BUKU PANDUAN TEKNISI PONSEL GRATIS + PROGRAM SYSTEM ANALISA REPARASI PONSEL V9.0        
KUMPULAN BUKU SERVICE HANDPHONE GRATIS
PROGRAM SYSTEM ANALISA REPARASI PONSEL V9.0

DAPAT DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI PANDUAN BELAJAR DAN MENGAJAR SERVICE HANDPHONE SENDIRI DAN JIKA ANDA MEMPELAJARI TAHAP DEMI TAHAP 15 MATERI YANG KAMI BERIKAN SECARA GRATIS INI + PROGRAM SYSTEM ANALISA REPARASI PONSEL V9.0, MAKA DALAM WAKTU 15 HARI ANDA SUDAH DAPAT MENGANALISA SEGALA KERUSAKAN HANDPHONE DAN CARA MEMPERBAIKINYA SENDIRI TANPA KURSUS SECARA RESMI

PENULIS: WAWAN SYAHRONI

DAFTAR ISI MATERI
1.Pengenalan dan Pengukuran Komponen Elektronika Dasar Ponsel.pdf
2.Pengenalan Alat-Alat Reparasi Ponsel Serta Teknik Penggunaannya.pdf
3.Pengenal Frekuensi Counter Beserta Fungsi dan Penggunaannya.pdf
4.Struktur Diagram Ponsel - Fungsi dan Gejala Kerusakan Komponen.pdf
5.Fungsi dan Gejala Kerusakan Komponen Ponsel DCT-4 – WD2 – BB5.pdf
6.Pembagian Diagram Blok Dasar Ponsel.pdf
7.Pengenalan dan Teknik Membaca Buku Skema Jalur.pdf
8.Struktur Dasar System Penyimpanan Data Ponsel.pdf
9.Jenis Kerusakan Pada Ponsel dan Solusi Perbaikan.pdf
10.Pembahasan Software Reparasi Ponsel.pdf
11.Struktur Diagram Ponsel Blackberry.pdf
12.Struktur Diagram Ponsel DCT3 (Core Technology Generation 3).pdf
13.Struktur Diagram Ponsel DCT4 (Core Technology Generation 4).pdf
14.Struktur Diagram Ponsel BB5 (Core Technology Generation 5).pdf
15.Teknik Pelepasan dan Pencetakan serta Pemasangan IC Ponsel.pdf
16.
Pengenal Oscilloscope Beserta Fungsi dan Penggunaannya.pdf

PROGRAM SYSTEM ANALISA REPARASI PONSEL


KLICK TO DOWNLOAD:
http://www.ziddu.com/download/10019563/Buku-Service-Ponsel-System-Analisa-v9.0.part1.rar.html

http://www.ziddu.com/download/10019566/Buku-Service-Ponsel-System-Analisa-v9.0.part2.rar.html

http://www.ziddu.com/download/10019567/Buku-Service-Ponsel-System-Analisa-v9.0.part3.rar.html

http://www.ziddu.com/download/10019562/Buku-Service-Ponsel-System-Analisa-v9.0.part4.rar.html

http://www.ziddu.com/download/10019568/Buku-Service-Ponsel-System-Analisa-v9.0.part5.rar.html

http://www.ziddu.com/download/10019565/Buku-Service-Ponsel-System-Analisa-v9.0.part6.rar.html

http://www.ziddu.com/download/10019564/Buku-Service-Ponsel-System-Analisa-v9.0.part7.rar.html

REFERENSI LINK :
http://manual-service.blogspot.com


Salam Sukses dan Semoga Bermanfaat


LPK RAJA PONSEL TRAINING CENTER

PUSAT PELATIHAN TEKNISI HANDPHONE CERDAS DAN PROFESIONAL
IZIN DIKNAS: 421.10/293/PNF/2010 - 563/2269-DISNAKERTRANS/2009

Nomor Induk Lembaga Kursus (NILEK): 02115.4.1.0064.99


KONSULTASI DAN BIMBINGAN SELAMANYA


TEMPAT PENDAFTARAN KURSUS

Jl. Bangka 2 Rt.06 Rw.02 No.18 Kel. Pela Mampang
Kec. Mampang Prapatan Jakarta Selatan 12720 Indonesia
.:.02170036800.:.0817839837.:.08119910929.:.

www.rajaponsel.com


          PC Courseware Editor Manual del usuario        
Download Type: Manuals --> This PC Courseware Editor user manual explains how to operate the PC-based PC Courseware Editor software and includes installation procedures. Also, it explains how to transfer courseware created with the Courseware Editor from the PC to the TBS1000B-EDU oscilloscope.
          Polina: Trailer        

Watch the trailer for the film Polina.
Filed Under: Polina
Tags: Oscilloscope Pictures, Drama, Foreign / Foreign Language, Anastasia Shevtsova, Veronika Zhovnytska, Juliette Binoche
          UNIVAC I        

The UNIVAC I (UNIVersal Automatic Computer I) was the first commercial computer produced in the United States. It was designed principally by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, the inventors of the ENIAC. Design work was started by their company, Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation, and was completed after the company had been acquired by Remington Rand (which later became part of Sperry, now Unisys). In the years before successor models of the UNIVAC I appeared, the machine was simply known as “the UNIVAC”.

The first Univac was accepted by the United States Census Bureau on March 31, 1951, and was dedicated on June 14 that year. The fifth machine (built for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission) was used by CBS to predict the result of the 1952 presidential election. With a sample of just 1% of the voting population it famously predicted an Eisenhower landslide while the conventional wisdom favored Stevenson.

Major physical features

UNIVAC I used 5,000 vacuum tubes, weighed 16,000 pounds (7.3 metric tons), consumed 125 kW, and could perform about 1,905 operations per second running on a 2.25 MHz clock. The Central Complex alone (i.e. the processor and memory unit) was 4.3 m by 2.4 m by 2.6 m high. The complete system occupied more than 35.5 m² (382 ft²) of floor space.

Main memory details

The main memory consisted of 1000 words of 12 characters. When representing numbers, they were written as 11 decimal digits plus sign. The 1000 words of memory consisted of 100 channels of 10-word mercury delay line registers. The input/output buffers were 60 words each, consisting of 12 channels of 10-word mercury delay line registers. There are six channels of 10-word mercury delay line registers as spares. With modified circuitry, seven more channels control the temperature of the seven mercury tanks, and one more channel is used for the 10 word “Y” register. The total of 126 mercury channels is contained in the seven mercury tanks mounted on the backs of sections MT, MV, MX, NT, NV, NX, and GV. Each mercury tank is divided into 18 mercury channels.

Each 10-word mercury delay line channel is made up of three sections:

  1. A channel in a column of mercury, with receiving and transmitting quartz piezo-electric crystals mounted at opposite ends.
  2. An intermediate frequency chassis, connected to the receiving crystal, containing amplifiers, detector, and compensating delay, mounted on the shell of the mercury tank.
  3. A recirculation chassis, containing cathode follower, pulse former and retimer, modulator, which drives the transmitting crystal, and input, clear, and memory-switch gates, mounted in the sections adjacent to the mercury tanks.

Instructions and data

Instructions were six alphanumeric characters, packed two instructions per word. The addition time was 525 microseconds and the multiplication time was 2150 microseconds. A non-standard modification called “Overdrive” did exist, that allowed for three four-character instructions per word under some circumstances. (Ingerman’s simulator for the UNIVAC, referenced below, also makes this modification available.)

Digits were represented internally using excess-3 (“XS3”) binary coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic with six bits per digit using the same value as the digits of the alphanumeric character set (and one parity bit per digit for error checking), allowing 11-digit signed magnitude numbers. But with the exception of one or two machine instructions, UNIVAC was considered by programmers to be a decimal machine, not a binary machine, and the binary representation of the characters was irrelevant. If a non-digit character was encountered in a position during an arithmetic operation the machine passed it unchanged to the output, and any carry into the non-digit was lost. (Note, however, that a peculiarity of UNIVAC I’s addition/subtraction circuitry was that the “ignore”, space, and minus characters were occasionally treated as numeric, with values of –3, –2, and –1 respectively, and the apostrophe, ampersand, and left parenthesis were occasionally treated as numeric, with values 10, 11, and 12.)

Input/output

Besides the operator’s console, the only I/O devices connected to the UNIVAC I were up to 10 UNISERVO tape drives, a Remington Standard electric typewriter and a Tektronix oscilloscope. The UNISERVO was the first commercial computer tape drive commercially sold. It used data density 128 bits per inch (with real transfer rate 7,200 characters per second) on magnetically plated phosphor bronze tapes. The UNISERVO could also read and write UNITYPER created tapes at 20 bits per inch. The UNITYPER was an offline typewriter to tape device, used by programmers and for minor data editing. Backward and forward tape read and write operations were possible on the UNIVAC and were fully overlapped with instruction execution, permitting high system throughput in typical sort/merge data processing applications. Large volumes of data could be submitted as input via magnetic tapes created on offline card to tape system and made as output via a separate offline tape to printer system. The operators console had three columns of decimal coded switches that allowed any of the 1000 memory locations to be displayed on the oscilloscope. Since the mercury delay line memory stored bits in a serial format, a programmer or operator could monitor any memory location continuously and with sufficient patience, decode its contents as displayed on the scope. The on-line typewriter was typically used for announcing program breakpoints, checkpoints, and for memory dumps.

A typical UNIVAC I installation had several ancillary devices. There were, typically: a printer that read a magnetic tape and printed output on continuous-form paper; a card-to-tape converter, that read punched cards and recorded their images on magnetic tape; and a tape-to-card converter, that read a magnetic tape and produced punched cards.


          Ben Heck's NES Power Glove teardown        
The Ben Heck Show - Episode 239 - Ben Heck's Power Glove Teardown
Ben and Karen revisit retro gaming tech with one of the first wearable controllers, Mattel's Nintendo Power Glove. This repetitive-strain inducing NES gamepad needs to be updated -- time to hack the op amps and custom micro-controller with an oscilloscope to find out how it works! Also in this episode, Felix works on remote-controlling robots. Lastly, the team needs your help for the Hackmanji board game. Share your ideas and questions on the element14 Community page.
          Getting Started with Blinking Lights on Old Iron        

If you ever go to a computer history museum, you’ll be struck by how bland most modern computers look. Prior to 1980 computers had lights and switches, and sometimes dials and meters. Some had switchboard-like wiring panels and some even had oscilloscope-like displays. There’s something about a machine with all those switches and lights and displays that gets your hacker juices flowing. Have you ever wanted to get started in retrocomputing? Is it difficult? Do you need a lot of money? That depends on what your goals are.

There are at least three ways you can go about participating in …read more


          BSNL JE EXAM 2016 SYLLABUS AND DATE        

BSNL recruits 2700+  Junior Engineers. Attention to all Fresh Engineering Graduates as well as BSc(Eelectronics), BSc (Computer Science) and Diploma Holders.

  • What is the last date for application? starting date: 10.7.2016  last date is 10.8.2016.
  • How to apply? Go the BSNL website: http://www.externalbsnlexam.bsnl.co.in/ (Registration link will be active only from 10.7.2016 and upto 10.8.2016)
  • When is the exam? Exam will be conducted on 25.9.2016
  • How many vacancies are there? Total No.of vacancies for 2016 is  2700
  • What is the Salary? Starting salary is Rs.13,600 (which means take home salary is more than Rs.30,000)
  • Whether the exam will be easy? Yes, A simple preparation will do. It is worth a try. Dont miss the chance.
  • What is the qualification needed? BTech or BE or 3 year Diploma in one of the following 1. Electrical 2. Electronic  3. Telecom 4. Computer 5. IT 6. Instrumentation 7. Radio  b). BSc (computer Science) c) BSc(Electronics) d). MSc(Electronics)
  • What is the AgeLimit? 18 to 30 years (plus relaxation as applicable to SC/ST/OBC, 5 years for BSNL employees)
  • Whether JTO and JE are Same? No. Junior Engineer is different , Junior Telecom Officer is different. The Name of the Telecom Assistant has been changed to Junior Engineer. JE is lower cadre and JTO is a higher cadre.
  • How to apply? Where to get the application form?Registration and payment of fees are online. So sitting in your home you can apply.
  • Whether this exam will be there every year? Yes
  • What is the Syllabus? How many papers to be written?
  • A single exam for 3 hours. 200 Multiple choice questions will be there. Each question carries one mark:  General Ability 20 questions + Engineering  related 90 questions +Specialization 90 questions.  1/4 mark will be reduced for each wrong answer.
  • What is the application fees? OC/OBC: Rs.1000/- SC/ST: Rs.500/-\
  • How to make the Payment of Fees? via online method using Debit Card, Credit Card or Net Banking
  • Where to download the Original BSNL Recruitment notifications with details  such as Syllabus, exam date,etc ?
                                Click here for the PDF format of  BSNL Notification


   

What is the syllabus for BSNL JE Exam :
A single exam for 3 hours. 200 Multiple choice questions will be there. Each question carries one mark:  General Ability 20 questions + Engineering  related 90 questions +Specialization 90 questions.  1/4 mark will be reduced for each wrong answer.

PART-I:-GENERAL ABILITY TEST : 20 MARKS: The Candidate’s comprehension and understanding of General English shall be tested through simple exercises such as provision of antonyms and synonyms, FIll in the blanks and multiple-choice exercises etc. this shall also include questions on current events, general knowledge and such matters of everyday observation and experience as may be expected of Diploma holder.

PART -II: BASIC ENGINEERING: 90 MARKS :
 1. Applied Mathematics: Co-ordinate Geometry; Vector Algebras, Matrix ad Determinant; Differential calculus; Integral calculus, Differential equation of second order; Fourier series; Laplace Transformer; Complex Number; Partial Differentiion.

 2. Applied Physics: Measurement- Units and Dimensions; Waves, Afcoustics, Ultrasonics; Light; :azer and its Applications; Atomic Structure and Enerty Levels.

3. Basic Electricity: Electrostatics, coulomb’s law, Electric FIeld, Gauss’s theorem, concept of potential difference; concept of capacitance and capacitors; Ohm’s law, power and energy, Kirchoff’s voltage, current laws and their applications in simple DC circuits; Basic Magnetism; Electro Magnetism; Electromagnetic induction; Concept of alternating voltage & current; Cells and Batteries; Voltage and Current Sources; Thevenin’s theorem Norton’s theorem and their applications.


 4. Electronic Devices and Circuits: ClassiFIcation of materials into conductor, semi conductor, Insulator etc. electrical properties, magnetic materials, various types of relays, switches and connectors, Conventional representation of electric and electronic circuit elements. Active and passive components; Semi conductor Physics; Semi Conductor Diode; Bipolar Trnaistor & their circuits; Transistor Biassing & Stabilisation of operating pointl; Single stage transistor ampliFIer FIeld effect transistor, Mosfet circuit applications, Multistage Transistor AmpliFIer; Transistor Audio Power AmpliFIers; Feedback in AmpliFIer; Sinusoidal Oscillators; turned voltage AmpliFIers; Opto Electronics Devices and their applications; Operational AmpliFIer; wave shapping and switching circuits. Block diagram of I.C. timer (such as 555) and its working; Multivibrator circuits; Time base circuits; Thyristors and UJT; Regulated Power supply.

 5. Digital Technique: Applications and advantages of digital systems; number system(binary and hexadecimal); Logic Gates; Logic simpliFIcations; Codes and Parity; Arithmetic circuits; Decoders, Display Devices and Associated Circuits; Multiplexers and De-Multiplexers; Latches and Flip Flops; counters; Shift Register; Memories; A/D nad D/A converters.

PART -III SPECIALIZATION: 90 MARKS
The questions will be asked from the discipline chosen by the candidate according to their Specialized Degree.

1. Electrical :- 3 phase vs single phase supply, Star Delta connections, relation between phase & tine voltage, power factor and their measurements; construction and principles of working of various types of electrical measuring instruments, all types of motor and generator AC & DC transformers, starters, rectiFIers, Inverters, battery charges, batteries, servo and stepper motors, contactor control circuits, switchgear, relays, protection devices & schemes, substation, protective relaying, circuit breaker, generator protection, transformer protection, feeder & lightening protection, feeder & bus bar protection, lightening arrestor, earthing, voltage stabilizer 8 regulators, power control devices 8 circuits, phase controlled rectiFIers, inverters, choppers, dual converters, cycloconverters; power electronics application in control of drivers refrigeration 8 air conditioning.

2. Communication:–Modulation and demodulation- Principles and operator of various types of AM, FM and PM modulators / demodulator; pulse modulation- TDM, PAM, PPM, PWM: Multiplexing, principles and applications of PCM. Introduction of Basic block diagram of digital and data communication systems; coding error detection and correction techniques; Digital Modulation Techniques-ASK, ICW, FSK, PSK; Characteristics / working of data transmission circuits; UART: USART: Modems; Protocols and their functions, brief idea of ISDN interfaces, local area Network; Carrier Telephony- Features of carrier telephone system. Microwave Engineering: Microwave Devices; Waveguides; Microwave Components; Microwave antennas; Microwave communications Systems- Block diagram 7 working principles of microwave communications link.

3. Network, Filters and Transmission Lines:- Two points network; Attenuators; Filters; Transmission Lines and their applications; characteristic impedance of line; concept of re×ection and standing waves on a transmission line; Transmission line equation; Principle of impedance matching; Bandwidth consideration of a transmission lIne. Âš


4. Instruments and Measurements:- SpeciFIcations of Instruments- accuracy precision, sensitivity resolution range, Errors in measurement and loading effect; Principles of voltage, current and resistance measurements; Transducers, measurement of displacement a strain, force & torque measuring devices, pressure measuring devices, ×ow measuring devices power control devices & circuits. Types of AC mill-voltmeters-AmpliFIer rectiFIer and rectiFIer ampliFIer Block diagram explanation of a basic CRO and a triggerd sweep oscilloscope, front panel controls; Impedance Bridges and Q-Meters; Principles of working and speciFIcations of logic probes, signal analyzer and logic analyzer, signal generator, distortion factor meter, spectrum analyzer.


 5. Control system:- Basic elements of control system, open and closed loop system concepts of feedback, Block diagram of control system. Time lag, hysteresis lineartty concepts; Self regulating and non self regulating control systems. Transfer functions of simple control components, single feedback conFIguration. Time response of systems; Stability Analysier: Characteristic equation Routh’s table Nyquist Critereon, Relative stability, phase margin and gain margin. Routh Hurwitz criterion, Root Locus technique, Bode Plot, Polar plot, gain margin and phase margin.

6. Microprocessor- Typical organization of a microcomputer system & functions of its various block; Architecture of a Microprocessor; Memories and I/o interfacing; Brief idea of M/s assembly languages, machines & Mnemonic codes; Instructions format and Addressing mo0de;concept of Instruction set; programming exercises in assembly language; concept of interrupt; Data transfer techniques- sync data transfer, async data transfer interrupt driven data transfer, DMA serial output data, serial input data.

7. Computers:- Computer and its working, types of computers, familiarization with DOS and windowsconcept of FIle, directory, folder, Number systems; Data Communication. Programming Elements of a high level programming language. PASCAL, c; USE OF BASIS DATA STRUCTURES Fundamentals of computer architecture, Processor design, Control unit design; Memory organization. I/O system Organization. Microprocessor-microprocessor architecture; Instruction set and simple assembly level programming. Microprocessor based system design; typical examples. Personal computers and their typical uses, data communication principles, types and working principles of modems, Network principles, OSI model, functions of data link layer and network layer, networking components; communications protocols-X-25, TCP/IP Database Management Systembasic concepts, entity relationship model, relational model, DBMS based on relational model

How many vacancies are there?
 State wise Circle Vacancies  for 2016 are given here. Once   :-
1. Andaman & Nicobar: 12 Posts
2. Andhra Pradesh: 76 Posts
3. Assam: 116 Posts
4. Bihar: 34 Posts
5. Chennai Telephones: 80 Posts
6. Chhattisgarh: 17 Posts
7. Gujarat: 206 Posts
8. Haryana: 160 Posts
9. Himachal Pradesh: 73 Posts
10. Jammu & Kashmir: 79 Posts
11. Jharkhand: 19 Posts
12. Karnataka: 120 Posts
13. Kerala: 100 Posts
14. Kolkata Telephones: 80 Posts
15. Madhya Pradesh: 78 Posts
16. Maharashtra: 224 Posts
17. North East – I: 132 Posts
18. North East – II: 34 Posts
19. NTR: 15 Posts
20. Odisha: 43 Posts
21. Punjab: 400 Posts
22. Rajasthan: 100 Posts
23. Tamil Nadu: 198 Posts
24. Uttar Pradesh (East): 80 Posts
25. Uttar Pradesh (West): 80 Posts
26. Uttaranchal: 29 Posts
27. West Bengal: 115 Posts

ORIGINAL ADVERTISEMENT OF BSNL

BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 1



BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 2


BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 3
BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 4
BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 5
BSNL JE recruitment 2016 official letter  page 6


          Electronics Workbench #1: Starting Thoughts        

I like to do small electronics projects. I’ve been using a 4’ long plastic table and as I’ve accumulated test equipment and soldering equipment it has all gotten too crowded. Here’s what I think I need:

  • Larger bench than 4 ft wide
  • Wide enough to do soldering in a different area than testing
  • Deeper bench than 30” deep
  • Work surface in contrasting color to most small parts (light color probably)
  • Sturdy construction
  • Shelf for Test Equipment like Oscilloscopes, Logic Analyzers, Power Supplies
  • Spots for plenty of AC Power connectors
  • Inexpensive (commercial units cost $500 or more) which probably means 2×4 lumber
  • I don’t care if it’s pretty, just not too ugly
  • Place to mount lighting – either florescent tubes or LEDs

I’m leaning towards using a piece of laminate counter top like they sell at Lowe’s Depot. For less than $40 I can buy a 36” wide x 8’ long piece of kitchen counter top laminate. [Edit: a friend just pointed out to me that is the price of the laminate material, not the counter top].


          Sixclear Collaborates with Tektronix to Create LabVIEW Video Tutorials for Scope Programming        

Sixclear, an Austin LabVIEW training and development company, publishes a free set of videos demonstrating how to get started programming a suite of Tektronix oscilloscopes in LabVIEW from a PC.

(PRWeb February 02, 2012)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/labview/tek-scope/prweb9160605.htm


          V8 ☆ Tektronix / テクトロニクス Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope DPO7054 ☆ 500MHz ☆        
V8 ☆ Tektronix / テクトロニクス Digital…
現在価格:200,000 円,入札数:-,終了日時:2017/08/17 21:19
          In Andrew Becker & Daniel Mehrer's SANTOALLA, a near-empty Galician village mirrors immigration, culture clash and murder        

In their debut film, SANTOALLA, a new documentary, Andrew Becker and Daniel Mehrer take us to that titular location, a word which turns out to be a kind of contraction of the actual name of the tiny village of Santa Eulalia in Galicia, Spain. Here, amidst the lovely-if-wild landscape and the charming, friendly goats, we meet an interesting couple from The Netherlands, Martin Verfondem and Margo Pool, who, two decades back, decided to leave the "big city" and find some quiet, rustic spot far from civilization where they could set up their own self-sustaining farm and home.

After traveling Europe and Asia for two years in their RV, the couple (shown below; the filmmakers are shown above, with Mr. Becker on the left), at last found what they imagined would be the perfect spot: the nearly deserted village of Santoalla, which at this point in time had only a single Galician family remaining there: an aged husband and wife and their two sons, one of whom is mentally handicapped.

What happened once Martin and Margo bought an abandoned stable, began turning it into their home, planting their crops and raising their farm animals, turned out to be not quite what this enterprising couple had in mind. Initially, however, things looked awfully good. The pair seems like as perfect a couple for this sort of endeavor as you could find.

Becker and Mehrer give us Martin and Margo's story via archival photos and film, along with interviews with Margo and the neighboring family. As tensions rise due to that family's (the husband and wife are shown below) objecting to Martin's plans for not only his and Margo's farm but for the little village itself, we also get some local television reporting, courtroom appearances, and finally, once Martin suddenly and inexplicably disappears altogether, the local police are called in.

This is a sad, depressing but not, TrustMovies thinks, all that unusual a true-life tale, particularly when tradition clashes with modernity, one culture with another, immigration raises its head (if in a rather different manner than we are sued to these days) and the power implicit in being the sole occupants of a town is suddenly challenged. Yet for all that's going on here, the documentary drags from time to time. Instead of all those lengthy tracking shots, minutes might have been better served by footage devoted to further interviews with police, as the mystery begins to be solved.

On the other hand, I suspect that the local police were maybe not so eager to give extended interviews. Certainly that neighboring family was not. From what we see of the four of them, they were never more than quasi-welcoming to begin with, and the wife/mother (shown above), in particular, contradicts herself often enough to seem an outright liar. (Either that, or she has already grown demented.)

By the end of Santoalla, we've seen and heard enough to have our appetite for resolution sated, our feeling for poor, left-alone Margo increased exponentially, and perhaps our idea of starting an organic farm in a lovely far-away location thoroughly dragged through the mud of reality. Still: those friendly, prancing little goats are fucking adorable.

From Oscilloscope Films, running 83 minutes, and in English and Galician with English subtitles, the documentary opens this Wednesday, July 19, in New York City at the Quad Cinema, on Friday July 28 in Los Angeles at Laemmle's Music Hall 3, and in Taos, New Mexico, on Sunday, August 13 at the Taos Center for the Arts.  Click here and then click on SCREENINGS on the Task Bar at top to see any subsequently scheduled screenings.

          Tonight! CHIRP presents a screening of “Who Took The Bomp? Le Tigre On Tour”        


Please join CHIRP for a free screening of “Who Took the Bomp? Le Tigre On Tour!”

Tonight at 8pm, the Bottom Lounge will host this exciting event — DJs Pippi Redstocking and Lucy Flawless will spin before and after the screening, and local feminist organizations Girls Rock! Chicago, Chicago Women’s Health Center and Planned Parenthood Illinois will be there with information on hand. The film will be screened at 8:45pm.

WHO TOOK THE BOMP? LE TIGRE ON TOUR follows iconic feminist electronic band Le Tigre on their 2004-2005 international tour across four continents and through ten countries. Supported by a community of devoted fans and led by outspoken Riot Grrrl pioneer Kathleen Hanna (Bikini Kill), Le Tigre confronts sexism and homophobia in the music industry while tearing up the stage via performance art poetics, no-holds-barred lyrics, punk rock ethos, and whip-smart wit in this edgy and entertaining documentary. Directed by Kerthy Fix (STRANGE POWERS: STEPHIN MERRITT AND THE MAGNETIC FIELDS), WHO TOOK THE BOMP? LE TIGRE ON TOUR features never before seen live performances, archival interviews, and revealing backstage footage with these trail-blazing artists.

Screening of Who Took The Bomp? Le Tigre On Tour
Bottom Lounge
No cover
21+


          Tenma 72-8705 50Mhz 7" Lcd Digital Storage Oscilloscope | For Sale        
$299.00

          209 RR Robots and IoT with Julian Cheal        

02:32 - Julian Cheal Introduction

02:49 - Julian’s Background with Robots and Drones

03:32 - NodeCopter Events

04:31 - Traveling with Robots

05:35 - Julian’s Collection and Projects

07:46 - Giving Demos

09:12 - What Makes Robots?

10:21 - Where is IoT (Internet of Things) Heading?

  • Security

13:11 - Programming Languages

14:15 - Tools and Protocols

17:31 - Programming Challenges Around Hardware Hacking

18:49 - Barrier to Entry

20:41 - Getting Kids Started

22:09 - Wearables

23:18 - LEGO Robotics

25:01 - Issues with Hardware Hacking

28:22 - Rubyists and Hardware

29:45 - Interfacing with Humans

33:27 - [Kickstarter] CHIP - The World's First Nine Dollar Computer

34:01 - Connectivity 

36:55 - More Interesting Projects

Picks

Jacob Kaplan-Moss Keynote @ Pycon 2015 (Jessica)
Kobo Aura H20 (Avdi)
Liz Abinante: Unicorns Are People, Too (Re-Thinking Soft and Hard Skills) @ Madison+ Ruby 2014 (Coraline)
littleBits (Julian)
Jewelbots (Julian)
Ruby Rogues Episode #156: Hardware Hacking with Julia Grace (Julian)
The End of Mr. Y by Scarlett Thomas (Julian)

 

 

 

 


          Get the Most Scope for Your Dollar        
By matching an oscilloscope’s capabilities to your applications' needs, an optimum match can be made between price and performance.
          Oscilloscopes Bring More Signals than Ever into View        
When four channels aren’t enough, these real-time oscilloscopes capture as many as eight analog and 64 digital signals with up to 2-GHz bandwidth and sampling rates to 6.25 Gsamples/s.
          RF Electronic        
electronic untuk radio frequency ya....maksudnya elektronika untuk frequency tinggi..

disini downloadnya:
-. Op Amps for Everyone Design Guide
-. Designing Analog Chips
-. Wireless Networking in the Developing World
-. XYZs of Oscilloscopes
-. RF Basics
          CVM Lecture And Screening - At ZKM Germany - May 11, 2011        
CVM at Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Karlsruhe, Germany May 11.

For more information on this event, visit
http://on1.zkm.de/zkm/stories/storyReader$7532

Cindy Keefer, Director of the Center for Visual Music Los Angeles, will discuss and screen work by pioneers of kinetic art and pre-digital cinema from CVM's archives... Keefer will screen work from CVM's archives including Dockum's “Mobilcolor Projections,” Bute's “Abstronics” (an early oscilloscope film), a short Bute documentary, the Fischinger “Lumigraph Film,” and more. She will discuss CVM's work with the Fischinger legacy, current preservation work, and “Raumlichtkunst,” the new restoration of his 1920s multiple-projector performances.

Followed by the screening “Films Sacred and Profane” by Jordan Belson


Visit: http://www.centerforvisualmusic.org/Events.htm
for more information on Center For Visual Music and visual music related events and news
          UPS Service Technician - Santa Clara        
Mitsubishi Electric Power Products, Inc., (MEPPI) is a premier supplier of advanced electrical and electronic technologies, products, and services for America's critical energy infrastructure needs. If you possess experience performing field service on uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) or related power quality products this may be the job for you! An opportunity exists in the Santa Clara, CA area for a Service Technician at MEPPI. As the Service Technician you will perform service and service support activities, troubleshooting and repair of single and three phase uninterruptible power supplies and peripherals to internal and external customers. The ideal candidate will possess the following: * Associates degree in electronics or related technical discipline plus minimum 3 years experience in troubleshooting and repair of a technical, electrical and/or electronic product or equivalent education and experience. * Advanced knowledge of electronic test equipment and how it is used. * Developed verbal and interpersonal skills to communicate to large field organization and customers. * Working knowledge of MS Office products. * Ability to travel domestically 65%. * Proficiency in oscilloscopes, voltage-current power meters, power analysis meters, load banks and related equipment. * Ability to conduct training in a classroom and laboratory setting. MEPPI offers a competitive salary and benefits package. For more information, visit our website. NO PHONE CALLS PLEASE! EOE/M/F/D/V
          UPS Service Technician - Santa Clara        
Mitsubishi Electric Power Products, Inc., (MEPPI) is a premier supplier of advanced electrical and electronic technologies, products, and services for America's critical energy infrastructure needs. If you possess experience performing field service on uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) or related power quality products this may be the job for you! An opportunity exists in the Santa Clara, CA area for a Service Technician at MEPPI. As the Service Technician you will perform service and service support activities, troubleshooting and repair of single and three phase uninterruptible power supplies and peripherals to internal and external customers. The ideal candidate will possess the following: * Associates degree in electronics or related technical discipline plus minimum 3 years experience in troubleshooting and repair of a technical, electrical and/or electronic product or equivalent education and experience. * Advanced knowledge of electronic test equipment and how it is used. * Developed verbal and interpersonal skills to communicate to large field organization and customers. * Working knowledge of MS Office products. * Ability to travel domestically 65%. * Proficiency in oscilloscopes, voltage-current power meters, power analysis meters, load banks and related equipment. * Ability to conduct training in a classroom and laboratory setting. MEPPI offers a competitive salary and benefits package. For more information, visit our website. NO PHONE CALLS PLEASE! EOE/M/F/D/V
          Production Test Engineer - San Clemente        
Position: Production Test Engineer Industry: Medical Devices Location :South Orange County Salary: $65,000 $125,000+stock Submit resume To: [link removed] [email removed] Description: Please refer to CACH4161 when responding...Thanks! Our client is a fast growing medical device manufacturer located in South Orange County, CA. Due to high growth and demand for their products, next generation implantable cardiac devices, there are several positions available in the Product Test Engineering area. Positions range from Jr to Senior Level. POSITION SUMMARY: Support all operational aspects of electrical test processes used in manufacturing. DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES * Develop electrical testing and troubleshooting procedures for hybrid and implantable defibrillator electronics. Document these procedures in accordance with the company's Quality System. * Perform advanced troubleshooting of electrical test failures. Appropriately document all troubleshooting activities and disposition failures in accordance with the company's Quality System. * Perform advanced troubleshooting of electrical test equipment issues. Properly document all maintenance and calibration activities in accordance with the company's Quality System. * Develop and maintain database for logging and tracking electrical test results. Validate database to comply with the company's Quality System and external standards. * Provide periodic reports on electrical test yields. Identify trends in failure modes and root causes. Initiate and lead projects to address these issues. * Develop and execute protocols for validation of electrical test systems to comply with the company's Quality System and external standards. * Interface with Design Engineers to provide timely feedback on proposed designs and influence organization to develop a strong design for manufacturability culture. * Properly document activities in accordance with best engineering practices, company procedures, and regulatory requirements. * Effectively train assemblers, technicians, and engineers on use of electrical test equipment and fixtures. POSITION QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS * Bachelor of science degree in electrical engineering, and 3 years of manufacturing test experience in medical or other high-reliability environment. BS/MS from good school for junior level, combination of strong educational b/g along with solid medical/high reliability/critical devices. * Experience with both analog and digital circuit design. * Strong knowledge of standard electronic troubleshooting processes. * Familiarity with electronic equipment such as oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, DVM's, spectrum analyzers, and computerized test equipment. * Ability to read and interpret circuit schematics and layout drawings for the purpose of understanding test system and device operation. * Experience programming in C, Labview or equivalent. * Quality orientation and attention to detail with strong problem solving skills. * Strong oral and written communication skills. * PC computer proficiency with MS Office. * Manual dexterity and hand-eye coordination to manipulate delicate instruments in the troubleshooting of devices and fixtures. Capability to use equipment such as microscopes, soldering irons, and tweezers. Some lifting to 30 pounds. * Capability to work in a clean room environment and wear appropriate gowns, hair nets, and gloves. * Good teamwork, communication and interpersonal skills. A demonstrated commitment to company values. POSITION PREFERENCES: * Medical Device manufacturing experience, including ISO and FDA requirements. * Experience with both low voltage and high voltage circuit design. * Experience with validation of electrical test systems and processes. Company offers excellent salary, benefits and corporate culture. Relocation assistance available to beautiful Orange County, CA!
          HBW Manufacturing Test Engineer - San Jose        
This position is responsible for providing test engineering support for HBW manufacturing operations. Primary responsibility is to assist in releasing new production test solutions and sustaining and improving existing test solutions. This includes all necessary activities such as hardware modifications, test program modifications, and change in test methodology on existing products to improve manufacturing test productivity. Candidate will be actively involved in test capacity activities such as test time reduction, migration between platforms, developing and qualifying outside contract test facilities including offshore testing. A senior level test engineer is expected to be the focal point and knowledge base for all test related issues. Skills/Experience: Candidates should have a BSEE/BSCS or equivalent with 5 years minimum industry experience. All applicants must have good verbal and written communication, analytical, and trouble shooting skills. A working knowledge of C+/C++ along with UNIX systems administration is essential. Experience with high frequency (1GHz) and mixed signal circuits and test hardware techniques for working with these types of products is desirable. Circuit knowledge and data analysis along with trouble shooting skills using oscilloscope and other analytical tools for problem solving is also desirable. Applicants must work well in a team environment. People oriented skills are required which provide excellent interfacing with various other groups. This includes design, new product development test, applications, process, packaging, and quality/reliability engineering as well as marketing, planning, customer support, and manufacturing operations. This candidate must be a self-starter able to work with minimal supervision and have excellent problem solving skills.
          Motor test results        
Hi all, I would like suggest to post the test results of your motors under this topic so that we can learn from each other. As an example, enclosed I post an oscilloscope picture of my motor's coil current and voltage readings. * The current is always zero, except when the reed swich closes. * The voltage varies according a sinus function and drops almost to zero when the switch closes. * Timescale: 10 msec per division (so one cycle = +/- 42 msec which means motor rpm = ...
          Ilmu Service Hp Menjadi Teknisi Handphone        
anda bersama jasa company / jasa ponsel cellular , disini anda dapat melihat dan mempelajari ,bagaimana cara anda memulai mempelajari Ilmu Service Hp Menjadi Teknisi Handphone ? banyak jalan untuk mempelajarinya Ilmu Servis HP antara lain bisa anda dapatkan melalui eBook Panduan Praktis Servis HP…, Video tutorial.  ,mulai dari teknik terberat ( Menerapkan Skema ) sampai teknik sederhana ( Mengganti Hardware ) dari sedemikian cara untuk anda dapat mempelajarinya anda dapat melihat ,  berbagai macam cara dari yang sederhana sampai tingkat level sulit. dari sekian banyak cara anda dapat melihat beberapa hal berikut ini untuk dapat menerapkan metode service hp anda itu sendiri.   System Kerja Handphone   Pembagian Block Hardware HP   Fungsi berbagai komponen HP termasuk IC (Integrated Circuit)   Gejala kerusakan komponen HP   Jenis –jenis Alat service hardware dan Software   Berbagai Penyebab Kerusakan HP   Uraian Ciri-Ciri, Akibat Kerusakan serta Langkah-Langkah Service HP   Bongkar Pasang Cassing HP   Schematic Diagram / Skema Jalur   Cara Solder komponen Service Manual   Trik Jumper   Upgrade Firmware   Flashing   Trik Pengecekan HP Mati Total / Matot dengan Power Supply   Cek Tegangan HP misalnya untuk kerusakan HP Matot   Bongkar Pasang IC/Reball   Software tools   Troubleshooting seperti: contact Retailer, No Charging, dll   Menggunakan frequency Counter dan Oscilloscope   Cara penggunaan Hot Blower   Teknik Reblow   dll apakah anda tertarik menjadi teknisi handphone ? jika anda tertarik silahkan mempelajari sedikit ilmu yang di terapkan di atas dengan demikian anda sudah dapat menjadi teknisi handphone yang profesional tentunya.

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          Samsara Showings        

Samsara will be shown in London on 30th August 2012 at 6:15pm at the Curzon theatre in Soho.

You can buy tickets for this event here.

There will be a Q&A session with Mark Magidson via Skype after the showing.

For other showings of Samsara around the world check the official Samsara website.

If you are involved with a theatre and want to show Samsara then get in touch with one of the following:

 


          Debugging source code and its various approaches for the layman        
Debugging source code and its various approaches for the layman

Once errors are identified, it is necessary to first locate the precise program statements responsible for the errors and then fix them. Generally, the most difficult part of debugging is locating the invalid part of the source code. Once the error is found, correcting it is usually easy. Generally, debugging is a lengthy and tiresome task. The debugging skill of the programmer is probably the biggest factor in the ability to debug a problem.

There are several approaches for debugging. Programs known as debuggers exist to help programmers locate bugs. Debuggers enable the programmer to monitor the execution of a program, stop it, re-start it, set breakpoints, change values in memory and even, in some cases, go back in time. For debugging computer hardware and low-level software like device drivers, BIOS and firmware, instruments such as oscilloscopes, in-circuit emulators are frequently used.

Brute Force method is, though, the most common method of debugging, it is the least efficient method. In this approach, the program is loaded with print statements to print the intermediate values with the hope that some of the printed values will help to identify the statement in error. This approach becomes more systematic with the use of a symbolic debugger (also known as source code debugger), because the values of different variables can be easily checked and break points and watch points can be easily set to test the values of variables effortlessly.

Backtracking is also a fairly common approach. In this approach, beginning from the statement at which an error symptom is observed, the source code is traced backwards until the error is discovered. Unfortunately, as the number of source lines to be traced back increases, the number of potential backward paths increases and may become unmanageable large, thus limiting the use of this approach.

In Cause elimination method, a list of causes which could possibly have contributed to the error symptom is developed and tests are conducted to eliminate each cause. A related technique of identification of the error from the error symptom in the software fault tree analysis.

Program slicing is a technique which is similar to back tracking. However, the search space is reduced by defining slices. A slice of a program from a particular variable at a particular statement is the set of source lines preceding this statement that can influence the value of that variable.

Debugging is often carried out by programmers based on their ingenuity. Many a times, debugging requires a thorough understanding of the program design. Trying to debug based on a partial understanding of the system design and implementation may require an inordinate amount of effort to be put into debugging even for simple reasons. Debugging may sometimes even require full redesign of the system. In such cases, a common mistake that novice programmers often make is that they do not attempt to fix the error but only its symptoms. One must be beware of the possibility that any one error correction may introduce new errors. Therefore, after every round of error fixing, regression testing must be carried out.
          In His Own Words: John Blankenbaker        
One of the great privileges of being a curator at the Computer History Museum is access to the files. Not just the extensive holdings of manuals, documentation, and ephemera, but also the acquisition files. In the course of looking for some piece of information or another, I’ll often find pieces that I’d not expect. Sales and shipping receipts from the 1950s, or a business card from a company that existed for less than a month are some of the unexpected things I’ve discovered in my course of my searches. One afternoon, while trying to dig up a donor name in the files, I came across a section of fanfold paper. This is not all that rare, the Computer Museum in Boston often printed artifact information on fanfold, but for some reason, I knew this one was different. For starters, it featured a number of pencil notations and corrections to the dot matrix-printed text. For another, it was in a folder for a lesser-known computer called the Kenbak-1. The last thing I noticed was a name at the top of the page – John Blankenbaker. John V. Blankenbaker, the inventor of the Kenbak, has a long career in computing, dating back to the 1950s. His association with the Museum dates back to the early 1980s, and the Kenbak was named the First PC in the Computer Museum’s Earliest PC contest in 1986. While not as widely-known as many other designers of early personal computers, his work has always been one of my favorite pioneers. Discovering this piece, which I first thought had been written for The Computer Museum Report magazine of the 1980s, I was ecstatic to get to read a piece from an active participant from quite near the time of their most noted work! This is an interview conducted during the Earliest PC contest in 1986. Sadly, no video of the interview, or any other part of the contest, exists. While it was covered in detail in the Computer Museum Reports, this appears to be the only direct words we have from any of the participants in the contest in the collection. I’d like to thank Mr. Blankenbaker for allowing us to run this piece. John Blankenbaker I’ve been interested in computer for some time. I started the design of my computer in 1949. Now a lot of you weren’t even around then. I didn’t have a lot to go on. There was an article in Popular Science that said there was this electronic computer beast that had probably 10,000 vacuum tubes in it. And it used only 0 and 1 in its number system. Now, that’s about all that this paragraph in Popular Science said. And faced with horrendous sets of calculations for physics lab, I said “I’m going to build a computer.” Whether it was a calculator or a computer is a bit mute, but I had a few hurdles. First off, a number system that only had zeroes and ones in it was strange to me. Zero… one… What do you do with all the rest of those digits? You wouldn’t believe, not having the benefit of New Math, how long it took me to figure out how to write a number in binary. It took me days. And then it took a little while longer to figure out how to add and subtract and the other arithmetic operations. Then I proceeded to try and adapt this to some kind of implementation. I was not an electronics expert, and I focused upon the relay as possibly one way of doing it. And I think I eventually had an arithmetic unit sort of conceptually worked out. It was based upon an electro-mechanical device which I now recognize as an equivalent of a JK flip-flop. And it was a bi-stable device. And I thought that I could build an arithmetic unit with it. I turned my attention to memory, and I figured it would be one relay per bit. And I started saying, “How many relays is this going to take?” And so I some number of words, and I probably economized on twenty words. And I don’t know how many bits. And then I looked in my pocketbook and said, “No way I can afford this.” And that was the end of the project. But I was very fortunate in 1951, when I was a junior in college, going into senior year, to get a job at the National Bureau of Standards where I was assigned, by the luck of the draw, to the SEAC Project. It really wasn’t luck of the draw; I asked the personnel officer why I was assigned and he said, “Oh, you have lots of chemistry.” That was my first computer that I really saw. And I mean that was awe inspiring. It had, at the time, they were bringing up the electrostatic memory bank. One cathode ray tube held all the memory. You could actually see what was in your memory. But those dancing electrons I never did trust. And they soon found that they shouldn’t trust them either. But that was my first computer – A room full of computer. And, incidently, they did allow people to write and use it for their personal use with only one restriction. You were only allowed to use it during thunderstorms. That’s because it could not be trusted during those periods of time. So it could be used by private individuals. The pattern of having a computer for your own personal use was very, well um well it was a strange thought. It was always time-shared, and always scheduled, never anything for you to use yourself. Well, next year, in 1952, I went to work at Hughes Aircraft Company, and they were building a business data processor. Now in those days when you started building computers, you didn’t go hire experts because, as I say, there weren’t any experts. There wasn’t any practical knowledge. They took some kid off the street, like me, and said build us an arithmetic unit in binary coded decimal no less. Well, it took a while. But we did. Now flip-flops in those days were very expensive. VERY expensive. And the head of the department would say, “Every flip-flop you put in is going to cost us $500 in the selling price.” So we struggled and we struggled to try to eliminate flip-flops, or find alternative techniques. I remember that in the search for alternative techniques that I even considered dominoes. I found it fascinating that someone down here had built a computer out of Tinker Toys. You can do the same thing out of dominoes because you have the essence of delay and you have a negation function. And with those two, (“or gates” are trivial in dominoes) dominoes, that is, that stand up and fall over. So that’s signal propagation as they fall over. Two streams that or into one is an ‘or’ gate, or one of them that comes in the back door is negation. So you get a computer. But my talents didn’t really run that way and I concentrated upon trying to eliminated flip-flops. And we struggled awfully hard at it. In some of my spare time, I really thought hard about how to eliminate flip-flops. And I finally came up with a computer design that has only one flip-flop. It has what might be called a reduced instruction set. That’s it. It only had four instructions. Store the flip-flop in memory and set the flip-flop to the ‘one’ state. Instruction two: ‘and’ the state of the flip-flop with the complement of the bit from memory. Third instruction: output the state of the flip-flop and input the state of the input line to the flip-flop. And the fourth instruction was a ‘no-op’ (You use more no-ops than anything else.) There were no addresses in the instruction. So it was really quite a simple computer. It was slow, but it could emulate any other computer in the world. One flip-flop. A permanent memory in which you stored the description of a computer that you wanted to emulate. And you were off and running, but you had to run for a long time to get through one clock cycle. But it could be done with one flip-flop. I think the invention was 1955. And, incidently, when I turned it into the patent office, they said it’s no invention because if it does what any computer does, there’s nothing unique about it. But I knew it could be done, missing only a good permanent memory – that was the requirement – but I could get it down to one flip-flop. The department head said the selling price of a computer was $500 per flip-flop. So I had it in the back of my mind: a personal computer - $500. It wouldn’t be fast. It wouldn’t be sophisticated, but it would be enough there that it could really sort of emulate, or be a respectable computer. Incidently, if you’d like a description of that computer, it can be found in the June 1958 Transactions on Electronic Computers. Now, I didn’t have a permanent memory which was a requirement to do this. I sort of laid the whole thing aside and didn’t do much about it at all until the year 1970 when I found myself unemployed. And as a part of the process I found myself with a $6000 settlement, and I decided that if I was ever going to build a small computer this might be the time to do it. But I still didn’t have a permanent memory. I still had the fixation upon the $500 selling price, which meant $150 perhaps of cost. So, I thought about it and I said, “I’m going to try something. I will have to change my technique a little bit, method of implementation. It should be a computer that is representative of computers to the user. It doesn’t matter what it is really internally. We are not teaching digital logic. We are not going to get in there with an oscilloscope or anything, but to the user it should be a representative computer. Speed is not important. It can take all day, so to speak, to solve a problem. But speed is not important. The big question was whether I would have any fancy I/O, but at my cost of $150, I was limited. There was nothing I could do. I was familiar with the CRT technology. I had been working at a company where we had alphanumeric CRT displays, but I couldn’t include anything of that nature. The model 33 Teletype is an obvious candidate, but the price of that certainly was beyond the price of the computer. The other device that I thought about a little bit and I just saw over here – you didn’t mention it – the little alphanumeric printer that is used in cash registers and things of that nature. I thought about perhaps trying something of that nature. In the end, I decided I would just have, for the price, to confine myself to lights and switches. Now that’s going to limit the size of the computer, but other things are going to limit the size of the computer, too, namely, just the price itself. Remember that there wasn’t a wide availability of memory in those days. The one most economical memory I could find was MOS shift registers. So, I would include two chips, each of them 1000 bits. So I’d have 2000 bits. Remember I would doing this out of my own pocket, literally. I could not afford expensive tooling costs. I had to buy things that were fairly standard. That meant I got out the Allied catalogue and I looked through it. And I said, “What are the cabinets that are available? Let’s see… maybe that one, maybe that one. This is the choice, right here,” that I finally made. That’s the standard conventional cabinet from Bud called the Grand Prix. The switches and lights were standard available things. I assumed that I would be producing this in relatively small quantities, and I wanted everything to be standard. And I certainly couldn’t afford the tooling cost except the printed circuit board of the logic board in it. I did assume that I would have to design and pay for the tooling cost of that. And in choosing the ICs, I said, “I will choose IC’s which are most widely available from the most manufacturers and sell them at the lowest cost.” There were chips coming on the market that were available from one manufacturer that were rather expensive. For example, the 4 x 4 memory chip, the 170, was just out, but it was rather expensive. But the 9400’s, the 7474’s, flip-flops, were pretty cheap. So I concentrated upon those chips right there. It’s got a lot of them in there. There are 130 IC in that computer right there, but they are cheap ICs. As I say, no microprocessor. There wasn’t even one announced as of that date. On input and putput, I did give some thought to punch card input – an IBM card which you manually insert and withdrew. It would be like the read only proms that we saw later – a punch card you pushed in and pushed out. That’s why right here you see a slot that is covered up. I went ahead and punched the slot in the front panel just in case that I did get around to engineering this. I tried some engineering on this, and reading punch cards photoelectrically is trickier than I imagined. So I never did really develop it. I did decide that the machine should be byte oriented. Once you think about it – a byte oriented machine and you think about the instruction format, it becomes pretty obvious that you set up one byte as an address, as a complete address, and that says 256 bytes would be a very logical size to make the computer. It would be a very neat size, and 256 bytes for manually loading is… well, you wouldn’t want any more than that. 256 bytes can be loaded and checked in twenty minutes, so I decided again these sort of balanced off. Yep, 256 still offers you lots of opportunity for respectable programs and so on. The biggest program I’ve ever had in here, which took all 256 bytes, is a program to play three dimensional tic-tac-toe. That took every last byte and it played a credible job, incredible job. It could have been much better, but memory was the limiting factor. So, considering the available memory chips – these broad decisions – I went to work on the logical design, literally, in the garage. We taped it up. My brother helped me a little bit. We taped it up. That was in September, that we started, of 1970. Spring of that next year we had the prototype. I happened to find that there was a mathematics teachers convention just about that time that the prototype was being completed. So I quickly signed on and took it down to a convention and exhibited it to high school mathematics teachers. Very shortly, that summer, minor errors corrected, design slightly revised, in minor ways. What was a sole proprietorship became a corporation. We took on five investors. We’d have taken on more if they had been willing. I can name them right now, and in fair justice to them, I think I will do so: John Blatner, Christopher Kamp, Jim Dougherty, Vance Holdem, and Montgomery Fister – five people who knew me. I was very proud of that. I never did sell anything to anybody that didn’t know me, but five people who knew me did choose to invest in the corporation. The first two, during that summer, we went down to the public catalogue, I say public, my wife was involved too. We went down to the public library, and we pulled out lists of private secondary schools (high schools). We made up a flyer, and we mailed it out to them, and one school bought two. That was our first sale, and very shortly thereafter the ad appeared in Scientific American. Before my issue of Scientific American even came out (I found out delivery on the East Coast of Scientific American is earlier than on the West Coast,) but before I had even seen my own copy of Scientific American, we were getting mail from the East Coast, and I shook open one envelope, and the check for $750 fell out. And I thought. “we’re home free.” Well, that was the last time that someone just dropped the check in the envelope and said send me a computer. The typical selling procedure for the computers was a much longer process. Usually, it involved, it seemed like, six letters because they would ask more questions and so on. Well, we would guarantee the computer. “Take it, try it, if you don’t like it, we’ll give you your money back.” Our most effective marketing tool because of the cost of making a sales call, or anything else, was that, “we’ll send you the computer on trial for two weeks. At the end of that time you buy it or you send the computer back.” We’d send it out for $7.50 by UPS or Greyhound bus and they return it to us. So, for $7.50, we made a sales call, and that was about one of our most effecting ways of selling. We did use direct mailing. We did use advertising. We found that some magazines are much more effective than others. Scientific American was good. We advertised some in newspaper new product announcements. I took it to conventions, demonstrated it there, made some sales calls in the local area, and we did sign on one educational dealer in Canada who was quite successful. He didn’t understand a thing about computers at all, but if one ever broke, he could fix it, but he sold several. I think he probably alone was responsible for selling more than anyone else. In the end, we were trying to enlist even more educational dealers. We had decided that the educational market was probably the best one to go after. The Schools. In hindsight, that may not have been a good policy because the budgeting process is so long. Typically, after they made the decision to buy one, then they had to get budget monies which meant the next budget cycle, and then so on down the line. So it could be a year before they could afford one. Well, we were so undercapitalized, we could hardly wait. We couldn’t afford to wait for them kind of thing. In the end, Kenbak Corporation winked out of existence. We sold about forty some odd computers. At last gasp, we sold the design rights to an educational company. They did not have the success that we did at al. It’s all in a relative sense. I mean -4 is more negative than -2, right? And in the end, it just sort of slowly winked away. The investors lost all their money. A few people were owed a little bit of money in the end, including myself, but quietly we went out of existence. When I heard about the contest which, incidently, I would not have seen through any of the advertising and I was unaware of it, because I am not actively reading the computer magazines today, but my friend Montgomery Fister talked to The Bells and volunteered one of my computers and I had to make good. When I went up to the attic, is where I went to find one, I had three. The very original prototype and two production machines. One production machine had been modified by my son to do something special. This was the only one I had left, but I regard it as entirely proper and a very good home for the computer to be here in the Museum where many people can see it. It will receiver, I think, more publicity. I will contribute more to the background of computing by being here in the Museum than by being up in the attic. When I did unpack the machine to send it here, I thought, “Well, let’s just see if it works.” I had no guarantees it would work, but I plugged it in and tried it. At least most of the features seemed to work. I’ve just tried it here again and it still seems to work. I was probably a little bit conservative in the design of it. The printed circuit board used 50mm of lines, did not etch any between the pads. The power supply was so overrated that it would run down to 70 volts AC. I put a fan in it, too. I was probably too conservative on it; I could have saved some of the cost had I know been so conservative. It proved, in practice, to be a fairly reliable machine. The most unreliable aspect of it was that the switches were glued to the front panel of it. Glued, I say, epoxied, and sometimes they broke loose. That was one of the worst manufacturing problems, was just that trivial problem there. […]
          Machine Learning Developer - Intel - Toronto, ON        
Experience with hardware debugging and validation using equipment such as function generators, oscilloscopes, and testers....
From Intel - Fri, 30 Jun 2017 10:25:27 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          Powerful handheld oscilloscope from MDL suits both lab and field        
The new Scope Rider from Rohde & Schwarz is a portable digital oscilloscope with the capabilities of a laboratory instrument. Available from MDL Technologies, it has an acquisition rate of 50 000 wave...
          Shenzhen jiahuijie Technology Co,;Ltd        
Shenzhen jiahuijie technologies Co.,ltd is one of the leading test and measuring instruments provider in Asia relying on a stable supply of foreign channels. We carry a full range of used test equipment from manufacturers such as Advantest, Agilent / HP , Ando , Anritsu , Fluke , Keithley , Lecroy , Rohde & Schwarz and Tektronix. we have been providing high quality spectrum analyzers, oscilloscopes, network analyzers, service monitors, OTDR, and multimeters at great savings We provide test and measuring instruments services like sales & rental , remarketing ,repair and calibration.
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由于BEST PICTURE增加到了10部,UP也拿到了最佳长片提名,成为奥斯卡历史上继美女与野兽之后第二部提名该类别的动画长片!下面是提名的电影和票房:

BEST PICTURE
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Avatar    Fox    $595,752,416
Up    Buena Vista    $293,004,164
The Blind Side    Warner Bros.    $237,914,805
Inglourious Basterds    Weinstein Company    $120,540,719
District 9    TriStar    $115,646,235
Up in the Air    Paramount    $73,273,311
Precious: Based on the Novel "Push" by Sapphire    Lionsgate    $45,447,889
The Hurt Locker    Summit Entertainment    $12,671,105
A Serious Man    Focus Features    $9,228,768
An Education    Sony Classics    $8,795,228


BEST DIRECTOR
Picture    Nominees    Studio    Box Office
Avatar    James Cameron    Fox    $595,752,416
Inglourious Basterds    Quentin Tarantino    Weinstein Company    $120,540,719
Up in the Air    Jason Reitman    Paramount    $73,273,311
Precious: Based on the Novel "Push" by Sapphire    Lee Daniels    Lionsgate    $45,447,889
The Hurt Locker    Kathryn Bigelow    Summit Entertainment    $12,671,105


BEST ACTOR
Picture    Nominees    Studio    Box Office
Up in the Air    George Clooney    Paramount    $73,273,311
Invictus    Morgan Freeman    Warner Bros.    $36,215,979
The Hurt Locker    Jeremy Renner    Summit Entertainment    $12,671,105
Crazy Heart    Jeff Bridges    Fox Searchlight    $6,657,379
A Single Man    Colin Firth    Weinstein Company    $5,075,352


BEST ACTRESS
Picture    Nominees    Studio    Box Office
The Blind Side    Sandra Bullock    Warner Bros.    $237,914,805
Julie & Julia    Meryl Streep    Sony / Columbia    $94,125,426
Precious: Based on the Novel "Push" by Sapphire    Gabourey Sidibe    Lionsgate    $45,447,889
An Education    Carey Mulligan    Sony Classics    $8,795,228
The Last Station    Helen Mirren    Sony Classics    $343,758


BEST SUPPORTING ACTOR
Picture    Nominees    Studio    Box Office
Inglourious Basterds    Christoph Waltz    Weinstein Company    $120,540,719
The Lovely Bones    Stanley Tucci    Paramount (DreamWorks)    $38,005,738
Invictus    Matt Damon    Warner Bros.    $36,215,979
The Messenger    Woody Harrelson    Oscilloscope Pictures    $770,208
The Last Station    Christopher Plummer    Sony Classics    $343,758


BEST SUPPORTING ACTRESS
Picture    Nominees    Studio    Box Office
Up in the Air    Vera Farmiga    Paramount    $73,273,311
Up in the Air    Anna Kendrick    Paramount    $73,273,311
Precious: Based on the Novel "Push" by Sapphire    Mo'Nique    Lionsgate    $45,447,889
Nine    Penelope Cruz    Weinstein Company    $19,201,488
Crazy Heart    Maggie Gyllenhaal    Fox Searchlight    $6,657,379


BEST ORIGINAL SCREENPLAY
Picture    Nominees    Studio    Box Office
Up    Bob Peterson and Pete Docter    Buena Vista    $293,004,164
Inglourious Basterds    Quentin Tarantino    Weinstein Company    $120,540,719
The Hurt Locker    Mark Boal    Summit Entertainment    $12,671,105
A Serious Man    Joel Coen & Ethan Coen    Focus Features    $9,228,768
The Messenger    Alessandro Camon & Oren Moverman    Oscilloscope Pictures    $770,208


BEST ADAPTED SCREENPLAY
Picture    Nominees    Studio    Box Office
District 9    Neill Blomkamp & Terri Tatchell    TriStar    $115,646,235
Up in the Air    Jason Reitman & Sheldon Turner    Paramount    $73,273,311
Precious: Based on the Novel "Push" by Sapphire    Geoffrey Fletcher    Lionsgate    $45,447,889
An Education    Nick Hornby    Sony Classics    $8,795,228
In the Loop    Jesse Armstrong, Simon Blackwell, Armando Ianucci, Tony Roche    IFC    $2,388,804


BEST EDITING
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Avatar    Fox    $595,752,416
Inglourious Basterds    Weinstein Company    $120,540,719
District 9    TriStar    $115,646,235
Precious: Based on the Novel "Push" by Sapphire    Lionsgate    $45,447,889
The Hurt Locker    Summit Entertainment    $12,671,105


BEST CINEMATOGRAPHY
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Avatar    Fox    $595,752,416
Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince    Warner Bros.    $301,959,197
Inglourious Basterds    Weinstein Company    $120,540,719
The Hurt Locker    Summit Entertainment    $12,671,105
The White Ribbon    Sony Classics    $611,463


BEST ART DIRECTION
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Avatar    Fox    $595,752,416
Sherlock Holmes    Warner Bros.    $197,601,522
Nine    Weinstein Company    $19,201,488
The Young Victoria    Apparition    $7,673,212
The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus    Sony Classics    $6,406,049


BEST COSTUME DESIGN
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Nine    Weinstein Company    $19,201,488
The Young Victoria    Apparition    $7,673,212
The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus    Sony Classics    $6,406,049
Coco Before Chanel    Sony Classics    $6,095,004
Bright Star    Apparition    $4,444,637


BEST MAKEUP
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Star Trek    Paramount    $257,730,019
The Young Victoria    Apparition    $7,673,212
Il Divo    Music Box Films    $240,159


BEST VISUAL EFFECTS
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Avatar    Fox    $595,752,416
Star Trek    Paramount    $257,730,019
District 9    TriStar    $115,646,235


BEST SOUND
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Avatar    Fox    $595,752,416
Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen    Paramount (DreamWorks)    $402,111,870
Star Trek    Paramount    $257,730,019
Inglourious Basterds    Weinstein Company    $120,540,719
The Hurt Locker    Summit Entertainment    $12,671,105


BEST SOUND EDITING
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Avatar    Fox    $595,752,416
Up    Buena Vista    $293,004,164
Star Trek    Paramount    $257,730,019
Inglourious Basterds    Weinstein Company    $120,540,719
The Hurt Locker    Summit Entertainment    $12,671,105


BEST ORIGINAL SCORE
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Avatar    Fox    $595,752,416
Up    Buena Vista    $293,004,164
Sherlock Holmes    Warner Bros.    $197,601,522
The Fantastic Mr. Fox    Fox    $20,374,545
The Hurt Locker    Summit Entertainment    $12,671,105


BEST ORIGINAL SONG
Picture    Nominees    Studio    Box Office
The Princess and the Frog    "Down in New Orleans" - Music and Lyric by Randy Newman    Buena Vista    $100,352,358
The Princess and the Frog    "Almost There" - Music and Lyric by Randy Newman    Buena Vista    $100,352,358
Nine    "Take It All" - Music and Lyric by Maury Yeston    Weinstein Company    $19,201,488
Crazy Heart    "The Weart Kind (Theme from Crazy Heart)" - Music and Lyric by Ryan Bingham and T. Bone Burnett    Fox Searchlight    $6,657,379
Paris 36    "Lion de Paname" - Music by Reinhardt Wagner, Lyric by Frank Thomas    Sony Classics    $851,540


BEST ANIMATED FEATURE
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Up    Buena Vista    $293,004,164
The Princess and the Frog    Buena Vista    $100,352,358
Coraline    Focus Features    $75,286,229
The Fantastic Mr. Fox    Fox    $20,374,545
The Secret of Kells    -    -


BEST FOREIGN LANGUAGE PICTURE
Picture    Studio    Box Office
The White Ribbon    Sony Classics    $611,463
A Prophet (Un prophète)    Sony Classics    n/a
Ajami    -    -
El Secreto de Sus Ojos    -    -
The Milk of Sorrow    -    -


BEST DOCUMENTARY - FEATURE
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Food, Inc.    Magnolia    $4,417,674
The Cove    Roadside Attractions    $850,001
Burma VJ    Oscilloscope Pictures    $51,672
The Most Dangerous Man in America: Daniel Ellsberg and the Pentagon Papers    First Run    $37,989
Which Way Home    -    -


BEST DOCUMENTARY - SHORT SUBJECT
Picture    Studio    Box Office
China's Unnatural Disaster: The Tears of Sichuan Province    -    -
Music by Prudence    -    -
Rabbit a la Berlin    -    -
The Last Campaign of Governor Booth Gardner    -    -
The Last Truck: Closing of a GM Plant    -    -


BEST ANIMATED SHORT
Picture    Studio    Box Office
A Matter of Loaf and Death    -    -
French Roast    -    -
Granny O'Grimm's Sleeping Beauty    -    -
Logorama    -    -
The Lady and the Reaper (La Dama y la Muerte)    -    -


BEST LIVE ACTION SHORT
Picture    Studio    Box Office
Instead of Abracadabra    -    -
Kavi    -    -
Miracle Fish    -    -
The Door    -    -
The New Tenants    -    -

Source: boxofficemojo


          Debugging a Tricky LED Problem Using Inspired Logic and a Rigol DS1054z Oscilloscope        
Last week I had a bit of a scare. Having tested all 100 of the trial batch of RasPiO InsPiRing straight-8 boards and found 100/100 working perfectly, I issued an update to let the KickStarter backers know. Testing was done with a DigiSpark, which is based on an ATtiny microcontroller. It’s the same device I [...more...]
          C6: Report from the Art Dept        

Immediately after C5 last year I begged Chair-of-C6 Hespa to let me edit together a video for the opening ceremony for C6. She then asked me to do some decorations for the venue, to give the con an apocalyptic flavour. This was quite probably too much for one person. For the last few months I have neglected everything else going on around me, but I'm pretty sure I pulled it off.

