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[Please note that our Premium Interview Guidance runs for more than 60 pages in A4 size PDF. GET IT HERE>> Face the WBSSC Interview Board Easily A very short introduction First things first: Have a sound and deep sleep at night. Rise up early and collect the English newspapers like The Statesman or The Telegraph […]
          Forty summers ago – July 5, 1977 – grand jury began hearing testimony, piercing, slightly, the ongoing Showalter hit-run cover-up in New London, CT        


Editor’s Note: The Showalter grand jury is noteworthy in that forces for justice – Judge Joseph Dannehy, Special Prosecutor Austin McGuigan and as many as 17 Connecticut State Police detectives – could only knock down some of the walls protecting New London Police, State’s Attorney C. Robert Satti, Asst. State’s Attorney Harold Dean, Judge Angelo Santaniello, former Mayor Harvey Mallove and others who escaped complete discovery. The cover-up continues to this day, highlighted by the suppression and disappearance of the grand jury transcripts.




The foundation for investigative reporting in this case was developed by John Peterson, who was managing editor of The Norwich Bulletin during the grand jury. The grand jury began hearing testimony on July 5, 1977
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Special Prosecutor McGuigan became Chief State’s Attorney, then was fired after convicting appointees of the governor and many other public officials.

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Chronology, Grand Juror Report, Follow-up Columns
Via
Law And Justice In Everyday Life, CT Law Tribune


F. Lee Bailey on Law and Justice in Everyday Life and the Showalter case:

This book - which is mainly about public officials, police, judges and lawyers either shaming or shining - is a good read. Many of the stories stand alone, like slices of life. Others will appear early in the book, with follow-up chapters later. The crown jewel, in my view, is his handling of the strange death of Kevin Showalter, who was slammed 50 feet down the road in New London, Connecticut on Christmas Eve 1973 while changing a tire on the traffic side of a parked car. For many years, Andy Thibault dogged a case which public officials seemed determined to let die, despite the presence of a likely suspect. He tells me his mentor, John Peterson, broke the case open and then handed over the torch. Joined by the victim's mother, Lucille, who revealed herself as a determined but delightful woman as the story unfolds, Andy beats up on police, prosecutors, judges and governors until finally there is action. Spurred on by an appointment hastened by Gov. Ella Grasso, Judge Joseph Dannehy conducted one of the most brilliant and thorough investigations I have ever seen. If this book were only about the Showalter case, it would be worth the price.

APPENDIX

THE SHOWALTER CHRONOLOGY – A FOUR YEAR SEARCH FOR JUSTICE


New London, Ct.

1973

December 24

Approximately 11:10 to 11:20 p.m. Kevin B. Showalter is killed. Car leaves scene. Only taillights observed by a neighbor.

There is much confusion. Mr. Showalter had been changing a tire on his companion’s car. His companion Debra Emilyta, was sitting about six feet away from the car on a stone wall.

Ms. Emilyta told police she heard a thud, but did not see the car which struck Mr. Showalter. She said she ran across the road, a well-lit section of Pequot Avenue near Plant Street, before seeing Mr. Showalter’s body.

Mr. Showalter’s body was thrown 22 feet from the believed point of impact, onto a sidewalk near a large tree. The police report prepared that night noted the deceased’s shoes were found 110 feet apart. Part of a leg bone was found 75 feet away.

Michael Buscetto of Mike’s Auto Body gives police body putty, apparently from the car which struck Mr. Showalter. The putty never made it to the police station. Det. Lt. Konstanty T. Bucko later denies its existence.

December 25

Autopsy performed. No trace of alcohol or drugs found. Cause of death listed as lacerated liver and broken neck.

In efforts to console Mrs. Showalter, friends, neighbors, witnesses and officials volunteer information about the accident. She quietly listens for about six weeks, taking it for granted that police are acting on the same information. December 26

New London police begin full-scale search for red car.

1974

February 6

FBI report describes paint particles on Mr. Showalter’s clothing as “racing green” or “forest green” used on 1968 Chrysler products.

February 7

Mrs. Showalter notes she had the impression local police were not actively pursuing the case. She began interviewing those persons who came to her voluntarily and made a written record of her findings.

During the next three weeks, Mrs. Showalter spends much of her time making telephone calls and knocking on doors. She and her youngest son Craig, then 14, visited a number of local auto dealers and garages. She said in most cases they were told police had not made any inquiries of them.

February 28

New London police conduct first interview with Harvey N. Mallove, the downtown merchant and former mayor and city councilor. Mallove stated he drove by Pequot Avenue near Plant Street shortly before 11:15 p.m. on Christmas Eve 1973. Seven people near the accident scene contradict what he said he saw.

April 20

Mrs. Showalter writes to State’s Atty. Edmund J. O’Brien, requesting a one-man grand jury investigation into her son’s death. O’Brien never responds.

On the same day, Atty. Thomas Bishop, representing Mrs. Showalter as the administratix of Mr. Showalter’s estate, asks Atty. Joseph Moukawsher to conduct a coroner’s inquest of the hit-run death.

April 23

Moukawsher agrees to conduct inquest but must confer with New London police before setting date.

June 4

Mrs. Showalter writes to New London Police Chief John J. Crowley, asking for a progress report on the investigation by his force. Crowley neither acknowledges receipt of letter nor responds. Copies of letter were sent to City Manager C. Francis Driscoll, and Abraham Kirshenbaum, then chairman of the City Council’s Public Safety Committee.

June 10

Mrs. Showalter asks Superior Court Judge Angelo Santaniello to call for a grand jury investigation.

June 24

Santaniello notes Moukawsher has agreed to conduct coroner’s inquest. He tells Mrs. Showalter, “If it appears that during any stage of this proceeding that any further intercession is necessary, appropriate action will be taken at that time.”

July 2

Mrs. Showalter writes to City Manager C. Francis Driscoll, asking for a report from his office assessing the police department’s handling of the case. She also asks for a reply to her June 4 letter to Police Chief Crowley.

July 9

Driscoll tells Crowley to prepare a complete report for Mrs. Showalter.

July 10

Bucko completes report on fatal accident.

July 25

Driscoll sends Mrs. Showalter Bucko’s report. The report said Mr. Showalter’s body was in the road, but the ambulance crew which took Mr. Showalter to Lawrence Memorial Hospital said they found him on the sidewalk several feet away. No police officer ever saw the body at the scene since the first officer arrived as the body was being placed in the ambulance.

Bucko says paint particles from a 1968 Plymouth at the U.S. Naval Submarine Base in Groton are similar to those found on Mr. Showalter’s clothing, but the same paint is used on any 1968 Chrysler product.

Bucko also says a piece of metal Mrs. Showalter found near the accident scene is in the detective bureau. When Mrs. Showalter first offered the metal to police, they refused to sign a receipt for it.

August 6

Mrs. Showalter writes to Driscoll regarding Bucko’s report. She lists six pages of comments on allegedly “serious omissions” and “strictly opinion judgments” by Bucko.

Mrs. Showalter also writes to Chief State’s Atty. Joseph Gormley, asking him to send a representative to the coroner’s inquest. She includes copies of correspondence with local officials and Bucko’s report.

August 9

Mrs. Showalter requests a meeting with the City Council’s Public Safety Committee.

August 15

Bucko updates report, at request of city manager Driscoll.

Bucko said of the body location, “the position he (Mr. Showalter) was found in at the scene of the accident, in my opinion, would not help in solving this matter.” Erroneous on the report is the position of the car jack which is shown on the front bumper. The car Mr. Showalter was working on, a Ford Pinto, had to be jacked from the side of the vehicle.

Omitted from the report is the location of a car mat seen to the rear of the car and the spare tire Mr. Showalter never got to put on the car.

August 20

Gormley writes to Mrs. Showalter, telling her the local police investigation “has proceeded smoothly,” and there is “no reason for this office to initiate its own investigation.”

August 28

The Public Safety Committee of the New London City Council meets in closed session for one hour to discuss the hit-run death. Chief Crowley requested the closed session. He said there is evidence that could jeopardize future action.

Mrs. Showalter submitted a 12-page statement for the meeting, but did not attend.

Crowley said the case is not closed and it appears an arrest may be made.

August 31

Mallove submits official statement to New London police.

November, 1974

After being postponed several times, the coroner’s inquest hears testimony from 50 persons. No findings issued.

1975

January 24

A state police detective participating in the federal grand jury probe of the city police department has told one of its patrolmen they identified the driver of the car which struck and killed Mr. Showalter on Christmas Eve, 1973.

“We know who killed the Showalter kid, how come you don’t?” the detective was quoted in The Norwich Bulletin as saying.

March 19-22

The Bulletin, in a four-part series, shows:

- Eyewitnesses and what New London police called “near witnesses” drastically differed in their accounts of the accident.

- Microscopic paint particles found on Mr. Showalter’s clothing on which police based their search may not have been left by the vehicle which struck him.

- Evidence entrusted to police officers at the scene has never been seen since.

- A claim by police that it would cost as much as $1,200 to trace vehicles possible involved in the mishap was declared false by the state Motor Vehicle Department.

The Bulletin, when preparing the series of articles, made repeated efforts to discuss the case with police officials but Lt. K.T. Bucko, who headed the case, on the advice of then Police Chief John Crowley, would not.

April 3 State police conduct an extensive door-to-door inquiry in the Pequot Avenue region. State police have been looking into the case as part of a federal grand jury investigation into alleged corruption within the city force.

July 12

The state of Connecticut offers a $2,000 reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of the person responsible for the hit-run death of Mr. Showalter. A total of $3,000 is now being offered. Classmates and friends of Mr. Showalter’s have already collected $1,000.

July 21

A community effort by friends and classmates raises the reward to $5,000.

November 8

The transcript of the coroner’s inquest of the hit-run death conducted nearly a year ago has yet to be typed, Coroner Joseph Moukawsher confirms. He said he wants to review the transcript even though he believes his six-day long inquest did not establish any guilt in the case. He said he has not spoken with the court reporter assigned to the case since the early summer.

December 10

Mrs. Showalter writes to State’s Atty. C. Robert Satti, requesting a one-man grand jury investigation. No response.

1976

January 6

Satti refuses to confirm or deny the existence of Mrs. Showalter’s request. Mrs. Showalter has also asked Satti’s office to ascertain the location of recorded tapes made during the coroner’s inquest.

January 9

Mrs. Showalter sends a special delivery letter to Satti asking for a response to the December 10 request. No response.

February 19

In a feature article, also carried statewide by the Associated Press, The Bulletin profiles Mrs. Showalter on page one.

Some public officials regard her as a persistent nuisance, someone to be ignored and sidestepped, but Mrs. Lucille M. Showalter will not breathe easily until they tell her who killed her son, Bulletin reporter Fred Vollono wrote.

“The official comment seems to be there is nothing to it,” Mrs. Showalter said. “It is just the ramblings of a grief-stricken mother. But there are many people who urge me to go on. They say, ‘Lucille, if you stop, then nothing will ever be done.’”

February 23

Mrs. Showalter receives a letter of confession from an inmate at Somers state prison. The inmate said he was plagued by news accounts of the death. Every time he seems to forget the accident, the inmate said, he reads another news story.

April 2

Mrs. Showalter submits a third written request to Satti for a grand-jury probe. No response.

May 6

Common Pleas court Prosecutor Harold Dean quashes the only lead in the two and a half year old investigation, The Norwich Bulletin reports. The lead was the letter of confession written by the inmate at Somers Prison. State police arrested the inmate for harassment of the victim’s mother, Mrs. Showalter, to whom the letter was sent. Dean nolled the case and allowed it to be dismissed despite a prior meeting with state police when the significance of the arrest was discussed.

State police did not believe the letter writer was responsible for the hit-run death, but they thought the letter contained possibly significant information. Dean said he was certain the accused had no knowledge of the case, because he was incarcerated when Mr. Showalter was killed.

August 7 The day following the Bulletin’s report of Dean quashing the lead, Chief State’s Atty. Joseph Gormley says he had “no idea” why the lead “which very well could have led to something,” resulted in a dead end. Two state police officers had met with Gormley to discuss the letter of confession.

August 6

State police list the investigation into the killing of Mr. Showalter as “closed pending further development.” That classification came 31 days after Dean threw the harassment case out of court.

August 30

Mrs. Showalter again asks Superior Court Judge Angelo Santaniello to call for a one-man grand jury probe.

September 1

Mrs. Showalter publicly renews her efforts to have a one-man grand jury reopen the investigation into the hit-run killing of her son. In a statement sent to 22 media outlets, Mrs. Showalter says she made the appeal in an August 30 letter to Superior Court Judge Angelo Santaniello. She says she was asking the judge to “make good on a promise” he made to her in June 1974. Santaniello wrote in a June 24, 1974 letter, Superior Court intercession would be possible if the investigation required it.

Santaniello said, “probably the proper person” to approach would be State’s Atty. C. Robert Satti. But Mrs. Showalter said she is ignoring Satti because he failed to respond to her December 1975 letter asking for the grand jury.

September 23

State’s Atty. C. Robert Satti says he needs another three weeks to review information on the killing of Mr. Showalter before deciding whether the investigation should be reopened or shelved.

Satti says he had hoped to have the matter resolved by today, but the sinking of his 35-foot cabin cruiser two weeks ago, an unexpected report of crimes by New London police, and a new trial forced him behind schedule.

November 23

Mrs. Showalter turns to Governor Ella T. Grasso for help.

“I cannot endure this loss of a beloved son in the midst of a governmental system that appears to neither act nor care,” Mrs. Showalter says in a letter to the governor.

Mrs. Showalter says she is skeptical the New London County State’s Attorney’s review of the case will result in the one-man grand jury she has requested. Satti today said he is still reviewing transcripts of the Coroner’s Inquest and refused further comment.

December 21

Just three days before the third anniversary of the killing of Kevin B. Showalter, the state’s chief court administrator orders the city’s only unsolved hit-and-run case reopened.

John P. Cotter signs an order creating a one-man jury to probe the death, renewing hopes that allegations of police bungling and mishandling of the case will be settled.

“I can’t yet believe it,” says Mrs. Showalter, calling the action a “literal miracle.”

Cotter, a justice on the state Supreme Court, selects retired Superior Court Judge Raymond J. Devlin to head the one-man grand jury.

An attorney representing Mrs. Lucille M. Showalter also files a $600,000 lawsuit against the unnamed person(s) responsible for the killing of her son. Atty. Averum J. Sprecher of East Haddam says the suit is aimed at protecting Mrs. Showalter’s rights.

“The action as I have filed it will definitively preserve her rights when the investigative bodies finally determine who killed the boy,” he said. The suit is aimed at heading off fears the state’s statute of limitations might preclude Mrs. Showalter from pursuing civil action if the killer is found.

December 24

Superior Court Judge Joseph F. Dannehy is ordered to replace State Referee Raymond J. Devlin as the one-man grand juror investigating Mr. Showalter’s death. Chief Court Administrator John P. Cotter says Judge Devlin had asked to be taken off the case because he was too busy with other duties, and would be unable to commute from his New Haven office.

1977

January 4

Austin J. McGuigan, the special prosecutor assigned to the one-man grand jury probing the hit-run death of Mr. Showalter promises to pull “all the stops” in his investigation but says he needs help from the public to succeed.

McGuigan has worked for the state for two years as the top investigator of organized crime. He appeals to anyone with information to call him confidentially.

February 8

State Police Commissioner Edward P. Leonard, as part of a last-resort effort, makes a personal appeal to area residents for information about the killing of Mr. Showalter. In a letter to the people who live near the Pequot Avenue site where Mr. Showalter died, Leonard asks for facts – “No matter how insignificant they may appear” – which might shed light on the car, the driver or the accident scene.

Special Prosecutor McGuigan says police “had no suspects.” However, he says if a suspect is found police believe there is sufficient evidence to tie the person to the case.

April 18

Investigators say they feel confident the Showalter case will be solved.

The new optimism comes after a public appeal netted more than 300 leads, new laboratory analysis of existing evidence, and an accounting of each of the more than 10,000 green Chrysler products registered in Eastern Connecticut when Mr. Showalter was killed.

The new evidence means “there is a significant possibility the vehicle in question was not a green Chrysler,” Special Prosecutor Austin McGuigan says. While the investigators will not say what other color the car might have been, the evidence apparently opens new avenues for the investigation. Previously, other theories on who drove the death car, theories which have had some substantiation, were locked into the green Chrysler theory, police acknowledge.

May 10

State police investigators spend two and a half hours recreating and filming the Pequot Avenue death scene where Mr. Showalter was the victim of the hit and run.

May 18

State police again film and re-create death scene.

June 22

The Bulletin reports that one of the most intensive investigations in state police history, the probe into Mr. Showalter’s hit-run death, will be given to a one-man grand jury July 5 in Windham county Superior Court.

Judge Joseph F. Dannehy, the grand juror, imposes a gag order on all investigators assigned to the case. Special Prosecutor McGuigan and 17 state police detectives had gathered evidence for the grand jury.

June 23

More than 50 persons will be subpoenaed and the scope of the probe will be expanded to include subsequent actions connected with the accident, The Bulletin reports.

June 24

Eleven New London police officers, including the top detective involved in the first of three investigations of the hit-run death, have been subpoenaed, The Bulletin reports.

July 5

The grand jury begins behind closed doors with testimony by New London Det. Lt. Konstanty T. Bucko.

Outside, a television camera crew drips with sweat under the glare of a hot summer sun.

Inside it is quiet and cool – almost like any other day. The state police detectives and reporters talk about golf, baseball and other summertime activities. Because of the gag order imposed by Judge Dannehy, they can’t talk about what is most on their minds, what has brought them all together – the unsolved hit-run death of Kevin B. Showalter.

The session lasts about five hours and also includes testimony by Mrs. Showalter and Debra Emilyta, Mr. Showalter’s companion the night he died.

Ms. Emilyta has been sitting on a wall about 6 feet from Mr. Showalter when he was killed. She told police she only heard the 20-year-old Mitchell College student struck, and did not see the car which struck him.

July 6

Witnesses include Michael Buscetto of Mike’s Arco in New London. What he identified as body putty, apparently from the car that struck and killed Mr. Showalter, has never been seen since police officers placed it in an envelope that night, according to sources.

Ms. Emilyta concludes testimony.

Also testifying are Dr. Robert Weller, members of his family, and a friend, who while returning home from church drove past Mr. Showalter as he was changing the tire. They were among the last persons to see Mr. Showalter alive.

Other witnesses include Mrs. Ruth P. Hendel and Mrs. Charles (Shirley Pope) Alloway, her daughter.

On Christmas Eve, 1973, Mrs. Hendel had just turned away from the window of her home on Pequot Avenue where she had been watching Mr. Showalter work on the Emilyta car. She heard the noise of the car striking Mr. Showalter and turning back quickly she caught a glimpse of the taillights. Her first impression of the fleeing southbound car was that it was bright-colored, possibly red.

Mrs. Hendel continued to watch the accident scene as she telephoned Mrs. Alloway, the wife of a New London police officer.

Arthur Adams of New London, a Mitchell College security guard and former state policeman, also testifies. Aside from Ms. Emilyta and the hit-run driver, Adams may have been one of the last persons to see Mr. Showalter alive.

Adams saw Mr. Showalter working on the car and Ms. Emilyta sitting on the stone wall, swinging her legs. He observed the girl with a coat collar wrapped around her head, in conversation with Mr. Showalter, after the Weller party had driven by.

Adams continued on his rounds towards the Montauk Avenue side of the campus. Sometime after 11 p.m., he saw an ambulance heading for the hospital and two police cars heading down Plant Street.

July 7

Some of the last persons who saw Mr. Showalter alive and one of the first who saw him dead testify.

Six members of the Sitty family, who were celebrating Christmas Eve and occasionally watching Mr. Showalter change a tire from inside a house on Pequot Avenue, tell the grand jury what they knew about the case, Edmond Sitty had brought out a blanket and a corduroy coat to put over Mr. Showalter’s body after he had been struck and killed.

A New London High School classmate of Mr. Showalter, Arthur Petrini, was a passenger in a car that passed the accident scene sometime after Mr. Showalter was killed and before the ambulance and police arrived. He also testified.

July 12

Witnesses included two firemen and a dispatcher, two nurses and an orderly, the New London County Medical Examiner, the first man to officially identify Mr. Showalter, and a woman who lives near the accident scene.

Larry Grimes, a security guard who knew Mr. Showalter from Mitchell College, had made the preliminary identification at Lawrence and Memorial Hospitals, where he also worked. Mrs. Dorothy Bryson of Pequot Avenue, who came upon the accident scene, also testifies.

July 13

New London police officers pack the waiting room of the Windham County Courthouse. Of the 11 who were subpoenaed last month, at least seven are present.

The 11 include Patrolmen Vincent McGrath, Steven Colonis, Thomas P. Bowes Jr., and Cpl. Joseph Chiapponne, all of whom were involved in the initial investigation. With the change of shift, Sgt. Joseph Jullarine, Patrolmen Richard West and Glenn Davis and Det. Sgt. Konstanty T. Bucko joined the probe. Bucko was off duty at the time.

McGrath filed the motor vehicle report of the accident and the sketch on the report was by Bowes. Bucko took photographs of the scene and gathered evidence. His photographs may be the only ones taken. Bucko also went to the hospital and got the victim’s clothing, according to sources.

Colonis, the first officer on the scene, apparently arrived as Mr. Showalter was being placed in the ambulance. He interviewed Ms. Emilyta and took her to the station to file a 13-sentence statement.

There is some confusion of whether Colonis drove an unmarked police car that night. Sources say police made conflicting statements on that question.

July 14

Thomas Wainwright, who played tennis with Kevin Showalter at New London High, saw his lifeless body on a sidewalk on Pequot Avenue before an ambulance or police arrived, and is among those testifying today. Arthur Petrini, who testified last week, was a passenger in Wainwright’s car.

Mr. and Mrs. Donald Wainwright, who were stopped by police after circling the scene in another auto, also testify.

At least seven New London police officers are at the courthouse, but it is not known how many are testifying.

July 19

The grand jury shifts beyond reconstructions by “near witnesses,” as Sgt. Joseph Jullarine, now retired, testifies. He was the squad leader who reportedly conducted “an intensive investigation” for a red car during the 11:30 p.m. to 7:30 a.m. shift on Christmas Day 1973.

