normally results in the formation of metallic sulfates.

                                                              Nitrogen Compounds

                                                              Nitrogen compounds have an almond-like scent. Nitration is another form of oxidation. It results from the reaction of oil components with nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2 and N2O4), which are produced from the oxidation of atmospheric nitrogen during the combustion process. In addition to causing oil thickening, nitration products are major contributors to the buildup of varnish.

                                                              Esters and Ketones

                                                              Esters and ketones have a perfume (fruity) odor. Esters are produced when carboxylic acids are heated with alcohols in the presence of an acid catalyst. Their odor is due to their volatile nature, which is caused by their chemical composition and conformations.

                                                              84% of machinerylubrication.com visitors use smell as an oil analysis tool.

                                                              Although it’s not a cutting-edge science and there aren’t any cool handheld devices (yet), smell should be an essential part of your oil analysis program. It’s fast, cheap and easy. Very few things in the machinery reliability world offer all three of these attributes.

                                                              One of my favorite stories about using smell as a field test involved a client who sent me an oil analysis report that was very basic. It had the normal range of tests for an “economy” report. It showed an increasing viscosity, a darkening, the formation of some sludge and varnish, etc., all the telltale signs of an oxidative failure, yet the oil had not been in service very long.

                                                              Over the phone, I told the client to open the bottle and take a big whiff of it. I could tell by the awkward silence that he was making a face - you know the one you make when you think you’ve heard what someone has said but know it couldn’t be right. He repeated my request with a bit of sarcasm in his voice, to which I replied, “Just do it.” A few seconds later, I heard, “Wow! It smells like burnt oil!” That was our clue that the problem was thermal failure.

                                                               

                                                              More Than a Sniff Test

                                                              Even in laboratories these days, there are headspace instruments that are not actually analyzing what’s in the oil but what is coming out of the oil. Gas chromatography (GC) is one of the most widely used techniques in modern analytical chemistry. In its basic form, GC is used to separate complex mixtures of different molecules based on their physical properties, such as polarity and boiling point. It is an ideal tool to analyze gas and liquid samples containing many hundreds or even thousands of different molecules, allowing the analyst to identify both the types of molecular species present and their concentrations. So if your oil has a unique odor, you may want to run a GC test to see what these odors might be.


                                                                        What Oil Analysis Tests Tell Us        

                                                              This article reviews tests specific to various sample test classes, as well as additional tests that are triggered in extraordinary circumstances. The first part of this two-part series appeared in the March-April 2006 issue of Practicing Oil Analysis.

                                                              Debris Analysis
                                                              To confirm the results of the ferrous density discussed in the previous article, two other tests are commonly performed to analyze wear debris. These include particle counting and patch microscopy.

                                                              Particle Counting
                                                              Particle counting is actually a test for particle contaminent levels and not specifically wear debris. It does not distinguish between wear and dirt particles, but if it can be determined that nonferrous contamination has remained stable, then an increase in the particle count must be attributable to wear.

                                                              A magnet can be used to modify the particle count to count ferrous debris only. There are various ways of doing this, but essentially a magnet holds back the ferrous debris while the nonferrous debris is flushed from the sample, after which a ferrous debris particle count is performed.

                                                              Particle counts are invariably reported according to ISO 4406:99. Other standards do exist, but they are not as commonly used. ISO 4406:99 returns a three-digit solid contamination code.

                                                              The method of particle counting is not as important as performing the test properly. It is important to note that only results from the same method should be compared.

                                                              The particle count is an easy test to interpret, assuming the test has been correctly performed. (This point is made because there are many factors which can negatively affect a particle count.) An increasing count is an indication of an increased number of particles in the oil. Exception tests such as analytical ferrography or patch microscopy would then be used to qualify the type and source of the particle contamination.


                                                              Figure 1. MPE Rated 2111


                                                              Figure 2. MPE Rated 4111

                                                              Analytical Microscopy
                                                              Analytical microscopy is a technique used to qualify contaminants, including wear debris, in an oil sample. There are two commonly performed variations of this technique: analytical ferrography and patch microscopy.

                                                              Analytical ferrography uses magnetic fields to separate ferrous debris according to particle size. As the name suggests, this technique is biased to ferrous particles, but some nonferrous particles are typically deposited on the substrate either via entrapment or by magnetic effects imparted to them by impaction of ferrous particles.

                                                              Patch microscopy, on the other hand, does not demonstrate a bias to ferrous particles. All particles above the membrane pore size are presented on a piece of filter paper, the filtergram, for examination. However, patch microscopy does not have the size-separation attributes of the ferrography, so particle deposition is random.

                                                              A modification of the patch test can be performed to analyze both ferrous and nonferrous debris separately. A magnet is used to hold back magnetic particles while a filtergram of nonferrous debris is prepared. Then a filtergram of the remaining magnetic debris is made.


                                                              Table 1. Overheating with Regular Oil Top-up

                                                              In deciding on the correct microscopy test to perform, one must make some judgment on the machine metallurgy and the nature of the contaminant being sought. It is not a good idea to perform ferrography on a worm-and-wheel gearbox where the majority of wear particles are likely to be cupric (thus nonmagnetic) in origin. Similarly, if a wear situation is suspected on a reducer with helical gear sets, then analytical ferrography will probably provide far better resolution than the patch.

                                                              It is worth mentioning that for filtered oil systems, a ferrogram or patch which does not show abnormalities should be treated with suspicion. Assuming that there was a reason to proceed with the analytical microscopy in the first place, one would then expect to see problems. A good approach to filtered systems is to remove a section of the filter medium, wash it out in solvent and perform the microscopy on the extract.

                                                              Each laboratory will have its own system for quantifying and reporting wear and contaminants in each of these tests. Interpretation is subjective and can be expensive to perform because it is labor-intensive.

                                                              Analytical microscopy is a powerful technique which should be used to confirm and qualify contamination and wear situations identified by the routine tests.