There are photos of the props I made, which got a lot of comments, especially the zombie cat and giant computer, thank you! And photos of the Maskobalo set-up, which I also coordinated (Mikee did all the lighting).

The video, however is my pride and joy. I spent literally hundreds of hours on it. I hope you like it.

I have to publicly thank everyone who responded to my Twitter cry for cardboard boxes - Deb Kalin, Chris Miles, my brother Alex and Amanda. For enabling the video, thanks again to Alex, Chris, Dougal Scott and my local video store. Thank you to my parents for letting me raid their attic, shed and garage for EXPLOSIVES signs, CRT tvs, truck turn signals, lights and the oscilloscope. Everything else came from Reverse Art Truck and the mistint shelf at Bunnings. Thank you also to Fran La Fontaine who schlepped everything to the venue with her cunning skills in truckbed tetris.

But the person who really let me get away with this was Richard. Thank you. I'll clean up the paint and cardboard now.


          Electronic Test Equipment from Tucker Electronics        
Tucker Electronics offers New and Refurbished Oscilloscopes, Analyzers, Meters, Counters and Power...

From EEMetric.com
          Ben Heck's Nintendo Classic Edition teardown        

It's time for another hardware teardown! This time it's the Nintendo Classic Edition -- specifically, a unit belonging to David of the "Technophiles" podcast. Using Keysight's DSOX1102G oscilloscope, Ben is able to find out how the NES controller talks to the base of the NES Classic. He then compares the inner workings of the NES Classic controller to the Wii Pro gamepad -- and he discovers something rather shocking in the process. Once the cable has been cut, Ben solders everything back together for David to test out some games. What other hardware should Ben teardown? Let us know over on the element14 Community.


          Courseware Editor per PC Manuale dell'utente        
Download Type: Manuals --> This PC Courseware Editor user manual explains how to operate the PC-based PC Courseware Editor software and includes installation procedures. Also, it explains how to transfer courseware created with the Courseware Editor from the PC to the TBS1000B-EDU oscilloscope.
          MDO3000 Series        
Download Type: Manuals --> This document contains procedures for installing and verifying MDO3AERO, MDO3AUDIO, MDO3AUTO, MDO3COMP, MDO3EMBD, MDO3FLEX, MDO3USB, MDO3LMT, MDO3PWR application modules in MDO3000 oscilloscopes.
          Open-Source USB Oscilloscope for Mobile USE        
LabNation’s SmartScope is the world’s first 100-Msps open-source USB oscilloscope for smartphone, tablet, and PC is now available at a special low price for a limited time only. Order the SmartScope beforeTuesday, September 15, 2015 to save over $30. Features, … Continue reading
          From the Repertory | 3/30/17        
Capsule reviews of new Blu-Ray releases:

CHILLY SCENES OF WINTER (Twilight Time)
Originally released in 1979 as Head Over Heels, Chilly Scenes of Winter was re-released in 1982 with a new ending and sporting the original title of Ann Beattie's novel on which it was based. Billed as a "romantic comedy," it's actually much more subtle and downbeat than what one would general consider a rom-com. John Heard plays a professional who falls in love with a married woman, who just happens to be having marital troubles with her husband. When she decides to go back to him, however, that sends Heard into an obsessive tail-spin.

Chilly Scenes of Winter covers some pretty dark territory in relationships, although its tone remains mostly light. It's naturalism is perhaps its greatest asset. There's never any malevolence in the characters' actions, but it feels like such an honest exploration of the kind of all-encompassing infatuation and the tricky waters of romantic attraction. Every choice rings true. In fact it feels so normal it almost loses its dramatic thrust, and Heard's occasional fourth-wall-breaking asides seem out-of-place with the rest of the film. There's not a lot to hang on to here, but it is marvelously performed.

GRADE - ★★½ (out of four)

INTERIORS (Twilight Time)
In his first dramatic film, Woody Allen paid homage to one of his greatest cinematic heroes, Ingmar Bergman. Indeed, every frame of Interiors seems almost haunted by Bergman, from Gordon Willis' chilly cinematography, to the hushed, portentous atmosphere, it certainly feels like a lost Bergman film, even if it often lacks the legendary Swedish director's depth.

The story of three adult sisters whose family is torn apart by their father's sudden abandonment of their controlling mother, Interiors has all of Allen's existential crises without any of his trademark comedy. The result is hit and miss, often as self-consciously somber as it is engrossing. The performances are the highlight here, each one is a standalone highlight, even if Maureen Stapleton is a mid-film shot of adrenaline. It's dramatic elements may feel a bit disjointed, but Allen's mastery of dialogue and character detail keep Interiors from slipping too deeply into self-seriousness.

GRADE - ★★★ (out of four)

THE LOVE WITCH (Oscilloscope)
Anna Biller's deliriously entertaining ode to the over-the-top erotic horror films of the 1960s, popularized by the likes of Jean Rollin, Dario Argento, and Mario Bava, is one of the most stunning and flawless genre homages I have ever seen. Not even Tarantino has so closely replicated a genre film like this. It feels completely authentic, like something out of a time machine. The Love Witch absolutely nails the atmosphere of those erotic giallo films that were so prominent on the exploitation circuit at the time. From the vibrant colors, to the soft-focus cinematography, to the music, to the framing, to the presentational performance style, everything about The Love Witch hums not only with a reverence for its influences, but with a feminist verve all its own.

While many of these films existed mainly to titillate with the promise of bare female flesh (rarely delivering on their own lurid premises), The Love Witch turns the concept on its head. There is certainly flesh to spare, but Biller isn't letting the audience off the hook here. Her story of a young witch whose desperation for love leads her to develop a sex potion designed to give men what they want, believing if she fulfills their sexual fantasies it will translate into love, resonates with more sophisticated flair than much of its exploitation brethren. Instead of making them fall in love, the potion drives them mad, causing them to commit suicide. It isn't long before the men of the town bring out their figurative torches and pitchforks in an effort to kill the witch. It's an alluring and engaging allegory for modern sexual politics, where women give into the fantasies of men, only to be punished for it later by a society that fears the very sexually liberated women it claims to champion. I loved every minute of this film. As a fan of Rollin and Bava, I was especially impressed by the Biller's fidelity to the genre. She clearly has a strong understanding of what made these exploitation films what they were, and how to use their structure to achieve a greater thematic depth. The Love Witch is a veritable orgy of sinful cinematic tropes, re-purposed and re-imagined for a new time by an artist working at the top of her game.

GRADE - ★★★½ (out of four)

PINOCCHIO - Signature Collection (Disney)
"Always let your conscience be your guide."

I feel like Pinocchio is often overlooked in the Disney canon. While "When You Wish Upon a Star" has become the de-facto Disney theme song, the film itself almost stands in the shadow of its predecessor, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, which has the distinction of being the first feature length animated film. Disney had a lot riding on the follow-up, and the result is one of his finest achievements.

It's surprising how dark this thing is. Pinocchio is a warning to children as much as it is a charming piece of entertainment, and the results of Pinocchio's misbehavior are occasionally terrifying (what child didn't grow up thinking lying would make their nose grow?), with nightmarish imagery that makes for some of Disney's darkest moments. While much of this kind of thing wouldn't fly today (the smoking, the drinking), it makes Pinocchio's journey that much more harrowing and his redemption all the more moving. It's a beautifully animated work whose enduring message of simple goodness continues to resonate, anchored by some of the most endearing characters and sidekicks that Disney ever created.

GRADE - ★★★½ (out of four)

STANLEY & IRIS (Twilight Time)
I've always felt that John Williams' score for Stanley & Iris is one of his most overlooked gems. It's small scale, unassuming, based only on two simple, straightforward themes, which it repeats for most of its short running time. But that's not unlike the film itself - small, lovely, earnest, never spectacular but always charming. Stanley & Iris, the final film by the great Martin Ritt, is anchored by two graceful performances by Robert DeNiro and Jane Fonda as the eponymous duo; Stanley, an illiterate cook, and Iris, a factory worker who decides to help him learn to read.

The film has a kind of quiet dignity about it, as Iris helps Stanley regain his confidence through finally learning to read, a handicap which has held him back his entire life. They fall in love along the way, of course, and the film has very little in the way of conflict or drama. But Ritt explores the crippling impediment of illiteracy without turning it into an "issue drama," quietly crafting a tender and heartfelt love story that coasts along on the strength of its stars magnetic and lived in performances. It's the very definition of a "nice" film, never offending, never offering emotional fireworks, but hitting its notes with Ritt's soft-spoken grace.

GRADE - ★★★ (out of four)

          Playhouse alarm        
The alarm project has been pottering on since I installed in my house. I have it working well here and on a bench setup. I have also been working on decoding more stuff such as the newer RF RIO and RF PIRs that you can get. They are fun. I can even tell when there is movement in one of my neighbours house - privacy implications I wonder?

It is all on GitHub now.

However, one thing I also did was wire up the kids' playhouse in the garden.


Yes, that is a kids' playhouse with swings, and slide, and Galaxy Max Reader, and big green exit button, and Galaxy keypad, and small (cabinet/drawer) mag-lock and (large) reed switches. The grandkids love it.

It has been, however, a good test, as I expected it to be. I wanted a platform with a working door that I could test on more accurately than my work bench but not messing up my house alarm and doors to my office here. An alpha test site, if you will. It has raised some fun issues.

First off, I needed a way to configure it so they could not in fact set the alarm and lock the door - yes they can get out by other means, but they were rather puzzled the door would not open. Easy enough.

However, the biggest issue I have is the bus is showing a lot of errors. I have retries, and they work, and the door works and the max reader works, but there are errors, several a second.

One thought is bus termination resistors. This is maybe 20m or 30m of cable, outside. The screen is not (yet) earthed. No termination resistors. The reason is that I found the whole thing fell apart when I added them.

I have worked out on a bench test that this seems to be a relatively simple matter. With the resistors, the bus comes cleanly back to zero after we transmit, and that causes us to catch a BREAK after we transmit, which we were taking as the start of a response message. A simple bit of code to ignore that and it looks like they will no longer be a problem. So that is one mystery solved.

Now I have a scope I can also see that we are nowhere near seeing nasty bus reflections or ringing to get in the way of things working without resistors. They are a good idea, yes, and will help in some noisy environments or long lines I am sure, but at 9600 they are probably not strictly necessary. In some ways the flaw in the design is the long (10ms) bus idle periods. A protocol with message lengths and overlapping bus driving turn around could have eliminated the bus ever being idle and made the whole thing a lot cleaner.

So lack of resistors does not explain all the errors on the bus.

So, time to play with an oscilloscope on that bus... This looks wrong!


Top (yellow) is the "A" side, bottom (blue) is the "B" side, and middle (red) is the difference.

As you can see, we only have one side. It looks a lot like this bugger is broken... The RS485 driver. This is the second one I have seen like this, the first was when I first was started the project and I wasted hours trying to find why I could not transmit. It seems only one side of the bus is driving!

I'll get another and I bet all of the errors go away. To be honest it is a miracle that the bus works at all with only one leg. Somehow it limps along and the devices cope.

It has, however, been a good test of the logging and fault reporting which clearly shows the bus errors and retries.

In the mean time, it is quite amusing watching a neighbours RF PIR tripping as they move about!


          Die digitale Echtzeit-Technologie von Tektronix und der Markt für preisgünstige Oszilloskope        
Download Type: Press Materials --> DRT acquisition technology has provided a platform for high-performance digital scopes at all price points. It overcomes the traditional limitations of digital storage scopes, and therefore is ideally suited for applications in the manufacturing, education, and service fields-applications traditionally claimed by analog scopes. The TDS 210 and TDS 220 are low-cost DRT-based oscilloscopes optimized for these applications. Real-world users will find the scopes' performance better than analog scopes. Moreover, the TDS 210 and TDS 220 provide a host of automated digital functions that will enhance productivity wherever they are used. These new products will hasten the final transition to digital scopes.
          A Few Arguments for Humanistic Fabrication        
By hooking a computer up to a machine that can add, remove, cut or fuse material, it is possible to turn a digital representation into a physical object. Most historians (at least ones reading this blog) are probably familiar with the idea of digitization; think of this as 'materialization', a reversal of the process. The humble printer is a kind of materializer for two-dimensional text and images. These other machines (often referred to as rapid prototyping or computer-aided manufacturing machines, or even 'replicators') allow their users to make manifest three-dimensional objects of plastic, wood, metal, or fancier composites.

Over the past few years, the price of rapid fabrication has been dropping, well, rapidly. A lab that once cost hundreds of thousands or millions of dollars can now be had for less than $20,000. Enthusiasts predict that the age of desktop fabrication is nigh; in the next few years we will all have devices on our desks that can print out 3D objects. (Neil Gershenfeld's Fab is a good introduction to some of the possibilities.) Small groups of DIY makers and hardware hackers are busy in their garages and attics trying to create a printer that can print a copy of itself, a machine that can print out a flashlight, one that can print a torroidal coil of candy, or burn a message into your morning toast. The popular appeal of all this activity is clear in the pages of MAKE magazine, or in the Discovery Channel's new show, "Prototype This".

There are a number of reasons why historians and other humanists should be getting involved in desktop fabrication right now. Here are a few.

We can't predict the future. In the 1960s, for example, it wasn't clear to everyone that there would ever be much reason for individuals to have the undivided attention of a single computer (never mind the dozens that we each now monopolize without thinking about it.) In retrospect, the people who struggled to get individual access to computers, who bought them from mail-order catalogs and built them at home, who taught themselves how to program even when that meant reading thick manuals and punching cards... well, now we know how that turned out. Using a computer-controlled soldering iron to fuse grains of sugar into candy sculptures may seem a bit tangential to the serious business of academia, but it's really too soon to judge.

Mind and hand. Just because the separation between thinking and making is longstanding and well-entrenched doesn't make it a good idea. At various times in the past, humanists have been deeply involved in making stuff: Archimedes, the Banu Musa brothers, da Vinci, Vaucanson, the Lunar Men, Bauhaus, W. Grey Walter, Gordon Mumma. The list could easily be multiplied into every time and place, but the main point is that getting your hands dirty might be worthwhile, even if you're not da Vinci.

Historic experimentation. People who work with material culture, the history of technology or experimental archaeology know that you can learn a lot about the past by handling physical stuff. Until recently, that usually meant that you needed to have direct access to the stuff itself. Now it is possible to fabricate physical models or artifacts that share properties with possibly rare or priceless originals. Paleontologists and zooarchaeologists can learn from 3D printouts of bones and fossils. Historians of science can more readily replicate past experiments. And so on.

Tangible / haptic history. More generally, it will become possible to materialize shapes, surfaces, textures and artifacts that resemble those of the past, and that can be touched, felt, handled, and manipulated. It is easy to imagine a new tangible or haptic history that follows and extends the sensory histories that are being written right now.

Critical technical practice. In the late 1990s, Philip Agre argued for a mode of research that involved both "the craft work of design and ... the reflexive work of critique." The benefits of this approach are already apparent in the digital humanities, where historians, anthropologists, archaeologists, artists, literary and media scholars, and their colleagues are busy both creating and critiquing digital sources. Why not extend this practice to rapid fabrication, microelectronics, new materials, robotics or nanotechnology?

Some of the barriers are easily overcome. When someone asks me why a historian would need an 8-axis CNC milling machine or an oscilloscope, I say, "Why not?" The limitations of our physical spaces can be more difficult to circumvent. Most of the teaching and research environments available to humanists at my university are designed to support solitary or small-group office work. These spaces are almost comically unsuitable for the kinds of things I try to do with my students: soldering, moldmaking and casting, building and lighting physical exhibits, programming in groups, creating displays or signage. Although I could afford to purchase a laser cutter, I can't vent the poisonous fumes from my workspace. Cutting wood with power tools will set off the fire alarm. I certainly couldn't set up a little foundry to explore the bootstrapping process that led from metal casting to machine tools. There isn't even anywhere to lock up student project prototypes so they won't be stolen or vandalized. When I have a chance to talk to planners or people purchasing furniture or whatever, I ask them to imagine spaces that are appropriate for an art class or a shop class: high ceiling, natural light, plenty of ventilation, cement flooring, workbenches on casters, locking cabinets, big blank walls that you can hang things on. No carpeting, no beige cubicles, no coffee tables with plants. Humanists won't be able to think of themselves as makers until we create spaces for them to make things in.

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           Teledyne LeCroy WaveJet 314A Sale price: $3,992.00         

Teledyne LeCroy WaveJet 314A


Sale price
$4,915.00
$3,992.00


100 MHz Bandwidth, 4 Input Channels, 1 GS/s Max Sample Rate DSO Oscilloscope 100 MHz - 500 MHz Bandwidth up to 2 GS/s 7.5" LCD Display Small 4" footprint Unique Capabilities in a Low Bandwidth Oscilloscop...(Continue to site)

           Tektronix TDS6804B Sale price: $15,678.00         

Tektronix TDS6804B


Sale price
$18,988.00
$15,678.00


Digital Storage OscilloscopeFeatures & Benefits Bandwidths of 15GHz TDS6154C, 12GHz TDS6124C, 8GHz TDS6804B, and 6GHz TDS6604B Risetimes to 19ps 20-80% 28ps 10-90% on TDS6154C typical riseti...(Continue to site)

           Teledyne LeCroy WaveMaster 8600A Sale price: $11,698.00         

Teledyne LeCroy WaveMaster 8600A


Sale price
$18,998.00
$11,698.00


6 GHz DSO Oscilloscope The LeCroy WaveMaster 8000A Series oscilloscope offers a unique combination of high bandwidth, fast sampling speeds, and long memory capture, ideal for digital and communications systems. Equipped with our patented X-Stream ...(Continue to site)

           Fluke 5820A-1C Sale price: $19,998.00         

Fluke 5820A-1C


Sale price
$0.00
$19,998.00


Oscilloscope Calibrator Single Channel The powerful 5820A Oscilloscope Calibrator is a complete, yet flexible solution for oscilloscope calibration. It calibrates virtually all your digital and analog oscilloscopes quickly, easily and affordably. ...(Continue to site)

           Tektronix MSO5104B Sale price: $18,888.00         

Tektronix MSO5104B


Sale price
$24,698.00
$18,888.00


1 GHz, 10/5 GS/s, 2/4 analog channels, 4 plus 16 digital channel mixed signal oscilloscope . See data sheet for details and other versions available from the MSO5000B and DPO5000B series product family. ...(Continue to site)

           Tektronix TDS8200 Sale price: $13,898.00         

Tektronix TDS8200


Sale price
$16,772.00
$13,898.00


The TDS8200 Sampling Oscilloscope is a comprehensive acquisition and measurement instrument for research, design evaluation, and manufacturing test in the fields of datacom and telecom components, transceiver subassemblies, and transmission systems, ...(Continue to site)

           Tektronix TDS5104B-18 Sale price: $10,988.00         

Tektronix TDS5104B-18


Sale price
$0.00
$10,988.00


The Tektronix TDS5104B oscilloscope is a graph-displaying device - it draws a graph of an electrical signal. In most applications, the graph shows how signals change over time the vertical Y axis represents voltage and the horizontal X axis re...(Continue to site)

           Tektronix DPO4034B Sale price: $8,498.00         

Tektronix DPO4034B


Sale price
$10,846.00
$8,498.00


With the Tektronix DPO4034B 350 MHz, 2.5GS/s, 4 channel Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope you can analyze up to 20 analog with a single instrument to quickly find and diagnose problems in complex designs. Bandwidths up to 350 MHz and a minimum of 5X over...(Continue to site)

           Yokogawa DL7480 Sale price: $9,748.00         

Yokogawa DL7480


Sale price
$11,882.00
$9,748.00


Multichannel Measuring Digital Oscilloscope This Digital Oscilloscope is used to measure recorded signals during DVD recording evaluation processes. It is highly reliable and used by many research and development companies in their efforts for ...(Continue to site)

           Tektronix TDS7254B Sale price: $8,688.00         

Tektronix TDS7254B


Sale price
$9,992.00
$8,688.00


The Tektronix TDS7254B Digital Phosphor Oscilloscope offers high performance and a frequency range up to 2.5 GHz. The TDS7254B is a 4 channel oscilloscope with a color LCD display. TDS7254B applications include ...(Continue to site)

           Tektronix CSA8200 Sale price: $8,798.00         

Tektronix CSA8200


Sale price
$16,522.00
$8,798.00


Communications Signal Analyzer State-of-the-art Acquisition System The CSA8200 and TDS8200 Sampling Oscilloscopes are comprehensive acquisition and measurement instruments for research, design evaluation and manufacturing test in the fields...(Continue to site)

           Agilent MSO6054A Sale price: $7,998.00         

Agilent-Keysight MSO6054A


Sale price
$9,982.00
$7,998.00


Agilent MSO6054A 500 MHz, 4 + 16 CH Mixed Signal Oscilloscope If you work with both analog and digital circuitry, Agilent Technologies 6000 Series oscilloscopes can help you easily see more signal activity in your designs. The unique 2+16- or 4+...(Continue to site)

           Agilent DSA90804A Sale price: $26,788.00         

Agilent-Keysight DSA90804A


Sale price
$79,882.00
$26,788.00


Agilent/HP DSA90804A Infiniium High Performance Oscilloscope 8 GHz, 4 CH Agilent's DSA90000A series oscilloscopes add Serial Data Analysis, EZJIT+, and Noise Reduction software plus 20M memory standard to the equivalent DSO90000A products. Agilent'...(Continue to site)

           Agilent DSO90804A Sale price: $33,998.00         

Agilent-Keysight DSO90804A


Sale price
$37,882.00
$33,998.00


High performance DSO at an attractive price. The Infiniium DSO90000 series boasts industry-leading technology that allows for superior oscilloscope performance that goes beyond the specifications. Custom software to speed your measurement tasks ...(Continue to site)

           Tektronix MDO4104-3 Sale price: $14,798.00         

Tektronix MDO4104-3


Sale price
$17,292.00
$14,798.00


Mixed Domain Oscilloscope MDO4104-3 Mixed Domain Oscilloscope with 4 1 GHz analog channels, 16 digital channels, and 1 3 GHz RF input MDO4104-6 Mixed Domain Oscilloscope with 4 1 GHz analog channels, 16 digital channels, an...(Continue to site)

          SystemX Seminar        

Over the past sixty or so years, myriad hardware designs have been developed to visually transfer information from computer to humans. Far more than CPU designs, graphics hardware has had dizzying variety in the problems being solved and the techniques involved. From oscilloscopes to vector displays to bitmaps, from graphics terminals to CPU integration, from 2-D to 3-D, from wireframe to programmable shading, more effective display has been a fast-moving target. This talk will touch on these themes and others, but will not delve deeply into the parallel evolution of graphics software.

As the opening talk of the SystemX Alliance winter quarter's seminars, a moment will be taken to introduce the seminar series as well.


          Using Test Equipment when you fix something electronic        

Effective application of test gear is key to your sleuthing success. Especially with the oscilloscope, the settings you make while probing around a circuit determine what elements of the signals you will see and...

The post Using Test Equipment when you fix something electronic appeared first on Home tips.


          Launch X431 GDS Scopebox        
Automotive specialized oscilloscope function and ignition waveform analysis
          Basic Electronics - 1        
Introduction

Electronic component can be divided into 2 types: Active and Passive components

Resistors and Capacitors etc. are known as passive components because they can only attenuate the electrical voltage and signals and cannot amplify.

Devices like transistors and operational amplifier(op Amps)can amplify or increase the amplitude and energy associated with the signals and so are termed as Active components.

Apart from components and circuits we must also have familiarity with some of the essential electronic measuring instruments like multimeter, regulated power supplies, function generators and oscilloscopes etc.


          Infinite Serials - ProdXtive Oscilloscope Chart Pro.ActiveX 1.1 serial download        
Infinite Serials - ProdXtive Oscilloscope Chart Pro.ActiveX 1.1 serial download
          Autel MaxiScope MP408 4 Channel Automotive Oscilloscope Basic Kit Works with Maxisys Tool        
The MaxiScope MP408 is a PC based 4-channel automotive oscilloscope. It works in combination with your PC or MaxiSys Tablet, which turns into a powerful diagnostic tool, providing you an insight to the inner workings of a vehicle’s electronic circuits.
          V-checker T700 SMART AUTO CIRCUIT TESTER        
V-checker T700 circuit tester integrates functions of electricity test pencil, automotive multimeter and oscilloscope. The pencil structure, LCD screen and especially the high accuracy greatly help the garage technicians to diagnose vehicle’s problem quic
          (USA-TX-ANDREWS) AMO Technician (Artificial Lift Equipment) - Andrews, TX        
About Us: Baker Hughes, a GE company (NYSE:BHGE) is the world’s first and only fullstream provider of integrated oilfield products, services and digital solutions. Drawing on a storied heritage of invention, BHGE harnesses the passion and experience of its people to enhance productivity across the oil and gas value chain. BHGE helps its customers acquire, transport and refine hydrocarbons more efficiently, productively and safely, with a smaller environmental footprint and at lower cost per barrel. Backed by the digital industrial strength of GE, the company deploys minds, machines and the cloud to break down silos and reduce waste and risk, applying breakthroughs from other industries to advance its own. With operations in over 120 countries, the company’s global scale, local know-how and commitment to service infuse over a century of experience with the spirit of a startup – inventing smarter ways to bring energy to the world. Follow Baker Hughes, a GE company on Twitter @BHGECo, or visit us at BHGE.com. Role Summary: Baker Hughes, a GE company has an opening for an AMO Technician in Andrews, TX. As a leader in the oilfield services industry, BHGE offers opportunities for qualified people who want to grow in our high performance organization. Our leading technologies and our ability to apply them safely and effectively create value for our customers and our shareholders. Essential Responsibilities: + Test, assemble, disassemble and perform visual inspection of electro mechanical assemblies. + Assist in reworking, repairing and modifying non-conforming equipment. + Perform complex and difficult tests with minimal instruction and documentation. + Ability to identify and communicate technical problems by using logical troubleshooting techniques. + Provide coaching to other technicians in areas of proven competence. + Compliance with HS&E policies and procedures. + Will also perform administrative and inventory work Qualifications/Requirements: + 2 years’ experience in submersible cable repair. + Experience in soldering and assembling of electro-mechanical devices + Ability to read and interpret blueprints, wiring diagrams, assembly prints and parts lists and follow formal procedures and maintenance practices + Proficient in the use of multi-meters, mego-hm meters, hi-pot testers and other basic instruments + Proficient in the use of measurement and gauging equipment and processes + Advanced computer skills Desired Characteristics: + Technical diploma or Associates degree in Electrical or Mechanical field + Versed in fluid power technology, AC/DC circuits and electro-mechanical devices. Proficient in the use of oscilloscopes + 2 years maintenance related experience in electro-mechanical function or minimum + 2 years relevant industrial experience (Airline, Military, Oilfield, Automotive, Electronic) Locations: Andrews, TX Baker Hughes, a GE company is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Employment decisions are made without regard to race, color, religion, national or ethnic origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, disability, protected veteran status or other characteristics protected by law. Learn more at https://www.eeoc.gov/employers/upload/poster_screen_reader_optimized.pdf **Job:** _Services_ **Title:** _AMO Technician (Artificial Lift Equipment) - Andrews, TX_ **Location:** _Texas-ANDREWS_ **Requisition ID:** _1708880_
          (USA-TX-MIDLAND) AMO Technician (Equipment) - 2nd Shift - Midland, TX        
About Us: Baker Hughes, a GE company (NYSE:BHGE) is the world’s first and only full stream provider of integrated oilfield products, services and digital solutions. Drawing on a storied heritage of invention, BHGE harnesses the passion and experience of its people to enhance productivity across the oil and gas value chain. BHGE helps its customers acquire, transport and refine hydrocarbons more efficiently, productively and safely, with a smaller environmental footprint and at lower cost per barrel. Backed by the digital industrial strength of GE, the company deploys minds, machines and the cloud to break down silos and reduce waste and risk, applying breakthroughs from other industries to advance its own. With operations in over 120 countries, the company’s global scale, local know-how and commitment to service infuse over a century of experience with the spirit of a startup – inventing smarter ways to bring energy to the world. Follow Baker Hughes, a GE company on Twitter @BHGECo, or visit us at BHGE.com. Role Summary: Baker Hughes, a GE company has an opening for AMO Technician (Equipment) - 2nd Shift - Midland, TX Essential Responsibilities: + Troubleshoot, test, assemble, disassemble and perform visual inspection of electro-mechanical assemblies + Assist in incident investigations and troubleshooting and diagnosing equipment issues. + Assist in the enhancement of maintenance processes, documentation, and quality + Assist in reworking, repairing and modifying non-conforming equipment + Perform complex and difficult tests with minimal instruction and documentation + Ability to identify and communicate technical problems by using logical troubleshooting techniques + Provide coaching to other technicians in areas of proven competence + Compliance with HS&E policies and procedures Qualifications/Requirements: + High School diploma or GED + 5 years relevant industry experience (airline, military, oilfield, automotive) + Advanced skills in soldering and assembling of electro-mechanical devices + Ability to read and interpret blueprints, wiring diagrams, assembly prints and parts lists and follow formal procedures and maintenance practices + Proficient in the use of multi-meters, mego-hm meters, hi-pot testers and other basic instruments + Proficient in the use of measurement and gauging equipment and processes Desired Characteristics: + Technical diploma or Associates degree in Electrical or Mechanical field + Versed in fluid power technology, AC/DC circuits and electro-mechanical devices. Proficient in the use of oscilloscopes + 1 years maintenance related experience in electro-mechanical function or minimum + Advanced computer skills + Ability to operate crane/hoist and pallet jack + Knowledge of power and pneumatic tools and their uses (examples: drill, grinder, polisher, sander, screwdriver, wrenches and sockets) + Knowledge of workshop equipment and their uses (examples: air compressor, cleaning equipment, grease gun, hoist, jack, lifting equipment, measuring equipment, diagnostic equipment) + Knowledge of measuring equipment and their uses (examples: tapes, dial test indicator, micrometer, torque wrenches, vernier calipers) + Proficient in reading/interpreting assembly blueprints and following written and verbal work instructions + Forklift experience + Troubleshooting skills + Electrical experience + Availability to work overtime, weekends and holidays, if required. + Must be able to work in the US, for any employer, without sponsorship. Locations: Midland, TX Baker Hughes, a GE company is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Employment decisions are made without regard to race, color, religion, national or ethnic origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, disability, protected veteran status or other characteristics protected by law. Learn more at https://www.eeoc.gov/employers/upload/poster_screen_reader_optimized.pdf **Job:** _Services_ **Title:** _AMO Technician (Equipment) - 2nd Shift - Midland, TX_ **Location:** _Texas-MIDLAND_ **Requisition ID:** _1708882_
          TRIK "memperbaiki tv"        

Cara Servis TV Yang Sering Konsleting


Senin, Oktober 11, 2010 | , Mungkin kita jengkel dengan kejadian seperti ini. Malam - malam waktunya berkumpul dengan keluarga untuk menikmati acara pada layar televisi, tangan mulai menancapkan kabel jack tv ke tegangan PLN, lalu menekan tombol power pada tv....tiba-tiba... Kleeeeeggggg.........padamlah semua listrik dalam rumah anda. Mungkin Anda berfikiran bahwa listrik dirumah tidak kuat dengan beban yang begitu besar. Berbagai cara telah anda lakukan untuk menangani masalah tersebut dengan penambahan daya, penggantian sekring, penambahan penyatabil tegangan dll.
Setelah Anda sadari , bahwa hanya pada waktu menyalakan televisi lah listrik dirumah Anda menjadi padam.
Dengan kata lain, Tv dinyalakan langsung konsleting ( njeglek).

Untuk itulah perlu dilakukan perbaikan pada televisi Anda.
Berikut adalah cara cepat untuk memperbaiki tv yang apabila dinyalakan terjadi konsleting :

  1. Buka cover tv Anda
  2. Seperti biasa Groundkan tegangan yang terdapat pada tabung tv.
  3. Ukurlah Resistor Kapur( bentuknya kotak memanjang dan ada juga yang bulat memanjang) pada rangkaian power supply utama ( biasanya resistor ini putus / pecah).
  4. Setelah pengecekan resistor selesai , lakukan langkah berikutnya yaitu pengecekan pada Dioda Bridge ( kakinya 4 selain itu ada juga yang memakai dioda silikon biasa ).
  5. Ternyata hasil dari pengecekan Dioda masih dalam keadaan baik semua, kita melanjutkan langkah berikutnya yaitu pengecekan pada TRANSISTOR POWER SUPPLY.
    Biasanya Transistor power supply ini short dan ada juga yang transistornya pecah.
    Kebanyakan kerusakan seperti ini yang sering saya jumpai adalah penyebab utamanya TRANSISOTOR POWER SUPPLY yang sudah short ( selain memakai transistor, ada juga tv yang memakai STR sebagai penguat power supply) .
  6. Lahkah terakhir pada perbaikan kali ini adalah pengecekan pada Transformator ( Trafo) . Ukurlah hambatan pada trafo tersebut, Dalam kasus ini semua kaki pada trafo saling berhubungan dan akhirnya terjadilah hubungan singkat pada trafo ini ( penyebab utamanya yaitu lilitan yang terdapat dalam trafo ini terbakar dan saling hungan singkat).

Selamat bekerja dan semoga sukses selalu...



tv mati karena kerusakan power supply

TV mati karena Kerusakan Power supply
Oleh : mahdar
Power supply sering sekali rusak biasa akibat listrik tak menentu arus nya  . kerusakan power supply pada tv selain  jebol transistor nya  ada satu lagi yang sering terjadi power supply tidak kerja . klo power supply tidak kerja otomatis tegangan VCC di sekunder tidak keluar .
Sering kali saya dapat di tv fuji , tv sierra , detron power supply tidak kerja karena resistor  yang menuju basis transistor power supply putus yang ukuran nya 220 kohm sampai 330 kohm  , jadi tanpa ada masukan tegangan di basis  transistor  power tersebut…. ga bisa kerja walaupun tegangan masuk 300 volt nya ada .malah klo ga kerja gitu  di colektor TR tersebut masih menyimpan tegangan  alias strum . ini juga sama klo ada yang pakai IC . cari deh…resistor yang ukuran nya 220 kohm  , klo putus kasus nya seperti ini . biasa  untuk tv lama loh….
Untuk tv yang sekarang lain lagi biasa rusak  TR power dan driver nya kadang juga sering rusak opto coupler nya . ini untuk chasis tv cina ‘
Ini aja dulu artikel saya  .
Semoga bermanfaat . sukses untuk anda…

tv fuji 29′ strip vertikal

Kerusakan tv fuji strip vertical.
Oleh : mahdar
Tv fuji elektrik  , siera sering sekali gambar setrip alias gambar garis melintang dari kiri kekanan yang disebabkan IC vertical nya  jebol .
Bila kita ukur VCC out put vertical nya ada 0 volt , maka pasti IC vertical nya rusak . tegangan  VCC  nya ada 24 volt jadi , tegangan output vertical nya harus ada kurang lebih separuh nya 12 ~ 14 volt . kenapa terjadi demikian ? ….. karena  power supply naik , mau tak mau tegangan VCC yang masuk ke FBT juga naik , klo udah begitu tegangan VCC  IC vertical nya juga naik , klo udah naik IC vertical jadi panas  , maka terjadilah kerusakan….
Jadi bila anda ingin mengganti IC vertical nya cek dulu tegangan power supply nya tinggi apa nda klo tinggi perbaiki dulu power supply nya baru pasang IC vertical nya , klo ngga yah….bakalan jebol lagi IC nya …..he..heeehee…
Itu saja pengalaman saya  .
Semoga bermanfaat .

tv goldstar mati standby

Tv goldstar mati standby .
Oleh : mahdar .
Kemarin saya servis tv merk goldstar 20” mati , tapi lampu merah nya hidup alias standby .
Setelah saya buka tutup belakangnya dan saya balikkan pcb nya , saya ukur dalam keadaan hidup tegangan VCC nya cukup normal 60 volt biasanya  klo di on baru dia naik tegangan nya , tapi kali ini aku on malah kurang dari 100 volt malah ga hidup….
Walaupun aku buka jalur VCC yang ke FBT tetap tegangannya kurang dari 100 volt.
Aku yakin  bahwa kesalahan ada pada power supply  aku cek power supply dan elco nya sudah agak kusam . aku ganti semua elco yang kecil-kecil ada di power supply 3 buah dan aku ukur elco nya memang sudah tidak tepat lagi ukuran nya .
Setelah aku ganti dan aku coba hidup kan , aku ukur dalam keadaan standby tegangan ada kira-kira 60 volt , setelah aku  on langsung naik menjadi 115 volt .teruuuuus hidup deh…
Karena tetangga  , aku di amplopin 100 rb yah….aku terima deh…
Inilah pengalaman aku perbaiki tv goldstar 20’ kemarin .
Semoga bermanfaat untuk anda.

gambar tv bergaris-garis putih tipis

Kerusakan tv gambar ada garis-garis .
Oleh : mahdar
Semalam aku terima tv kerusakannya ada gambar  tapi ada garis-garis putih tipis dan lagi warnanya keluar dari gambarnya misalnya  muka orang ada bayangan warna .
Aku buka tutup belakangnya cek tegangan bagus  , lantas aku cek tegangan  di RGB rupanya ada kelainan , padahal aku sudah kecilkan screen  di FBT masih juga ada garis-garis seperti buku .
Aku perhatikan elco yang menuju ke RGB kelihatan nya udah kering malah pembungkusnya udah terkelupas . langsung aja aku coba cabut ternyata memang udah melembung , aku ganti langsung elconya  22 uf / 160 volt . langsung aja tokcer…..
Yah…Alhamdulillah aku dapat tv rusak nya ga berat-berat..
Demikian agar anda pemula dapat mengikuti terus artikel cara perbaiki tv .
Semoga bermanfaat……aku udah dapat lagi ni tv goldstar mati standby klo udah ketemu aku akan buat lagi artikelnya besok .

cara memeriksa tv mati total

Cara memeriksa  tv mati total
Oleh  :  mahdar
Cara  memeriksa tv mati total ini diperuntukkan  bagi pemula ( dasar ) sebelum nya saya minta maaf pada senior-senior teknisi tv , ini saya berikan hanya gelobal saja untuk lengkap nya ada die book saya yang belum selesai.
Setelah anda membuka tutup belakangnya coba cek dulu dalam keadaan mati dengan multi meter x10 aja . ukur elco VCC yang menuju ke FBT , kalau short periksa TR horizontal atau yang lainnya . bila tidak short  , coba ukur dalam keadaan on …. Gimana apa ada tegangan keluar dari power supply .untuk 14 ~ 21 “ kira-kira 105 ~ 120 volt , kalau untuk 25 ~ 32 “ kira-kira 130 ~ 145 volt  , kadang ada beberapa tv sebelum di on tegangan VCC  ada sekitar 60 ~ 70 volt setelah di on  hidup baru naik . kalau tidak ada tegangan ya ….cek power supply nya
Setelah dicek baik semua , baru anda cek di basis transistor drver horizontal harus ada tegangan sekitar 0,3 ~ 0,4 volt  , kalau tidak ada  , anda cek tegangan penyulut nya yaitu biasanya dikendalikan oleh IC control bila ada biasanya tv hidup…gimana kalau tidak ada…..
Anda harus cek rangkaian IC control seperti tegangan  5 volt ada juga yang  3.3 volt , periksa reset , xtal dan memory.
Ini aja dulu cara memeriksa tv mati total  nanti kita lanjutin …….
Semoga bermanfaat.

servis tv tidak ada gambar hanya bintik

Servis tv tidak ada gambar hanya bintik
Oleh : mahdar
Aku baru saja pulang perbaiki tv yang tidak ada gambar nya  , hanya bintik saja  . langsung aja aku program ulang melalui menu search , ternyata memang  tidak menerima gambar  .
Aku buka tutup belakang nya  , lalu aku cek tuner nya  dan aku ukur dalam keadaan hidup sambil aku  program , ternyata  tegangan  VT nya kosong ( 33 volt nya ) . setelah aku periksa  zener dan resistor nya . ternyata resistor nya yang 10 k / 2 watt putus . sehingga  tuner tidak ada masukan  tegangan 33 volt di VT  , pantas aja kalo di program babalas terus….
Aku ganti segera resistor 10 k / 2 watt  langsung aku hidupkan dan aku program ulang .
langsung aja  terprogram setelah selesai program otomatis lalu byar aja …..bagus bro..
Belum sempat aku kasih harga perbaikannya  , pemilik tv langsung  aja kasih amplop berisi 150 ribu  Alhamdulillah…..
Moga-moga anda juga bisa ketiban rezeki seperti saya …..amin

tv fuji cina tidak ada suara

oleh : mahdar
kemarin saya perbaiki tv merk fuji elektrik produksi cina tidak ada suara , begitu aku buka tutup belakang nya , aku ukur tegangan nya cukup 13,5 volt tapi aku ukur keluaran output IC suaranya tidak ada alias 0 volt . saya periksa sepeker nya  dua-dua nya bagus . aku periksa secara teliti kemungkinan IC nya yang rusak .aku ganti IC nya ternyata berhasil tapi bertahan hanya seperempat jam saja sudah jebol lagi .aku berpikir bagaimana cara mengakali supaya agar IC tidak jebol lagi . ada resistor 4,7 ohm penghubung antara power supply dengan tegangan masuk IC suara .aku ganti aja resistor itu dengan 22 ohm untuk mengurangi arus yang berlebih hingga terukur 11,5 volt lalu aku pasang kembali IC yang kedua kali aku beli lalu aku hidupkan byar…..aja . aku tunggu juga kurang lebih satu jam ternyata ga jebol lagi dan IC nya pun tidak terlalu panas. jadi kesimpulan nya IC suara jebol terus karena arus terlalu berlebih masuk ke IC suara . ini pengalaman saya perbaiki tv kemarin .
semoga bernanfaat untuk anda

service tv fuji elektrik 29 ‘ gbr ungu .

Kemarin saya servis tv fuji 29’ kerusakan nya  gambar nya ber warna ungu alias tidak ada hijau . itu sih gampang aja berarti warna hijau nya tidak keluar . kenapa tidak keluar karena transistor RGB salah satunya tidak kerja yaitu tr warna hijau . perhatikan deh ..tegangan di katode CRT pasti tidak ada keseimbangan , terutama katode hijau  . langsung aja deh saya ganti tr nya semua  ke tiga-tiganya , agar tidak ada yang rusak lagi .
Setelah saya ganti byarrrr …..aja normal kembali tanpa saya kutak-kutik lagi
Tapi saya cek juga kalo-kalo tegangan power supply tinggi , ga taunya benar tegangan di power suppy agak tinggi sedikit , lalu saya ganti elconya , memang sudah kelihatan agak kembung fisiknya. Lalu saya pasang harga Cuma 150 rb , ga ditawar lagi oleh sipemilik langsung dibayar asyikkan …?
Semoga ada manfaatnya .
Mahdar.

cara servis tv mati total standby 3

Untuk lanjutan cara perbaiki TV mati total stanby .  kali ini saya akan membahas tentang IC control sedikit yang bisa mengakibatkan TV mati stanby.
IC control juga bisa mengakibatkan TV mati total stanby ,  karena  IC control  tidak bekerja maka IC prosesor tidak dapat trigger atau masukan data dari  IC control.
IC prosesor mendapat tegangan  trigger  terutama untuk horizontal Vcc berasal dari IC control . setelah  tegangan  horizontal VCC masuk dan oscillator  horizontal bekerja maka tegangan horizontal driver keluar untuk memacu transistor driver horizontal hidup.
Setelah  transistor driver hidup bila  tidak ada masalah lagi di power horizontal , maka akan hiduplah  TV tersebut .
Biasanya IC control tidak pernah rusak kecuali TV kena petir . IC control harus mendapat teg angan kurang lebih 5 volt ( tergantung  type IC controlnya ) dan konstan .
IC control ini sangat sensitive tidak boleh lembab dan kotor.apa lagi basah  . oscilatornya memakai x’tal dan bekerja sama dengan IC memory .
Bisa juga tuts nya ada yang short , lembab atau kena air berarti salah satunya kaki IC control short maka TV ini juga  tidak mau hidup . periksa juga barangkali solderan nya kering maka perlu solder ulang .
Demikian artikel singkat ini mungkin dapat membantu anda.  Lihat juga blog saya servisetv.com  . Semoga ber manfaat .
Mahdar .

cara perbaiki tv mati total standby 2

Seperti janji saya  , cara perbaiki TV  mati  stanby bagian ke 2 ini , lanjutan dari artikel yang terdahulu oke…. Yup kita lanjutkan…

Kita anggap power supply baik dan rangkaian control baik .kemungkinan  rangkaian  blog horizontal ada masalah . misalnya  rangkain oscilator horizontal  , rangakian  driver  horizontal  dan  rangkaian  power horizontal.

Untuk rangkaian ascilator horizontal anda periksa tegangan  horizontal vcc ( H.vcc ). X’tal dan rangkaian sekitarnya misalnya  H out bagaimana ?

Untuk rangkaian driver  horizontal  periksa tegangan  di basis transistor driver dan collector  nya .  tegangan  di collector transistor driver  harus ada  setengah  tegangan  Vcc .  juga periksa trafo output  horizontal ini jarang rusak  .

Periksa  power  horizontal  ini sering rusak  ,  biasa rusak ada penyebabnya , cari dulu penyebab nya  baru ganti . periksa tegangan  di collector dan basis . atau yang terakhir FBT ( flyback trafo ) nya  rusak , FBT bisa di tes sebelum anda membelinya .

Kalau sudah oke semua pasti deh hidup . untuk belajar lebih mendalam anda harus mempunyai  ebook yang saya sedang susun tunggu  tanggal mainnya.

Untuk cara perbaiki TV hidup sebentar  dan belum keluar layarnya  sudah stanby kembali , tunggu artikel lanjutan dari saya bagian ke 3.  semoga bermanfaat..

Mahdar .

kerusakan tv buram dan gelap

Penyakit tv sekarang ini memang jelek kwalitasnya , apalagi merk nya engga terkenal
Kadang TV anda baru beberapa tahun aja gambarnya udah gelap
kadang buram walaupun brightnes dan contras maximal ini mungkin stelan di FBT berubah
kadang  juga emisi layarnya berubah
maklum kwalitas layarTV kurang bagus
Cuma disini anda harus membuka tutup  belakang TV . ayo mari kita praktekan…..
buka tutup belakang TV lalu kita lihat ada sebuah  komponen yang berbentuk bulat tinggi
sekitar 7 cm warna hitam ada kabel merah besar
yang menempel ke tabung layer itulah yang nama nya FLY BACK atau FBT di badan nya
ada 2 buah setelan yang satu tulisan nya FOCUS gunanya untuk mempertajam gambar ,
yang satu lagi tulisannya SCREEN
gunanya untuk mengatur gelap terang ,putar kekiri atau kekanan SCREEN pelan2 sampai
gambarnya bagus terang tapi jangan sampai keluar garis tipis putih
dan putar setelan FOCUS sampai gambar tajam ,setelah terang dan tajam
Jadi deh…….. terus pasang kembali tutup belakang TV …..mantap……
Okeh gampangkan…?
Begitukan teman-teman…….he he he tolong tambahin dong pengalaman 2 teman-teman
Tulis dikolom komentar .
Bila anda perlu skema tv Samsung ,  Philips , konka , fuji elektrik
Hubung saya di servisetv.com
Mahdar .

cara memperbaiki tv mati standby

Pada  akhir-akhir ini memang banyak sekali  keluhan tv mati stanby alias ga mau hidup hanya lampu kecil merah saja yang nyala. Apa sih… penyebab nya  ?
Untuk kerusakan tv ini sebenarnya banyak kemungkinan misalnya :
Rangkaian control dan IC nya lembab atau kotor.
Power supply tidak bekerja maximal ( lemah )
Tuts nya ada yang short . kotor
Rangkaian  osc dan driver horizontal  tidak bekerja . atau ada yang rusak
Ini yang banyak terjadi ada salah satu rangkaian yang bermasalah atau rusak jadi protect
Bagaimana cara memperbaiki tv tersebut ?
Kita parbaiki aja yang gampang-gampang dulu seperti  membersihkan  rangkaian control dan sekitar IC control dengan kwas dan tener lalu keringkan . coba…hidupkan
Kalau belum ok solder ulang kaki-kaki IC control dan IC prosesornya ,dan juga rangkaian nya ,  hati-hati jangan sampai ada kaki IC yang terhubung singkat ( short ) .
Coba lagi hidupkan …. Bagaimana sudah berhasil ? kalau belum..
Periksa tuts nya mungkin ada yang short , cabut dan bersihkan dengan tener rusak ganti dengan yang baru. Pasang kembali coba hidupkan ….belum juga hidup ?
Periksa rangkaian power supply teg B+ 100volt s/d 115 volt untuk 14” dan 21” .
Teg b+ 135 volt s/d 145 volt untuk 28” dan 29”.
Periksa teg  5 volt atau 3 volt  untuk teg IC control dan memori.
Biasa  elco-elco nya yang sudah lemah terutama yang tegangan nya tinggi.
Coba lagi deh mungkin sudah hidup . kalau belum hidup juga tunggu artikel berikutnya…cara perbaiki tv mati stanby bagian kedua , lihat juga blog saya yang lebih lengkap di servisetv.com
Semoga bermanfaat dan sukses .
Mahdar .

cara cabut pasang IC BGA pada tv dan hp

Sebelim anda mengangkat  IC  BGA pada hand phone dan tv . siapkan dulu alat yang diperlukan
  1. kwas lembut  , pinset . dan tener untuk pembersih
  2. timah dan songka cair
  3. kawat tembaga serabut untuk mengambil sisa timah
  4. plat cetak  IC BGA
  5. blower , solder 30 watt
cara mencabut IC BGA
taruh kan  songka cair ( pasta ) keseluruh badan dan kaki IC secukupnya agar panas nya tidak merusak IC . panaskan pakai blower sambil digoyang-goyangkan IC  tersebut pakai pinset sampai  tercabut keluar. Bersihkan sisa timah di kaki IC pakai kawat tembaga serabut hingga rata permukaan nya juga PCB nya . setelah itu bersihkan pakai tener IC maupun PCB nya  dan keringkan .
cara pasang IC BGA .
untuk memasang IC BGA anda harus membuat kaki IC dahulu caranya ambil plat pencetak IC BGA tempelkan pada IC tersebut hingga pas betul lalu oleskan timah cair pada permukaan plat yang berada diatas IC hingga lumer timah tersebut menjadi kaki IC ,  angkat plat cetakan dan anda amati  apakah semua kaki sudah tercetak dan rata ,
kalau sudah IC siap dipasang . pasang IC BGA tepat pada PCB sebelumnya oleskan dulu  pakai songka cair IC dan PCB nya  , perhatikan kaki no 1 jangan sampai salah , oleskan songka cair diatas badan IC . lalu panaskan badan IC tersebut sambil ditekan sedikit pakai pinset sampai terlihat IC menempel pada PCB nya , bersihkan pakai tener sedikit  dan selesai

tunggu artikel selanjutnya  , semoga bermanfaat .
mahdar .

cara servis tv pakai oscilloscope

Oscilloscope sangat membantu dalam memperbaiki tv maupun hp , apalagi  untuk mengetahui rangkaian kerja oscillator / pembangkit . misalnya  untuk mengetahui kerja oscillator  horizontal  sampai driver  horizontal pada tv mati total . bisa juga untuk memeriksa IC control , misalnya oscillator x,tal  , riset dan lain nya pada tv mati stanby  . begitu juga untuk memeriksa  sinyal gambar  mulai dari rangkaian  IF sampai pada rangkaian video output juga rangkaian suara . dengan osciloscop anda juga bisa memeriksa rangkaian  kerja  AV .
Untuk mengetahui tv mati total , mati total standby paling mudah  periksa pakai osciloscop . mulai dari pembangkit / oscillator horizontal sampai ke driver horizontal , kita bisa melihat signal nya , apakah ada atau terputus bila ternyata putus , kita bisa ukur / periksa  pakai multimeter rangkaian tersebut  . begitu juga  dengan rangkaian IC control bisa di cek pakai osciloscop. Dan masih banyak lagi kegunaan osciloscop .