July 20

The grand jury investigators spend much of the day alone reviewing physical evidence and testimony. Only three witnesses – New London police who have already appeared during the proceedings – are present.

July 21

Det. Bucko appears for at least the fourth time in the nine days the grand jury has convened. The session begins at 10 a.m. and ends about 5:45 p.m., with his departure.

A nurse’s aide who knelt by Mr. Showalter’s body, feeling for a pulse, also testifies, Sue Costello, who heard the report of an accident as she was leaving Lawrence and Memorial Hospitals in New London from her shift, had arrived on the scene before ambulance personnel and police.

July 26

The scope of the grand jury probe goes beyond Mr. Showlater’s death and runs smack into a crucial area of dispute with the appearance of New London police detective Walter Petchark.

On Christmas Day 1973, with evidence already missing and news of Mr. Showalter’s death on the radio, Petchark reportedly received a call from former mayor Harvey N. Mallove. Mallove later told The Bulletin there was no truth to the report. But he allegedly told Petchark he thought he saw the accident the night before.

Three city police detectives – Bucko, Petchark, and Carmello Fazzina – were present at the inquiry. They were followed by laboratory technicians from the FBI, who lent their expertise in the analysis of headlight glass possibly belonging to the death vehicle.

July 27

The former counsel for the estate of Mr. Showalter testifies. Atty. Thomas Bishop confirms his representation of the estate was severed in June 1974.

Thomas and Donald Wainwright return for further testimony.

July 28

Witnesses include Mrs. S.F. Zimet of Ledyard. Mallove said he was visiting at her home on Christmas Eve 1973, left about 10:45 p.m., and was home in New London about half an hour later.

Mrs. Zimet is accompanied by her attorney, L. Patrick Gray. Gray, like Bishop, is a member of the New London law firm Suissman, Shapiro, Wool, and Brennan.

Other witnesses include New London city Manager C. Francis Driscoll and Elise Mallove, Mallove’s daughter. Miss Mallove was home for her Christmas vacation in 1973.

The grand jury begins a four-week recess. More than 50 persons were called during the first 12 days of the inquiry.

August 30

New London police investigators and a newspaper editor who has followed their unsolved hit-run death case for three years are among the witnesses.

Retired Police Chief John Crowley and Det. Lt. K.T. Bucko, who refused repeated pleas by The Bulletin in March of 1975 to discuss the death of Kevin B. Showalter, gives testimony – as did the paper’s managing editor, John C. Peterson.

Peterson testifies for three hours.

August 31

The attorney who conducted a coroner’s inquest into Mr. Showalter’s death, the results of which have never met public scrutiny, is the first witness today. Atty. Joseph Moukwasher, who heard testimony from 50 witnesses during six days in September and November of 1974, is one of the few persons familiar with the substance of that investigation.

It took more than two years for the transcripts of the hearings to be typed and submitted to State’s Atty. C. Robert Satti.

State Police Sgt. Donald Crouch, who in 1974 and 1975 worked for the federal grand jury investigating alleged corruption in the New London force, also testifies. Other witnesses included Rosemary Benson and Carol James.

September 1

Physical exhibits appear to outnumber witnesses in the 15th day of proceedings. Two state police technicians from the crime lab in Bethany carry satchels concealing evidence into the closed courtroom. One exhibit is a light colored automobile fender, which was dented and streaked.

September 2

Det. Edward Pickett of the New London County State’s Attorney’s office, who helped administer a lie detector test to Ms. Emilyta, testifies. Ms. Emilyta passed the test.

Another detective, private investigator Joe Harris, is also called. A former Waterford police sergeant, he worked on the case for a brief time, on his own.

Other witnesses in a short session include State Police Sgt. Charles Trotter, a principal investigator in the federal grand jury probe of the New London city police.

September 12

Two persons who saw Mr. Showalter on Christmas Eve 1973, hours before he was killed testify.

Ramona Ricci, a coworker of Mr. Showalter’s at a Waterford discotheque, attended one of two parties Mr. Showalter had planned to go to after work that night. Nancy Wicksham, who also testified, had joined friends that holiday evening at the club.

September 18

Mallove says his status as a suspect in the case is “nothing new.” During testimony in a New Jersey courtroom, Connecticut State Police revealed Mallove is a prime suspect in the hit-run case. The testimony concerned refusal by two New Jersey men to comply with a subpoena issued by the one-man grand jury. Trooper Charles Wargat also testified he was told the two men repaired Mallove’s car on Christmas Eve or Christmas Day 1973.

Mallove tells The Bulletin he did not know the men and never had a car repaired at their shop on Reed Street in New London. He says he didn’t kill Mr. Showalter and doesn’t know anything about anybody who did.

September 19

One of the two men who testified with immunity today has said in a published account he has no knowledge of the case and denied any car was repaired in his New London shop on Christmas Eve 1973.

Walter String Jr. made those comments in the New Jersey Courier Post. He and his son, Walter String III, had been ordered to appear today by a New Jersey judge, after refusing to comply with a subpoena.

Among the dozen or so witnesses are New London city police Sgt. Donald Sloan and Cpl. Charles Alloway. They took the first full statement from Ms. Emilyta, five days after the accident.

September 26

Darlene Barnes, a friend of Mr. Showalter who patronized the Waterford discotheque where he worked, is among the witnesses today. Ms. Barnes was also one of the 50 witnesses during the coroner’s inquest of 1974.

October 3

Larry Grimes testifies again. The Mitchell College security guard who made the first identification of Mr. Showalter at Lawrence and Memorial Hospitals, was also at the courthouse on July 12, and Sept. 26.

The grand jury will be in recess until October 17. It has convened 20 times since July 5 and heard about 90 witnesses.

October 11

Judge Dannehy says published reports that Mallove is a prime suspect in the case “couldn’t bother me in the least.”

“They (the newspapers) are free to speculate if they wish,” Dannehy says. “I am not concerned with their claimed right to freedom of expression.

I think that sometimes their attitude is to publish and be damned, but they don’t bother me.”

“Why don’t you wait” for the grand jury report? Dannehy asked.

October 17

The sales manager of a New London auto firm who said he has sold a number of cars to the family of a suspect in the hit-run case testifies.

In 1970, Peter Emmanuel Sr. of New London Motors sold a Lincoln Continental to Harvey N. Mallove, whom state police have identified as a suspect in the Christmas Eve, 1973 death. A compact car was among the other autos the New London firm sold to Mallove.

State police were looking for a green Chrysler product when they first questioned New London motors personnel, Emmanuel said before he testified. But the firm didn’t sell Mallove such a vehicle, which police had believed was the death car, he added.

October 24

The grand jury does not convene today because the investigators were not ready to proceed, Judge Dannehy said. He said he plans to conduct several more sessions before adjourning to write the final report, but did not specify.

November 14

The grand jury meets for its first regular session since October 17 and hears one witness. The witness, Gary Jordan of New London, said he was dating Elise Mallove on Christmas Eve 1973.

Sources say the grand jury conducted at least one special session since October 17, but it was not known who testified.

November 21

State police continue working long and irregular hours probing Mr. Showalter’s death as they re-create the hit-run scene on Pequot Avenue near Plant Street for at least the third time.

November 29

The man whom state police have said they consider a prime suspect in New London’s only unsolved hit-run death has his day in court.

Harvey N. Mallove testifies for about four hours before the secret grand jury probing Mr. Showalter’s death. Atty. Leo J. McNamara accompanies Mallove to the Windham County Courthouse.

Mallove says he was one of a number of persons who drove by the accident scene shortly before or after Mr. Showalter was killed. But a four-part series by The Bulletin in March of 1975 showed Mallove saw a scene that seven other persons said could not have taken place.

Mallove passed the accident scene within a minute or two after an ambulance call was logged. His statement to New London police – dated eight months later – conflicts with accounts of seven persons at the scene or looking out their windows seconds after Mr. Showalter was struck.

Mr. Showalter was struck by a car as he changed a tire on a friend’s parked Ford Pinto, on a well-lit section of Pequot Avenue near Plant Street.

In his statement, Mallove said he saw an automobile parked at an angle in front of the Pinto. None of the seven persons saw any car stopped at the scene immediately after the victim was hit according to the July 10, 1974 report by New London Det. Lt. Konstanty T. Bucko.

Mallove’s vivid description of a middle-aged man talking with a girl near the car also conflicts with statements by the seven persons.

In his statement, Mallove said he assumed the man was a member of the police department. But Bucko claims in the July 10 report that Mallove told him the talking to the girl was “NOT” a policeman.

Bucko’s report also claims Mallove learned on Christmas Day 1974 that “a man had been killed and he remarked to some people that he saw the body.” But Bucko continued to report that after Mallove viewed photographs of the scene he realized what he mistook for a body was a floor mat. In his statement, Mallove said he saw a “flat object which I assumed was a blanket or a mat.”

In his August 31, 1974 statement, Mallove said, “Seeing no trouble, accident, or any evidence of anything out of place…I continued on my way home.”

In the July 10, 1974 report, Bucko claims; “Mr. Mallove stated he was going to stop because he realized there had been an accident.”

Mallove has told The Bulletin that Bucko misquoted him.

December 7

The calling of witnesses ends with Mallove’s second appearance.

The proceedings included a film screening, apparently of the death scene as re-created by state police.

After the 35 minute screening, Special Prosecutor McGuigan and Judge Dannehy questioned Mallove for about 40 minutes. That was the bulk of the afternoon session.

The question of whether indictments should be handed down in New London’s only unsolved hit-run death now rests with Judge Dannehy.

After 24 sessions and more than 100 witnesses, Dannehy said the next step for the grand jury is the final report on who killed Kevin B. Saltwater.

1978

Feb. 17 Report filed.

Feb. 22

Report made public.

  • THE DANNEHY REPORT


  • SHOWALTER COVERUP COLUMNS

    Chapter 1

    Law and Justice in Everyday Life

    Cover-Up In New London

    Hit-And-Run Continues To Mock Justice


    Sept. 4, 2000

    If Connecticut Chief State’s Attorney John Bailey wants to bring closure to cold cases, here’s one from New London that should top the list: The Showalter hit-and-run cover-up is a dark chapter in Connecticut history, a tale more appropriate for a Third World country.

    And yet, only one thing bothers former New London County State’s Attorney C. Robert Satti about the Showalter case: that it was investigated at all.

    Satti, now retired, made the point again and again, most recently this year. Satti’s complaint, made during the wake of the late state police Detective George Ryalls, was that Ryalls’ obituary mentioned the suspect the prosecutor refused to pursue in the Showalter probe.

    Kevin B. Showalter, a 20-year-old Mitchell College student, was killed at 11:12 p.m. on Christmas Eve 1973. He was changing a tire on a well-lit section of Pequot Avenue on the New London shoreline when he was struck and killed. His girlfriend, sitting only 6 feet away on a stone wall, claims she saw nothing.

    Auto body putty from the death car disappeared after a tow truck driver gave it to New London police. The evidence file that was supposed to contain the putty was stuffed with bathroom tiles. The file that was supposed to contain headlight glass from the death car instead contained glass from three different headlights. State police and others suspected that, in order to throw legitimate investigators off the trail, the late young man's clothing was pounded on a different-colored car than the one that killed him.

    The victim's mother, Lucille M. Showalter, tried to get a grand jury investigation of the cover-up. She was rebuffed repeatedly by the presiding judge, Angelo Santaniello who, it later became clear, was best friends with the leading suspect. Santaniello then referred Showalter to prosecutor Satti, who happened to be his former law partner. Satti refused to acknowledge registered letters from Mrs. Showalter pleading for a grand jury probe.

    Satti did finally meet with Mrs. Showalter in 1978, after Judge Joseph Dannehy of Willimantic, acting as a one-man grand jury, named former New London Mayor Harvey N. Mallove as the probable driver of the hit-run vehicle. Satti called the three-hour meeting, in which he repeatedly told Mrs. Showalter that there never should have been a grand jury investigation under Dannehy.

    Mallove held a good hand; he had the best legal muscle in New London County on his side. New London police would not question him for more than seven months, and then only in a perfunctory manner. They would say they inspected his cars, but they did not. Significantly, Mallove’s Lincoln had been repaired, but it wasn’t until state police took over the case four years after the accident that the fender was finally seized.

    Santaniello would arrange for a coroner’s inquest and put his niece in charge of typing the transcript. Only after two years of intense public pressure would the transcript be typed. But the inquest never issued a finding.

    Santaniello tipped off Mallove that he was a suspect. The judge was also aware of what local police knew about the case. Mrs. Showalter memorialized the admissions in tape-recorded telephone conversations.

    “I did talk to Harvey,” Santaniello told Mrs. Showalter on Oct. 17, 1975, “and I said, `You’re suspected.’ As a matter of fact, at that time a police officer came to him on the same day or the next day, and told him you were making accusations about him and that he was a prime suspect.” The day before, Mallove told Mrs. Showalter, “Judge Santaniello is of the opinion that you fingered me.”

    It was not until 1977 that state police, who took over the case at the behest of former Gov. Ella Grasso, formally named Mallove a suspect. Next week, I'll propose a means to solve the Showalter cover-up.

    Showalter Cover-Up Is New London's Shame

    Sept. 11, 2000

    New London, where I grew up and began working in the 1960s and ‘70s, was a dirty little city with character.

    It had a restaurant called the Hygienic that was everything but. There were at least a couple bars where the cops couldn't do anything, except maybe a little business.

    The top pimp in town never went to jail until he was about 60 and a certain court official retired.

    New London will always be the city that tried to cover up the Christmas Eve 1973 hit-and-run death of Kevin B. Showalter. It's been doing a pretty good job for nearly 27 years, but the onion is beginning to peel.

    The local daily newspaper admitted -- in its official history published this year -- that it did a shoddy job on the Showalter case. Specifically, The Day admitted its failure to explore the relationship between a former mayor and a top judge, and their influence on the course of the criminal investigation. That’s a beginning.

    Political and police corruption goes back a couple generations in New London. By the 1970s, New London police were widely known to be involved in the selling of women, dope and refrigerators, among other things. A federal grand jury took note. But as with the Showalter case, there were these little problems with the evidence.

    A jewelry store owner and former city mayor multi-millionaire Harvey Mallove was the prime suspect in the hit-and-run death of Showalter, a student at Mitchell College. Showalter’s date that night, Christmas Eve 1973, said she saw nothing from her vantage point six feet away, sitting on a stone wall under a streetlight on a residential street as a young man changed the tire of her car.

    Harvey was everybody’s pal. He would take kids to the Super Bowl, then, down the road, get them jobs as cops. He was friends with bums in the street and bums in high political office. He was wired. The standing joke among reporters became: Harvey's a great guy to have a beer with, just don't change your tire if he's driving by.

    “I didn't kill the kid in any way, shape or form,” Harvey told me many times. As mayor, Harvey helped hire a few police chiefs. His best friend was the administrative judge for the county; that was the judge who controlled the early stages of the investigation, specifically a coroner’s inquest that never issued a finding.

    State police followed up a report that Mallove’s best friend, County Administrative Judge Angelo G. Santaniello, was with Mallove on Christmas Eve 1973. Santaniello reportedly was No. 11 on a guest list for a party at the home of his political mentor, the late state Sen. Peter Mariani. The Mariani party was one of two Mallove attended that night.

    Santaniello told reporters he never went out on Christmas Eve.

    Another state judge, Joseph F. Dannehy, conducted two grand jury investigations. In 1978, Dannehy named Mallove as the probable driver of the hit-run vehicle, but said evidence that might have ensured conviction was either mishandled or destroyed.

    Mallove died a few years ago with this legacy. Others still have time to come clean and tell the truth about the cover-up. Mrs. Showalter tried unsuccessfully to have Satti, Santaniello and others prosecuted for hindrance of prosecution (CGS Section 53a-166) warning of impending discovery, providing means of avoiding discovery, preventing discovery by deception. Because a conspiracy to hinder prosecution is an ongoing crime, those with information could tell Chief State's Attorney John Bailey, who has begun an initiative to solve some of the state's cold homicide cases.

    Isn’t it time? No one kept the system honest when it counted, though some tried. Most stood by as the system that was supposed to protect the victim and his family betrayed them all.

    Where is the conscience of the community?

    Cold Case On Ice Forever

    Nov. 6, 2000

    One way to deflect attention from a suspect is to get investigators involved in meaningless, time-consuming tasks. Another way is to create a bogus suspect who is then exposed as such, causing a belief that the case is just too hazy to pursue.

    Both of these devices were used repeatedly in the cover-up of the Showalter hit-run case in New London. Whether this was happenstance, indifference, incompetence or malfeasance, the result was the same. The system failed.

    And now, it seems, the truth will remain buried forever.

    Judge Joseph F. Dannehy, the grand juror who investigated the case, wrote in his finding of fact: “After December 25, 1973, the New London Police Department did virtually nothing to solve the hit-run death of Kevin B. Showalter.” The accident occurred the night before.

    Local police and court officials, however, were pro-active in another sense. Their actions served to protect the assailant.

    For example, New London police claimed it would cost as much as $1,200 to trace vehicles using data from the state Motor Vehicle Department. The motor vehicle department declared there was no such charge.

    Nevertheless, New London police spent their time hand-sorting local motor vehicle cards. They looked for a green Chrysler. That was likely a false lead; state police said paint particles found on the victim's clothing did not come from the car that killed him.

    Former Mayor Harvey Mallove began meeting informally with police and court officials as early as Dec. 25, 1973. Mallove wanted to know what the police knew.

    The only lead after two and a half years was quashed by then New London Common Pleas Court Prosecutor Harold Dean in May 1976. The lead was a letter of confession written by a Somers prison inmate to the victim’s mother, Lucille Showalter.

    “I told Harold how important that was to me,” Mallove, the prime suspect, confided to an associate. He also acknowledged discussing the purported confession with his best friend, the presiding judge for the county, Angelo Santaniello.

    The author of the letter was known to be connected with “fences,” or purveyors of stolen goods in the New London area. State police arrested him for harassment of Mrs. Showalter. Two state troopers met with Dean for an hour. They told him the letter contained possibly significant information. State police also believed they could connect the dots in New London between the letter writer and the powers-that-be. Did he owe some favors? Was he paid? Police knew the author had no liability for the accident; he was actually in Florida at the time of the hit-run.

    Dean nolled and dismissed the case without telling the troopers or Mallove. Soon thereafter, state police listed the killing of Showalter as “closed pending further development.” Upon learning of Dean's action, Chief State's Attorney Joseph Gormley remarked he had “no idea” why the lead, “which very well could have led to something,” resulted in a dead end. The case would remain closed for six months, until Gov. Ella Grasso brought the matter to Justice John Cotter.

    Was there criminal activity connected with the Showalter cover-up? It appears we will never know for certain. Dannehy named Mallove as the probable driver, noting that evidence which might have ensured conviction was destroyed. The Chief State’s Attorney’s Office reviewed aspects of the case this fall after a series of columns appeared in The Law Tribune. However, the statute of limitations for the most likely potential charge, conspiracy to hinder prosecution of motor vehicle misconduct, has expired. This shameful case, it appears, is destined to stay on ice forever.

    - AND:

    Olympic Gold for Missing Evidence


    November 28, 2005

    Judge Ellen Gordon was in way over her head with what she tried pass off as a ruling in Day Publishing v. State's Attorney.

    Clueless Gordon was handed a hot one, a case no one has ever wanted in the so-called New London Judicial District. Every single time this case has come to court, begging for justice, The Robes, the prosecutors and their minions have either desecrated their oaths or looked the other way. Clueless Gordon, fairly new to the scene, has managed to join the list of those who are both ostriches and failures.

    The Day newspaper asked Gordon this year to release the grand jury testimony regarding the cover-up of the 1973 hit-run death of Kevin Showalter. Before Gordon probably ever heard of Showalter, five New London County judges recused themselves from a John Doe civil suit against the driver because they were friends with the prime suspect, Harvey Mallove. Mallove -- the late mayor of New London and multimillionaire jeweler who picked police chiefs, planned to run for Congress and starred in the social scene -- was prone to say, "I never killed the kid -- in any way, shape or form."

    It's not like we could expect a New London judge to show guts or brains in this case. Compelling testimony from the first of two grand juries implicated local law enforcement and court officials in a widespread cover-up.

    On Christmas Eve 1973 at 11:12 p.m., as the call came in, a high-ranking New London officer, said, "F--k him, he's dead," and then left to go home. Showalter, a 20-year-old Mitchell College student, lay dead on a well-lit section of Pequot Avenue by the shoreline. His body was thrown 22 feet from the point of impact. His shoes were found 110 feet apart. A leg bone was 75 feet away.

    A tow truck driver gave police auto body putty from the death car. The putty was never seen again. New London police mixed headlight glass from at least three different cars in what they called the evidence file. Replacing the auto body putty was bathroom tile. A local coroner's inquest never issued a finding. State police, who took over the case at the behest of Gov. Ella Grasso, were bewildered and angry when they could not find the transcript of the coroner's inquest. Mallove's best friend -- the presiding judge for the county, Angelo G. Santaniello -- had put his niece in charge of typing that transcript. Santaniello also tipped off Mallove to his status as a suspect.

    Now, Clueless Gordon can't find the 3,000-page transcript of the first grand jury. Does she care? Court clerks allegedly performed a diligent search. Would any reasonable person believe or accept any of this?

    Among the last persons known to possess the grand jury report was the late State's Attorney, C. Robert Satti. Satti, who refused to investigate the case before a special prosecutor was appointed, claimed he returned a copy to the grand juror, then Willimantic Superior Court Judge (later Supreme Court Justice) Joseph Dannehy. Both Dannehy and Satti are dead. Did "Do Nothing Bob" -- Mallove's moniker for Satti -- take it with him? We might as well ask Harvey, also dead, or Kevin.

    Gordon's pathetic decision, dated Nov. 7, went on for about a sentence before its first fatal error. It might sound like a technical error, but it's much, much more than that. She actually said New London police investigated the case.

    Before this, I thought it might take generations to remove the stench from the New London courthouse. Alas, for New London, the stench of this cover-up is forever.