                                                              Figure 3. Example of an FTIR Spectrum

                                                              Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy
                                                              Infrared analysis is the second type of spectroscopy commonly found in a laboratory. Unlike elemental analysis, FTIR provides information on compounds, rather than elements, found in an oil. FTIR measures several useful degradation parameters, so is particularly useful in engine oil samples. Infrared analysis detects the presence of water and can also be used to identify oil base stocks.

                                                              While the ICP spectroscopy measures emissions of radiation of specific wavelength in the visible and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, infrared analysis measures the specific wavelengths of radiation in the infrared region. The various degradation by-products and contaminants found in the oil cause characteristic absorptions in specific regions of the infrared spectrum. The higher the level of contamination in the sample, the higher the degree of absorption in the characteristic region.

                                                              A plot of absorbance, transmittance, or concentration versus wave-number is generated during the analysis of an oil sample, called the infrared spectrum. This spectrum is subsequently analyzed by specialized oil analysis software that yields measurements most commonly for soot, oxidation, sulfates, nitrates and water. Other compounds, such as additives, fuel and glycol can also be measured, but for these an accurate sample of the new oil is needed as a reference. If no such reference sample has been supplied then readings of the latter parameters should be regarded with suspicion. The most commonly measured parameters are examined below.

                                                              Soot
                                                              The soot index is a linear measurement that measures the extent to which the oil has become contaminated by fuel soot, an unwanted by-product of combustion. The units reported depend on the spectrometer manufacturer. The measurement really applies only to diesel engines because the soot measurement on gasoline engines is expected to be very low. In diesel engines, excessive amounts of soot can be generated by overfueling (air to fuel ratios), incorrect combustion temperatures, low operating revolutions, restricted intake and exhaust systems, and faulty turbochargers.

                                                              Dispersant additives are formulated in engine oils to hold soot in suspension. Unfortunately, there is a limit to how much soot a lubricant can carry. When the maximum amount is exceeded, sludge deposits start to form, which can harm the engine. The effects of severe sludging manifest themselves as increasing oil viscosity. These usually occur rapidly to the point where the oil can no longer be pumped and engine failure ensues.

                                                              When interpreting the severity of the soot index measurement, one should take into account the soot readings on previous samples from the engine as well as the magnitude of the change in the oil's viscosity. It should also be noted that high soot loading can negatively affect the accuracy of other infrared measurements.

                                                              Oxidation
                                                              As oil oxidizes, its ability to lubricate diminishes and, in cases of severe oxidation, noticeable changes occur: it becomes darker and emits odor; varnishes, lacquers and resins are formed; and in the advanced stages viscosity increases, often rapidly. Fortunately, the chemical reaction between oxygen and lubricant molecules at room temperature is slow and oxidative degradation is not an issue under these conditions. The situation changes when reaction conditions are altered to favor a more rapid reaction rate.

                                                              Engine lubricants are formulated with a hostile environment in mind. Many conditions promoting accelerated oxidation co-exist in an engine, such as high temperatures, high pressures, a good air supply, agitation, the presence of metal catalysts and thin film exposure.

                                                              The most significant of these conditions is the operating temperature, because rate of oxidation doubles for every 10°C increase in temperature. Excessively high operating temperature (overheating) is generally accompanied by increased wear (lead, copper, tin and iron) and increased baseline viscosity.

                                                              Sometimes overheating leads to the evaporation of volatile fractions in the oil, making regular top-ups necessary. In this case, the sump oil will exhibit increased additive levels (concentration of nonvolatile components) and an increased viscosity as a direct result of light end loss. As this lost oil is replaced with fresh oil, the antioxidants are replaced and oxidation is often not immediately evident. This is shown in Table 1, with sample No. 3 being the most recent.

                                                              Oxidation is also of use with industrial oil samples. Results should be compared with acid number and possibly viscosity for confirmation.

                                                              Sulfation
                                                              The combustion by-products formed by burning diesel fuel, sulfur oxides and water, readily combine to form sulfur-based acids. The bulk of these corrosive acids is removed as part of the engine’s exhaust, but some remain and escape into the engine cavity in blow-by gas where they are neutralized by additives in the oil, or proceed to attack the thin oil films providing lubrication for piston rings and cylinder liners.

                                                              The sulfate index from infrared analysis is a measurement of the amount of sulfur-based acids that have reacted with the oil and reflect the amount of sulfation that has occurred. If fuel sulfur levels remain constant, the sulfate index would be expected to increase continuously with use until the oil reaches the end of its useful service life, for which the sulfation level or sulfate index can be an important determinant.

                                                              At normal operating temperatures, acids remain in a gaseous state in the blow-by gas with minimal contact with reactive surfaces. However, when an engine experiences lower-than-normal operating temperatures (such as just after start-up, at shutdown, or when a faulty cooling system results in continuous overcooling) the acids condense and come in contact with the oil in the sump, causing the oil to film on exposed metal surfaces. This places an extra burden on the lubricant because it must neutralize more acid than would be expected during normal operation. Thus, high sulfation early in the oil’s life often indicates abnormally low operating temperatures.

                                                              Nitration
                                                              As with sulfation, nitration is the reaction of the oil with combustion by-products of nitrogen. These reactions tend to become more pronounced at higher temperatures. Therefore, increased nitration is often an indication of increased blow-by, as the hot combustion gases react with the oil. Nitration is rarely mentioned because other problems, such as high top-end wear associated with blow-by, will manifest themselves first.

                                                              Nitration in industrial oil samples is an indication of a thermal breakdown of the oil. This can occur when the oil comes into contact with extremely hot surfaces, or where excessive aeration, particularly in hydraulic systems, leads to microdieselling. Though not often seen, an increase in nitration should be taken seriously.

                                                              Acid Number (AN)
                                                              The measurement of AN involves a titration where the total acid content of the oil dissolved in a mixed solvent is completely neutralized by the gradual addition of an alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide (KOH). A colorimetric method of determining the end point is effected by the use of a chemical indicator that changes color as soon as the acid is completely neutralized. Alternatively, a potentiometric method may also be used.