Jual murah oscilloscope 10 mhz / second  , barang bagus  , biasa dipakai oleh saya . merk KIKUSUI model 5509 japan , harga 500 ribu aja…. Bisa nego
Berminat  hubungi saya 085210447754
Untuk lebih jelasnya  cara memperbaiki tv dengan memakai oscilloscope dengan gaya dan cara saya sendiri nanti saya buatkan  artikelnya.
Salam sukses .
Mahdar .

cara servis tv polytron mati total standby

Cara perbaiki tv untuk tv politron sering sekali saya mendapatkan  tv politron dengan kerusakan mati stanby . setelah saya periksa  komponen dan rangkaian nya baik tapi tidak mau hidup .  lalu saya periksa tegangan yang menuju ke oscillator horizontal ternyata  setelah di on tv tersebut  biasa  sekitar 6 sampai 7 volt  tapi ini malah  turun sampai 4volt ya…. Jadi tidak bisa hidup sebab kurang dari 6 volt  mungkin juga arusnya kurang dari semestinya .
Bagaimana cara mengakalinya ….? Elconya saya sudah ganti tapi belum juga naik tegangan nya . lalu saya ambil saja IC  8 volt yaitu 7808  ,  lalu saya ambil kaki input IC tersebut saya hubungkan  ke power suply tegangan  12 volt atau lebih dan kaki output nya saya hubungkan kekaki IC oscillator horizontal ( hor vcc ) yang sebelumnya  sudah saya putuskan  jalurnya  .
Terus saya on kan lagi tv tersebut ternyata tegangan yang ada sekarang tetap tidak turun  sekitar 6 sampai 7 volt . maka hiduplah tv tersebut  .
Ini lah pengalaman  saya  untuk servis tv politron yang sering saya  dapatkan  kerusakan  tv politron  mati stanby .
Adakah pengalaman anda…… ? tulis dikolom komentar . untuk lebih lengkapnya lihat juga websiteku di servisetv.com
Semoga bermanfaat .
Mahdar .

TV samsung ngelipet kurang penuh

Karena saya pernah juga kerja di Samsung electronic  ( ASC ) ,  sering juga saya mendapat kerusakan tv Samsung  yang gambar nya ngelipet atau tidak penuh , banyak teknisi yang terkecoh menggan ti IC vertical  padahal  teknisi tersebut tidak memeriksa  supply yang satu lagi yaitu 12 volt  nya
IC tersebut memang  ada  2 tegangan  supply yang sering bermasalah yaitu tegangan yang dari FBT lewat resistor  menuju kekaki IC vertical . biasa yang sering putus adalah  resistornya  .( R fuse ) .
Atau  kalau ngelipet bagian atas  ( kurang penuh bagian  atas ) biasanya  elco  47 uF nya yang berubah nilai .
Oke itu saja dulu pengalaman saya  sewaktu saya  servis tv Samsung . bagaimana dengan anda ….? Anda boleh tulis pengalaman anda  dikolom komentar untuk melengkapi  artikel saya ini .lihat juga website ku yang lebih lengkap di servisetv.com
Semoga bermanfaat .
Mahdar .

cara service remote TV dan AC

Remote  tv paling banyak sekali rusak , apalagi bila anda punya anak kecil , sering terjatuh , kebanting , kena air , lembab  dsb.
Untuk itu  anda jangan langsung  beli remote baru , coba dulu perbaiki , mungkin hanya lembab kena air atau terjatuh.
Modal nya hanya obeng kecil , kwas , tener , timah solder dan solder 40 watt
Yup kita mulai….
buka casing remote dengan obeng kecil keluarkan isinya cuci / bersihkan dengan kwas dan tener pcb dan karet-karetnya . keringkan pakai pengering rambut atau jemur , pasang pcb dan karet –karetnya   pasang batreynya  coba aktifkan.. bila sudah dibersihkan masih juga belum aktif , coba solder ulang semua kaki  komponen tersebut sampai dengan kaki IC nya . awas hati-hati jangan sampai ada kaki IC yang bergabung . nah coba lagi deh…..
biasanya langka 1 dan 2 ini sudah bisa aktif , bila belum juga periksa jalur , mungkin ada jalur yang putus biasa nya  hubungan antara batrey dan pcb atau pcb pecah coba periksa  dengan teliti . bila tidak ada yang putus coba anda periksa infra red nya atau x’tal 455 nyabiasa nya ini sering rusak  atau  kaki nya putus , soldernya  terlepas .
kalau  4 langkah ini masih juga belum aktif ?  terakhir IC nya . jikalau  IC nya yang  rusak , lebih baik anda ganti saja remote yang baru ….. jangan lupa lihat juga web yang lain lebih lengkap di servisetv.com
semoga bermanfaat ..
Ali mahdar .

solusi cara hilangkan warna liar ( gousing )

Apkah anda pernah melihat……                                                                           Kadang ada sebuah tv yang gambarnya  utuh tapi ada warna yang lain yang seharusnya  sawah misalnya warnanya hijau , tapi ini lain merah atau biru jadi ga enak dilihat , lucu kan ?  masa ada sawah warnanya merah sih…. Kalo sedikit sih ga apa kali…kalo banyak…….    gimana tu …solusinya  hee…hee….
Sebenar nya sih ini bukan kerusakan tv hanya ada medan  magnit yang masuk kedalam tabung CRT ini berlaku pada tv biasa / flat ,  bukan tv LCD dan  PLASMA .                                                                                                                                         nah ……bagaimana solusinya ……
anda ambil sebuah magnit bekas atau belakang  speker , lalu anda dekatkan pada layer tv anda ,  jarak kurang lebih 1 cm , Kekiri atau kekanan ber-ulang2 ( jangan sampai kena layar )    sampai warna yang lain itu  hilang . atau anda bisa  pinjam ama bengkel tv sebentar yang   namanya gousing .
anda colok stekernya ke stop kontak , lalu lakukan seperti pakai magnit tadi , ini malah lebih cepat , hanya satu  menit . gampangkan……..?
ini aja dulu artikel ringan yang gampang dipraktekan okeh….lihat juga website ku yang lebih lengkap servisetv.com
semoga bermanfaat
Tunggu e-book saya yang belum selesai.
Salam semangat
Ali Mahdar mantan teknisi tv.

service TV sanyo mati total standby

Sewaktu saya servis tv sanyo , saya mendapat kerusakan tv sanyo mati standby . saya cek semua dan saya ukur tegangan nya semua normal . setelah itu saya berfikir kenapa ya…….. ?
saya putuskan kabel yoke satu persatu mulai dari kabel horizontal lalu kabel vertical hasil nya sama saja . lalu saya sambung kembali .
dan saya cabut soker CRT , ternyata hidup tapi tidak keluar gambar . jadi ber arti masalah ada disini saya cek teg RGB baik . lalu saya cabut kabel filament dan saya hidupkan , berhasil…… langsung saya ber prediksi bahwa tegangan yang ada di filament arus nya kurang karena dibagi oleh rangkaian lain . untuk mengatasinya saya rubah resistor yang ke jalur lain atau saya besarkan nilai resistornya sedikit ternyata benar berhasil .
yah inilah pengalaman saya sewaktu saya servis tv sanyo .
mungkin ada yang lain , ikuti juga blog ku di servisetv.com dan silahkan isi komentar .
semoga bermanfaat .
mahdar .

service TV Toshiba strip lama-lama penuh

Toshiba memang tv yang agak susah spareparts nya dan juga tidak gampang servis nya , kalau tidak berpengalaman bisa gagal .
Saya pernah servis tv Toshiba yang gambar nya strip lama –lama penuh , kurang lebih setengah jam baru penuh .
Saya sudah cek bagian rangkaian IC vertical nya baik semua kecuali saya cek output vertical nya memang berubah tapi lama kelamaan normal . setelah saya berpikir sejenak , mungkin bagian oscillator vertical nya , ternyata benar ada satu lagi elco yang belum saya cek yaitu elco 2,2 / 50 volt nya berubah nilai , tapi lokasinya ada dibawah PCB atau chasis . lalu saya ganti elconya , ternyata benar tv langsung saya hidupkan langsung penuh .
Saya saran kan untuk penggantian elco tersebut anda ganti dengan elco yang bagus jangan yang abal-abal kalau tidak nanti ada masalah lain .
Demikian pengalaman saya servis tv Toshiba . untuk lebih lengkapnya lihat juga di servisetv.com
semoga bermanfaat .
Mahdar .

solusi kerusakan tv LG mati total standby

servis TV h
          Found in NY - Weekly Concert Recommendations - November 5th - 11th        
Bands in Red = This week's playlist
Bands in Blue = Previously featured


Monday - November 5th

- Adam Green, Binki Shapiro, Computer Magic @ Le Poisson Rouge - very high anticipation is riling up for the new duets album comprised of collaborators Adam Green (1/2 Moldy Peaches) and Binky Shapiro (1/3 Little Joy). Interestingly, they each were putting words in each other's mouths for their respective breakups during their songwriting process.  Debut album comes out in July and early singles sound very promising. 

- Archipelago, Saintseneca, Emperor X, Jesse Cooper Levy @ Big Snow - Saintseneca is a nice folk band of lifelong friends from Colombus Ohio. They are on tour with Emperor X aka Chad Matheny's spacey, lo-fi indie folk. Very interesting NPR story on Matheny's marketing ploys of burying cassettes of his early recording and posting GPS coordinates for his fans to find. 

- Gary Clark Jr., ZZ Ward @ Bowery Ballroom (SOLD OUT) - GCjr has sold out Bowery Ballroom for all 3 scheduled/rescheduled shows. He's added another benefit show on Tuesday at Brooklyn Bowl.

- The Amazing (North American debut), Tom Miller @ Mercury Lounge (Early Show) - The Amazing are a swedish band that are starting to live up to their name. Partisan recently released their most recent album Gentle Stream, which you can give it via the spotify link if you'd like to hear some nice psychedelic indie folk. They are going to be accompanying Tame Impala on their tour which begins wednesday night.  This video of their song "Gone" should give you a good idea of what to expect at their live show. 

- TV Baby, Fort Lean @ Mercury Lounge (Late Show) - Fort Lean's first local show in quite some time ; they will be playing an EP release party at Glasslands in December and that should do it for them as far as live shows in 2012. 

- Deidre & the Dark, Gin Wigmore @ Santos Party House (Early Show) - Deidre and the Dark is the new solo project of  Deidre of Savoir Adore

- Shiny Toy Guns, MNDR, Static Summer, Colour Music @ Santos Party House (Late Show)- Taking their name as influenced by Isaac Newton and his relationship to color and sound, Stillwater Oklahoma's psych-folk hardcore band has been heavily praised for their outstanding live show efforts, usually taking form in a theme. Compared to a blend of the polyphonic spree and The Flaming Lips. 

- "Fight For Your Right Revisited" (2011) and "Shut Up and Play the Hits" (2012) Screening with full concert sound @ Brooklyn Bowl - To help benefit Hurricane Sandy Relief, Brooklyn Bowl and Oscilloscope Laboratories are teaming up to present a benefit with screenings of Beastie Boys short film Fight For Your Right Revisited and LCD Soundsystem film Shut Up and Play the Hits with "full concert sound." Admission is pay what you like with a suggested $10 donation. Every $5 donated gets you a raffle ticket for prizes and giveaways from Oscilloscope Labs and Brooklyn Bowl. Canned food and household goods will be collected at the show too. 


Tuesday - November 6th (Election Night - Rock the Vote)

- Gary Clark Jr @ Brooklyn Bowl - Recently announced Benefit for Superstorm Sandy Relief Fund for Staten Island ; $20 minimum donation; For those who couldn't make any of his other SOLD OUT affairs in NY, this will be a great chance to support a great artist and cause.

Wednesday- November 7th

- Tame Impala, The Amazing @ Music Hall of Williamsburg (SOLD OUT) - Definitely the best show of the week ; Tame Impala's new album is one of the best of the year ; they return to NY on Saturday for another SOLD OUT show at Webster Hall

- Rocky Erickson, Hounds of Baskerville, Nude Beach @ The Bell House - Other Music signing Nude Beach (Long Island) start up their tour support of Roky Erickson ; Their video for "Some Kinda Love" directed by Tom Scharpling is hilarious and quite clever. The lineup plays again in Hoboken the following night.

- Gary Clark Jr., Kat Edmonson @ Bowery Ballroom (SOLD OUT)


Thursday - November 8th

 - Cold Specks, Doe Paoro @ Mercury Lounge (Early Show) - Cold Specks is the stage name of London based canadian singer songwriter Al Specks ; for sad music lovers like me, a great debut album of hers came out earlier this year on Arts & Crafts

- The Fresh & Onlys, Quilt @ Music Hall of Williamsburg 

 - Lost Boy?, Celestial Shore, Breakfast In Fur, Each Other, Leapling @ Shea Stadium - Breakfast In Fur come from New Paltz New York and have been praised by Rollo & Grady and Jenny Eliscu (Sirius XMU/Rolling Stone) ; been featured on a new compilation by Team Love

- Roky Erickson, Nude Beach, Hounds of Baskerville @ Maxwell's


Friday - November 9th


- Brooklyn Vegan Presents "Miami Connection" (1987) @ Sunshine Cinema - how could i not have known about the 80's cult gem Miami Connection until now, best plot line ever ---> the story of fearless synth rock band Dragon Sound as they embark on a crime-crushing justice in the streets of Orlando; I'd go on but all you need to do is to watch this trailer to be convinced ; who's coming with me??? Screening again on Saturday

- "Life of Pi" (2012) @ Museum of the Moving Image - Preview screening of the new 3-D Ang Lee adventure film based on the 2001 novel ; Screen writer David Magee will be in person for Q&A

- Lawrence Arabia, Ludwig Persik, Mercies, Eureka Birds @ Pianos - just learned about this dude Ludwig Persik as I saw he's playing with Fort Lean in December ; Really solid start on his EP, which was produced by Jamie Lidell ; already with Billions booking and suggesting fans try and cop his free EP on bandcamp while they can suggests he's someone to look out for.


Saturday - November 10th

- Railbird, Cuddle Magic, The Daredevil Christopher Wright, Margaret Glaspy @ The Rock Shop - The Daredevil Christopher Wright comes from the same town as Bon Iver in Eu Claire Wisconsin ; lovely indie folk music ; for fans of Grizzly Bear

- The Young, Radar Eyes, Timmy's Organism @ Cake Shop - This is a rescheduled show from few weeks prior I believe. Austin's The Young (self described as fried rock n roll over EZ) are signed to Matador and play again the following night at Cameo.

- The Whigs, Kuroma @ Glasslands

 - Tame Impala, The Amazing (members of Dungen) @ Webster Hall (SOLD OUT)

- Brooklyn Vegan Presents "Miami Connection" (1987) @ Sunshine Cinema


Sunday - November 11th

- Mount Moriah, Cat Martino @ Union Pool  - North Carolina based alt-americana outfit Mount Moriah is a new signing to Merge ; all the songs on their 2011 release sound very warm and friendly

- Kaki King, Lady Lamb The Beekeeper @ Glasslands - Kaki King is celebrating a new marriage and a new release on tour ; playing again the following Tuesday at LPR

- The Young, Dignan Porch, Eraas @ Cameo Gallery

-------------------

Found in NY - Companion Spotify Playlist




Found in NY - Archive - Updated Weekly


          Found in NY - July 16th - 22nd        

Companion Spotify Playlist  

Found in NY - July 16th - 22nd

Bands on playlist are in RED
Bands previously featured in playlists are in BLACK

------------

Monday - July 16th
- Young The Giant, The Apache Relay, St. Lucia @ Central Park Summerstage (SOLD OUT) - Solid bill of young talents that are set to become giants. worth camping outside the stage. 
-
Moon Hooch, North Highlands, Dan Piccoli Trio @ Rock Off Concert Cruises (Guac Rock 2012)
- Spike Lee @ Apple Store (Soho) - newly reopened soho store where Spike will discuss his new book Red Hook Summer and perhaps the baseball bat that he caught at the Yankees game the other day ; the soundtrack to this film will be primarily solo piano compositions from one of my favorite musicians Bruce Hornsby ; set for release July 31st. 
- Langhorne Slim @ Littlefield

Tuesday - July 17th 
- Missy Higgins, Butterfly Boucher @ Le Poisson Rouge (SOLD OUT) - return to form from two great australian singer songwriters.
- Spirit Animal, Sanctuaries, Ludlow Thieves, Midnight Spin @ Glasslands
- Onra, Dam-Funk (DJ Set) @ Santos Party House
- Best Coast, Those Darlins, DIIV @ Terminal 5 (SOLD OUT) - DIIV are averaging a show every week now so we have no excuse in seeing one of this year's best new bands ;  i heard they put on a killer one last week at 285 Kent including lots of stage dives.
- The Outlaw Roadshow feat. Counting Crows, We Are Augustines, Field Report, Casie Anderson and the Honkies @ Williamsburg Park - Counting Crows are one of my favorite bands of all time and they produced possibly my favorite album (August and Everything After)... a shame I'll be in LA, especially with We Are Augustines opening. Field Report also sound promising and will play again the later in the week at mercury lounge. 
 - The Upright Citizens Brigade Presents The All Stars of Improv @ Central Park Summerstage

Wednesday - July 18th  
 - Hot Chip, Gang Gang Dance @ Prospect Park Bandshell (Celebrate Brooklyn) - first of two appearances for Hot Chip this week ; really digging the new album
- Brooklyn Vegan Presents Jeff the Brotherhood (Record Release Party) with special guests Fuck Ton @ Santos Party House (FREE with RSVP) 
- Blondes, Fly Golden Eagle, Busy Busy Busy @ Knitting Factory BK
- Telepathe, Feathers, Eraas, Faith (DJ Set) @ Glasslands
- Walk Off The Earth, Julia Nunes @ Gramercy Theater - Walk off the earth have made a name by defly reinterpreting modern classics including "Somebody I Used to Know" and "Party Rock Anthem".
- The Tony Castles, The Disappointments, Bottom Dollars, Early Ape @ Bowery Electric - really dig what i've been hearing from The Tony Castles.
- Shut Up and Play the Hits (2011) @ Select Theaters Nationwide (One Night Only) - documentary follows James Murphy and LCD Soundsystem for 48 hours as they play their last gig ever at Madison Square Garden.
- Super 8 (2011) @ Hudson River Parks River Flicks
- FREE Screening of Raising Arizona (1987) with live music from Talk Normal, Tim Harrington, Dustin Wong @ McCarren Park (6pm - doors / 6:30 - bands / 8:15 - film) - Nick Cage has played every role imaginable but many say this may be one of his best.


Thursday - July 19th   
- Here We Go Magic, Sinkane @ Music Hall of Williamsburg - lovely new release from Here We Go Magic ; very groovey music with Paul Simon-esque vocals from Luke Temple.
- Lower Dens, No Joy, Alan Resnick @ Bowery Ballroom
- Los Amigos Invisibles with Carol C (Si Se) and DJ Rockass @ Le Poisson Rouge

- Death Cab For Cutie, Surfer Blood @ Wellmont Theater (SOLD OUT)
- Cake Shop Benefit feat. Grand Rapids, Shark?, and a special mystery secret guest  @ Cake Shop - signs point to surfer blood as the secret guest after they finish their gig with Death Cab.
- Soft Black, Island Twins, Weird Rivers, Makeup Monsters @ Shea Stadium
- Eugene Mirman, OK Go @ Williamsburg Park (FREE)
- White Iris Presents Lobby @ Ace Hotel (FREE) - not familiar with lobby but White Iris has been at the forefront of some great acts so it's worth paying attention to their weekly showcase at Ace.
- Angel Haze, Carrie Wilds, King Leo, and DJ sets by Venus X and Covert Kids @ Santos Party House (Shortcuts) - NYC Debut of 21 year old multi-faceted rapid flow female rapper Angel Haze ; Shortcuts party doubles as a release party for her new EP, Reservation, which comes out on July 17 via True Panther/Noizy Cricket/Biz 3 Records and as her live NYC debut. Download a couple singles off the EP in this Brooklyn Vegan post.

Friday - July 20th 
- Hot Chip, Chromatics @ Terminal 5
- Modest Mouse @ Wellmont Theater
Dean Wareham (plays Galaxie 500 - FINAL NYC SHOW), TEEN @ Le Poisson Rouge - Following the re-release of the Galaxie 500 catalogue on Domino, Dean Wareham has been performing a set of all-Galaxie 500 material, with a 3-piece band featuring his wife Britta Phillips and drummer Anthony LaMarca. He returns to Le Poisson Rouge for one last New York City performance of this show.
- Squeeze, The Romantics @ Coney Island (FREE) - I'm loving Squeeze's greatest hits; super fun and poppy ; sounding like a lot of contemporary indie pop acts.
- Fang Island, People Get Ready, Call Of The Wild @ Bowery Ballroom
- Supreme Cuts (Record Release Party), The-Drum, Sich Mang @ Glasslands
- Bear Hands, Fort Lean, The Judas Knife @ Knitting Factory BK
- The Detroit Cobras @ Maxwell's - awesome garage rock cover band from Detroit ; New Jersey would be a good spot to see them live. They play again on a boat with Dick Dale later in the weekend.
- Dent May, Caged Animals, Young Buffalo @ Mercury Lounge
- College, Anoraak, Electric Youth @ Music Hall of Williamsburg - Hopefully they'll have the film Drive (2011) projected behind these bands.
- Levek, Tropic of Pisces, Chains of Love, Bad Girlfriend, No Kill @ Pianos - project from David Levesque (Levek) is pretty righteous.
- Last.fm presents Blondes, Telepathe (DJ Set), Tezeo, Andy Petr @ Santos Party House
- ARMS, Brazos, Port St. Willow @ Union Pool
- Raccoon Fighter, I'm Turning Into, The Denzels, Dead Stars @ Big Snow
- The Return of Soul Clap and Dance Off feat. DJ Jonathan Toubin @ Glasslands 

Saturday - July 21st  
- Dum Dum Girls, Widowspeak, Fingers On The Pulse (DJ Set) @ House of Vans (FREE with RSVP) - Besides the Washed Out show, this is the other Vans Party you should check out ; Dum Dum Girls put together an awesome album last year that was recently put up on spotify. Get there early though.
- Converse City Carnage feat. Sleigh Bells, Jel (from Themselves/13 &God), Mr. Dream @ Hudson River Parks Pier 63 (SOLD OUT)
- Sepalcure @ 287 Kent Avenue
- Dick Dale @ Brooklyn Bowl
- Shark?, Sleeping Bags, Lost Boy? @ Death By Audio - Sleeping Bags is the new shoegaze project formed from the members of Princeton.
- Jennifer O'Connor , American Dream, The Paranoid Style @ Fontana's
- Dent May, The Babies, Levek @ Glasslands
- Field Report, Sean Rowe @ Mercury Lounge - Sean Rowe has an incredible baritone voice and nice debut from Anti
- Field Mouse, Firehorse, Hallelujah the Hills @ Mercury Lounge (Late Show)
- The War on Drugs, Dean & Britta, Wormburner @ Mulcahy's Pub and Concert Hall - The venue seems very intriguing ; Love War on Drugs album of last year ; would have been nice to check them out hear.
- Matthew Dear (DJ Set), Sepalcure, LE1F, MikeQ, JDH & Dave P, Miguel @ P.S.1 - One of the better lineups of the Warm Up Summer Series
- Chief, HITS, Dirty Names, Single Red Cent @ Pianos - Chief put together a nice record and came from the same alt-folk scene as their local buddies Dawes ; They put out an album through Domino and then apparently split up ; Hopefully this is not just a one-off reunion show.
- Bubbles, TEEN, Test House @ Union Pool (Summer Thunder) FREE - 3pm
- Willis Earl Beal, Krystle Warren @ Weeksville Heritage Center (FREE)
- Superhuman Happiness, Smoota @ Zebulon (FREE)

Sunday - July 22nd 
- School Night! feat. POP ETC (NYC Debut), Angela McClusky, Sean Rowe, Delta Rae, Home Video (DJ Set) @ Bowery Hotel (Free with RSVP) - Pop Etc. is formerly known as The Morning Benders. Great lineup. Daytime event ; doors open at 3pm.
- Orchestre Poly-Rythmo, SMOD, Bibi Tanga and the Selenites, Chief Boima  @ Central Park Summerstage (3-7pm) - Orchestre Poly-Rythmo are a band from the late 60's from Benin, which plays Afrobeat, Funk, Soukous and other styles, often based on Vodun ryhtmns. They have over 500 songs in their repertoire. Should be a rare chance to see this afrobeat great. For fans of Orchestra Baobab. 
 - Rocks Off and Cavestomp Presents Wavestomp feat. Dick Dale, Manitoba, Detroit Cobras, DJ Billy Miller (Norton Records) @ Rocks Off Concerts (Aboard the Princess)
 - Iceage, Dirty Beaches, Martial Canterel, Rosenkopf @ Le Poisson Rouge
- Hallways, Vorhees @ Ace Hotel

- Chromatics @ Dekalb Market - I believe some Dekalb market shows were cancelled so perhaps this has been moved to Fulton Stall Market or MHoW so feel free to investigate further.
- Chromatics, Blondes @ Fulton Stall market (FREE)
- Chromatics, JDH & Dave P, Paul Raffaele @ Music Hall of Williamsburg
- Computer Magic, Space Camp, Gold Lake @ Glasslands
- Charles Atlas, Hawk and Dove @ Mercury Lounge - Not to be confused with the developer of the bodybuilding method, Charles Atlas is an instrumental duo (often expanding into a trio or quartet) who utilize effected guitar, piano, synthesizer, melodica, trumpet, drum loops, samples, and other instrumentation to paint expansive musical pastures ; the song in our playlist was featured on the trailer for Up in the Air (2009)
- The Apache Relay @ Mercury Lounge (Late Show)


UPCOMING -
- 7/23 - Beach House @ Central Park Summerstage
- 7/23 - ALO @ Rock Concert Cruises
- 7/23 - Wilco, Lee Fields & The Expressions @ Prospect Park Bandshell
- 7/24 - Purity Ring @ Le Poisson Rouge
- 7/24 - Breakfast in Fur @ Big Snow
- 7/24 - Wilco, Lee Ranaldo Band @ Prospect Park Bandshell
- 7/25 - Allen Stone, Elizabeth & the Catapult, Anthony Hall @ Bowery Ballroom
- 7/26 - Milo Greene, Family Of The Year @ Mercury Lounge
- 7/27 - Saint Motel, RACES @ Mercury Lounge
- 7/27 - The Head and the Heart, Lost in the Trees @ Prospect Park Bandshell (FREE)
- 7/28 - Gary Clark Jr., Givers @ Central Park Summerstage (FREE)
- 7/28 - Saint Motel, RACES @ Glasslands
- 7/28 - Charli XCX @ Bowery Ballroom
- 7/28/29 - AraabMUZIK, The Black Keys, Felix Da Housecat, Snoop Dogg, Umphrey's McGee, The Big Pink, City and Colour, Fort Atlantic, TV on the Radio, Cold War Kids, Girl Talk, Matt & Kim, Hercules and Love Affair, A$AP ROCKY, Zola Jesus @ Randall's Island (Catulpa NYC)
 - 7/30 - Bombay Bicycle Club, Plants and Animals @ Webster Hall
- 7/31 - Sigur Ros, Perfume Genius @ Prospect Park Bandshell

------------

If you or anyone you know would like to subscribe to this as a weekly email/concert newsletter, please email nassir at foundtrack dot com 


          Blue Cat Audio updates plugins with VST3 support        
Blue Cat Audio has announced the release of an update for 16 of its audio plug-ins: Blue Cat’s Plug’n Script, Dynamics, PatchWork, FreqAnalyst Multi, MB-7 Mixer, Protector, StereoScope Multi, Liny EQ, DP Meter Pro, Oscilloscope Multi, and the Freeware Pack (6 free plug-ins) are now available in VST3 format on both Mac and Windows (32 […]
          Blue Cat Audio updates multiple tracks analysis tools        
Blue Cat Audio has released an update for its multiple tracks analysis tools, adding the ability to save the characteristics of measured material to reuse them later as references for comparison. Blue Cat’s FreqAnalyst Multi, Oscilloscope Multi and StereoScope Multi are special audio analysis plug-ins which can communicate between instances: It is thus possible to […]
          Blue Cat Audio releases Oscilloscope Multi 2.0 effect plugin        
Blue Cat Audio has introduced its Oscilloscope Multi 2.0, a brand new version of the multiple tracks oscilloscope effect plug-in for Windows and Mac. Blue Cat’s Oscilloscope Multi is a unique tool that enables the visualization of the waveform of multiple instances on a single screen in order to compare them or detect phase, synchronization […]
          Blue Cat updates Analysis Plug-ins for Windows and Mac        
Blue Cat Audio has announced the release of new versions its audio analysis plug-ins for Windows and Mac. This update mainly brings output data refresh rate customization to improve MIDI or automation output for smoother side chaining, new trigger mode for the oscilloscope, note display for spectrum analyzers, pan law selection for stereoscopes, performance improvements […]
          Blue Cat Audio updates FreqAnalyst and StereoScope Series, and Oscilloscope Multi        
Blue Cat Audio has released updates for its FreqAnalyst and StereoScope series, and Oscilloscope Multi, analysis plug-ins for Windows and Mac. These new versions bring performance improvements for both the user interface and the signal processor. The plug-ins now require an SSE2-capable processor on PC, and audio processing can be up to twice faster on […]
          Blue Cat Audio updates Oscilloscope Multi to v1.1        
Blue Cat Audio has released version 1.1 of Oscilloscope Multi, a multiple tracks audio oscilloscope plugin that offers special features to compare several audio waveforms in real time. Changes in Oscilloscope Multi v1.1 XY view improvements: New density and time zoom controls for a better analysis experience. Added an option to connect the XY curve […]
          Blue Cat Audio releases Oscilloscope Multi        
Blue Cat Audio has released Oscilloscope Multi, a unique multiple tracks real time waveform renderer and comparator: it lets you visualize the content of several audio tracks on the same screen and compare them thanks to its X-Y view. Oscilloscope Multi features Multiple tracks real time oscilloscope: visualize and compare the waveform of several audio […]
          Build An Acoustic Tractor Beam And Control Objects With Sound!        
This is definitely a more advanced project, but with less than $75 in parts, you can build your very own working Acoustic Tractor Beam: You’ll need to 3D print some parts, and code your own Arduino, and check things with an oscilloscope, but if you’re looking for a fun project that ends with the ultimate […]
          Download Winamp 5.60 Terbaru        
Download Winamp 5.60 Terbaru | Winamp merilis versi terbarunya yaitu versi 5.60. Winamp adalah pemutar audio video atau sebagai aplikasi multimedia player yang paling banyak di gunakan. Winamp sebagai pemutar MP3 adalah salah satu aplikasi favorit karena paling banyak di dowonload di seluruh dunia. Karena selain mampu memutar format MP3 juga bisa memutar format lain seperti WAV, CD, WMA dan banyak format audio video lainnya.



Fitur yang tertanam dalam Winamp 5.60
  • Basic controls: play, pause, stop, forward song, previous song, select new song
  • Built-in spectrum analyzer and oscilloscope
  • Track info: author, title, bitrate, sample rate, time, etc.
  • Additional controls: position slider, balance, volume, equalizer, playlist, shuffle and repeat
  • Can run in unobtrusive windowshade mode.
  • All windows dock seamlessly.
  • Drag and drop playlist editing
  • Create and save new playlists or load a previous playlist.
  • Edit song information via ID3 tag editor.
  • Sort by title and filename or randomize.
  • Playlist displays current song duration and complete playlist duration for easy dubbing.
  • Playlist can run without the main window, and includes mini-controls, time display, and visualization.
  • Ten band graphic equalizer and built-in pre-amplifier
  • Create and save new pre-amplifier and equalizer settings or load previous setttings.
  • Create and save song-specific pre-amplifier and equalizer settings.
  • Get up to the minute in information on Winamp.
  • Browse Winamp´s Plugin and Skin collection to customize your copy of Winamp.
  • Support for .wsz files in your skin directory as well as .zip files
  • Bookmark playlists and SHOUTcast streams

Berikut Penambahan Fitur Terbaru dalam Winamp 5.60
  • A Completely Redesigned Interface, including Album Art
  • Multiple device support, including iPods
  • Access and Share Your Music and Videos with Winamp Remote
  • Play and Playlist the Best Music on the Web with Media Monitor
  • Get Artist & Concert News, Videos & more with Smart Search
  • Enjoy Dynamic Song Recommendations
  • Experience MP3 Surround Sound Support
  • Access to Thousands of Internet Radio Stations, Videos and More!
  • 50 FREE MP3 Music Downloads compliments of eMusic's 2-week Trial
  • Auto-Tagger provides automatic updates to file information
  • Control Winamp From Your Browser with the Winamp Toolbar

Silahkan download Winamp 5.60 Terbaru di bawah ini
Download Winamp 5.60



          Hantek 6022BE PC-Based USB Digital Storage Oscilloscope        
Bandwidth : 20MHz (-3dB) Maximum real-time sample rate : 48MSa/s Memory depth : 1Mbytle/channel Built-in Fast Fourier Transform function(FFT) 20 Automatic measurements Automatic cursor tracking measurements Waveform storage User selectable fast offset calibration Add, Subtract, Multiply and Division Mathematic Functions Adjustable waveform intensity, more effective waveform view User interface in [...]
          Glossary of Audio & Video Media Terminology        
A

AC Adapter: A circuit which modifies an AC current, usually converting it to a DC current.

A/D Converter: A circuit which converts a signal from analogue to digital form; the opposite of a D/A converter.

Adobe: A software manufacturer based in San Jose, California, and traded on the Nasdaq National Market under the symbol ADBE. Adobe is a leading provider of media productivity software. More info: Adobe Tutorials, Adobe Premiere, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe ImageReady.

AGC: Automatic Gain Control. A circuit which automatically adjusts the input gain of a device, in order to provide a safe and consistent signal level. AGCs can be handy features, but professional applications often require manual gain control for optimum results.

Aliasing: Distortion of an image file or sound recording due to insufficient sampling or poor filtering. Aliased images appear as jagged edges, aliased audio produces a buzz.

Alpha Channel: A special channel in some digital images reserved for transparency information.

AM: Amplitude Modulation. A method of radio transmission which sends information as variations of the amplitude of a carrier wave.

Amperage: The amount of electrical current transferred from one component to another.
Ambient: The environmental conditions, e.g. surrounding light and sound. More info: Ambient Sound, Ambient Light.

Amplifier: A device which increases signal amplitude.

Amplify: To increase amplitude.

Amplitude: The strength or power of a wave signal. The "height" of a wave when viewed as a standard x vs y graph.

Anamorphic Lens: A special type of wide-angle lens which stretches the width of the image but not the height, creating a widescreen aspect ratio.

Analogue: Information stored or transmitted as a continuously variable signal (as opposed to digital, in which the analogue signal is represented as a series of discreet values). Analogue is often technically the more accurate representation of the original signal, but digital systems have numerous advantages which have tended to make them more popular (a classic example is vinyl records versus CDs).

Antenna: A device which radiates and/or receives electromagnetic waves.

Aperture: Literally means "opening". The camera iris; the opening which lets light through the lens. By adjusting the size of the aperture, the amount of incoming light is controlled. The aperture size is measured in f-stops. More info: Video exposure/iris.

ASF: Windows Media file format ending with the extension .asf. Used for delivering streaming video.

Aspect Ratio: The ratio of width to height of an image. Can be expressed as a number, or a relationship between two numbers. For example, the standard television screen ratio is 4:3 (4 units wide by 3 units high) or 1.33 (the width is 1.33 times the height). The new "wide screen" television ratio is 16:9 (1.78), and many new video cameras have the option to record using this format. Theatrical film aspect ratios vary, but the most common is 18.5:10 (1.85).

ASX: Windows Media file format ending with the extension .asx. This is a metafile which works in conjunction with ASF files for delivering streaming video.

Audio: Sound. Specifically, the range of frequencies which are perceptible by the human ear.

Audio Dub: The process of adding audio to a video recording without disturbing the pictures. The original audio may be replaced, or kept and combined with the new audio.

Audio Insert: A feature of some video equipment which allows audio dubbing.

Automatic functions: Functions which are performed by equipment with little or no input from the operator. Auto-functions can be very useful, but tend to have serious limitations. As a general rule, it is desirable to be able to operate audio-visual equipment manually.

B

Backlight: A light which is positioned behind the subject. It's primary purpose is to make the subject stand out from the background by highlighting the subject's outline.

Backlight Correction (BLC): A feature of some cameras which increases the apparent brightness of the subject when lit from the rear.

Back Focus: The focus between the lens and the camera. Adjusted by a ring at the rear of the lens (the closest ring to the camera body). If the camera appears focused when zoomed in, but becomes out of focus when zoomed wide, the back focus needs adjusting.

Balanced Audio: An audio signal which consists of two "hot" signals plus the shield. The hot signals are inverted relative to each other as they travel along the balanced cable. They are re-inverted when entering an audio device — this has the effect of inverting any unwanted interference, thus eliminating it.

Bandpass Filter: A circuit which filters out all but a certain range of frequencies, ie. it allows a certain band of frequencies to pass.

Bandwidth: A range of frequencies.

Barn Doors: Metal projections attached to the front of a light, which can be positioned in various ways to control the dispersal of the light.

Batch Capture: The process of capturing multiple video clips automatically. A batch command is set up from the capture software which includes in and out points for each clip.

Baud: Unit of signal speed — the number of signal "bits" per second.

Best Boy: On a film set, the assistant to the Gaffer and Key Grip.

Beta (1): A group of video formats developed by Sony Corporation. Beta, Beta SP, Digital Beta and other variations are all professional television formats. Betamax is a failed consumer version, losing to VHS in the 1980's.

Beta (2): A pre-release version of computer software. Often distributed widely without charge, in order to obtain feedback, identify bugs, and attract customers.
Binary: The "base two number system" which computers use to represent data. It uses only two digits: 0 and 1. Binary code represents information as a series of binary digits (bits). In the table below, binary numbers are shown with their decimal equivalents.
Decimal: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Binary: 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010


Bit: Binary digit. One piece of binary (digital) information. A description of one of two possible states, e.g. 0 or 1; off or on.

Bitmap: A series of digital image formats, which record colour information for each individual pixel. As a result, the quality is very high, as is the size of the file.

Biscuit: Square/rectangular metal part which screws to the bottom of the camera plate, and allows the plate to attach to the head. The biscuit comes as part of the head's package, whereas the plate comes with the camera. The biscuit is the "interface" between the two, and is designed to attach to any plate, and fit into a corresponding slot on the head. When the head's quick-release mechanism is activated, the biscuit, plate and camera are all released as one.

Black balance: A camera function which gives a reference to true black. When auto-black balance is activated (by a switch, positioned with the white balance switch), the iris is automatically shut, and the camera adjusts itself to absolute black.

Black burst: A composite video signal with no luminance information, but containing everything else present in a normal composite video signal.

Black noise: Usually refers to silence with occasional spikes of audio. Other definitions are also in use but this is the most common.

Blonde: A term used to describe tungsten lights in the 2Kw range.

Blue noise: Random noise similar to white noise, except the power density increases 3 dB per octave as the frequency increases.

Bluetooth: A wireless data transfer system which allows devices to communicate with each other over short distances, e.g. phones, laptops, etc.

Blu-ray: A high-definition DVD format supported by a group of manufacturers led by Sony. More info: The Blu-ray Format, Blu-ray vs HD-DVD.

BNC: A type of video connector common in television production equipment, used to transmit a composite video signal on a 75Ω cable.

Bridge: Another term for A/D converter.

Broadband: A general term to describe an internet connection faster than 56K. Broadband usually means 512K or greater.

Brown noise: Random noise similar to white noise but with more energy at lower frequencies.

Bucket: A solid coloured horizontal bar across the bottom of a colour bar test pattern. The most commonly used bucket colour in PAL patterns is red, referred to as a "bucket of blood".

Burn: The process of recording information to an optical disk (CD or DVD).

Bus: Pathway which a signal passes along. For example, the main output of an audio mixer is referred to as the master bus.

C

C: A computer programming language, with variations C+ and C++.

Cable Television: A system of television progam delivery via cable networks.
Camcorder: A single unit consisting of a video camera and recording unit.

Candlepower: A measurement of light, generally that which is output from an electric lamp.

Cans: An informal term for headphones.

Capture Card: A type of computer card with video and/or audio inputs which allows the computer to import an analogue signal and convert it to a digital file.

CCD: Charged Coupled Device.

CCU : Camera Control Unit.

CD Compact Disc. Optical storage device, capable of storing around 600-700MB of data.

Channel (1) : On audio mixers, the pathway along which each individual input travels before being mixed into the next stage (usually a sub-group or the master bus). Each channel will typically have an input socket where the source is physically plugged in, followed by a sequence of amplifiers / attenuators, equalisers, auxiliary channels, monitoring and other controls, and finally a slider to adjust the output level of the channel.

Charged Coupled Device: The image sensing device of video and television cameras -- the component which converts light from the lens into an electrical signal. Made up of pixels - the more pixels, the higher the resolution. CCDs are commonly referred to simply as "chips". They replaced previous tube technology in the 1980's. Larger CCDs can naturally accommodate more pixels, and therefore have higher resolutions. Common sizes are 1/3" (pro-sumer level), 1/2" and 2/3" (professional level). Consumer cameras generally have a single CCD which interprets all colours, whereas professional cameras have three CCDs -- one for each primary colour.
Chroma Key: The process of replacing a particular colour in an image with a different image. The most common types of chroma keys are bluescreen and greenscreen.

Chrominance: Chroma, or colour. In composite video signals, the chrominance component is separated from the luminance component, and is carried on a sub-carrier wave.

Cinematographer: AKA Director of Photography, the person on a film production responsible for photography.

Cinematography: The art and science of movie photography, including both shooting technique and film development.

Clear Scan: A video camera function which allows the camera to alter it's scan rate to match that of a computer monitor. This reduces or eliminates the flicker effect of recording computer monitors.

Codec: Short for compressor/decompressor. A tool which is used to reduce the size of a digital file. Can be software, hardware or a combination of both.

Colour Bars: Click here to see an illustration of colour bars A television test pattern, displaying vertical coloured stripes (bars). Used to calibrate vision equipment. There are numerous variations for different applications.

Colour Temperature: A standard of measuring the characteristics of light, measured in units called kelvins.

Common Mode Signal: A signal which appears equally on both wires of a two wire line, usually unwanted noise. Common mode signals are eliminated with balanced audio cable.

Component Video: A type of high-quality video signal which consists of separate signal components. Usually refers to Y/Pb/Pr, which includes one channel for luminance information and two for colour.

Composite Video: A type of video signal in which all components are recorded or transmitted as one signal. Commonly used with RCA and BNC connectors.

Compression (1): A method of reducing the size of a digital file, whilst retaining acceptable quality. This may be desirable in order to save memory space or to speed up access time. In the case of digital video, large files must be processed very quickly, and compression is still essential for playback on consumer-level computers. Professional digital systems can work with uncompressed video. There are many compression techniques in common use, and digital video often uses various combinations of techniques. Compression can be divided into two types: "lossless" and "lossy". As the names imply, lossless techniques retain all of the original information in a more efficient form, whereas lossy techniques discard or approximate some information. With lossy compression, there is an art to finding a compromise between acceptable quality loss, and file size reduction.

Compression (2): Audio compression is a method of "evening out" the dynamic range of a signal. Compression is very useful when a signal is prone to occasional peaks, such as a vocalist who lets out the odd unexpected scream. The compressor will not affect the dynamic range until a certain user-definable level is reached (the "threshold") - at which point the level will be reduced according to a pre-determined ratio. For example, you could set the compressor to a threshold of 0db, and a compression ratio of 3:1. In this case, all signals below 0db will be unaffected, and all signals above 0db will be reduced by 3db to 1 (i.e. for every 1db input over 0db, 1/3db will be output). Other controls include the attack and decay time, as well as input and output levels.

Contrast Ratio: The difference in brightness between the brightest white and the darkest black within an image.

Convergence: The degree to which the electron beams in a colour CRT are aligned as they scan the raster.

CPU: Central Processing Unit., the "brain" of a computer.

Crab: Camera movement across, and parallel to, the scene.

Crossfade: A video and/or audio transition in which one shot/clip gradually fades into the next. AKA mix or dissolve. More info: The crossfade transition
Crossing the Line: A video transition in which the camera crosses an imaginary line drawn through the scene, resulting in a reversal of perspective for the viewer.

Crossover: An electrical network which divides an incoming audio signal into discreet ranges of frequencies, and outputs these ranges separately.

CRT: Cathode Ray Tube.

Cut (1): An instantaneous transition from one shot to the next.

Cut (2): A location director's instruction, calling for the camera and audio operators to cease recording and all action to halt.

D

D Series Tape Formats: A series of broadcast digital formats, designated D1, D2, etc. Dx is basically a replacement for 1-inch formats. D2 and D3 combine chrominance and luminance information, whereas D1 and D5 store them separately (and are therefore higher quality).

Dailies (1): Daily raw footage shot during the production of a motion picture (AKA rushes or daily rushes).

Dailies (2): Newspapers that are published every day (or 5/6 days per week).

DAT: Digital Audio Tape.

Data Rate: The amount of data which is transferred per second. In a video file, this means the amount of data the file must transfer to be viewed at normal speed. In relation to optical disks, this means the amount of data which can be read or written per second.

DC: Direct Current. The electrical current output by batteries, etc.
Decibel (dB): Logarithmic measurement of signal strength. 1/10 of a Bel.

Deliverables: The final products of the filmmaking process, used to create prints and other material for distribution.

Depth of Field: The zone between the nearest and furthest points at which the camera can obtain a sharp focus.

Depth Perception:The ability to recognize three-dimensional objects and understand their relative positions, orientation, etc.

Device Control: A tool which allows you to control another device. For example, a window within a video editing package from which you can control a video camera.
Differential Amplification: Method of amplifying a signal, in which the output signal is a function of the difference between two input signals.

Digital: A signal which consists of a series of discreet values, as opposed to an analogue signal, which is made up of a continuous information stream.

Digital S : Professional digital tape format, introduced by JVC in the mid-1990s.
Digital Video Editing: Editing using digital video formats and computer software. Also known as non linear editing.

Digital Zoom: A method of zooming which digitally crops and enlarges part of the image. This is not a true zoom and results in loss of quality.

Dissolve: A video transition in which one shot dissolves (fades) into the next. AKA mix or crossfade.

DLP: Digital Light Processing. A television technology that uses a coloured light beam which bounces across an array of hundreds of thousands of hinge-mounted microscopic mirrors attached to a single chip called a "micro mirror device".

Docutainment: From the words documentary and entertainment. A television programme which includes both news and entertainment content, or a blending of both.

Dolly: Any apparatus upon which a camera can be mounted, which can be moved around smoothly.

Dolly Zoom:: A cinematography technique in which the camera moves closer or further from the subject while simultaneously adjusting the zoom angle to keep the subject the same size in the frame.

Downstage: Toward the camera.

Dropout: Loss of part of a recorded video or audio signal, showing up as glitches on playback. Can be caused by damaged record heads, dirty tapes or heads, etc.

Driver: A piece of software which enables a piece of hardware to work with a computer. Usually supplied with the hardware, but can often be downloaded from the vendor's website.

Dry Run: Rehearsal, without recording or transmitting etc.

DTMF: Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency, better known as touch-tone. The standard system of signal tones used in telecommunications.

Dutch Tilt: A camera shot which is deliberately tilted for artistic effect.

DV: Digital Video.

DVCAM: Digital tape format from Sony.

DVCPRO: Professional digital tape format from Panasonic, introduced in the mid-1990s.

DVD: (Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc). An optical disc format which provides sufficient storage space and access speeds to playback entire movies.

DVD Authoring: The process of taking video footage, adding chapter stops, menus, and encoding the footage into MPEG files ready to be burned.

DVD Burning: Taking the authored DVD files and physically writing them to a disk.

Dynamic Loudspeaker: Loudspeaker which uses conventional cone and dome drive elements.

Dynamic Microphone: A moving coil microphone, which doesn't require power.

Dynamic Range: The difference between the weakest and strongest points of a signal.

E

Earth Hum: An unwanted noise which has been induced into a video or audio signal by faulty earthing.

Edit: The process of assembling video clips, audio tracks, graphics and other source material into a presentable package.

Edit Decision List (EDL): A list of all in points and out points for an editing task. Can be stored on a removable disc (e.g. floppy disc). This enables an edit to be constructed in one edit suite, then taken to another (better) suite to make the final version.

ENG : Electronic News Gathering. This term was introduced with the evolution of video cameras for shooting news in the field (as opposed to film cameras). It is still widely used to describe mobile news crews.

Exposure : The amount of light which is passed through the iris, and which the CCD or film is exposed to.

Equalisation: The process of adjusting selected ranges of audio frequencies in order to correct or enhance the characteristics of a signal.

F

Fade: A transition to or from "nothing". In audio, to or from silence. In video, to or from a colour such as black.

Field: In interlaced video, half a video frame. A field comprises every second horizontal line of the frame, making a total of 312.5 lines in PAL and SECAM, 262.5 lines in NTSC.

Film Noir: French for "black film" or "dark film". A term used describe a genre of film popular in America between 1940 and 1960.

Filter: A transparent or translucent optical element which alters the properties of light passing through a lens.

Flanging: In audio work, a type of phase-shifting effect which mixes the original signal with a varying, slightly delayed copy.

Floating Point Color: Available in 32-bit color digital images, floating point space allows colors to be defined as brighter than pure white or darker than pure black. This has advantages in image processing techniques.

Flying Erase Head: In video recorders, an erase head which is mounted on the drum assembly. The erase head wipes any previous recordings as new ones are made. "Normal" erase heads are stationary, and mounted to the side of the head drum. Because of their close proximity to the record heads, flying erase heads provide cleaner edits.

Floor Manager: In television production, the person in charge of the "floor", i.e. the area where the action takes place.

Focal Length: The distance from the centre of the lens to the camera CCD.

Focus: v. The process of adjusting the lens in order to obtain a sharp, clear picture.
adj. The degree to which an image is correctly focused.

FPS: Frames Per Second. The number of video or film frames which are displayed each second.
Frame (1): The edges of a television / video / film image.
Frame (2): To compose a camera shot. More info: Camera framing, Common shot types
Frame (3): One complete video, television or film picture. In video and television, each frame is divided into two interlaced fields. PAL and SECAM systems deliver 25 frames per second, with 625 horizontal scan lines. NTSC delivers 30 fps with 525 lines.

Frame Rate: The number of video or film frames displayed each second (frames per second; fps). PAL frame rate is 25 fps, NTSC is 30 fps, film is 24 fps.

Fresnel: A type of lens with concentric rings which focus the light. Pronounced fra-NELL.

Frequency Response: The sensitivity of a microphone (or other component) to various frequencies, i.e. the amount each frequency is boosted or attenuated.

F-stop: Measurement of aperture. The higher the f-stop number, the smaller the aperture.

F-type : A family of cable connectors, in which the centre (hot) pin is the centre wire of the cable itself.

G

Gaffer (1): Chief electrician on a film set.

Gaffer (2): Industrial-strength sticky tape, AKA duct tape.

Gain: The volume/amplification level of an audio or video signal.

Gauss: (pronounced "gows", abbreviation "G") Unit of magnetic induction.

Gel: (pronounced "jel") Semi-transparent heat-resistant material which is placed in front of a light source in order to modify it's colour temperature or other characteristics.

Geosynchronous: A satellite orbit in which the satellite remains in a fixed position above the Earth.

Graphic Equalizer: A type of audio equalizer which uses a graphical layout to represent the changes made to various frequencies.

Gray Card: A gray-coloured card which reflects a known, uniform amount of the light which falls upon it. Used as a reference to calibrate light meters and set exposure.

Gray Noise: Random noise, similar to white noise, which has been filtered to make all frequencies appear equally loud to the human ear.

Green Noise: An unofficial term referring to the background ambient noise of the world. Can also mean the mid-frequencies of white noise.

Green Room: A room located near the main stage in a studio or concert venue, where artists and guests wait before their appearance.

Green Screen: A film and video technique in which action is shot against a green screen, which is subsequently removed from the image and replaced with a different background.

H

Halogen: Any of the four non-metallic elements flourine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

Head (1): The component which records an electrical signal onto magnetic tape, or reads a signal from tape into an electrical signal.

Head (2): The part which the camera is mounted on, atop a tripod, pedestal or other mounting. Allows the camera to pan and tilt.

Headroom: The amount of space between the top of the subject's head and the top of the picture frame.

Hertz: Unit of frequency. One cycle per second.

HDBaseT: A digital connection used in home entertainment systems, designed to carry video, audio, ethernet, power and control data over a standard Cat5e/6 cable.

HD DVD: A high-definition DVD format supported by a group of manufacturers led by Toshiba.

HDMI: High-Definition Multimedia Interface. A digital connection used in home entertainment systems.

HDTV: High-Definition Television.

Hi8: An analog video format introduced by Sony in 1989.

HMI: Hydrargyrum Medium-Arc Iodide, a type of light which uses an arc lamp instead of an incandescent bulb to produce light.

Hot (1): An image or part of an image which is excessively bright, i.e. overexposed.

Hot (2): The wire in a cable, and the connecting pins, which carry the signal.

Hz: Hertz. Cycles per second.

I

i.LINK: AKA i.Link or IEEE 1394, Sony's brand name for Firewire. A type of connection used to connect audio/video equipment and computers.

Impedance: A term in electronics which measures the amount of opposition a device has to an AC current (such as an audio signal). Technically speaking, it is the combined effect of capacitance, inductance, and resistance on a signal.

Indeo: A digital video compression format.
Infra-red: Frequencies beyond the red end of the visible spectrum, i.e. frequencies with longer wavelengths than red light. Perceived by humans as heat. Commonly used for remote-control devices.

Infotainment: Television programming which blends information and entertainment.

In-point: The beginning point of an edit.
Interface: The point of contact between a tool and it's operator. A human/computer interface could be a keyboard or a mouse.

Interlace: The method of dividing a video frame into two fields; one made up of the odd-numbered horizontal lines, the other made up of even-numbered lines.

Internet: If you don't know what the Internet is, you're in trouble.

Intranet: A "closed-circuit internet". A local network of computers linked in much the same way as the wider internet.

Iris: The circular opening (aperture) which controls the amount of light passing through to the camera's sensing element or film.

J

Jack: A type of audio connector originally developed for telephone switchboards, and sometimes called a phone connector. Still in common use for musical and other audio equipment.

Jackfield: AKA Patch-panel. A board which accommodates connections between multiple sources.

Jib: A revolvable camera mounting arm, which can be attached to a dolly or crane.
JPEG: Joint Photographic Experts Group. A standard for still-image compression.

Jump Cut: A video transition in which one shot appears to "jump" to another shot with very similar framing. Usually considered undesirable but can be used for dramatic effect.

Jump the Shark: A colloquial term used mainly in the US, referring to a defining point in a TV or movie series that marks the beginning of a terminal decline in quality and/or popularity. It stems from the Happy Days episode in which the Fonz literally jumps a shark while waterskiing.

K

Kelvin: A unit of temperature measurement. Colour is measured in kelvins.

Key Frame: In some forms of digital compression, uncompressed frames (key frames) are placed at regular intervals (eg. every 6th frame is uncompressed). Each subsequent frame exists as variations on the keyframe, until a new keyframe is introduced. The further apart the keyframes, the worse the overall picture quality.

Key Grip: Person in sharge of constructing and dismantling film sets and dolly tracks.

L

LAN : Local Area Network. A network of computers connected via cables or a wireless system.

LANC: A connection developed by Sony, used to link remote-control units, edit decks, etc.

Lens: A transparent structure made of glass or other material, with at least one curved surface, which causes the light rays passing through it to converge or diverge in a controlled fashion.

Letterbox Format: In video and television, the practice of placing black bars at the top and bottom of the frame, in order to simulate a wide-screen format (as if the viewer were looking through the slot in a letterbox).

Light: That section of the electromagnetic spectrum which is visible, ie. perceptable to the human eye. Specifically, white light contains the wavelengths from 400nm (nanometres) to 700nm. Light travels through a vacuum at approximately 300,000 km (186,000 miles) per second. More info: Lighting tutorials
Lighting, Three-Point: A standard lighting technique using three lights: The key, fill and back lights.

Limiter: A device which limits the level of a signal to a specified threshold.

Loudspeaker: A transducer which converts electrical signals into sound waves.

Lower Third: The lower portion of a video frame which contains graphical information such as station ID, name/title key, etc.

M

M, MII: Professional tape formats from Panasonic. The M format was based on VHS technology, and was introduced at about the same time as Beta (in the mid-1980's). The MII format was introduced a few years later to compete with Beta SP. MII uses a different sized cassette.

MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A standard of communication between musical instruments, controllers and computers.

Mid-Shot: A camera framing term, half-way between a wide-shot and a close-up. A mid-shot of a person will show them from about the waist or chest up.

MiniDV: A consumer-level digital video format. More info: The MiniDV Format
Mix (1): A video transition in which one shot gradually fades into the next. AKA crossfade or dissolve.

Mixer: A device which accepts multiple signal inputs (video or audio), processes them, and provides one or more outputs. The outputs are "mixes" of the input sources.

M-JPEG: See Motion-JPEG
Modulate: To "change". A signal can be transmitted via a carrier wave, by modulating the wave to represent the signal.

Monitor: A device used to view a video, graphic or text source, or to listen to an audio source. Video monitors use CRTs (cathode ray tubes), LCDs (liquid crystal displays), and other technologies. Audio monitors generally use cone drivers and horn divers, mounted in speaker cabinets.

Monocular: Related to having vision in only one eye, as opposed to binocular (stereo vision, with two eyes).

N

ND (Neutral Density) Filter: A filter which reduces the amount of light coming through the camera lens, without affecting it's colour temperature.

Noddies: Shots of the presenter / interviewer nodding, smiling, frowning etc. These can be shot after the interview and inserted during post-production.

Non-Linear: Any method of video editing which doesn't require all shots to be assembled in a linear fashion.

NTSC: National Television Standards Commission. Video/broadcast standard used in the USA, Canada, Japan, Mexico, and other countries. Delivers 525 horizontal lines of resolution at 30 fps (frames per second).

O

OB: See Outside Broadcast.

Off-Line: Out of action, not currently useable.

Off-Line Edit: A "draft" edit, usually prepared in an off-line edit suite (at a lower cost), then taken to an on-line facility to make the final cut.

On-Line (1): Operational.

On-Line (2): In multi-camera or multi-tape set-ups, the camera or videotape machine which is currently selected by the director. For example, in an outside broadcast, the on-line camera is the camera which is currently live.

On-Line Edit: The final version of an edit, prepared in a professional edit facility.

Optical: Of light/optics.

Optical Image Stabiliser (OIS): A system of stabilizing a camera image by constantly adjusting the optics.

Optical Zoom: A method of zooming which uses a telephoto lens, i.e. the zoom is provided by the optics rather than digital processing. Optical zoom is better than digital zoom.

Optics: Dealing with properties of light. Camera optics: The components which deal with light rays, before they are converted into electrical signals (i.e. the lens, etc).

Oscilloscope: Device which accepts an electrical input, and represents the variations of the input as a display on a CRT screen.

Out-point: The end point of an edit.

Outside Broadcast: A radio or television program which is broadcast from location, rather than from a studio.

P

PAL: Phase Alternate Line. Video/broadcast standard developed in Germany, and used primarily in Europe and Australasia. Delivers 625 lines at 25 fps (frames per second).

Pan (1): Horizontal camera movement.

Pan (2): The amount which a signal is divided between two pathways. For example, on an audio mixer, an input source can be panned across two stereo channels.

Pan and Scan: A method of converting widescreen film or video to 4x3 aspect ratio in order to be displayed on traditional television sets. The most important area of the frame is selected and the rest discarded.


Pan Pot: Pan Potentiometer. A component which pans a signal across two pathways. Typically a knob or slider. The knob on a domestic stereo which pans between left and right speakers is a pan pot.

Parametric Equalizer: A type of audio equalizer which provides user-adjustable parameters such as frequency and bandwidth. More info: Parametric Equalisers, Sound Equalization.

Patch Panel: AKA jackfield, a panel containing a series of connection points for electronic equipment. This allows equipment to be inter-connected in various configurations.

Pattern Generator: Click here to see a small portable pattern generator. A device capable of outputting various television test patterns. Used to test and calibrate vision equipment.

PCM: Pulse Code Modulation. A digital audio format.