    Find & Open
    the Showalter File

  • Hartford Courant Editorial








  • more COOL JUSTICE








  •            Mandatory Reporting Law on Sexual Abuse Not So Mandatory -- Especially for Prep Schools / Abysmal Failures Noted on So-Called Background Checks        

    NEW:
    Mandatory Reporting [NOT Really] Column
    on Sexual Abuse Cases Generates Range of Comments


    Meriden Record-Journal Post 7-18-17 Follows Hearst CT [links below]
    & Cool Justice Blog 6-4-17


  • Column via Record-Journal

  • Facebook Tag Leads to Comments




  • State Reports Only 14 Arrests & Four Convictions in Past Seven Years
    Statute of Limitations Just One Year for This Misdemeanor








    By Andy Thibault
    The Cool Justice Report
    http://cooljustice.blogspot.com/
    June 4, 2017









    Editor's Note: This column may be reprinted or re-posted courtesy of The Cool Justice Report http://cooljustice.blogspot.com.

    Connecticut has been a very safe place to avoid arrest and prosecution for failing to report sexual abuse -- especially if you're a teacher or administrator at a prep school.

    That's just part of the picture.

    Suppose you lose your teaching job after being accused of rape. Just don't put that job on your resume. You'll be fine for perhaps a decade or more. It also helps to amend your full name on the resume. Supposed background checks will fail to detect resume gaps and irregularities.

    But what about that mandatory reporting law compelling teachers and administrators to report suspected abuse to the state? No problem. It hasn't been enforced with any great enthusiasm at the preps: No report, no warning for future employers or victims.

    The revelations come after a series of articles by The Boston Globe Spotlight Team and an investigation by the powerhouse law firm Covington & Burling for Choate Rosemary Hall in Wallingford. The Globe found that abuse victims routinely suffered retaliation at private schools in New England. The schools in turn covered up the abuse. Choate, for example, failed to report abuse incidents prior to 2010.

    A spokeswoman for Connecticut courts told The Cool Justice Report there were just 14 arrests in the state for failing to report sexual abuse from January 2010 through late April 2017. During the same time, there were only four convictions, according to the data provided via the state Judicial Department. One of the convictions was of a day care operator. No additional data was available immediately.

    There is only a one-year statute of limitations for failure to report sexual abuse claims, and that crime is a misdemeanor. Connecticut Deputy Chief State's Attorney Len Boyle said in a statement there are no plans to try to change that, but he noted there is a five-year statute of limitations for a felony charge if prosecutors are able to cite willfulness or other aggravating factors. Willfulness, like intent, carries with it a significant burden of proof.

    "The one-year statute of limitations," Boyle said, "is largely consistent with the limitations periods for all crimes (i.e.: one year for a misdemeanor and five years for a felony). We have not sought to lengthen it. The more egregious cases of failure to report (willfulness, gross negligence, etc.) are felonies and provide a five year limitations period."

    Boyle's office is investigating whether anyone at Choate broke the law by failing to report suspected abuse, The Hartford Courant reported in April.

    Among the 12 teachers accused of abuse in the Choate report, one went on to become a teacher and administrator at several public schools in Connecticut. He was able to avoid detection partly by amending his name and omitting two teaching jobs at private schools -- Choate and The Gunnery, in Washington, CT -- on his resume. The resume, obtained under Connecticut's Freedom of Information law, also shows some overlap for jobs at public schools in Connecticut and New York.

    This teacher / administrator, Jaime E. Rivera, aka Jaime Rivera-Murillo, resigned as principal of Wamogo High School in Litchfield in April. Before that, he was a teacher and assistant principal at Newtown High School for about 11 years. The first teaching job listed on his resume was at Henry Abbot Technical High School in Danbury, beginning in 2001. That leaves a seven-year gap following his graduation from St. Michael's College in Vermont, where he reported earning a Bachelor of Arts in Teaching English as a Second Language.

    The Covington & Burling report says Rivera-Murillo was fired after being accused of anally raping one student and grabbing the breast of another during a Choate field trip to Costa Rica in 1999. Rivera, a faculty leader for the trip, denied engaging in sexual misconduct but admitting drinking alcohol including beer with students and "local moonshine" with others.

    Choate did not report the alleged assaults at the time as required by law. The alleged rape victim told the Covington & Burling team that a female administrator admonished students not to discuss what happened.

    The process for vetting resumes at Connecticut public schools like Wamogo and Newtown high schools and Abbot Tech seems to be check the boxes and wave the guy through with barely a pretense of scrutiny. This abysmal failure of diligence and critical thinking should be alarming to students, parents and all taxpayers.

    "He didn't list Choate as a former employer when he applied," Christine Chinni, the lawyer for Regional District 6 which includes Wamogo, told The Boston Globe.

    District 6 Superintendent Edward Drapp, asked about the committee of 12 that reviewed Rivera-Murillo's credentials and the review process, declined to discuss his procedures for background checks. Besides the resume, which he produced after a formal FOI request, Drapp was also asked to provide documents related to that review committee. Here is Drapp's response: "Attached is a copy of Mr. Rivera's resume. This is the only document in the district's possession that meets the criteria of your FOI request. For the remainder of the school year I will be focused on the students and therefore I am not doing any additional interviews or making any other statements on this matter."

    Drapp's response sounds like the result of bad coaching from an inept lawyer. The assertion that there are no documents regarding the review committee is not credible. Are we to believe the review committee never had a meeting?

    The Globe reported in April that the sexual misconduct at Choate occurred from 1963 to 2010 and ranged from intimate kissing to groping and sexual intercourse. The Covington & Burling report cites 12 teachers. Other Globe stories cited more than 100 private schools in New England with more than 300 former students saying they faced sexual abuse or harassment.

    Just last month, The Kent School was sued and accused of failing to report a 49-year-old teacher who had sex with a 15-year-old student in the late 1980s.

    The student claims her advisor scolded her for spreading vicious rumors. Another teacher allegedly told the student she was a sinner for committing adultery. The suit claims the abuse was widely known at the school and that the student was shunned, called "obviously crazy" and blamed for the teacher's breakdown. During a church service the student attended at the school, the suit asserts, Kent staff openly prayed for the teacher's well being. The teacher subsequently got a job at a private school in Indiana.

    Kent School, founded in 1906, charges more than $60,000 annually for tuition, board and fees.

    Rev. Richardson Schell, the headmaster, said in a statement: "We do not know why [the student] has elected to pursue a lawsuit at this time."

    Schell opened the statement by saying he had reviewed the complaint: " ... I am deeply sorry for the wrongful actions of the former Kent teacher who engaged in an inappropriate relationship with this former student ... as the Headmaster of the school then, I responded immediately and to the best of my ability."

    The statement does not address the school's duty to report the alleged abuse in a timely manner.

    Notably, Schell undertook a massive letter writing campaign some years later when he was annoyed by what he called a TV sitcom's "obnoxious, objectionable content." His letter writing campaign netted responses from 17 companies and he also reached out to publications including Advertising Age and Media Week to generate publicity regarding his concerns about popular culture, The New York Times reported.

    Finally, on the national front, The Associated Press reported that a former president of Penn State and two other former university administrators were each sentenced Friday to at least two months in jail for failing to alert authorities to a 2001 allegation against ex-assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky, a decision that enabled the now-convicted serial predator to continue molesting boys.

    Thibault, a private investigator for the Hartford office of Integrated Security Services http://www.intesecurity.com/, is the author of a second collection of newspaper columns, “more COOL JUSTICE” http://morecooljustice.com/, credited with helping to free a woman unjustly convicted of first degree murder. His public service includes four years on a local board of education. Follow him on Twitter @cooljustice.









  • The Choate Report










  • Short version of column
    Via Hearst CT dailies


  • Danbury News Times


  • Connecticut Post


  • Norwalk Hour


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  • Stamford Advocate







  • more COOL JUSTICE







  •           DECEMBER AT THE AUTHOR'S TABLE- James Herbert Smith, 'A Boy’s Life in the Baby Boom: True Tales from Small Town America' @HPLCT @IPNE         




    Thursday, Dec. 8, 4-7 pm, Hartford Public Library

    A memoir about growing up in the post-war baby boom, which takes us back to a freedom in childhood unheard of today. As the first boomers turn 70 this year, Smith among them… The memoir reminds us of both the travails and the ecstasy of being a kid, a teen-ager, and maturing through failure and success.




    James Herbert Smith was born in the first year of the Baby Boom, 1946, and grew up in Pittsford, NY, the setting of this book. As a young father he moved to Connecticut and began a career in Journalism, where for nearly five decades he wrote and edited thousands of stories for what has been called “the first draft of history” in our daily newspapers. He lives in Connecticut with his wife Jacqueline, also a journalist.



  • Hartford Public Library, Events & Exhibits


  • Excerpt, 'A Boy’s Life in the Baby Boom: True Tales from Small Town America'


  • Elm Grove Press


  •           Burn After Reading        

    Who’s Who
    What’s What

    In the World of CIA Fronts, Partners, Proprietaries & Contractors




    NEW BOOK:

    The Almost Classified Guide to CIA Front Companies, Proprietaries & Contractors
    By WAYNE MADSEN
    ISBN: 978-1-365-11196-9


    Cool Justice Editor's Note: Following are excerpts from author Madsen's introduction and the body of the work. Additional suggested reading: News story about Madsen's book via the Washington, D.C. based Justice Integrity Project [link at the bottom of this post].

    EXCERPTS:

    From the Introduction


    One of the most pervasive uses of companies as intelligence partners was under the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD. During the Cold War, the CIA, often with the approval of corporate executives, infiltrated their agents to work as journalists in newspapers, radio and television networks, wire services, and magazines. The following pages in this book are rife with examples of this penetration of the Fourth Estate – all too many in the opinion of this journalist. The CIA admitted to at least 400 journalists on the agency’s payroll at the height of MOCKINGBIRD. The CIA traditionally understates its capabilities, especially when its covert activities become publicly known. Moreover, the end of the Cold War did not stop the practice of the CIA in infiltrating the media and slant news reports to its wishes.

    *

    An insightful look behind the veils of secrecy into the CIA’s use of fronts, proprietaries, and partners calls into question the purpose of the CIA. Created by President Harry S Truman to serve as a central collector and repository of intelligence, the CIA became much more than that. A few weeks after the United States witnessed the assassination of President Kennedy in the middle of downtown Dallas, Truman penned an op-ed piece that appeared in several newspapers around the country. In it, Truman shared his regret for having created the CIA in 1947:

    “I think it has become necessary to take another look at the purpose and operations of our Central Intelligence Agency—CIA . . . For some time I have been disturbed by the way CIA has been diverted from its original assignment. It has become an operational and at times a policy-making arm of the Government. This has led to trouble and may have compounded our difficulties in several explosive areas.

    "I never had any thought that when I set up the CIA that it would be injected into peacetime cloak and dagger operations. Some of the complications and embarrassment I think we have experienced are in part attributable to the fact that this quiet intelligence arm of the President has been so removed from its intended role that it is being interpreted as a symbol of sinister and mysterious foreign intrigue.”

    *

    The 21st century’s CIA’s partners are more likely to be found among high-tech companies marketing the latest and greatest mobile applications and data mining programs than among banks, law offices, and advertising agencies. However, in the post-World War II era, the CIA’s top and middle echelons were normally found operating through cover as typewriter-pecking journalists, traveling Madison Avenue admen, corporate lawyers, and chain-smoking oilmen. In the 1970s and 80s, CIA contractors and partners began showing up in the high-tech field, with database, local area networking, and on-line information retrieval systems attracting the most interest by Langley.

    *

    As this book went to press, the smart phone game application Pokémon Go fad was sweeping the planet. Unbeknownst to many of the on-line game’s avid fan’s was the connection of the game’s developers to the CIA’s venture capital firm IN-Q-TEL. All users saw their geo-location and other smart phone data being swept up by a CIA partner firm.

    SELECTED ENTRIES

    Amazon, Inc. [CIA contractor]. Company provides cloud computing services for the CIA. Amazon’s CEO Jeff Bezos also owns The Washington Post.

    American Historical Society. [CIA partner]. Many society officials were OSS/CIA officers.

    American Press Institute. [CIA front]. Operating out of Columbia University, the institute’s director in the 1950s was a CIA officer.

    AmeriCares. [CIA partner]. A non-profit organization that is often the “first in” at refugee situations. Founded by tycoon J. Peter Grace, a board chairman of the CIA front, the American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD) and a trustee of another CIA front, the American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism, AmeriCares was involved in funding the Nicaraguan contras. The group has also provided the CIA with recruiting opportunities at mass refugee sites, particularly in Latin America and Asia.

    Bechtel Corporation. [CIA contractor]. Bechtel is a large construction company that has included former CIA director Richard Helms, CIA pseudonym “Fletcher M. Knight,” among its executive ranks. Bechtel was active in providing corporate cover for the OSS in the Middle East during World War II. Bechtel has been a consummate service company for various CIA operations, including support for the CIA-inspired coup against the Syrian government in 1949, the Iranian government of Prime Minister Mohamed Mossadeq in 1953, and President Sukarno of Indonesia in 1965. From the 1960s to the 1970s, Bechtel provided cover for CIA agents in Libya under both the regime of King Idris and his successor, Muammar Qaddafi. Sometimes called a “secret arm” of the CIA, Bechtel’s executives included those who would join President Reagan’s Cabinet, including Secretary of State George Schultz and Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger.

    Before World War II, Steve Bechtel formed a military-industrial complex partnership with John McCone. McCone later became the chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission and later, director of the CIA. The CIA has used Bechtel to provide cover for non-official cover CIA operatives abroad.

    Blackstone Investment Group. [CIA front]. With offices in Washington, DC and Moscow, arranged for the purchase of KGB documents following the collapse of the Soviet Union. Among the documents sought by the front company were any related to illegal CIA activities during the Cold War, including the 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

    Bourbon and Beefsteak Bar and Restaurant. [CIA front]. Opened in 1967 in King’s Cross in Sydney, Australia. Served as a rendezvous point for CIA, Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO), and organized crime figures. Its proprietor was Bernie Houghton, a CIA operative with links to Nugan Hand Bank, CIA weapons smuggler Edwin Wilson, and CIA clandestine services officers Theodore Shackley, Rafael Quintero, and Thomas Clines.

    Center for Democracy. [CIA front]. Administered under the aegis of Boston University, the center maintained offices in Boston, Washington, DC, Guatemala City, and Strasbourg, France. Involved in CIA operations in eastern Europe, Central America, and Africa.

    Colt Patent Firearms Company. [CIA partner]. Based in Hartford, Connecticut, provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad.

    Daddario & Burns. [CIA partner]. Headed by former OSS officer Emilio Daddario, a Democratic Representative from Connecticut, the Hartford-based law firm provided services to the CIA.

    DC Comics. [CIA partner]. Worked with the International Military Information Group (IMIG), a joint CIA/Pentagon unit at the State Department, to disseminate propaganda comic books, featuring Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman, in Serbo-Croatian and Albanian, to youth in the Balkans during the military conflicts in that region.

    Disney Corporation. [CIA partner]. CIA agents who were adept at creating front companies and shell corporations in Florida, worked closely with Disney in preparation for the construction of Disney World near Orlando, Florida. OSS veteran “Wild Bill” Donovan and CIA shell company expert Paul Helliwell helped create two fake Florida cities, Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, as well as a number of shell corporations, to keep secret the plans for Disney World. This kept land prices low because real estate speculators were unaware of the prospective value of the land in a desolate area of central Florida.

    Emory School of Medicine. [CIA partner]. Located in Atlanta, Georgia. Involved in the CIA’s MK-ULTRA behavioral modification project.

    Enron Corporation [CIA partner]. Houston-based firm that was used by the CIA to provide commercial cover for its agents around the world. There were at least 20 CIA employees on Enron’s payroll. Andre Le Gallo, a former official of the CIA’s Operations Directorate, went to work as a corporate intelligence officer for Enron.

    Fair Play for Cuba Committee (FPCC). [CIA front]. Officially established by American Trotskyists, the group was penetrated by CIA operatives. The FPCC New Orleans office was a CIA front that provided cover for the anti-Fidel Castro activities of Lee Harvey Oswald, Clay Shaw, and David Ferrie, among others. The New Orleans FPCC office was located at 544 Camp Street and shared the same building entrance with Guy Banister Associates, Inc., a private detective agency, the address for which was 531 Lafayette Street and around the corner from 544 Camp Street.

    In December 1963, after the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the FPCC ceased all U.S. operations.

    General Electric Company. [CIA partner]. Based in Fairfield, Connecticut, provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad.

    General Foods Corporation. [CIA partner]. Advertising account at CIA’s Robert Mullen Company handled by an active CIA employee.

    Google, Inc. [CIA partner]. Developed as a result of a research grant by the CIA and Pentagon to Stanford University’s Department of Computer Science. The CIA referred to the research as the “google project.”

    Greenberg Traurig. [CIA partner]. Washington, DC “connected” law firm.

    Guy Banister Associates, Inc. [CIA partner]. New Orleans private detective agency headed by former FBI agent Guy Banister. The detective agency coordinated the activities of various anti-Castro Cuban groups in New Orleans, including Banister’s own Anti-Communist League of the Caribbean, as well as the Cuban Revolutionary Council, the Cuban Democratic Revolutionary Front, Friends of Democratic Cuba, and the Crusade to Free Cuba Committee.

    Banister and Associates shared office space with the CIA’s New Orleans front, the Fair Play for Cuba Committee, headed by Lee Harvey Oswald.

    Hale and Dorr. [CIA partner]. Boston-based law firm that provided cover for CIA’s Independence and Brown Foundations.

    Halliburton. [CIA contractor]. Based in Houston, it is the world’s largest oil service company. Recipient of a number of CIA sole-source contracts for services worldwide.

    Harper and Row, Inc. [CIA partner]. Manuscripts submitted to the New York publisher that dealt with intelligence matters, particularly CIA operations, were turned over to the CIA for censoring edits before publication.

    Hewlett Packard Corporation. [CIA partner]. Sold computers to Iraq for Saddam Hussein’s missile program with the knowledge and approval of the CIA.

    Hill & Knowlton. [CIA partner]. Public relations firm that teamed with the CIA on a number of operations. Hill & Knowlton’s numerous offices abroad provided cover for CIA agents. One known Hill & Knowlton office that was a CIA front operation was in Kuala Lumpur.

    Kerr-McGee. [CIA partner]. Provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating overseas.

    Kissinger Associates, Inc. [CIA partner]. New York-based international consulting firm founded by former Secretary of State and National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger. Former National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft is a co-owner. The firm provided support to the CIA-linked American Ditchley Foundation and the Bilderberg Group. Much of the 1982 seed money for Kissinger Associates was provided by Goldman Sachs.

    Knight Foundation. [CIA partner]. Also known as the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Based in Miami, the foundation provides funding for various CIA-connected media operations in the United States and around the world.

    Kroll Inc. [CIA partner]. Founded in 1972 by Jules Kroll, who had links to both U.S. and Israeli intelligence. Based in Manhattan. French domestic law enforcement believed Kroll’s Paris office was a CIA front. Kroll handled the security for the World Trade Center after the 1993 terrorist bombing and continued to be responsible for security up to, during, and after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack. Kroll employed former FBI assistant director for counter-terrorism John O’Neill, who died in the collapse of the World Trade Center.

    Lincoln Savings and Loan. [CIA partner]. Based in Irvine, California and headed by notorious swindler Charles Keating, Jr., involved in laundering funds for the Iran-contra scandal.

    Lone Star Cement Corporation. [CIA partner]. Based in Stamford, Connecticut and linked to the Bush family, provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad. Involved in the Iran-contra scandal.

    Mary Carter Paint Company. [CIA front]. A money-laundering operation for the CIA. Involved in casinos in the Bahamas.

    Monsanto. [CIA partner]. The firm contracted with former CIA official Cofer Black’s Total Intelligence Solutions (TIS), a subsidiary of the CIA-connected Blackwater USA, later Xe Services, to monitor animal rights groups, anti-genetically modified (GM) food activists, and other groups opposed to Monsanto’s agri-business operations worldwide.

    National Enquirer. [CIA partner]. The tabloid’s founder, Generoso (Gene) Pope, Jr., worked for the CIA’s psychological warfare unit and the agency’s Italy branch in 1950. In 1952, Pope acquired The New York Enquirer broadsheet and transformed it into a tabloid, renaming it The National Enquirer. This transformation bore the imprimatur of the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD media influence program.

    Newsweek. [CIA partner]. Magazine reporters and stringers fed information to the CIA. Newsweek’s stringers in southeastern Europe and the Far East were CIA agents. When Newsweek was bought by The Washington Post Company in 1961, cooperation between the magazine and the CIA increased. It was a participant in the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD media influence program. Much of the staff of Newsweek was absorbed into a new online publication, The Daily Beast, which continues to disseminate CIA-influenced articles. See Washington Post.

    Nieman Foundation. [CIA partner]. Located at Harvard University, the foundation awarded Nieman Fellowships, some on behalf of the CIA, for foreign journalists to study at Harvard. The journalists were subjected to CIA recruitment efforts prior to their returning to their home countries.

    Pamela Martin & Associates. [CIA partner], Escort firm run by Deborah Jeane Palfrey, the so-called “DC Madam.” During her 2008 trial for mail fraud, Palfrey attempted to invoke the Classified Information Procedures Act in order to discuss her relationship with the CIA. The U.S. Court refused Palfrey’s request and she was convicted and later said to have committed suicide before her sentencing hearing in Washington, DC. One of her clients was Randall Tobias, the head of the CIA-connected USAID. Another was Louisiana Republican senator David Vitter.

    Paris Review. [CIA front]. Literary magazine edited by George Plimpton. Published works by Jack Kerouac and Samuel Beckett. The magazine’s co-founder, Peter Matthiessen, relied on his affiliation with the magazine as his CIA cover.

    Quaker Oats Company. [CIA partner]. Worked with the CIA and Atomic Energy Commission to place trace amounts of radiation in breakfast cereal served to boys at the Fernald School for the mentally retarded in Waltham, Massachusetts.