                                                              The AN test is performed on nonengine oil samples and is used to quantify the acid buildup in these oils. An increased AN is a result of oxidation of the oil, perhaps caused by overheating, overextended oil service, or water or air contamination.

                                                              Components within refrigeration systems are particularly susceptible to acid attack. This can occur when air containing water vapor enters the system, or alternatively when the system is subjected to excessive heat and the refrigerant drier releases retained water. When this happens, acids created by the reaction of the air, water, refrigerant and oil cause iron components in the system to become plated with copper, which can cause bearing failure due to copper plating. In refrigerant systems, the acid content of the oil, moisture content and copper level need to be regularly monitored to indicate incipient problems.

                                                              AN limits vary enormously and depend both on OEM specifications and on the oil itself. In some cases, an AN exceeding 0.05 is unacceptable; in others ANs of 4.00 and higher remain acceptable. As with all other readings, trend analysis is the best indication of the health of both the oil and the machine.

                                                              Base Number (BN)
                                                              The measurement of BN involves a complex potentiometric titration where the total alkaline reserve of one gram of oil dissolved in a mixed solvent is reacted with the gradual addition of a known excess of an acid solution. The reaction is monitored using a reference and a measuring electrode, where a graph of voltage (mV) vs. acid added (ml) is then plotted. The end point is detected from a point of inflection on the graph or, in the case of badly degraded oils, from a predetermined millivolt reading.

                                                              This test applies only to engine oil samples because these lubricants are deliberately formulated to contain a reserve alkalinity that enables them to neutralize the corrosive acidic by- products of the combustion process. The BN of an oil is a direct measurement of its alkaline reserve.

                                                              Every engine oil has an initial BN that gradually reduces during use.

                                                              Typical starting values for diesel engine oils are between 8 and 12. However, marine engines burning heavy fuel oil need a much higher BN, possibly as high as 80, to handle the harsh combustion conditions from fuels containing a high concentration of sulfur. A general rule of thumb is to discard the oil when the BN drops below half its beginning value.

                                                              While it may seem logical to assume that oils formulated to have a high BN would be most desirable, this is not always the case because some engines may suffer burnt valves if such an oil is used. This results from the high ash content of the oil and high valve temperatures causing fusion of the valve seats. Using a lubricant specifically formulated for diesel combustion in a gasoline engine could also prove detrimental, highlighting the importance of adhering to equipment manufacturers’ lubricant specifications.

                                                              BN measurements are performed only on samples from infrared results flagged for analysis. A BN can be predicted through the infrared data and, where this prediction is below the specified limit, a BN test is requested to confirm the degree of degradation evident in the infrared data. All samples having a predicted BN exceeding a safe limit are reported as having a BN of +6 while the actual result is reported for samples selected for the test.

                                                              AN and BN Units of Measurement
                                                              The units of BN and AN can be somewhat confusing. Although they are different tests, the results are both expressed in the same units: milligrams of potassium hydroxide per gram of oil, represented as mg KOH/g.

                                                              The AN of an oil is defined as the number of milligrams of KOH needed to neutralize the acid constituents in one gram of the oil.

                                                              The BN of an oil is the number of milligrams of KOH needed to neutralize the acid needed to neutralize the basic constituents in one gram of the oil.

                                                              Gas Chromatography Test for Fuel Dilution
                                                              Gas chromatography (GC) is a separation technique used to analyze used engine oils for evidence of fuel dilution. The technique as applied to fuel dilution measurements is used to separate and measure two volatile fractions of specified boiling ranges from used engine oil samples. The first volatile fraction of interest has a boiling range similar to that specified for gasoline, while the second fraction has a boiling range similar to diesel. The instrument is calibrated and measurements are reported as a percentage contamination by mass.

                                                              The fuel dilution test is typically performed either when a significant drop in sample viscosity is measured, or when the flash-point test has failed. It is important that the oil brand and grade are correctly described to your laboratory if problematic samples are to be detected. Special care is necessary in interpreting results because many factors can influence their interpretation. Fuels are complex mixtures of organic compounds that are classified into products based largely on distillation ranges rather than specific chemical data. There are also significant overlaps between various product specifications, making it sometimes difficult to accurately separate and quantify fuel mixtures.

                                                              Editor’s Note:
                                                              This article was originally published as Technical Bulletin Issue 20 by Wearcheck Africa, a member of the Set Point group. It has been modified since its original publication.


                                                                        Test Method for Simulating the Aging and Oxidation Stability of Lubricants        

                                                              Choosing the correct lubricant for micromechanical parts is not easy, because the parts to be lubricated are very small. As a result, lubricants with specific profiles are needed, especially in terms of for-life lubrication, minimum quantity lubrication and single-application lubrication. The oxidative and aging stability of the lubricants is one important aspect. Laboratory tests provide the necessary information to evaluate the long-term behavior of lubricants in field applications. In the lab of Dr. Tillwich GmbH Werner Stehr, a method has been developed to simulate the aging stability of lubricants in an application-adapted procedure, where thin layers of lubricants are aged in contact with catalytic metals and oxygen at high temperatures. This article combines the results of aging tests on different precision lubricants with the analysis of lubricant failures in micromechanical parts. The transferability of the laboratory results to the expected life of the lubricants under practical conditions is discussed.

                                                              Choosing a suitable lubricant for micromechanical parts is made more difficult by their typical requirements. Lubricating such parts is considerably different from that of conventional mechanical components. Because micromechanical parts are small and complex, relubricating the bearing or replacing the lubricant, for example, is out of the question from the start. An important aspect for choosing a lubricant is the concept of for-life lubrication. In the case of micromechanical bearings, this means that the bearings are lubricated only one time during production with a minimal amount of lubricant, which sometimes amounts to a fraction of a droplet. This small amount must guarantee precise and safe function for the entire service life of the part, which may be several decades.

                                                              Evaluating the oxidative and aging stability of the lubricant plays a significant role in choosing the correct lubricant for bearings greased with for-life lubricants. Testing the aging stability should be designed in such a way that conclusions can be made regarding the long-term behavior of the lubricants in real technical parts.