Peak: The highest level of strength of a signal. If the "peak" or "clip" light on an audio mixer is activated, this means the respective bus (channel) is peaking at a dangerous level.
Pedestal (1): A movable mount for studio cameras. More info: Pedestal shot
Pedestal (2): The black level of a video signal.
Pepper Light: A small light, around 200w, used to light small spaces or to highlight certain features.

Persistence of Vision: A widely-accepted but scientifically unfounded theory which states that the human eye (and/or brain) always retains images for a fraction of a second.

Phantom Power: A means of distributing a DC current through audio cables to provide power for microphones and other equipment.

Phasing: In audio work, an effect which utilizes phased wave interaction to create various sweeping sounds.

Pink noise:Random noise, similar to white noise, that contains equal sound pressure level in each octave band.

Pixel: Picture Element.

Podcast: A portmanteau (fusion) of broadcasting and iPod. A system of syndicating multimedia content via the Internet for personal computers and portable devices.

Pot: See Potentiometer.

Potentiometer: Variable resistor. Potentiometers are used to adjust the level of a signal and are typically controlled by a knob or slider.

Power Amplifier: A device which accepts a relatively low level audio signal and boosts it to a level at which it can be output to a loudspeaker.

Power reset: Disconnecting power from a device (usually by turning it off), in order to purge all charges and reset the device to it's default settings.
PPM: Peak Program Meter. An audio level meter.

Pre-Roll: The "lead-in" time at the beginning of a tape edit. When performing an edit, the tapes are rewound a few seconds, then played back before the edit begins. This ensures that the tapes are running at exactly the right speed.
Production: The process of creating a media product, or in some cases, the product itself.

Q

Quantization: The process of converting a continuous range of values into a finite range of discreet values. Used for various applications in digital image and audio production.

Qubit: Short for quantum digit or quantum bit, the basic unit of a quantum computer, equivalent to the binary bit in traditional computers. Can be state 1 or 0 (pronounced ket 1 and ket 0), or a quantum superposition of the two — this allows vastly more possible states than the binary bit.

Quicktime: A digital media format originally developed for the Apple Computer range, but is now also available for other platforms.

R

RAM: Random Access Memory. A system of computer memory in which data can be retrieved in any order with equal speed.

RCA (1): The Radio Corporation of America, an American broadcast company.

RCA (2): A small non-locking connector. Typically used in home entertainment systems.

Real Time: Anything which occurs without delay. A real-time effects proccessor will add effects instantly, without having to wait to render.

Red Head: A term loosely used to describe general-purpose tungsten lights in the 800w range.

Reflector Board: A specially-designed reflective surface which is used as a light source.

Resolution: The amount of detail in an image or signal. On a computer screen, the resolution is the number of pixels. In an analogue video signal, the resolution is the number of horizontal lines. In digital audio, the resolution is the number of samples per second.
"Colour resolution" refers to the colour depth of an image, ie. how many colours are present.

Reverberation (Reverb): The amount of time it takes an emmitted sound to cease bouncing off objects such as walls. In audio work, adding a reverberation effect gives the sound more body and can make it sound as if it was recorded in a large room, hall, etc.

Reverse Cut: A video transition in which the camera "crosses the line", resulting in a reversal of perspective for the viewer. This is generally undesirable as it causes confusion.

RGB: Red, Green and Blue. The primary colours of video.

Rule of Thirds: A technique in camera framing where the frame is divided into imaginary sections to create reference points.

Rushes: Daily raw footage shot during the production of a motion picture (AKA daily rushes or dailies).

S

S-Video: A video signal that carries luminance (Y, brightness) and chrominance (C, colour) values as physically separate signals. Also known as Y/C video. Usually uses a small four-pin mini-DIN connector. First became popular during the S-VHS/Hi8 era.

Sample: A near-instantaneous recording of a signal, measured in thousandths of a second. Digital signals are constructed by sampling analogue signals thousands of times per second. Each of these individual samples are strung together to make a close approximation of the original signal.

Saturation: The level of colour in a vision signal or still image. A highly-saturated signal has very strong colours.

Scene: In film, television or stage, all the action/shots which take place at a certain time and location and comprise a segment of the program.

SCART: A type of multi-pin connector used in home entertainment systems.

Scissor Platform: AKA scissor lift, a mechanical work platform which can be raised and lowered. Sometimes used to elevate a camera position.

SECAM: Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Memoire. Video standard used primarily by France and various Eastern Bloc countries. Provides 625 horizontal lines at 25 frames per second.

SEG: Special Effects Generator. A device used to create special video effects.
Servo: Remote control of camera functions such as zoom and focus, by means of a motor. Servo controls can be mounted an the lens housing, on the tripod/pedestal handles, or on a remote-control unit.

Setup: The black level of a video signal.

Shot: A continuous piece of video or film footage. Everything you get between pressing "record" and "stop".

Signal Processing Device: Any device which takes a signal input, then modifies the signal before outputting it.

SLR: Single Lens Reflex, a popular type of still photography camera that uses a moveable mirror to synchronize the lens and viewfinder images.

SMPTE: (Pronounced "simptee") Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. A group which has set various video standards.

Snow: Random patterns of black and white dots on a TV screen or vision monitor. Snow can be caused by an improperly tuned television (or very poor reception), an unrecorded video tape, or dirty VCR heads.

Solder: An alloy of tin and lead that melts at a relatively low temperature. Used for securing electrical connections between components and wires.

Sound Reinforcement: The process of amplifying sound for the benefit of a live audience.

Speaker: See Loudspeaker
Stereo (1): Audio which is split into two channels.
Stereo (2): Duplicate images of the same scene, taken to simulate 3-D human vision.

T

Tally Light: A small light on a video camera which turns on when recording is in progress. In multi-camera situations; a light on a camera, or in it's viewfinder, which turns on when the camera is switched on-line or live.

TBC: See Time Base Corrector.

Tele: (Prefix) Producing images or other results from a distance.

Telecast: Material broadcast by television.

Telecine: The process (or equipment used in the process) of transferring film to video and/or television.

Telephoto: Telephotographic.

Telephotographic Lens: Magnifying lens, or combination of lenses.

Teleprompter: Device which scrolls text on a screen, to provide cues for a television/video presenter.

Televise: To transmit by television.

Television: Literally means vision at a distance. The transmission, reception, and reproduction of moving pictures and audio. Refers to both the process in general, and the receiving appliance.

Tele-zoom: Longer zoom, producing greater magnification.

Test Pattern: Pattern of colours, lines and/or shapes designed to assist equipment calibration.

Tilt: Vertical camera movement, i.e. adjusting the framing up and down.
Time Base Error: An error in the technical data of a video signal which causes picture distortion.

Time Base Corrector: A device which adjusts, improves and corrects defects in a video signal. Can be used to synchronise different vision sources before being mixed together, to avoid picture disturbances when cutting from one source to another.

Timecode: An indexing system that assigns a time value to individual frames of a film or video, or sections of an audio file.

Tone (1): An audio test signal. Used to set signal levels, test signal quality, identify signal pathways, etc. More info: Audio Tone

Tone (2): In music, an interval of two semitones.

Tone (3): Quality of a person's voice, e.g. "The newsreader spoke in an authoritative tone".

Tone (4): Description of an attitude, mood, setting, etc. For example, "The tone of the movie was grim", or "The tone of the article was upbeat".

Transcoding: The process of converting one digital format to another, or re-encoding a digital file in order to change one or more parameters.

Transducer: A device which coverts energy from one form into another. For example, a microphone is a transducer which converts acoustical energy into electrical energy.

Transistor: A device used for switching or amplifying.

Transition: The way in which two video shots or audio clips are linked together; for example, instant cut, crossfade, wipe, etc.

Transmitter: A device which converts video, audio and/or data signals into modulated radio frequency signals, and transmits them as radio waves.

Tripod: A three-legged stand for mounting equipment such as a camera, etc.

U

UER: Union Européenne de Radio-Télévision (www.ebu.ch).

UHF: Ultra High Frequency radio waves.

Ultrasonic: Audio frequencies above the upper limit of human hearing (approx 20,000 kHz).

Unbalanced Audio: An audio signal which consists of one "hot" signal plus the shield. This is common in home entertainment systems, as well as other systems with short audio cables. Unbalanced audio cables are prone to external interference, and are not prefered in professional situations.

UV: Ultra-violet light.

UV Filter: A filter which blocks out a certain percentage of ultra-violet light.

V

Vacuum Tube: A multi-electrode valve which controls the flow of electrons in a vacuum from electrode to electrode.

VCR: Video Cassette Recorder.

Vector Image: A graphics image which exists as a series of geometric shapes, rather than as a series of values for each pixel. Has the advantage of being resizable without loss of quality.

Vectorscope: Click here to see a combination waveform monitor and vectorscope. A device which graphically displays information about the chroma (colour) part of a vision signal. Used in conjunction with a waveform monitor (in fact, many devices are switchable between waveform and vectorscope modes).

VHF: Very High Frequency. This is a popular television broadcast band. It is lower than UHF (Ultra-High Frequency), and generally has a higher broadcast range.

VHS: Vertical Helical Scan. In the late1970s, VHS became known as Video Home System. VHS won the format war against Betamax, despite being technically inferior.

Video: There are many definitions of video, most of them rather loose. It essentially means any medium which displays moving images electronically (as opposed to mechanical film).

Video8: An analogue video format introduced by Sony in the 1980s. The first compact cassette format for camcorders.

Video Level: The strength of a video signal. Level is measured in volts/millivolts - the standard broadcast vision level is 1V peak-to-peak, of which 700mV comprises the picture information and 300mV comprises the timing and sync information. Related

Viewfinder: A component of video, television and film cameras. Available as EVF (Electronic Viewfinder) or OVF (Optical Viewfinder). An EVF has a small CRT which displays the camera output (or tape output).

Vision: The picture component of a video, television or film program (as opposed to the audio component).

Vision Control Operator: The person responsible for maintaining the technical quality of the vision signal(s). This may involve controlling some camera's functions remotely (such as iris, colour balance, etc.), as well as making adjustments to any vision source's technical characteristics (such as video level, timing, etc.).

Vision Mixer (1): A device which accepts multiple vision source inputs, manipulates them, and provides one or more vision outputs in real time.

Vision Mixer (2): A person who operates a vision mixer as described above. AKA vision switcher.

VITC: (Pronounced "vitsee") Vertical Interval Time Code. A type of timecode used in some video tape formats.

Vocal: Of the human voice.

Volt: Unit of electromotive force. 1 volt, when applied to a 1 ohm conductor, produces a current of 1 ampere.

Voltage: Electromotive force, in volts.

Voltmeter: A device which measures voltage. One of the functions of a multimeter.

VOX (1): Voice operated switch.
VOX (2): Abbreviation for vocals.

Vox Pop: From the latin phrase vox populi, meaning "voice of the people". The vox pop is a technique used in many forms of media, to provide a "snapshot" of public opinion. Random subjects are asked to give their opinion on a particular topic, and these are presented to the viewer/reader as a reflection of popular opinion.

VT: Video Tape. A magnetic storage medium for video.

VTR: Video Tape Recorder. See also: VCR.

VU: Volume Unit, a unit to measure the volume of an audio signal.

W

Watt: Unit of power; equivalent to one joule per second. 1 watt (W) = 1 volt (V) x 1 amp (A).

Wattage: Amount of electrical power, in watts.

Wave: An oscillation which is propogated from place to place.

Waveform: The shape (form) of a wave, or a representation of this form.

Waveform monitor: Click here to see a combination waveform monitor and vectorscope. An oscilloscope specifically designed to display the waveforms of video signals. Used to monitor signal strength, sync timing, etc.

Wavelength: The distance between any point on a wave and the equivalent point on the next phase.

White balance: A camera function which gives a reference to "true white", in order for the camera to interpret all colours correctly.

White noise: Random noise that contains an equal amount of energy in all frequency bands.

Whizz-pan: A very fast camera pan, usually such that individual frames are severely blurred.

Wide screen: Generally refers to any video aspect ratio greater than 4:3. More info: Aspect ratio, Why go widescreen?

Wideshot (WS): A framing term, meaning a camera shot which shows the whole of the subject. More info: Wide shot, camera shot types
Wipe: A video transition in which parts of one shot are successively replaced by equivalent parts of the next shot.

Wow: Wavering of audio reproduction due to speed fluctuations
.
X

XLR: A lockable connector, available with various numbers of pins (the most common being the 3-pin XLR). Often referred to as a "Cannon" after the original manufacturer of XLR connectors.

XML: Extensible Markup Language, a versatile markup language used in computer programming and web development. More info: XML
X-Y micing (X-Y pickup): A technique that uses two directional microphones aimed in an X or Y pattern to capture stereo sound.

XCU: Script designation for extreme close-up shot. AKA ECU.

XLS: Script designation for extra long shot, AKA extreme long shot, extreme wide shot (EWS).

Y

Y: Luminance. The "brightness" of a signal.

Y/C: Luminance/chrominance. A video signal which consists of two signals: The luminance (brightness) and chrominance (colour). S-video connections use a Y/C signal.

Y-Lead: AKA "Split lead". A lead with one connector at one end, and two at the other. For example, a mono audio output could be split (using a y-lead) into two signals, to be plugged into the left and right inputs of another device.

Yagi: A type of highly directional antenna consisting of an array of straight elements in line with a dipole. The formal name is Yagi-Uda array.

YUV: A type of component video consisting of one luminance signal (Y) and two chrominance signals (U and V).

Z

Zebra Stripes: A feature of professional cameras, which places diagonal lines across any over-exposed parts of the picture in the viewfinder. These stripes will not show on the output/recorded picture, they are only there as a guide for the camera operator.

Zone System: A photographic system which divides light into ten tonal steps, from Zone 0 (absolute black) to Zone IX (absolute white). Zone V is medium gray, the same value found on an 18% gray card.

Zoom: Framing movement, in which the focal length of the zoom lens is altered to make the subject appear closer to, or further away from the camera. Note that this effect is similar, but not the same as moving the camera itself closer to or further away from the subject.

Zoom Lens: A lens with a moveable element, which is able to "zoom" between various focal lengths. This has the effect of making the subject appear closer to, or further away from the camera.

Zoom Microphone: A microphone on a video camera which adjusts it's pickup pattern to match the zoom lens, i.e. the mic becomes more directional as the lens zooms in.

Zoom Ratio: A number indicating the zoom range of a lens, arrived at by dividing the shortest focal length into the longest focal length. A 10 to 100 mm zoom has a zoom ratio of 10x. The number is sometimes stated as a ratio, e.g. 10:1.

          Hewlett Packard        
Hewlett Packard
Since its inception in the year 1947 HP has covered a long distance. Throughout its journey in this highly competitive sector, it has focused itself in developing models which are more and more user-friendly.
It debuted as a manufacturer of electronic test gadgets like signal generators, voltmeters, oscilloscopes, frequency counters and others.
From 1966 onwards, it started focusing on the computer manufacturing. The very first model was a notebook series HP laptop 2100/HP 1000.
But now it has become a global leader in computer manufacturing industry. It has dominated every segment, whether it is for home user or a business user. In addition to computer, it has also made entry in manufacturing of peripheral devices like scanners and printers. It has created such a reputation and trust in the market that every user before buying, does make a search on the latest available model from HP.
Let’s have a glance at a most recent HP model, HP Pavilion p6300Z series. This model was introduced with the launch of Windows 7. User will be getting its Home Premium version absolutely free. This machine will be empowered with AMD Sempron(TM) LE1300 processor [2.3GHz, 512KB L2, up to 1600MT/s bus], 4 GB DDR2-800MHz SDRAM [2 DIMMs] memory, 750GB 7200 rpm SATA 3 GB/s hard drive and 1GB NVIDIA GeForce GT 220 [DVI, HDMI, VGA] graphic card. Hence, you will be getting incredible performance from your HP computer. In addition, Internet Explorer 8 will give you a better Internet experience.
Understanding the mind setup of customer with the launch of Windows 7, it has become an active partner for offering upgrade to eligible buyer.
To keep a deep penetration into the market it has also collaborated with major tech support provider so as to address any issue on the priority level.
          Oscilloscope Acquires Sexy Sundance Drama '28 Hotel Rooms'        
none
          Ordinary and/or Extraordinary - Objects and Still Life        
Willem Kalf - 'Still life with drinking horn' about 1653
Pieter Claesz - 'Still life with Turkey Pie' 1627
The combination of elements in still-life paintings can have profound implications for the paintings meaning. Dutch 17th century still-life pictures frequently contained messages about the fragility of life and the onset of corruption. These combine with a sense of opulence, splendours and successes of international trading and maritime prowess. Such features can be seen in the detailed works of Willem Kalf and Pieter Claesz.
Sam Taylor Wood - 'A Little Death' 2002
Jan Lievens (Dutch, 1607–1674), 'Still Life with Books', ca. 1627–1628.
Sam Taylor Wood 'Still Life' 2001
Sam Taylor Wood is an artist, photographer and film maker. Her 2001 Film/animation ‘Still Life’ has the visual look of a 17th Century Dutch still life. Sequences of still photographs are taken over a period of time to show the fruit slowly decaying. This is shown as a piece of video art in a gallery space - it is almost displayed like a painting on the wall. It is similar to time lapse photography used to capture the growth of a plant - who move at a completely different pace to ourselves.
Valerie Belin - Palettes
One of the great scandals of the modern age is "built in obsolescence". A product is no longer designed to be mended or maintained; the consumer is forced to throw it away and buy a new one - while manufacturers gleefully count their profits. The computer industry has led the way in this, and it is computers that are the subject of French photographer Valerie Belin's 'Palettes'. They are a series of 6ft tall black and white prints that feature mournful stacks of abandoned hardware that Berlin photographed in a dump on the outskirts of Paris.
The columns are not her own arrangements; Belin shot the stacks of monitors, oscilloscopes and hard drives just as she found them, arranged on fork lift palettes. Blown up to life size and deprived of context by the black velvet background against which she shot them, the stacks look like weird ziggurats for the digital era.
"I use a large photographic plate to produce a very high definition image," she says." It means you get a strong sense of surface of the objects - the texture. Each one is a 'vanitas', based on the 17th century still life's that were allegories for the transience of life. Computers are objects that are part of everyone's lives, and this is the moment of their demise. Each tower is like a jigsaw, made by hand. And this is the moment when man triumphs over this machinery - when man destroys the robot!"
(words by Tom Horan).
Thomas Richard Williams 'The sands of Time' 1850-52
Adolphe Braun - 'A Hunting Scene' 1867

Since the 17th century, along with landscape and portraiture, still-life has been one of the great traditional art forms. Objects could be arranged to suggest new meanings or they could simply be found and depicted as they are. Within the simple traditions of the Still-Life artists and photographers were free to experiment and explore - pushing our progress into modernism. Painters used still-life to push the boundaries of seeing (Cezanne and Picasso), modern artists explored the use of everyday objects (from Marcel Duchamp to Carl Andre) and Photographers, in particular, became fascinated with simple scenes of the every day world. A photograph, by its very nature, captures a section of ephemeral transience life and makes it permanent. Still life is central to photography's story.
One Summers day in 1826 Nicephore (Joseph) Niepce created the image above. This Grainy image is thought to be the first permanent photograph and it had an exposure of over eight hours. It is too simple to say Niepce invented photography because the photographic process has undergone so many significant modifications since then (most famously Fox Talbot and Daguerre1839).

The invention of a device that could allow anybody to record the world in perfect detail would revolutionise how we see ourselves, how we communicate and how we make art. Without Photography Modern art, film and the Internet would not exist – or at least not as we know them.
Another one of Niepce’s earliest images was of a table – a traditional still life. It is a time honoured theme in Art that would still be revisited by future artists. During the 18th century Chardin produced beautiful painted still lives of simple Kitchen Utensils. There is great poetry in Chardin’s ability to bring such importance to such humble things.

Niepce was simply continuing a long tradition – what else would you do with a camera other than make images in the tradition of Painting? These two early photographs show photography's two directions - as a force for modernism and connected to the history of painting.

Rinko Kawauchi is a contemporary Japanese photographer who creates beautiful and elegant images that find the beauty in the everyday. Kawauchi uses a Minimum Depth of Field (for example f/2 – a large hole) which results in only a fraction of the image being in focus – these images have a shallow depth.

Kawauchi explores the poetry of the common place – a dead wasp on a window sill, a brief glance of the eye and a piece of chicken hanging over a table. These are none events – the kind of thing we may notice briefly and possibly dismiss or contemplate in a day dream.
The everyday has been a fascination for many artists – the things they immediately experience as part of their existence. Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin
William Henry Fox Talbot - 'The Open Door' 
Roger Fenton - 'Still Life with Fruit and Decanter' 1860
Early photographic pioneers used still life partly because of the tradition of painting (this is the same reason a photograph is square or rectangular and not round - because of canvas frames and the golden rectangle). The long exposures needed with early processes lent themselves to static still life objects. However, soon painting and photography would develop through experimentation with still life.
Paul Cezanne 'Still life with plaster cupid' 1895
Paul Cezanne used landscapes and still life painting to explore how we see. At first glance Cezanne abandoned traditional perspective and the table appears to buckle, as if viewed from shifting angles. This is because he painted the same scene from several viewpoints and not one - within one image.
Pablo Picasso 'Guitar' 1913
Inspired by non western art and Cezanne's experiments Pablo Picasso has abstracted the image as if it has been seen from multiple viewpoints. At first glance it is abstract but is actually a still life of a guitar - it is just that the guitar itself seems fractured. Segments of the 'Guitar' are cut from a variety of materials - a piece of old wall paper, a scrap of cardboard and a circle cut out of newspaper. This is an example of Picasso's and George Braque's Synthetic Cubism and shows a break away from traditional mediums in western art. How did Picasso get to this stage?
David Hockney's first love and main medium is drawing and painting, not photography. He is fascinated in how we make images and in the history of image making. To understand how Hockney, a painter, is as famous for his joiners we need to look at his influences.

Certain joiners hold clues to his thinking. In this joiner by Hockney he has photographed the desk from multiple viewpoints warping time and space. On the desk is a book and the book is open on a page that shows the above collage by Pablo Picasso. Hockney has looked at Cezanne and Picasso and responded by creating a photo-montage that includes multiple viewpoints. 

All three of these breakthroughs use the tradition of the still life to push boundaries.

Man Ray 'Scissors and cut paper' 1927
This is a Rayogram by the 20th century artist Man Ray. It is actually a photogram but in a bold act of self promotion - Man Ray called his images Rayograms. It is created by moving object around light sensitive paper. The objects are humble - scissors, paper and possibly a stand of some sort. Man Ray has taken ordinary things and made them extraordinary. This is a photogram, a photo-montage but it is also a type of Still Life - but a modern one.

These images were produced in the 1920's - eighty years after Fox Talbot. In many ways these were still early days for photography and photographers were just starting to create images that were their own thing - not just mimicking painting.
Paul Strand 'Ackley Camera'
Paul Strand 'Black Bottle' ca.1919
Early photographers (for example Roger Fenton and Fox Talbot) took their inspiration from the history of painting. This meant that the compositions and layout followed conventional rules. A camera is a different tool to a paint brush and naturally allows the photographer to experiment with composition. The modernist photographer Paul Strand helped create the language of photography and he helped establish photography as an art form in itself. Strand often used the Still Life but his compositions were stark, geometric and modern. He would zoom into a subject, unlike a painter, and create compositions built up of strong diagonal lines, circles, triangles and contrast. Again we see the conventional form of Still Life used, altered and twisted to explore and develop visual ideas - and in the process creating the language of photography (different to the language of painting).
Andre Kertesz 'The Fork' 1928
In this image Andre Kertesz turns the simple act of a fork leaning against a plate into a beatiful and simple early modernist photograph. Other photographers, who worked in a similar way to Strand and Kertesz, include Josef Sudek, Paul Outerbridge, Hans Bellmer and Edward Weston.
Edward Weston 'Pepper' 1930
Edward Weston 'Nude' 1936
Both of the images above are by Edward Weston. Whether Weston was photographing a natural form, a human figure, a car engine or a toilet (he create a series of these) he considered curves, light and form. Although he has not combined the images, by photographing them in the same way, he encourages us to compare them.


The influence of these early pioneers encouraged photographer to reinvent small aspects of the everyday to create a new kind of Still Life image that was photographic. Peter Keetman's (a key member of fotoform here) images show his use of pattern - whether he is photographing pipes or creating experimental abstract images.
Walker Evans 'Alabama Farm Interior (Fields Family Cabin) 1936
Strand, Weston and Kertesz were pioneers and their images were inventive, creative and, crucially, obviously artistic. The camera is an objective instrument that is capable of showing the world as it is - coldly with no sentiment. Walker Evans recognised this quality of the camera and he images just seem to document what lay before it. 

Evans was a hugely influential 20th century photographer. He came to prominence during the 1930's while working for the FSA (Farm Security Administration) in America. His black and white images often focused on aspect of life other photographers might ignore - the interior of a barbershop, an old sign, cutlery jammed in lock etc. His images had an objective look - showing the everyday as it was, but ultimately, showing it to be other than itself.


The image above was taken during the great depression for the FSA (Farm Security Administration) to show America how many of the poorest lived. Evans documented every aspect of life - even a simple wall in a field family's cabin and their simple storage system for their cutlery.

As a young man Evan's wanted to be a writer and his images have the quality of a descriptive passage from a piece of literature -

"the sloping, paper-littered bank" 
Dylan Thomas 'Reminiscences of Childhood'

"Eight mahogany chairs were lined up against the white painted wainscoting, and under the barometer stood an old piano loaded with a pyramid of boxes and cartons" 
Gustave Flaubert 'A Simple Heart'

'I saw in Louisiana a live-oak growing, all alone stood it and the moss hung down from the branches'
Walt Whitman 'I saw in Louisiana a live-oak growing'


It is worth bearing the connection in mind when viewing any Still Life photographer - how would the same scene be described in literature? Evans work in particular had this quality - as if he was a frustrated writer with only a camera to record the small unnoticed details of life.

Walker Evans was fascinated by the everyday. Things that were taken for granted in their day become strange portholes to another time. Evans had an eye for what would be interesting in the future. There is so much detail captured in this image - a shop that has probably long since been demolished and and chairs that are no longer sat in. 
'Hale County, Alabama' 1936
A documentary within a documentary, this picture suggests the way an Alabama tenant family lived, and, in the two snapshots tacked to the wall, bears witness to the family's informal documentation of its own experiences. The photograph was taken by Walker Evans in 1936, while he was employed by the Farm Security Administration; it was the powerful and moving record of rural poverty made by him and his FSA colleagues that popularised the term documentary photography.
In this photograph by Evans he has photographed a set of Photographs. This is something he returned to again and again - the layers build up and you are looking at an image of an image. It is a shop window display in a penny photo arcade - people would go in to have a portrait taken as a memory. We photograph ourselves to prove we existed - we were here. These original images are not art in themselves but Evans photographs them and draws our attention to them. The act of using the work of others is know as Appropriating.
Walker Evans 'Torn Movie Poster' 1931
Here is a photograph of a torn movie poster by Walker Evans. Evans would often appropriate the work of others and take a photograph of a photograph. Layers of life and culture build up only to be replaced by the latest trend. These images are ephemeral - destined to be lost and Evans has captured it forever. These images have the look of Decollage.
Walker Evans 'Mail Box, Alabama' 1973 (from metmusuem archive)
We can still see this quality in his later work. He had spent his life transforming the world onto Black and White until, when given a Polaroid SX70 and film by Polaroid, spent his final years using seeing in (Polaroids warped) colour. His subject matter of sidewalks, signs and street furniture suddenly exploded with colour. We live in an age when people take colour photographs purely because technology allows it - not because we see and appreciate colour.
In this image above Evans has photographed a found collage. Did the occupant use card board on the wall as cheap insulation or decoration. Maybe there is element of both. Evans noticed this aesthetic quality. It is reminiscent of the the Collage and Photomontage work of Robert Rauschenberg.

Robert Rauschenberg
In these images you can see the painter Robert Rauschenberg is finding strange juxtapositions, unusual compositions, found collages and using photography as tool for his paintings. They almost have an anti-atheistic and a sense of a dystopia or broken society. Rauschenberg comments that for him photography is “a kind of archaeology in time only, forcing one to see whatever the light of the darkness touches”.

The influence of Evans is everywhere in modern photography - as is the photographic evolution of the Still Life.

Paul Caponigro 'Frost Window No.2' 1961
Simple net sails of a boat overlap to create a delicate pattern. A picture of frost crystals on a bedroom window makes a tapestry out of a mixture of pattern and texture. Positioning his view camera about 30cm from the glass, the photographer stopped the lens all the way down to f32 so as not to loose the dark trees in the background. These are Still Lifes but they are far from the Still Life traditions in painting.

We now take these kind of images for granted and a lot of images taken today fall into the category of Still Life. When we start to look at photography after Strand, Weston and Evans we can see their influence and the health of Still Life.


“Following Walker Evans’s example, a postwar generation focused on what everybody in America during the 1950s, 60s and 70s actually saw in front of their faces or through their windshields or across their backyard fences, but didn’t bother to register or preferred not to – much less to think was worth photographing. These were run of the mill subjects, mostly, shot with deadpan acumen.. seemingly nowhere places, shown to be somewhere after all. In the populist spirit of Walt Whitman, but with a heavy dose of dry-eyed scepticism, they found a fresh kind of poetics in the American everyday… [Wessel] had a knack for seeing a compositional order where it didn’t obviously present itself – making pictures like visual haikus.” 
- Michael Kimmelman
Martin Parr Individual photographs from 'Common Sense' 1995 - 1999
Martin Parr 'Common Sense' Series (displayed on a gallery wall) 1995-1999

Martin Parr photographs as if he is collecting and he focuses of the small details of life. In his 1995-99 Series 'Common Sense' he focused on minor trashy elements of everyday life - lipstick marks on a cup, finger marks on buttons or a cup of tea on a table cloth. He uses a ring flash to create bold, saturated colours giving his work the look of the hyper real. Does Parr have a genuine affection for his subject matter or is he poking fun? Does he reveal our own prejudices by presenting us images that create a certain reaction? Arguably he is somewhere in the middle - or neither - he just records and collects.



Stephen Gill is a contemporary British photographer who often works in a series. He will often focus on subject you would normally pay no attention to - A lost stranger looking at a map, painted over signs, the backs of bill boards or people sat on trains. His work shares the straight forward irony of martin Parr, the cold methodical approach of The Bechers and the fascination with the everyday of Walker Evans.
His series 'A Series of Dissappointments'  looks at the proliferation of betting shops in the Borough of Hackney. The discarded slips 'were shaped by loss or defeat, then cast aside. these new forms perhaps now possess a state of mind, shaped by nervous tension and grief. After these images were made, little autopsies were performed on the papers to reveal the failed bets held within.'




William Eggelston - from his 'Los Alomos' series

Patterns are found everywhere – Nature, Literature, Music and Art.


By repeating something again and again it can become something else. In music if you take a sound and repeat it, it not only changes in itself but it can change our mood. Religious chanting is an example of how the sound can change peoples emotions. Even if you are not placed in a trance like state there is a definite change in our mood by hearing repeated sound.
Try this yourself - follow this link to use the Tone Matrix. By adding white squares to the grid you can make a pattern that will loop - creating a delicate sound like a music box. See what loop you can create and see if it changes your mood (you could also try the FM3 Buddha Machine) - then come back!

This image is called ‘Ancient Sound’ by the 20th century artist Paul Klee. He was a member of the Bauhaus and also wrote about art.


'Art does not reproduce the visible but makes visible' - Paul Klee


This image reflects Klee’s interest in Colour and Music. The squares seem to have a rhythmic quality like the notes in a song. The colours complement, contrast and work with one another. There is a flicker effect and movement in this image.



The GSW Headquaters in Berlin was designed by Sauerbruch Hutton (1999). This architecture shares similar characteristic to Klee's. Like a Klee painting (or a repeated sound) the building has a visual rhythm with the various hues of red reacting with one another and contrasting with the blue sky. 



El Anatsui creates shimmering large scale artworks made from discarded bottle caps. They are simultaneously sculptures, paintings, collage and installation and have a genuine visual zeal. Like Klee's work and the GSW Headquarters the smaller visual elements come together to make a greater whole.

Lance Letscher is a contemporary artist who collects old books, paper and materials and pieces them together to give them new life. The manufactured colour's that are all around us are combined and contrasted using different structures. Letscher's work, like Anatsui's work, seems to have its roots in craft and folk art.

VE Day Celebrations, Hoyland Street, Wincobank
Bunting is little triangles cut out of various left over material, attached to string and hung up for decoration. The 'make do and mend' aesthetic and the combination of different materials make bunting an interesting artifact. It was often used in street parties - for example the VE day celebrations. Notice in this photograph above how it hangs above the street blowing in the wind. As our sense of community has changed there are less street parties that take place - bunting seems to belong to this bygone era.

This is Log Cabin Quilt circa 1900 from North America shows the characteristic design of the American frontier home. They adapted an economic way of using up even the smallest fragment of material achieving a surprising variety of designs. The design was influenced by the width of the strips and the placements of the various colours.
This image by M C Escher juxtaposes Bats and angels to create a continuous pattern. There is an element of playfulness to Escher's work.

Owen Jones 'Designs for tiles' Watercolour' 1849

These Victorian tile designs are influenced by Islamic tile design. Owen Jones soon realised the debt that Islamic design had to geometry, mathematics and astronomy. He was a strong influence in the contemporary development of tile designs, seeing the patterns of tessellation as a key to rationalising the beauty of Islamic ornament.
This painting is by Emma Biggs and Matthew Collings – it is a collaborative act where Biggs designs the painting (shape, colours and combinations) and Collings paints them. The simple geometric shapes and subtle colour combinations shimmer and create a sense of movement. Collings is also a critic who has his own theory on Beauty
These are antique board games. The circles, lines and colour are mainly there because of the rules of the game. The worn paint wearing off the wood gives them a feel of a Russian Icon or evan a later work by Frank Stella.

Frank Stella used house hold paint out of the tin with painter and decorators brushes. The bands in his paintings are determined by simple things - the width of his brush or the width of the wooden frame. His painting were about themselves and completely self contained. Like the Log Cabin quilt the image has a direct relationship to the materials used. Stella came to prominence in the 1960s and is considered one of the fathers of Minimalism - seeing his paintings as objects not signs to something else. Stella's later work broke out of the square frame and became more colourful and vibrant. Whether you look at his monochrome early work or his bold later work there is a sense of movement and pattern in his paintings. There are visual effects that happen when you look at these paintings.


Bridget Riley came to prominence in the 1960's during the Op Art movement. Riley counts Paul Klee amongst her influences and recently arranged a show at the Hayward Gallery. Her images create a dizzying optical effect and create the illusion of movement. All an image is, is pigment on a surface and these images by Riley a flat black lines on canvas. However, they seem to move, rotate and can not be look at too long. Riley used Rhythm and Repetition to create her work and knew that a simple line is transformed when repeated.

Barbara Brown 'Spiral' fabric design
Chrissie Shrimpton and Ossie Clark, 1965 by David Bailey
A modern Op Art influenced fashion shoot by Solve Sundsbo

Op Art bold use of stark black and white led to it be incorporated in 1960's popular culture. Op Arts influence can be seen in the work of fashion designers, advertising, magazine layouts and still has an influence today. Go here to find an Op Art Adobe illustrator tutorial. 












Peter Keetman was a key member of fotoform (see the section on Otto Steinert here). These images show he use of pattern - whether he is photographing pipes or creating experimental abtract images.

As of 1948, Keetman experimented with abstract rhythmic images which he produced by swinging a flashlight over a camera with an open shutter placed on a rotating record player. The images recorded two dynamic movements yet produced a very harmonious pattern.








The painting above is by Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) 'Transverse Line' 1923. 
Like Klee, Wassily Kandinsky taught at the Bauhaus and his ideas influenced modernist art. He is credited with making the first purly abstract painting.


Kandinsky used music to influence his compositions – 
‘Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, for examples, yellow is the colour of middle-C on a piano, a brassy trumpet blast; black is the colour of closure and the ends of things; and that combinations and associations of colours produce vibrational frequencies akin to chords played on a piano. Kandinsky also developed an intricate theory of geometric figures and their relationships, claiming, for example, that the circle is the most peaceful shape and represents the human soul. These theories are set forth in 'Point and Line to Plane’.


The merging of sound and vision was also being explored in avant garde films of the 1920's. Moholy-Nagy's 'Light Prop for an Electric Stage' is a development of his earlier work with photography, photograms and painting. It is a sculpture, a piece of Kinetic Art and a device he used to make an early abstract experimental films.



Film was still evolving at this time and artists who experimented with film were leading the way for title sequences, animation, music videos and computer animation. During the 1920's pioneering abstract films were being made by Hans Richter and Viking Eggeling (for example Filmstudie).
Also see Fernand Leger.


Also during the 1920's Marcel Duchamp created a series of kinetic works that he conceived as optical toys. Making apparent the deceptions that visual perceptions play on our minds fascinated Duchamp.

Beginning as a series of lithographs, The Rotoreliefs work as a series of gyrating discs that the artist dubbed an 'Anemic Cinema'. When the discs are spun on a turntable, they appear as three-dimensional objects, making visual symphonies that also parody traditional art.



Kandinsky's urge to give visual form to the ephemeral qualities of music is basic human nature. Traditionally live music was often part of a greater performance - colour, dance and light were all used with music. 


Mary Ellen Bute made a series of films called 'Seeing Sounds Films'. Her first colour film 'Synchromy No.4:Escape' (1937) tells the story in abstraction of an orange/red triangle set to the music of Bach -'Toccata in D Minor'. (see Also Norman Mclaren - Spook Sport 1940).

Ultimately avant garde art filters down into the mainstream - A Mondrian bag, A Bridget Riley dress to modern surreal adverts. This Advert for Total Oil (1958) by Andre Sarrut shows sound being merged with abstract images.


These early experiments have filtered down to popular culture and influenced the next generation.

Jeremy Deller (Turner prize winner 2004) has claimed the internet could be the next evolution of art - once we know how to use it. The internet is still in its infancy and could be to the 21st Century what Cinema was to the 20th Century. Most websites can look fairly familiar but the best employ a combination of sound, moving images and an interactive element.
You could follow the Apollo 11 mission to the moon, influence an abstract pop video, reinvent colour at the MOMA, conduct your own doo wop group, contribute to a Johnny Cash videoedit a pop song, draw with type (like John Cage)make drawings out of fonts or take a line for a walk.


John Cage was primary known as a musician – his most famous musical composition is called 4'33". It consists of the pianist going to the piano, and not hitting any keys for four minutes and 33 seconds (see also Rauschenberg’s and Robert Rymans White paintings). In the silence the audience is encouraged to listen to all the sounds that take place during silent moments.
Cage also created poetry and art using elements sutch as chance. His images often have the fluidity of a piece of music – giving visual form to sound. Cage’s ‘Mesostics’ are his chance experiments with writing creating visually striking graphic texts.
Cage worked closely with Robert Rauschenberg at the Black Mountain College.


This is Matisse's 'The Snail' in Tate Modern. The works seems simple but it is perfectly composed and has a visual rhythm. This is a collage made from pieces of paper painted different colours (this part was done by Matisse’s assistant’s). It's 1953, Matisse has cancer, he's very ill. Between him and the assistants the work somehow gets done: the sheets are torn, their edges changed, and the resulting shapes are stuck onto a white ground. He makes a natural, organic form: a spiral. But the shapes themselves are not particularly natural. As well as torn edges there are plenty of hard straight lines. There aren't any straight lines in nature. So Matisse makes you re-see nature by creating it in an unexpected way. 


This is an early Matisse 'The Dessert: Harmony in Red' (1908). Matisse's early work show a huge move away from the traditions of western art. He was a key member of the Fauves ('The Wild Beasts') who used colour and brush marks in a unseen expressive way. However, Matisse once said he wanted his work to have the same effect as a comfortable chair on a tired business man. This seems at odds with his contemporaries, for example Picasso and his delight in challenging the viewer.


'Harmony in Red' doesn't have traditional perspective and instead has flat bold areas of colour against areas of pattern. During the 19th century Japanese art was imported into Europe after trade was reopened after 300 years. Photography had taken over the role of the artist and painters started to look for new ways of making images. Western artists combined this new aesthetic with other cultures to create the Modernist Aesthetic. 




This Woodcut Print by Toyokuni III/Kunisada (1786 - 1864) shows areas and planes of pattern contrasted with flat blocks of colour. The image is closer to abstract art and the eye moves with the rhythm of the composition.




This print by Kuniyoshi (1798-1861): 'Miyamoto Musashi and the big whale' has a graphic quality that seems to predict the stylised 'Manga' art.








Untitled (Sisters, Two Great Ladies), Seydou Keita, 1958. 

This photograph is by Seydou Keita. People would go to Keita for a portrait and they would dress for the occasion. They would take their most prized possessions, as with all portraits, peolpe want to show a specific view to the world. In this portrait the subjects and their surroundings are interrelated, which creates a lively atmosphere with a sense of movement.
This is another untitled portrait by Keita from 1959 - 60. Like Matisse we see a visual clash of patterns between the sitters dress and the back drop. The black and white emphasises this juxtaposition and subtle vignetting blurs areas of pattern.
Simple net sails of a boat overlap to create a delicate pattern.


Paul Caponigro 'Frost Window No.2' 1961
A picture of frost crystals on a bedroom window makes a tapestry out of a mixture of pattern and texture. Positioning his view camera about 30cm from the glass, the photographer stopped the lens all the way down to f32 so as not to loose the dark trees in the background.
Mario Giacomelli
Mario Giacomelli
The patterns created by the grooves in the earth have been captured by Mario Giacomelli. Giacomelli was a true local, tied to his region, town, and its rhythms and traditions. He was self taught and even in his artistic expression he was influenced by his homeland. We can see this in his landscapes showing signs of man’s labour, with folds like wrinkles on a person’s hands, landscapes that speak of faces and things living in the soul. The story goes that Giacomelli would borrow his neighbors tractor to make the tracks go in another direction to create the perfect graphic, semi abstract photograph. He printed all his work in a trade mark high contrast style. For Giacomelli, photography was above all love, the image telling a poem of the heart which continues to surprise and move us (he originally trained as a poet and a painter).


          Combinations and Alliances - Still Life        
Willem Kalf - 'Still life with drinking horn' about 1653
Pieter Claesz - 'Still life with Turkey Pie' 1627
The combination of elements in still-life paintings can have profound implications for the paintings meaning. Dutch 17th century still-life pictures frequently contained messages about the fragility of life and the onset of corruption. These combine with a sense of opulence, splendours and successes of international trading and maritime prowess. Such features can be seen in the detailed works of Willem Kalf and Pieter Claesz.

Sam Taylor Wood - 'A Little Death' 2002
Jan Lievens (Dutch, 1607–1674), 'Still Life with Books', ca. 1627–1628.
Sam Taylor Wood 'Still Life' 2001
Sam Taylor Wood is an artist, photographer and film maker. Her 2001 Film/animation ‘Still Life’ has the visual look of a 17th Century Dutch still life. Sequences of still photographs are taken over a period of time to show the fruit slowly decaying. This is shown as a piece of video art in a gallery space - it is almost displayed like a painting on the wall. It is similar to time lapse photography used to capture the growth of a plant - who move at a completely different pace to ourselves.
Valerie Belin - Palettes
One of the great scandals of the modern age is "built in obsolescence". A product is no longer designed to be mended or maintained; the consumer is forced to throw it away and buy a new one - while manufacturers gleefully count their profits. The computer industry has led the way in this, and it is computers that are the subject of French photographer Valerie Belin's 'Palettes'. They are a series of 6ft tall black and white prints that feature mournful stacks of abandoned hardware that Berlin photographed in a dump on the outskirts of Paris.
The columns are not her own arrangements; Belin shot the stacks of monitors, oscilloscopes and hard drives just as she found them, arranged on fork lift palettes. Blown up to life size and deprived of context by the black velvet background against which she shot them, the stacks look like weird ziggurats for the digital era.
"I use a large photographic plate to produce a very high definition image," she says." It means you get a strong sense of surface of the objects - the texture. Each one is a 'vanitas', based on the 17th century still life's that were allegories for the transience of life. Computers are objects that are part of everyone's lives, and this is the moment of their demise. Each tower is like a jigsaw, made by hand. And this is the moment when man triumphs over this machinery - when man destroys the robot!"
(words by Tom Horan).
Thomas Richard Williams 'The sands of Time' 1850-52
Adolphe Braun - 'A Hunting Scene' 1867

Since the 17th century, along with landscape and portraiture, still-life has been one of the great traditional art forms. Objects could be arranged to suggest new meanings or they could simply be found and depicted as they are. Within the simple traditions of the Still-Life artists and photographers were free to experiment and explore - pushing our progress into modernism. Painters used still-life to push the boundaries of seeing (Cezanne and Picasso), modern artists explored the use of everyday objects (from Marcel Duchamp to Carl Andre) and Photographers, in particular, became fascinated with simple scenes of the every day world. A photograph, by its very nature, captures a section of ephemeral transience life and makes it permanent. Still life is central to photography's story.
One Summers day in 1826 Nicephore (Joseph) Niepce created the image above. This Grainy image is thought to be the first permanent photograph and it had an exposure of over eight hours. It is too simple to say Niepce invented photography because the photographic process has undergone so many significant modifications since then (most famously Fox Talbot and Daguerre1839).

The invention of a device that could allow anybody to record the world in perfect detail would revolutionise how we see ourselves, how we communicate and how we make art. Without Photography Modern art, film and the Internet would not exist – or at least not as we know them.
Another one of Niepce’s earliest images was of a table – a traditional still life. It is a time honoured theme in Art that would still be revisited by future artists. During the 18th century Chardin produced beautiful painted still lives of simple Kitchen Utensils. There is great poetry in Chardin’s ability to bring such importance to such humble things.

Niepce was simply continuing a long tradition – what else would you do with a camera other than make images in the tradition of Painting? These two early photographs show photography's two directions - as a force for modernism and connected to the history of painting.

Rinko Kawauchi is a contemporary Japanese photographer who creates beautiful and elegant images that find the beauty in the everyday. Kawauchi uses a Minimum Depth of Field (for example f/2 – a large hole) which results in only a fraction of the image being in focus – these images have a shallow depth.

Kawauchi explores the poetry of the common place – a dead wasp on a window sill, a brief glance of the eye and a piece of chicken hanging over a table. These are none events – the kind of thing we may notice briefly and possibly dismiss or contemplate in a day dream.
The everyday has been a fascination for many artists – the things they immediately experience as part of their existence. Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin
Peter Fraser
William Henry Fox Talbot - 'The Open Door' 
Roger Fenton - 'Still Life with Fruit and Decanter' 1860
Early photographic pioneers used still life partly because of the tradition of painting (this is the same reason a photograph is square or rectangular and not round - because of canvas frames and the golden rectangle). The long exposures needed with early processes lent themselves to static still life objects. However, soon painting and photography would develop through experimentation with still life.

Paul Cezanne 'Still life with plaster cupid' 1895
Paul Cezanne used landscapes and still life painting to explore how we see. At first glance Cezanne abandoned traditional perspective and the table appears to buckle, as if viewed from shifting angles. This is because he painted the same scene from several viewpoints and not one - within one image.

Pablo Picasso 'Guitar' 1913
Inspired by non western art and Cezanne's experiments Pablo Picasso has abstracted the image as if it has been seen from multiple viewpoints. At first glance it is abstract but is actually a still life of a guitar - it is just that the guitar itself seems fractured. Segments of the 'Guitar' are cut from a variety of materials - a piece of old wall paper, a scrap of cardboard and a circle cut out of newspaper. This is an example of Picasso's and George Braque's Synthetic Cubism and shows a break away from traditional mediums in western art. How did Picasso get to this stage?
David Hockney's first love and main medium is drawing and painting, not photography. He is fascinated in how we make images and in the history of image making. To understand how Hockney, a painter, is as famous for his joiners we need to look at his influences.

Certain joiners hold clues to his thinking. In this joiner by Hockney he has photographed the desk from multiple viewpoints warping time and space. On the desk is a book and the book is open on a page that shows the above collage by Pablo Picasso. Hockney has looked at Cezanne and Picasso and responded by creating a photo-montage that includes multiple viewpoints. 

All three of these breakthroughs use the tradition of the still life to push boundaries.

Man Ray 'Scissors and cut paper' 1927
This is a Rayogram by the 20th century artist Man Ray. It is actually a photogram but in a bold act of self promotion - Man Ray called his images Rayograms. It is created by moving object around light sensitive paper. The objects are humble - scissors, paper and possibly a stand of some sort. Man Ray has taken ordinary things and made them extraordinary. This is a photogram, a photo-montage but it is also a type of Still Life - but a modern one.

These images were produced in the 1920's - eighty years after Fox Talbot. In many ways these were still early days for photography and photographers were just starting to create images that were their own thing - not just mimicking painting.
Paul Strand 'Ackley Camera'
Paul Strand 'Black Bottle' ca.1919
Early photographers (for example Roger Fenton and Fox Talbot) took their inspiration from the history of painting. This meant that the compositions and layout followed conventional rules. A camera is a different tool to a paint brush and naturally allows the photographer to experiment with composition. The modernist photographer Paul Strand helped create the language of photography and he helped establish photography as an art form in itself. Strand often used the Still Life but his compositions were stark, geometric and modern. He would zoom into a subject, unlike a painter, and create compositions built up of strong diagonal lines, circles, triangles and contrast. Again we see the conventional form of Still Life used, altered and twisted to explore and develop visual ideas - and in the process creating the language of photography (different to the language of painting).
Andre Kertesz 'The Fork' 1928
In this image Andre Kertesz turns the simple act of a fork leaning against a plate into a beatiful and simple early modernist photograph. Other photographers, who worked in a similar way to Strand and Kertesz, include Josef Sudek, Paul Outerbridge, Hans Bellmer and Edward Weston.
Edward Weston 'Pepper' 1930
Edward Weston 'Nude' 1936
Both of the images above are by Edward Weston. Whether Weston was photographing a natural form, a human figure, a car engine or a toilet (he create a series of these) he considered curves, light and form. Although he has not combined the images, by photographing them in the same way, he encourages us to compare them.


The influence of these early pioneers encouraged photographer to reinvent small aspects of the everyday to create a new kind of Still Life image that was photographic. Peter Keetman's (a key member of fotoform here) images show his use of pattern - whether he is photographing pipes or creating experimental abstract images.
Walker Evans 'Alabama Farm Interior (Fields Family Cabin) 1936
Strand, Weston and Kertesz were pioneers and their images were inventive, creative and, crucially, obviously artistic. The camera is an objective instrument that is capable of showing the world as it is - coldly with no sentiment. Walker Evans recognised this quality of the camera and he images just seem to document what lay before it. 

Evans was a hugely influential 20th century photographer. He came to prominence during the 1930's while working for the FSA (Farm Security Administration) in America. His black and white images often focused on aspect of life other photographers might ignore - the interior of a barbershop, an old sign, cutlery jammed in lock etc. His images had an objective look - showing the everyday as it was, but ultimately, showing it to be other than itself.


The image above was taken during the great depression for the FSA (Farm Security Administration) to show America how many of the poorest lived. Evans documented every aspect of life - even a simple wall in a field family's cabin and their simple storage system for their cutlery.

As a young man Evan's wanted to be a writer and his images have the quality of a descriptive passage from a piece of literature -

"the sloping, paper-littered bank" 
Dylan Thomas 'Reminiscences of Childhood'

"Eight mahogany chairs were lined up against the white painted wainscoting, and under the barometer stood an old piano loaded with a pyramid of boxes and cartons" 
Gustave Flaubert 'A Simple Heart'

'I saw in Louisiana a live-oak growing, all alone stood it and the moss hung down from the branches'
Walt Whitman 'I saw in Louisiana a live-oak growing'


It is worth bearing the connection in mind when viewing any Still Life photographer - how would the same scene be described in literature? Evans work in particular had this quality - as if he was a frustrated writer with only a camera to record the small unnoticed details of life.



Walker Evans was fascinated by the everyday. Things that were taken for granted in their day become strange portholes to another time. Evans had an eye for what would be interesting in the future. There is so much detail captured in this image - a shop that has probably long since been demolished and and chairs that are no longer sat in. 
'Hale County, Alabama' 1936
A documentary within a documentary, this picture suggests the way an Alabama tenant family lived, and, in the two snapshots tacked to the wall, bears witness to the family's informal documentation of its own experiences. The photograph was taken by Walker Evans in 1936, while he was employed by the Farm Security Administration; it was the powerful and moving record of rural poverty made by him and his FSA colleagues that popularised the term documentary photography.
In this photograph by Evans he has photographed a set of Photographs. This is something he returned to again and again - the layers build up and you are looking at an image of an image. It is a shop window display in a penny photo arcade - people would go in to have a portrait taken as a memory. We photograph ourselves to prove we existed - we were here. These original images are not art in themselves but Evans photographs them and draws our attention to them. The act of using the work of others is know as Appropriating.

Walker Evans 'Torn Movie Poster' 1931
Here is a photograph of a torn movie poster by Walker Evans. Evans would often appropriate the work of others and take a photograph of a photograph. Layers of life and culture build up only to be replaced by the latest trend. These images are ephemeral - destined to be lost and Evans has captured it forever. These images have the look of Decollage.
Walker Evans 'Mail Box, Alabama' 1973 (from metmusuem archive)
We can still see this quality in his later work. He had spent his life transforming the world onto Black and White until, when given a Polaroid SX70 and film by Polaroid, spent his final years using seeing in (Polaroids warped) colour. His subject matter of sidewalks, signs and street furniture suddenly exploded with colour. We live in an age when people take colour photographs purely because technology allows it - not because we see and appreciate colour.
In this image above Evans has photographed a found collage. Did the occupant use card board on the wall as cheap insulation or decoration. Maybe there is element of both. Evans noticed this aesthetic quality. It is reminiscent of the the Collage and Photomontage work of Robert Rauschenberg.


Robert Rauschenberg
In these images you can see the painter Robert Rauschenberg is finding strange juxtapositions, unusual compositions, found collages and using photography as tool for his paintings. They almost have an anti-atheistic and a sense of a dystopia or broken society. Rauschenberg comments that for him photography is “a kind of archaeology in time only, forcing one to see whatever the light of the darkness touches”.

The influence of Evans is everywhere in modern photography - as is the photographic evolution of the Still Life.





Paul Caponigro 'Frost Window No.2' 1961
Simple net sails of a boat overlap to create a delicate pattern. A picture of frost crystals on a bedroom window makes a tapestry out of a mixture of pattern and texture. Positioning his view camera about 30cm from the glass, the photographer stopped the lens all the way down to f32 so as not to loose the dark trees in the background. These are Still Lifes but they are far from the Still Life traditions in painting.

We now take these kind of images for granted and a lot of images taken today fall into the category of Still Life. When we start to look at photography after Strand, Weston and Evans we can see their influence and the health of Still Life.


“Following Walker Evans’s example, a postwar generation focused on what everybody in America during the 1950s, 60s and 70s actually saw in front of their faces or through their windshields or across their backyard fences, but didn’t bother to register or preferred not to – much less to think was worth photographing. These were run of the mill subjects, mostly, shot with deadpan acumen.. seemingly nowhere places, shown to be somewhere after all. In the populist spirit of Walt Whitman, but with a heavy dose of dry-eyed scepticism, they found a fresh kind of poetics in the American everyday… [Wessel] had a knack for seeing a compositional order where it didn’t obviously present itself – making pictures like visual haikus.” 
- Michael Kimmelman
Martin Parr Individual photographs from 'Common Sense' 1995 - 1999
Martin Parr 'Common Sense' Series (displayed on a gallery wall) 1995-1999

Martin Parr photographs as if he is collecting and he focuses of the small details of life. In his 1995-99 Series 'Common Sense' he focused on minor trashy elements of everyday life - lipstick marks on a cup, finger marks on buttons or a cup of tea on a table cloth. He uses a ring flash to create bold, saturated colours giving his work the look of the hyper real. Does Parr have a genuine affection for his subject matter or is he poking fun? Does he reveal our own prejudices by presenting us images that create a certain reaction? Arguably he is somewhere in the middle - or neither - he just records and collects.



Stephen Gill is a contemporary British photographer who often works in a series. He will often focus on subject you would normally pay no attention to - A lost stranger looking at a map, painted over signs, the backs of bill boards or people sat on trains. His work shares the straight forward irony of martin Parr, the cold methodical approach of The Bechers and the fascination with the everyday of Walker Evans.

His series 'A Series of Dissappointments'  looks at the proliferation of betting shops in the Borough of Hackney. The discarded slips 'were shaped by loss or defeat, then cast aside. these new forms perhaps now possess a state of mind, shaped by nervous tension and grief. After these images were made, little autopsies were performed on the papers to reveal the failed bets held within.'




In our modern consumer world we rarely 'Make do and mend' - we just use things and discard them. A chair is designed for a person to sit on - it isn't whole when not in use. The chair has legs like us - when it is abandoned it looks like a injured creature that has been abandoned. A carpet slumps in a corner of an alley like a frail old man. These discarded objects were photographed on the streets of Southwark in south east London by Guy Batey. If you walked past them they could be easily missed and ignored. However, when gathered together and presented (with a perfect title) they take on a life of they own. The photographs has a simple, quite quality and, as the title suggests, a melancholy feel.



Cathode ray tube
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun (a source of electrons) and a fluorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam onto the fluorescent screen to create the images. The image may represent electrical waveforms(oscilloscope), pictures (televisioncomputer monitor), radar targets and others. CRTs have also been used as memory devices, in which case the visible light emitted from the fluoresecent material (if any) is not intended to have significant meaning to a visual observer (though the visible pattern on the tube face may cryptically represent the stored data).
The CRT uses an evacuated glass envelope which is large, deep (i.e. long from front screen face to rear end), fairly heavy, and relatively fragile. As a matter of safety, the face is typically made of thick lead glass so as to be highly shatter-resistant and to block most X-ray emissions, particularly if the CRT is used in a consumer product.