    Radio Corporation of America. [CIA partner]. Provided corporate cover for CIA officers operating abroad, particularly in Iran, Philippines, Japan, and West Germany. Provided technical assistance to CIA-financed clandestine and propaganda radio stations worldwide, including Radio Free Europe. RCA founder David Sarnoff was a major supporter of CIA operations, including propaganda dissemination around the world. RCA chairman and chief executive officer Thornton F. Bradshaw was active in the operations of the CIA-linked American Ditchley Foundation.

    Reily Coffee Company. [CIA partner]. Also known as William B. Reily Coffee Company and based in New Orleans, this company employed Lee Harvey Oswald and a number of other U.S. government employees, many of whom were suspected CIA officers.

    Robert M. Mullen Company. [CIA proprietary]. A Washington, DC public relations firm, it was used as a front for CIA activities. E. Howard Hunt, the CIA agent, worked for Robert Mullen when he was arrested in the break-in of the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington in 1972. The Senate Watergate Committee reported that “the Mullen and Company has maintained a relationship with the Central Intelligence Agency since its incorporation in 1959. It provided covers for agents in Europe (Stockholm), Latin America (Mexico City), and the Far East (Singapore) at the time of the Watergate break-in.”

    Rockefeller Foundation. [CIA partner]. Used by the CIA to direct scholarships and grants to the Third World and Eastern Europe. Rockefeller Foundation money was funneled to the American Committee for a United Europe (ACUE), created in 1948. The chairman of ACUE was OSS chief William J. Donovan and the vice chairman was Allen Dulles. One of ACUE’s board members was Walter Bedell Smith, the first CIA director.

    Summa Corporation. [CIA partner]. Owned by Howard Hughes, Summa is believed to have skimmed gambling profits from the Sands, Desert Inn, Frontier, Silver Slipper, Castaways, and Landmark casinos in Las Vegas and Harold’s Club in Reno for the CIA and the Mafia. Provided financial cover for the CIA’s Glomar Explorer project.

    Teneo Intelligence. [CIA partner]. Branch of Teneo Holdings, which is headquartered in New York. Teneo Holdings’s intelligence branch includes former CIA officials. Teneo is closely linked to former President Bill Clinton and Hillary Clinton. Teneo Intelligence has offices in New York, London, Rome, Brussels, Dubai, Bogota, New Delhi, and Tokyo.

    Texas Commerce Bank (TCB). [CIA partner]. Houston-based bank founded by the family of James Baker III. Texas Commerce Bank was used to provide commercial cover for CIA agents. After serving as vice president for Texas Commerce Bank in Caracas from 1977 to 1979, Jeb Bush joined his father’s presidential campaign in 1980. Serving with Bush on the campaign was Robert Gambino, the CIA deputy director of security who gave Bush his orientation brief at Langley in 1977.

    Kenneth Lay, the chairman of Enron, which had its own links to the CIA, served on the board of Texas Commerce Bank. Texas Commerce Bank was acquired by Chemical Bank in 1987.

    The bank provided major loans to Howard Hughes’s Summa Corporation. See Summa Corporation.

    United Fruit Company [CIA partner]. Involved in 1954 CIA overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz government in Guatemala. Published the Latin America Report, a publication that was a CIA front used for clandestine activities. The CIA transferred weapons to United Fruit employees in Guatemala who were involved in undermining the Arbenz government. The joint CIA-United Fruit plan was code named OPERATION FORTUNE. Company provided an airfield in Guatemala for the CIA’s training of Cuban exiles for the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba.

    U.S. Rubber Company. [CIA partner]. Headquartered in Naugatuck, Connecticut and later called Uniroyal, provided corporate cover to CIA officers operating abroad. Included those operating under the cover of the Dominion Rubber Company of Canada, a subsidiary of U.S. Rubber Company.

    U.S. Youth Council (USYC). [CIA front]. Founded in 1945 and based in New York. Some 90 percent of its funds came from the CIA. USYC received funding from the Foundation for Youth and Student Affairs (FYSA), a CIA front. The USYC was composed of American Youth Hostels, Camp Fire Girls, 4-H, American Unitarian Youth, National Catholic Welfare Conference, National Students Assembly, YMCA and YWCA.

    Wackenhut. [CIA contractor]. Wackenhut, a Palm Beach Gardens, Florida-based security firm, stood accused of providing the CIA with specialized services around the world, including Chile, Greece, and El Salvador. Its Venezuelan branch, Wackenhut Venezolana, C.A., was accused in 2002 of involvement in the CIA’s coup against President Hugo Chavez. William Casey served as Wackenhut’s outside counsel before becoming CIA director in 1981.

    Wackenhut eventually merged into the global security firm G4S.

    Washington Post. [CIA partner]. The Washington Post was part of the CIA’s Operation MOCKINGBIRD, the agency’s media influence project. Post publisher Phil Graham was a close friend and associate of MOCKINGBIRD chief Frank Wisner, Sr. and CIA director Allen Dulles. Wisner assisted Graham in acquiring The Washington Times-Herald and WTOP radio, creating a sizable CIA-influenced media operation in the nation’s capital.

    W. R. Grace. [CIA partner]. Provided corporate cover to CIA officers operating abroad, particularly in Latin America. Provided donations to CIA front foundations.

  • News story about Madsen's book via The Justice Integrity Project



  •           Hit-and-Run Chronology, Grand Jury Report & Follow-up Columns, Re; Library Discussion 9-22-16        

    Open
    the Showalter File

  • Hartford Courant Editorial




  • Cool Justice Editor's Note:
    This post is primarily for patrons and guests of the Sprague Public Library, who might participate in a discussion on Thursday at 6:30 p.m. A link to announcements of that event is at the very bottom of this post. Thanks for reading, AT.


    Via
    Law And Justice In Everyday Life


    F. Lee Bailey on Law and Justice in Everyday Life and the Showalter case:

    This book - which is mainly about public officials, police, judges and lawyers either shaming or shining - is a good read. Many of the stories stand alone, like slices of life. Others will appear early in the book, with follow-up chapters later. The crown jewel, in my view, is his handling of the strange death of Kevin Showalter, who was slammed 50 feet down the road in New London, Connecticut on Christmas Eve 1973 while changing a tire on the traffic side of a parked car. For many years, Andy Thibault dogged a case which public officials seemed determined to let die, despite the presence of a likely suspect. He tells me his mentor, John Peterson, broke the case open and then handed over the torch. Joined by the victim's mother, Lucille, who revealed herself as a determined but delightful woman as the story unfolds, Andy beats up on police, prosecutors, judges and governors until finally there is action. Spurred on by an appointment hastened by Gov. Ella Grasso, Judge Joseph Dannehy conducted one of the most brilliant and thorough investigations I have ever seen. If this book were only about the Showalter case, it would be worth the price.

    APPENDIX

    THE SHOWALTER CHRONOLOGY – A FOUR YEAR SEARCH FOR JUSTICE


    New London, Ct.

    1973

    December 24

    Approximately 11:10 to 11:20 p.m. Kevin B. Showalter is killed. Car leaves scene. Only taillights observed by a neighbor.

    There is much confusion. Mr. Showalter had been changing a tire on his companion’s car. His companion Debra Emilyta, was sitting about six feet away from the car on a stone wall.

    Ms. Emilyta told police she heard a thud, but did not see the car which struck Mr. Showalter. She said she ran across the road, a well-lit section of Pequot Avenue near Plant Street, before seeing Mr. Showalter’s body.

    Mr. Showalter’s body was thrown 22 feet from the believed point of impact, onto a sidewalk near a large tree. The police report prepared that night noted the deceased’s shoes were found 110 feet apart. Part of a leg bone was found 75 feet away.

    Michael Buscetto of Mike’s Auto Body gives police body putty, apparently from the car which struck Mr. Showalter. The putty never made it to the police station. Det. Lt. Konstanty T. Bucko later denies its existence.

    December 25

    Autopsy performed. No trace of alcohol or drugs found. Cause of death listed as lacerated liver and broken neck.

    In efforts to console Mrs. Showalter, friends, neighbors, witnesses and officials volunteer information about the accident. She quietly listens for about six weeks, taking it for granted that police are acting on the same information. December 26

    New London police begin full-scale search for red car.

    1974

    February 6

    FBI report describes paint particles on Mr. Showalter’s clothing as “racing green” or “forest green” used on 1968 Chrysler products.

    February 7

    Mrs. Showalter notes she had the impression local police were not actively pursuing the case. She began interviewing those persons who came to her voluntarily and made a written record of her findings.

    During the next three weeks, Mrs. Showalter spends much of her time making telephone calls and knocking on doors. She and her youngest son Craig, then 14, visited a number of local auto dealers and garages. She said in most cases they were told police had not made any inquiries of them.

    February 28

    New London police conduct first interview with Harvey N. Mallove, the downtown merchant and former mayor and city councilor. Mallove stated he drove by Pequot Avenue near Plant Street shortly before 11:15 p.m. on Christmas Eve 1973. Seven people near the accident scene contradict what he said he saw.

    April 20

    Mrs. Showalter writes to State’s Atty. Edmund J. O’Brien, requesting a one-man grand jury investigation into her son’s death. O’Brien never responds.

    On the same day, Atty. Thomas Bishop, representing Mrs. Showalter as the administratix of Mr. Showalter’s estate, asks Atty. Joseph Moukawsher to conduct a coroner’s inquest of the hit-run death.

    April 23

    Moukawsher agrees to conduct inquest but must confer with New London police before setting date.

    June 4

    Mrs. Showalter writes to New London Police Chief John J. Crowley, asking for a progress report on the investigation by his force. Crowley neither acknowledges receipt of letter nor responds. Copies of letter were sent to City Manager C. Francis Driscoll, and Abraham Kirshenbaum, then chairman of the City Council’s Public Safety Committee.

    June 10

    Mrs. Showalter asks Superior Court Judge Angelo Santaniello to call for a grand jury investigation.

    June 24

    Santaniello notes Moukawsher has agreed to conduct coroner’s inquest. He tells Mrs. Showalter, “If it appears that during any stage of this proceeding that any further intercession is necessary, appropriate action will be taken at that time.”

    July 2

    Mrs. Showalter writes to City Manager C. Francis Driscoll, asking for a report from his office assessing the police department’s handling of the case. She also asks for a reply to her June 4 letter to Police Chief Crowley.

    July 9

    Driscoll tells Crowley to prepare a complete report for Mrs. Showalter.

    July 10

    Bucko completes report on fatal accident.

    July 25

    Driscoll sends Mrs. Showalter Bucko’s report. The report said Mr. Showalter’s body was in the road, but the ambulance crew which took Mr. Showalter to Lawrence Memorial Hospital said they found him on the sidewalk several feet away. No police officer ever saw the body at the scene since the first officer arrived as the body was being placed in the ambulance.

    Bucko says paint particles from a 1968 Plymouth at the U.S. Naval Submarine Base in Groton are similar to those found on Mr. Showalter’s clothing, but the same paint is used on any 1968 Chrysler product.

    Bucko also says a piece of metal Mrs. Showalter found near the accident scene is in the detective bureau. When Mrs. Showalter first offered the metal to police, they refused to sign a receipt for it.

    August 6

    Mrs. Showalter writes to Driscoll regarding Bucko’s report. She lists six pages of comments on allegedly “serious omissions” and “strictly opinion judgments” by Bucko.

    Mrs. Showalter also writes to Chief State’s Atty. Joseph Gormley, asking him to send a representative to the coroner’s inquest. She includes copies of correspondence with local officials and Bucko’s report.

    August 9

    Mrs. Showalter requests a meeting with the City Council’s Public Safety Committee.

    August 15

    Bucko updates report, at request of city manager Driscoll.

    Bucko said of the body location, “the position he (Mr. Showalter) was found in at the scene of the accident, in my opinion, would not help in solving this matter.” Erroneous on the report is the position of the car jack which is shown on the front bumper. The car Mr. Showalter was working on, a Ford Pinto, had to be jacked from the side of the vehicle.

    Omitted from the report is the location of a car mat seen to the rear of the car and the spare tire Mr. Showalter never got to put on the car.

    August 20

    Gormley writes to Mrs. Showalter, telling her the local police investigation “has proceeded smoothly,” and there is “no reason for this office to initiate its own investigation.”

    August 28

    The Public Safety Committee of the New London City Council meets in closed session for one hour to discuss the hit-run death. Chief Crowley requested the closed session. He said there is evidence that could jeopardize future action.

    Mrs. Showalter submitted a 12-page statement for the meeting, but did not attend.

    Crowley said the case is not closed and it appears an arrest may be made.

    August 31

    Mallove submits official statement to New London police.

    November, 1974

    After being postponed several times, the coroner’s inquest hears testimony from 50 persons. No findings issued.

    1975

    January 24

    A state police detective participating in the federal grand jury probe of the city police department has told one of its patrolmen they identified the driver of the car which struck and killed Mr. Showalter on Christmas Eve, 1973.

    “We know who killed the Showalter kid, how come you don’t?” the detective was quoted in The Norwich Bulletin as saying.

    March 19-22

    The Bulletin, in a four-part series, shows:

    - Eyewitnesses and what New London police called “near witnesses” drastically differed in their accounts of the accident.

    - Microscopic paint particles found on Mr. Showalter’s clothing on which police based their search may not have been left by the vehicle which struck him.

    - Evidence entrusted to police officers at the scene has never been seen since.

    - A claim by police that it would cost as much as $1,200 to trace vehicles possible involved in the mishap was declared false by the state Motor Vehicle Department.

    The Bulletin, when preparing the series of articles, made repeated efforts to discuss the case with police officials but Lt. K.T. Bucko, who headed the case, on the advice of then Police Chief John Crowley, would not.

    April 3 State police conduct an extensive door-to-door inquiry in the Pequot Avenue region. State police have been looking into the case as part of a federal grand jury investigation into alleged corruption within the city force.

    July 12

    The state of Connecticut offers a $2,000 reward for information leading to the arrest and conviction of the person responsible for the hit-run death of Mr. Showalter. A total of $3,000 is now being offered. Classmates and friends of Mr. Showalter’s have already collected $1,000.

    July 21

    A community effort by friends and classmates raises the reward to $5,000.

    November 8

    The transcript of the coroner’s inquest of the hit-run death conducted nearly a year ago has yet to be typed, Coroner Joseph Moukawsher confirms. He said he wants to review the transcript even though he believes his six-day long inquest did not establish any guilt in the case. He said he has not spoken with the court reporter assigned to the case since the early summer.

    December 10

    Mrs. Showalter writes to State’s Atty. C. Robert Satti, requesting a one-man grand jury investigation. No response.

    1976

    January 6

    Satti refuses to confirm or deny the existence of Mrs. Showalter’s request. Mrs. Showalter has also asked Satti’s office to ascertain the location of recorded tapes made during the coroner’s inquest.

    January 9

    Mrs. Showalter sends a special delivery letter to Satti asking for a response to the December 10 request. No response.

    February 19

    In a feature article, also carried statewide by the Associated Press, The Bulletin profiles Mrs. Showalter on page one.

    Some public officials regard her as a persistent nuisance, someone to be ignored and sidestepped, but Mrs. Lucille M. Showalter will not breathe easily until they tell her who killed her son, Bulletin reporter Fred Vollono wrote.

    “The official comment seems to be there is nothing to it,” Mrs. Showalter said. “It is just the ramblings of a grief-stricken mother. But there are many people who urge me to go on. They say, ‘Lucille, if you stop, then nothing will ever be done.’”

    February 23

    Mrs. Showalter receives a letter of confession from an inmate at Somers state prison. The inmate said he was plagued by news accounts of the death. Every time he seems to forget the accident, the inmate said, he reads another news story.

    April 2

    Mrs. Showalter submits a third written request to Satti for a grand-jury probe. No response.

    May 6

    Common Pleas court Prosecutor Harold Dean quashes the only lead in the two and a half year old investigation, The Norwich Bulletin reports. The lead was the letter of confession written by the inmate at Somers Prison. State police arrested the inmate for harassment of the victim’s mother, Mrs. Showalter, to whom the letter was sent. Dean nolled the case and allowed it to be dismissed despite a prior meeting with state police when the significance of the arrest was discussed.

    State police did not believe the letter writer was responsible for the hit-run death, but they thought the letter contained possibly significant information. Dean said he was certain the accused had no knowledge of the case, because he was incarcerated when Mr. Showalter was killed.

    August 7 The day following the Bulletin’s report of Dean quashing the lead, Chief State’s Atty. Joseph Gormley says he had “no idea” why the lead “which very well could have led to something,” resulted in a dead end. Two state police officers had met with Gormley to discuss the letter of confession.

    August 6

    State police list the investigation into the killing of Mr. Showalter as “closed pending further development.” That classification came 31 days after Dean threw the harassment case out of court.

    August 30

    Mrs. Showalter again asks Superior Court Judge Angelo Santaniello to call for a one-man grand jury probe.

    September 1

    Mrs. Showalter publicly renews her efforts to have a one-man grand jury reopen the investigation into the hit-run killing of her son. In a statement sent to 22 media outlets, Mrs. Showalter says she made the appeal in an August 30 letter to Superior Court Judge Angelo Santaniello. She says she was asking the judge to “make good on a promise” he made to her in June 1974. Santaniello wrote in a June 24, 1974 letter, Superior Court intercession would be possible if the investigation required it.

    Santaniello said, “probably the proper person” to approach would be State’s Atty. C. Robert Satti. But Mrs. Showalter said she is ignoring Satti because he failed to respond to her December 1975 letter asking for the grand jury.

    September 23

    State’s Atty. C. Robert Satti says he needs another three weeks to review information on the killing of Mr. Showalter before deciding whether the investigation should be reopened or shelved.

    Satti says he had hoped to have the matter resolved by today, but the sinking of his 35-foot cabin cruiser two weeks ago, an unexpected report of crimes by New London police, and a new trial forced him behind schedule.

    November 23

    Mrs. Showalter turns to Governor Ella T. Grasso for help.

    “I cannot endure this loss of a beloved son in the midst of a governmental system that appears to neither act nor care,” Mrs. Showalter says in a letter to the governor.

    Mrs. Showalter says she is skeptical the New London County State’s Attorney’s review of the case will result in the one-man grand jury she has requested. Satti today said he is still reviewing transcripts of the Coroner’s Inquest and refused further comment.

    December 21

    Just three days before the third anniversary of the killing of Kevin B. Showalter, the state’s chief court administrator orders the city’s only unsolved hit-and-run case reopened.

    John P. Cotter signs an order creating a one-man jury to probe the death, renewing hopes that allegations of police bungling and mishandling of the case will be settled.

    “I can’t yet believe it,” says Mrs. Showalter, calling the action a “literal miracle.”

    Cotter, a justice on the state Supreme Court, selects retired Superior Court Judge Raymond J. Devlin to head the one-man grand jury.

    An attorney representing Mrs. Lucille M. Showalter also files a $600,000 lawsuit against the unnamed person(s) responsible for the killing of her son. Atty. Averum J. Sprecher of East Haddam says the suit is aimed at protecting Mrs. Showalter’s rights.

    “The action as I have filed it will definitively preserve her rights when the investigative bodies finally determine who killed the boy,” he said. The suit is aimed at heading off fears the state’s statute of limitations might preclude Mrs. Showalter from pursuing civil action if the killer is found.

    December 24

    Superior Court Judge Joseph F. Dannehy is ordered to replace State Referee Raymond J. Devlin as the one-man grand juror investigating Mr. Showalter’s death. Chief Court Administrator John P. Cotter says Judge Devlin had asked to be taken off the case because he was too busy with other duties, and would be unable to commute from his New Haven office.

    1977

    January 4

    Austin J. McGuigan, the special prosecutor assigned to the one-man grand jury probing the hit-run death of Mr. Showalter promises to pull “all the stops” in his investigation but says he needs help from the public to succeed.

    McGuigan has worked for the state for two years as the top investigator of organized crime. He appeals to anyone with information to call him confidentially.

    February 8

    State Police Commissioner Edward P. Leonard, as part of a last-resort effort, makes a personal appeal to area residents for information about the killing of Mr. Showalter. In a letter to the people who live near the Pequot Avenue site where Mr. Showalter died, Leonard asks for facts – “No matter how insignificant they may appear” – which might shed light on the car, the driver or the accident scene.

    Special Prosecutor McGuigan says police “had no suspects.” However, he says if a suspect is found police believe there is sufficient evidence to tie the person to the case.

    April 18

    Investigators say they feel confident the Showalter case will be solved.

    The new optimism comes after a public appeal netted more than 300 leads, new laboratory analysis of existing evidence, and an accounting of each of the more than 10,000 green Chrysler products registered in Eastern Connecticut when Mr. Showalter was killed.

    The new evidence means “there is a significant possibility the vehicle in question was not a green Chrysler,” Special Prosecutor Austin McGuigan says. While the investigators will not say what other color the car might have been, the evidence apparently opens new avenues for the investigation. Previously, other theories on who drove the death car, theories which have had some substantiation, were locked into the green Chrysler theory, police acknowledge.

    May 10

    State police investigators spend two and a half hours recreating and filming the Pequot Avenue death scene where Mr. Showalter was the victim of the hit and run.

    May 18

    State police again film and re-create death scene.

    June 22

    The Bulletin reports that one of the most intensive investigations in state police history, the probe into Mr. Showalter’s hit-run death, will be given to a one-man grand jury July 5 in Windham county Superior Court.

    Judge Joseph F. Dannehy, the grand juror, imposes a gag order on all investigators assigned to the case. Special Prosecutor McGuigan and 17 state police detectives had gathered evidence for the grand jury.

    June 23

    More than 50 persons will be subpoenaed and the scope of the probe will be expanded to include subsequent actions connected with the accident, The Bulletin reports.

    June 24

    Eleven New London police officers, including the top detective involved in the first of three investigations of the hit-run death, have been subpoenaed, The Bulletin reports.

    July 5

    The grand jury begins behind closed doors with testimony by New London Det. Lt. Konstanty T. Bucko.

    Outside, a television camera crew drips with sweat under the glare of a hot summer sun.

    Inside it is quiet and cool – almost like any other day. The state police detectives and reporters talk about golf, baseball and other summertime activities. Because of the gag order imposed by Judge Dannehy, they can’t talk about what is most on their minds, what has brought them all together – the unsolved hit-run death of Kevin B. Showalter.

    The session lasts about five hours and also includes testimony by Mrs. Showalter and Debra Emilyta, Mr. Showalter’s companion the night he died.