                                                              The Dr. Tillwich GmbH Werner Stehr Company has developed a field-oriented procedure to test the aging and oxidative stability of thin layers of lubricants in contact with catalytic metals and high temperatures. This article discusses the simulation method, comparing test results with various lubricants for micromechanical applications. The transferability of the laboratory simulation results to the expected service life of the lubricants under practical conditions is also discussed.

                                                              Background
                                                              The aging and oxidative stability of a lubricant is generally determined by its chemical composition as well as the character and proportion of respective additives and stabilizing agents. Aging reactions are accelerated by bearing metals, which as catalysts, speed up oxidative reactions with oxygen. In addition, higher ambient temperatures, wear particles or hostile environmental conditions and gases greatly influence the stability of the lubricants. The importance of evaluating the aging stability of for-life lubricants can be demonstrated by the cases of damage suffered under practical conditions where insufficient chemical stability of the lubricant led to a failure.

                                                              Lubricant Aging at High Temperatures
                                                              Figure 1 shows a scanning electron microscope (SEM) photograph of a failed sintered bronze bearing from a miniature ventilator. The bearing was lubricated with an ester-based fluid lubricant. As a result of increasing the application temperature from 80°C to 100°C, the ventilator failed prematurely in the component test. In order to analyze the cause of the failure, the sintered metal bearing was broken at the center and cleaned several times with ultrasound and solvent to remove the adhesive lubricant. After sputtering the parts with gold/palladium, they were examined under the SEM and with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX).


                                                              Figure 1. SEM photograph of a failed

                                                              sintered metal bearing

                                                              Dark layers can be seen clearly on the running surface
                                                              of the bearing’s cylindrical bore (diameter 2 millimeters)
                                                              that were not removed during the cleaning process.

                                                              At a higher magnification (Figure 2), the thick layers can be distinguished clearly, which seal the pores of the bearing surface, and therefore interfere with the function of the sintered metal bearing in terms of the oil supply and quiet running. The analysis of the layer demonstrated that it has to do with organic reaction products from the lubricant that was used.


                                                              Figure 2. Detailed SEM photograph of the
                                                              running surface of a failed sintered metal bearing

                                                              Lubricant Aging from a Hostile Environment
                                                              A similar failure took place in a spindle drive that actuates an air valve in a heating system. The drive with a spindle made of rustproof steel and a nut made of copper-tin alloy failed after operating for only 10 percent of its service life. A polyalphaolefin (PAO)-based lubricant was used to lubricate the part. Upon an optical examination of the stuck part under the SEM, one could see that the flanks of the screw threads are almost completely covered with a thick, clod-like coat of material (Figure 3). No wear is detectable.


                                                              Figure 3. Detailed SEM photograph of the screw
                                                              thread flanks of a nut from a failed spindle drive

                                                              When the surface is magnified, one can see that the
                                                              coating has solidly adhered to the surface (Figure 4).


                                                              Figure 4. Detailed SEM photograph of the
                                                              surface of a screw thread flank

                                                              Due to the vacuum conditions in the SEM, the
                                                              organic layer chips away in places. Here, one clearly
                                                              sees the initial machined surface of the screw thread
                                                              flank surface.
                                                              No wear has occurred.
                                                              Exhaust gases from the heating unit condensed on
                                                              the spindle, which entered into the lubricant, led to
                                                              the rapid build up of organic layers, which caused
                                                              the spindle to stick.

                                                              Lubricant Aging Due to Wear Particles
                                                              When examining the damages to ball bearings from a failed turbomolecular pump in the SEM, organic layers were detected in the ball tracks, which could be partly attributed to the synthetic ester-based lubricant and the PTFE thickening agent (Figure 5).


                                                              Figure 5. Detailed SEM photograph of the ball
                                                              track of a failed ball bearing

                                                              The layer is built up in clods and is reminiscent of
                                                              solidified molten material. It adheres solidly to the
                                                              ball track surface, upon which no wear is visible
                                                              (Figure 6).


                                                              Figure 6. Detailed SEM photograph of the ball
                                                              track of a failed ball bearing

                                                              We agreed that the failure was caused by abrasive
                                                              particles in the phenolic resin retainer, which forms
                                                              a solid paste together with the applied lubricant.
                                                              Due to the increased internal friction of the lubricant,
                                                              heat was generated quickly in the ball bearing,
                                                              which caused the lubricant to finally gum up completely.

                                                              We agreed that the failure was caused by abrasive particles in the phenolic resin retainer, which forms a solid paste together with the applied lubricant. Due to the increased internal friction of the lubricant, heat was generated quickly in the ball bearing, which caused the lubricant to finally gum up completely.


                                                              Figure 7. Testing the aging stability of
                                                              thinly layered lubricants

                                                              Aging and Oxidative Stability
                                                              In lubrication testing technology, various testing methods are described, which should provide clues regarding the oxidative stability of lubricants. Nevertheless, evaluating the long-term stability of lubricants using the results of the laboratory simulation proved difficult because the testing conditions of the laboratory simulation deviate from actual application in micromechanical bearings.

                                                              In these tests, a relatively large amount of oil, from 20 milliliters to 2 liters, is artificially aged in respective containers in contact with oxygen, catalysts, increased temperatures and/or pressure. In the area of micromechanics and watch-making technology, a modified laboratory test has been set up based on the aging stability test according to Baader DIN 51554.1 In this case, 70 ml of oil was held in a 95°C glass container for 35 days. During this time, atmospheric oxygen was constantly stirred into the warm test oil with a glass stirrer connected to a copper spiral at a rate of 24 strokes per minute. The condition of the oil is monitored by weekly measurements of the viscosity, neutralization value, refraction index and optical aspects.2

                                                              When comparing the oil tests from failed parts with the results of laboratory simulations, it was repeatedly detected that different, somewhat more extreme oxidative reactions were triggered in the field conditions.3 If one considers the relatively small amounts of lubricant in a micromechanical bearing, it becomes apparent that there is much more metallic surface related to the oil amount compared to the laboratory test. The same applies to the effect of oxygen, which can attack the lubricant over a large surface. In addition, we realized that aging is more severe when in contact with two bearing materials, for example, brass and steel, than in bearings made of only one material.