          Tarif Sertifikasi Perangkat Telekomunikasi Postel        
Bagi anda yang mau taat kepada peraturan pemerintah khususnya dalam hal sertifikasi perangkat telekomunikasi, tentunya anda akan mencari tahu berapa biaya yang harus atau wajib dikeluarkan ke negara untuk menyertifikasi perangkat telekomunikasi milik anda. Di Blog kanghari kali ini akan membahas tentang biaya sertifikasi dan permohonan pengujian alat/perangkat telekomunikasi. Sesuai peraturan pemerintah republik Indonesia No.07/2009 tentang jenis tarif atas jenis penerimaan negara bukan pajak yang berlaku pada departemen komunikasi dan informatika adalah sebagai berikut:

Biaya Sertifikat Alat/Perangkat Telekomunikasi
  1. Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) Kabel Per Sertifikat/Tipe : Rp 2.250.000,-
  2. Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) Nirkabel Per Dertifikat/Tipe : Rp : 4.500.000,-
  3. Non-CPE Transmisi Per Sertifikat/Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  4. Non-CPE Penyiaran Per Sertifikat/Tipe : Rp 6.750.000,-
  5. Non-CPE Sentral Per Sertifikat/Tipe : Rp 9.000.000,-
Jasa Pengujian Alat/Perangkat Telekomunikasi
  • Biaya Uji Kategori I
  1. Pencatat Data Pembicaraan Telepon Per Tipe : Rp 3.500.000,-
  2. Faksimili Per Tipe : Rp 4.000.000,-
  3. Faksimili dengan fasilitas Bluetooth Per Tipe : Rp 5.000.000,-
  4. Faksimili dengan fasilitas Cordless Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  5. Faksimili dengan fasilitas Cordless dan Bluetooth Per Tipe : Rp 8.000.000,-
  6. Pesawat Telpon Analog (Pespon) Per Tipe : Rp 3.500.000,-
  7. Pesawat Telpon/Key Telphone System (KTS) s.d 20 port Per Tipe : Rp 4.500.000
  8. Pesawat Telpon Umum Multi Koin Per Tipe : Rp 4.000.000,-
  9. Komunikasi Data Per Tipe : Rp 3.000.000
  10. Modem Per Tipe : Rp 4.500.000,-
  11. Pesawat Cordless Telephone/Telepon Tanpa Kabel Publik (TTKP) Per Tipe : Rp 4.000.000,-
  12. Pesawat Telpon Selular 1 Band Per Tipe : Rp 4.500.000,-
  13. Pesawat Telpon Selular 2 Band Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  14. Pesawat Telpon Selular 3 Band Per Tipe : Rp 7.500.000,-
  15. Pesawat Telpon Selular 4 Band Per Tipe : Rp 9.000.000,-
  16. Pager Per Tipe : Rp 3.500.000,-
  17. Pesawat Daya Rendah (Kurang dari atau sama dengan 100 mW) Per Tipe : Rp 2.000.000,-
  18. Bluetooth Per Tipe : Rp 2.000.000,-
  19. Radio Trunking Per Tipe : Rp 4.000.000,-
  20. Terminal Radio Komunikasi Handheld Per Tipe : Rp 4.000.000,-
  21. Terminal Radio Komunikasi Portable Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  22. Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) Indoor Per Tipe : Rp 4.000.000,-
  23. Wireless Local Area Network (LAN) Outdoor Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  24. Perangkat Komunikasi Radio Antar Penduduk (KRAP) Per Tipe : Rp 4.000.000,-
  25. Radi Amatir Per Tipe : Rp 4.000.000,-
  26. Very Small Apperturne Terminal (VSAT) Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000
  27. Interace Radio Access Per Tipe : Rp 4.000.000,-
  28. Booster Per Tipe : Rp 2.000.000,-
  29. Rectifier Per Tipe : Rp 7.000.000,-
  30. Terminal Satelit (Satellite Terminal) Per Tipe : Rp 4.500.000,-
  31. Penerima Satelit (Satellite Receiver) Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  32. Repeater Per Tipe : Rp 8.000.000,-
  33. IP Phone Per Tipe : Rp 4.500.000,-
  34. Media Gateway Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  35. Router Per tipe : Rp 4.500.000,-
  36. Router + WLAN Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  37. PABX Analog (PSTN Base) Per Tipe : Rp 5.000.000,-
  38. PABX Digital (IP Base) Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  39. Antena Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  40. Radio Maritim Per Tipe : Rp 4.000.000,-
  41. Terminal EDC Integrasi Tunggal Per Tipe : Rp 3.000.000,-
  42. Terminal EDC Integrasi Ganda Per Tipe : Rp 5.000.000,-
  • Biaya Uji Kategori II
  1. Digital Loop Carrier Per Tipe : Rp 9.500.000,-
  2. Pemancar Radio Siaran/Repeater Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  3. Pemancar Televisi/Repeater Per tipe : Rp 8.000.000,-
  4. Pengganda Saluran Per Tipe : Rp 6.000.000,-
  5. Radio Microwave Per Tipe : Rp 7.000.000,-
  6. Multiplexer Per Tipe : Rp 5.000.000,-
  7. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Per tipe : Rp 8.000.000,-
  8. Radio Base Station (RBS) Per Tipe : Rp 8.000.000,-
  9. Base Station Controller (BSC) Per Tipe : Rp 10.000.000,-
  10. Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) Per Tipe : Rp 10.000.000,-
  11. Radar/Radio Lokasi Per Tipe : Rp 8.000.000,-
Pengujian Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
  1. Pengujian Conducted Electromagnetic Interfrence (EMI) Per Tipe : Rp 2.500.000,-
  2. Pengujian Radiated Electromagnetic Interfrence (EMI) Per Tipe : Rp 2. 5000.000,-
  3. Pengujian Conducted Electromagnetic Susceptibility (EMS) Per Tipe : Rp 2.500.000,-
  4. Pengujian Radiated Electromagnetic Susceptibility (EMS) Per Tipe : Rp 2.500.000,-
Kalibrasi
  1. Power Meter Per Unit : Rp 1.250.000,-
  2. Power Senor Per Unit : Rp 1.250.000,-
  3. Frequency Counter
  4. Frequency Counter 2 - 10 GHZ Per Unit : Rp 1.000.000,-
  5. Frequency Counter > 10 GHZ Per Unit : Rp 1.500.000,-
  6. Modulation Analyzer Per Unit : Rp 2.500.000,-
  7. Multimeter Analog Per Unit : Rp 250.000,-
  8. Multimeter Digital 4 Digit Per Unit : Rp 250.000,-
  9. Spectrum Analyzer Per Unit : Rp 2.500.000,-
  10. Network Analyzer Per Unit : Rp 2.500.000,-
  11. EMC Analyzer Per Unit : Rp 3.000.000,-
  12. Oscilloscope Per Unit : Rp 1.000.000,-
Jasa Penyewaan Alat
  1. Spectrum Analyzer
  2. Spectrum Analyzer 6 - 10 Ghz Per Hari : Rp 1.500.000,-
  3. Spectrum Analyzer > 10 Ghz Per Hari : Rp 2.000.000,-
  4. Power Meter Per Hari : Rp 1.000.000,-
  5. Network Analyzer Per Hari : Rp 2.000.000,-
  6. Frequency Counter Per Hari : Rp 1.000.000,-
  7. Modulation Analyzer Per Hari : Rp 1.000.000,-
  8. EMC test set Per Hari : Rp 10.000.000,-
  9. Shielded Room Per Hari : Rp 3.000.000,-
  10. Humidity Test (Chamber) per Hari : Rp 1.000.000,-
  11. Signal Generator Per Hari : Rp 1.000.000,-
Mengenai jasa penyewaan alat diatas, untuk lebih jelasnya anda tanya langsung saja hubungi Balai Besar Pengujian Perangkat Telekomunikasi yang beralamat di Jl. Bintara I Raya No. 17A, Bekasi Barat 17134-Jawa Barat Telp: 021-86614233, 863174 Fax : 021-86611068. Demikian informasi yang dapat saya sampaikan, semoga berguna dan dapat menambah pengetahuan anda.

          Scopey II – The Great Combination of dsPIC Oscilloscope and Spectrum Analyzer        
Do you have a dsPIC oscilloscope and Spectrum analyzer in your lab, but you still think that you didn’t fully used it for a great purpose? Well, then it’s time to use some of your creativity and effort to combine these two stuffs together and transform it into a magnificent Scopey II! Before it, do you know the main function of the Spectrum analyzer? Technically, it is a device used to examine the spectral composition of some electrical, acoustic or optical waveform. Sometimes, it can be also measured the power spectrum as well! Basically, the spectrum analyzer can be divided into two main types and there is analog and digital spectrum analyzer. This is how the Scopey II works… Everything is comes in through the BNC jack on the front … Continue reading
          Hewlett Packard Support        
Hewlett Packard Support
Since its inception in the year 1947 HP has covered a long distance. Throughout its journey in this highly competitive sector, it has focused itself in developing models which are more and more user-friendly.
It debuted as a manufacturer of electronic test gadgets like signal generators, voltmeters, oscilloscopes, frequency counters and others.
From 1966 onwards, it started focusing on the computer manufacturing. The very first model was a notebook series HP laptop 2100/HP 1000.
But now it has become a global leader in computer manufacturing industry. It has dominated every segment, whether it is for home user or a business user. In addition to computer, it has also made entry in manufacturing of peripheral devices like scanners and printers. It has created such a reputation and trust in the market that every user before buying, does make a search on the latest available model from HP.
Let’s have a glance at a most recent HP model, HP Pavilion p6300Z series. This model was introduced with the launch of Windows 7. User will be getting its Home Premium version absolutely free. This machine will be empowered with AMD Sempron(TM) LE1300 processor [2.3GHz, 512KB L2, up to 1600MT/s bus], 4 GB DDR2-800MHz SDRAM [2 DIMMs] memory, 750GB 7200 rpm SATA 3 GB/s hard drive and 1GB NVIDIA GeForce GT 220 [DVI, HDMI, VGA] graphic card. Hence, you will be getting incredible performance from your HP computer. In addition, Internet Explorer 8 will give you a better Internet experience.
Understanding the mind setup of customer with the launch of Windows 7, it has become an active partner for offering upgrade to eligible buyer.
To keep a deep penetration into the market it has also collaborated with major tech support provider so as to address any issue on the priority level.
          Pulse testing 980-nm pump laser diodes in optical fiber amplifiers        
Optical-fiber amplifiers help solve the bandwidth and attenuation problems of long-haul fiber links. Current research on erbium-doped fiber amplifiers which were first unveiled in 1987 promises improved reliability at lower cost, paving the way for economical broadband integrated services needed for the growing demand for communications services such as video-on-demand, home banking, teleconferencing, etc.

An essential accessory of the fiber amplifier is a pump source. This provides the energy for the amplifier itself which consists of several meters of glass-fiber whose core is doped with erbium. The erbium atoms are pumped through their absorption bands at 980 or 1480 nm,imparting energy to the incoming optical signal.

At the European Conference on Optical Communications, it was suggested there could be a trend away from the more established 1480 nm semiconductor laser pumps in favor of 980 nm ones because of higher efficiency and lower noise. Some types are also less sensitive to temperature,
eliminating the need for costly external cooling and show a reliability that could be as good or better than the 1480 nm lasers.

To gain better understanding of laser-diode pumps, Norwegian Telecom's Research Institute at Kjeller near Oslo fabricates and tests semiconductor lasers. Measurements are made under pulsed
conditions so that the lasers can be tested unmounted and without any heatsinking.

A low duty cycle assures negligible warming so that the device is neither damaged nor do its properties change. This way, individual diodes can be evaluated while they are still on the wafer.


Figure 1: Block diagram of a fiber amplifier
Although the diodes are driven by a dc in the target application, pulsed measurements are an accepted standard method of characterization. The measurements are performed using a pulse source, an oscilloscope to monitor the input current, and an optical power meter (see Figure 2).

The instruments are computer-contolled via GPIB. As also indicated in Figure 3, separate probes are used for supplying current and monitoring voltage of a particular laser on the bar.


Figure 2: Test setup
Figures 4 and 5 show the results of two measurements performed on the same laser diode, an uncoated 980 nm ridge waveguide laser with 5 um ridge width and 600 um cavity length. The first plot in Figure 4 shows the average optical power output for a range of peak pulse currents from about 20 to 90 mA in 1 mA steps. The second plot shows the voltage across the diode for each value of current. An attenuator is necessary for the small pulse amplitudes needed by diodes with very low threshold currents. Figure 5 shows the characteristics for higher currents. The laser diode is operated at currents up to 800 mA, an extremely high value for a narrow stripe laser, but a typical condition for a broadarea laser. In this case, the current is increased in 5 mA steps. The pulse generator allows the current to be programmed directly in terms of amps or mA.


Figure 3: Probe details

Figure 4: Laser diode I/P and I/V characteristics I< 90 mA
a) I/P characteristic (UP - LEFT)
b) I/V characteristic (UP - RIGTH)
Figure 5: Laser diode I/P and I/V characteristics I< 800 mA
a) I/P characteristic (DOWN . LEFT)
b) I/V characteristic (DOWN - ROGTH)

The above results are typical of measurements done regularly, in which 1 us pulses at a rate of 1 kHz
are often used. The form of the current pulse (Figure 6) through the diode - obtained by matching
the 50 ohm source resistance of the pulse generator to a load consisting of a 47 ohm resistor in series with the diode's forward resistance of about 3 ohm - is good enough for this application although it could probably be further improved by making the probe needles and the leads to the 47 ohm resistor shorter.

Another possibility would be to use the pulse generator's offset capability so that a small forward current exists between pulses. However, the offset current is, in contrast to the pulse current, created by a voltage source. This makes it difficult to control the exact base current through the diode.

Another reason for not using a dc bias is that at least 10 mA would be needed to obtain a resistance less than 10 ohm, and this would heat the diode.

In conclusion, the pulse technique for unmounted diodes gives consistent results with dc measurements made on heatsinked devices. This has the advantage that measurements do not have to be performed on expensive finished products. The Agilent 8114A pulse generator's clean current pulse through the laser diode is ne major contribution to this result. Another is the direct, accurate, programmability of the current.


Figure 6: Diode current



Wilmer J. Sánchez
V-19358601
Seccion 1
Fuente: http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5963-6988E.pdf

          Magix releases Sound Forge Audio Studio 12        
Magix releases Sound Forge Audio Studio 12

Magix has revealed the latest update to its Sound Forge Audio Studio software.

Version 12 lets users digitise, repair, and restore LP records and tapes, create podcasts, master audio, burn CDs, and render to a range of popular audio formats for streaming on the web or playback on portable media players.

The updated tool is built on a 64-bit platform to supply more editing power, more processing power, and a more powerful workflow, as well as featuring an updated and redesigned recording window. The upgrade follows Magix' recent announcement that it would commit to upgrading its entire Sound Forge family of products over the course of 2017.

Slice Edit lets users tweak edits even after the cut. Soft Cut creates automatic, user-adjustable crossfades with each edit to ensure smooth transitions between cuts with no pops or clicks, while Spectral cleaning performs frequency-based noise removal by visually identifying frequencies of an offending noise.

The visualisation window presents several ways to analyse and track audio output including peak meters, phase oscilloscope, correlation meter, direction meter, spectroscope, spectrogram, bit meter, oscilloscope, and tuner. Additionally, Sound Forge Audio Studio 12 includes iZotope’s Ozone Elements 7 mastering plugin with a set of 75 presets, along with macro controls to fine tune the EQ and compression.

Repair and restoration tools include DeClicker/DeCrackler to automatically detect and remove clicks and crackle from vinyl recordings or other noisy environments. DeClipper restores and recovers analogue or digital material with clipping artifacts. DeEsser removes sibilance with presets for male and female vocals. DeHisser cleans up background hiss with presets for hiss behind vocals, cassette tape hiss, analogue tape hiss, and more. DeNoiser reduces unwanted steady-state noise like that created by air-conditioning, equipment hum, and amplifier hiss.

Sound Forge Audio Studio 12 is now available online and in stores for $59.99, while current users can upgrade from earlier versions for $29.99.

http://www.magix.com/


          Comment on Best Oscilloscope by fanyit        
Good review Thank you
          Bedini `SSG´ Circuit        
Animation of the Bedini `SSG´ Circuit

The Bedini “Simple School Girl´s” circuit is so named because it was constructed by Shawnee Baughman of Idaho in 2000 and won 1st prize in her school science fair.

The history of this motor design goes back much further, probably to 1974, when it was patented by Roger Andrews of Salem, Oregon as a novelty electric motor. (Ref. : Patent 3,783,550)

This is a relevant extract from his patent :

   50


55


60


65
The moving magnetic lines of force provided by the spinning magnet top cuts the turns of the coil and thus induces a current in the coil. As is well known, the flow of current through the coil is reversed when the turns are cut by the lines of force associated with the opposite poles of the magnet. Thus, in one direction of current flow through the base-emitter of the transistor switch, the transistor is turned on momentarily to connect the battery 18 across the coil 16. A pulse of battery current thus is applied momentarily through the coil, whereupon the latter produces a magnetic field which is imposed upon the spinning magnet top in such manner as to accelerate the spin of the top.

The Bedini SSG motor, to all intents and purposes, is identical to that patented by Roger Andrews. It is based on what is commonly known as a `blocking oscillator´.

Blocking oscillators are often used as voltage converters / simple switch-mode power supplies; for example fluorescent light inverters. For many, it will be recognized as the circuit for a `Joule Thief´.

Many people have made `strange´ observations about the behaviour of the Bedini SSG Motor :

“The weird thing is that the amount of current required to drive the rotor goes DOWN when you bring the generator in to play or add a load.”

“Even weirder is that the rotor doesn’t appear to be strictly necessary for the battery charging side of things. If the coil and associated electronics are used on their own, or with the application of a magnet on the top and bottom of the coil, induces self resonance and the charging process still takes place.”


The Bedini SSG Motor is a mechanically triggered blocking oscillator. By careful coil design or the addition of a potentiometer, it is arranged that the motor is close to self-oscillation. As the transistor starts to conduct, current begins to flow in the inductor’s power coil which induces an increase in voltage in the trigger coil. So the transistor is driven harder into saturation by this feedback loop. In the absence of this positive feedback, the trigger coil would not have the sensitivity needed to react to the change in magnetic flux as the rotor turns.

With the SSG, this sensitivity is adjusted by the potentiometer. At one extreme, there is insufficient transistor base drive and the motor will not run. At the other extreme, the circuit will self-oscillate - marked by a step in power consumption. The neon bulb will illuminate and `battery charging´ is possible. (For those without the luxury of an oscilloscope, a domestic radio, tuned to 200KHz or thereabouts, can provide an audible clue as to what is happening.)

Many SSG enthusiasts refer to this point just before self-oscillation as the `sweet-spot´.

When a load is applied, this balance is altered - the response of the power coil changes and this is reflected in the amplitude / shape of the trigger pulse drive to the transistor - the power consumption will decrease.

Voltages produced by a blocking oscillator can be enormous and many hundred volts are readily achievable.

So what happens to the `charge battery´ when it receives a high voltage pulse ? The answer is that the battery is desulphated. Accumulations of lead sulphate are stripped from the battery plates, allowing the battery to perform better. This is the crux of the Bedini Motor myth - it can desulphate a lead acid battery making it work more effectively - it is NOT a true battery charger !



So if you really need a battery desulphator then here is a simple example - it has no moving parts and is probably 100% more effective ! This example is typical, deriving the power from the very battery that it is rejuvenating !

It costs very little to make and there are many kits and products available that are tried and tested over many, many years - it is not new technology - it is as old as the lead acid battery itself - it is not `Energy From The Vacuum´, it is simple text book chemistry - lead sulphate (PbSO4) !


The really wierd and strange discovery is that Bedini and Lindemann produce and sell desulphators ... and despite all of the claims that magnetic motors are the panacea for the world´s energy crisis there is not a magnet or moving part in their design !

Energenx Renaissance Charge Tesla Chargers

The above is `The Classic´ RC-2A12 desulphator / charger - `Compact, Affordable Radiant Power for 12V Batteries´ at only $260.00 ! (That´s a lot of batteries to recover !)

Whilst over on , desulphators are available for less than $30.00 but they don´t have that magic ingredient - `Radiant Power´ !



Later entries will explore some design considerations to improve system performance and efficiency. Aspects relating to battery charging / reconditioning will not be investigated. These motors are really fun, so let´s make them run faster and longer using less power !
          Micro Precision Test Equipment        
Micro Precision Test Equipment offers used and refurbished test equipment and calibration. Multimeters, Power Supplies, Oscilloscopes, and amplifiers from different manufacturer. Call 1-530-268-1860 for assistance
          Heartland Film Festival Winner “Night School” Returns to Indy June 15-17, Debuts Trailer        

The 2016 Heartland Film Festival Grand Prize/Audience Choice for Documentary Feature winner “Night School” has been picked up by Oscilloscope Laboratories and will return to Indianapolis for three nights of screenings at the IMAX Theatre [...]

The post Heartland Film Festival Winner “Night School” Returns to Indy June 15-17, Debuts Trailer appeared first on Heartland Film.


          Oscilloscopes Enable Accurate Microvolt Biomedical Measurements        
none
          Arduino and RS485 (ENGLISH VERSION)        
.

NEWS => Are you interested in CAN Bus with Arduino?  Visit http://secuduino.blogspot.com/ 


RS485 is a standard serial protocol, with bus topology where you can connect several devices in a very cheap way. Here will be explained how to create a microcontrollers network just with 2 wires.


It is based in a differential couple of wires with which we can get a half-duplex comunication channel. The driver has a configurable input that provides us the possibility to set our transceiver as sender or receiver.

What do we need apart of our Arduino?
  • MAX485
  • SN75176 (cheaper)

What will be it used for? It is a voltage level converter in order to use our UART as RS485 interface.




Ok, now we are ready to start. RS485 resides in the physical layer based on the OSI Model, so it just tell us about voltages, physic parameters,....

Recommended links:

http://www.i-micro.com/pdf/articulos/rs-485.pdfdf
http://www.maxim-ic.com/appnotes.cfm?appnote_number=763&CMP=WP-1
http://www.neoteo.com/rs485-domotica-al-alcance-de-tu-mano-15810.neo-alcance-de-tu-mano-15810.neo
RS485 Oscilloscope Screenshots
http://www.sbc-support.ch/faq/files/files.get.php?ZSESSIONID=n38bphov4ls4cdsvtbd8tl6jb4&fi_index=100179

Then, we need an structural way to send our information. We will use as frames a configuration already created by Fuji in their industrial variators.

Look at: http://www.cdautomation.com/download/ENG_L_M_FUJI_RS485_COMM_for_FRENIC-Mini.PDFL_M_FUJI_RS485_COMM_for_FRENIC-Mini.PDF

Let's take a look at the frame configuration:



  • Byte 1: Start Byte ( 0 hexadecimal ).
  • Byte 2-3: ASCII Arduino's address.
  • Byte 4: Byte ENQ, ACK or NAK (0x05h, 0x06h y 0x15h) .
  • Byte 5: ASCII Requested command.
  • Byte 6 y 7: ASCII Function number.
  • Byte 8: Sign byte (Positive 0x20h y Negative 2D)
  • Byte 9-12: ASCII of data bytes (0x00h-0xFFFFh)
  • Byte 13: Byte EOT (End of Text) (0x03h)
  • Byte 14-15: Checksum (addition from 2nd byte to 13th byte)


With this configuration we have
  • 1 Byte indicating the Function Number
  • 2 Bytes indicating the sub-function Number


So imagine the possibles combinations!!! For instance:
A01 Requet of value on Analog input 1
P01 Request Configuration of PWM 1 with setup data in DATA bytes
And so on!!!! Is not wonderful?

Notice:
- Commands are ASCII Coded
- Control bytes are not ASCII Coded
It is a nice feature due to, in case we receive a 0x00 (thinking it is the start byte), the program will understand it is the starting frame instead of as 0 value, because in this case, it should be sent as ASCII (0x30).

Please take a look at the ASCII Table, even better print it! :P Probably most of us we have a copy pasted in front of us all the time, wrong?
http://www.cs.utk.edu/~pham/ascii_table.jpg




Let's see an example:
Imagine we need an arduino(master) which will decide either switch on or switch off a remote lights. Then, it have to send a command on our RS485 network and then other arduino (slave) will interpretate the command and excute it.

Then, the master will follow the switchces state, a and as needed, the master will send the frame requesting switch on/off to the slave called 01. The function will be called D and number 0.(you can set it up as needed). So,
Master sends: Slave(01)-Request execution function(D)-SubFunction(0)
0x00 0x30 0x31 0x05 0x44 0x30 0x30 0x20 0x30 0x30 0x30 0x31 0x03 0x01 0xEE
Slave answers: AKNOWLEDGE (ACK).
0x00 0x30 0x31 0x06 0x44 0x30 0x30 0x20 0x30 0x30 0x30 0x31 0x03 0x01 0xEF


The salve's ACK frame has the following configuration(take a look at Byte 4 due to here is specified ACK)

Even better, watch the following video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ABcjU0Ua-d4



Urgh!!!!Sorry but the switcher is just a couple of wires going from VCC to GND! ;)

In order to see the frames flowing on the net, you need just a USB <----> RS232 like FTDI232 or MAX232+MAX485,... If you have an Arduino PCB, notice you can remove the uC from its socket and you'll have an USB <---->Rs232 converter!


If you want to monitorize what is going on , you can use Hyperterminal, or any one that include some useful features as format output, saving options,....for instance we like:
RealTerm
FREE SERIAL TERMINAL MONITOR
Really nice if you want to sniff RS232 frames

In this example we have 3 arduinos connected. The master have 2 switchers used to switch on/off leds connected to each of the slaves.
.




Let's see how it works: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9FSQaToVZ4


Now...THE CODE!

IMPORTANT:
Checksum are done directly in hex instead of convert it to ASCII. Change it could be necessary , to don't have problems. This entry is a howto paper to show you how RS485 works and explain how to implemnt a protocol, but is not 100% debbuged.



MASTER:


//----------------------------------
//RS 485
//By Igor Real
//24-06-09
//----------------------------------


byte            data[12];
unsigned long   previous_time;
unsigned long   previous_time2;
byte            times_repeat=5;
byte            times_repeat2=5;

byte            state=0;
byte            state2=0;

#define  pinCONTROL    02
#define  myaddress     01
 

void setup() {

  pinMode(13,OUTPUT);
  pinMode(pinCONTROL,OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(13,HIGH);
  digitalWrite(12,LOW);
  pinMode(8,INPUT);
  pinMode(9,INPUT);
  digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,LOW);
  Serial.begin(9600);
  Serial.println("Empezamos");
  state=0;
  state2=0;
}

void loop()
{

 if (digitalRead(8)==state){
   state=!state;
   times_repeat=0;  
 }
 if (digitalRead(9)==state2){
   state2=!state2;
   times_repeat2=0;  
 }

 
 
 
 if (times_repeat<4){
   Serial.flush();  
   //(byte address1,byte address2,byte data_type,byte code1,byte code2,byte Sign,byte data1,byte data2,byte data3,byte data4)
   if (digitalRead(8)==HIGH){  
     sendMSG(48,49,68,48,48,32,48,48,48,49);
   }else {
     sendMSG(48,49,68,48,48,32,48,48,48,48);
   }
   times_repeat=times_repeat+1;
 
   previous_time=millis();
   while (((millis()-previous_time)<500) && (Serial.available()!=15)){
     ;;
   }
 
   if (Serial.available()>=15){
     if (receiveMSG()==1){
       Serial.println("Trama correcta");
       if (data[0]==48 && data[1]==49 && data[2]==6){
         //ACK  
         times_repeat=5;
         Serial.println("ACK recibido");
       }
     }
    }
  }  
 
 

 if (times_repeat2<4){
   Serial.flush();  
   //(byte address1,byte address2,byte data_type,byte code1,byte code2,byte Sign,byte data1,byte data2,byte data3,byte data4)
   if (digitalRead(9)==HIGH){  
     sendMSG(48,50,68,48,48,32,48,48,48,49);
   }else {
     sendMSG(48,50,68,48,48,32,48,48,48,48);
   }
   times_repeat2=times_repeat2+1;
 
   previous_time2=millis();
   while (((millis()-previous_time2)<500) && (Serial.available()!=15)){
   ;;
   }
 
   if (Serial.available()>=15){
     if (receiveMSG()==1){
       //Serial.println("Trama correcta");
       if (data[0]==48 && data[1]==50 && data[2]==6){
         //ACK  
         times_repeat2=5;
         //Serial.println("ACK recibido");
       }
     }
   }
 }
 
 
 
}


//------------------------
//FUNCIONES
//------------------------

byte receiveMSG(){

 byte  byte_receive;
 byte  state=0;
 byte  cont1=1;
 byte  trace_OK=0;

 unsigned int checksum;
 unsigned int checksum_trace;
 
 
 
 while (Serial.available() > 0){
   
    byte_receive=Serial.read();
    if (byte_receive==00){
      state=1;
      checksum_trace=0;
      checksum=0;
      trace_OK=0;
      cont1=1;
    }else if (state==1 && cont1<=12){
      data[cont1-1]=byte_receive;
      checksum=checksum+byte_receive;
      cont1=cont1+1;
    }else if (state==1 && cont1==13){
      checksum_trace=byte_receive<<8;
      cont1=cont1+1;
    }else if (state==1 && cont1==14){
      checksum_trace=checksum_trace+byte_receive;
      cont1=cont1+1;
      state=0;
      if (checksum_trace==checksum){
          trace_OK=1;
      }else{
        trace_OK=0;
      }
      break;
    }
 }
 return trace_OK;

}



void sendMSG(byte address1,byte address2,byte data_type,byte code1,byte code2,byte Sign,byte data1,byte data2,byte data3,byte data4){
 
 unsigned int checksum_ACK;
 checksum_ACK=address1+address2+5+data_type+code1+code2+Sign+data1+data2+data3+data4+3;
 
 UCSR0A=UCSR0A |(1 << TXC0);
 
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,HIGH);
 delay(1);

 Serial.print(0,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(5,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data_type,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(Sign,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data4,BYTE);  
 Serial.print(3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK>>8)&255),BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK)& 255),BYTE);
 while (!(UCSR0A & (1 << TXC0)));
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,LOW);

 
 
}



void sendACK(byte address1,byte address2,byte data_type,byte code1,byte code2,byte Sign,byte data1,byte data2,byte data3,byte data4){
 
 unsigned int checksum_ACK;
 checksum_ACK=address1+address2+6+data_type+code1+code2+Sign+data1+data2+data3+data4+3;
 
 UCSR0A=UCSR0A |(1 << TXC0);
 
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,HIGH);
 delay(1);

 Serial.print(0,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(6,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data_type,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(Sign,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data4,BYTE);  
 Serial.print(3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK>>8)&255),BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK)&255),BYTE);
 while (!(UCSR0A & (1 << TXC0)));
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,LOW);
 
 
}

void sendNAK(byte address1,byte address2,byte data_type,byte code1,byte code2,byte Sign,byte data1,byte data2,byte data3,byte data4){
 
 unsigned int checksum_ACK;
 checksum_ACK=address1+address2+6+data_type+code1+code2+Sign+data1+data2+data3+data4+3;
 
 UCSR0A=UCSR0A |(1 << TXC0);
 
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,HIGH);
 delay(1);

 Serial.print(0,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(15,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data_type,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(Sign,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data4,BYTE);  
 Serial.print(3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK>>8)&255),BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK)&255),BYTE);
 while (!(UCSR0A & (1 << TXC0)));
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,LOW);
 
 
}



byte hex2num(byte x){

 byte result;
 
 if (x>=48 && x<=57){
   result=x-48;  
 }else if (x>=65 && x<=70){
   switch(x){
     case 65:
       result=10;
       break;
     case 66:
       result=11;
       break;
     case 67:
       result=12;
       break;
     case 68:
       result=13;
       break;
     case 69:
       result=14;
       break;
     case 70:
       result=15;
       break;    
   }  
 }
 return result;  
}





SLAVES:
(you have to change myaddress to 01 or 02)


//----------------------------------
//RS 485
//By Igor Real
//24-06-09
//----------------------------------


byte  data[12];
byte  address;
byte  function;
byte  function_code;
unsigned int data_received;
byte  byte_receive;
byte  state=0;
byte  cont1=1;
byte  trace_OK=0;
unsigned int checksum;
unsigned int checksum_trace;

#define  pinCONTROL    02
#define  myaddress     02
 

void setup() {

  pinMode(13,OUTPUT);
  pinMode(pinCONTROL,OUTPUT);
  digitalWrite(2,LOW);
  Serial.begin(9600);
  Serial.println("Empezamos");

}

void loop()
{

  while (Serial.available() > 0){
   
    byte_receive=Serial.read();
    if (byte_receive==00){
      //Serial.println("Se ha recibido byte Start");
      state=1;
      checksum_trace=0;
      checksum=0;
      trace_OK=0;
      address=0;
      data_received=0;
      cont1=1;
    }else if (state==1 && cont1<=12){
      data[cont1-1]=byte_receive;
      checksum=checksum+byte_receive;
      cont1=cont1+1;
    }else if (state==1 && cont1==13){
      checksum_trace=byte_receive<<8;
      cont1=cont1+1;
      //Serial.print("Primer Byte Checksum");      
      //Serial.print(checksum_trace,HEX);
    }else if (state==1 && cont1==14){
      checksum_trace=checksum_trace+byte_receive;
      cont1=cont1+1;
      state=0;
      //Serial.println(byte_receive,HEX);
      //Serial.println("Recibida trama");
      //Serial.print("Checksum Trace= ");
      //Serial.println(checksum_trace,HEX);
      //Serial.print("Checksum= ");
      //Serial.println(checksum,HEX);
      //Serial.println(checksum,DEC);
      //Serial.println("Trama= ");
      //Serial.print(data[0]);
      //Serial.print(data[1]);
      //Serial.print(data[2]);
      //Serial.print(data[3]);
      //Serial.print(data[4]);
      //Serial.print(data[5]);
      //Serial.print(data[6]);
      //Serial.print(data[7]);
      //Serial.print(data[8]);
      //Serial.print(data[9]);
      //Serial.print(data[10]);
      //Serial.println(data[11]);      

      if (checksum_trace==checksum){
        trace_OK=1;
       
        address=(hex2num(data[0])<<4)+(hex2num(data[1]));
        function=data[3];
        function_code=(hex2num(data[4])<<4)+(hex2num(data[5]));
        data_received=(hex2num(data[7])<<12)+(hex2num(data[8])<<8)+(hex2num(data[9])<<4)+(hex2num(data[10]));
       
        //Serial.println("TRAZA CORRECTA");
        //Serial.println(address,DEC);
        //Serial.println(data_received);
        if (address==myaddress){
          if ((function=='D') && (function_code==0) && data[2]==5){
            if (data_received==1){
              digitalWrite(13,HIGH);
              //Serial.println(data_received,DEC);
              sendACK(data[0],data[1],data[3],data[4],data[5],data[6],data[7],data[8],data[9],data[10]);
            }else if (data_received==0){
              digitalWrite(13,LOW);
              sendACK(data[0],data[1],data[3],data[4],data[5],data[6],data[7],data[8],data[9],data[10]);
            }
          }
        }
      }else{
        //Serial.println("TRAZA INCORRECTA");  
        sendNAK(data[0],data[1],data[3],data[4],data[5],data[6],data[7],data[8],data[9],data[10]);
      }
    }

 }
 
}


//------------------------
//FUNCIONES
//------------------------

byte receiveMSG(){

 byte  byte_receive;
 byte  state=0;
 byte  cont1=1;
 byte  trace_OK=0;

 unsigned int checksum;
 unsigned int checksum_trace;
 

 
 
 while (Serial.available() > 0){
   
    byte_receive=Serial.read();
    if (byte_receive==00){
      state=1;
      checksum_trace=0;
      checksum=0;
      trace_OK=0;
      cont1=1;
    }else if (state==1 && cont1<=12){
      data[cont1-1]=byte_receive;
      checksum=checksum+byte_receive;
      cont1=cont1+1;
    }else if (state==1 && cont1==13){
      checksum_trace=byte_receive<<8;
      cont1=cont1+1;
    }else if (state==1 && cont1==14){
      checksum_trace=checksum_trace+byte_receive;
      cont1=cont1+1;
      state=0;
      if (checksum_trace==checksum){
          trace_OK=1;
      }else{
        trace_OK=0;
      }
      break;
    }
 }
 return trace_OK;

}



void sendMSG(byte address1,byte address2,byte data_type,byte code1,byte code2,byte Sign,byte data1,byte data2,byte data3,byte data4){
 
 unsigned int checksum_ACK;
 checksum_ACK=address1+address2+5+data_type+code1+code2+Sign+data1+data2+data3+data4+3;
 
 UCSR0A=UCSR0A |(1 << TXC0);
 
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,HIGH);
 delay(1);

 Serial.print(0,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(5,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data_type,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(Sign,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data4,BYTE);  
 Serial.print(3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK>>8)&255),BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK)& 255),BYTE);
 while (!(UCSR0A & (1 << TXC0)));
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,LOW);

 
 
}



void sendACK(byte address1,byte address2,byte data_type,byte code1,byte code2,byte Sign,byte data1,byte data2,byte data3,byte data4){
 
 unsigned int checksum_ACK;
 checksum_ACK=address1+address2+6+data_type+code1+code2+Sign+data1+data2+data3+data4+3;
 
 UCSR0A=UCSR0A |(1 << TXC0);
 
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,HIGH);
 delay(1);

 Serial.print(0,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(6,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data_type,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(Sign,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data4,BYTE);  
 Serial.print(3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK>>8)&255),BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK)&255),BYTE);
 while (!(UCSR0A & (1 << TXC0)));
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,LOW);
 
 
}

void sendNAK(byte address1,byte address2,byte data_type,byte code1,byte code2,byte Sign,byte data1,byte data2,byte data3,byte data4){
 
 unsigned int checksum_ACK;
 checksum_ACK=address1+address2+6+data_type+code1+code2+Sign+data1+data2+data3+data4+3;
 
 UCSR0A=UCSR0A |(1 << TXC0);
 
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,HIGH);
 delay(1);

 Serial.print(0,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(address2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(15,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data_type,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(code2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(Sign,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data1,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data2,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(data4,BYTE);  
 Serial.print(3,BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK>>8)&255),BYTE);
 Serial.print(((checksum_ACK)&255),BYTE);
 while (!(UCSR0A & (1 << TXC0)));
 digitalWrite(pinCONTROL,LOW);
 
 
}



byte hex2num(byte x){

 byte result;
 
 if (x>=48 && x<=57){
   result=x-48;  
 }else if (x>=65 && x<=70){
   switch(x){
     case 65:
       result=10;
       break;
     case 66:
       result=11;
       break;
     case 67:
       result=12;
       break;
     case 68:
       result=13;
       break;
     case 69:
       result=14;
       break;
     case 70:
       result=15;
       break;    
   }  
 }
 return result;  
}



Now, we will learn how to wire a bus topology:
.
 
.
Each Arduino or gadget conneted to the net, is wired with an Y welded which comes out 2 connectors from same family different kind(Male/female). The shorter the better. Each connector will have VCC,Sginal A, Singal B and GND. This way, if we want to connect another device onto the net, you need just insert each device or put it at the end. Now is easy understand why we are putting a Y , it's extremely easy connect and disconnect a device from the bus, due to each device has male an female. Is worthy have always a couple of connectors with a end-resistor between Singal A and Signal B RS485 pins in order to "close" the wires' end. If we need add another device is as easy as disconnet the connector with the end-resistor, insert the new device and close again with that connector. Wire VCC and GND is extremely easy, and in future, will make things really easier in possible expansions..... Take care, and twist Signal A and Signal B wires. Please take a loot at next link if needed : http://www.rs-485.com/download/485%20network%20topology.pdf
.
This paper was based on spanish Igor R's one. Thanks Igor R!! Cheers!!!
.
.
Aritz R.
.
.

          Musik        

Handpan & Tonbak - Contemporary World Music - YouTube Music – Last.fm/bitpop tomtone music - Hotel/The Twilight Waltzes Welcome to the gateway to global internetTV! - our database provides you with free access to 6652 TV-Stations from nearly all states and countries all over the world. Sports, Music, Politics, Kids, News, Entertainment, Shopping, Education, Religion, Miscellanous - all listed stations are checked daily for availability and made available in stream ranges from 24Kb/s to 2048Kb/s. Categories, county selection, continent selection and our search function will help to find the TV-stations, Internet Televison, Online Televison, Peer to Peer, P2P, Streaming Media, TV, Internet-TV, Web-TV, online TV, Livestream, Videostream, Music TV, Funny Videos, Telecasts, reportsMoment Records ::: Zakir Hussain ::: Indian Classical Music ::: World Music ::: FusionSoundlift.com | Earlyledder mixotic (formerly zerinnerung) - netlabel for free dj sets, free dj mixes and free live sets of free electronic netaudio music to download The High Voltage SID Collection (HVSC) - Commodore 64 music for the masses Cam Seq 1 is a Camera Sequencer that i use to make visuals with my gameboy music... Amarok | - Rediscover your music MySpace.com - EASTBLOK MUSIC - Berlin - Indie / Folk Rock / Electronica - www.myspace.com/eastblokmusic elektroguru - electronic music composer, producer and dj - more photography www.casagranda.org Freundschaft :: Audio hobnox.com :: Your Music, Film & Urban Culture - Welcome Netlabel: Webbed Hand Records - Ambient and Experimental Music [OFFICIAL WEBSITE ] : SYSTAIME A.K.A MICHAEL BORRAS FRENCH ART VIDEO AND WEB ARTIST . FRENCH TRASH TOUCH LO-TECH NET-ART WEBFILMS LIVES COMPUTER ART VIDEO VJ EXPERIMENTAL PARIS ART CONTEMPORAIN FRENCH FRANCE PARIS REALISATEUR CLIP PUB FILM VJ LIVE MUSIC VISUAL ART MySpace.com - DE CECCO - JESZENSKY germany tour nov 2008 - RO - Roots / Folk / Jazz - www.myspace.com/musicfromtransilvania Cosmic Disco is a Manchester based Music Blog Dubioza Kolektiv bei MySpace Music - Kostenlos MP3s anhören, Bilder & Musikvideos ansehen Dizzy Errol bei MySpace Music - Kostenlos MP3s anhören, Bilder & Musikvideos ansehen Akustik Ost bei MySpace Music - Kostenlos MP3s anhören, Bilder & Musikvideos ansehen Streamzy.com - streaming music search engine - search.stream.save. Songza: The music search engine & internet jukebox. Listen for Free.Streaming Music, Free Music, Search Music | SONGERIZE - Listen Now! JEEKARA bei MySpace Music - Kostenlos MP3s anhören, Bilder & Musikvideos ansehen ESCHENBACH bei MySpace Music - Kostenlos MP3s anhören, Bilder & Musikvideos ansehen UNDER13 bei MySpace Music - Kostenlos MP3s anhören, Bilder & Musikvideos ansehen Kultur Shock bei MySpace Music - Kostenlos MP3s anhören, Bilder & Musikvideos ansehen knalpot bei MySpace Music - Kostenlos MP3s anhören, Bilder & Musikvideos ansehen PMC - Persian Music Channel Siekiera bei MySpace Music - Kostenlos MP3s anhören, Bilder & Musikvideos ansehen Minimal Wave Mathiws bei MySpace Music - Kostenlos MP3s anhören, Bilder & Musikvideos ansehenIndie & Alternative | Second Life Musik von Krach der Roboter | Kostenlos anhören und herunterladenNeural.it :: new media art, electronic music, hacktivism Music | Second Life Internet Archive: Digital Library of Free Books, Movies, Music & Wayback Machine first fatal kiss Online Mixtapes | ROTE RAUPE · A HOME FOR MUSIC // Online Indie Fanzine DIY SID (Commodore 64 Music) Player - Hacked Gadgets – DIY Tech BlogAll My Monsters / MusicMusic using ONLY sounds from Windows XP and 98! - YouTube The Dresden Dolls 'Coin-Operated Boy' music video - YouTube Sound of Noise - Music for One Apartment and Six Drummers (long version) - YouTube Music-Map - Die Landkarte der Musik spheric lounge / live ambient music Elvis Presley - Muss i denn zum Städtele hinaus (Wooden Heart) 1960 - YouTube Florian Keller - Funk Squad! Wintermix - Sittin' On A Red Hot Stove | Mixcloud AYAHUASQUEROS : soundwalkcollective.com Die Streuner - Der Schreiber im Korb - YouTube C64 music : Life Sun Death by Stefan Uram (Orcan) - YouTube Chianti protokoll A tu rumba - YouTube www.gasmacgilmore.com | DEAD DONKEY | Austrian Alternative Rock Balkan Punk MetalVarious - Athletico Re-Speak (CD) at Discogs Latest songs from music blogs worldwide / The Hype MachineIntergalactic.fm | Music Pro Galaxy Plastic Frog News - Electro, Minimal, Wave, Dark Wave, Independent MusicPREF - BOOOOOOOM! - CREATE * INSPIRE * COMMUNITY * ART * DESIGN * MUSIC * FILM * PHOTO * PROJECTS Online Radio Stations, Internet Radio, Free Music | Radio Tuna DnbRadio: Drum & Bass + Jungle Music 24/7 Wikipedia_song.oggCelestial Wanderer [rough demo] von Proletkult_US ROTE RAUPE · A HOME FOR MUSIC | ONLINE INDIE FANZINE Cosmos Computer Music ▶ Kollision | Kollision Search Everything on SoundCloud - Hear the world’s sounds ALL HOPS: Hip-Hop, Trip-Hop, Dub-Hop, Glitch-Hop, Synth-hop, Chill-Hop, Funk-Hop, Jazz-Hop, Hip-Pop, Hype-Hop, Dip-Hop, Bit-Hop, Game-Hop’s stream on SoundCloud - Hear the world’s sounds DagobertPoe Baby Music, Lyrics, Songs, and Videos Cyberpunk Review » Dry Lung Overdrive: Mind Teardown HVSC - Commodore 64 music for the masses! Explore on SoundCloud - Hear the world’s sounds TheCreatorsProject - YouTube The Creators Project | Technology and the Brightest Young Minds in Music, Art, Film, and Design Specific Media is a digital media company driving viewership for content owners, engagement for brands and relevance for consumers | Specific Media Londrali Capulcular " Her Yer Gezi" - YouTube Robot Funk (original song) - YouTube KILLED BY SYNTH (Vol.1) - LAST FOUR (4) DIGITS - CITY STREETS [1980] - YouTube Music!Bocato - Living in Jaçanã (Bocato) - Instrumental SESC Brasil - 05/07/2010 - YouTube DRESCHWERK MUSIC SPOT | Streetlife-Festival München Minimal-Elektronik - Links William Blake Watson - DR "Pipe Dream" - Animusic.com - YouTube Haindling - Du Depp 1984 - YouTube ▶ Car composes Kraftwerkian music - YouTube Spy Vs Spy - Combustible Edison - YouTube ▶ Jim Fletch - Burning | Tapebook Volume 01 Lali Puna - Scary World Theory - YouTube Propellerheads - History Repeating (ft. Shirley Bassey) - YouTube CANTUS DELICTI - YouTube Music4Freedom Album Release! — Music4Freedom ▶ Audio Active Music - Hellbound - YouTube "Don't Eat It" Anti-GMO Music Video - March Against Monsanto 2013 - YouTube SBL-Massiv » Performance Theater Disco Kabarett Deejay Music Liveact Szene Gladstone Hotel | Page Not Found - Gladstone Hotel Air Electronic Performers Official Music Video High Quality - YouTubeLUXUS SOUND ! OLDSKOOL MyOwnMusic The Sound of Music and Plants, : Dorothy L. Retallack: 9780875161709: Amazon.com: Books The DoveSong Foundation -- The effect of Music on Plants (The Plant Experiments) BookButler - 9780875161709 - The Sound of Music and Plants, - PreisvergleichThe Coolest Music in the World: Listen to Siberian Ice Drummers Use Frozen Lake Baikal as an Incredible Musical Instrument VarvarijaFatma Aydin Music, Lyrics, Songs, and Videos Festival EXPERIMENTELLE MUSIK 2013/ EXPERIMENTAL MUSIC 2013 Übungsräume, Bunkerkultur...und mehr! Gesang und Schauspiel hautnah erleben!Free access to 8643 TV-Stations from all over the world. Sports, Music, Politics, Kids, News, Entertainment, Shopping, Education, Religion The Olle Hemmingsons Trio Use A Tractor As A Drummer In Their Performance Of "Sweet Georgia Brown". [VIDEO] Diamonds and Pearls Music / DNP Distribution Music - Synth.nl - Synthesizer Music from The Netherlands Pharrell Williams - Happy Apparat (musician) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Incredibox - Express your musicality Dazed Digital | Gatekeeper: Enter The Void Videos – SUNANDBASS – Stunning beaches and the best in dnb ▶ RumbleRail: What is love [light] - YouTube Arpanet - Probability Densities - YouTube Landfill Harmonic Amazing and Inspirational - YouTube independentrap.de (Last Update: 15.Feb.2012) - independent, radio, underground, rap shit, hiphop, music, untergrund, untergrundrap, münchen, munich, minga, 089, feierwerk, freestyle Diamonds and Pearls Music / baud06 – Roger 23 – Future State EP City of Pop: Der Plan zum Durchklicken | Zündfunk | Bayern 2 | Radio | BR.de ▶ baryalai shikeb new afghan music 2014 - YouTube Every Noise at Once Console (musician) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Console » Music AnimusicElizabeth FraserCocteau Twins - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Minimal Music – Wikipedia Reboot.fm Art - Free Artists Radio - Art, Discourse & Electronic Music from Berlin The Wire - Séance Vocibus Avium - music DJ Greg J :: Class Is In Session - A 1992 Breakbeat Hardcore LessonPhilippine Music, traditional Instruments - tboli tribe( Lemuhen) - YouTubeDon Perez Production — Motion Design and Music Production Welcome to the MP3 Music Archive Phikticious.com » ▶ dubblerootkit - DJ Sets and Tracks - Free music on PLAY.FM Drum_bass Radio Shows and DJ Mixes - Free music on PLAY.FM Anthony Ashton - Harmonograph - A Visual-Guide to the Mathematics of Music (cleaned) Music | Femme Fantasm Music | Unhold Chicks On Speed | Official Music, Photos, Videos & Show Dates Morla Carstiuc Crowfoot The Bellerophon Project - Mental Abscess EP (Full Stream) - YouTubemandragora colleen | official website of french musician cécile schott ▶ The Residents - The Commercial Album (1980) [Full Album] - YouTubeSynthematic (SMX) | Mixcloud ▶ Eternia & Moss | GOODBYE | ***Official Music Video*** - YouTubeDNBMUC - PODCAST029 TURDBABY [EISBACH CALLIN'] (DRUM N BASS MUNICH PODCAST) mnim - MUSIC Gasper Nali - A Bale Ndikuwuzeni (Official Music Video) - YouTubeSerafyn - The Kids We Were - YouTube Someone just uploaded their complete collection of Kmart in-store background music | Chart Attack Ana B'Ko'ach (A Kabbalistic Prayer) (2 Versions - Music & Acapella) - YouTube ▶ Enlightenment in IRIE SISTAHS Irak - Polska. Inicjatywa Stop Wojnie. Muzyka antywojenna mp3

 Taraf de Haïdouks – Wikipedia 

Theatre Of Tragedy -Aegis - 1998 Full album - YouTube  

FONAL JUKEBOX  

www.hangblog.org » Die Startseite 


Handpan & Tonbak - Contemporary World Music - YouTube 



Viola da gamba – Wikipedia

 Ukulele – Wikipedia

 The Who - Cousin Kevin - YouTube

Sparks - Never Turn Your Back On Mother Earth - YouTube 

Club Autonomic

 ventil verlag - Als die Welt noch unterging

 Erase by Beats Antique - YouTube

 Paul Gerhardt – Wikipedia

 Carsten Wicke - YouTube

 Mbela - Aka pygmies - Rare And Strange Instruments

 Naghmed Farahmand

  Ohw Whou Whou

 fear factory - YouTube

 Hello - Walk off the Earth + Myles Erlick & Isaac Lupien (Whippy Tube and Tap Dance Cover) - YouTube

 Ãrstíðir

 Werkverzeichnis · Johannes Daum - Composer Pianist

 Beliebteste Seiten – indiepedia.de

 ASL Music Video: What’s Love Got To Do With It by Tina Turner on Vimeo

 Bernward Büker

 Zum Verein zur Pflege der bayerischen Volksmusik

 Frenkie ft. Sale - Situacije (Official video) - YouTube

#munich again | a blog about the Munich underground music scene 

FRIENDS OF GAS

 http://ninahagendas.beepworld.de/

 Herzlich Willkommen! | Ev.-luth. Himmelfahrtskirche in München-Sendling

Die Kassierer - Erdrotation (Offizielles Video) - YouTube 

Amazing Oscilloscope Graphics | Hackaday

 20.000 Meilen unter den Meeren | schauburg - Theater am Elisabethplatz

 Vogel & Fitzpatrick GbR Black Ink - Projekt, Verlag, Label - Literatur und Musik



          Ben Heck's reverse-engineered Game Boy Printer        

The Ben Heck Show - Episode 263 - Ben Heck Reverse Engineers Game Boy Printer

It's a bit late for Ben to break the warranty on this particular piece of hardware: The Game Boy Printer was released ages ago, which means it's ripe for being reverse-engineered! First we need to know what we're dealing with, so Ben performs a teardown to reveal the microcontroller and RAM, at which point he determines what pin-outs are needed to connect to an Arduino. That's not all, though -- we also need to know how to talk to the printer, and the easiest way to do that is with an oscilloscope and an original Game Boy Camera to snoop on the data stream. Not everything is so straightforward, however: Ben hits a snag and the printer stops partway through printing. What could he be missing?

What other hardware should Ben reverse-engineer? And what have you reverse-engineered? Let us know over on the element14 Community.


          Product Development Engineer 2 - Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. - Markham, ON        
Experience working in a lab environment, including use of oscilloscopes, multimeters, soldering iron. What you do at AMD changes everything....
From Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. - Wed, 19 Jul 2017 17:09:15 GMT - View all Markham, ON jobs
          Sounds, User-Input Phrases, and Monkeys in “Taroko Gorge”        
Check out “Wandering through Taroko Gorge,” a participatory, audio-enabled remix. As James T. Burling stated on the “projects” page of MAD THEORY: In this combination of presentation and poetry reading, I’ll present a remix of Nick Monfort’s javascript poetry generator, “Taroko Gorge.” My remix added a musical component using a computers oscilloscope function, and more […]
          Aplikasi soundcard pada pembuatan oscilloscope untuk frekuensi audio        
Yosaputra, David (2005) Aplikasi soundcard pada pembuatan oscilloscope untuk frekuensi audio. Bachelor thesis, Petra Christian University.
          Scope roundup        
There's been a lot of news and events surrounding oscilloscopes lately, so I thought I would do a round up for you.
          Oscilloscopes: The EE’s Stethoscope        
The hardware engineer's most basic tool continues to evolve. It can do much more in less time.
          SEM based vision system (26 replies)        
I’ve got a surplus electron microscope that was pretty much free to a good home, it’s on its way which should have working vacuum system which will get me up and running and able to test some parts easily.

I’m trying to understand the requirements for the vision system as I think this might be an area I can help out the most in.
Based on the info on the wiki I found;

“Vision system using 4-sector, independent channel axial Back Scatter electron detector (BSE) Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) combined with image processing. The pseudo stereo SEM picture data can be converted to true 3D dimensional data (asymmetrical 4-source BSE photometric stereo 3D-imaging)”

“SEM pickup PIN diodes protection cover will be used when printing,”

“SEM ( part assumed to occupy 1/9 of whole print area; 1/9* 300*300=10 000mm2 measurement at every 10µ, …. 4x pictures from 4 pickups give the effect of different angles? “

So basically the electron gun is used in a low power mode? And then scans the work piece. It’s got 4 pickups spaced apart at known angles and there data is linked together to create a 3d image of the work piece. This compared to what it should be will be an error. The error is either removed or taken into account on the next 10 layers or whatever interval is selected.

Some high level intelligence can make things quicker and only scan the area where it should be building up the part. E.g. if creating a 10x10mm part you don’t want it scanning the in tire 300x300mm base

Has anybody looked at what pickups and corresponding hardware is needed? Are there solid state versions of the photo multiplier? Sounds like a nice fpga solution could work with a high-speed analogue per pickup. Similar to a 4 channel fpga oscilloscope hardware setup. 60Msps? I would be keen to get this going. The hardware could then multipurpose with open source scopes.

Cheers,

Pyro
          I dare you. (The Alchemist Cookbook, 2016)        

The Alchemist Cookbook (2016) is structured around long, largely wordless sections. That wordlessness becomes almost electric, wrapped in the sound of machinery operating, the sawing and clink of science apparatus, and dark, funny music from Detroit's underground music scene. That feeling of "when are they gonna talk?" impatience never develops. Words aren't missing from the scenes, they were never meant to be there.

So much of this feeling is sustained by the film's complete confidence in Ty Hickson's now-careful and now-unhinged performance as Sean, our back-woods science/dark-magic obsessive. We watch him saw the copper-top off a battery, dripping its innards into a test tube. We see burners, smoke, an old tape-deck, chemical reactions. From the film's title we suspect he's trying to make gold out here in a cramped trailer deep in the woods. We hear the promises he makes his cat about a mansion they'll share, full of doritos. We hear the threats he hollers at something in the lake, standing in the boat and dropping heavy stones to deliver his words down into the water.

There's something exciting and rare about a movie that trusts its audience, trusts its actors, trusts itself. Nothing is is outright explained, but everything is there to be understood. We piece it together.

As the film progresses, the experiments escalate, veering further from science and dangerously close to dark-magic. A tense failed ritual is interrupted by a visit from Sean's cousin who regularly brings our main character supplies, who teases him for being quite obviously around the bend. Teases him gently, though, and who is there because taking care of your family is what you do.

Sean goes over the grocery list, item by item, anxious and angry, demanding to know where each missing thing is, dismissing the items he does find. ("dude?" he holds up a microscope. "This a toy?" His cousin nods, pleased. "Mh hmm! Mh hmm! Dollar store always got that cute shit!") When they get to the cat food, Sean blows up. His cousin has brought the wrong cat food.

"I specifically put CURRY brand." Sean says. "In capital letters."

His cousin gets up, very casually, and takes a look at the offered can. Confident. "Look at this. White tuna in this bitch, dog, are you trippin?" his cousin says, "This is the shit man if Cas don't like this shit I'll eat it."

And with zero hesitation, Sean responds, "Really?"

"Hell yeah, this shit is gourmet!"

"Go on ahead and eat it," Sean says then. His list and grocery bags are forgotten. There is a brief pause and then, "I dare you." Arms crossed. Face deadly serious.

"you dare me?" his cousin is incredulous.

"I fucking dare you." Sean says. He nods at the cat food. "Eat it."

Instead of a gross out scene, something played for broad laughs, what follows is restrained and understated. Sean's cousin builds up the courage to eat the cat food, big talk and bravado the whole time, while Sean refuses to let him back down. It is a very real and very sweet moment of friendship, right smack in the middle of a movie about losing your soul.





Watching this movie, I had absolutely no idea where it would go next. It was surprising, sweet, dark, and deeply fucking strange. It might not be for everyone, but if you take it on its own terms, I think you will find something special. A lot of big horror movies have been released in the past few years, with huge budgets and great special effects, but The Alchemist Cookbook, made by a bunch of very talented weirdos out in the woods, is the movie that won my heart.


          Using all the data        

USING ALL THE DATA            FEB 2009


The other day I was reading about how the Google search engine works (the original research paper). The key thing that Page and Brin did was to rank each page found by seeing how many other pages on the net have links to it. It’s a lot more complex than that, but the basic idea is simple. The thinking behind the ranking is rather like ranking research papers by how many future papers refer back to the paper concerned.

For some reason this set me thinking about how we are now using data in a different way than in the past. In a simple world, we only have access to fairly immediate data. Without any recording or transmitting devices, we can access our sense data and our memory, and use those inputs to make our choices and decisions. Of course, other people also act as recording and transmitting sources, because they can see things and remember stuff and tell us about it. In fact, that’s one of the ways we learn, along with reading books, which are another source of recorded information, and which came on the scene quite a while ago.

Then along came radio and TV to extend our sources of information, because they allowed long distance access to other people and recordings, as did the telephone. So now our ‘information network’ has grown enormously. We can see and hear things from around the world, both in the present and the recorded past. We can contact a network of friends and colleagues instantly, and amalgamate data from all these sources.

The Internet, email, instant messaging, social networking and cell phones have made these networks easier to set up and manage, so that we can now investigate the world from multiple viewpoints instead of just one.

But its not just that we have access to all this data, its also that the hugely increased processing power and storage capacity now available make it possible to look at data in new ways. The Google method is an example of how we can utilise large data sets by traversing them very rapidly in order to extract more detailed and in depth information than we can ‘at first sight’.

This kind of thing has been going on for a while. Consider holographs. Whereas a standard photograph uses only the magnitude of the light waves (OK, photons) arriving at the camera, a holograph uses both magnitude and phase. It extracts more information from the data source by deeper processing and recording.