    Ms. Emilyta has been sitting on a wall about 6 feet from Mr. Showalter when he was killed. She told police she only heard the 20-year-old Mitchell College student struck, and did not see the car which struck him.

    July 6

    Witnesses include Michael Buscetto of Mike’s Arco in New London. What he identified as body putty, apparently from the car that struck and killed Mr. Showalter, has never been seen since police officers placed it in an envelope that night, according to sources.

    Ms. Emilyta concludes testimony.

    Also testifying are Dr. Robert Weller, members of his family, and a friend, who while returning home from church drove past Mr. Showalter as he was changing the tire. They were among the last persons to see Mr. Showalter alive.

    Other witnesses include Mrs. Ruth P. Hendel and Mrs. Charles (Shirley Pope) Alloway, her daughter.

    On Christmas Eve, 1973, Mrs. Hendel had just turned away from the window of her home on Pequot Avenue where she had been watching Mr. Showalter work on the Emilyta car. She heard the noise of the car striking Mr. Showalter and turning back quickly she caught a glimpse of the taillights. Her first impression of the fleeing southbound car was that it was bright-colored, possibly red.

    Mrs. Hendel continued to watch the accident scene as she telephoned Mrs. Alloway, the wife of a New London police officer.

    Arthur Adams of New London, a Mitchell College security guard and former state policeman, also testifies. Aside from Ms. Emilyta and the hit-run driver, Adams may have been one of the last persons to see Mr. Showalter alive.

    Adams saw Mr. Showalter working on the car and Ms. Emilyta sitting on the stone wall, swinging her legs. He observed the girl with a coat collar wrapped around her head, in conversation with Mr. Showalter, after the Weller party had driven by.

    Adams continued on his rounds towards the Montauk Avenue side of the campus. Sometime after 11 p.m., he saw an ambulance heading for the hospital and two police cars heading down Plant Street.

    July 7

    Some of the last persons who saw Mr. Showalter alive and one of the first who saw him dead testify.

    Six members of the Sitty family, who were celebrating Christmas Eve and occasionally watching Mr. Showalter change a tire from inside a house on Pequot Avenue, tell the grand jury what they knew about the case, Edmond Sitty had brought out a blanket and a corduroy coat to put over Mr. Showalter’s body after he had been struck and killed.

    A New London High School classmate of Mr. Showalter, Arthur Petrini, was a passenger in a car that passed the accident scene sometime after Mr. Showalter was killed and before the ambulance and police arrived. He also testified.

    July 12

    Witnesses included two firemen and a dispatcher, two nurses and an orderly, the New London County Medical Examiner, the first man to officially identify Mr. Showalter, and a woman who lives near the accident scene.

    Larry Grimes, a security guard who knew Mr. Showalter from Mitchell College, had made the preliminary identification at Lawrence and Memorial Hospitals, where he also worked. Mrs. Dorothy Bryson of Pequot Avenue, who came upon the accident scene, also testifies.

    July 13

    New London police officers pack the waiting room of the Windham County Courthouse. Of the 11 who were subpoenaed last month, at least seven are present.

    The 11 include Patrolmen Vincent McGrath, Steven Colonis, Thomas P. Bowes Jr., and Cpl. Joseph Chiapponne, all of whom were involved in the initial investigation. With the change of shift, Sgt. Joseph Jullarine, Patrolmen Richard West and Glenn Davis and Det. Sgt. Konstanty T. Bucko joined the probe. Bucko was off duty at the time.

    McGrath filed the motor vehicle report of the accident and the sketch on the report was by Bowes. Bucko took photographs of the scene and gathered evidence. His photographs may be the only ones taken. Bucko also went to the hospital and got the victim’s clothing, according to sources.

    Colonis, the first officer on the scene, apparently arrived as Mr. Showalter was being placed in the ambulance. He interviewed Ms. Emilyta and took her to the station to file a 13-sentence statement.

    There is some confusion of whether Colonis drove an unmarked police car that night. Sources say police made conflicting statements on that question.

    July 14

    Thomas Wainwright, who played tennis with Kevin Showalter at New London High, saw his lifeless body on a sidewalk on Pequot Avenue before an ambulance or police arrived, and is among those testifying today. Arthur Petrini, who testified last week, was a passenger in Wainwright’s car.

    Mr. and Mrs. Donald Wainwright, who were stopped by police after circling the scene in another auto, also testify.

    At least seven New London police officers are at the courthouse, but it is not known how many are testifying.

    July 19

    The grand jury shifts beyond reconstructions by “near witnesses,” as Sgt. Joseph Jullarine, now retired, testifies. He was the squad leader who reportedly conducted “an intensive investigation” for a red car during the 11:30 p.m. to 7:30 a.m. shift on Christmas Day 1973.

    July 20

    The grand jury investigators spend much of the day alone reviewing physical evidence and testimony. Only three witnesses – New London police who have already appeared during the proceedings – are present.

    July 21

    Det. Bucko appears for at least the fourth time in the nine days the grand jury has convened. The session begins at 10 a.m. and ends about 5:45 p.m., with his departure.

    A nurse’s aide who knelt by Mr. Showalter’s body, feeling for a pulse, also testifies, Sue Costello, who heard the report of an accident as she was leaving Lawrence and Memorial Hospitals in New London from her shift, had arrived on the scene before ambulance personnel and police.

    July 26

    The scope of the grand jury probe goes beyond Mr. Showlater’s death and runs smack into a crucial area of dispute with the appearance of New London police detective Walter Petchark.

    On Christmas Day 1973, with evidence already missing and news of Mr. Showalter’s death on the radio, Petchark reportedly received a call from former mayor Harvey N. Mallove. Mallove later told The Bulletin there was no truth to the report. But he allegedly told Petchark he thought he saw the accident the night before.

    Three city police detectives – Bucko, Petchark, and Carmello Fazzina – were present at the inquiry. They were followed by laboratory technicians from the FBI, who lent their expertise in the analysis of headlight glass possibly belonging to the death vehicle.

    July 27

    The former counsel for the estate of Mr. Showalter testifies. Atty. Thomas Bishop confirms his representation of the estate was severed in June 1974.

    Thomas and Donald Wainwright return for further testimony.

    July 28

    Witnesses include Mrs. S.F. Zimet of Ledyard. Mallove said he was visiting at her home on Christmas Eve 1973, left about 10:45 p.m., and was home in New London about half an hour later.

    Mrs. Zimet is accompanied by her attorney, L. Patrick Gray. Gray, like Bishop, is a member of the New London law firm Suissman, Shapiro, Wool, and Brennan.

    Other witnesses include New London city Manager C. Francis Driscoll and Elise Mallove, Mallove’s daughter. Miss Mallove was home for her Christmas vacation in 1973.

    The grand jury begins a four-week recess. More than 50 persons were called during the first 12 days of the inquiry.

    August 30

    New London police investigators and a newspaper editor who has followed their unsolved hit-run death case for three years are among the witnesses.

    Retired Police Chief John Crowley and Det. Lt. K.T. Bucko, who refused repeated pleas by The Bulletin in March of 1975 to discuss the death of Kevin B. Showalter, gives testimony – as did the paper’s managing editor, John C. Peterson.

    Peterson testifies for three hours.

    August 31

    The attorney who conducted a coroner’s inquest into Mr. Showalter’s death, the results of which have never met public scrutiny, is the first witness today. Atty. Joseph Moukwasher, who heard testimony from 50 witnesses during six days in September and November of 1974, is one of the few persons familiar with the substance of that investigation.

    It took more than two years for the transcripts of the hearings to be typed and submitted to State’s Atty. C. Robert Satti.

    State Police Sgt. Donald Crouch, who in 1974 and 1975 worked for the federal grand jury investigating alleged corruption in the New London force, also testifies. Other witnesses included Rosemary Benson and Carol James.

    September 1

    Physical exhibits appear to outnumber witnesses in the 15th day of proceedings. Two state police technicians from the crime lab in Bethany carry satchels concealing evidence into the closed courtroom. One exhibit is a light colored automobile fender, which was dented and streaked.

    September 2

    Det. Edward Pickett of the New London County State’s Attorney’s office, who helped administer a lie detector test to Ms. Emilyta, testifies. Ms. Emilyta passed the test.

    Another detective, private investigator Joe Harris, is also called. A former Waterford police sergeant, he worked on the case for a brief time, on his own.

    Other witnesses in a short session include State Police Sgt. Charles Trotter, a principal investigator in the federal grand jury probe of the New London city police.

    September 12

    Two persons who saw Mr. Showalter on Christmas Eve 1973, hours before he was killed testify.

    Ramona Ricci, a coworker of Mr. Showalter’s at a Waterford discotheque, attended one of two parties Mr. Showalter had planned to go to after work that night. Nancy Wicksham, who also testified, had joined friends that holiday evening at the club.

    September 18

    Mallove says his status as a suspect in the case is “nothing new.” During testimony in a New Jersey courtroom, Connecticut State Police revealed Mallove is a prime suspect in the hit-run case. The testimony concerned refusal by two New Jersey men to comply with a subpoena issued by the one-man grand jury. Trooper Charles Wargat also testified he was told the two men repaired Mallove’s car on Christmas Eve or Christmas Day 1973.

    Mallove tells The Bulletin he did not know the men and never had a car repaired at their shop on Reed Street in New London. He says he didn’t kill Mr. Showalter and doesn’t know anything about anybody who did.

    September 19

    One of the two men who testified with immunity today has said in a published account he has no knowledge of the case and denied any car was repaired in his New London shop on Christmas Eve 1973.

    Walter String Jr. made those comments in the New Jersey Courier Post. He and his son, Walter String III, had been ordered to appear today by a New Jersey judge, after refusing to comply with a subpoena.

    Among the dozen or so witnesses are New London city police Sgt. Donald Sloan and Cpl. Charles Alloway. They took the first full statement from Ms. Emilyta, five days after the accident.

    September 26

    Darlene Barnes, a friend of Mr. Showalter who patronized the Waterford discotheque where he worked, is among the witnesses today. Ms. Barnes was also one of the 50 witnesses during the coroner’s inquest of 1974.

    October 3

    Larry Grimes testifies again. The Mitchell College security guard who made the first identification of Mr. Showalter at Lawrence and Memorial Hospitals, was also at the courthouse on July 12, and Sept. 26.

    The grand jury will be in recess until October 17. It has convened 20 times since July 5 and heard about 90 witnesses.

    October 11

    Judge Dannehy says published reports that Mallove is a prime suspect in the case “couldn’t bother me in the least.”

    “They (the newspapers) are free to speculate if they wish,” Dannehy says. “I am not concerned with their claimed right to freedom of expression.

    I think that sometimes their attitude is to publish and be damned, but they don’t bother me.”

    “Why don’t you wait” for the grand jury report? Dannehy asked.

    October 17

    The sales manager of a New London auto firm who said he has sold a number of cars to the family of a suspect in the hit-run case testifies.

    In 1970, Peter Emmanuel Sr. of New London Motors sold a Lincoln Continental to Harvey N. Mallove, whom state police have identified as a suspect in the Christmas Eve, 1973 death. A compact car was among the other autos the New London firm sold to Mallove.

    State police were looking for a green Chrysler product when they first questioned New London motors personnel, Emmanuel said before he testified. But the firm didn’t sell Mallove such a vehicle, which police had believed was the death car, he added.

    October 24

    The grand jury does not convene today because the investigators were not ready to proceed, Judge Dannehy said. He said he plans to conduct several more sessions before adjourning to write the final report, but did not specify.

    November 14

    The grand jury meets for its first regular session since October 17 and hears one witness. The witness, Gary Jordan of New London, said he was dating Elise Mallove on Christmas Eve 1973.

    Sources say the grand jury conducted at least one special session since October 17, but it was not known who testified.

    November 21

    State police continue working long and irregular hours probing Mr. Showalter’s death as they re-create the hit-run scene on Pequot Avenue near Plant Street for at least the third time.

    November 29

    The man whom state police have said they consider a prime suspect in New London’s only unsolved hit-run death has his day in court.

    Harvey N. Mallove testifies for about four hours before the secret grand jury probing Mr. Showalter’s death. Atty. Leo J. McNamara accompanies Mallove to the Windham County Courthouse.

    Mallove says he was one of a number of persons who drove by the accident scene shortly before or after Mr. Showalter was killed. But a four-part series by The Bulletin in March of 1975 showed Mallove saw a scene that seven other persons said could not have taken place.

    Mallove passed the accident scene within a minute or two after an ambulance call was logged. His statement to New London police – dated eight months later – conflicts with accounts of seven persons at the scene or looking out their windows seconds after Mr. Showalter was struck.

    Mr. Showalter was struck by a car as he changed a tire on a friend’s parked Ford Pinto, on a well-lit section of Pequot Avenue near Plant Street.

    In his statement, Mallove said he saw an automobile parked at an angle in front of the Pinto. None of the seven persons saw any car stopped at the scene immediately after the victim was hit according to the July 10, 1974 report by New London Det. Lt. Konstanty T. Bucko.

    Mallove’s vivid description of a middle-aged man talking with a girl near the car also conflicts with statements by the seven persons.

    In his statement, Mallove said he assumed the man was a member of the police department. But Bucko claims in the July 10 report that Mallove told him the talking to the girl was “NOT” a policeman.

    Bucko’s report also claims Mallove learned on Christmas Day 1974 that “a man had been killed and he remarked to some people that he saw the body.” But Bucko continued to report that after Mallove viewed photographs of the scene he realized what he mistook for a body was a floor mat. In his statement, Mallove said he saw a “flat object which I assumed was a blanket or a mat.”

    In his August 31, 1974 statement, Mallove said, “Seeing no trouble, accident, or any evidence of anything out of place…I continued on my way home.”

    In the July 10, 1974 report, Bucko claims; “Mr. Mallove stated he was going to stop because he realized there had been an accident.”

    Mallove has told The Bulletin that Bucko misquoted him.

    December 7

    The calling of witnesses ends with Mallove’s second appearance.

    The proceedings included a film screening, apparently of the death scene as re-created by state police.

    After the 35 minute screening, Special Prosecutor McGuigan and Judge Dannehy questioned Mallove for about 40 minutes. That was the bulk of the afternoon session.

    The question of whether indictments should be handed down in New London’s only unsolved hit-run death now rests with Judge Dannehy.

    After 24 sessions and more than 100 witnesses, Dannehy said the next step for the grand jury is the final report on who killed Kevin B. Saltwater.

    1978

    Feb. 17 Report filed.

    Feb. 22

    Report made public.

  • THE DANNEHY REPORT


  • SHOWALTER COVERUP COLUMNS

    Chapter 1

    Law and Justice in Everyday Life

    Cover-Up In New London

    Hit-And-Run Continues To Mock Justice


    Sept. 4, 2000

    If Connecticut Chief State’s Attorney John Bailey wants to bring closure to cold cases, here’s one from New London that should top the list: The Showalter hit-and-run cover-up is a dark chapter in Connecticut history, a tale more appropriate for a Third World country.

    And yet, only one thing bothers former New London County State’s Attorney C. Robert Satti about the Showalter case: that it was investigated at all.

    Satti, now retired, made the point again and again, most recently this year. Satti’s complaint, made during the wake of the late state police Detective George Ryalls, was that Ryalls’ obituary mentioned the suspect the prosecutor refused to pursue in the Showalter probe.

    Kevin B. Showalter, a 20-year-old Mitchell College student, was killed at 11:12 p.m. on Christmas Eve 1973. He was changing a tire on a well-lit section of Pequot Avenue on the New London shoreline when he was struck and killed. His girlfriend, sitting only 6 feet away on a stone wall, claims she saw nothing.

    Auto body putty from the death car disappeared after a tow truck driver gave it to New London police. The evidence file that was supposed to contain the putty was stuffed with bathroom tiles. The file that was supposed to contain headlight glass from the death car instead contained glass from three different headlights. State police and others suspected that, in order to throw legitimate investigators off the trail, the late young man's clothing was pounded on a different-colored car than the one that killed him.

    The victim's mother, Lucille M. Showalter, tried to get a grand jury investigation of the cover-up. She was rebuffed repeatedly by the presiding judge, Angelo Santaniello who, it later became clear, was best friends with the leading suspect. Santaniello then referred Showalter to prosecutor Satti, who happened to be his former law partner. Satti refused to acknowledge registered letters from Mrs. Showalter pleading for a grand jury probe.

    Satti did finally meet with Mrs. Showalter in 1978, after Judge Joseph Dannehy of Willimantic, acting as a one-man grand jury, named former New London Mayor Harvey N. Mallove as the probable driver of the hit-run vehicle. Satti called the three-hour meeting, in which he repeatedly told Mrs. Showalter that there never should have been a grand jury investigation under Dannehy.

    Mallove held a good hand; he had the best legal muscle in New London County on his side. New London police would not question him for more than seven months, and then only in a perfunctory manner. They would say they inspected his cars, but they did not. Significantly, Mallove’s Lincoln had been repaired, but it wasn’t until state police took over the case four years after the accident that the fender was finally seized.

    Santaniello would arrange for a coroner’s inquest and put his niece in charge of typing the transcript. Only after two years of intense public pressure would the transcript be typed. But the inquest never issued a finding.

    Santaniello tipped off Mallove that he was a suspect. The judge was also aware of what local police knew about the case. Mrs. Showalter memorialized the admissions in tape-recorded telephone conversations.

    “I did talk to Harvey,” Santaniello told Mrs. Showalter on Oct. 17, 1975, “and I said, `You’re suspected.’ As a matter of fact, at that time a police officer came to him on the same day or the next day, and told him you were making accusations about him and that he was a prime suspect.” The day before, Mallove told Mrs. Showalter, “Judge Santaniello is of the opinion that you fingered me.”

    It was not until 1977 that state police, who took over the case at the behest of former Gov. Ella Grasso, formally named Mallove a suspect. Next week, I'll propose a means to solve the Showalter cover-up.

    Showalter Cover-Up Is New London's Shame

    Sept. 11, 2000

    New London, where I grew up and began working in the 1960s and ‘70s, was a dirty little city with character.

    It had a restaurant called the Hygienic that was everything but. There were at least a couple bars where the cops couldn't do anything, except maybe a little business.

    The top pimp in town never went to jail until he was about 60 and a certain court official retired.

    New London will always be the city that tried to cover up the Christmas Eve 1973 hit-and-run death of Kevin B. Showalter. It's been doing a pretty good job for nearly 27 years, but the onion is beginning to peel.

    The local daily newspaper admitted -- in its official history published this year -- that it did a shoddy job on the Showalter case. Specifically, The Day admitted its failure to explore the relationship between a former mayor and a top judge, and their influence on the course of the criminal investigation. That’s a beginning.

    Political and police corruption goes back a couple generations in New London. By the 1970s, New London police were widely known to be involved in the selling of women, dope and refrigerators, among other things. A federal grand jury took note. But as with the Showalter case, there were these little problems with the evidence.

    A jewelry store owner and former city mayor multi-millionaire Harvey Mallove was the prime suspect in the hit-and-run death of Showalter, a student at Mitchell College. Showalter’s date that night, Christmas Eve 1973, said she saw nothing from her vantage point six feet away, sitting on a stone wall under a streetlight on a residential street as a young man changed the tire of her car.

    Harvey was everybody’s pal. He would take kids to the Super Bowl, then, down the road, get them jobs as cops. He was friends with bums in the street and bums in high political office. He was wired. The standing joke among reporters became: Harvey's a great guy to have a beer with, just don't change your tire if he's driving by.

    “I didn't kill the kid in any way, shape or form,” Harvey told me many times. As mayor, Harvey helped hire a few police chiefs. His best friend was the administrative judge for the county; that was the judge who controlled the early stages of the investigation, specifically a coroner’s inquest that never issued a finding.

    State police followed up a report that Mallove’s best friend, County Administrative Judge Angelo G. Santaniello, was with Mallove on Christmas Eve 1973. Santaniello reportedly was No. 11 on a guest list for a party at the home of his political mentor, the late state Sen. Peter Mariani. The Mariani party was one of two Mallove attended that night.

    Santaniello told reporters he never went out on Christmas Eve.

    Another state judge, Joseph F. Dannehy, conducted two grand jury investigations. In 1978, Dannehy named Mallove as the probable driver of the hit-run vehicle, but said evidence that might have ensured conviction was either mishandled or destroyed.

    Mallove died a few years ago with this legacy. Others still have time to come clean and tell the truth about the cover-up. Mrs. Showalter tried unsuccessfully to have Satti, Santaniello and others prosecuted for hindrance of prosecution (CGS Section 53a-166) warning of impending discovery, providing means of avoiding discovery, preventing discovery by deception. Because a conspiracy to hinder prosecution is an ongoing crime, those with information could tell Chief State's Attorney John Bailey, who has begun an initiative to solve some of the state's cold homicide cases.

    Isn’t it time? No one kept the system honest when it counted, though some tried. Most stood by as the system that was supposed to protect the victim and his family betrayed them all.

    Where is the conscience of the community?

    Cold Case On Ice Forever

    Nov. 6, 2000

    One way to deflect attention from a suspect is to get investigators involved in meaningless, time-consuming tasks. Another way is to create a bogus suspect who is then exposed as such, causing a belief that the case is just too hazy to pursue.

    Both of these devices were used repeatedly in the cover-up of the Showalter hit-run case in New London. Whether this was happenstance, indifference, incompetence or malfeasance, the result was the same. The system failed.

    And now, it seems, the truth will remain buried forever.

    Judge Joseph F. Dannehy, the grand juror who investigated the case, wrote in his finding of fact: “After December 25, 1973, the New London Police Department did virtually nothing to solve the hit-run death of Kevin B. Showalter.” The accident occurred the night before.

    Local police and court officials, however, were pro-active in another sense. Their actions served to protect the assailant.

    For example, New London police claimed it would cost as much as $1,200 to trace vehicles using data from the state Motor Vehicle Department. The motor vehicle department declared there was no such charge.

    Nevertheless, New London police spent their time hand-sorting local motor vehicle cards. They looked for a green Chrysler. That was likely a false lead; state police said paint particles found on the victim's clothing did not come from the car that killed him.

    Former Mayor Harvey Mallove began meeting informally with police and court officials as early as Dec. 25, 1973. Mallove wanted to know what the police knew.