                                                              Therefore, it was not possible to directly transfer the results from the laboratory simulation. For these reasons, a test method was developed by the Dr. Tillwich GmbH Werner Stehr Company, which can simulate the oxidative stability of lubricants in a field-oriented procedure.

                                                              Aging Tests of Thinly Layered Oil
                                                              To achieve the most field-oriented simulation of lubricant conditions possible for a micromechanical bearing, the lubricants will now be time-lapse aged in thin layers on a large surface in contact with catalytic metals. These metals speed up the aging reaction as well as increased temperatures.4

                                                              In glass Petri dishes (internal diameter 70 mm, height 13 mm) with a surface area of approximately 38.5 cm2, there are 30 grams of mixed brass stampings made of CuZn39Pb2F49 (variable diameter 1 to 4.5 mm, height 1 mm), which cover the entire inner glass surface in one layer. This metal layer with a large reactive surface will be evenly covered with 5 ml of oil (layer thickness approximately 2 to 4 mm). One-and-a half-grams of fine pinion wire chips will be spread out on the oil. In addition, 5 ml of oil set up the same way but without the metallic catalysts will be tested. Covered with a glass cover, the test oil will be put into a hot oven at 120°C.

                                                              Every two to six days, a minimal amount of lubricant will be removed from the test setup and examined for changes in the infrared (IR)-spectrum. Even slight changes can be detected in comparison to the new oil, for example, a decrease in the additive or the appearance of aging and oxidative products.

                                                              An aging test on a PAO, which was stabilized with a phenolic antioxidant, should serve as an example. The initial IR spectrum can be seen in Figure 8. The bands at wave number 3,650 cm-1 and 1,160 cm-1 can be attributed to the additives.



                                                              Figure 8. IR-spectrum of an additive PAO at the beginning of the test
                                                              (reference measurement)

                                                              Under the described conditions, the added additive is depleted within 25 days. Both bands at wave numbers 3,650 cm-1 and 1,160 cm-1 have disappeared (Figure 9).


                                                              Figure 9. IR-spectrum of an additive PAO after 25 days
                                                              at 120°C in contact with brass and steel

                                                              Clear changes can be detected in the IR-spectrum after the test cycle of 32 days has run its course (Figure 10). New bands have appeared in the wave number range between 1,800 cm-1 and 1,650 cm-1, which can be attributed to the oxidative reaction of the lubricant. These are the carboxylic acid, saponification reactions with the catalytic metals and ester.


                                                              Figure 10. IR-spectrum of an additive PAO after 32 days at
                                                              120°C in contact with brass and steel

                                                              The changes that occurred in the laboratory test correspond to a large extent to those that were detected in the IR-spectrum in cases of failure under practical conditions.

                                                              If clear aging products are detected in the laboratory test, the test is ended. The change in viscosity and neutralization value of the lubricant are documented, as well as the optical aspect, such as the forming of sediment, silt or changes in color. In the following figures, test oils are shown after completion of the aging test of thin layers. In most cases, the color of the lubricant changes to dark brown. Some sediment forms but remains liquefied (Figure 11).


                                                              Figure 11. Thin layer aging test; the oil is still liquefied.
                                                              The lubricant can gum up completely in extreme aging
                                                              reaction cases. It becomes black and solid, forming a
                                                              substance with the metal particles similar to varnish
                                                              (figures 12 and 13). Such conditions are also seen in
                                                              bearings in field cases.


                                                              Figure 12. Thin layer aging test. The oil is
                                                              completely gummed up and has taken on a
                                                              solid state similar to that of varnish.


                                                              Figure 13. Incrustations of aged oil similar to varnish


                                                              Figure 14. Plate
                                                              Results of long-term tests within the bearing
                                                              system of an electromotor, which has been
                                                              lubricated by a standard mineral oil based
                                                              fluid grease. Temperatures of more than
                                                              80°C accelerated aging processes within the
                                                              lubricant. Severe oxidative reaction products
                                                              could be found on the bearing shaft, which
                                                              was covered by lacquer-like, hardly sticking
                                                              cracked oil. On the bearing plate the
                                                              lubricant has turned its color to black, and
                                                              the viscosity has increased by more than
                                                              500 percent due to the aging reactions.

                                                              Transferring Lab Results to Practical Applications
                                                              It is fundamentally difficult to transfer a laboratory simulation directly to a possible process under field conditions. This applies in particular to the simulation of aging and oxidative behavior of lubricants. Therefore, the results of the laboratory simulation should be presented relatively. If all test results are assessed under the same conditions, a quantifiable statement can be made in a comparative analysis. Consider this example: lubricant A exhibits 50, 100 or 500 percent higher oxidation stability under these test conditions compared to lubricant B.

                                                              Calculating the expected life according to the so-called van’t Hoff´s Law also provides hints regarding the field behavior of the lubricant. It states that the reaction speed of a chemical reaction changes with the temperature in such a way that an increase in temperature of 10 K roughly doubles to quadruples the reaction speed. For example, if a lubricant forms clear aging products after five days at 120°C, the same would take place after 10 days at 110°C, after 20 days at 100°C, etc., and accordingly after only seven years at 30°C. Therefore, the lubricant has an expected service life at room temperature (20 to 30°C) of approximately seven to 14 years.

                                                              These estimates were confirmed by experiences in the service sector of the clock industry. Clocks lubricated with conventional clock oils are sent in for repairs within this time frame and are overhauled by the clockmaker. The gummy oil is removed and the bearings relubricated.

                                                              Variation of the Test Parameters
                                                              The simple setup of the aging test also enables the test parameters to be altered according to the practical applications. The metallic substrate strongly influenced by the aging reaction can be easily replaced with another material, for example, real bearing parts, granular polymer, etc. An increase in the test temperature is indicated where permanent thermal and oxidative liquids, such as silicone oils or perfluorpolyalkylether, are to be tested. Or the operating temperatures in the practical application are higher than the standard test temperature of 120°C.