Now consider WiFi. The latest generation devices use multiple signal paths to extract better signal quality and speed from a communication link than by just using a single signal path. All radio communications gets scattered along multiple paths. This can be a nuisance because it causes confusion at the receiving end (so it can cause ‘ghosting’ on TV pictures). Now it is being utilised by throwing vast amounts of processing power to resolve multiple signal paths into one ‘composite’ signal. The point is that you can squeeze more information out of the signal by these tricks, just as Google squeezed more information about web pages by looking at multiple link paths across the net.

(Added in Jan 2010). It has just been announced that scientists in Francehave reconstructed an image transmitted through an opaque object by changing the shape of the laser beam transmitted and extracting data from each shaped waveform. Same kind of trick, only using sequential transmissions to increase the amount of data. This sort of idea was utilised when I first started work in ‘sampling scopes’ – a kind of oscilloscope that looked at repeated waveforms over an interval of time to build up a picture (made of dots) of the waveform.

These tricks have been used for a while in cell phones, and in the allied area of phased array radars. All of them use the fact that you can get a better ‘picture’ of what is going on by looking at multiple data paths rather than just one.

Come to think of it, this is also kind of like what a journalist does (or should do) when he checks his sources. He is getting a better picture by using a variety of sources. We also practice something like this when we network among our friends and contacts. We don’t rely on just one opinion, we squeeze out more about what we want to know by asking different people. And I guess this has been going on for millennia – gossiping is a similar kind of activity, though perhaps somewhat less reliable.

In Malcom Gladwell’s book The Tipping Point, and in Philip Balls’ Critical Mass there are details of the ‘six steps’ idea; how anyone can be connected to anyone else by five or six intermediate people. There is also description of the ‘Kevin Bacon’ index –how many co-actors link a given actor to a film with our Kevin in it. People with large amounts of time on their hands have extended this to produce a large database of indexes of all (film) actors. Again, this has only been made possible by scanning and processing large online data network sets. New ideas have been brought out by processing these data networks in ways that previously had not been considered.

Satnav and route finding systems also work by scanning large data networks; as indeed do my old friends, circuit board routing systems – see my essay on ‘Backtracking’. In fact, ‘rip up’ routers use an idea bearing some similarity to Google’s page ranking, only here a route can be ranked ‘down’ by the number of other routes that would violate it. The point is that both methods build up information about how entities inter relate by deep scanning.

This is beginning to sound like some ideas in basic physics – multi body gravity problems for example, or even Feynman diagrams. In order to analyse what is going on, you have to examine relationships between each element with all other elements. Which is kind of what Google is doing.

          Multimedia Dalam Dunia Pendidikan        
. PENDAHULUAN
Revolusi elektronik tidak dapat dipungkiri, menjadi salah satu penyebab berubahnya gaya dan pola hidup manusia dewasa ini. Komputerisasi, yang merupakan perwujudan visual dari operasional dunia digital mengalami perkembangan begitu pesat. Hitungannya tidak lagi dalam bilangan tahun, bulan atau hari, melainkan ‘detik !!!’. Ditemukannya rahasia operasional bilangan binner sehingga dapat menciptakan mesin hitung (kalkulator) dianggap sebagai cikal berkembangnya komputerisasi hingga saat ini..

Banyak sisi kehidupan manusia modern yang ‘dirampas’, baik dalam keadaan sukarela menyerahkannya, maupun secara terpaksa. Dalam dunia bisnis misalnya, ‘barcode’ merupakan barisan garis ajaib yang dapat di-scan untuk mengenal kartu kredit, identifikasi diri serta data transaksi.
Di dalam rumah, dengan komputer mungil yang dinamakan remote control, pengaturan suhu ruangan (AC), setting televisi, dan sejenisnya dapat dilakukan tanpa melakukan gerakan yang berlebihan. Daftar ini dapat diperpanjang dengan contoh lainnya, seperti dalam bidang kesehatan, dunia antariksa hingga dunia pendidikan. Teknik penyampaian pembelajaran-pun mengalami perubahan yang akhirnya dikenal dengan identitas ‘teknologi pembelajaran’.
Eric Ashby mengatakan bahwa dalam sejarah peradaban manusia, setidaknya telah terjadi empat revolusi besar pada bidang teknologi pembelajaran. Revolusi pertama terjadi ketika orang tua menitipkan anak kepada seorang guru untuk mendapatkan pendidikan. Masa ini merupakan cikal bakal dimulainya sebuah profesi yang disebut guru. Guru saat itu merupakan orang yang dipandang mempunyai kelebihan. Siswa datang kepada guru untuk belajar.
Revolusi ke dua terjadi ketika manusia mengenal tulisan. Tulisan sebagai lambang-lambang yang disepakati guna menyampaikan suatu pesan. Pesan-pesan yang semula disampaikan secara lisan, sejak saat itu mulai disampaikan secara tertulis. Saat itu orang menulis dengan mempergunakan media apa saja, seperti kayu, tulang, batu, daun, sampai ditemukannya kertas pada tahun 105 oleh Cai Lun dari negeri Cina, sebagai pengganti papyrus. Sejak saat itu budaya tulis semakin berkembang pesat.
Perkembangan budaya tulis semakin pesat saat memasuki revolusi ke tiga, yakni ditemukannya mesin cetak pada abad ke 15 oleh Johannes Gutenberg. Mesin cetak membawa dampak yang sangat luas dalam komunikasi tulisan, yang semula buku ditulis dan disalin oleh orang perorang, maka setelah ditemukannya mesin cetak, tulisan dapat diterbitkan secara masal. Mesin cetak telah memberi warna kepada kehidupan manusia modern.
Pada penghujung abad ke 20 kita menyaksikan revolusi selanjutnya yang sangat menakjubkan, yaitu revolusi elektronik. Revolusi elektronik pada bidang teknologi pembelajaran dimulai sejak ditemukannya citra bergerak (motion picture) tahun 1910, siaran radio (1930), televisi pendidikan (1950) serta komputer dan internet (1980).
Awal abad 21 merupakan kelanjutan dari revolusi elektronik. Pada masa ini, dikenal berbagai istilah berkaitan dengan pembalajaran elektronik atau sering disebut e-learning (electronic learning). Konsep e-learning sendiri mencakup terminology yang sangat luas, dari mulai pembelajaran plus elektronik sampai dengan electronic based learning.
multimedia_pendidikan21
Gb.4 Electronic learning for children.
2. BERKENALAN DENGAN MULTIMEDIA
William Ditto (2006) menyatakan definisi multimedia dalam ilmu pengetahuan mencakup beberapa aspek yang saling bersinergi, antara teks, grafik, gambar statis, animasi, film dan suara. Sejumlah penelitian membuktikan bahwa penggunaan multimedia dalam pembelajaran menunjang efektivitas dan efisiensi proses pembelajaran. Penelitian tersebut antara lain yang dilakukan oleh Francis M. Dwyer. Hasil penelitian ini antara lain menyebutkan bahwa setelah lebih dari tiga hari pada umumnya manusia dapat mengingat pesan yang disampaikan melalui tulisan sebesar 10 %, pesan audio 10 %, visual 30 % dan apabila ditambah dengan melakukan, maka akan mencapai 80 %. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini maka multimedia interaktif (user melakukan) dapat dikatakan sebagai media yang mempunyai potensi yang sangat besar dalam membantu proses pembelajaran.
Dalam perkembangannya multimedia dapat dikategorikan ke dalam dua kelompok, yaitu multimedia linier dan multimedia interaktif. Multimedia linier adalah suatu multimedia yang tidak dilengkapi dengan alat pengontrol apapun di dalamnya. Sifatnya sekuensial atau berurutan dan durasi tayangannya dapat diukur. Film dan televisi termasuk dalam kelompok ini.
Sedangkan multimedia interaktif adalah suatu multimedia yang dilengkapi dengan alat pengontrol yang dapat dioperasikan oleh pengguna, sehingga pengguna dapat memilih apa yang dikehendaki untuk proses selanjutnya. Ciri khasnya, multimedia ini dilengkapi dengan beberapa navigasi yang disebut juga dengan graphical user interface (GUI), baik berupa icon maupun button, pop-up menu, scroll bar, dan lainnya yang dapat dioperasikan oleh user untuk sarana browsing ke berbagai jendela informasi dengan bantuan sarana hyperlink. Penerapan multimedia interaktif ini didapat pada multimedia pembelajaran serta aplikasi game. Multimedia interaktif tidak memiliki durasi karena lama penayangannya tergantung seberapa lama pengguna mem-browsing media ini.
3. MULTIMEDIA UNTUK PEMBELAJARAN
Multimedia telah mengalami perkembangan konsep sejalan dengan berkembangnya teknologi pembelajaran. Ketika teknologi komputer belum dikenal, konsep multimedia sudah dikenal yakni dengan mengintegrasikan berbagai unsur media, seperti: cetak, kaset audio, video dan slide suara. Unsur-unsur tersebut dikemas dan dikombinasikan untuk menyampaikan suatu topik materi pelajaran tertentu. Pada konsep ini, setiap unsur media dianggap mempunyai kekuatan dan kelemahan. Kekuatan salah satu unsur media dimanfaatkan untuk mengatasi kelemahan media lainnya. Misalnya, penjelasan yang tidak cukup disampaikan dengan teks tertulis seperti cara mengucapkan sesuatu, maka dibantu oleh media audio. Demikian juga materi yang perlu visualisasi dan gerak, maka dibantu dengan video.
Berikut akan kita lihat beberapa kekuatan dan kelemahan dari unsur multimedia tersebut.
Text
Text mungkin bukan merupakan media paling kuno yang digunakan oleh manusia dalam menyampaikan informasi; suara (sound) adalah media yang lebih dahulu digunakan di dalam menyampaikan informasi. Para filusuf Yunani , bahkan para Nabi menggunakan suara sebagai media utama untuk menyebarkan ajarannya. Namun di dalam penggunaannya di dalam komputer, text adalah media yang paling awal dan juga paling sederhana. Di awal- awal perkembangan teknologi komputer text adalah media yang dominan (bahkan satu-satunya). Hal yang sama juga berlaku di dalam perkembangan internet. Ketika internet masih bernama ARPANET di awal tahun 1970 an text merupakan satunya-satunya media. Kini ketika perkembangan teknologi komputer telah demikian maju, text bukan lagi media yang dominan. Namun demikian ada beberapa kelebihan text di dalam penggunaannya di dalam multimedia pembelajaran :
- Text dapat digunakan untuk menyampaikan informasi yang padat (condensed).
- Text dapat digunakan untuk materi yang rumit dan komplek seperti rumus-rumus matematika atau penjelasan suatu proses yang panjang.
- Teknologi untuk menampilkan text pada layar komputer relatif lebih sederhana dibandingkan teknologi untuk menampilkan media lain. Konsekuensinya media ini juga lebih murah bila dibandingkan media-media lain.
- Sangat cocok sebagai media input maupun umpan balik (feedback).
Kelemahan media text :
- Kurang kuat bila digunakan sebagai media untuk memberikan motivasi.
- Mata cepat lelah ketika harus menyerap materi melalui text yang panjang dan padat pada layar komputer.
Audio
Socrates pernah berujar bahwa suara adalah imitasi terbaik bagi pikiran maka suara adalah media terbaik untuk menyampaikan informasi. Bagi Socrates text adalah imitasi dari suara, dengan demikian sebagai penyampai pikiran text bukanlah media yang ideal karena ia hanyalah imitasi dari suatu imitasi. Pendapat Socrates mungkin ada benarnya karena suara adalah media yang secara natural telah dimiliki oleh manusia sehingga suara adalah media yang paling alami. Guru di kelas pun lebih banyak mengandalkan suara baik ketika memberikan materi atau melakukan motivasi bagi siswa-siswanya. Jika untuk percakapan secara langsung audio adalah media yang simpel dan alami maka tidak demikian halnya ketika digunakan di dalam komputer. Penggunaan suara di dalam komputer berlangsung belakangan sesudah penggunaan text.
Kelebihan suara di dalam multimedia pembelajaran :
- sangat cocok bila digunakan sebagai media untuk memberikan motivasi.
- Untuk materi- materi tertentu suara sangat cocok karena mendekati keadaan asli dari materi (misal pelajaran mengenai mengenal suara-suara binatang)
- Membantu pembelajar fokus pada materi yang dipelajari karena pembelajar cukup mendengarkan tanpa melakukan aktivitas lain yang menuntut konsentrasi . Bandingkan dengan pembelajar yang melihat teks di layar komputer. Dalam hal ini pembelajar melakukan multi aktivitas yakni : membaca teks pada layar (yang tidak semudah membaca pada buku), mencari kata-kata kunci (keyword) dari materi, dan menggerakkan tangan, seperti melakukan klik mouse untuk menggulung layar saat ingin melihat bagian teks yang tak terlihat pada layar.
Kelemahan audio :
- memerlukan tempat penyimpanan yang besar di dalam komputer.
- Memerlukan software dan hardware yang spesifik (dan mungkin mahal) agar suara dapat disampaikan melalui komputer.
Graphics
“A picture is worth a thousand words’. Peribahasa ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan gambar di dalam pembelajaran mampu menjelaskan banyak hal bila dibandingkan dengan media text.
Kelebihan media gambar :
- lebih mudah dalam mengidentifikasi obyek-obyek.
- Lebih mudah dalam mengklasifikasikan obyek.
- Mampu menunjukkan hubungan spatial dari suatu obyek.
- Membantu menjelaskan konsep abstrak menjadi konkret.
Animasi
Animasi adalah salah satu daya tarik utama di dalam suatu program multimedia interaktif. Bukan saja mampu menjelaskan suatu konsep atau proses yang sukar dijelaskan dengan media lain, animasi juga memiliki daya tarik estetika sehingga tampilan yang menarik dan eye-catching akan memotivasi pengguna untuk terlibat di dalam proses pembelajaran.
Manfaat animasi :
- Menunjukkan obyek dengan ide (misal efek gravitasi pada suatu obyek)
- Menjelaskan konsep yang sulit (misal penyerapan makanan kedalam aliran darah atau bagaimana elektron bergerak untuk menghasilkan arus listrik)
- Menjelaskan konsep yang abstrak menjadi konkrit (misal menjelaskan tegangan arus bolak balik dengan bantuan animasi garfik sinus yang bergerak).
- Menunjukkan dengan jelas suatu langkah prosedural (misal cara melukis suatu segitiga sama sisi dengan bantuan jangka).
Simulasi
Media simulasi mirip dengan animasi, tetapi ada satu perbedaan yang menonjol ! Bila dalam animasi kontrol dari pengguna hanyalah sebatas memutar ulang maka di dalam simulasi kontrol pengguna lebih luas lagi. Pengguna bisa memasukkan variabel-varibel tertentu untuk melihat bagaimana besarnya variabel berpengaruh terhadap proses yang tengah dipelajari. Sebagai contoh pada simulasi pembentukan bayangan oleh suatu lensa, pengguna dapat mengubah sendiri nilai indeks bias dan kelengkungan lensa sehingga pengguna dapat melihat secara langsung bagaimana variabel-variabel tersebut berpengaruh terhadap pembentukan bayangan.
Manfaat simulasi :
- Menyediakan suatu tiruan yang bila dilakukan pada peralatan yang sesungguhnya terlalu mahal atau berbahaya (misal simulasi melihat bentuk tegangan listrik dengan simulasi oscilloscope atau melakukan praktek menerbangkan pesawat dengan simulasi penerbangan).
- Menunjukkan suatu proses abstrak di mana pengguna ingin melihat pengaruh perubahan suatu variabel terhadap proses tersebut (misal perubahan frekwensi tegangan listrik bolak balik yang melewati suatu kapasitor atau induktor).
Video
Kelebihan-kelebihan video di dalam multimedia adalah:
- Memaparkan keadaan riel dari suatu proses, fenomena atau kejadian
- Sebagai bagian terintegrasi dengan media lain seperti teks atau gambar, video dapat memperkaya pemaparan.
- Pengguna dapat melakukan replay pada bagian-bagian tertentu untuk melihat gambaran yang lebih fokus. Hal ini sulit diwujudkan bila video disampaikan melalui media seperti televisi.
- Sangat cocok untuk mengajarkan materi dalam ranah perilaku atau psikomotor.
- Kombinasi video dan audio dapat lebih efektif dan lebih cepat menyampaikan pesan dibandingkan media text.
- Menunjukkan dengan jelas suatu langkah prosedural (misal cara melukis suatu segitiga sama sisi dengan bantuan jangka).
Kelemahan :
- Video mungkin saja kehilangan detil dalam pemaparan materi karena siswa harus mampu mengingat detil dari scene ke scene.
- Umumnya pengguna menganggap belajar melalui video lebih mudah dibandingkan melalui text sehingga pengguna kurang terdorong untuk lebih aktif di dalam berinteraksi dengan materi.
Pada pertengahan dekade tahun 80-an tatkala teknologi komputer multimedia mulai diperkenalkan, maka sejak saat itu multimedia pembelajaran berbasis komputer-pun dimulai. Terdapat berbagai sebutan untuk media pembelajaran berbasis computer seperti CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction), MPI (Multimedia Pembelajaran Interaktif), SPM (Software Pembelajaran Mandiri), media presentasi berbantuan komputer, dll. Setiap penyebutan tentu saja mempunyai karakteristik khusus sesuai dengan yang dimaksudkan oleh pengembangnya.
Media penyimpanan-pun berkembang mulai dari kemasan disket dengan kapasitas 1,4 MB, CD dengan kapasitas 650 MB, sampai dengan DVD yang berkapasitas 4,7 GB.
Sejalan dengan berkembangnya teknologi jaringan dan internet, maka multimedia berkembang tidak terbatas pada standalone PC, tapi juga berbasis jaringan, sehingga sumber belajar menjadi lebih kaya.
4. FUNGSI MULTIMEDIA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN
Manfaat media pendidikan dalam proses belajar menurut Hamalik (1986) antara lain sebagai peletakkan dasar-dasar yang kongkrit dalam berfikir untuk mengurangi ‘verbalisme’, memperbesar minat siswa, membuat pelajaran lebih menyenangkan sehingga berdampak kepada hasil pembelajaran yang lebih memuaskan.
Multimedia dalam pembelajaran dapat digolongkan kedalam tiga karakteristik. Pertama, multimedia digunakan sebagai salah satu unsur pembelajaran di kelas. Misal jika guru menjelaskan suatu materi melalui pengajaran di kelas atau berdasarkan suatu buku acuan, maka multimedia digunakan sebagai media pelengkap untuk menjelaskan materi yang diajarkan di depan kelas. Multimedia dengan jenis ini dinamakan juga dengan ‘presentasi pembelajaran’. Materi yang ditayangkan tidak terlalu kompleks dan hanya menampilkan beberapa item yang dianggap penting, baik berupa teks, gambar, video maupun animasi. Latihan dan tes kurang cocok diletakkan pada presentasi pembelajaran ini, kecuali bersifat quiz guna membangun suasana kelas agar lebih dinamis.
Kedua, multimedia digunakan sebagai materi pembelajaran mandiri. Pada tipe kedua ini multimedia mungkin saja dapat mendukung pembelajaran di kelas mungkin juga tidak. Berbeda dengan tipe pertama, pada tipe kedua seluruh kebutuhan instruksional dari pengguna dipenuhi seluruhnya di dalam paket multimedia. Artinya seluruh fasilitas bagi pembelajaran, termasuk latihan, feedback dan tes yang mendukung tujuan pembelajaran disediakan di dalam paket.
Ketiga, multimedia digunakan sebagai media satu-satunya di dalam pembelajaran. Dengan demikian seluruh fasilitas pembelajaran yang mendukung tujuan pembelajaran juga telah disediakan di dalam paket ini. Paket semacam ini sering disebut CBL (Computer Based Learning).
5. KEUNGGULAN MULTIMEDIA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN
Bates (1995) menekankan bahwa diantara media-media lain, interaktivitas multimedia atau media lain yang berbasis komputer adalah yang paling nyata (overt). Interaktivitas nyata di sini adalah interaktivitas yang melibatkan fisik dan mental dari pengguna saat mencoba program multimedia. Sebagai perbandingan media buku atau televisi sebenarnya juga menyediakan interaktivitas, hanya saja interaktivitas ini bersifat samar (covert) karena hanya melibatkan mental pengguna.
Interaktivitas secara fisik dalam multimedia pembelajaran bervariasi dari yang paling sederhana hingga yang kompleks. Interaktivitas sederhana misalnya menekan keyboard atau melakukan klik dengan mouse untuk berpindah halaman (display) atau memasukkan jawaban dari suatu latihan yang diberikan oleh komputer. Interaktivitas yang komplek misalnya aktivitas di dalam suatu simulasi sederhana di mana pengguna bisa mengubah-ubah suatu variabel tertentu atau di dalam simulasi komplek di mana pengguna menggerakkan suatu joystick untuk menirukan gerakan mengemudikan pesawat terbang.
Keunggulan multimedia di dalam interaktivitas adalah media ini secara inheren mampu memaksa pengguna untuk berinteraksi dengan materi baik secara fisik dan mental. Tentu saja kemampuan memaksa ini tergantung pada seberapa efektif instruksi pembelajaran mampu menarik pengguna untuk mencoba secara aktif pembelajaran yang disajikan. Sebagai contoh adalah program multimedia pembelajaran yang berisi materi mengenai oscilloscope[1] yang ditunjukkan pada gambar.6 di bawah ini. Dengan menggunakan multimedia pembelajaran pengguna akan diajak secara langsung mencoba dan menggunakan simulasi oscilloscope yang tersedia. Berbeda halnya jika materi yang sama disajikan dengan buku atau video. Dalam hal ini pengguna hanya pasif (secara fisik) melihat bagaimana cara menggunakan oscilloscope ditampilkan. Aktivitas mental ( pengguna menyerap cara menggunakan dan mengatur oscilloscope) mungkin terjadi akan tetapi aktivitas fisik (dalam hal ini mencoba sendiri cara mengatur oscilloscope) tidak terjadi. Dengan kata hal lain – dalam hal suatu simulasi – dengan menggunakan multimedia pembelajaran pengguna akan mencoba secara langsung bagaimana sesuatu terjadi.
multimedia_pendidikan12
Gb.6 Oscilloscope dalam multimedia pembelajaran.

Selanjutnya Fenrich (1997) menyimpulkan keunggulan multimedia pembelajaran antara lain:
• siswa dapat belajar sesuai dengan kemampuan , kesiapan dan keinginan mereka. Artinya pengguna sendirilah yang mengontrol proses pembelajaran.
• siswa belajar dari tutor yang sabar (komputer) yang menyesuaikan diri dengan kemampuan dari siswa.
• siswa akan terdorong untuk mengejar pengetahuan dan memperoleh umpan balik yang seketika.
• siswa menghadapi suatu evaluasi yang obyektif melalui keikutsertaannya dalam latihan/tes yang disediakan.
• siswa menikmati privasi di mana mereka tak perlu malu saat melakukan kesalahan.
• Belajar saat kebutuhan muncul (“just-in-time” learning).
• Belajar kapan saja mereka mau tanpa terikat suatu waktu yang telah ditentukan.
Di samping itu, multimedia pembelajaran dapat juga unggul dalam hal:
· Memperbesar benda yang sangat kecil dan tidak tampak oleh mata, seperti kuman, bakteri, electron.
· Memperkecil benda yang sangat besar, yang tidak mungkin dihadirkan ke sekolah, seperti gajah, rumah, gunung.
· Menyajikan benda atau peristiwa yang kompleks, rumit dan berlangsung cepat atau lambat, seperti sistem tubuh manusia, bekerjanya suatu mesin, beredarnya planet, berkembangnya bunga.
· Menyajikan benda atau peristiwa yang jauh, seperti bulan, bintang, salju.
· Menyajikan benda atau peristiwa yang berbahaya, seperti letusan gunung berapi, harimau, racun.
· Meningkatkan daya tarik dan perhatian siswa.

6. FORMAT MULTIMEDIA PEMBELAJARAN
Dalam penyajiannya, multimedia pembelajaran dapat dikelompokkan menjadi beberapa format, antara lain;
a. Tutorial
Materinya dilakukan secara tutorial, sebagaimana layaknya tutorial yang dilakukan oleh guru atau instruktur. Informasi dilakukan dengan teks, gambar, baik diam maupun bergerak. Selesai penyajian tayangan, diberikan serangkaian pertanyaan untuk dievaluasi tingkat keberhasilan.
b. Drill dan Practice
Dimaksud untuk melatih pengguna sehingga memiliki kemahiran dalam suatu keterampilan atau memperkuat penguasaan suatu konsep.
c. Simulasi
Mencoba menyamai proses dinamis yang terjadi di dunia nyata, misalnya untuk mensimulasikan pesawat terbang, seolah-olah pengguna melakukan aktivitas menerbangkan pesawat terbang.
Format ini mencoba memberikan pengalaman masalah dunia nyata yang biasanya berhubungan dengan suatu resiko, seperti terjatuhnya pesawat terbang tersebut.
d. Percobaan atau Eksperimen
Format ini mirip dengan simulasi, namun lebih ditujukan pada kegiatan-kegiatan eksperimen, seperti kegiatan praktikum di laboratorium IPA, biologi atau kimia.
Diharapkan pada akhirnya pengguna dapat menjelaskan suatu konsep atau fenomena tertentu berdasarkan eksperimen yang mereka lakukan secara maya tersebut.
e. Permainan:
Permainan yang disajikan tetap mengacu pada proses pembelajaran dan dengan program multimedia berformat ini diharapkan terjadi aktivitas belajar sambil bermain.

7. P E N U T U P
Rembuk Nasional Pendidikan yang diadakan pada tanggal 4 hingga 6 Februari 2008 di Pusdiklat Pegawai Depdiknas Sawangan, Depok mengangkat tema; Pemantapan Pencapaian Target Renstra 2005-2009.
Dalam forum yang dihadiri 734 peserta, terdiri atas Pejabat Eselon I dan II Depdiknas, Kepala Dinas Pendidikan Propinsi dan Kabupaten/Kota, Rektor Perguruan Tinggi Negeri, Koordinator Perguruan Tinggi Swasta (Kopertis), Kepala Unit Pelaksana Teknis (UPT) Depdiknas di daerah, Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (BSNP), dan Badan Akreditasi Nasional Pendidikan Tinggi (BAN-PT), BAN Sekolah/Madrasah, BAN Pendidikan Non Formal (BAN PNF). Atase Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, dan Ketua Harian Komisi Nasional Indonesia untuk Unesco, serta Dubes/KWRI di Unesco tersebut Mendiknas Bambang Sudibyo menyebutkan, reformasi pendidikan di Indonesia telah memasuki tahap yang amat berarti. Kini pendidikan telah diamandemenkan sebagai hak asasi manusia, bukan sekedar hak warga negara. Berbagai hal dilakukan untuk memajukan dunia pendidikan Indonesia, mulai dari penerbitan UU hingga penyediaan dana sampai 20 persen dari APBN. Ini menjadi reformasi pendidikan yang terbesar di dunia. Untuk itulah, Mendiknas meminta pemerintah daerah punya komitmen yang besar pula untuk mendukung reformasi pendidikan ini.
Rembuk Nasional Pendidikan tersebut membahas 3 materi pokok, yaitu (1) Evaluasi capaian kinerja pembangunan pendidikan tahun 2005-2007, (2) Pemantapan pelaksanaan 9 terobosan kebijakan pendidikan, dan (3) Peningkatan pemahaman terhadap 7 isu pokok pendidikan.
Sembilan Terobosan Kebijakan Pendidikan Nasional
1. Pendanaan Pendidikan
2. Peningkatan Kualifikasi, Kompetensi, dan Sertifikasi Guru dan Dosen
3. Penerapan TIK untuk e-pembelajaran dan e-administrasi
4. Pembangunan prasarana dan sarana pendidikan
5. Rehabilitasi prasarana dan sarana pendidikan
6. Reformasi perbukuan
7. Peningkatan mutu, relevansi, dan daya saing pendidikan secara komprehensif
8. Penguatan tata kelola, akuntabilitas, dan citra publik pendidikan secara komprehensif
9. Pendidikan Non Formal dan Informal untuk menggapai yang tak terjangkau (reaching the unreached)
Tujuh Isyu Pokok Pendidikan
1. Penuntasan Wajib Belajar 9 tahun
2. Pemberantasan Buta Aksara
3. Peningkatan akses SLTA dan perimbangan jumlah siswa SMA:SMK
4. Peningkatan akses perguruan tinggi, terutama melalui peningkatan kapasitas Politeknik
5. Redistribusi guru dan antisipasi kekurangan guru dalam waktu 5 tahun ke depan.
6. Evaluasi pelaksanaan UN, KTSP, e-administration, e-learning, Akreditasi Sekolah/Madrasah dan PT, BOS dan BOS Buku, Rehabilitasi Sarana dan Prasarana sekolah, peningkatan kualifikasi dan sertifikasi guru dan dosen, dan pendidikan kecakapan hidup.
7. Evaluasi pelaksanaan otonomi satuan pendidikan dan peran serta masyarakat.
Menarik untuk digarisbawahi adalah tentang 9 Terobosan Kebijakan Pendidikan Nasional yang menempatkan Penerapan TIK untuk e-pembelajaran dan e-administrasi pada urutan ke tiga. Hal ini tentu dirasa sangat mendesak dan perlu! Siapa lagi yang akan bergerak kalau tidak seluruh komponen pendidikan terkait, termasuk guru yang harus lebih banyak lagi menggeluti dunia Teknologi Pendidikan dalam hal ini mengkomputerisasikan perangkat pembelajaran dan mengemas media pembelajarannya secara lebih professional. Guru merangkap programmer? Mengapa tidak!
Saatnya teknologi informasi komunikasi disahabati, bukan untuk dijauhi, apalagi ditakuti.
D A F T A R P US T A K A
Barton, R. Teaching Secondary Science with ICT. London: Open University Press, 2004.
Bates, A.W. Technology, Open Learning And Distance Education. London: Routledge, 1995.
Fenrich, P. Practical Guidelines For Creating Instructional Multimedia Applications. Forth Worth : The Dryden Press 1997.
Panduan Pembuatan Multimedia Pembelajaran; Depdiknas, 2007
Pramono, Gatot. Pemanfaatan Multimedia Pembelajaran. Pusat Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi Pendidikan, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional, 2008
Rembuk Nasional Pendidikan Pemantapan Pencapaian Target Renstra 2005-2009_files.
Ditto, William. Multimedia, Encarta Premium DVD Ensiclopedia 2006.
          Typhoon HIL Control Center 2014.1 New Software Release: Setting the Standard for Hardware-in-The-Loop Testing in Power Electronics        

Typhoon HIL Inc. continues to deliver cutting edge technologies for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing and real-time simulation for power electronics with new and improved schematic editor, bigger component libraries, faster oscilloscope function, and extended API.

(PRWeb April 22, 2014)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/Typhoon/HIL/prweb11776902.htm


          Do What You Like to Get Where You Want - John Melo (Amyris)        
John Melo, CEO of Amyris Biotechnologies, enjoyed building oscilloscopes, circuits and transistors - and yet he was a college dropout. In this clip, Melo comments on his non-linear career path and how his passion, personal interest, and sense of independence have propelled him from one episodic position to another. He states that he first looked for opportunities to do the things he loved to do, and then focused on the places he wanted to be.
          lab        
alhamdullilah i made it into the final year safely.

and i'm gonna start the graduation research from now on. after doing a lot of thinking, i got into material engineering lab. immediately we're assigned to our own respective research themes.

i'll be growing tomato plant.

that sounds totally out of place, i know. okay, to clear all confusions, my research would be developing the most suitable sensor to detect cavitations in xylems, something undesired in plants i suppose.

so, sensor it'll be. oscilloscopes that i'm yet to be good at handling apparently is the main tool. at first, i was like "oh no", but what use it'll be if i keep avoiding all things i don't like. inevitably one day i have to get over it no matter what, so better be now.

honestly, at this very beginning i don't have a clue as to what i'm supposed to do. hopefully it'll turn better soon. let's start with reading prior research thesis done by other people.

this would be something like japanese practice in the same time. 

talking about japanese, i just learnt a term commonly used (by young people?) to describe something equivalent to what we sometimes use "killer" as in 'killer subject'. in japanese, they use the word "burakku"/black. so, a lab that really is tough is described as "burakku". 

"burakku no tokoro ni itta"

of course, when i first heard that, i couldn't even get a clue.

japanese's unique or quite different use of english words never ceases to amaze me.

like buffet is called baikingu/(viking?). or konpa/(shortened from companion i think) for social events like having dinner together in a group of people or drinking party in some cases.


now i look forward to more stuff to come. 全部うまく行きますように!

sakura in my school are so beautiful, now they already start to fall off, the ground is covered with the petals


          Multimedia        

a)      Definisi Multimedia
Istilah multimedia berakar mula dari teater, bukan komputer. Pertunjukkan yang memanfaatkan lebih dari satu medium di panggung seringkali disebut pertunjukkan “multimedia”. Pertunjukkan multimedia mencakup monitor video, synthesized band, dan karya seni manusia sebagai bahan dari show (Damon A. Dean, 1996). Mutimedia adalah kombinasi dari komputer dan video, atau multimedia secara umum merupakan kombinasi tiga elemen, yaitu suara, gambar dan teks, multimedia bisa juga sebagai kombinasi dari paling sedikit dua input atau output dari data, media ini dapat berupa audio (suara, musik), animasi, video, teks, grafik dan gambar, multimedia merupakan alat presentasi yang dinamis dan interaktif yang mengkobinasikan teks, grafik, animasi, audio dan gambar video (Robin dan Linda dalam M. Suyanto, 2003). Lebih lanjut pengertian multimedia dikemukakan oleh Hofstetter (dalam M. Suyanto 2003) “Multimedia adalah pemanfaatan komputer untuk membuat dan menggabungkan teks, grafik, audio, gambar bergerak (video dan animasi) dengan menggabungkan link dan tool yang memungkinkan pemakai melakukan navigasi, berinteraksi, berkreasi dan berkomunikasi”.
Multimedia sebenarnya adalah suatu istilah generik bagi suatu media yang menggabungkan berbagai macam media baik untuk tujuan pembelajaran maupun bukan. Keragaman media ini meliputi teks, audio, animasi, video, bahkan simulasi. Tay (dalam Gatot Pramono 2008) memberikan definisi multimedia sebagai “Kombinasi teks, grafik, suara, animasi dan video. Bila pengguna mendapatkan keleluasaan dalam mengontrol maka hal ini disebut multimedia interaktif”.
Dari beberapa pendapat di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa multimedia merupakan media yang menggabungkan dan mensinergikan elemen, yaitu teks, grafis, foto, video, animasi, musik, dan narasi, yang saling terhubung yang memungkinkan pemakai melakukan interaksi dan komunikasi.
b)     Aplikasi Multimedia dalam Bidang Pendidikan
Aplikasi multimedia dalam bidang pendidikan antara lain sebagai perangkat lunak pengajaran, memberikan fasilitas untuk siswa dalam belajar. Penggunaan perangkat lunak multimedia dalam proses belajar mengajar akan meningkatkan efisiensi, meningkatkan motivasi, memfasilitasi belajar aktif, memfasilitasi belajar eksperimental, konsisten dengan belajar yang berpusat pada siswa dan memandu belajar lebih baik (Davies, Crowther dalam M. Suyanto, 2003). Lebih lanjut, Suartama &  Sudarma (2007) menyatakan,
Produk multimedia dalam pembelajaran dapat berupa Bahan ajar multimedia pembelajaran, buku elektronik, program pelatihan. Dalam pembelajaran, multimedia dapat mengubah hakikat membaca. Multimedia menjadikan kegiatan membaca menjadi dinamis dengan memberi dimensi  baru pada kata-kata, menghidupkan teks dengan menyertakan bunyi, gambar, musik, animasi dan video.

Kelebihan multimedia adalah menarik indra dan menarik minat, karena merupakan gabungan antara pandangan, suara dan gerakan.
c)      Karakteristik Media Di Dalam Multimedia
Multimedia merupakan media yang menggabungkan dan mensinergikan berbagai elemen, yaitu teks, grafis, foto, video, animasi, musik, dan narasi, yang saling terhubung yang memungkinkan pemakai melakukan interaksi dan komunikasi. Media yang dimaksud hendaknya memiliki cirri tertentu atau karakteristik tersendiri yang memudahkan dalam mensinergikan elemen-elemen yang terkait. Gatot Pramono (2008) menyatakan karakteristik media di dalam multimedia adalah :
(1)   Text
Text mungkin bukan merupakan media paling kuno yang digunakan oleh manusia dalam menyampaikan informasi; suara (sound) adalah media yang lebih dahulu digunakan di dalam menyampaikan informasi. Namun di dalam penggunaannya di dalam komputer text adalah media yang paling awal dan juga paling sederhana. Di awal- awal perkembangan teknologi komputer text adalah media yang dominan (bahkan satu-satunya). Hal yang sama juga berlaku di dalam perkembangan internet. Ketika internet masih bernama ARPANET di awal tahun 1970 an text merupakan satunya-satunya media. Kini ketika perkembangan teknologi komputer telah demikian maju text bukan lagi media yang dominan, namun demikian ada beberapa kelebihan text di dalam penggunaannya di dalam multimedia pembelajaran :
a.       Text dapat digunakan untuk menyampaikan informasi yang padat (condensed).
b.      Text dapat digunakan untuk materi yang rumit dan komplek seperti rumus-rumus matematika atau penjelasan suatu proses yang panjang.
c.       Teknologi untuk menampilkan text pada layar komputer relatif lebih sederhana dibandingkan teknologi untuk menampilkan media lain. Konsekuensinya media ini juga lebih murah bila dibandingkan media-media lain.
d.      Sangat cocok sebagai media input maupun umpan balik (feedback).
Kelemahan media text :
a.       Kurang kuat bila digunakan sebagai media untuk memberikan motivasi.
b.      Mata cepat lelah ketika harus menyerap materi melalui text yang panjang dan padat pada layar komputer.

(2)   Audio
Socrates pernah berujar bahwa suara adalah imitasi terbaik bagi pikiran maka suara adalah media terbaik untuk menyampaikan informasi. Bagi Socrates text adalah imitasi dari suara, dengan demikian sebagai penyampai pikiran text bukanlah media yang ideal karena ia hanyalah imitasi dari suatu imitasi. Pendapat Socrates mungkin ada benarnya karena suara adalah media yang secara natural telah dimiliki oleh manusia sehingga suara adalah media yang paling alami. Guru di kelas pun lebih banyak mengandalkan suara baik ketika memberikan materi atau melakukan motivasi bagi siswa-siswanya. Jika untuk percakapan secara langsung audio adalah media yang simpel dan alami maka tidak demikian halnya ketika digunakan di dalam komputer. Penggunaan suara di dalam komputer berlangsung belakangan sesudah penggunaan text.

Kelebihan suara di dalam multimedia pembelajaran :
a.       sangat cocok bila digunakan sebagai media untuk memberikan motivasi.
b.      Untuk materi- materi tertentu suara sangat cocok karena mendekati keadaan asli dari materi (misal pelajaran mengenai mengenal suara-suara binatang)
c.       Membantu pebelajar fokus pada materi yang dipelajari karena pebelajar cukup mendengarkan tanpa melakukan aktivitas lain yang menuntut konsentrasi . Bandingkan dengan pembelajar yang melihat teks di layar komputer. Dalam hal ini pembelajar melakukan multi aktivitas yakni : membaca teks pada layar (yang tidak semudah membaca pada buku), mencari kata-kata kunci (keyword) dari materi, dan menggerakkan tangan, seperti melakukan klik mouse untuk menggulung layar saat ingin melihat bagian teks yang tak terlihat pada layar.
Kelemahan audio :
a.       Memerlukan tempat penyimpanan yang besar di dalam komputer.
b.      Memerlukan software dan hardware yang spesifik (dan mungkin mahal) agar suara dapat disampaikan melalui komputer.

(3)   Graphics
“A picture is worth a thousand words’. Peribahasa ini menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan gambar di dalam pembelajaran mampu menjelaskan banyak hal bila dibandingkan dengan media text.
Kelebihan media gambar :
a.       lebih mudah  dalam mengidentifikasi obyek-obyek.
b.      Lebih mudah dalam mengklasifikasikan obyek.
c.       Mampu menunjukkan hubungan spatial dari suatu obyek.
d.      Membantu menjelaskan konsep abstrak menjadi konkret.

(4)   Animasi
Animasi adalah salah satu daya tarik utama di dalam suatu program multimedia interaktif. Bukan saja mampu menjelaskan suatu konsep atau proses yang sukar dijelaskan dengan media lain, animasi juga memiliki daya tarik estetika sehingga tampilan yang menarik dan eye-catching akan memotivasi pengguna untuk terlibat di dalam proses pembelajaran.
Manfaat animasi :
a.       Menunjukkan obyek dengan idea (misal efek gravitasi pada suatu obyek)
b.      Menjelaskan konsep yang sulit (misal penyerapan makanan kedalam aliran darah atau bagaimana elektron bergerak untuk menghasilkan arus listrik)
c.       Menjelaskan konsep yang abstrak menjadi konkrit (misal menjelaskan tegangan arus bolak balik dengan bantuan animasi garfik sinus yang bergerak).
d.      Menunjukkan dengan jelas suatu langkah prosedural (misal cara melukis suatu segitiga sama sisi dengan bantuan jangka).
 
(5)   Simulasi
Media simulasi mirip dengan animasi, tetapi ada satu perbedaan yang menonjol.Bila dalam animasi kontrol dari pengguna hanyalah sebatas memutar ulang maka di dalam simulasi kontrol pengguna lebih luas lagi. Pengguna bisa memasukkan variabel-varibel tertentu untuk melihat bagaimana besarnya variabel berpengaruh terhadap proses yang tengah dipelajari. Sebagai contoh pada simulasi pembentukan bayangan oleh suatu lensa, pengguna dapat mengubah sendiri nilai indeks bias dan kelengkungan lensa sehingga pengguna dapat melihat secara langsung bagaimana variabel-variabel tersebut berpengaruh terhadap pembentukan bayangan.
Manfaat simulasi :
a.       Menyediakan suatu tiruan yang bila dilakukan pada peralatan yang sesungguhnya terlalu mahal atau berbahaya (misal simulasi melihat bentuk tegangan listrik dengan simulasi oscilloscope atau melakukan praktek menerbangkan pesawat dengan simulasi penerbangan).
b.      Menunjukkan suatu proses abstrak di mana pengguna ingin melihat pengaruh perubahan suatu variabel terhadap proses tersebut (misal perubahan frekwensi tegangan listrik bolak balik yang melewati suatu kapasitor atau induktor)

(6)   Video
Kelebihan-kelebihan video di dalam multimedia adalah:
a.       Memaparkan keadaan riel dari suatu proses, fenomena atau kejadian
b.      Sebagai bagian terintegrasi dengan media lain seperti teks atau gambar, video  dapat memperkaya pemaparan.
c.       Pengguna dapat melakukan replay pada bagian-bagian tertentu untuk melihat gambaran yang lebih fokus. Hal ini sulit diwujudkan bila video disampaikan melalui media seperti televisi.
d.      Sangat cocok untuk mengajarkan materi dalam ranah perilaku atau psikomotor.
e.       Kombinasi video dan audio dapat lebih efektif dan lebih cepat menyampaikan pesan dibandingkan media text.
f.       Menunjukkan dengan jelas suatu langkah prosedural (misal cara melukis suatu segitiga sama sisi dengan bantuan jangka).

Kelemahan :
a.       Video mungkin saja kehilangan detil dalam pemaparan materi karena siswa harus mampu mengingat detil dari scene ke scene.
b.      Umumnya pengguna menganggap belajar melalui video lebih mudah dibandingkan melalui text sehingga pengguna kurang terdorong untuk lebih aktif di dalam berinteraksi dengan materi.
Selanjutnya Sudarma (2007) “menyatakan media audio berkaitan dengan indra pendengaran, sehinga pesan-pesan yang hendak disampaikan dituangkan dalam lambing- auditif, baik verbal (dalam bentuk kata-kata atau bahasa lisan) maupun non verbal”. Dari paparan yang talah dijelaskan, karakteristik media di dalam multimedia meliputi penggunaan text, audio, animasi, graphics, simulasi dan video.

          Getting Started with Blinking Lights on Old Iron        

If you ever go to a computer history museum, you’ll be struck by how bland most modern computers look. Prior to 1980 computers had lights and switches, and sometimes dials and meters. Some had switchboard-like wiring panels and some even had oscilloscope-like displays. There’s something about a machine with all those switches and lights and displays that gets your hacker juices flowing. Have you ever wanted to get started in retrocomputing? Is it difficult? Do you need a lot of money? That depends on what your goals are.

There are at least three ways you can go about participating in …read more


          The Love Witch [Blu-ray review]        
Sex and horror melt into feminism and classic Hollywood melodrama for Anna Biller's THE LOVE WITCH, now out on Blu-ray in the US from Oscilloscope Laboratories and reviewed here by clydefro.
          Comment on Evaluating Oscilloscopes (Part 1) by Nicosten        
Another argument in favour of PC-based scopes: standalone scopes already have a PC inside, which, like build-in GPS in cars may not be the latest technology ones. Oscilloscope software for PC based scopes are always updated to take advantages of the latest advances in computing : multi-threaded parallel computing, USB 3.0 SuperSpeed, multiple displays outputs ( I am using a laptop PC with a separate monitor as extension) and so on. At lower sampling rates, the software can handle continuous logging to provide almost infinite record memory.
          History of Gaming        

This is a university video-project made by "Game Design"-students from munich.
Done in a single-shot fashion...well almost single shot =)
The film covers different eras of the video-game history.

Took us a week to organise the various props (controllers, monitors. lighting, camera, etc.), two whole days to film and several days of postproduction.
It isn't perfect, but hopefully fun to watch nevertheless ,)

Games:
Tennis for Two, Oscilloscope, 1958
Pacman, Arcade, 1980
Donkey Kong, NES, 1986
Sonic the Hedgehog, Sega Mega Drive/Genesis, 1991
Street Fighter II. SNES, 1991
Super Mario 64, Nintendo 64, 1996
Final Fantasy VII, Sony Playstation, 1997
Need for Speed: Hot Pursiut 2, Sony Playstation 2, 2002
Ecco the Dolphin, Sega Dreamcast, 2000
Super Smash Bros. Melee, Nintendo Game Cube, 2001
Wii Sports Golf, Nintendo Wii, 2006
God of War III, Sony Playstation 3, 2010
Rock Band, XBox 360, 2008
Rock Band Song: "Social Code" by Satisfied

Credits Music:
"Luminous" by Geir Tjelta

By:
Moritz Freyer
Fabian Steiner
Florian Smolka
Lucas Reiner

Additional Special Thanks To:
Lena Hartl for having the guts to lend us her cam =)

Comments appreciated

Thanks for watching! Keep on gaming...

//EDIT:
We're quite aware that we could have used more games or different games but we just wanted to show a small insight into the history of videogames that just shows how far we've come and where our roots are buried.
A small FAQ:
There are Playstation 1,2 and 3 devices, just pay close attention or read the credits =)
I noticed that many of you are missing the XBox and Halo on it. It was planned but my friend with the controller called me just before the day of the shooting and said he couldn't find it =( Sorry
Ecco and the dreamcast were mainly meant to show a flop in game history (please don't kill me for saying that =) ! If you have a different opinion on this one it's cool. We don't mean to insult anyone).
Why didn't we just cover...everything?!—due to the limited time that we had for this project it was hard enough to gather all controllers and output devices we used. And we're quite aware that it's not always the best possible combination of game pad and monitor =)
We didnt use XBox Kinect or Playstation Move because the technology isn't new.
And remember this is (almost) a one-shot (= no cuts used) => the more games/controllers, the harder it gets—one mistake and you can start over.
We captured a total of 45takes.
If you're interested visit vimeo once in a while, we're up to make a little "Making Of".

Cast: Florian Smolka

Tags: Gaming History, Video Games, 2D, 3D, Pacman, Mario, God of War, MDH, Sega, Wii, PS3, Playstation, XBox and Nintendo


          Folded XC        

Kali ini dengan menggunakan PCB yang sama, Cascode XC berubah wujud menjadi Folded XC.

Jumper servo harus dirubah karena susunan kaki pada mosfet bagian final juga berubah.  Berikut penampakannya.


Mohon maaf jika gambarnya kurang jelas karena hanya menggunakan kamera henpon.

Edit .... close up jumper.





Lingkaran kuning lokasi jumper pada point A dan C yang terhubung dengan kaki Source J313.
Tanda panah merah merupakan test point untuk mengatur distorsi.



Secara teknis, si folded ini membalik fasa sehingga untuk menetralisir, terminal speaker harus kita balik.
Berikut penampakan dari oscilloscope.


Bagian atas adalah square wave 1KHz pada bagian input dan yg bawah adalah outputnya dengan fasa yang terbalik.

Kesan dan Pesan

Pesan pertama : Tidak usah kuatir jika terminal speaker lupa dibalik. Speaker anda tidak akan mbledush ataupun ampli anda akan mengeluarkan asap tebal.  Dibalik atau tidak semua aman2 saja.

Pesan kedua  :  Setting bias agak sulit dilakukan, apalagi jika mosfet K2013 dan J313 tidak match.


Pesan Ketiga  :  Perhatikan perubahan jumper servo yg berbeda dng Cascode XC.

Pesan Keempat  :  Tidak ada pesan keempat.

Setelah mendengar Cascode XC yang sangat gesit dan dynamis, maka si folded ini suaranya lebih kalem.
Mid terasa lebih tebal dan hangat sementara low dan high tidak sebaik Cascode XC.
Baik Image, staging dan  layering tidak sebaik Cascode.  Suara mudah berubah jika posisi kita berubah, stage terasa lebih sempit dan suara terasa agak menumpuk di satu tempat saja sementara pada cascode masing2 alat musik benar2 terasa terpisah.

Pengaturan Distorsi sama dengan Cascode yaitu dengan memutar trimpot pada Source JFET. Silakan diputar kekiri atau kekanan saat musik berbunyi untuk mendapatkan suara yang sesuai selera.
Jika servo dihidupkan, maka tidak perlu susah payah membuat DC offset menjadi 0 mV karena servo akan memaksa offset tidak lebih dari 1 mV.

Sekian dan terima kasih sudah membaca.



          Machine Learning Developer - Intel - Toronto, ON        
Experience with hardware debugging and validation using equipment such as function generators, oscilloscopes, and testers....
From Intel - Fri, 30 Jun 2017 10:25:27 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          Handling USB connections in Android        
Handling USB connections in Android

The conventional way to use an Android tablet or smartphone is as a USB peripheral that connects to a USB host (e.g. PC) and synchronizes its data and media files. However an Android device can also behave as a USB host since the API level 12 (Android 3.1). With this feature, you can for example connect and use a USB mouse, keyboard or memory stick with an Android phone. In order to physically attach the peripheral device, you need a special cable adapter called OTG (On The Go). The most common form factor includes a female Type-A USB connector at one end, where the peripheral device is connected to, and a male micro USB connector (at the other end) that plugs into the android device.
Handling USB connections in Android

Android is quite flexible on what can be done with a connected USB device, but when writing an App we need to make sure that we configure it properly and that we abide by the security requirements implemented by the Android team.

In this post we will explain the different approaches for fulfilling the said security requirements, either hardcoded at the manifest file or defined dynamically inside the application code.

The first step is to ask for permission to access the USB port, which is done in our manifest file:

<uses-feature android:name="android.hardware.usb.host" />  

Now we have two options, to configure the USB connectivity statically in the manifest file or to do it dynamically in the code of our App.

USB configuration in the Manifest file (declarative)

This first mechanism is less flexible but it is a good choice if we know beforehand the type of devices that our App will connect to. The USB functionality is defined at the Activity level, and we need to register for USB intents:

<activity  
    android:name="com.blecentral.MainActivity"
    android:label="@string/app_name"
    android:launchMode="singleInstance">
    <intent-filter>
      <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" />
      <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" />
    </intent-filter>
    <intent-filter>
         <action android:name="android.hardware.usb.action.USB_DEVICE_ATTACHED" />
    </intent-filter>
    <intent-filter>
         <action android:name="android.hardware.usb.action.USB_DEVICE_DETACHED" />
    </intent-filter>
    <meta-data  android:name=
        "android.hardware.usb.action.USB_DEVICE_ATTACHED"
                android:resource="@xml/device_filter" />    
    <meta-data android:name=
        "android.hardware.usb.action.USB_DEVICE_DETACHED"
                android:resource="@xml/device_filter" />
</activity>  

In this example MainActivity registers to be informed when a USB device is connected (USB_DEVICE_ATTACHED) or disconneted (USB_DEVICE_DETACHED). Note that this is done at the Activity level. Other activities or services in our project can also register to these events.

If we want to restrict the type of devices that will trigger our Activity, we can include a device filter XML file indicated in the meta-data element. This file is stored in /res/xml folder and lists combinations of vendor id and/or product id as shown in our example file:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>  
<resources>  
    <!-- 0x0403 / 0x6001: FTDI FT232R UART -->
    <usb-device vendor-id="1027" product-id="24577" />
    <!-- 0x2341 / Arduino -->
    <usb-device vendor-id="9025" />
</resources>  

If we register an Activity like this, the event USB_DEVICE_ATTACHED will arrive as an intent, but the triggering method will depend on the state of the Activity:

  • If the Activity has not been created yet, it will be created and the intent arrive through the onCreate() method:
   @Override
   public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
      super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
      ...
      if (ACTION_USB_ATACHED.equalsIgnoreCase(getIntent().getAction())) { ... }
      ...
   }
  • If the activity has already been created/instantiated, the event will arrive through the 'onNewIntent()' method:
   @Override
   protected void onNewIntent(Intent intent) {
        super.onNewIntent(intent);
        if (ACTION_USB_ATACHED.equalsIgnoreCase(intent().getAction())) { ... }   }

To receive a USB_DEVICE_DETACHED event we need to register first a BroadcastReceiver, as explained in the following section.

USB configuration in the application code (imperative)

To achieve the equivalent functionality, now programmatically from our code, we need to create a BroadcastReceiver and then register it to receive the USB events.

private static final String ACTION_USB_ATTACHED  = "android.hardware.usb.action.USB_DEVICE_ATTACHED";  
private static final String ACTION_USB_DETACHED  = "android.hardware.usb.action.USB_DEVICE_DETACHED"; 

BroadcastReceiver bReceiver= new BroadcastReceiver() {...};  
IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter();  
filter.addAction(ACTION_USB_ATTACHED);  
filter.addAction(ACTION_USB_DETACHED);  
registerReceiver(bReceiver,filter);  

In this case, the events will be received via the onReceive() method of BroadcastReceiver.

public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {  
   String action = intent.getAction();          
   if (action.equalsIgnoreCase(ACTION_USB_DETACHED)) {...}         ...
}

To stop receiving events, just unregister the receiver with:
unregisterReceiver(bReceiver);

The main advantage of this method is that we can control when we want to receive USB events. On the other hand, if our Activity or service is not started previously, plugging a USB device will not trigger it.

Security and user permission to connect to a USB device

In order to avoid security threats, Android mandates that the user must give explicit permission to an application willing to use a USB peripheral device. This user permission is granted at application level, that is, once obtained for an Activity, the rest of the Activities and services packaged in the application will also be granted the permission.

When a USB device is connected, Android looks for apps/Activities registered for the USB_DEVICE_ATTACHED event, either in the Manifest or pogrammatically. If XML filters have been defined, these are also applied.

Android then presents a dialog to the user with the list of all registered applications. The user is requested to select one of the Apps and decide if he wants to grant permission only once or always (i.e. default). Only the selected App will receive the USB_DEVICE_ATTACHED intent.

If the user selects default, Android will remember this option and from that moment on will trigger automatically the chosen application whenever that USB device (vendor id + product id) is connected in the future.

There is no way to avoid this user permission dialog behaviour. It must be executed at least once (if the user selects always/default).

Since our App does not know if the user has already granted permission, we need to check the user permission flag always, every time that we want to start a USB connection:

void checkUSB(){  
  UsbManager manager = (UsbManager) getSystemService(Context.USB_SERVICE);
  // Get the list of attached devices
  HashMap<String, UsbDevice> devices = manager.getDeviceList();                
  // Iterate over all devices
  Iterator<String> it = devices.keySet().iterator();
  while (it.hasNext()) {
    String deviceName = it.next();
    UsbDevice device = devices.get(deviceName);
    String VID = Integer.toHexString(device.getVendorId()).toUpperCase();
    String PID = Integer.toHexString(device.getProductId()).toUpperCase();
    if (!manager.hasPermission(device)) {
       private static final String ACTION_USB_PERMISSION  = "com.blecentral.USB_PERMISSION"; 
       PendingIntent mPermissionIntent = PendingIntent.getBroadcast(this, 0, new Intent(ACTION_USB_PERMISSION), 0);
       manager.requestPermission(device, mPermissionIntent);
       return;
    } else {
       ... //user permission already granted; prceed to access USB device   
    }
  }
}

If we require user permission, we requestPermission() for the device with a PendingIntent. Android will pop up the user permission dialog and then will contact back our application with the PendingIntent. We need a BroadcastReceiver to receive this notification:

private final BroadcastReceiver mUsbReceiver = new BroadcastReceiver() {  
  public void onReceive(Context context, Intent intent) {
    String action = intent.getAction();
    if (ACTION_USB_PERMISSION.equals(action)) {
      synchronized (this) {
        UsbDevice device = (UsbDevice)intent.getParcelableExtra(UsbManager.EXTRA_DEVICE);
        if (intent.getBooleanExtra(UsbManager.EXTRA_PERMISSION_GRANTED, false)) { 
          ... //Permission granted. Proceed with USB connection
        } else {
          ... //Permission revoked by user
        }
      }
    }  
  }
}

As happened in the previous user permission dialog, the user can grant access only once or forever ("Use by default for this USB device”).

Once we have the user permission, we can start the communication with the peripheral USB device. For instance, in one of our projects we are using the USBSerial library created by Felipe Herranz to connect an Android device to Arduino.

Images

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          â€œSuddenly the World’s Wider, More Exciting, More Engaging”: Criterion’s Peter Becker on the New FilmStruck and Criterion Channel Streaming Service        
For film lovers of all stripes, the launch this month of FilmStruck, a new streaming service partnership between Turner Classic Movies and the Criterion Channel, is nothing short of a major event. As Netflix tilts more and more towards television and original programming, and actual movies cycle on and off on-demand services at a dizzying pace, FilmStruck is poised to be a dependable and invigorating destination for anyone wanting to watch a simply great movie at any time of the day or night. FilmStruck will source films from indie distributors such as Janus Films, Zeitgeist, Film Movement, Oscilloscope Laboratories, as […]
          Flippin' Flopped Flip-Flop        
There's something about blogging and cafe's isn't there? Well, I am writing this from a cafe in Paris, so this blog now has a certian je ne sais quoi it was lacking before I think. But really, je ne sais quoi. Whilst I'm away from home it's a good time to catch up on progress, of which there has been plenty since the last post.

Last time I was basking in the glow from having got one single note to play. Well I wasn't going to stop there.

Striking a Chord.


I decided to buy a few 4-channel opto-couplers from Maplin's and just see what would happen if I got a whole octave working at once.


Well, this was pretty exciting!


The thrill of playing actual chords from the SS-30on a keyboard for the first time in what must be 20 years was quite something for me. I went to bed late but very happy that night, but there was something bothering me at the back of my mind...