    The only lead after two and a half years was quashed by then New London Common Pleas Court Prosecutor Harold Dean in May 1976. The lead was a letter of confession written by a Somers prison inmate to the victim’s mother, Lucille Showalter.

    “I told Harold how important that was to me,” Mallove, the prime suspect, confided to an associate. He also acknowledged discussing the purported confession with his best friend, the presiding judge for the county, Angelo Santaniello.

    The author of the letter was known to be connected with “fences,” or purveyors of stolen goods in the New London area. State police arrested him for harassment of Mrs. Showalter. Two state troopers met with Dean for an hour. They told him the letter contained possibly significant information. State police also believed they could connect the dots in New London between the letter writer and the powers-that-be. Did he owe some favors? Was he paid? Police knew the author had no liability for the accident; he was actually in Florida at the time of the hit-run.

    Dean nolled and dismissed the case without telling the troopers or Mallove. Soon thereafter, state police listed the killing of Showalter as “closed pending further development.” Upon learning of Dean's action, Chief State's Attorney Joseph Gormley remarked he had “no idea” why the lead, “which very well could have led to something,” resulted in a dead end. The case would remain closed for six months, until Gov. Ella Grasso brought the matter to Justice John Cotter.

    Was there criminal activity connected with the Showalter cover-up? It appears we will never know for certain. Dannehy named Mallove as the probable driver, noting that evidence which might have ensured conviction was destroyed. The Chief State’s Attorney’s Office reviewed aspects of the case this fall after a series of columns appeared in The Law Tribune. However, the statute of limitations for the most likely potential charge, conspiracy to hinder prosecution of motor vehicle misconduct, has expired. This shameful case, it appears, is destined to stay on ice forever.

    - AND:

    Olympic Gold for Missing Evidence


    November 28, 2005

    Judge Ellen Gordon was in way over her head with what she tried pass off as a ruling in Day Publishing v. State's Attorney.

    Clueless Gordon was handed a hot one, a case no one has ever wanted in the so-called New London Judicial District. Every single time this case has come to court, begging for justice, The Robes, the prosecutors and their minions have either desecrated their oaths or looked the other way. Clueless Gordon, fairly new to the scene, has managed to join the list of those who are both ostriches and failures.

    The Day newspaper asked Gordon this year to release the grand jury testimony regarding the cover-up of the 1973 hit-run death of Kevin Showalter. Before Gordon probably ever heard of Showalter, five New London County judges recused themselves from a John Doe civil suit against the driver because they were friends with the prime suspect, Harvey Mallove. Mallove -- the late mayor of New London and multimillionaire jeweler who picked police chiefs, planned to run for Congress and starred in the social scene -- was prone to say, "I never killed the kid -- in any way, shape or form."

    It's not like we could expect a New London judge to show guts or brains in this case. Compelling testimony from the first of two grand juries implicated local law enforcement and court officials in a widespread cover-up.

    On Christmas Eve 1973 at 11:12 p.m., as the call came in, a high-ranking New London officer, said, "F--k him, he's dead," and then left to go home. Showalter, a 20-year-old Mitchell College student, lay dead on a well-lit section of Pequot Avenue by the shoreline. His body was thrown 22 feet from the point of impact. His shoes were found 110 feet apart. A leg bone was 75 feet away.

    A tow truck driver gave police auto body putty from the death car. The putty was never seen again. New London police mixed headlight glass from at least three different cars in what they called the evidence file. Replacing the auto body putty was bathroom tile. A local coroner's inquest never issued a finding. State police, who took over the case at the behest of Gov. Ella Grasso, were bewildered and angry when they could not find the transcript of the coroner's inquest. Mallove's best friend -- the presiding judge for the county, Angelo G. Santaniello -- had put his niece in charge of typing that transcript. Santaniello also tipped off Mallove to his status as a suspect.

    Now, Clueless Gordon can't find the 3,000-page transcript of the first grand jury. Does she care? Court clerks allegedly performed a diligent search. Would any reasonable person believe or accept any of this?

    Among the last persons known to possess the grand jury report was the late State's Attorney, C. Robert Satti. Satti, who refused to investigate the case before a special prosecutor was appointed, claimed he returned a copy to the grand juror, then Willimantic Superior Court Judge (later Supreme Court Justice) Joseph Dannehy. Both Dannehy and Satti are dead. Did "Do Nothing Bob" -- Mallove's moniker for Satti -- take it with him? We might as well ask Harvey, also dead, or Kevin.

    Gordon's pathetic decision, dated Nov. 7, went on for about a sentence before its first fatal error. It might sound like a technical error, but it's much, much more than that. She actually said New London police investigated the case.

    Before this, I thought it might take generations to remove the stench from the New London courthouse. Alas, for New London, the stench of this cover-up is forever.







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  • Sprague Public Library to host
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  • Recent column: Judges who played role in murder probe squelched access to key testimony




  • Greenwich International Film Festival, Summer 2016


  •           Activist in Washington DC wants to open bookstore in underserved neighborhood to honor a slain journalist         

    An activist in Washington DC wants to set up a bookstore in an underprivileged area of the SE section, to be called the Charnice Milton Community Bookstore, in honor of a journalist slain by a stray bullet from gun violence in the City, Perry Stein has a story from Friday, July 14, 2017 in the Washington Post Metro Section, here.

    The store would be in the basement of We Act Radio. The owner would need to raise $180,000 for the project.

    In the voting district of the store, 19% of adults lack the literacy to read a newspaper.

    Back in 1972 when I had moved to northern New Jersey, I remember that the candidate from the “People’s Party of New Jersey” opened a “Make Up Your Mind Bookstore” in Madison N.J. 
      
    As I drive around rural towns, I see a more small bookstores (along with antiques) than you would expect. 

    Update: Aug. 4

    The Facebook page for the new store is here.  I can't find a direct site. 

                      
    NYS OUTDOOR WRITERS SAFARI 2013 IN WASHINGTON COUNTY - GREAT







    Washington County safari yields a tom

    Reach Gazette outdoors columnist Ed Noonan at enoonan@nycap.-rr.com.



        Last Thursday, I was one of 16 members of the New York State Outdoor Writers Association who visited the Cambridge/Salem area of Washington County for our annual safari.
        Each spring in May, NYSOWA chooses a New York county to visit and enjoy the outdoor activities our host county has to offer. Unlike our annual conferences, the safari is strictly a “no business” event in which we just have fun and renew friendships. I’m a bit embarrassed to say this was my first hunting visit to the area, and I live less than 30 miles from Cambridge.
        The two primary outings this time of the year center around turkey hunting and fishing, and what better place to fish in May than on the famous Battenkill River. When canoeing, kayaking and hiking trips through those beautiful plush green hills that surround this picturesque area are added, you couldn’t ask for a better place to spend a long weekend.

        Our Thursday evening Meetand-Greet get-together was held at Momma’s Restaurant in Cambridge, where we were welcomed by Christine Hoffer, Washington County tourism administrator, who outlined our busy agenda and introduced the two places where we would be staying — Batten Kill Valley Outdoors (www.battenkillvalleyoutdoors.com) and Battenkill Riversports and Campground (www.brsac.com). The former offers all types of river rides, boat rentals and a vacation rental house we used as our headquarters, and they have quite an assortment of gear and flies in their shop. Battenkill Riversports and Campground is located right on the Battenkill.
        After driving up to Cambridge, especially along New York Route 313, where both these places are located, I came to the conclusion that Vermont may be the Green Mountain State, but this southern area of Washington County’s rolling hills are equally as green. The next morning, I found out just how hilly they really were.

    FRIDAY
        Everyone was up early and anxious to chase gobblers or hook up with some of those Battenkill brown trout. The turkey hunters, with the exception of three, headed off with their guides where they would hunt private lands. Melody and Frank Tennity of Honeoye and I were going to be on our own, hunting several portions of state land that had been pointed out to us the afternoon before.
        My starting point was the 512-acre Eldridge Swamp State Forest that borders the Battenkill. This area is stocked with pheasants every fall by DEC. And I know that two of them are still alive. When I arrived there just before sunup, I made my way along the edge of the wood line and stopped at a corner of the field to wait and listen.
        A morning greeting from a distant owl got me the response I wanted (gobbles) several hundred yards off into a mixed pine and hard woods, and I quickly and quietly headed in the direction of where the tom was still gobbling.
    I stopped about 75 yards from him, and my first soft yelp got a double gobbling result, and I set out my three decoys. Then our conversation began.
        I knew he was coming, but fi rst in was a hen who eyed my decoys. Mr. Jake appeared shortly after, gobbling and all puffed up with his notched tail. He wasn’t what I wanted, but fun to watch, and finally they moved off.
        I waited about 10 minutes and began calling again, and I got a response from the same area, and
    this one came in on the run. It was another jake, who continued to strut around the decoys. For fun, in a very loud voice I asked him: “What are you doing here?” He actually fell down twice trying to run off.
        At about 6:30 a.m., after walking and calling without any responses, I decided to try spot number two, up behind the lodge. It was defi nitely “up,” and there was no trail. Eventually, I made it to the stone fence they told me about and set up again. I didn’t hear anything for more than an hour, nor was I able to solicit a gobble, so I guessed it was time to do a little walking and talking.
        For the next hour, I followed the wall, stopping every 100 yards or so to call, fi rst with a low tone and then increasing the volume. At 8:30, I headed down and back to the truck — time to visit spot number three, the 2.5-mile State Peaked Rock Trail, also in the Battenkill
    State Forest.
        Its peak altitude is 1,100 feet above the Battenkill. As I made my way slowly up the trail, I found these 69-year-old legs were not as strong as they used to be, and believe me when I tell you, there were numerous stops. Up about a half-mile or
    so from its head, the trail bordered several different green fields on one side and a dried creek bed on the other. At each field, while resting, I made some yelps with my box call. I got one response on the other side of the road on private land.
        At the top of the third field, I noticed there was a deep gully leading to the creek bed which had three to four inches of water in it. It looked like a good spot to rest and call.
        My normal calling ritual when walking and stopping to call is to begin by making soft yelps, then, depending upon the results, continue to increase the call volume. I repeat the sequence every fi ve or 10 minutes.

        I liked the looks of the area, so I decided to stay a little longer and occasionally make a few calls. On my fifth calling sequence, I got a thundering response gobble somewhere above me. I estimated him to be at least 200 yards up, but on the other side of the creek. Every time I called, he responded and was getting closer, but still on the other side of the creek.
        Now the “book” says incoming toms will not cross creeks. So I grabbed my decoys, slid down the
    gully, crossed the creek, set them out on the edge of that side, then I climbed about three-quarters of the way back up from the creek on the trail side and settled in with my Benelli and got him talking again. With all that up-and-down running around, it’s a good thing I don’t use a mouth call. I wouldn’t have had enough wind to blow it.
        What happened next was a fi rst for me. The tom crossed back over to my side, and I thought all was lost when he went quiet. I was looking straight to where I heard his last call when out of the corner of my eye, there he was, fully displayed and walking “in” the creek toward the decoys. It was the fi rst turkey I ever shot in the water, and he was a beauty, even though he was wet.
        I can’t remember the last time I shot a turkey on New York state land, and I couldn’t wait to show him off. My Washington County gobbler, after drying, was over
    20 pounds, carried a 9 3 /4-inch beard and 1 1 /8-inch spurs. Thank you, Jerry Wilson, for your great box call. It did it again (www.wilsongamecalls. net).
        You can also see my Washington
    County tom at http://fi shguydblog.-blogspot.com/.
        Back at the lodge for lunch, I found out that the Battenkill River and Dead Lake anglers all had some nice trout on ice.
        Our afternoon tour of the Quality Deer Management Co-op in Easton began with a most interesting presentation by Tony Rainville, president and founding member of the local branch, and Jami Whitney, local branch director.
        What I learned and saw on our walking tour of the food plots, etc., was very impressive and clarifi ed many questions I’ve had. These individuals are a dedicated group that’s truly improving the deer herd, and it’s a LOT more than just developing trophy bucks.
        I urge every deer hunter to go to www.qdma.com and see what it’s all about.
        Thank you, Christine Hoffer, and all the Washington County individuals who helped make this safari a very enjoyable and successful outdoor experience. I’ll be back.

    DAN LADD Charles Witek of West Babylon, a member of the New York State Outdoor Writers Association, fishes with his wife, Theresa, from a boat on Dead Lake in Washington County. They were part of the group’s annual safari.




              How I Created a Genealogy Timeline To Show My Grandfather's Life        
    My grandfather Joe moved around a lot during his lifetime: Texas, North Carolina, Louisiana, Mississippi, back to Texas, elsewhere in Texas, Ohio, more places in Texas, various Ohio cities, South Dakota, Ohio again. 

    Timelines organize an ancestor's or a family's family tree data—dates, places of residence, jobs, historical events, children's births—in an orderly fashion. I love them.

    So when I was making a photo book about my grandfather as a Christmas present for my dad, I thought a timeline was just the thing to help summarize all those migrations. Matching up the timeline with a map of all the places would be even better.

    My Grandfather's Migration Timeline
    Here's the timeline and map I came up with:



    The right-hand page lists each place Joe lived, with dates and details about what he did in that place. The information comes from my research in censuses, city directories, newspapers and other genealogy records. I'm lucky to have copies of a job application my grandpa filled out with his work history.



    Looking at it now, I can see some things I'd change. But overall, I'm pleased with it.

    For the map, I first tried customizing a Google map using free numbered place markers downloaded from here (Google's marker options don't include numbers). To create your own Google maps timeline, add a generic place marker to the map, click the paint can to edit the marker style, choose More Icons, then Custom Icon, and select the marker image file from your computer. You'll need a Google account to save the map.

    I didn't love the result for my photo book, though, so I imported a map image into desktop publishing software I have access to through work, and added numbered place markers I created myself. Then I exported the file as a JPG to use in the photo book. 



    I know a few tricks, but I'm not a graphic designer, so there's probably an easier and more artful way to go about making the map.

    Using Timelines in Your Genealogy Research
    Timelines are among your best genealogy tools. In addition to helping you easily share genealogical information, they let you: 
    • get an overview of a person or family in historical context

    • sort out a confusing jumble of information you've found in records

    • spot problems (why was Great-grandpa here and Great-grandma over there?)

    • note periods of missing information

    • brainstorm answers to research questions, such as why a relative immigrated or where your great-grandparents met
    Our new independent study online course Using Timelines in Your Genealogy helps you take advantage of all these genealogy benefits of timelines.

    It'll show you how to use timelines to understand your ancestors' lives and solve research problems, and how to create a timeline by hand or using websites such as Twile and Treelines. Best of all, you can take this independent study course at your own pace and download the videos and research guides to keep.

    See all the details for our Using Timelines in Your Genealogy course and register at FamilyTreeUniversity.com.

    SaveSaveSave
              Ancestors in the CCC? Search Online Camp Newspapers from Virginia!        
    If your ancestor or other relative was part of the New Deal Civilian Conservation Corps program, camp newspapers are great for learning about his experience. And it's getting easier to access CCC camp newspapers from Virginia (plus a few from outside Virginia).


    CCC workers, Library of Congress

    The Virginia Newspapers Project has announced that CCC camp newspapers from the Library of Virginia's collection, published from 1934 to 1941 by young men participating in the CCC, are being digitized on the Virginia Chronicle newspaper website. The papers were originally microfilmed by the Center for Research Libraries in 1991.



    The Camp Victory Crier, for example, was published in Yorktown, Va. Page two of this issue names staff including editor in chief Oliver J. Wilson, other editors, press men and reporters.

    Click here to browse the CCC newspapers already on Virginia Chronicle. To search these and other newspapers on the site, use the keyword search box on the home page or the Advanced Search, which lets you specify a date range and newspaper title to search.

    Here's a guide to the Library of Virginia's collection of CCC camp newspapers.

    Looking for more CCC history websites and old records of CCC camps and workers? See our genealogy Q&A on how to research a CCC worker on FamilyTreeMagazine.com.

    SaveSaveSaveSaveSave
              Families of jailed Turkish journalists shaken but determined        

    Istanbul: Their imprisonment has torn families apart while the newspaper they work for is left without some of its brightest stars.

    But the relatives and colleagues of jailed journalists from the Turkish opposition daily Cumhuriyet vow to continue to fight for their freedom and ideals.

    "For nine months we have been living a nightmare, to be honest," said Nazire Gursel, wife of veteran commentator Kadri Gursel who has been in jail since October.

    The hardest part, she said, was replying to questions from their 10-year-old son, Erdem.

    "People tell my child, `Your father is a hero, he has done a lot for Turkey`," Nazire Gursel recounted.

    "So, on the one hand he is proud, but on the other hand, he asks, `But why is my father in prison if he is a hero? Who is his enemy?`"

    Since Monday, 17 journalists, executives and other staff of Cumhuriyet, a daily fiercely critical of President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, have been on trial accused of supporting "terrorist" organisations.

    Secular Cumhuriyet ("Republic") daily, one of Turkey`s oldest newspapers, has built a strong reputation for publishing scoops embarrassing for those in power.

    The newspaper rejects the "absurd" accusations and claims the trial is aimed at damaging one of the country`s last independent media outlets.

    The experience has united journalists` relatives and their free colleagues who come to court together, and who sometimes go in groups to Silivri prison on the outskirts of Istanbul with a minibus chartered by the newspaper.

    Nazire Gursel goes to Silivri every Friday. "I had never been to Silivri before my husband`s incarceration. When I arrived there for the first time, I told myself `it looks like a Nazi camp`, she told AFP.

    "It is a really scary place."The trial gave family members the chance to see their loved ones outside of prison, where visits are confined to an hour and take place behind bulletproof glass.

    "We at least have the chance to see or hear them without a window between us, to hear their voice directly without using a telephone," said Yonca Sik, the wife of Ahmet Sik, one of Turkey`s most famous investigative journalists who is also jailed.

    According to her, conditions in prison have hardened since her husband`s last incarceration- in 2011, he was imprisoned after writing notably one of the few full-scale investigations into the group of Fethullah Gulen.

    Gulen is a US-based cleric who Ankara accuses of ordering last year`s failed coup against President Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

    "They are in isolation, that is especially the hardest," she told AFP in front of the Istanbul courthouse where the staff is on trial. Among them, 11 are in pre-trial detention.

    "They take them away from the people they love, their work and it`s clearly an injustice, persecution," one of Cumhuriyet`s lawyers Efkan Bolac said.

    "It`s torture for the accused."Beyond the impact on families, the incarcerations have hurt Cumhuriyet: the paper`s chairman, Akin Atalay, and its editor-in-chief Murat Sabuncu are currently in prison.

    "For nine months, Cumhuriyet has faced troubles. Nearly all of its senior executives have been imprisoned as well as many writers," the daily`s Ankara bureau chief Erdem Gul said.

    Gul himself was sentenced last year for five years for "revealing state secrets" after a front page story claiming to show the government sending arms to rebels in Syria in May 2015. He is appealing the sentence.

    "We are paying a heavy price but we continue to publish the newspaper," Gul said, adding: "Cumhuriyet has not changed its editorial line."

    Nazire Gursel says she does not regret the work that her husband did which caused him to be behind bars. "I`m immensely proud of him."

    The judge is likely to decide on Friday whether or not to release the accused for the rest of the trial.

    "Turkey is no longer a state of law, but there are still people who are fighting for democracy, for justice," said Yonca Sik, pointing to the demonstrators gathered in front of the court. 

    "And that, of course, gives me hope."

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              lunaria / tvvin_pinez_m4all        

    lunaria ~ all is dream (sounds of the dawn, 2016)

    Second tape release at Sounds of The Dawn brings to the world a new masterpiece in the new age genre - an it's only a debut album, recorded by Daniel - a member of our blog's team. Listening to this tape is an immersion into the state of heightened sensitivity, when everything becomes brighter and clearer. It may sound as a cliche when it comes to ambient new age music, but I'm too assured in the fact that actually any music can do that if it has sincerity. There are nothing supernatural about the impact which music can do on our minds and we don't need scientific proofs for that - just an open-minded listening, which leaves analysis and criticism beyond the perception. Blissful tones of this music is a soft contradiction to the modern pop-music with its aggressive production. One may call it escapism, but then one should ask himself - where are you escaping when listening to radio hits? What is real? Which reality is true and everlasting, and which is just temporary construct of humanity's greed? Nature is all around us, but we mostly ignore it, building our own realities, first concrete and metal, then virtual... But when I go with this though further, while bathing in the crystal clear melodies and chimes of Lunaria, I realise that answer is already here - literally. On the tape cover. It says "all is dream" and duality of the meaning of the word "dream" makes the answer even clearer. There is no escapism. Global civilization, the Humankind, even Cyberspace - everything is Nature, part of our planet's evolutionary process. And this whole process is just a part of universal dream. Who dreams it? We all do, and by doing that we can make all kinds of things... And we do them, many different things, not always pleasant - saying "what the difference?". But when someone makes music like this, when someone listens to it and it makes one's dream a bit brighter and lucid - I can be only happy. And it makes a difference.

    listen ~ buy tape ~ buy cd
     

    tvvin_pinez_m4all ~ 植物波 [ p l a n t w a v e ] (adhesive sounds, 2016)

    Colorful, growing plants are the key to livening up any interior décor. 

    During the course of last year or two vaporwave has become much more structured genre, than it was at the beginning. To tell the truth, it was more like a joke, than a "real music" and some people still think that way. But even superficial acquaintance with everything vapowave-themed on Bandcamp brings so many sub-genres and variations, that no joke can have. Being 100% product of postmodernism, this music recycles long-forgotten tunes, giving them another perspective in the massive retromania, which overfilled music market nowadays. And by doing that, vaporwave shifts the perception towards images and situations that actually never existed. If you old enough to remember early 90s, you can feel the similarity in atmosphere and aesthetics, but there are still too many differences, which makes vaporwave-induced nostalgia no more than a postmodernist trick. And it tells a lot about the way we remember, think and perceive. Take this tape - typical, I'd even say classical vapowave album full of slowed disco tunes, ambient passages and late 80s new age reminiscences - but still none of these things in sum. It reminds me making collages of old magazines - you can put together some random parts from your mom's old knitting magazine, modern National Geographic and some last year's newspaper. Of course, you get some new picture, but what is more important - this picture transcends time, it brings everything in present moment, making it joyful. So what's the difference between music for plants, recorded by 80's new age artists and this tape? Only time - which is just an instrument for the artist, a way to make perspective, to give us a hint on our own head interior. Do you have any living plants there? I bet they'll love this tape, because it sounds damn chill and relaxing.

    listen ~ support

              The Odyssey of the Canaries in Texas and Louisiana        

    Jose Balbuena's book "Odyssey of the Canary Castilian Texas and Louisiana", is not only a publication about facts of this historical epic of the Canarian colonial America, but also serves as a picture of their offspring born in this large American territory, which have expressed pride, heritage, have been able to convey generosity. Its author is a well known and excellent journalist who joined the newspaper The Province in 1972, writing many interesting features, interviews and chronicles of travel, making it one of the first journalists of the Canary Islands in the dissemination of specialized tourism issues.