                                                              Results of the Lab Simulation
                                                              Using the test method to accelerate the aging of thinly layered lubricants, easily comparable examinations of various lubricants could be performed. Implementing the test itself is relatively time-consuming. Depending on the stability of the oil, the test can last several months, during which the state of the oil is routinely monitored in the IR-spectrum.

                                                              Aging Stability of Lubricants
                                                              Figure 15 shows the summary and comparison of the results of the aging tests for thin layers of several important lubricant groups. The days are listed up to the breakdown or gumming of the lubricants at a test temperature of 120°C.


                                                              Figure 15. Aging behavior of various micromechanical lubricants;
                                                              results of the laboratory simulation (thin layer test)

                                                              The aging stability of paraffin-based mineral oils is low. After a maximum of five days at 120°C, the test oils are already severely aged despite being specially equipped with oxidation inhibitors.

                                                              PAOs, polyglycols and dicarboxilic acid ester have a clearly better aging behavior. Equipped with an optimized additive package, they are destroyed after approximately 20 to 30 days under our test conditions. Several representatives of the trimellitate esters group are thermally stable. They reached a test duration of 90 days at a temperature of 120°C.

                                                              Perfluoropolyalkyl ethers and silicone oils achieved the best aging results. Even at 120°C and 150°C they are not destroyed within a time frame of more than two years under the chosen test conditions. The viscosity of the silicone oils merely increases in a range of 1 to 10 percent compared to the initial value. Silicone oils can be exposed to constant temperatures between 120°C and 150°C depending on their chemical composition; perfluoropolyalkyl ether up to 260°C.

                                                              Influence of Lacquer and Adhesive Vapors
                                                              A modified aging test reconstructed how quickly the ambient conditions of the aging and oxidative reaction in a lubricant can accelerate. In this case, the Petri dishes containing the test lubricant were not covered with a glass cover, but instead were left open in another bigger specimen glass. In addition, another Petri dish with a phenolic adhesive was included. This adhesive should be used in the field to attach the part housing. The hardening specifications of the phenolic adhesive were followed precisely.

                                                              The specimen glass containing both Petri dishes, with the test lubricant as well as the phenolic adhesive, was closed airtight and placed in the hot oven at 120°C. At this point, the atmospheric oxygen contained in the specimen glass and possibly the phenolic adhesive vapors that arise at the gaseous phase were a part of the aging reaction. Two synthetic esters were tested, as well as a PAO-based lubricant and a perfluoropolyalkylether.


                                                              Figure 16. Aging behavior of various micromechanical lubricants;
                                                              results of the laboratory simulation (thin layer test)

                                                              Figure 16 shows the results of this aging test compared with the results of the standard test method at 120°C without the influence of phenolic polymer. Without the influence of phenolic polymer, the aging stability of the four oils is different. The achieved test time varied from 30 to more than 130 days.

                                                              The phenolic polymer vapors influence the aging behavior of the lubricants to a certain extent. The synthetic ester I is completely aged after only 12 days, which is only one-third of the stability under normal conditions.

                                                              By comparison, the influence of vapors on the synthetic ester II is lower. The oil is destroyed after 87 days. The behavior of the PAO-based oil is astonishing. The phenolic polymer vapors improve its oxidative stability compared to standard test conditions. The perfluorpolyalkylether-based lubricant behaved absolutely inertly. It was not attacked throughout a time frame of more than 130 days. It was decided to discontinue the test.

                                                              With the field-oriented test method to simulate the aging and oxidative stability of thinly layered lubricants in contact with catalytic metals and high temperatures, a procedure is available to evaluate the application of for-life lubricants for micromechanical parts.

                                                              To a large extent, the laboratory simulation test conditions are consistent with those of actual bearings, so that a good correlation is achieved between the laboratory results and field experiences.

                                                              Editor’s Note:
                                                              The implications of this research for large grease-lubricated machine applications are these: Popular test methods for grease oxidation and work stability incorporate bulk-like conditions that may not effectively emulate the actual conditions that the grease experiences in the real world (multi-metal, thin film, dynamic shearing conditions). We may have a poor understanding of just how the grease really behaves (rate of degradation, rate of worked consistency change) once in service, despite the fact that we believe our assumptions from the test results.

                                                              References

                                                              1. DIN 51554: Testing of mineral oils. Test of susceptibility to aging according to Baader.
                                                              2. Glaser, G. and Tillwich, M. “Tribologie in der Uhren- und Feinwerktechnik” (Tribology in Clock and Precision Mechanics). Handbuch der Chronometrie und Uhrentechnik (Handbook of Chronometry and Clock Technology), Volume II/9b, Ch. 8.4. Publisher: Prof. Dr. Günther Glaser, Stuttgart, 1987.
                                                              3. Tillwich, M., Stehr, W., Dresel, W. and Stubenvoll, M. “Schmierstoffe in der Feinwerktechnik” (Lubricants in Precision Mechanics). Schmierungstechnik und Tribologie (Lubrication Technology and Tribology), Volume 29, 5/1982.
                                                              4. Beyer-Faiß, S. “Schmierstoffe in der Feinwerktechnik.” Tribologie und Schmierungstechnik (Tribology and Lubrication Technology), Volume 50, 5/2003.

                                                                         Alternative conformations of the x region of human protein disulphide-isomerase modulate exposure of the substrate binding b’ domain         
                                                              Dat Nguyen, Van, Wallis, A. Katrine, Howard, Mark J., Haapalainen, Antti M., Salo, Kirsi E. H., Saaranen, Mirva J. , Sidhu, Ateesh, Wierenga, Rik K., Freedman, R. B., Ruddock, Lloyd W. and Williamson, Richard A. . (2008) Alternative conformations of the x region of human protein disulphide-isomerase modulate exposure of the substrate binding b’ domain. Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol.383 (No.5). pp. 1144-1155. ISSN 0022-2836
                                                                        Joining with the Apache to defend their land from mining        

                                                              A few weeks ago, both Earthworks and the San Carlos Apache Tribe filed lawsuits challenging the US Forest Service’s choice to do an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the impacts of work needed to better characterize the publicly-owned lands on which Resolution Copper wants to dump 1.5 billion tons (no, that is not a typo – billions with a B) of mine waste over a half dozen square miles near the San Carlos Apache’s reservation, east of Phoenix, Arizona. The Forest Service chose an EA instead of a more thorough Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) which considers the option of not building the dump.  