 Feeling Jitttery

In the post before last I mentioned that although the master clock on G3 was back in business I had some concerning waveforms. When I looked at the test points I saw that the waves we jittery. Jitter is a term from digital electronics to describe variation in timing between the signal and a clock, so I'm misusing it here but the effect was that the output from the octave divider IC was not stable. My ears told me everything was fine so I didn't immediately know what to do.

Just before connected the K2 board up for my coupler board test above I ran through each octave to decide which to use. It was then that my ears detected a jittery sounding problem with the top octave from K4. No all the keys but about half had a noise that sounded digital and related to the clocks.  After the triumph of playing a chord I came back to investigate this. Initially I was confused because it was coming and going. Some keys which had the problem seemed okay. Then I noticed that the vibrato was effecting the noise so I turned that off and played with the pitch and detune. Now I could make the problem come and go with the detune. Each tone was effected differently so I surmised that this must be related to the interaction between the two oscillators clocks for each tone and that it was specifically effecting the top octave.


Getting busy with the oscilloscope I soon saw that in fact there was no clock at all on one of the G3 board octave dividers. 
Oh no! could this be a dead YM25400? If it was I was in for some serious heartache. Thankfully tracing the input to that IC showed that the problem was further back. So, the jittery signal I'd seen and heard was because one half of G3 wasn't getting the second oscillator.

Divide and Concur


The problem actually stemmed from the flip-flop divider chip on G3 which divides the 500KHz master clock oscillators from G3 and G4 in half, to 250KHz. The octave dividers provide a 1/4 of the input clock output, as well as the octave division for each note. The dividers on G4 provide a 125KHz clock to G2 and the G3 divider 62.5KHz to G1. Hence the input for G3, which must be half of G4, comes from the flip-flop dividers.

Flip-flop - TC4027BP


The TC4027P dual JK flip-flop IC is thus fed inputs directly from the master clock oscillators of G3 and G4.

Master Clock Oscillators from G3 (top) and G4 (bottom)



I could clearly see that whilst the inputs to both of the two flip-flops was okay, the only output was the one with the G4 clock input.

G4 Master Clock Oscillator input (top) and flip-flop output (bottom)


Even after disconnecting the wire running from the output on one side of G3 to the other there was still no signal to speak of. Reducing the scale showed something was there - all but nothing compared to the other output.



Flip-flop input 2 (top) and output 2 (bottom)


The 4027 was half dead.

The fact that this chip is adjacent to the blown transistor I had just replaced and uses the same -15V supply cannot be a coincidence. 

Flip-Flop Swap-Shop


After being slightly disconcerted that none of the main electronics shops sell these devices anymore (I assumed these parts would be around for ever) I found some at a reasonble price on eBay and they were posted the next day.

A few nights later I setteled into my comfort zone (I must have replaced dozens of DIPs back in my test and service tech days) and replaced the part with alacrity.

If you're not familar with changing DIP ICs the trick is to snip off all the legs before you go near the soldering iron. That is unless you have a pot of solder on the heat nearby, and then you can (after protecting the neigbouring parts and being liberal with your flux) place it pin-side down in the bath and pluck the IC out as soon as the solder has melted.

Faulty TC4027BP with legs snipped off.
 Then it's time to deloder each leg in turn. Doing it this way avoids putting additional strain on the pads as you try and get each one free. Ideally you have through-hole plating so that you can desolder from the top, where you pull the legs through. In the case of the SS30 there is no pad at all on the top side for the ICs so I had to do it in two stages: first on the bottom side I heated the solder on each pad and desoldered with wick (suction is liable to pull the pads of); then I used the iron to push each leg through to the top-side. As there is no solder through the hole they usually fall through without too much trouble.

Top-side of G3 board with IC removed


For most I have to do some more desoldering after pushing the leg through and then turn the board over and heat the leg from the top using tweezers to remove the last obstinate couple. Finally I went back to the bottom-side and used the wick again to remove the remaining solder. The main concern with that is to make sure that the legs of the new chip would slide cleanly through. With plated through-holes this can be a real pain to do cleanly.
 Even though I was careful I still lost a part of one of the pads though. This is typical for a pad with no track, as in this case. Because the pin is linked to the adjacent pin it still held enough to solder though.

Bottom-side of G3 with IC pads cleaned.
The new chip was a very close match to the original Toshiba part.

Old part (left) new part (right)


New part soldered in place


Soon everything was back to normal and the jitter was gone as all clocks were present and correct.


Both outputs from the flip-flops







          IFF PANAMÁ 2016—IBERO AMERICAN PORTAL        
IFF Panamá celebrates its fifth edition on April 7-13, 2016. For a North American film journalist, the undisputed value of an international film festival venued in Latin America resides in the festival's local showcase and—in the case of IFF Panamá—its Ibero American Portal, which boasts a particularly robust and diverse selection this year of both festival favorites and introduced works. What follows are Jose Teodoro's festival capsules enhanced with critical overview, where available.

3 Beauties / 3 Bellezas (2014, dir. Carlos Caridad-Montero, Venezuela)—Venezuelan Carlos Caridad-Montero has directed numerous short films prior to making his feature film debut with 3 Beauties (2014). This is the story of Single Mother Perla (Diana Peñalver), who is determined to transform one of her daughters into a beauty queen, going so far as to enforce food restrictions and offer lessons in bulimia. Whimsical on the surface yet incisive in its details, 3 Beauties dissects our obsession with conventions of feminine poise, provoking us to reconsider what it means to be beautiful. Official site. IMDb. Facebook.



600 Miles / 600 Millas (2015, dir. Gabriel Ripstein, Mexico / USA)—American ATF agent Hank Harris (Oscar® winner Tim Roth) is about to make what should be an easy arrest of two inexperienced arms smugglers. But the miscreants surprise Harris and beat him unconscious, and young Arnulfo (Kristyan Ferrer) makes an impulsive decision to take Harris back to Mexico with him. When Harris regains consciousness and convinces Arnulfo that his decision could prove life-threatening for both of them, the men form a tenuous bond as they realize each must trust the other in order to survive. Sustaining a heady level of tension throughout, director Gabriel Ripstein—son of Mexican maestro Arturo Ripstein, whose Bleak Street is also screening at this year's Festival—handles this taut narrative with a perfect balance of sensation and integrity. 600 Miles is a complex and original border drama, one that reminds us how trouble runs both ways, and builds toward a bold, unexpected finale

600 Miles screened in the Panorama section of the 65th Berlin International Film Festival where it won the award for Best First Feature. It was one of fourteen films shortlisted by Mexico to be their submission for the Academy Award® for Best Foreign Language Film at the 88th Academy Awards. On September 17, 2015 it was selected to represent Mexico for the Foreign Language Oscar® but it was not nominated. IMDb. Wikipedia.

At Variety, Peter Debruge notes 600 Miles "serves as a comparable corrective to bombastic Hollywood portrayals of south-of-the-border criminal activity." He praises first-timer Gabriel Ripstein's choice "for a less sensational, true-to-life approach" and contextualizes: "600 Miles tackles an issue that's gotten considerably less exposure in the news for the simple fact that Americans don't seem to care that the corruption and violence so widespread in Mexico today is being carried out with weapons manufactured on U.S. soil." At The Hollywood Reporter, Jordan Mintzer's bottom line is that two-hander 600 Miles is a "well-made gunrunning thriller that doesn't quite ignite" with "plenty of guns but few actual shots fired." Jessica Kiang at Indiewire describes it as "a lean, careful, clever tale of divided loyalties and divided territories in the borderlands of Mexico and the U.S." and "a study in liminality, of places, life-stages and mentalities that are trapped between two states, and afforded the protection and security of neither." Dan Fainaru writes at Screen: "If the script isn't always as neat as one would expect, at least the result is satisfactory, thanks to the authoritative presence of Tim Roth (one of the film's executive producers) as an American federal agent tracking arms traffickers, and of upcoming young talent Kristyan Ferrer as an adolescent apprentice in crime, whose conduct alternates between Travis Bickle braggadocio—when he is alone in front of a mirror—and sniveling terror when he is faced with real life."



Alias María (2015, dir. José Luis Rugeles, Colombia)—María (Karen Torres), a 13-year-old guerrilla soldier, is given a mission to complete along with 3 other soldier-kids: bring the commander's newborn baby to safety in a neighboring town. But nobody knows the secret she is hiding: María is pregnant and having a child is forbidden in the guerrilla. During the mission her secret is revealed and she runs away to avoid being forced to abort. Through María's eyes we experience the devastating results of Colombia's armed conflict: towns ravaged by massacres, peasants trapped in the cross-fire, parents who have lost their children, and kids trying to grow up normally amid the carnage. Thanks to a new instinct born inside her, in José Luis Rugeles' Alias María our protagonist will find the strength to look for a new life. Official site. IMDb. Facebook. Central American Premiere.

Alias Maria screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival where it was respected by the trades for its efforts to expose the plight of child soldiers in Colombia, but criticized for failing to do so in a way that could emotionally resonate with audiences. As Boyd von Hoeij states at The Hollywood Reporter, "[I]ts unusual angle on the ongoing war in Colombia is certainly worthy of attention. But the filmmaker's tendency to pare back his narrative to its barest essentials makes it very hard to identify with anyone, with all of the characters despondent archetypes rather than real people." He adds that Rugeles' approach "comes down to removing practically all references to not only personal lives—which these extremely young guerrillas don't really have anyway, the occasional bout of sex between fighters notwithstanding—but also private thoughts or emotions. The 'cause' does indeed seem to be their only raison d'etre, which might be lifelike but doesn't necessarily make for a good story." Peter Debruge concurs at Variety: "In contrast with numerous recent child-soldier stories, from the manipulative Salvadorian drama Innocent Voices to the entire mini-genre emerging in response to similar issues in Africa (like the Oscar®-nominated short That Wasn't Me), Rugeles opts for an austere art-film style, rather than the more conventionally accessible melodramatic approach that might help the film reach the widest possible international audience. Though informed by research, Diego Vivanco's script withholds much of the essential context viewers need to make sense of its long, wordless stretches, while Rugeles' execution fails to generate the tension that approach requires." In gist, Debruge complains, "this film drags when it should electrify."



The Apostate / El apóstata (2015, dir. Federico Veiroj, Spain / France / Uruguay)—Sleepy eyed madrileño Gonzalo Tamayo (co-scenarist Álvaro Ogalla) is a dreamer. Though well into his 30s, he has no career, no compulsion to complete his studies and no romantic life to speak of. But he has decided on one clear goal, one ambition to animate him with a sense of purpose: to apostatize from the Catholic Church. Will the Church's archaic bureaucracy prove too labyrinthine for our slacker hero to navigate? Imaginative, sexy, and composed of one elegantly rendered image after another, Uruguayan Federico Vieroj's The Apostate is a sophisticated, Iberian spin on the man-child comedy. Official site [sp]. IMDb.

David Hudson has rounded up the Toronto reviews for Fandor's Keyframe Daily. He notes as well that The Apostate won both the FIPRESCI Award and a Jury Special Mention at the 63rd San Sebastian International Film Festival. James Kang offers the most recent reviews at Critics Roundup.



Bleak Street / La calle de la amargura (2015, dir. Arturo Ripstein, México)—Based on a true story: Bleak Street recounts the 2009 accidental deaths of fraternal mini-luchadores at the hands of two female sex workers, Adela (Patricia Reyes Spíndola) and Dora (Nora Velázquez), in a Cuauhtémoc hotel. The latest from Mexican maestro Arturo Ripstein, Bleak Street lures us into Mexico City's gloomy backstreets, fleabag hotels and cramped flats to relay a strange, engrossing tale of desperation and desire. IMDb. Central American Premiere.

At Fandor's Keyframe Daily David Hudson has rounded up Bleak Street's first reviews from Venice. My review timed to the film's San Franciscan theatrical release is on The Evening Class.



The Clan / El Clan (2015, dir. Pablo Trapero, Argentina / Spain)—Torture and extortion manifest in this true story. Based on one of the most shocking stories in the annals of Argentine crime, El Clan is as real as it gets. The latest film from Pablo Trapero (White Elephant) is a grippingly grotesque, ferociously and stylish thriller about the infamous Puccios, a Buenos Aires family whose secret business consists on kidnapping and murder. In El Clan—which had the largest opening weekend of any Argentine film in history—Arquímedes (Argentine superstar Guillermo Francella) hasn't fared well professionally since retiring from the state intelligence service. His solution to financial decline is a radical one: He devises a kidnapping scheme with the help of his eldest son Alejandro (Peter Lanzani), which draws victims from the very social elite that comprises his neighborhood. IMDb. Wikipedia.

The Clan was selected to be screened in the main competition section of the 72nd Venice International Film Festival where Trapero won the Silver Lion. At Fandor's Keyframe Daily, David Hudson gathered the reviews from both Venice and Toronto. The film was selected as the Argentine entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 88th Academy Awards® but was not nominated.



Desierto (2015, dir. Jonás Cuarón, México / USA)—In Jonás Cuarón's unnerving and politically pointed thriller, Desierto, Mexican superstar Gael García Bernal plays Moises, a migrant worker who unexpectedly becomes the de facto leader of a group that's on the run from a seemingly omnipresent sniper called Sam (Jeffrey Dean Morgan). With his truck, long-range rifle and German shepherd trained to terminate its preys, Sam will stop at nothing to keep these foreigners from entering his beloved homeland. The more blood Sam spills on the desert floor the stronger he seems to get, yet in Moises he finds his most elusive target, who is fueled by his moral compass and a strong will to survive. Official site. IMDb. Wikipedia. Facebook. Central American Premiere.

Desierto was shown in the Special Presentations section of the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival, where it won the FIPRESCI Prize. At Fandor's Keyframe Daily, David Hudson grouped together the mixed reviews from Toronto.



Embrace of the Serpent / El Abrazo de la Serpiente (2015, dir. Ciro Guerra, Colombia / Venezuela / Argentina)—Embrace of the Serpent tells two parallel botanical adventure stories, one set in 1909, the other in 1940, both unfolding in an Amazon ravaged by colonialism. Gorgeously photographed in silvery black and white, this elegiac epic surveys a vanishing way of life and the natural world that we neglect at our peril. IMDb. Wikipedia.

Along with its significant Cannes win (where David Hudson scooped up the first reviews for Fandor's Keyframe Daily), Embrace of the Serpent picked up honors at the 2015 Lima Latin American Film Festival (Best Film and a Critics Award) and the 2015 Odessa International Film Festival (Special Jury Mention in the International Competition). The film was selected as the Colombian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 88th Academy Awards® and made Colombian film history by advancing to the final five. Admittedly my favorite film of 2015, I transcribed actor Brionne Davis's Q&A at the 2015 Mill Valley Film Festival, and seized the opportunity to converse with Guerra at the 2016 Palm Springs International, published thereafter at Cineaste as an online exclusive.



From Afar / Desde allá (2015, dir. Lorenzo Vigas, Venezuela / Mexico)—Lorenzo Vigas' remarkable feature debut, which won the Golden Lion at the 72nd Venice International Film Festival, tells the story of an upper-class denture maker (Alfredo Castro) who develops an unlikely friendship with one of the young lower-class men he pays for companionship. Desde allá speaks eloquently to Venezuela's present reality with a narrative that traverses the disparate social classes that comprise the country's capital. IMDb. Wikipedia. Facebook.

At Fandor's Keyframe Daily, David Hudson has aggregated reviews from both Venice and Toronto.



Land and Shade / La tierra y la sombra (2015, dir. César Augusto Acevedo, Colombia)—Astonishingly beautiful and overwhelmingly moving, César Augusto Acevedo's masterful debut concerns a rural family struggling with illness, labor exploitation and longstanding emotional wounds. Returning home many years after having abandoned his family, Alfonso (Haimer Leal) finds that his son, sugarcane worker Gerardo (Edison Raigosa), has fallen gravely ill with a respiratory disease, yet his daughter-in-law (Marleyda Soto) and estranged wife Alicia (Hilda Ruiz) continue to work the local cane fields, slashing and burning crop, a routine—yet highly toxic—part of the annual harvest. The actors give arresting performances, while the use of locations—from the colossal banyan tree to the apocalyptic burning fields—infuse Land and Shade with an air of myth. IMDb. Wikipedia. Facebook.

Land and Shade screened in the International Critics' Week section at the 2015 Cannes Film Festival where it won the France 4 Visionary Award, the SACD Award, the Golden Rail and the Camera D'Or (awarded to a first-time film-maker across the whole festival selection). It also picked up wins at the Lima Latin American Film Festival, and the Mumbai and Thessaloniki Film Festivals. At Variety, Peter Debruge writes: "While mirthless in the extreme, César Acevedo's deliberately paced and distant-feeling debut works its way under audiences' skin, weaving a haunting allegory through painterly compositions, while distinguishing itself as a worthy candidate for that subset of festivals which specializes in arduous cinema." At The Hollywood Reporter, Jordan Mintzer adds: "Capturing much of the action in a series of well-choreographed sequence shots, Acevedo and DP Mateo Guzman provide an array of roving, memorable images, including the opening scene (repeated later with a slight variation) and one involving a horse that’s straight out of an Andrei Tarkovksy movie." At Screen, Fionnuala Halligan notes: "Some of Arcevedo's compositions call to mind The Good Earth, his family captured in almost heroic-profile as the ravages of modern development take their toll. ...Arcevedo is certainly as preoccupied with image as he is content and it is perhaps the individual frames and tableaux which linger on past this resolutely-downbeat, emblematic story."



Magallanes (2015, dir. Salvador del Solar, Perú / Colombia)—Happening inside of a vehicle, Magallanes, the directorial debut of Peruvian actor Salvador del Solar is an atmospheric thriller that tells the story of a terrible secret that comes back to haunt a middle-aged cabbie (Damián Alcázar), a mysterious woman (Magaly Solier) and a senile old man (Federico Luppi) who was once a fearsome colonel during the worst years of the Shining Path insurgency. IMDb. Facebook.

Magallanes screened in the Contemporary World Cinema section of the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival. At Variety, Scott Tobias deems Magallanes "a quietly gripping Peruvian thriller about old political wounds and the elusive quest for redemption." He adds: "Del Solar makes meaningful associations between this personal story and the history of a country still coming to terms with its fight against the Shining Path and its troubled relationship to indigenous people. In the film's most affecting moment, an anguished Celina reverts to her native Quechua and while neither the characters nor the audience can understand her words, their meaning comes across with startling intensity. It's a communication gap that cannot be bridged." Jonathan Holland's bottom line at The Hollywood Reporter is that Magallanes is a "gripping character study built into a story of potent tragedy."



Much Ado About Nothing / Aquí no ha pasado nada (2016, dir. Alejandro Fernández Almendras, Chile)—Inspired by a real-life incident, this latest drama from Alejandro Fernández Almendras is a meticulously constructed condemnation of a criminal level of classism. Much Ado About Nothing lures us into the laid-back luxury enjoyed by Chile's upper crust, before gradually revealing how privilege insulates these characters from feeling responsibility for their actions. Official site [Spanish]. IMDb. Facebook. Central American Premiere.

Aquí no ha pasado nada had its World Premiere in the World Cinema Dramatic Competition at Sundance 2016 and its European Premiere in the Panorama sidebar at the Berlinale 2016. Alejandro Fernández Almendras' previous effort To Kill A Man (2014) won the Grand Jury Prize at Sundance and his anticipated follow-up Aquí no ha pasado nada purports to be the second installment in an intended trilogy on "justice", this time addressing how the wealthy and influential classes pervert the judicial system towards their own interest at the expense of the middle class.

Based on a true story ripped from recent headlines in Chile, Vicente (Agustín Silva) is a handsome young man from a middle class family who is picked up on a beach by a group of wealthy kids who get drunk and accidentally kill a pedestrian with their car. The driver is the son of an important politician who can't hazard the scandal so he hires an attorney to pin the blame on the presumably innocent Vicente. According to Boyd van Hoeij of The Hollywood Reporter, the film's ominous set-up capsizes into mannered distantiation weakened further by disinterested characterizations. "Why should audiences care about apparently careless people who are falsely accused of anything?" he asks. Peter Debruge concurs at Variety. His review interestingly details the Chilean source case but complains that "the film adopts Vicente's free-floating attitude ... without ever quite getting into the heads of its characters" and without taking "a more overtly moral stand." By choosing to depict tagalong accomplice Vicente as the "victim"—as opposed to the dead pedestrian—Debruge feels Almendras has cynically courted controversy. He concludes: "It can be tough to discern which is harder to take, Almendras' cynicism or his characters' ambivalence."



My Big Night / Mi gran noche (2015, dir. Álex de la Iglesia, Spain)—Renowned actors share the screen in Álex de la Iglesia's My Big Night: Mario Casas, Raphael, Carmen Machi and Santiago Segura, among others. An audacious ensemble comedy brimming also with showbiz satire, the latest from madcap maestro de la Iglesia (Witching & Bitching) recalls the frenetic social panoramas of Fellini, Altman and Almodóvar. My Big Night offers an all-access backstage pass to the taping of a TV variety show in which everything goes spectacularly (and hilariously) wrong. IMDb. Wikipedia. Central American Premiere.

My Big Night had its World Premiere at the Toronto International Film Festival, which is where Variety's Ben Kenigsberg reviewed it: "The hapless advance filming of a New Year's special is complicated by a squashed extra, an assassination plot, blackmail, riots, raging libidos, ghastly ego trips and, of course, a few song-and-dance numbers in My Big Night, an enjoyably antic farce that’s built to spill over—and largely delivers on its party-hardy promise. ...but while this breathless ensembler may be too campy for some tastes, it is also a feat of elegant construction that could draw viewers who once flocked to early, transgressive Almodóvar, provided they're in a frivolous mood. ...The pervasive flippancy makes it easy to overlook the tightness of the film's construction (the script was written by de la Iglesia and regular collaborator Jorge Guerricaechevarria). Editor Domingo Gonzalez maintains clarity and a rapid pace while cutting among the surfeit of storylines. The supersaturated palette, tacky outfits, and glitzy set—a character in itself—are essential to the show."

Jonathan Holland's assessment at The Hollywood Reporter is considerably more qualified in its enthusiasm: "The days of film makers pretending that fiction can outdo reality may be long gone, but this madcap comedy—and yes, it's basically old-fashioned enough to deserve that moniker—shows that de la Iglesia seems prepared to give it one last shot with this yarn about the struggle to film a New Year TV special. If you wanted to get serious about My Big Night, you'd say that it was a 60s-inspired, Fellini-esque record of the night that old-style variety performance, swollen by its own audience-seeking successes, finally blew up. But My Big Night doesn't want you to get serious. It wants you to sit back and enjoy the ride, and mostly you will, if overblown kitsch, hammerhead subtlety and gags are your thing. What’s frustrating is not the film itself, but its director: de la Iglesia seems permanently blighted by a boyish restlessness which so far has prevented him from slowing down and taking stock to make the special film he’s capable of." Holland's bottom line? My Big Night is "vertiginous, vacuous, dated fun."



No Filter / Sin Filtro (2016, dir. Nicolás López, Chile)—Pía (Paz Bascuñán) is a woman on the verge of a nervous breakdown: everyday life is crushing Pía's soul. The stress is manifesting in chest pains. But a mysterious acupuncturist removes Pía's filter, and suddenly a lifetime of repressive instincts vanish. It's time for Pía to air her grievances, tell it like it is, let loose her aggression—and quite possibly change her life. IMDb. International Premiere.



Retribution / El desconocido (2015, dir. Dani de la Torre, Spain / France)—Revenge threatens Luis Tosar in a fight against a madman's ticking clock. Drifting from the vast desert to a claustrophobic automobile, Dani de la Torre's high-octane thriller tells the story of a family that, while trapped in their car, are forced to contend with the seemingly impossible demands of a lunatic extortionist, who threatens to blow up a bomb placed under their seats. A perfect vehicle for Spanish superstar Luis Tosar, Retribution will keep you on the edge of your seat—and make you terrified to leave it. IMDb. Latin American Premiere.

Retribution screened in the Venice Days section of the 72nd Venice International Film Festival, where David Hudson rounded up the reviews for Fandor's Keyframe Daily.




Road to La Paz / Camino a La Paz (2016, dir. Francisco Varone, Argentina)—Argentinian-born Francisco Varone's Road to La Paz covers some 2,000 miles, building a bridge between characters 40 years apart in age and worlds apart in lifestyle. Sebastián (Rodrigo de la Serna) is a shaggy, unemployed, 35-year-old porteño. All he has is his band, his father's old Peugeot and his wife Jazmín (Elisa Carricajo). Otherwise, he seems completely aimless. Yet his life takes a new direction when elderly and ailing Jalil (Ernesto Suarez) hires Sebastián to drive him all the way from Buenos Aires to La Paz, on his way to Mecca. This gentle and wise road film explores those rare intersections in life when we receive the opportunity to become a better version of ourselves by better understanding someone else. IMDb.

At The Hollywood Reporter, Jonathan Holland guides that "what's interesting here is that it's the passenger, and not the places, which impact most on our hero, on a journey which could be taking place almost anywhere. ...Though both de la Serna and Suarez are strong in their roles, with de la Serna's eyes seeming to express constant yearning, it's the relationship between them that really counts, and they're rarely seen outside it." At Twitch, Todd Brown enthuses: "Varone's script is littered with moments of gentle humor and he allows the relationship between his characters to grow naturally, the road doubling as a pathway to maturity for Sebastian as he slowly learns to shift his focus away from himself and on to larger issues. ...Quietly funny, deeply empathic, laced with exotic imagery, Road To La Paz is a remarkably strong and assured debut from a very talented filmmaker, one who is hopefully just at the beginning of his own road."



The Second Mother / Que horas ela volta (2015, dir. Anna Muylaert, Brazil)—In a dynamic common to many Latin American households, after so many years of looking after Fabinho (Michel Joelsas), devoted São Paulo housekeeper and nanny Val (Regina Casé) has become a kind of second mother to this boy now on the cusp of manhood. This wry comedy of manners from Brazilian writer-director Anna Muylaert follows a housekeeper and nanny who becomes so good at mothering her employer's family that she winds up neglecting her own. The Second Mother is a big-hearted exploration of class difference, family and the search for one's place in the world. Official site. IMDb. Wikipedia.

The Second Mother premiered at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival, won the Audience Award at the Berlinale's Panorama Section, and was later released theatrically in Brazil August 2015. The film received critical praise in and outside Brazil and was selected as the Brazilian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 88th Academy Awards®. Variety's Geoff Berkshire chracterizes The Second Mother as "the sort of savvy, socially conscious crowdpleaser that occupies a rare middle ground between genteel and intellectual world cinema." At The Hollywood Reporter, Boyd van Hoeij praises: "This densely layered yet almost fast paced-feeling drama ... passes not only the Bechdel test with flying colors but dissects with both chilling precision and humor such matters as class differences, real mothers vs. caretakers and whether privilege and one's own station are things that can be questioned or changed." His bottom line? "Beautifully written and acted with precision, this film's a winner."



Semana Santa (2015, dir. Alejandra Márquez, Mexico)—Dali (Anajosé Aldrete) hopes that holidaying at one of Mexico's idyllic beaches will provide a respite from her woes, but the resort in which she means to stay with her eight-year-old son (Esteban Ávila) and new handsome beau (Tenoch Huerta) has seen better days—and being crammed into a small room together only helps to draw everyone inward. Brimming with moments of sorrow and grief, as well as humor and tenderness, Mexican Alejandra Márquez Abella's fiction feature debut is a memorable evocation of the confluence of longing, hope and memory; Semana Santa immerses us in the mysteries of the human heart. IMDb. Facebook. Central American Premiere.

Semana Santa screened in the Discovery section of the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival where Harry Windsor dispatched to The Hollywood Reporter: "Márquez Abella demonstrates a deft, economical, sense of storytelling."

 
Trailer SEMANA SANTA from alejandra márquez abella on Vimeo.

Spy Time / Anacleto: Agente secreto (2015, dir. Javier Ruiz Caldera, Spain)—Even worse than a party gone south, what could go wrong when a wide-eyed teenager has to help his father, a secret agent (secret even to his own son), save himself from a revengeful criminal? The latest from Spanish director Javier Ruiz Caldera (Ghost Graduation) finds a secret agent father (Imanol Arias) teaming up with his slacker son (Quim Gutiérrez) to fend off a powerful criminal bent on revenge. A giddily entertaining fusion of high-tension 007 tropes with tender moments of intergenerational bonding, Spy Time will have you exploding with laughter. IMDb. Central American Premiere.

 

Strange Days / Días extraños (2015, dir. Juan Sebastián Quebrada, Argentina / Colombia)—Colombian Juan Sebastián Quebrada's striking debut follows a young couple adrift in a strange city with nothing to do but wander, party, fight, fornicate and try to make ends meet. Having moved from Colombia to Buenos Aires, the couple is young enough to amuse themselves with the slightest novelty or act of transgression, but aimlessness has a way of poisoning a relationship. Photographed in an exquisitely graded black and white, Strange Days captures the allure and menace of misspent youth—as well as the promise of its redemption. IMDb. Central American Premiere.

The Thin Yellow Line / La delgada línea amarilla (2015, dir. Celso R. García, Mexico)—After Toño (Damián Alcázar, also starring in Magallanes) is fired from the junkyard where he served as watchman for 11 years, he runs into a colleague from his old days in roadwork and leaps at his offer to supervise a small crew and paint the center line along 120 miles of desert highway. The Thin Yellow Line follows Toño and his men—a former circus stagehand, a trucker with failing eyesight, an ex-con, and a sullen teenager saving up to go to the US—for two weeks as they fulfill their duty despite numerous obstacles, infighting and horrendous dangers. Supported by a formidable producing team that includes Guillermo Del Toro, Mexican writer-director Celso R. García's heartfelt debut offers us a rare glimpse into the lives of hardworking factotums, men who do what they need to just to get by, who withstand ordinary tragedies as best they can, who take pride in fleeting triumphs, and who ultimately find comfort in acts of sharing, solidarity and the satisfaction of a job well-done. IMDb.

The Thin Yellow Line had its World Premiere at the Guadalajara Film Festival where it nabbed the audience award and several other kudos. "As in the best road movies," Alissa Simon writes at Variety, "the journey of the workers changes their way of seeing and understanding life. For them and us, the line they paint comes to symbolize the thin line between right and wrong, laughter and tears, and life and death." John DeFore opines at The Hollywood Reporter: "As straightforward in its action as in its conceit, the film hits very familiar beats but does so in unusually credible fashion, thanks in part to the moral gravity of taciturn leading man Damián Alcázar." At Screen, Lee Marshall adds: "Moments of melancholic truth, drama and comedy are coaxed out of the contrast between ordinary people and a big landscape, and working-class male emotional reticence drives a plot that dips lightly into a series of slowly revealed back stories."



Truman / Una Sonrisa a la Vida (2015, dir. Cesc Gay, Spain / Argentina)—The latest from Spanish director Cesc Gay (A Gun in Each Hand) stars Ricardo Darín and Javier Cámara as old pals meeting for what will surely be the last time. Truman is a tender, honest portrayal of a man facing mortality, and of the companionship that sustains him in this most trying of times. Official site. IMDb. Wikipedia. Facebook.

Truman screened in the Contemporary World Cinema section of the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival and in the Official Section of the 2015 San Sebastián International Film Festival, where it was awarded the Silver Shell for Best Actor for Ricardo Darín and Javier Cámara. It won five Goya Awards, including Best Film, Best Director, Best Original Screenplay, Best Actor (Ricardo Darín) and Best Supporting Actor (Javier Cámara). Variety's Joe Leydon describes Truman as "wise, wistful and well-observed" and "by turns amusing and affecting." Jonathan Holland at The Hollywood Reporter considers Truman to be "Gay’s most emotionally direct work to date, thoroughly shedding the clever-cleverness of some of his earlier work, and also his most accessible—a clean-lined, sensitively-written and beautifully played two-hander that tackles complex issues in a refreshingly straightforward, downbeat way."



The Violin Teacher (2015, dir. Sergio Machado, Brazil)—Having blown an audition for the city's prestigious symphony orchestra on account of nerves, violinist Laerte (Lázaro Ramos) finds himself saddled with a gig teaching music at a public school in the São Paolo shantytown of Heliopolis. Laerte is Afro-Brazilian, and his professional demeanor earned him the nickname "Obama Junior" from his pupils. The students can't read music, and most have little experience handling instruments, much less mastering their potential. Laerte might be able to teach some of these kids to believe in the power of classical music, but can he teach them to believe in themselves? Drawing upon a finely tuned screenplay whose authors include Marcelo Gomes (director of IFF '13's Once Upon a Time Was I, Verônica), director Sérgio Machado orchestrates The Violin Teacher's various motifs into a harmonious whole, a film at once tense and truly inspiring: sometimes having one person who really believes in you can clear the path toward a brighter future. IMDb. Latin American Premiere.

Variety's Guy Lodge describes The Violin Teacher as "a familiar but affecting Brazilian tale of classical music's healing urban power." At Screen, Allan Hunter asserts: "The Violin Teacher (Heliopolis) treads a well-worn path but does so with enough polish and sincerity to make its redemptive tale hard to resist."

 
          Speed of light        

The speed of light, usually denoted by c, is a physical constant, so named because it is the speed at which light and all other electromagnetic radiation travels in vacuum. Its value is exactly 299,792,458 metres per second,[1][2] often approximated as 300,000 kilometres per second or 186,000 miles per second. In the theory of relativity, c connects space and time in spacetime, and appears in the famous equation of mass–energy equivalence E = mc2.[3] The speed of light is the speed of all massless particles and associated fields in vacuum, and it is believed to be the speed of gravity and of gravitational waves and an upper bound on the speed at which energy, matter, and information can travel.

The speed at which light propagates through transparent materials, such as glass or air, is less than c. The ratio between c and the speed v at which light travels in a material is called the refractive index n of the material (n = c / v). For example, for visible light the refractive index of glass is typically around 1.5, meaning that light in glass travels at c / 1.5 ≈ 200,000 km/s; the refractive index of air for visible light is about 1.0003, so the speed of light in air is very close to c.

The Earth orbits the Sun at a distance of 150 million kilometres, and the Moon in turn orbits the Earth.

Sunlight takes about 8 minutes, 19 seconds to reach Earth.
Exact values
metres per second 299,792,458
Planck units 1
Approximate values
kilometres per second 300,000
kilometres per hour 1,079 million
miles per second 186,000
miles per hour 671 million
astronomical units per day 173
Approximate light signal travel times
Distance Time
one foot 1.0 ns
one metre 3.3 ns
one kilometre 3.3 μs
one statute mile 5.4 μs
from the geostationary orbit to Earth 119 ms
the length of Earth's equator 134 ms
from Moon to Earth 1.3 s
from Sun to Earth (1 AU) 8.3 min
one parsec 3.26 years
from Alpha Centauri to Earth 4.4 years
across the Milky Way 100,000 years
from the Andromeda Galaxy to Earth 2.5 million years

For much of human history, it was debated whether light was transmitted instantaneously or

merely very quickly. Ole Rømer first demonstrated that it travelled at a finite speed by studying the apparent motion of Jupiter's moon Io. After centuries of increasingly precise measurements, in 1975 the speed of light was known to be 299,792,458 m/s with a relative measurement uncertainty of 4 parts per billion. In 1983, the metre was redefined in the International System of Units (SI) as the distance travelled by light in vacuum in 1⁄299,792,458 of a second. As a result, the numerical value of c in metres per second is now fixed exactly by the definition of the metre.

Numerical value, notation and units

The speed of light is a dimensional physical constant, so its numerical value depends on the system of units used. In the International System of Units (SI), the metre is defined as the distance light travels in vacuum in 1⁄299,792,458 of a second (see "Increased accuracy and redefinition of the metre", below). The effect of this definition is to fix the speed of light in vacuum at exactly 299,792,458 m/s.[Note 1][5][6][7]

The speed of light in vacuum is usually denoted by c, for "constant" or the Latin celeritas (meaning "swiftness"). Originally, the symbol V was used, introduced by Maxwell in 1865. In 1856, Weber and Kohlrausch had used c for a constant later shown to equal √2 times the speed of light in vacuum. In 1894, Drude redefined c with its modern meaning. Einstein used V in his original German-language papers on special relativity in 1905, but in 1907 he switched to c, which by then had become the standard symbol.[8][9]

Some authors use c for the speed of waves in any material medium, and c0 for the speed of light in vacuum.[10] This subscripted notation, which is endorsed in official SI literature,[1] has the same form as other related constants: namely, μ0 for the vacuum permeability or magnetic constant, ε0 for the vacuum permittivity or electric constant, and Z0 for the impedance of free space. This article uses c exclusively for the speed of light in vacuum.

In branches of physics in which the speed of light plays an important part, such as in relativity, it is common to use systems of natural units of measurement in which c = 1.[11][12] When such a system of measurement is used, the speed of light drops out of the equations of physics, because multiplication or division by 1 does not affect the result.

Fundamental role in physics

The speed at which light propagates in vacuum is independent both of the motion of the light source and of the inertial frame of reference of the observer.[Note 2] This invariance of the speed of light was postulated by Albert Einstein in 1905, motivated by Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism and the lack of evidence for the luminiferous ether;[13] it has since been consistently confirmed by many experiments.[Note 3][12][14] The theory of special relativity explores the consequences of the existence of such an invariant speed c and the assumption that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference.[15][16] One consequence is that c is the speed at which all massless particles and waves, including light, must travel.

γ starts at 1 when v equals zero and stays nearly constant for small v's, then it sharply curves upwards and has a vertical asymptote, diverging to positive infinity as v approaches c.
The Lorentz factor γ as a function of velocity. It starts at 1 and approaches infinity as v approaches c.

Special relativity has many counter-intuitive implications, which have been verified in many experiments.[17] These include the equivalence of mass and energy (E = mc2), length contraction (moving objects shorten),[Note 4] and time dilation (moving clocks run slower). The factor γ by which lengths contract and times dilate, known as the Lorentz factor, is given by γ = (1 − v2/c2)−1/2, where v is the speed of the object; its difference from 1 is negligible for speeds much slower than c, such as most everyday speeds—in which case special relativity is closely approximated by Galilean relativity—but it increases at relativistic speeds and diverges to infinity as v approaches c.

Three pairs of coordinate axes are depicted with the same origin A; in the green frame, the x axis is horizontal and the ct axis is vertical; in the red frame, the x′ axis is slightly skewed upwards, and the ct′ axis slightly skewed rightwards, relative to the green axes; in the blue frame, the x′′ axis is somewhat skewed downwards, and the ct′′ axis somewhat skewed leftwards, relative to the green axes. A point B on the green x axis, to the left of A, has zero ct, positive ct′, and negative ct′′.
Event A precedes B in the red frame, is simultaneous with B in the green frame, and follows B in the blue frame.

Another counter-intuitive consequence of special relativity is the relativity of simultaneity: if the spatial distance between two events A and B is greater than the time interval between them multiplied by c, then there are frames of reference in which A precedes B, others in which B precedes A, and others in which they are simultaneous; neither event can be the cause of the other.

The results of special relativity can be summarized by treating space and time as a unified structure known as spacetime (with c relating the units of space and time), and requiring that physical theories satisfy a special symmetry called Lorentz invariance, whose mathematical formulation contains the parameter c.[20] Lorentz invariance has become an almost universal assumption for modern physical theories, such as quantum electrodynamics, quantum chromodynamics, the Standard Model of particle physics, and general relativity. As such, the parameter c is ubiquitous in modern physics, appearing in many contexts that may seem to be unrelated to light. For example, general relativity predicts that c is also the speed of gravity and of gravitational waves.[21]

In non-inertial frames of reference (gravitationally curved space or accelerated reference frames), the local speed of light is constant and equal to c, but the speed of light along a trajectory of finite length can differ from c, depending on how distances and times are defined.[22]

It is generally assumed in physics that fundamental constants such as c have the same value throughout spacetime, meaning that they do not depend on location and do not vary with time. However, various theories have suggested that the speed of light has changed over time.[23][24] Although no conclusive evidence for such theories has been found, they remain the subject of ongoing research.[25][26][27]

Upper limit on speeds

According to special relativity, the energy of an object with rest mass m and speed v is given by γmc2, where γ is the Lorentz factor defined above. When v is zero, γ is equal to one, giving rise to the famous E = mc2 formula for mass-energy equivalence. Since the γ factor approaches infinity as v approaches c, it would take an infinite amount of energy to accelerate an object with mass to the speed of light. The speed of light is the upper limit for the speeds of objects with positive rest mass.[28]

More generally, it is normally impossible for any information or energy to travel faster than c. One reason is that according to the theory of special relativity, if something were travelling faster than c relative to an inertial frame of reference, it would be travelling backwards in time relative to another frame,[Note 5] and causality would be violated.[Note 6][30] In such a frame of reference, an "effect" could be observed before its "cause". Such a violation of causality has never been recorded,[14] and would lead to paradoxes.[Note 7][31] Faster-than-light observations and experiments

There are situations in which it may seem that matter, energy, or information travels at speeds greater than c, but they do not. For example, if a laser beam is swept quickly across a distant object, the spot of light can move faster than c, but the only physical entities that are moving are the laser and its emitted light, which travels at the speed c from the laser to the various positions of the spot. The movement of the spot will be delayed after the laser is moved because of the time it takes light to get to the distant object from the laser. Similarly, a shadow projected onto a distant object can be made to move faster than c.[32] In neither case does any matter or information travel faster than light.[33]

In some interpretations of quantum mechanics, certain quantum effects may seem to be transmitted faster than c—and thus instantaneously in some frame—as in the EPR paradox. An example involves the quantum states of two particles that can be entangled. Until either of the particles is observed, they exist in a superposition of two quantum states. If the particles are separated and one particle's quantum state is observed, the other particle's quantum state is determined instantaneously (i.e., faster than light could travel from one particle to the other). However, it is impossible to control which quantum state the first particle will take on when it is observed, so information cannot be transmitted in this manner.[33][34]

Another quantum effect that predicts the occurrence of faster-than-light speeds is called the Hartman effect; under certain conditions the time needed for a particle to tunnel through a barrier is constant.[35][36] This could result in a particle crossing a large gap faster-than-light. However, no information can be sent using this effect.[37]

As is discussed in the propagation of light in a medium section below, many wave velocities can exceed c. For example, the phase velocity of X-rays through most glasses can routinely exceed c,[38] but such waves cannot convey any information.[39]

The rate of change in the distance between two objects in a frame of reference with respect to which both are moving (their closing speed) may have a value in excess of c. However, this does not represent the speed of any single object as measured in a single inertial frame.[citation needed]

So-called superluminal motion is seen in certain astronomical objects,[40] such as the relativistic jets of radio galaxies and quasars. However, these jets are not moving at speeds in excess of the speed of light: the apparent superluminal motion is a projection effect caused by objects moving near the speed of light and approaching Earth at a small angle to the line of sight: since the light which was emitted when the jet was farther away took longer to reach the Earth, the time between two successive observations corresponds to a longer time between the instants at which the light rays were emitted.[41]

In models of the expanding universe, the farther galaxies are from each other, the faster they drift apart. This receding is not due to motion through space, but rather to the expansion of space itself.[33] For example, galaxies far away from Earth appear to be moving away from the Earth with a speed proportional to their distances. Beyond a boundary called the Hubble sphere, this apparent recessional velocity becomes greater than the speed of light.[42]

Propagation of light

In classical physics, light is described as a type of electromagnetic wave. The classical behaviour of the electromagnetic field is described by Maxwell's equations, which predict that the speed c with which electromagnetic waves (such as light) propagate through the vacuum is related to the electric constant ε0 and the magnetic constant μ0 by the equation c = 1/√ε0μ0.[43]

In modern quantum physics, the electromagnetic field is described by the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED). In this theory, light is described by the fundamental excitations (or quanta) of the electromagnetic field, called photons. In QED, photons are massless particles and thus, according to special relativity, they must travel at the speed of light.

Extensions of QED in which the photon has a mass have been considered. In such a theory, its speed would depend on its frequency, and the invariant speed c of special relativity would then be the upper limit of the speed of light in vacuum.[22] To date no such effects have been observed,[44][45][46] putting stringent limits on the mass of the photon. The limit obtained depends on the used model: if the massive photon is described by Proca theory,[47] the experimental upper bound for its mass is about 10−57 grams;[48] if photon mass is generated by a Higgs mechanism, the experimental upper limit is less sharp, m ≤ 10−14 eV/c2 [47] (roughly 2 × 10−47 g).

Another reason for the speed of light to vary with its frequency would be the failure of special relativity to apply to arbitrarily small scales, as predicted by some proposed theories of quantum gravity. In 2009, the observation of the spectrum of gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 did not find any difference in the speeds of photons of different energies, confirming that Lorentz invariance is verified at least down to the scale of the Planck length (lP = √ħG/c3 ≈ 1.6163×10−35 m) divided by 1.2.[49]

In a medium

When light enters materials, its energy is absorbed. In the case of transparent materials, this energy is quickly re-radiated. However, this absorption and re-radiation introduces a delay. As light propagates through dielectric material it undergoes continuous absorption and re-radiation. Therefore the speed of light in a medium is said to be less than c, which should be read as the speed of energy propagation at the macroscopic level. At an atomic level, electromagnetic waves always travel at c in the empty space between atoms. Two factors influence this slowing: stronger absorption leading to shorter path length between each re-radiation cycle, and longer delays. The slowing is therefore the result of these two factors.[50] The refractive index of a transparent material is defined as the ratio of c to the speed of light v in the material. Larger indices of refraction indicate smaller speeds. The refractive index of a material may depend on the light's frequency, intensity, polarization, or direction of propagation. In many cases, though, it can be treated as a material-dependent constant. The refractive index of air is approximately 1.0003.[51] Denser media, such as water and glass, have refractive indexes of around 1.3 and 1.5 respectively for visible light.[52]Diamond has a refractive index of about 2.4.[53]

A white beam of light enters a prism and a spectrum comes out of it.
The light passing through a dispersive prism demonstrates refraction and, by the splitting of white light into a spectrum of colors, dispersion.

If the refractive index of a material depends on the frequency of the light passing through the medium, there exist two notions of the speed of light in the medium. One is the speed of a wave of a single frequency f. This is called the phase velocity vp(f), and is related to the frequency-dependent refractive index n(f) by vp(f) = c/n(f). The other is the average velocity of a pulse of light consisting of different frequencies of light. This is called the group velocity and not only depends on the properties of the medium but also the distribution of frequencies in the pulse. A pulse with different group and phase velocities is said to undergo dispersion.

Certain materials have an exceptionally low group velocity for light waves, a phenomenon called slow light. In 1999, a team of scientists led by Lene Hau were able to slow the speed of a light pulse to about 17 metres per second (61 km/h; 38 mph);[54] in 2001, they were able to momentarily stop a beam.[55] In 2003, scientists at Harvard University and the Lebedev Physical Institute in Moscow, succeeded in completely halting light by directing it into a Bose–Einstein condensate of the element rubidium, the atoms of which, in Lukin's words, behaved "like tiny mirrors" due to an interference pattern in two "control" beams.[56][57]

It is also possible for the group velocity of light pulses to exceed c.[58] In an experiment in 2000, laser beams travelled for extremely short distances through caesium atoms with a group velocity of 300 times c.[59] It is not possible to transmit information faster than c by this means because the speed of information transfer cannot exceed the front velocity of the wave pulse, which is always less than c.[60] The requirement that causality is not violated implies that the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of any material, corresponding respectively to the index of refraction and to the attenuation coefficient, are linked by the Kramers–Kronig relations.[61]

Practical effects of finiteness

The finiteness of the speed of light has implications for various sciences and technologies. For some it creates challenges or limits: for example, c, being the upper limit of the speed with which signals can be sent, provides a theoretical upper limit for the operating speed of microprocessors. For others it creates opportunities, for example to measure distances.

The speed of light is of relevance to communications. For example, given the equatorial circumference of the Earth is about 40,075 km and c about 300,000 km/s, the theoretical shortest time for a piece of information to travel half the globe along the surface is about 67 milliseconds. When light is traveling around the globe in an optical fiber, the actual transit time is longer, in part because the speed of light is slower by about 35% in an optical fiber, depending on its refractive index n.[62] Furthermore, straight lines rarely occur in global communications situations, and delays are created when the signal passes through an electronic switch or signal regenerator.[63]

The diameter of the moon is about one quarter of that of Earth, and their distance is about thirty times the diameter of Earth. A beam of light starts from the Earth and reaches the Moon in about a second and a quarter.
A beam of light is depicted travelling between the Earth and the Moon in the same time it takes light to scale the distance between them: 1.255 seconds at its mean orbital (surface to surface) distance. The relative sizes and separation of the Earth–Moon system are shown to scale.

Another consequence of the finite speed of light is that communications between the Earth and spacecraft are not instantaneous. There is a brief delay from the source to the receiver, which becomes more noticeable as distances increase. This delay was significant for communications between ground control and Apollo 8 when it became the first manned spacecraft to orbit the Moon: for every question, the ground control station had to wait at least three seconds for the answer to arrive.[64] The communications delay between Earth and Mars is almost ten minutes. As a consequence of this, if a robot on the surface of Mars were to encounter a problem, its human controllers would not be aware of it until ten minutes later; it would then take at least a further ten minutes for instructions to travel from Earth to Mars.

The speed of light can also be of concern over very short distances. In supercomputers, the speed of light imposes a limit on how quickly data can be sent between processors. If a processor operates at 1 gigahertz, a signal can only travel a maximum of about 30 centimetres (1 ft) in a single cycle. Processors must therefore be placed close to each other to minimize communication latencies, which can cause difficulty with cooling. If clock frequencies continue to increase, the speed of light will eventually become a limiting factor for the internal design of single chips.[65]

Distance measurement

Radar systems measure the distance to a target by the time it takes a radio-wave pulse to return to the radar antenna after being reflected by the target: the distance to the target is half the round-trip transit time multiplied by the speed of light. A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver measures its distance to GPS satellites based on how long it takes for a radio signal to arrive from each satellite, and from these distances calculates the receiver's position. Because light travels about 300,000 kilometres (186,000 miles) in one second, these measurements of small fractions of a second must be very precise. The Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment, radar astronomy and the Deep Space Network determine distances to the Moon, planets and spacecraft, respectively, by measuring round-trip transit times.

Astronomy

The finite speed of light is important in astronomy. Due to the vast distances involved, it can take a very long time for light to travel from its source to Earth. For example, it has taken 13 billion (13 × 109) years for light to travel to Earth from the faraway galaxies viewed in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field images.[66][67] Those photographs, taken today, capture images of the galaxies as they appeared 13 billion years ago, when the universe was less than a billion years old.[66] The fact that farther-away objects appear younger (due to the finite speed of light) allows astronomers to infer the evolution of stars, of galaxies, and of the universe itself.

Astronomical distances are sometimes expressed in light-years, especially in popular science publications.[68] A light‑year is the distance light travels in one year, around 9461 billion kilometres, 5879 billion miles, or 0.3066 parsecs. Proxima Centauri, the closest star to Earth after the Sun, is around 4.2 light‑years away.[69]

Measurement

To measure the speed of light, various methods can be used which involve observation of astronomical phenomena or experimental setups on Earth. The setups could use mechanical devices (e.g. toothed wheels), optics (e.g. beam splitters, lenses and mirrors), electro-optics (e.g. lasers), or electronics in conjunction with a cavity resonator.

Astronomical measurements

Due to the large scale and the vacuum of space observations in the solar system and in astronomy in general provide a natural setting for measuring the speed of light. The result of such a measurement usually appears as the time needed for light to transverse some reference distance in the solar system such as the radius of the Earth's orbit. Historically such measurements could be made fairly accurately, compared to how accurate the length of the reference distance is known in Earth-based units. As such, it is customary to express the results in astronomical units per day. An astronomical unit is approximately equal to the average distance between the Earth and the Sun.[Note 8] Since the most used reference length scale in modern experiments (the SI metre) is determined by the speed of light, the value of c is fixed when measured in metres per second. Measurements of c in astronomical units provides an independent alternative to measure c.

One such method was used by Ole Christensen Rømer to provide the first quantitative estimate of the speed of light.[71][72] When observing the periods of moons orbiting a distant planet these periods appear to be shorter when the Earth is approaching that planet than when the Earth is receding from it. This effect occurs because the Earth's movement causes the path travelled by light from the planet to Earth to shorten (or lengthen respectively). The observed change in period is the time needed by light to cover the difference in path length. Rømer observed this effect for Jupiter's innermost moon Io and deduced from it that light takes 22 minutes to cross the diameter of the Earth's orbit.

A star emits a light ray which hits the objective of a telescope. While the light travels down the telescope to its eyepiece, the telescope moves to the right. For the light to stay inside the telescope, the telescope must be tilted to the right, causing the distant source to appear at a different location to the right.
Aberration of light: light from a distant source will appear to a different location for a moving telescope due to the finite speed of light.

Another method is to use the aberration of light, discovered and explained by James Bradley in the 18th century.[73] This effect results from the vector addition of the velocity of light arriving from a distant source (such as a star) and the velocity of its observer (see diagram on the left). A moving observer thus sees the light coming from a slightly different direction and consequently sees the source at a position shifted from its original position. Since the direction of the Earth's velocity changes continuously as the Earth orbits the Sun, this effect causes the apparent position of stars to move around. From the angular difference in the position of stars (maximally 20.5 arcseconds)[74] it is possible to express the speed of light in terms of the Earth's velocity around the Sun, which with the known length of a year can be easily converted in the time needed to travel from the Sun to Earth. In 1729, Bradley used this method to derive that light travelled 10,210 times faster than the Earth in its orbit (the modern figure is 10,066 times faster) or, equivalently, that it would take light 8 minutes 12 seconds to travel from the Sun to the Earth.[73]

Nowadays, the "light time for unit distance"—the inverse of c, expressed in seconds per astronomical unit—is measured by comparing the time for radio signals to reach different spacecraft in the Solar System, with their position calculated from the gravitational effects of the Sun and various planets. By combining many such measurements, a best fit value for the light time per unit distance is obtained. As of 2009, the best estimate, as approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), is:[75][76][77]

light time for unit distance: 499.004783836(10) s
c = 0.00200398880410(4) AU/s = 173.144632674(3) AU/day

The relative uncertainty in these measurements is 0.02 parts per billion (2 × 10−11), equivalent to the uncertainty in Earth-based measurements of length by interferometry.[78][79] Since the meter is defined to be the length travelled by light in a certain time interval, the measurement of the light time for unit distance can also be interpreted as measuring the length of an AU in meters.

Time of flight techniques

A method of measuring the speed of light is to measure the time needed for light to travel to a mirror at a known distance and back. This is the working principle behind the Fizeau–Foucault apparatus developed by Hippolyte Fizeau and Léon Foucault.

A light ray passes horizontally through a half-mirror and a rotating cog wheel, is reflected back by a mirror, passes through the cog wheel, and is reflected by the half-mirror into a monocular.
Diagram of the Fizeau apparatus

The setup as used by Fizeau consists of a beam of light directed at a mirror 8 kilometres (5 mi) away. On the way from the source to the mirror, the beam passes through a rotating cogwheel. At a certain rate of rotation, the beam passes through one gap on the way out and another on the way back, but at slightly higher or lower rates, the beam strikes a tooth and does not pass through the wheel. Knowing the distance between the wheel and the mirror, the number of teeth on the wheel, and the rate of rotation, the speed of light can be calculated.[80]

The method of Foucault replaces the cogwheel by a rotating mirror. Because the mirror keeps rotating while the light travels to the distant mirror and back, the light is reflected from the rotating mirror at a different angle on its way out than it is on its way back. From this difference in angle, the known speed of rotation and the distance to the distant mirror the speed of light may be calculated.[81]

Nowadays, using oscilloscopes with time resolutions of less than one nanosecond, the speed of light can be directly measured by timing the delay of a light pulse from a laser or an LED reflected from a mirror. This method is less precise (with errors of the order of 1%) than other modern techniques, but it is sometimes used as a laboratory experiment in college physics classes.[82][83][84]

Electromagnetic constants

An option for measuring c that does not directly depend on the propagation of electromagnetic waves is to use relation between c and the vacuum permittivity ε0 vacuum permeability μ0 established by Maxwell theory: c2 = 1/ε0μ0. The vacuum permittivity may be determined by measuring the capacitance and dimensions of a capacitor, whereas the value of the vacuum permeability is fixed at exactly 4π×10−7 H·m−1 through the definition of the ampere. Rosa and Dorsey used this method in 1907 to find a value of 299,710±22 km/s.[85][86]

Cavity resonance

A box with three waves in it; there are one and a half wavelength of the top wave, one of the middle one, and a half of the bottom one.
Electromagnetic standing waves in a cavity.

Another way to measure the speed of light is to independently measure the frequency f and wavelength λ of an electromagnetic wave in vacuum. The value of c can then be found by using the relation c = fλ. One option is to measure the resonance frequency of a cavity resonator. If the dimensions of the resonance cavity are also known, these can be used determine the wavelength of the wave. In 1946, Louis Essen and A.C. Gordon-Smith establish the frequency for a variety of normal modes of microwaves of a microwave cavity of precisely known dimensions. As the wavelength of the modes was known from the geometry of the cavity and from electromagnetic theory, knowledge of the associated frequencies enabled a calculation of the speed of light.[85][87]

The Essen–Gordon-Smith result, 299,792±9 km/s, was substantially more precise than those found by optical techniques.[85] By 1950, repeated measurements by Essen established a result of 299,792.5±3.0 km/s.[88]

A household demonstration of this technique is possible, using a microwave oven and food such as marshmallows or margarine: if the turntable is removed so that the food does not move, it will cook the fastest at the antinodes (the points at which the wave amplitude is the greatest), where it will begin to melt. The distance between two such spots is half the wavelength of the microwaves; by measuring this distance and multiplying the wavelength by the microwave frequency (usually displayed on the back of the oven, typically 2450 MHz), the value of c can be calculated, "often with less than 5% error".[89][90]

Laser interferometry

An alternative to the cavity resonator method to find the wavelength for determining the speed of light is to use a form of interferometer.[91] A coherent light beam with a known frequency (f), as from a laser, is split to follow two paths and then recombined. By carefully changing the path length and observing the interference pattern, the wavelength of the light (λ) can be determined, which is related to the speed of light by the equation c = λf.

The main difficulty in measuring c through interferometry is to measure the frequency of light in or near the optical region; such frequencies are too high to be measured with conventional methods. This was first overcome by a group at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) laboratories in Boulder, Colorado, in 1972.[92] By a series of photodiodes and specially constructed metal–insulator–metal diodes, they succeeded in linking the frequency of a methane-stabilized infrared laser to the frequency of the caesium transition used in atomic clocks (nearly 10,000 times lower, in the microwave region).[93] Their results for the frequency and wavelength of the infrared laser, and the resulting value for c, were:

f = 88.376181627±0.000000050 THz;
λ = 3.392231376±0.000000012 µm;
c = 299,792,456.2±1.1 m/s;

nearly a hundred times more precise than previous measurements of the speed of light.[92][93]

History

Until the early modern period, it was not known whether light travelled instantaneously or at a finite speed. The first extant recorded examination of this subject was in ancient Greece. Empedocles was the first to claim that the light has a finite speed.[94] He maintained that light was something in motion, and therefore must take some time to travel. Aristotle argued, to the contrary, that "light is due to the presence of something, but it is not a movement".[95] Euclid and Ptolemy advanced the emission theory of vision, where light is emitted from the eye, thus enabling sight. Based on that theory, Heron of Alexandria argued that the speed of light must be infinite because distant objects such as stars appear immediately upon opening the eyes.