    See: http://www.anroart.com/catalogo/227 (Spanish)

              A birthday break        
    How do you celebrate a major birthday in my position? Ten years ago, and ten years before that, it was through travel to special new parts of the world. Somehow that didn’t seem so appropriate this year – not that there aren’t still many countries I would really love to go to, but travel is now a normal part of my life so it wouldn’t have marked this birthday out as special.

    I thought about gathering my local friends together for a big dinner in Dakar, but ruled that out quickly as it would have meant telling them why, thus making me the centre of attention for the evening, which I would hate. I thought too about a few days’ luxury in a top hotel somewhere like Venice, but really that would be more enjoyable as part of a couple.

    Then I remembered what I had read about an eco-lodge called the Collines de Niassam in Senegal, some 150km down the coast from Dakar near the villages of Palmarin. I’d been to Palmarin before, and loved the area. Just getting there involves an hour or more of driving across bare, open salt flats, with little to see except bare earth, water, sky and birds. It’s a bleak yet majestic landscape. The lodge offers a little bit of luxury amongst this bleakness, but in a development that blends in with the landscape rather than shutting it out.

    So I booked myself for a couple of nights into one of their four wooden huts built on stilts above a lagoon. There are activities on offer, and I went on an evening drive in a horse and cart to watch hyenas gather before their evening hunt, but otherwise I just relaxed. A colleague had brought me an English Sunday newspaper the week before, which I had saved, but I spent a lot of time just sitting in a deck chair gazing at the lagoon – at the herons, gulls, avocets and pelicans that were a constant presence outside my room. I also went walking in the bush – yes, more birds, but also the physical pleasure of just walking, knowing I was in a reserve and so would not encounter demands for presents from snivelling children, nor their parents trying to sell me necklaces or poor quality carvings. In fact I didn’t see anyone during either of my two long (2-3 hour) walks, just hornbills, bee-eaters, kingfishers, parrots and francolins. On the drive to the hyenas I also saw flamingos and jackals.


    The food was great too. Set meals with no choice whatsoever, but I was perfectly happy with dishes such as pumpkin and prawn soup and grouper fillet flambéed in tamarind sauce. I didn’t drink much but their Cape Verdean rum cocktails were also pretty good!


              Rumours of the death of multinational tax avoidance are greatly exaggerated        
    Michael West, University of Sydney The Australian government took out newspaper ads earlier this month boasting of unequivocal victory in the fight against multinational tax avoidance. It is no small irony that taxpayers have forked out for this bald-faced lie. “Multinational corporations earning Australian dollars now pay their fair share of Australian tax,” decreed the […]
              Lee Newspapers Closing Capitol Bureau        
    Late Thursday afternoon a news story broke on the Great Falls Tribune website that spread across Twitter like wildfire, and struck some people like a death in the family: Lee Newspapers, which owns five of Montana’s largest papers, is closing its state bureau, and its two reporters, Chuck Johnson and Mike Dennison, are leaving the company.
              Cold-hardy vegetables may stick it out through winter        

    Winter vegetablesBy Denise Ruttan
    Not ready to hang up your gloves and spade just yet?
    The fearless gardener still has a chance to plant some cold-hardy vegetables to harvest next spring, said Jim Myers, plant breeder and researcher at Oregon State University. But don't dawdle.


              Tori's Review: Nearly Gone by Elle Cosimano        
    Nearly Gone by Elle Cosimano
    Standalone
    Published March 25, 2014 by Kathy Dawson Books
    Young Adult | Mystery | Contemporary
    388 Pages
    Goodreads | Amazon | B&N
    Nearly Boswell knows how to keep secrets. Living in a DC trailer park, she knows better than to share anything that would make her a target with her classmates. Like her mother's job as an exotic dancer, her obsession with the personal ads, and especially the emotions she can taste when she brushes against someone's skin. But when a serial killer goes on a killing spree and starts attacking students, leaving cryptic ads in the newspaper that only Nearly can decipher, she confides in the one person she shouldn't trust: the new guy at school—a reformed bad boy working undercover for the police, doing surveillance. . . on her.

    Nearly might be the one person who can put all the clues together, and if she doesn't figure it all out soon—she'll be next.
    I must warn you first that I am really into bad boys in young adult literature. I don't know why, but they thrill me. I suppose I liked Nearly Gone as much as I did because Nearly reminded me of myself in many ways. Firstly, I'm very competitive and serious when it comes to my grades. I constantly compete with the smartest kids in my class to set the learning curve (I fail most of the time, but I still try). Secondly, I love puzzles. They confuse the heck out of me, but I love them. Thirdly, Nearly likes bad boys. Yeah, I like bad boys as well.

    The best thing about this novel is that I never guessed who the actual culprit was. I usually have a pretty good guess by the end of the novel, but by the end of Nearly Gone, I was completely lost because the person I thought was the culprit was completely and utterly innocent. I love mystery/thriller novels, therefore I was extremely glad that Nearly Gone actually made the reading experience enjoyable for me. I was literally on the edge of my seat while reading in the car.

    The characters, in my opinion, were intriguing. Each one had a back story (except the thugs. I really had no idea where they were coming from, but then again, they're thugs) that held weight and wasn't just there. And the killer's motive made sense at the end. Sure, it was a bit warped, but it made sense, which is all I really care about.

    For a debut novel, I think Nearly Gone surprised me in a good way. I found this at Costco today, so I bought it, and I honestly didn't expect to read it in one day. I've been in a reading slump lately, so to just pick up and book and polish it off like desert felt amazing. There were a few subjects not touched on like how Nearly could feel someone's emotions when she touched them (I wish this was elaborated on a bit more), but in the end I don't feel like I'm missing out on too much.

    I really enjoyed the idea of narcs (Narcotics officer) being in this novel. After watching the movie Snitch, I've been interested in undercover criminals busting drug deals, so this book was perfect for me. I'm surprised to find myself waiting to reread this novel in the future since I don't usually reread. I honestly really enjoyed it.

    To touch on Reece's stalker-like behavior a bit, it wasn't all that bad. In his defense, he was told to watch over Nearly. It was only when it wasn't a job for him anymore that it became a little creepy. He breaks into her locker to trifle through her stuff, forces her to kiss him in the hallway, and a few other things like that. Unsurprisingly, I still managed to liked Reece by the end of the novel. A lot. (Like I said, I have a thing for bad boys. So sue me. I'm a young teenager.)

    In conclusion, Nearly Gone was an entertaining read, and it managed to keep my interest throughout the entire day, which books these days can't seem to do all that often. I bounce between books a lot, but Nearly Gone kept me from doing that. I can't wait to reread this book in the future. But I do warn you that if you're a person who isn't into bad boys and the justification of bad behavior due to hotness level, then this book isn't likely for you. But who knows? You still might enjoy it as much as I did!


              â€œI’m not in a state of moral decline” says former prime minister        
    Morally vacuous?
    Responding to accusations that the former prime minister Tony Blair has been in state of moral decline for some time now, former prime minister Tony Blair has said, “Yeah, ok, look, there is a small part of me I suppose yeah, that might feel alienated, disaffected, but you know, the majority of me is pretty bloody decent.”

    His comments come in an interview with the Catholic newspaper, “It’s Adam and Eve, not Adam and Steve” after a week of speculation about the former New Labour acolyte’s moral well-being.

    “Yeah, hey, I know there are people out there that will say, “he was partly responsible for the deaths of thousands of innocent people in the Middle East and now he’s personally profiting from it” but you know, I don’t accept that I’ve totally lost my way morally.”

    Questioned about how his soul could ever be saved from eternal damnation he responded, “I don’t accept that. Yeah of course there’s a part of me that’s at odds with any canons of proper behaviour but I don’t agree that there is any one specific solution. Now leave me alone I’ve got some Isrealis to make some money out of.”

              By: sugarcreekfarm        
    Patrice - I use wood shavings in the brooder, but I cover that with newspaper the first day. That's what you see in these pictures.Kris - I'm happy to report they got along just fine!Karen - turnabout's fair play, right? You've done that to me more than once ;)Christy - yes you do, they're so much fun!
              Brother Twelve cult’s farm sold to newspaper-chain owner        
    Group:

    Miscellaneous


    Headline: Brother Twelve cult’s farm sold to newspaper-chain owner

    -- Delivered by Feed43 service


              BWW Review: ALL STAR DETECTIVES at 2017 Fringe Festival        

    Some mysteries are better unseen and unresolved. Such is the case with All Star Detectives; a presentation of DamianBlue.net at the 2017 Kansas City Fringe Festival performing at the Musical Theater Heritage Stage 2. Featuring an experienced cast of actors and comedians, this new play written and directed by Jason Eisberg is still in the development stage.

    The All Star of our detectives in this case is the venerable Dick Tracy character who was introduced in the old Detroit Mirror newspaper in 1931. Dick had the most lantern of jaws, and the most modern of gadgets. The most famous of which was his iconic wrist radio. Dick Tracy was always beyond corruptibility.

    Daddy Pop (Joe Caronia) is your typical mobbed-up guy who is just getting out of the joint. He has arranged to take over a nightclub/strip kind of club. Sons of the club owners Johnny (Colin Kinnick) and Ryan (Mathew Koehler) are put upon by Daddy Pop to acquire the keys to their parents film noir style castle. The parents are no longer among the living. Ryan has been bought off and turns on his brother.

    Detective Harry (Michael Foster) is a former partner of Dick Tracy along with his partner new officer Tommy (D'Andre McKenzie). He dreams of becoming an eventual Tracy partner.

    District Attorney Warren (Jeff Vaughn) is concerned that Daddy Pop has been released. He pursues Daddy and eventually is killed for his efforts. Meantime singer Patricia (Maggie Mulligan) has auditioned for Daddy in the club. A male singer is rejected. Eventually, Dick Tracy appears and saves the day. Daddy is cuffed and goes back to jail.

    All Star Detectives is energetic. It could stand a little clearer plot and a few more props along with a more directed action. The show has completed its run at the 2017 Fringe Festival from the Damian Blue Company.


              ESM's QuickLessons A DearMYRTLE Genealogy Study Group Lesson 21 and Writing Historical Biography        


    Hilary Gadsby

    QuickLesson 21: Citing DNA Evidence: Five Ground Rules    
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “QuickLesson 21: Citing DNA Evidence: Five Ground Rules,” Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/content/quicklesson-21-citing-dna-evidence-five-ground-rules : accessed 24 Sept 2016).     
    and
    Writing Historical Biography
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “Writing Historical Biography," Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/quicktips/writing-historical-biography : accessed 24 Sept 2016).


    Welcome to my final blogpost for this study group.

    I looked at these topics and thought how can I relate these to my own research. I have not done any genetic testing of either myself or any close relatives and I have not as yet attempted to write a historical biography.

    So I cannot write from experience but I can say what I understand and how I would approach this.

    ESM mentions "five basic ground rules"

    Evidence versus citation

    All we do when we write a citation is identify our source. In relation to DNA results these will have been analysed and presented in a particular format we cite how they have been presented to us (what we see). 

    DNA is evidence

    We take information we find in our source and use what it is telling us in building the evidence supporting or refuting our assertion. The same as any other source.

    Citation to support an assertion

    The information may need further analysis, to provide us with the evidence to support or refute an assertion that X is related to Y, but this is what we can add to our dicussion rather than a citation. Whatever the outcome of the discussion citing the source will not change.

    What are you citing?

    How has the result of the test been communicated to you. Have you been presented with a comparison to others held in a database?

    You may need to explain what you are citing

    Some citations are in need of explanation it may not simply be a case of including a name and date. We include sufficient information to clarify any specific item of interest.

    The only thing I will add here as I have no specific example is that when we are dealing with genetics we are using information from living or sometimes recently deceased individuals. Given that even if an individual is now deceased they may still have close living relations we need to ensure we follow the guidelines. Elizabeth Shown Mills has a number of publications available including one on genetic sources and there is information available on the website for International Society of Genetic Genealogy.



    Historical Biography

    Whilst I have not as yet written any biography be it my own or anyone in my family I have used some of the records suggested.
    If we wish to present an interesting picture of our family to others, be they family or friends, then we need to include more than a list of dry facts and possibly a few photographs. Technology may allow us to present things in a more interactive manner but first we need to find the information.
    Census information, certificates, church registers tell us who was related to whom and when births, marriages and deaths may have occurred but they tell us little about how our family lived and interacted with others in their community. It is likely that our own lives have changed considerably over our lifetime and the same is likely true for our ancestors.
    Whilst we may not have met someone we may still be able to build up some kind of picture of the life he may have lead.

    I will show you an example from the half brother of my great grandfather Rowland Curtis.
    We find his memorial at Find A Grave in Warminster.
    This is incomplete and tells little about who he was and the family he had and any struggles he may have faced. He is recorded in the Family Search Family Tree with the currently available documents.

    I have not included what I have found in the newspapers and books about Warminster.
    It appears that this family were mentioned in the newspapers on several occasions.
    The local newspaper is The Warminster and Westbury Journal and a search at Find My Past in the British Newspaper Archive returns several results.
    They even made a national paper known as Lloyds News. The local paper included a copy of the original but unfortunately without the photograph.





    "London Interviewer's Visit to Warminster," The Warminster and Westbury Journal, 28 March 1908, p. 6 col 3;digital images, Find My Past.co.uk (http://www.findmypast.co.uk : accessed 26 Sept 2016), British Newspaper Archive Collection.

    So what do I need to do with this information? 
    What else do I need to look for and how can I get this in to a format that the family will find interesting? 
    I have found a photograph of the family in a copyrighted book page 112. There are also photographs of another family member on pages 58 and 59 in the same book. Danny Howell. Yesterday's Warminster (Buckingham, England: Barracuda Books Limited, 1987)

    I am using Twile to collaborate with the family and I am going to add these to the website to help the family know more about who these people were and how they lived. I am always looking for more information and because it is a private website copyright issues may be less of an issue.  
    I can share more in a private invitation only area than on public trees and I hope that it will be able to connect to my blogs and other sites to avoid duplication. The timelines and maps along with historical information can really bring our own history in to context.
    There are plans for Twile to connect with Family Search but I will tackle any issues, I might have, if they become a problem. 

    Like many I have gathered the information to write more about my ancestors but have rarely pulled it together to create something more this is something I hope to do on my family blog, maybe I should start with Rowland Curtis, but hey I have already started.



              ESM's QuickLessons A DearMYRTLE Genealogy Study Group Lesson 7         

    Hilary Gadsby


    QuickLesson 7: Family Lore and Indian Princesses    
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “QuickLesson 7: Family Lore and Indian Princesses,” Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/content/quicklesson-7-family-lore-and-indian-princesses : accessed 4 May 2016).

    This lesson deals with the stories that pass down through the family.
    These can either be backed up by the evidence or totally refuted.
    Whatever we do we must be sure that the person we have found is the one we want and not just someone with a similar name.
    We must also ensure that we look at all credible sources for the time and place we are researching.
    If we miss that there is another person with a similar name, or don't consider them in our analysis, we will reduce the credibility of our research.

    Stories get passed from one generation to another and as each person passes the oral history it can change and even become a totally different tale.
    Oral history should not be dismissed as it can help us to deal with conflicts and changes from one record to another. 
    Within my own research I have been told why a living person uses a different name to that recorded on the birth certificate. 
    Sometimes social attitudes can be such that the truth is not recorded. During wartime many children were conceived whilst the husband was away and at least some of them will have been registered with the husband's surname. Children born to unmarried girls may have been brought up as a younger sibling by the grandparents.

    Many like to believe that they are descendants of nobility or that there is a connection to someone with money. But finding a document does not mean that it is one that relates to your family. Does the information fit with what you already know or are there inconsistencies. Don't wait for someone else to point out your conflicts resolve them, if you can't explain them, highlight them, and think about how you may find out more so that you can resolve them. 


    Only this last week I made contact with a third cousin who told me “ Joseph George Robbins was born on the 28th December 1887 in Warminster, Wiltshire. He left Warminster and went to London, became a window cleaner and then got a job as a waiter at The Strand Hotel in London.  He met Edith Fuller who later became his wife. Joseph travelled to New York and got a job as a waiter at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel.  At some point he sent for Edith and she obtained work in the hotel as a “hat check girl”.  They married in New Rachel, USA. Edith became pregnant and was sent back to stay with her mother in England. Violet Georgina Robbins was born on 5th June 1916.Grandfather also worked on ships as a chef and a waiter working for the Orient line and went to Australia on the Orantees and my aunts could remember he visited Fremantle, Adelaide and Brisbane. ”
    I am now in the process of confirming the details.

    Transcriptions can be easy to find but I always like to confirm things with originals or digital images.
    The marriage transcription is on Family Search and here is the citation
    New York, New York City Marriage Records, 1829-1940," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/2435-KDP : accessed 16 May 2016), Joseph Robbins and Edith Fuller, 21 Feb 1913; citing Marriage, Manhattan, New York, New York, United States, New York City Municipal Archives, New York; FHL microfilm 1,613,708

    I have also found possible passenger lists for both of them travelling to New York she left on 12 February 1913 and he on the 4 December 1912, however the occupations do not fit with those I have been told about, and the Joseph on another ship leaving Southampton on the 11 March 1914 could be him as he is listed as a waiter. She is possibly following in April 1914 on the Olympic.
    Did he go out in 1912 trying to find work and then end up doing something else?

    Why did they go back to England after their marriage and return on different ships?

    The information that is on the passenger lists is never enough to be certain that you have the correct person(s) particularly with common names.

    I have found a record card CR10 which shows his Merchant Navy service on the Orontes this has a photograph of him on the card. (see link to Wikipedia page for SS Orontes)
    Another researcher added some family photographs to their Ancestry tree in 2009 and the person on the CR10 matches the person in those photographs.

    I have found a website for the Waldorf Astoria and believe there may be records in the New York Archives but I will probably have to wait and see if they become available online. 
    I also need to check out the newspapers for any information.

    Since Joseph and Edith were both born, and also died, in England, I might never have thought to search elsewhere for their marriage. 
    Family stories can be useful but we need to be careful to follow up our hints with good documentation.



              ESM's QuickLessons A DearMYRTLE Genealogy Study Group Lesson 3        

    Hilary Gadsby

    QuickLesson 3: Flawed Records    
    Elizabeth Shown Mills, “QuickLesson 3: Flawed Records,” Evidence Explained: Historical Analysis, Citation & Source Usage (https://www.evidenceexplained.com/content/quicklesson-3-flawed-records : accessed 27 March 2016)

    For this lesson I want to look at 2 items that have been digitized pertaining to the birth of my great grandfather.




    The first item refers to baptisms for children at St Josephs Church in Southampton and the second is a copy birth certificate for one of the children mentioned in the letter.

    Apart from the fact that neither of these are original records there is a difference of dates. Had I not had a copy of the letter I would not have been aware of the possibility that the date of birth could be anything other than that recorded on the official birth certificate.

    Thorough research including records made independent of each other can lead us to question even the records we would consider to be accurate.

    When I looked at these I had to consider why would the birth certificate have the baptism date recorded as the date of birth. Had his mother got confused with the dates and given the baptism date. The date the birth was registered was more than 2 months after the date in the letter and almost a month after the baptism.

    This birth was registered prior to 1875, at which time the Births and Deaths Act 1874 imposed a duty upon those present at a birth to report it to the registrar, so his parents were only legally obliged to inform a registrar if it was demanded by the registrar (1). Many were not aware of the law or thought that a baptism was an alternative to registration. This situation may be what happened with another ancestor whose birth appears to have taken place in 1845. I have found a baptism, but unless she was registered under an alternative name, I can find no trace in the index for the district.
    If the birth had taken place after 1875 then the parents would have been fined for a registration later than 42 days after the birth (1). 
    I will need to search the newspapers of the time to see if this stipulation could have been common knowledge as early as 1868. 
    I have looked for school records to try and confirm the date of birth. I have not found any for him yet. Given that the baptism date and the date of birth on the certificate are the same it may just be a case of mistake. 
    The earlier date is my "current thinking" and is a reasonable choice unless I find something to contradict this. I have other records which would indicate a year of birth such as census, marriage and death certificates, but these do not state an exact date, and would be considered to have been recorded at later dates than the 2 documents I have discussed. 
    He died in 1940 so the 1939 Register recently released on Find My Past, could be a source of information, this has recorded full dates of birth for individuals. However having found him he is listed as incapacitated. Given his cause of death he would not have been a reliable witness for the date of birth he had been using, all that it lists is an age and year of birth. 
    Employment records may be another source for the date of birth. He worked for a shipping company who may have records. The Clyde Shipping company has become Clyde Maritime and I found a genealogy section on their forum. 

    This discussion and reading the QuickLesson has led me to create this graphic



    If we are going to carry out thorough research and analysis of that research we must first understand the context in which a record was created and any peculiarities which may affect how we perceive what we find. This requires a knowledge which we may not have unless we educate ourselves.
    We all learn in different ways and watching and participating in this type of study group is a great way to share and highlight possible problems or ways of tackling problems.

    Brickwalls can fall when we know our weaknesses and where we may have missed something. Collaboration and friendly discussion can help us all become better at what we love doing.


    (1) Herber, Mark D. Ancestral trails : the complete guide to British genealogy and family history. Stroud: Sutton, 2004. p55

              Making Progress - Making Distractions        

    ORGANIZATIONAL DISCIPLINE


    Introduction

    In this post I will discuss why I am not following the Organisational Prompts in the Get Organized challenge. 