                                                              If built, this would become the single largest mining waste tailings dump in the United States – some 500 feet deep in some places. To prepare for it, Resolution Copper must blade new roads for drill pads to test the soils and rocks underneath the site.

                                                              The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) states that actions connected to another one must be analyzed together (tailings site and impacts associated with the mine itself), and that a project’s cumulative impact beyond simply the proposed action must also be analyzed (for example, will more mining exploration occur if drill access roads remain open beyond the drilling program?).  But an EA fails to do either. An EIS would do both.  

                                                              Meanwhile, the EIS process for the mine itself is moving ahead.  Earthworks and several partner groups recently submitted comprehensive scoping comments for the EIS to the Forest Service, totaling over 100 pages of impacts that must be considered in a draft EIS.  While technically speaking, ground has been broken at the tailings site to study the proposed tailings dump’s substrates and collect baseline geotechnical and hydrologic data, completion of the full mine EIS is years away. In the meantime, we will work to ensure that both Resolution Copper and the Forest Service follow the law under NEPA.

                                                              Beyond this, we’ll continue to push for legislation reversing the land exchange that handed thousands of acres of public land considered sacred to the Apache Tribe to two of the world’s largest mining companies, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton, and their joint venture Resolution Copper.  And beyond that, we’ll continue working towards federal policy reforms that will finally give the public – especially those who have lived in an area for thousands of years -- a say regarding which lands should be mined, and which should not.


                                                                        The Middle Jurassic Alpine Tethyan Unconformity and the Eastern Sardinia - Corsica Jurassic High: A sedimentary and regional analysis        
                                                              Investigations performed along the Middle Jurassic Alpine Tethyan unconformity surface of E Sardinia evidenced an elaborate surface that developed over older Late Paleozoic to Triassic rocks. This surface is covered by the Middle Jurassic Genna Selole Fm, which has different sedimentological and petrographical characteristics and thicknesses according to its location and the morphology and evolution of the lower substrate. An analysis of the unconformity and the rocks located above and below it revealed that a tectonic high emerged early during the Middle Jurassic from E Sardinia to Corsica in response to the extensional tectonics leading to the Alpine Tethys opening. This high was almost immediately fragmented in secondary blocks, and an irregular morphology of minor lows and highs thus formed upon it. The high was, on the whole, subjected to strong erosion. Its deposits accumulated along the rims of the high and in the lows of its surface, smoothing the landscape and preparing it for the marine transgression that followed. The tectonic high rapidly collapsed starting from its North side as show the older age of the marine deposits first investigated. A similar rise-and-collapse tectosedimentary evolution can be seen in some of the W Mediterranean domains next to the Sardinia-Corsica block. Indeed, they are all related to the Alpine Tethys opening and may mark a discontinuous high separating the Paleoeuropa from the Tethyan domain. Consequently, a comparison with all of these domains has been attempted by trying to set the Sardinia-Corsica block in this extensional margin scenario.
                                                                        Loop Tack Test for Pressure Sensitive Adhesives        

                                                              The loop tack test measures the contact tack of an adhesive tape that has been formed into a loop. The fixture meets the requirements for ASTM D6195, FINAT FTM 9 and PSTC 16.   When used with the Vantage NX Universal Tensile Tester, a pair of grips hold the sample and the fixture during the test.  The Vantage NX Tester is paired with MAP4 Materials Testing Software which is configured to meet the industry standard and programs the test based on the method selected.  The sample’s adhesive properties are then displayed as real-time results including peak force to debond from the plate.

                                                              Method Summary:

                                                              • A loop is created from the test material with the adhesive coated side to contact the substrate or stainless steel plate. 
                                                              • The ends are clamped together in an upper grip
                                                              • The loop is pushed onto the surface, compressing the adhesive. 
                                                              • Then the loop is pulled up and gradually debonds from the substrate or plate.   

                                                              Learn more:  http://bit.ly/2kl4nFS

                                                              Watch a video of the test:  https://youtu.be/upxMLmI_yPI

                                                              MAP4 Results:


                                                                        High-sensitivity structure for the measurement of complex permittivity based on SIW        
                                                              In this study, a substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) combined with complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR) structure is proposed for high-sensitivity measurement of complex permittivity of low loss material at 2.45 GHz. The simulated results demonstrated that the small changes can be sensed through loading the CSRR structure on both sides of SIW. Then, the experiments are performed on various dielectric samples to validate the proposed structure by measuring the particulate samples with different moisture contents and solution samples in different mixed volume ratio. The measured results show that the sensitivity of the proposed SIW with CSRR structure is always higher than the structure without CSRR. Furthermore, neural network based on actual experimental scattering parameters is used for obtaining the permittivity of samples under test. The experimental values agree well with the theoretical values, and the relative errors of ε' and ε" are <;5 and 10%.
                                                                        Research Briefing: Is there a neural link between ‘neglect’ and ‘pseudoneglect’?        

                                                              Source Article: Varnava, A., Dervinis, M. & Chambers, C.D. (2013). The predictive nature of pseudoneglect for visual neglect: Evidence from parietal theta burst stimulation. PLOS ONE 8(6): e65851. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065851. [pdf] [data and analyses] 
                                                              -----------------------


                                                              I’m excited about this latest research briefing for several reasons.