Early Islamic philosophers initially agreed with the Aristotelian view that light had no speed of travel. In 1021, Islamic physicist Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham) published the Book of Optics, in which he used experiments related to the camera obscura to support the now accepted intromission theory of vision, in which light moves from an object into the eye.[96] This led Alhazen to propose that light must therefore have a finite speed,[95][97][98] and that the speed of light is variable, decreasing in denser bodies.[98][99] He argued that light is a "substantial matter", the propagation of which requires time "even if this is hidden to our senses".[100]

Also in the 11th century, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī agreed that light has a finite speed, and observed that the speed of light is much faster than the speed of sound.[101] Roger Bacon argued that the speed of light in air was not infinite, using philosophical arguments backed by the writing of Alhazen and Aristotle.[102][103] In the 1270s, Witelo considered the possibility of light travelling at infinite speed in a vacuum, but slowing down in denser bodies.[104]

In the early 17th century, Johannes Kepler believed that the speed of light was infinite, since empty space presents no obstacle to it. René Descartes argued that if the speed of light were finite, the Sun, Earth, and Moon would be noticeably out of alignment during a lunar eclipse. Since such misalignment had not been observed, Descartes concluded the speed of light was infinite. Descartes speculated that if the speed of light were found to be finite, his whole system of philosophy might be demolished.[95]

First measurement attempts

In 1629, Isaac Beeckman proposed an experiment in which a person would observe the flash of a cannon reflecting off a mirror about one mile (1.6 km) away. In 1638, Galileo Galilei proposed an experiment, with an apparent claim to having performed it some years earlier, to measure the speed of light by observing the delay between uncovering a lantern and its perception some distance away. He was unable to distinguish whether light travel was instantaneous or not, but concluded that if it weren't, it must nevertheless be extraordinarily rapid.[105][106] Galileo's experiment was carried out by the Accademia del Cimento of Florence, Italy, in 1667, with the lanterns separated by about one mile, but no delay was observed. Based on the modern value of the speed of light, the actual delay in this experiment would be about 11 microseconds. Robert Hooke explained the negative results as Galileo had by pointing out that such observations did not establish the infinite speed of light, but only that the speed must be very great.

A diagram of a planet's orbit around the Sun and of a moon's orbit around another planet. The shadow of the latter planet is shaded.
Rømer's observations of the occultations of Io from Earth

The first quantitative estimate of the speed of light was made in 1676 by Ole Christensen Rømer (see Rømer's determination of the speed of light).[71][72] From the observation that the periods of Jupiter's innermost moon Io appeared to be shorter when the earth was approaching Jupiter than when receding from it, he concluded that light travels at a finite speed, and was able to estimate that would take light 22 minutes to cross the diameter of Earth's orbit. Christiaan Huygens combined this estimate with an estimate for the diameter of the Earth's orbit to obtain an estimate of speed of light of 220,000 km/s, 26% lower than the actual value.[107]

In his 1704 book Opticks, Isaac Newton reported Rømer's calculations of the finite speed of light and gave a value of "seven or eight minutes" for the time taken for light to travel from the Sun to the Earth (the modern value is 8 minutes 19 seconds).[108] Newton queried whether Rømer's eclipse shadows were coloured; hearing that they weren't, he concluded the different colours travelled at the same speed. In 1729, James Bradley discovered the aberration of light.[73] From this effect he determined that light must travel 10,210 times faster than the Earth in its orbit (the modern figure is 10,066 times faster) or, equivalently, that it would take light 8 minutes 12 seconds to travel from the Sun to the Earth.[73]

19th and early 20th century

In the 19th century Hippolyte Fizeau developed a method to determine the speed of light based on time-of-flight measurements on Earth and reported a value of 315,000 km/s. His method was improved upon by Léon Foucault who obtained a value of 298,000 km/s in 1862.[80] James Clerk Maxwell observed that this value was very close to the parameter c appearing in his theory of electromagnetism as the propagation speed of the electromagnetic field, and suggested that light was an electromagnetic wave.[109]

It was thought at the time that electromagnetic field existed in some background medium called the luminiferous aether. This aether acted as an absolute reference frame for all physics and should be possible to measure the motion of the Earth with respect to this medium. In the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century several experiments were performed to try to detect this motion, the

          Review of Hantek DSO8102E hand held oscilloscope        
This article is a brief review of some issues that were found with initial testing of a Hantek DSO8102E two channel 100MHz hand held oscilloscope. The DSO8102E is a member of the DSO8000 series (DSO8060, DSO8070E, DSO8100E, DSO8150E, DSO8200E), and shares most specifications across the series. The specifications are very impressive, and price at just … Continue reading Review of Hantek DSO8102E hand held oscilloscope
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A


* Al-Jazari, (12th century), Mesopotamia — Crankshaft
* Archimedes, (c 287 BC-212 BC), Greece — Archimedes screw
* Ami Argand, (1750-1803), France — Argand lamp
* Edwin H. Armstrong,(1890-1954), USA — FM radio
* William George Armstrong, (1810-1900), UK — hydraulic crane
* Joseph Aspdin, (1788-1855), England — Portland cement
* John Vincent Atanasoff, (1903-1995), United States — modern programmable computer
* Neil Arnott, (1788-1874), UK — waterbed

B


* Charles Babbage, (1791-1871), UK — Analytical engine
* Roger Bacon, (1214-1292), England — magnifying glass
* Leo Baekeland, (1863-1944), Belgian–American — Velox photographic paper and Bakelite
* Ralph H. Baer, (1922-), German born American — video game console
* John Logie Baird, (1888-1946), Uk — an electromechanical television
* Donat Banki, (1859-1922), Hungary — inventor of the carburetor
* John Bardeen, (1908-1991), USA — co-inventor of the transistor
* Anthony R. Barringer Canadian – American — INPUT (Induced Pulse Transient) airborne electromagnetic system
* Earl W. Bascom, (1906-1995), Canada and United States — side-delivery rodeo chute, hornless rodeo saddle, rodeo bareback rigging, rodeo chaps
* Eugen Baumann, (1846-1896), Germany — PVC
* Trevor Baylis, (1937-), UK — a wind-up radio
* Francis Beaufort, (1774-1857), France — Beaufort scale
* Arnold O. Beckman, (1900-2004), USA — pH meter
* Alexander Graham Bell, (1847-1922), Canada — telephone
* Karl Benz, (1844-1929), Germany — the petrol-powered automobile
* Emile Berliner, (1851-1929), Germany and USA — the disc record gramophone
* Tim Berners-Lee, (1955-), UK — with Robert Cailliau, the World Wide Web
* Bi Sheng (Chinese:畢昇), (ca.990-1052), China — clay movable type printing
* Laszlo Biro, (1899-1985), Hungary — modern ballpoint pen
* J. Stuart Blackton, (1875-1941), USA — stop-motion film
* Otto Blathy (1860-1939), Hungary — co-inventor of the transformer, wattmeter, alternating current (AC) and turbogenerator
* Katharine B. Blodgett, (1898-1979), UK — nonreflective glass
* Nils Bohlin, (1920-2002), Sweden — the three-point seat belt
* Joseph-Armand Bombardier, (1907-1964), Canada — snowmobile
* Robert W. Bower, (1936-), USA — self-aligned–gate MOSFET
* Seth Boyden, (1788-1870), USA — nail-making machine
* Walter Houser Brattain, (1902-1987), USA — co-inventor of the transistor
* Louis Braille, (1809-1852), France — the Braille writing system
* Karl Ferdinand Braun, (1850-1918), Germany — cathode-ray tube oscilloscope
* Harry Brearley, (1871-1948), UK — stainless steel
* John Moses Browning, (1855-1926), USA — automatic handgun
* Edwin Beard Budding, (1795-1846), UK — lawnmower

C


* C`ai Lun, (50 AD - 121), China — paper
* Marvin Camras, (1916 - 1995), USA — magnetic recording
* Chester Carlson, (1906-1968), USA — Xerography
* Wallace Carothers, (1896-1937), USA — Nylon
* Dennis Charter, (1952-), Australia — Secure Electronic Payment System
* Adrian Chernoff, (1971-), USA — GM Autonomy, GM Hy-wire, Rubber Bandits
* Niels Christensen (1865- 1952), USA — O-ring
* Samuel Hunter Christie, (1784-1865), UK — Wheatstone bridge
* Christopher Cockerell, (1910-1999), UK — Hovercraft
* Jacques Cousteau, (1910-1997), France — co-inventor of the aqualung and the Nikonos underwater camera
* Aeneas Coffey, (1780-1852), Ireland, heat exchanger, inventor of the Coffey still
* Holger Crafoord, (1908-1982), Sweden — inventor of the artificial kidney
* János Csonka, (1852-1939), Hungary — co-inventor of carburetor
* Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, (1725-1804), France — automobile
* Juan de la Cierva, (1895-1936), Spain — the autogyro
* William Cullen, (1710-1790), UK — first artificial refrigerator
* Glenn Curtiss, (1878 - 1930), USA — ailerons
* Corliss Orville Burandt, USA — Variable valve timing
* Joseph Constantine Carpue, (1764-1846), France — rhinoplastic surgery
* Joseph Bienaimé Caventou, (1795-1877), France — caffeine, chlorophyll, strychnine
* George Cayley, (1773-1857), (UK) — tension-spoke wheels, Caterpillar track
* Georges Claude, (1870-1960), France — neon lamp
* Josephine Cochrane, (1839-1913), USA — dishwasher
* Cornelis Corneliszoon, (1550-1607), The Netherlands — sawmill
* Bartolomeo Cristofori, (1655-1731), Italy — piano
* William Cumberland Cruikshank, (1745-1800), UK — chlorinated water

D


* Gustaf Dalen, (1869-1937), Sweden — AGA cooker; Dalen Light; Agamassan
* Salvino D'Armate, (?-?), Italy — credited for inventing eyeglasses in 1284
* Joseph Day, (1855-1946), UK — the crankcase compression two stroke engine
* Lee DeForest, (1873-1961), USA — triode
* Sir James Dewar, (1842-1923), UK — Thermos flask
* Miksa Deri (1854-1938), Hungary — co-inventor of transformer
* William Kennedy Laurie Dickson, (1860-1935), UK — motion picture camera
* Rudolf Diesel, (1858-1913), Germany — Diesel engine
* William H. Dobelle, (1943-2004), United States — first functioning artificial eye
* Karl Drais, (1785-1851), Germany — dandy horse (Draisine)
* Cornelius Drebbel, (1572-1633), The Netherlands — first navigable submarine
* Richard Drew, (1899-1980), USA — Sticky Tape
* Charles Brace Darrow, (1889-1967). USA — Monopoly
* Jacob Davis, (1868-1908), USA — riveted jeans
* Edmund Davy, (1785-1857), Ireland — acetylene
* Humphry Davy, (1778-1829), UK — Davy miners lamp
* Bryan Donkin, (1768-1855), UK — print industry composition roller
* John Boyd Dunlop, (1840-1921) UK — first practical pneumatic tyre
* Karl Drais, (1785-1851), Germany — velocipede


E


* George Eastman, (1854-1932), USA — film-roll
* Thomas Edison, (1847-1931), USA — phonograph, commercially practical light bulb, motion picture projector, stock ticker, etc.
* Willem Einthoven, (1860-1927), The Netherlands — the electrocardiogram
* Douglas Engelbart, (1925-), USA — the computer mouse [1]
* Rune Elmqvist, (1857-1924), Sweden — implantable pacemaker
* John Ericsson, (1803-1889), Sweden — the two screw-propeller
* Lars Magnus Ericsson, (1846-1926), Sweden — the handheld micro telephone
* Ole Evinrude, (1877-1934), Norway — outboard motor

F


* Samuel Face, (1923-2001), USA — concrete flatness/levelness technology; Lightning Switch
* Philo Farnsworth, (1906-1971), USA — electronic television
* James Fergason, (1934-), USA — improved liquid crystal display
* Reginald Fessenden, (1866-1932), Canada — two-way radio
* Adolf Eugen Fick, (1829-1901), Germany — contact lens
* Alexander Fleming, (1881-1955), Scotland — penicillin
* Sandford Fleming, (1827-1915), inventor of Standard Universal Time (1879)
* John Ambrose Fleming, (1848-1945), England — vacuum diode
* Benjamin Franklin, (1706-1790), USA — the pointed lightning rod conductor, bifocal glasses, the Franklin stove, the glass harmonica
* William Friese-Greene, (1855-1921), England — cinematography
* Buckminster Fuller, (1895-1983), USA — geodesic dome
* Gerhard Fischer, Germany/USA — hand-held metal detector
* Augustin-Jean Fresnel, (1788-1827), France — Fresnel lens
* Jean Bernard Léon Foucault, (1819-1868), France — Foucault pendulum (earth rotation), gyroscope, eddy current
* Benoît Fourneyron, (1802-1867), France — water turbine
* Enrico Fermi, (1901-1954), Italy — nuclear reactor
* Michael Faraday, (1791-1867), England — rubber balloon, electric transformer

G


* Dennis Gabor, (1900-1979), Hungary — holography
* Elmer R. Gates, (1859-1923), foam fire extinguisher, electric loom mechanisms, magnetic & diamagnetic separators, educational toy ("box & blocks")
* William Henry Gates III, (1955-), Windows operating system, chief architect of Visual Basic
* Robert Goddard, (1882-1945), USA — liquid fuel rocket
* Heinrich Göbel, (1818-1893), Germany — first functional incandescent lamp
* Peter Carl Goldmark, (1906-1977), Hungary — vinyl record (LP)
* Gordon Gould, (1920-2005), USA — co-inventor of laser
* Richard Hall Gower, (1768-1833), England — ship's hull and rigging
* Bette Nesmith Graham, (1924-1980), USA — Liquid Paper
* Chester Greenwood, (1858-1937), USA — thermal earmuffs
* James Gregory, (1638-1675), Scotland — reflecting telescope
* William Robert Grove, (1811-1896), Wales — fuel cell
* Otto von Guericke, (1602-1686), Germany — vacuum pump, manometer, dasymeter,
* Johann Gutenberg, (c 1390s-1468), Germany — modern movable type printing press
* Hans Wilhelm Geiger, (1882-1945), Germany — Geiger counter
* Henri Giffard, (1825-1882), France — powered airship, injector
* Charles Goodyear, (1800-1860), USA — vulcanization of rubber
* Samuel Guthrie, (1782 - 1848), USA — discovered chloroform
* James Henry Greathead, (1844-1896), South Africa — tunnel boring machine, tunnelling shield technique

H


* John Hadley, (1682-1744), England — the sextant
* James Hargreaves, (1720-1778), England — invented the spinning jenny
* John Harrison, (1693-1776), England — marine chronometer
* Victor Hasselblad, (1906-1978), Sweden — invented the 6 x 6 cm single-lens reflex camera
* Rudolf Hell, (1901-2002), Germany — the Hellschreiber
* Avram Hershko, (1937-), Hungary — Ubiquitin
* Jozef Karol Hell, (1713-1789), Slovakia — the water pillar
* Joseph Henry, (1797-1898), USA — electromagnetic relay
* George de Hevesy, (1885-1966), Hungary — radioactive tracer
* Erna Schneider Hoover, (1926-), USA — computerized telephone switching system
* Frank Hornby, (1863-1936), England — invented Meccano
* Heron, Greece — invented Aeolipile
* Joseph Hon – book index thumb notch system for dictionaries Patent #561888
* Christopher Hansteen, (1783-1873), Norway — discovery of terrestrial magnetism
* William Harvey, (1578-1657), England — blood circulation in the human body
* Robert A. Heinlein, (1907-1988), USA — waterbed
* Henry J. Heinz, USA — tomato ketchup
* Joseph Henry, (1797-1878), Scotland — electromagnetic relay
* Heinrich Hertz, (1857-1894), Germany — radio telegraphy, electromagnetic radiation
* Rowland Hill, (1795-1879), UK — postage stamp
* Felix Hoffmann (Bayer), (1868-1949), Germany — Aspirin
* Herman Hollerith, (1860-1929), USA — mechanical tabulator based on punched cards
* Nick Holonyak, (1928- ), USA — LED (Light Emitting Diode)
* Robert Hooke, (1635-1703), England — balance wheel, iris diaphragm
* Coenraad Johannes van Houten, (1801-1887), Netherlands — cocoa powder, cacao butter, chocolate milk
* Elias Howe, (1819-1867), USA — sewing machine
* Christiaan Huygens, (1629-1695), Netherlands — pendulum clock

I


* János Irinyi, (1817-1895), Hungary — noiseless match
* Sumio Iijima, (1939- ), Japan — nanotubes

J


* Karl Jatho, (1873-1933), Germany — aeroplane
* György Jendrassik, (1898-1954), Hungary — turboprop
* Thomas Jefferson, (1743-1826), USA — swivel chair
* Steve Jobs, (1955-), Macintosh operating system
* Carl Edvard Johansson, (1864-1943), Sweden — Gauge blocks
* Johan Petter Johansson, (1853-1943), Sweden — the pipe wrench and the modern adjustable spanner
* Nancy Johnson, USA — American version of the hand cranked ice cream machine in (1843)
* Scott A. Jones, (1960-), USA — created one of the most successful versions of voicemail as well as ChaCha Search, a human-assisted internet search engine.
* Whitcomb Judson, (1836-1909), USA — zipper

K


* Dean Kamen, (1951-), USA — Invented the Segway HT scooter and the IBOT Mobility Device
* John George Kemeny, (1926-1992), Hungary — co-inventor of BASIC
* Charles F. Kettering, (1876-1958), USA — invented automobile self-starter ignition, Freon ethyl gasoline and more
* Jack Kilby, (1923-2005), USA — patented the first integrated circuit
* Fritz Klatte, (1880-1934), Germany — vinyl chloride, forerunner to polyvinyl chloride
* Margaret Knight, (1838-1914), USA — machine that completely constructs box-bottom brown paper bags
* Ivan Knunyants, (1906-1990), Ukraine — invented Nylon-6
* Willem Johan Kolff, (1911-), Netherlands — artificial kidney hemodialysis machine
* Gleb Kotelnikov, (1872-1944), Russia — knapsack parachute
* Stephanie Kwolek, (1923-), USA — Kevlar
* John Howard Kyan (1774-1850), Ireland — The process of Kyanization used for wood preservation
* Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, (1853-1926), Netherlands — liquify helium
* Theophilus Van Kannel, revolving door (1888)
* John Harvey Kellogg, (1852-1943), cornflake breakfasts
* Robert Koch, (1843-1910), method for culturing bacteria on solid media
* Willem Johan Kolff, Netherlands/USA, (1911- ) — hemodialysis, pioneer in the field of other artificial organs

L


* Hedy Lamarr, (1913-2000), Austria and USA — Spread spectrum radio
* Edwin H. Land, (1909-1991), USA — Polaroid polarizing filters and the Land Camera
* Irving Langmuir, (1851-1957), USA — gas filled incandescent light bulb, hydrogen welding
* Lewis Latimer, (1848-1928), — worked with Thomas Edison and patented an improved lightbulb manufacturing process
* Gustav de Laval, (1845-1913), Sweden — invented the milk separator and the milking machine
* Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev, (1874-1934), Russia — synthetic rubber
* Tim Berners-Lee, (1955- ) England — World Wide Web
* Justus von Liebig, (1803-1873), Germany — nitrogen-based fertilizer
* Frans Wilhelm Lindqvist, (1862-1931), Sweden — Kerosene stove operated by compressed air
* Archibald Low, (1882-1956), Britain — Pioneer of radio guidance systems
* Giovanni Luppis, (1813-1875), Austrian Empire (ethnical Italian) — self-propelled torpedo
* René Laënnec, (1781-1826), France — stethoscope
* Karl Landsteiner, (1868-1943), Austria — classification of blood groups
* Samuel P. Langley, (1834-1906), USA — bolometer
* John Bennet Lawes, (1814-1900), England — superphosphate or chemical fertilizer
* Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, (1632-1723), Netherlands — development of the microscope, discovery of bacteria, spermatozoa and celled organisms
* Jean-Joseph Etienne Lenoir, (1822-1900), Belgium — internal combustion engine, motorboat
* Willard Frank Libby, (1908-1980), USA — Radiocarbon dating
* Otto Lilienthal, (1848-1896), Germany — air glider
* Hans Lippershey, (1570-1619), Netherlands — telescope
* Auguste and Louis Lumière, France — Cinématographe

M


* Ma Jun, (c. 200-265 AD), China, South Pointing Chariot (for navigation, see differential gear), mechanical puppet theater, chain pumps, improved silk looms
* Charles Macintosh, (1766-1843), Scotland — waterproof raincoat, life vest
* George William Manby, (1765-1854), England — Fire extinguisher
* Guglielmo Marconi, (1874-1937), Italy — radio, transatlantic radiosignals
* John Landis Mason, (1826-1902), USA — Mason jars
* Henry Maudslay, (1771-1831), England — screw-cutting lathe, bench micrometer
* James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) and Thomas Sutton Scotland — colour photography
* John McAdam, (1756-1836), Scotland — improved "macadam" road surface
* Elijah McCoy, (1843-1929), Canada — Displacement lubricator
* Hippolyte Mège-Mouriés, (1817-1880), France — margarine
* Antonio Meucci, (1808-1889), Italy — telephone (prototype)
* Edouard Michelin, (1859-1940), France — pneumatic tyre
* Narcis Monturiol i Estarriol, (1819-1885), Spain — steam powered submarine
* Robert Moog, (1934-2005), USA — the Moog synthesizer
* Montgolfier brothers, (1740-1810) and (1745-1799), France — hot-air balloon
* John J. Montgomery, (1858-1911), USA — heavier-than-air gliders
* Samuel Morey, (1762-1843), USA — internal combustion engine
* Garrett A. Morgan, (1877-1963), USA — inventor of the gas mask, and traffic signal.
* Samuel Morse, (1791-1872), USA — telegraph
* Jozef Murgas, (1864-1929), Slovakia — inventor of the wireless telegraph (forerunner of the radio)
* William Murdoch, (1754-1839), Scotland — Gas lighting
* Pieter van Musschenbroek, (1692-1761), Netherlands — Leyden jar, pyrometer

N


* Yoshiro Nakamatsu, (1928-), Japan — Floppy disk (world record holder for over 3,000 patented inventions)
* John von Neumann, (1903-1957), Hungary — Von Neumann computer architecture
* Isaac Newton,(1642-1727), England — reflecting telescope (which reduces chromatic aberration)
* Jun-Ichi Nishizawa, (1926-), Japan — Optical communication system, SIT/SITh (Static Induction Transistor/Thyristor), Laser diode, PIN diode
* Alfred Nobel, (1833-1896), Sweden — dynamite
* Carl Rickard Nyberg, (1858-1939), Sweden — the blowtorch
* John Napier, (1550-1617), Scotland — logarithms
* James Nasmyth, (1808-1890), Scotland — steam hammer
* Joseph Nicephore Niépce, (1765-1833), France — photography

O


* Theophil Wilgodt Odhner, (1845-1903), Sweden — the Odhner Arithmometer, a mechanical calculator
* Elisha Otis, (1811-1861), USA — passenger elevator with safety device
* J. Robert Oppenheimer , (1904-1967), USA — the father of the atomic Dome
* Hans Christian Ørsted, (1777-1851), Denmark — electromagnetism, aluminium

P


* Helge Palmcrantz, (1842-1880), Sweden — the multi-barrel, lever-actuated, machine gun
* Les Paul, (1915-), USA — Multitrack recording
* Spede Pasanen, (1930-2001), Finland — The ski jumping sling
* Slavoljub Eduard Penkala, (1871-1922), Croatia — mechanical pencil
* Gustaf Erik Pasch, (1788-1862), Sweden — the safety match
* Arthur Paul Pedrick, England — chromatically selective cat flap and others
* Henry Perky, (1843-1906), USA — Shredded wheat
* Peter Petroff, (1919-2004), Bulgaria — digital wrist watch, heart monitor, weather instruments
* Christopher Polhem, (1661-1751), Sweden — the modern padlock
* Olivia Poole, (1889-1975), USA, — the Jolly Jumper baby harness
* Baltzar von Platen, (1898-1984), Sweden — refrigerator
* Mihajlo Pupin, (1858-1935), Serbia — pupinization (loading coils), tunable oscillator
* Tivadar Puskas, (1844-1893), Hungary — telephone exchange
* Daniel David Palmer, (1845-1913), Canada — Chiropractic
* Luigi Palmieri, (1807-1896), Italy — seismometer
* Alexander Parkes, (1831-1890), England — celluloid
* Blaise Pascal, (1623-1662), France — barometer
* Charles Algernon Parsons, (1854-1931), British — steam turbine
* John Pemberton, (1831-1888), USA — Coca-Cola
* Joseph Plateau, (1801-1883), Belgium — phenakistiscope (stroboscope)
* James Leonard Plimpton, USA — roller skates
* George Pullman, (1831-1897), USA — Pullman sleep wagon

Q


R


* Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, (1845-1923), Germany — the X-ray machine
* Josef Ressel, (1793-1857), Czechoslovakia — ship propeller
* John Roebuck, (1718-1794) England — lead chamber process for sulfuric acid synthesis
* Erno Rubik, (1944-), Hungary — Rubik's cube, Rubik's Magic and Rubik's Clock
* Karl von Reichenbach, (1788-1869), paraffin, creosote oil, phenol
* Ira Remsen, (1646-1927), USA — saccharin
* Charles Francis Richter, (1900-1985), USA — Richter magnitude scale
* Ernst Ruska, (1906-1988), Germany — electron microscope

S


* Hassan Kamel Al-Sabbah, (1895-1935), Lebanon — solar power, cathode ray tube
* Kees A. Schouhamer Immink (1946- ), Netherlands Major contributor to development of Compact Disc
* Augustus Siebe, (1788-1872), Saxony&England Inventor of the standard diving dress
* Alberto Santos-Dumont, (1873-1932), Brazil — non-rigid airship and airplane
* Isidor Sauers, (1948- ), inventor of a process for measuring the degradation of SF6 in high-voltage systems
* Adolphe Sax, (1814-1894), Belgium — saxophone
* Christian Schnabel (1878-1936), German, designed simplistic food cutleries
* August Schrader, USA — Schrader valve for Pneumatic tire
* David Schwarz, (1852-1897), Croatia, — rigid ship, later called Zeppelin
* Bela Schick, (1877-1967), Hungary — diphtheria test
* Iwan Serrurier, (active 1920s), Netherlands/USA — inventor of the Moviola for film editing.
* Mark Serrurier, (190?-1988), USA — Serrurier truss for Optical telescopes
* William Bradford Shockley, (1910-1989), USA — co-inventor of transistor
* Werner von Siemens, (1816-1892), Germany — an electromechanical "dynamic"
* Sir William Siemens, (1823-1883), Germany — regenerative furnace
* Igor Sikorsky, (1889-1972), Ukraine — helicopter
* Charles Simonyi, (1948-), Hungary — Hungarian notation
* Aurel Stodola, (1859-1942), Slovakia - gas turbines
* Elmer Ambrose Sperry, (1860-1930), USA — gyroscope-guided automatic pilot
* Reverend Dr Robert Stirling (1790-1878), Scotland — Stirling engine
* Levi Strauss, (1829-1902), USA — blue jeans
* John Stringfellow, (1799-1883), England — airplane
* Almon Strowger, (1839-1902), USA — automatic telephone exchange
* Su Song, (1020-1101), China, invented the first hydraulic-powered astronomical clock tower that operated an armillary sphere with the escapement mechanism and chain drive
* Simon Sunatori, (1959-), Canada — inventor of Sunatori Pen
* Joseph Swan, (1828-1914), England — Incandescent light bulb
* Thomas Savery, (1650-1715), England — steam engine
* Marc Seguin, (1786-1875), France — wire-cable suspension bridge
* Henry Shrapnel, (1761-1842), England — Shrapnel shell ammunition
* Augustus Siebe, (1788-1872), Germany — standard diving dress
* Isaac Singer, (1811-1875), USA — sewing machine
* Percy Spencer, (1894-1970), USA — microwave oven
* George Stephenson, (1781-1848), England — steam locomotive
* Simon Stevin, (1548-1620), Netherlands — land yacht

T


* Bernhard Tellegen, (1900-1990), Netherlands pentode
* Edward Teller (Ede Teller), (1908-2003), Hungary — hydrogen bomb
* Nikola Tesla, (1856-1943), Serbian-Croatian-American — developer of the Tesla Coil and inventor of the induction motor, alternating current polyphase power distribution system, wireless communication, robotics, logic gates, the bladeless turbine, radio, VTOL aircraft, etc.
* Kalman Tihanyi, (1897-1947), Hungary — co-inventor of cathode ray tube and iconoscope
* Benjamin Chew Tilghman, (1821-1897), USA — sandblasting
* Alfred Traeger, (1895-1980), Australia — the pedal radio
* Franc Trkman, (1903-1978), Slovenia — electrical switches, accessories for opening windows
* Alan Turing, (1912-1954), England — the Turing machine

U


* Lewis Urry, (1927-2004), Canada — long-lasting alkaline battery

V


* Hub van Doorne, (1900-1979), Netherlands, continuously variable transmission
* Louis R. Vitullo, (1924?-2006), United States — developed the first sexual assault evidence kit
* Alessandro Volta, (1745-1827), Italy — battery
* Faust Vrancic, (1551-1617), Croatia — parachute

W


* Barnes Wallis, (1887-1979), England — bouncing bomb
* Robert Watson-Watt, (1892-1973), Scotland — microwave radar
* James Watt, (1736-1819), Scotland — improved Steam engine
* Jonas Wenström, (1855-1893), Sweden — three-phase electrical system
* George Westinghouse, (1846-1914), USA — Air brake
* Charles Wheatstone, (1802-1875), England — concertina, stereoscope, microphone, Playfair cipher
* Eli Whitney, (1765-1825), USA — the cotton gin
* Frank Whittle, (1907-1996), England — co-inventor of the jet engine
* Otto Wichterle, (1913-1989), Czechoslovakia — invented modern contact lenses
* Paul Winchell, (1922-2005), USA — the artificial heart
* Edmund Wingate, (c.1593-1656), England — straight slide rule
* A. Baldwin Wood, (1879-1956), USA — high volume pump
* Granville Woods, (1856-1910), USA — the Synchronous Multiplex Railway Telegraph
* The Wright brothers, Orville Wright, (1871-1948) and Wilbur Wright, (1867-1912), USA — powered airplane
* Bruce Wydner, (1935-), USA — inventor of Cost-Effective Machine Translation
* Arthur Wynne, (1862-1945), England — creator of crossword puzzle
* Thomas Wedgwood, (1771-1805), England — first (not permanent) photograph

Y


* Hidetsugu Yagi, (1886-1976), Japan — Yagi antenna
* Yi Xing, (683-727), China, invented the first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere that used the escapement mechanism
* Arthur M. Young, (1905-1995), USA — the Bell Helicopter

Z


* Zhang Heng, (78-139), China, invented the first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere

Penemu Mesin uap Adalah James Watt Berasal dari Negara Inggris
Penemu Mesin 4 tak Adalah Nicolaus Otto Berasal dari Negara Jerman
Penemu Mesin diesel Adalah Rudolf Diesel Berasal dari Negara Jerman
Penemu Mesin cetak Adalah Johannes Guttenberg Berasal dari Negara Jerman
Penemu Mesin ketik Adalah Christopher Sholes Berasal dari Negara Amerika
Penemu Radio Adalah C. Marconi Berasal dari Negara Italia
Penemu Televisi Adalah J.L. Baird & C.F. Jenkins Berasal dari Negara Amerika
Penemu Telegrap Adalah Samuel F.B. Morse Berasal dari Negara Amerika Serikat
Penemu Telepon Adalah Alexander Graham Bell Berasal dari Negara Amerika Serikat
Penemu Dinamo Adalah Michael Faraday Berasal dari Negara Inggris
Penemu Elektromagnet Adalah Williarn Sturgeon Berasal dari Negara Inggris
Penemu Bola lampu Adalah Thomas Alva Edison Berasal dari Negara Amerika Serikat
Penemu Proyektor film Adalah Thomas Alva Edison Berasal dari Negara Amerika Serikat
Penemu Piringan hitam Adalah Alexander Graham Bell Berasal dari Negara Amerika Serikat
Penemu Batu baterai Adalah Volta Berasal dari Negara Italia
Penemu Termometer Adalah Galileo Galilei Berasal dari Negara Italia
Penemu Korek api Adalah Robert Boyle, John Walker Berasal dari Negara
Penemu Kapal api Adalah Robert Fulton Berasal dari Negara Amerika Serikat
Penemu Kapal selam Adalah Cornelius van Drebbel Berasal dari Negara Belanda
Penemu Sinar Rontgen Adalah Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen Berasal dari Negara Jerman
Penemu Stetoskop Adalah Rene Laennec Berasal dari Negara Perancis
Penemu Lensa Adalah Anthony Van Leuwenhook Berasal dari Negara Belanda
Penemu Mikroskop Adalah Zacharias Janssen Berasal dari Negara Belanda
Penemu Teleskop Adalah H. Lippershey Berasal dari Negara Belanda
Penemu Kamera Adalah Louis Jacques Monde da Guerre & Edwin Land Berasal dari Negara Amerika
Penemu Pesawat terbang Adalah Wilbur dan 0. Wright Berasal dari Negara Amerika
Penemu Kereta api Adalah Murdocks Berasal dari Negara Inggris
Penemu Sepeda Adalah Civrac Berasal dari Negara Prancis
Penemu Balon terbang Adalah Sir F. Whittle
Penemu Balon karet Adalah Josep dan J. Montgolfier
Penemu Ban karet Adalah Charles Goodyear Berasal dari Negara Amerika
Penemu Barometer Adalah Evangelista, Torricelli Berasal dari Negara Italia
Penemu Dinamit Adalah Alfred Nobel Berasal dari Negara Swedia
Penemu Lensa kaca mata Adalah Benyamin Franklin Berasal dari Negara
Penemu Mesin hitung Adalah Blaise Pascal Berasal dari Negara Prancis
Penemu Mobil Adalah Gottlich Daimler
Penemu Motor Adalah Nikola Tesla
Penemu Tank Adalah Sir Ernest Swinton Berasal dari Negara Inggris
Penemu Traktor Adalah Benyamin Holt
Penemu Tangga jalan Adalah Elis G. Otis Berasal dari Negara Amerika
Penemu Kawat pijar Adalah Irving Langmuir

Sadi Carnot 1796-1832/Prancis penemu Carnot cycle dan Hukum Thermodynamik II

Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855/Jerman terlalu banyak utk disebutkan, paling banyak kontribusinya di teori2 matematika

Leonhard Euler 1707-1783/JermanSwiss sama kayak gauss, terlalu banyak kontribusinya dibidang ilmu pengetahuan alam dan matematik untuk disebutkan. yang paling kesohor, bilangan euler "e=2,71828..."

Max Planck 1858-1947/Jerman Quantum Theori.


Carl Benz bersama Gottlieb Daimler / dua2nya Jerman penemu Autocar
Karlheinz Brandenburg 1954 /Jerman penemu MP3 format yg di pake sekarang di MP3 Player
Heinrich Hertz/ Jerman penemu Gelombang Mhz, Khz...
Manfred von Ardenne /Jerman penemu Televisi
Albert Einstein /Jerman Teori Relativitas
          'Scope repaired, and some fun with the Rectum Paralyzer        
After some time spent blasting every moving contact in sight with Servisol, and resoldering any connection that didnt look pin sharp, my Hitachi V-212 20MHz Dual Trace Oscilloscope is now back working how it should be.


Inside the scope is very tidy, but clearly many years of grime had built up on the controls, causing all manner of irregular operation. Since I had to remove many of the plugs, these were all numbered with a Sharpie type pen so I knew where to put them back!


These two photos might seem pointless - actually, they are visual references as to where the correct control knobs and nuts were to be refitted! I also found that the protective film was never removed from the front panel, and was now in a poor state, Removing the film has brought the front panel back to near new looking condition!

After putting the scope back together, and replacing all the test gear on the bench where it should be, I started to have a play with the Spectrum Analyzer. (the weight of my analyzer is why it gets the name in the title! If your not careful with your manual handling these things can give you some interesting ruptures). I had heard that it was possible to get demodulated audio out, but wasnt sure how. Several youtube videos 'almost' helped, except that the described outputs were not as described on my instrument!

I sent a post in to G-QRP forum for assistance, but in the meantime, Sam came home from school, so I commandeered him for a few minutes to swap BNC connections around on the back of the analyzer, whilst I looked at what was on them on the 'scope. My connections are marked X, Y, and Z. One of these, Z I think it was, was tried first, resulting in a pulsing DC level. Clearly not that then. X was next up and showed a large triangle wave with a long 0v period, clearly the timebase! So the final Y connection was tried - yes! The 'scope trace showed just what the zero-span display of the analyzer did. Swapping the connection from the 'scope to the audio input of the 2955B, we had demodulated audio out of the test sets loudspeaker.

Using the 2955B isnt really convenient for this though, so I found a general purpose AF amp, based on an LM386, that was kicking about the bench, and connected that up. Perfect. I now need to find a box to put the audio amp in, so I can connect it neatly to the spectrum analyzer Y output for monitoring.

I hope eventually to us it for narrowing down airband transmissions, but im not accurate nor fast enough on the analyzers controls yet to pinpoint a transmission!



          Car Stereo fault - Beat 485 repair        
Well, marvelous isnt it? The Marconi 2955B goes on the blink, but before I can fix it the oscilloscope requires an overhaul. Get the 'scope dismantled for cleaning, lubricating and repair, and the flipping 2955B decides to start working again, leaving me with no idea whether something ive done, like reseating the cards, has fixed it, or whether the fault is indeed temperature dependent and likely to be a real twat to narrow down,

And while all this is going on, to really piss me off, the volume control on my car stereo fails! It randomly decides whether to go up or down whichever way I turn the knob!

I have a cheap after market DAB stereo, a Beat 485. This does DAB and DAB+ (why I bought it!) plus CD, USB etc. The volume control is not a traditional potentiometer, but a rotary encoder.

No photos for this fix im afraid! But it really doesnt need any, if your capable of doing this repair then you dont need a pictorial guide!

Opening the head fascia unit up is fairly simple - four screws and case clips, easily separated using a finger nail or similar thin object. The encoder turns out to be a mechanical type. This was to be expected as optical units are far more expensive. It also is a type with a central push button action (which I didnt know about its function on the stereo - turns out it selects the tone and balance options).

Once inside the head unit, the next job was to remove the encoder. This isnt particularly easy - there is a sizeable metal casing to it soldered down at either side, plus the five switch contacts (three one side, two the other). Ideally use a good hot iron here with plenty of heat capacity! I just plodded on with the 18W Antex, but the 45W iron would have been more sensible! Once desoldered, there are four folded tags on the underside that have to be lifted to dismantle the device.

Inside, the main encoder track could be seen, with two sliding contacts either side of the shaft. The pattern of the track could barely be seen it was so dirty! A blast with Servisol and a good scrub with a brush had it clean and shiny again. A gentle push with the end of a terminal driver reset the sliding contacts.

Reassembly was just the reverse of the above, ensuring of course that everything stayed in alignment, and then giving the securing tabs a good push down. After cleaning up the terminals, resoldering the encoder to the board was simple, as was rebuilding the head unit. I removed any other muck and dust at the same time.

A quick test back in the car shows that I now have a properly functioning volume control again!
          And now the Marconi 2955B is on the blink again!        
Well, this just about takes the biscuit!

Not only do I discover that my understanding of the use of my spectrum analyser is probably woefully inadequate, and that my oscilloscope is playing up and needs a service, but now my 2955B test set is on the fritz! Again!

This time, I know im at serious risk of screwing the firmware if I dont fix it. So, its time to open her up.

The 10MHz Oven Compensated Crystal Controlled Oscillator (OXCO) unit, is mounted, horrifyingly, on the same board that generates the EHT for the CRT!

Rear of the Reference/EHT board
I very much dislike playing near EHT supplies! I know from experience what a belt from the anode cap of a brand new never been connected TV tube feels like - and dont fancy experiencing the same from an actual supply! So I very carefully ensured (with a pair of long nose pliers) that the reservoir capacitors were properly discharged!

Inside the Marconi 2955B. Note the warnings!
The actual OXCO's six pins desoldered very easily, and the whole module came out smoothly. I opened it up to see if there was anything obviously wrong inside

The 10MHz OXCO...
...is bloody complicated inside!
But other than the trimmer capacitor (which I seem to remember being told could be the problem) it all looks ok, albeit extremely complex! So, I connected it up on the bench. 12v at 120mA steady (450mA initial) for the heater, 5v via a 22ohm current limit for the oscillator. 

On the bench...
 And the damn thing seems to be working perfectly!

...and seemingly working perfectly!
 I have had it powered now for about an hour. Ive even abused it - heating it with a hot air gun until it was too hot to touch, whereby it crept up to 10.00015MHz, and freezing it until the heater current maxed out again, and it barely dropped below 9.99998MHz!

Im now at a loss, but my suspicions center around either a power supply fault, or something as insidious  as a dry joint or leakage due to old flux! Where I go from here, im not sure, and ive a ton of work piling up that requires a working test set!


          MSO série 5        
Download Type: Data Sheets --> Grâce à son interface tactile novatrice, le plus grand écran haute définition du secteur et 4, 6 ou 8 entrées FlexChannel™ qui vous permettent de mesurer un signal analogique ou huit signaux numériques par voie, l’oscilloscope MSO série 5 est prêt à relever tous les défis, d’aujourd’hui et de demain. Il établit une nouvelle norme en termes de performances, d’analyse et d’expérience utilisateur globale.
          Oscilloscope à mémoire numérique        
Download Type: Data Sheets --> Avec un écran WVGA 9 po, un nombre d'échantillons s'élevant à 20 millions et une fréquence d'échantillonnage de 1 G.éch./s, les oscilloscopes de la gamme TBS2000 capturent et affichent les signaux avec considérablement plus de détails.
          Oscilloscope MDO3000 - Fiche technique        
Download Type: Data Sheets --> Les produits intégrés actuels nécessitent un oscilloscope aussi intégré tel que l'oscilloscope multidomaine MDO3000 (gamme MDO). Il s'agit de l'oscilloscopes multidomaine 6 en 1 le plus perfectionné offrant les fonctionnalités suivantes : analyseur de spectre intégré, générateur de fonctions arbitraires, analyseur logique, analyseur de protocole, voltmètre/compteur de fréquences numérique. L'oscilloscope MDO3000, totalement personnalisable, accepte toutes les mises à niveau. Ajoutez maintenant ou plus tard les instruments et les caractéristiques dont vous avez besoin.
          MDO4000C Series        
Download Type: Manuals --> Les oscilloscopes multidomaines MDO4000C comprennent six instruments intégrés dotés de performances exceptionnelles pour résoudre les problèmes complexes. Tous les oscilloscopes sont dotés de fonctions puissantes de déclenchement, de recherché et d'analyses. Ce sont les seules oscilloscopes capables d'effectuer des analyses synchronisées de signaux analogiques, numériques et RF. L'oscilloscope MDO4000C, totalement personnalisable, accepte toutes les mises à niveau.
          Fiche technique de l’oscilloscope multidomaine MDO4000C        
Download Type: Data Sheets --> Oscilloscope intégré 6-en-1 personnalisable qui peut entièrement être mis à niveau avec des aperçus synchronisés des signaux analogiques, numériques et RF
          TBS2000 Series        
Download Type: Manuals --> Ce manuel de l'utilisateur des modèles TBS2000 explique le fonctionnement de l'oscilloscope et contient les procédures d'installation. Il fournit également des informations concernant les caractéristiques, les fonctions et les applications.
          Oscilloscope à mémoire numérique        
Download Type: Data Sheets --> Les oscilloscopes numériques TBS1000B-EDU sont spécialement conçus pour répondre aux besoins des écoles et universités d’aujourd’hui. Cet instrument est le premier oscilloscope à utiliser le nouveau système Courseware qui permet aux enseignants d'intégrer sans problème des documents didactiques dans l'appareil. Les informations Courseware présentées directement sur l'écran de l'oscilloscope sont utilisables pour fournir des instructions pas à pas, les connaissances théoriques, des conseils et des astuces afin que les étudiants documentent efficacement leur travail en laboratoire. L'instrument équipé d'un écran couleur TFT 7 pouces WVGA offre une fréquence d'échantillonnage atteignant 2 G.éch./s, des bandes passantes de 50 MHz à 200 MHz, des fréquencemètres 2 voies et une garantie standard de 5 ans, pour ne citer que quelques-unes des caractéristiques qui font de l'oscilloscope TBS1000B-EDU le meilleur instrument d'entrée de gamme du marché de l'enseignement.
          Oscilloscopes à mémoire numérique        
Download Type: Data Sheets --> Peu encombrants, les oscilloscopes à mémoire numérique TBS1000B associent performances et économie. Livrés en standard avec de nombreuses fonctionnalités (connectivité USB, 34 mesures automatiques, test des valeurs limites, consignation des données, compteur de fréquences, TrendPlot™ et aide contextuelle, entre autres), ils vous permettent d'en faire plus en moins de temps.
          Oscilloscopes multidomaine        
Download Type: Data Sheets --> Présentation du tout premier oscilloscope au monde qui inclut un analyseur logique, un analyseur de spectre et un analyseur de protocole, le tout synchronisé dans un affichage intégré. Même si vous pouvez simplement utiliser la série MDO4000B comme un oscilloscope à signaux mixtes ou comme un analyseur de spectre, sa véritable puissance provient de l'intégration des deux fonctions. Pour la toute première fois, vous pouvez observer la façon dont vos conceptions réagissent dans les domaines à la fois temporel et fréquentiel avec un seul instrument. Affichez le spectre RF à tout moment pour en voir les changements au fil du temps ou selon l’état de l’appareil. Résolvez rapidement et efficacement les problèmes de développement les plus complexes grâce à un oscilloscope aussi intégré que votre étude.
          Enabling UART2 fro Frsky @ APM2.5 Arduplane 3.4        

@Michal_Patera wrote:

Hello, please could someone point me on how modify the code to enable UART2? I have measured uart 2 TX with oscilloscope and there is no signal at that port at all so I think it must me disabled. Any help would be highly appreciated.

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          Comment on The expansiveness of YouTube by Dave Smith        
<p>Math lessons from Khan Academy were the gateway drug to youtube for my daughter's cohort, but it's not entirely a generational thing. I've been relearning electronics via youtube videos. Watching a someone demonstrate how to use an oscilloscope, while making sidebars about common mistakes, is vastly different from reading the manual. For any home repair problem, chances are good that someone has posted a video walk-though.</p> <p>A few companies in the DIY space have picked up on the shift. A good example is Adafruit. They have a set of weekly video shows that blend industry news, new products, tutorials, and project demos from customers.</p>
          WaveAce 224 — Mini rant #11: Bricked for 10 minutes!        
This is a ‘close relative’ to the ‘eternal boot screen’. It is also caused by the all-mighty triggering system, which governs the whole oscilloscope – even when it shouldn’t. One of the most annoying things is that this can block … Continue reading
          Jyetech AVR digital oscilloscope DIY KIT — trying to fix it – part 2        
Maybe you remember my last post about the Jyetech oscilloscope and it’s weird behaviour. Not all of them are strange, as the free replacement DIY KIT I received from them works fine. At that time I suspected a sick ATmega64 … Continue reading
          Jyetech AVR digital oscilloscope DIY KIT — trying to fix it – part 1        
The symptoms since a firmware upgrade (and downgrades, re-upgrades…): strange characters on the display for SEC/DIV system freezes +/- buttons are ignored (but still work physically) the ADC chip doesn’t get a CLK signal during a freeze My theory: The … Continue reading
          Jyetech AVR digital oscilloscope DIY KIT — Firmware upgrade odyssey        
I bought the DIY KIT at seeedstudio recently, as I needed to feed my soldering obsession. Here are some images of the KIT coming right out of the box: I had to use my milling machine, because the front panel … Continue reading
          ì§€ê¸ˆ HDO9000 오실로스코프를 구매하면, WaveSurfer 3000 오실로스코프가 무료!        
지금 HDO9000 오실로스코프를 구매하면, WaveSurfer 3000 오실로스코프가 무료! HDO 9000 오실로스코프를 구매하시면, WaveSurfer 3000 오실로스코프를 무료로 증정하는 프로모션을 실시합니다. 자세한 프로모션 내용을 확인해보세요. 프로모션 기간: 2017년 6월 30일까지 HDO 9000 OscilloscopeHDO9104/HDO9204/HDO9304/HDO9404 [제품사양]- 1GHz~4GHz 대역폭- 10-bit 수직축 분해능- 40GS/s 샘플링 속도- HD1024 기술 탑재 WaveSurfer 3000 OscilloscopeWS3024/WS3034/WS3054/WS3074 [제품사양]- 200MHz~750MHz- 8-bit 분해능- 40GS/s 샘플링 속도- MAUI 인터페이스 구매 제품 모델명증정 제품 모델명 i HDO9104 WaveSurfer3024 ii HDO9204 Wav.......
          Order your oscilloscope basics poster today        
Learn about oscilloscopes and quickly get from probe connection to signal viewing with simple, easy-to-follow steps on this oscilloscopes basics poster. Ideal for your office or lab.
          Download Wii Games        
There was a time when video games weren’t video games as they are known today. Video game old timers would remember the custom displays, monitors and even oscilloscopes and the kind of excitement the simple Brick Game or two-dimensional Pong were able to generate back then. Honestly, they are so lame by today’s standards. Compare […]
          Oval Elephant UG802 with RK3066 CPU        
I picked up a UG802 from Oval Elephant a week or so ago, this is one of a number of so called Android Mini PCs, such as the MK802, that have appeared out of China in the last few months. These devices are based on low/mid end Android cellphone hardware, with the screen replaced with an HDMI connector and no battery. The intended application for these devices is to add internet (smart) functionality to TV sets. The UG802 is notable in that it uses a more modern Cortex A9 dual core processor. On the whole I've found the device to be quite usable, especially after rooting and changing the default launcher.

From looking around I'm confident that the UG802 hardware is also sold under a bunch of other name/model combinations, so if you have a similar device with a RK3066 chip in, its likely the same or very similar hardware.

I looked around and couldn't find any decent pictures of the internals of the device, so I decided to take it apart and make a few board scans. Also, the pictures on OvalElephant lead me to believe there were likely a number of test points around the CPU worth investigating -- more on that later.

Disassembling the device is a pain in the butt, as its held together with a number of rather fragile plastic clips. For anyone looking to take theirs apart, the clips extend from the smaller of the two halves. I worked from near the sides of the HDMI port out, using hotel key cards as pry bars and shims. A technique I've proved effective a number of times in the past, worked reasonably well here. However, I required a bit of screw driver prying as the case is quite snug.


Huge versions can be found here, front and back.

For an inexpensive device I was rather impressed with the finish on the boards. The soldering is clean and and the component placement well done. The only issue I observed was a poor routing on the antenna cable, which caused it to be pinched by the case. Mine was severed, but the insulation and some of the shielding was cut. I suspect if people are having issues with WiFi reception, this is a likely cause.

While I had the device open, I grabbed the oscilloscope and checked out the test pads around the CPU. I was able to locate a serial boot console, which could be useful for development and anti-bricking purposes.
The color coding for the pins is as follows:
  • Green = Ground
  • Blue = Serial TxD
  • Red = Serial RxD
  • White = No signal
  • Yellow = 3.3V
  • Magenta = 2.5V
The serial connection is the expected 3.3V at 115,200bps. A log from the boot process is available here. Regrettably, I didn't take the time to see if the bootloader had an interactive mode. I'll make a dump of the bootloader and examine it, see if there is anything interesting or useful there.

I'm guessing the unpopulated TO92 package is intended to be an IR receiver, but that's only a guess.

The use of the other pins is less clear, I'm guessing that by either pulling some set high or low, the device can be placed in a factory flash/recovery mode, however more time with the CPU datasheet and experimentation required to figure this out.
          Arun Raghavan: Quantifying Synchronisation: Oscilloscope Edition        

I’ve written a bit in my last two blog posts about the work I’ve been doing in inter-device synchronised playback using GStreamer. I introduced the library and then demonstrated its use in building video walls.

The important thing in synchronisation, of course, is how much in-sync are the streams? The video in my previous post gave a glimpse into that, and in this post I’ll expand on that with a more rigorous, quantifiable approach.

Before I start, a quick note: I am currently providing freelance consulting around GStreamer, PulseAudio and open source multimedia in general. If you’re looking for help with any of these, do get in touch.

The sync measurement setup

Quantifying what?

What is it that we are trying to measure? Let’s look at this in terms of the outcome — I have two computers, on a network. Using the gst-sync-server library, I play a stream on both of them. The ideal outcome is that the same video frame is displayed at exactly the same time, and the audio sample being played out of the respective speakers is also identical at any given instant.

As we saw previously, the video output is not a good way to measure what we want. This is because video displays are updated in sync with the display clock, over which consumer hardware generally does not have control. Besides, our eyes are not that sensitive to minor differences in timing unless images are side-by-side. After all, we’re fooling it with static pictures that change every 16.67ms or so.

Using audio, though, we should be able to do better. Digital audio streams for music/videos typically consist of 44100 or 48000 samples a second, so we have a much finer granularity than video provides us. The human ear is also fairly sensitive to timings with regards to sound. If it hears the same sound at an interval larger than 10 ms, you will hear two distinct sounds and the echo will annoy you to no end.

Measuring audio is also good enough because once you’ve got audio in sync, GStreamer will take care of A/V sync itself.

Setup

Okay, so now that we know what we want to measure, but how do we measure it? The setup is illustrated below:

Sync measurement setup illustrated

As before, I’ve set up my desktop PC and laptop to play the same stream in sync. The stream being played is a local audio file — I’m keeping the setup simple by not adding network streaming to the equation.

The audio itself is just a tick sound every second. The tick is a simple 440 Hz sine wave (A₄ for the musically inclined) that runs for for 1600 samples. It sounds something like this:

https://arunraghavan.net/wp-content/uploads/test-audio.ogg

I’ve connected the 3.5mm audio output of both the computers to my faithful digital oscilloscope (a Tektronix TBS 1072B if you wanted to know). So now measuring synchronisation is really a question of seeing how far apart the leading edge of the sine wave on the tick is.

Of course, this assumes we’re not more than 1s out of sync (that’s the periodicity of the tick itself), and I’ve verified that by playing non-periodic sounds (any song or video) and making sure they’re in sync as well. You can trust me on this, or better yet, get the code and try it yourself! :)

The last piece to worry about — the network. How well we can sync the two streams depends on how well we can synchronise the clocks of the pipeline we’re running on each of the two devices. I’ll talk about how this works in a subsequent post, but my measurements are done on both a wired and wireless network.

Measurements

Before we get into it, we should keep in mind that due to how we synchronise streams — using a network clock — how in-sync our streams are will vary over time depending on the quality of the network connection.

If this variation is small enough, it won’t be noticeable. If it is large (10s of milliseconds), then we may notice start to notice it as echo, or glitches when the pipeline tries to correct for the lack of sync.

In the first setup, my laptop and desktop are connected to each other directly via a LAN cable. The result looks something like this:

The first two images show the best case — we need to zoom in real close to see how out of sync the audio is, and it’s roughly 50µs.

The next two images show the “worst case”. This time, the zoomed out (5ms) version shows some out-of-sync-ness, and on zooming in, we see that it’s in the order of 500µs.

So even our bad case is actually quite good — sound travels at about 340 m/s, so 500µs is the equivalent of two speakers about 17cm apart.

Now let’s make things a little more interesting. With both my laptop and desktop connected to a wifi network:

On average, the sync can be quite okay. The first pair of images show sync to be within about 300µs.

However, the wifi on my desktop is flaky, so you can see it go off up to 2.5ms in the next pair. In my setup, it even goes off up to 10-20ms, before returning to the average case. The next two images show it go back and forth.

Why does this happen? Well, let’s take a quick look at what ping statistics from my desktop to my laptop look like:

Ping from desktop to laptop on wifi

That’s not good — you can see that the minimum, average and maximum RTT are very different. Our network clock logic probably needs some tuning to deal with this much jitter.

Conclusion

These measurements show that we can get some (in my opinion) pretty good synchronisation between devices using GStreamer. I wrote the gst-sync-server library to make it easy to build applications on top of this feature.

The obvious area to improve is how we cope with jittery networks. We’ve added some infrastructure to capture and replay clock synchronisation messages offline. What remains is to build a large enough body of good and bad cases, and then tune the sync algorithm to work as well as possible with all of these.

Also, Florent over at Ubicast pointed out a nice tool they’ve written to measure A/V sync on the same device. It would be interesting to modify this to allow for automated measurement of inter-device sync.

In a future post, I’ll write more about how we actually achieve synchronisation between devices, and how we can go about improving it.


          Track By Track: Ratboy - 'SCUM'        
'SCUM'
Rat Boy
A guide to Jordan Cardy's debut album...

Ratboy is a phenomenon in waiting.

The Essex songwriter has built his following gig by gig, song by song, watching the crowd's feverish reaction grow as each night passes.

Debut album 'SCUM' is set to be a marker of sorts, a collection of life-changing events from the past 18 months.

Out on August 11th, it's a remarkable document of promise coming into fulfilment, something that speaks honestly and directly about some of the most important issues facing young British people today.

Clash invited Ratboy to break the album down, track by track...

- - -

- - -

1. Welcome To My World (intro)
2. Turn Round M8

That song took nearly a year. I had the whole song together apart from the chorus, and then my laptop broke halfway through making it, so I didn’t have the stems for it for a long time. Eventually I managed to get them back so I could carry on working on it. I got some help from Damon Albarn on the chorus and he played some keyboards on it too. I also had a guy called Junior Dan come in and play bass on the verses. He played with The Wailers, he’s wicked.

3. Revolution

That was a fun one. I went out to New York with our drummer Noah Booth to record at the Beastie Boys’ Oscilloscope Studio, and we used the same guitars and drum machines that they used on their records. They’d drawn loads of stuff on their gear, like you could see Ad Rock’s tag on the 808. We also recorded the drums through a Neve desk from the 70s which had a really cool history to it.

4. Stevie’s First Wife (interlude)
5. Laidback

'Laidback' is just a sad love story isn’t it? I wanted to make a really British love song. Graham Coxon plays guitar on it, he’s wicked and I spent a day with him in the studio. It’s got Nick Hodgson from Kaiser Chiefs playing drums as well. It’s cool to work with people like them because they obviously know a lot about music.

6. I’ll Be Waiting

That song was kind of an accident, which we made literally a week before handing in the record. I was with the band and we were just all messing around in the back of Noah’s car. We picked up a guitar from a friend’s house and then I just started playing this chord sequence. After that little idea happened in the car, I sat in Noah’s house while everyone else was down at the studio. Me and Noah worked on the lyrics, and then we all jammed together.

7. Big Fucka Burgers (interlude)
8. Move

I worked with Jason Cox on 'Move', he worked on the first Gorillaz record and Demon Days. We got on really well and he understood the sound I was going for. We hit up Mario C as well, he was on the Beastie Boys’ records and he helped get some of these songs to sound right and authentic.

9. Boiling Point

That gospel vocal sound at the start is actually like keyboard setting on Logic, and you play it in different octaves. I was messing around with that for a bit, and then I came up with a guitar line. I recorded it really quickly. It was the first song I played drums on, but Noah played drums on the final version that’s on the record. My drumming’s awful, but I’m learning. I haven’t actually got a drum kit at the moment, but when I have a kit I’m gonna learn more and hopefully get a bit better.

10. Fake ID

I made that way back in 2014. I was writing loads of stories from back in Chelmsford. I used to ride my bike home from Wetherspoons after doing the night shift. I’d get heckled a lot riding home from work and I could just imagine getting mugged on a Saturday night, as it happened quite a lot in Chelmsford. I