                                                              First, as I’ll explain below, I think the study tells us something new about how the human brain represents space, with potential clinical applications in neuropsychology. Second, the study represents my group’s first excursion into the world of open access publishing and open science (including open data sharing) – something I feel strongly about and have committed to pursuing in our recently awarded BBSRC project. And finally, the manuscript itself has a rocky history that left me disillusioned with the journal Neuropsychologiaand, soon after, motivated me to join others in calling for publishing reform. 

                                                              The Research 

                                                              Lets start by talking about the science. Our aim in this study was to test for a link between two types of visual spatial bias called ‘neglect’ and ‘pseudoneglect’.

                                                              Neglect (also known as ‘unilateral neglect’) is a neurological syndrome that arises after brain injury – most often due to a stroke that permanently damages the right hemisphere. Patients with neglect present with a striking lack of attention and awareness to objects presented on the left side of their midline. Such behaviours may include ignoring food on the left side of a dinner plate or failing to draw the left side of objects. Importantly, the patients aren’t simply blind on their left side. The visual parts of the brain are generally intact while the damage is limited to parietal, temporal, or frontal cortex.

                                                              Neglect has been studied for many years and we know a lot about how and why it arises. But one unanswered question is how the spatial bias of neglect relates to other spatial biases that are completely normal. We felt this was an important question because we don’t know enough at a basic level about how the brain represents space, so testing for neurocognitive links between spatial phenomena helps us build better theories. Furthermore, if there happens to be a predictive relationship between neglect and other forms of bias, we may be able to estimate the likely severity of neglect before a person has a stroke. This could have a range of useful applications in clinical therapy and management.

                                                              Enter ‘pseudoneglect’. Pseudoneglect is a normal bias in which people ignore a small part of their left or right side of space. One simple way to measure this is to ask someone to cross the centre of a straight horizontal line. Most people will misbisect the line to the left or right of its true centre. This effect is tiny (in the order of millimetres) but reliable.

                                                              In this study we wanted to know whether patterns of pre-existing bias, as reflected by pseudoneglect, predict the patterns of actual neglect following neurological interference. Of course, we couldn’t give our participants permanent brain injury, so we decided to use transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to simulate some of the effects of a brain lesion. Using a particular kind of repetitive TMS called ‘theta burst stimulation’, we temporarily suppressed activity in parts of the brain while people did tasks that measured their spatial bias. To see if there was a link between systems, we then related these effects of TMS on spatial bias to people’s intrinsic pseudoneglect.

                                                              As expected by previous studies, we found that TMS of the right parietal cortex induced neglect-like behaviour – compared to a sham TMS condition (placebo), people bisected lines more to the right of centre, indicating that TMS caused a subtle neglect of the left side of space. This effect lasted for an hour (upper figure on the left). But what was particularly striking was that the effect only happened in the participants who already showed an intrinsic pattern of leftpseudoneglect. In contrast, those with rightpseudoneglect at baseline were immune to the effects of TMS (lower figure on the left).

                                                              There were a number of other aspects to the study too. We compared the effect of TMS using two different methods of estimating bias, and we also asked whether the TMS influenced people’s eye movements (it didn't). I won’t go into these details here but the paper covers them in depth.

                                                              What do these results mean? I think they have two implications. First, they provide evidence that neglect and pseudoneglect arise from linked or common brain systems for representing space – and they provide a biological substrate for this association in the right parietal cortex. Second, the results provide a proof of principle that initial spatial biases can predict subsequent effects of neurological interference. In theory, this could one day lead to pre-diagnostic screening to determine whether a person is at risk of more severe neglect symptoms in the event of suffering a stroke.

                                                              All that said, we need to be cautious. There is a world of difference between the subtle and reversible effects of TMS and the dramatic effects of brain injury. We simply don't know whether the predictive relationship found here would translate to patients – that remains to be established. Also, our study had a small sample size, has yet to be replicated, and provides no indication of diagnostic or prognostic utility. But I think these preliminary results provide enough evidence that this avenue is worth pursuing. 

                                                              Open Access, Open Science, and Publishing Reform 

                                                              Apart from the science, our paper represents a milestone for my group in terms of our publishing practices. This is our first article in PLOS ONE and our first publication in an open access journal. Also, it is our first attempt at open science. Interested readers can download our data and analyses from Figshare (linked hereand in the article itself). I increasingly feel that scientists like me who conduct research using public funds have an obligation to make our articles and data publicly available.

                                                              This paper also represents a turning point for me in terms of my attitude to scientific publishing. We originally submitted this manuscript in 2012 to the journal Neuropsychologia, where it was rejected because some of our results were statistically non-significant. Rejecting papers on the basis of ‘imperfect’ results is harmful to science because it enforces publication bias and pushes authors to engage in a host of questionable research practices to generate outcomes that are neat and eye-catching. With some ‘finessing’ of the analyses, we could probably have published our paper in a more ‘traditional’ outlet. But we decided to play a straight bat, and when we were penalised for doing so I realised on a very personal level that there was something deeply wrong with our publishing culture. As a consequence I severed my relationship with Neuropsychologia.

                                                              A short time later, I was contacted by Sergio Della Sala, the Editor-in-chief of Cortex, who read my open letter to Neuropsychologia. Sergio very kindly offered me an associate editorship (never let it be said that blogging is a waste of time!) and together we built the Registered Reports initiative. Our hope is that this new option for authors will help reform the incentive structure of academic publishing. Since then we’ve been part of a growing movement for change, alongside Perspectives on Psychological Science and their outstanding Registered Replications project, the Open Science Framework, and a special issue at Frontiers in Cognition which has adopted a variant of the Cortex pre-registration model.

                                                              In early June this year, Marcus Munafò and I, together with more than 80 of our colleagues, published an article in the Guardian calling for Registered Reports to be offered by journals across the life sciences. I’m delighted to report that the journal Attention, Perception and Psychophysics and two other academic journals are now on the verge of launching their own Registered Reports projects.

                                                              My small part in this reform traces back to having this manuscript rejected by Neuropsychologia editor Jennifer Coull in September 2012. So, in a very true sense, I owe Jennifer a debt of gratitude for giving me the kick in the butt I needed. Sometimes rock bottom can be a great launching pad.