    What I am doing instead.  

    The challenges this approach has had and how I have dealt with them.



    FINALLY Get Organized challenge

    This year I had intended to follow along with the weekly challenges set by DearMYRTLE in her FINALLY Get Organized prompts. 
    Week 1 
    I had previously done much of what was suggested, somewhat fortuitously, with the week coinciding with catching up at work after the Christmas and New Year breaks.
    Week 2
    This was where I started to see that the system being suggested was close to what I had previously tried. This way of organizing I had found to work for some of my digital files but not everything.
    Organizing by family group works for items specific to that family but stumbles when previously unconnected groups collide. One example of this would be a group photograph at a wedding or a newspaper report of that same event.
    I am trying to avoid duplicates of the records and have devised a modified version keeping the family group as a hub containing an index to the relevant documents and other media.

    I have gradually realised that a key element in citation is being able to accurately pinpoint the provenance of the source. Whilst digital files can have this information embedded in the properties it is a greatly underused function. Most of the files just contain the filename for that computer and a date. Making use of this ability will take time so I have started with a quicker fix to ensuring the correct provenance is recorded.


    The System


    This is a screenshot of my system as it stands today



    I discussed this system briefly in my featured earlier post.
    The Media file in my Family Historian project has subfolders which I have colour coded using Folder Marker .


    I have further subdivided the folder named Official Archives as shown below



    I expect some of the folders will be moved, renamed or deleted as I decide the best place to use for those census images and other items I have downloaded. I need the flexibility at present that this system provides. I also want something that can be easily modified at a later date.

    The process has been far from straightforward and I find myself having to go through earlier emails trying to discover who sent me pictures or documents. When I find the relevant email I have sent it to Evernote and added tags.

    This has slowed down my folder organization but will pay dividends when I start to rebuild my tree as part of my Genealogy Go Over.

    I did not create a research log when I started out so I am going to create one retrospectively from interviews, photographs, scans and correspondence to ensure the sources are correctly cited.
    If I am unable to accurately date something I can no longer replicate, such as an interview with a deceased relative, I will date with a year range.

    I am sure I will find other distractions to send me "off course" but hopefully most of them will help me attain my ultimate goal to get organised and digitised so I can find, analyse and preserve the history of our family. 


              Comment on SF Anti-Colonial/Anti-Capitalist March by Support the ACAC19 « occupy california        
    [...] banks and corporate chains by rushing the crowd of marchers. The resulting scuffle ended in 19 arrests. In an effort to ostracize the arrestees, police released photos of arrestees to local newspapers [...]
              Liberal staffer Barrie Macmillan resigns over lobster with alleged mobster        
    Our Headline of the Day Award goes to the Australian newspaper The Age.
              May 2012 Daring Bakers' Challenge - Challah        
    Six Braid Challah Bread
    Photobucket
    Recipe Source: The recipes provided for the challenge came from or were inspired by recipes found through a variety of online sources (including, but not limited to allrecipes.com). Also invaluable was the book “A Taste of Challah,” by Tamar Ansh.
    Blog-checking lines: May’s Daring Bakers’ Challenge was pretty twisted – Ruth from The Crafts of Mommyhood challenged us to make challah! Using recipes from all over, and tips from “A Taste of Challah,” by Tamar Ansh, she encouraged us to bake beautifully braided breads.

    I have never made braided bread before so I was thrilled when I saw the challenge was Challah. In Finland we have a sweet bread called pulla that is braided (three strands) I saw my mum make it many times when I was a child and always wanted to make some. The final bread is very similar in taste to pulla I was very pleased about that. I decided to do a six strand braid. I was extra careful about making sure that the braids were all the same (size, shape and weight) and that I did a double coating of egg wash. I made a jury-rigged dough proofing cabinet the bread raised in only 45 minutes the final raising took about 20 minutes.

    The process of making the bread was very straight forward, it was the braiding that was a little challenging for me, I practised the braiding using strands of playdough (dough made with salt and coloured dye) after a dozen attempts I had the technique down pat, looking at the final result I thought I had done a reasonable job on it for a first attempt. I was fairly pleased with the final outcome, it was only after I had looked at it I realised that I should of made the ropes of dough tapered I had made them absolutely straight and even the entire length of the strand hence the reason why the final challah loaf looks so flatt  but I didn't mind that at all. Overall a reasonable job I thought.

    The jury-rigged proofing cabinet – fill the sink 5 cm (2 inches) with hot water from the tap. Place a metal pan on the bottom place the bowl with the dough on the pan making sure the bowl doesn't touch the hot water. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and then cover the sink with newspaper (this traps the warmth and steam) then prove the bread.
    Photobucket

    Process of rolling out the strands
     Photobucket

    Starting the six braid challah
    Photobucket

    The egg-washed proved bread just before going into the oven
    Photobucket

    The final bread
    Photobucket
    Photobucket

    I liked doing this so much I will try some other shapes again soon.
              February 2012 Daring Cooks' Challenge: Flipping Fried Patties!!!        
    Hi it is Lisa and Audax and we are hosting this month's Daring Cooks' challenge we have chosen a basic kitchen recipe and a basic cooking technique which can be adapted to suit any ingredient that you have to hand and are beloved by children and adults alike … of course we are talking about patties.
    Photobucket
    Technically patties are flatten discs of ingredients held together by (added) binders (usually eggs, flour or breadcrumbs) usually coated in breadcrumbs (or  flour) then fried (and sometime baked). Burgers, rissoles, croquettes, fritters, and rösti are types of patties as well.

    Irish chef Patrick "Patty" Seedhouse is said to have come up with the original concept and term as we know it today with his first production of burgers utilizing steamed meat pattys - the pattys were "packed and patted down" (and called pattys for short) in order to shape a flattened disc that would enflame with juices once steamed.

    The binding of the ingredients in patties follows a couple of simple recipes (there is some overlap in the categories below)
    Patties – patties are ingredients bound together and shaped as a disc.
    Rissoles and croquettes – use egg with breadcrumbs as the binder, typical usage for 500 grams (1 lb) of filling ingredients is 1 egg with ½ cup of breadcrumbs (sometimes flour, cooked grains, nuts and bran can be used instead of the breadcrumbs). Some meat patties use no added binders in them they rely on the protein strands within the meat to bind the patty together.  Vegetarian and vegan patties may use mashed vegetables, mashed beans, grains, nuts and seeds to bind the patty. Generally croquettes are crumbed (breaded) patties which are  shallow- or deep-fried. Rissoles are not usually crumbed (but can be) and are pan- or shallow-fried. Most rissoles and croquettes can be baked.  (Examples are all-meat patties, hamburgers, meat rissoles, meatloaves, meatballs, tuna fish and rice patties, salmon and potato rissoles, most vegetable patties.)
    Wet Fritters – use flour, eggs and milk as the binder, typical usage for 500 grams (1 lb) of filling ingredients is 2 cups flour, 1 egg with 1 cup of milk and are usually deep-fried and sometimes pan-fried  (examples deep fried apple fritters, potato fritters, some vegetable fritters, hushpuppies)
    Dry Fritters – use eggs and (some) flour as the binder, typical usage for 500 grams  (1 lb) of filling ingredients is 1 to 2 eggs and (usually) some 2 to 8 tablespoons of flour (but sometimes no flour) and are pan- or shallow- fried. (examples most vegetable patties like zucchini fritters, Thai fish cakes, crab cakes, NZ whitebait fritters)
    Röstis – use eggs (sometimes with a little flour) as the binder for the grated potato, carrot and other root vegetables, typical usage for 500 grams (1 lb) of filling ingredients is one egg yolk (potato rösti).

    Sautéing, stir frying, pan frying, shallow frying, and deep frying use different amounts fat to cook the food. Sautéing uses the least amount of oil (a few teaspoons) while deep frying uses (many many cups) the most oil. The oil helps lubricate (sometimes adds flavour) the food being fried so it will not stick to the pan and helps transfer heat to the food being cooked.

    In particular, as a form of cooking patties, pan- and shallow-frying relies on oil of the correct temperature to seal the surface (so retaining moisture) and to heat the interior ingredients (so binding them together) so cooking the patty. The exposed topside of the patty while cooking allows, unlike deep frying, some moisture loss and contact with the pan bottom with the patty creates greater browning on the contact surface that is the crust of the patty is browned and the interior is cooked by pan- and shallow-frying. Because the food is only being cooked on one side while being pan- or shallow-fried, the food must be flipped at least once to totally cook the patty.

    So this month's challenge is to pan- or shallow-fry a patty, so giving us the title for this challenge “flipping fried patties”.

    This challenge will help you understand how to form, what binders to use, and how to fry a patty so that it is cooked to picture perfect perfection.

    Recipe Source:  Audax adapted a number of popular recipes to come up with the challenge patty recipes and Lisa has chosen to share two recipes – California Turkey Burger adapted from Cooking Light Magazine, and French Onion Salisbury Steak adapted from Cuisine at Home magazine.

    Blog-checking lines:  The Daring Cooks’ February 2012 challenge was hosted by Audax & Lis and they chose to present Patties for their ease of construction, ingredients and deliciousness!  We were given several recipes, and learned the different types of binders and cooking methods to produce our own tasty patties!

    Posting Date:  February 14th, 2012

    Download the printable .pdf file HERE



    Notes:
       
    • Binders
    •  
    • Eggs – are found in most patty recipes it acts as a binder, use cold eggs and lightly beat them before using  If you cannot use eggs try this tip  "1/4 cup of silken tofu, blended, or a commercial egg re-placer powder mixed with warm water."
    •  
    • Flour – normal plain (all-purpose) flour is used in most fritter recipes it can be replaced with rice, corn or potato flours (in smaller quantities) in some recipes. If you want some rise in your patties then use self-raising flour or add some baking powder to the flour. 
    •  
    • Breadcrumb Preparation – breadcrumbs are a common ingredient in patties, burgers and fritters they act as a binding agent, ensuring the patty keeps it shape during the cooking process.
    •  
      • Fresh breadcrumbs – these crumbs are made at home with stale bread simply remove the crusts from one- or two-day old bread, break bread into pieces, place pieces in a blender or food processor then blend or process until fine. Store any excess in a plastic bag in the freezer. 1 cup of fresh crumbs = 3 slices of bread.
      •  
      • Packaged breadcrumbs – often called dry breadcrumbs, these are used to make a crisp coating on the burgers, patties and fritters they are easily found in the supermarket, You can make them at home. Place slices of one- or two-day bread on baking trays, bake in the oven on the lowest setting until slices are crisp and pale brown. Cool bread, break pieces in a blender or food processor then blend or process until fine. 1 cup fine dry breadcrumbs = 4 slices of bread.
       
    • Alternate binders – bran (oat, wheat, rice, barley etc) can be used instead of breadcrumbs in most recipes. Tofu (silken) can replace the egg. Also using mashed potato (or sweet potato, carrots, most root vegetables) and/or mashed beans can help bind most patties. Of course chickpea flour and most other flours can be used to help bind patties. Seeds, nuts and grains can help bind a patty especially when the patty has cooled after cooking. These binders are used in vegan recipes.
    •  
    • Moisteners – Mayonnaise and other sauces, pesto and mustard are used in some meat patty recipes mainly for moisture and flavour but they can act as binders as well. For vegetable patties you can use chopped frozen spinach, shredded carrots, shredded zucchini, shredded apple and cooked grains to add extra moisture. Also sour cream and other milk products are used to increase the tenderness of patties.

       
    • Patty Perfection
    •  
    • When making meat patties the higher the fat content of the meat, the more the patties shrink during cooking this is especially true for ground (minced) red meat. Make patties larger than the bun they are to be served on to allow for shrinkage.
    •  
    • For hamburgers keep the fat content to about 20 - 30% (don't use lean meat) this ensures juicy patties when cooked. Also use coarse freshly ground meat (if possible) to make patties, if the mixture is ground too fine the large patties will break apart since the protein strands are too short and are covered in fat and can only bind to nearby ingredients so when the large patty is cooked it will fall apart or be too dense. Compare this behaviour with small amounts of finely ground lean meat (almost a paste) where the protein can adhere to itself (since the protein chains are short, not covered in fat and all the ingredients are nearby) hence forming a small stable patty (lamb kofta, Asian chicken balls, prawn balls).
    •  
    • Patty mixtures should be kept cold as possible when preparing them and kept cold until you  cook them the cold helps bind the ingredients together.
    •  
    • Don't over-mix the ingredients the resultant mixture will be heavy and dense.
    •  
    • For meat patties chop, mince, grate the vegetable ingredients fairly finely, if too coarse the patties will break apart.
    •  
    • Patties made mostly of meat (good quality hamburgers and rissoles) should be seasoned just before the cooking process, if salted too early liquid can be drawn out of the patty.
    •  
    • Make all the patties the same size so they will cook at the same rate. To get even-sized patties, use measuring cups or spoons to measure out your mixture.
    •  
    • For patties use your hands to combine the ingredients with the binders, mix gently until the mixture comes cleanly from the sides of the mixing bowl. Test that the final mixture forms a good patty (take a small amount in your palm and form into a ball it should hold together) before making the whole batch. Add extra liquid or dry binder as needed. Cook the test patty to check for seasoning, add extra if needed then cook the rest of the batch. 
    •  
    • Usually patties should be rested (about an hour) before cooking they “firm” up during this time, a good technique to use if your patty is soft. Always wrap patties they can dry out if left in the fridge uncovered.
    •  
    • Dampen your hands when shaping patties so the mixture won't stick to your fingers.
    •  
    • If making vegetable patties it is best to squeeze the grated/chopped/minced vegetables to remove any excess liquid this is most important for these types of patties.
    •  
    • When making fritters shred your vegetables because it makes long strands that gives a strong lattice for the patties. A food processor  or a box grater is great to use here.
    •  
    • For veggie patties make sure your ingredients are free of extra water. Drain and dry your beans or other ingredients thoroughly before mashing. You can even pat them gently dry with a kitchen cloth or paper towel.
    •  
    • Vegetable patties lack the fat of meat patties so oil the grill when BBQing them so the patty will not stick.
    •  
    • Oil all-meat burgers rather than oiling the barbecue or grill pan – this ensures the burgers don’t stick to the grill allowing them to sear well. If they sear well in the first few minutes of cooking they’ll be golden brown and juicy. To make it easy brush the burgers with a brush dipped in oil or easier still use a spray can of oil.
    •  
    • If you only have very lean ground beef try this tip from the Chicago Tribune newspaper  “To each 1 lb (½ kg) of ground beef add 2 tablespoons of cold water (with added salt and pepper) and 2 crushed ice cubs, form patties.” it really does work.
    •  
    • A panade, or mixture of bread crumbs and milk, will add moisture and tenderness to meat patties when the burgers are cooked well-done.
    •  
    • For vegetable patties it is best to focus on one main ingredient then add some interesting flavour notes to that major taste (examples carrot and caraway patties, beetroot, feta and chickpea fritters etc) this gives a much bolder flavour profile than a patty of mashed “mixed” vegetables which can be bland.
    •  
    • Most vegetable  and meat/vegetable patties just need a light coating of seasoned breadcrumbs. Lightly pat breadcrumbs onto the surface of the patty there is enough moisture and binders on the surface of the patty to bind the breadcrumbs to the patty while it is cooking. You can use wheatgerm, bran flakes, crushed breakfast cereals, nuts and seeds to coat the patty.
    •  
    • Use fine packet breadcrumbs as the coating if you want a fine smooth crust on your patties use coarser fresh breadcrumbs as the coating if you want a rougher crisper crust on your patty.
    •  
    • Flip patties once and only once, over-flipping the patty results in uneven cooking of the interior and allows the juices to escape.
    •  
    • Don't press the patties when they are cooking you'll squeeze out all of the succulent juices.
    •  
    • Rest patties a while before consuming.

       
    • Shaping the patty
    •  
    • Shaping – Shape the patty by pressing a ball of mixture with your clean hands it will form a disc shape which will crack and break up around the edges. What you want to do is press down in the middle and in from the sides, turning the patty  around in your hand until it is even and uniform. It should be a solid disc that is firm. Handle the mixture gently, use a light touch and don’t make them too compacted. Rather than a dense burger, which is difficult to cook well, aim for a loosely formed patty that holds together but is not too compressed.
    •  
    • Depressing the centre – When patties cook, they shrink (especially red meat burgers). As they shrink the edges tend to break apart causing deep cracks to form in the patty. To combat this you want the burger patty to be thinner in the middle than it is around the edges. Slightly depress the center of the patty to push a little extra mixture towards the edges. This will give you an even patty once it is cooked.  

       
    • Shallow- and pan-frying 
    •  
    • Preheat the pan or BBQ.
    •  
    • Generally when shallow-frying patties use enough oil that it comes halfway up the sides of the food. Best for most meat and vegetable patties and where the ingredients in the patty are uncooked.
    •  
    • Generally when pan-frying use enough oil to cover the surface of the pan best for most vegetable patties where all the ingredients are precooked (or cook very quickly) and all-meat rissoles and hamburgers.
    •  
    • Most oils are suitable for shallow- and pan-frying but butter is not it tends to burn. Butter can be used in combination with oil. Low-fat spreads cannot be used to shallow fry as they contain a high proportion of water. Rice bran oil is a great choice since it is almost tasteless and has a very high smoke point of 490°F/254°C. The smoke point is when the oil starts to break down into bitter fatty acids and produces a bluish smoke, Canola (smoke point 400°F/204°C) is also a great choice. Butter has a smoke point of 250–300°F/121–149°C. Olive oil Extra light 468°F/242°C. Olive oil Extra virgin 375°F/191°C. Ghee (Clarified Butter) 485°F/252°C.   
    •  
    • Do not overload the frying pan which allows steam to be trapped near the cooking food which might lead to the patties being steamed instead of fried. If you place too many patties at once into the preheated pan this reduces the heat and the patties will then release juices and begin to stew. Leave some space between each when you place them in the pan.
    •  
    • For most patties preheat the oil or fat until the oil seems to shimmer or a faint haze rises from it, but take care not to let it get so hot it smokes. If the oil is too cool before adding the patties, it will be absorbed by the food making the patty soggy. If the oil is too hot then the crumb coating will burn before the interior ingredients are cooked and/or warmed through. For vegetable and meat/vegetable patties start off cooking in a medium hot skillet and then reduce the heat to medium.  For all-meat patties start off cooking in a very hot skillet and then reduce the heat to hot, as celebrity chef Bobby Flay says that “the perfect [meat] burger should be a contrast in textures, which means a tender, juicy interior and a crusty, slightly charred exterior. This is achieved by cooking the meat [patty] directly over very hot heat, rather than the indirect method preferred for slow barbecues”. All patties should sizzle when they are placed onto the preheated pan.
    •  
    • Cast iron pans are best to fry patties.
    •  
    • When the raw patty hits the hot cooking surface it will stick. And will stay so until the patty crust forms so causing a non-stick surface on the patty at this point you can lift the patty easily without sticking. So wait until the patties (with a gentle shaking of the pan or a light finger-twist of the patty) release themselves naturally from the frying pan surface (maybe a minute or two for meat patties maybe 3-6 minutes for a vegetable patty).  If you try to flip it too early the burger will fall apart. The secret is to wait for the the patty to naturally release itself from the pan surface then flip it over once.
    •  
    • Veggie burgers will firm up significantly as they cool.
    •  
    • Most vegetable patties can be baked in the oven.
    •  
    • Check the temperature of the oil by placing a few breadcrumbs into the pan they should take 30 seconds to brown.
    •  
    • If you need to soak up excess oil place the patties on a rack to drain, do not place onto paper towels since steam will be trapped which can make the patty soggy, if you need to just press off the excess oil with paper towels then place onto a rack.



    Mandatory Items: Make a batch of pan- or shallow-fried (or baked) patties.

    Variations allowed:  Any variation on a patty is allowed. You can use the recipes provided or make your own recipe.

    Preparation time:
    Patties: Preparation time less than 60 minutes. Cooking time less than 20 minutes.

    Equipment required:
    Large mixing bowl
    Large stirring spoon
    Measuring cup
    Frying pan

    Basic Canned Fish and Rice Patties


    Servings: makes about ten ½ cup  patties
    Recipe can be doubled
    adapted from http://www.taste.com.au/recipes/17181/tuna+rissoles

    This is one my favourite patty recipes I make it once a week during the holidays. It is most important that you really mix and mash the patty ingredients well since the slightly mashed rice helps bind the patty together. 

    Ingredients:
    1 can (415 gm/15 oz) pink salmon or tuna or sardines, (not packed in oil) drained well
    1 can (340 gm/13 oz) corn kernels, drained well
    1 bunch spinach, cooked, chopped & squeezed dry or 60 gm/2 oz thawed frozen spinach squeezed dry
    2 cups (300 gm/7 oz) cooked white rice (made from 2/3 cups of uncooked rice)
    1 large egg, lightly beaten
    about 3 tablespoons (20 gm/2/3 oz) fine packet breadcrumbs for binding
    3 tablespoons (45 ml) oil, for frying
    2 spring (green) onions, finely chopped
    1 tablespoon (15 ml) tomato paste or 1 tablespoon (15 ml) hot chilli sauce
    1 tablespoon (15 ml) oyster sauce
    2 tablespoons (30 ml) sweet chilli sauce
    Salt and pepper to taste
    ½ cup (60 gm/2 oz) seasoned fine packet bread crumbs to cover patties

    Directions:
    1) Place all of the ingredients into a large bowl.
    2) Mix and mash using your hands or a strong spoon the ingredients with much force (while slowly adding tablespoons of breadcrumbs to the patty mixture) until the mixture starts to cling to itself about 4 minutes the longer you mix and mash the more compacted the final patty.  Day-old cold rice works best (only needs a tablespoon of breadcrumbs or less) but if the rice is hot or warm you will need more breadcrumbs to bind the mixture. Test the mixture by forming a small ball it should hold together. Cook the test ball adjust the seasoning (salt and pepper) of the mixture to taste.   
    3) Form patties using a ½ cup measuring cup.
    4) Cover in seasoned breadcrumbs.
    5) Use immediately or can be refrigerated covered for a few hours.
    6) Preheat fry pan (cast iron is best) to medium hot add 1½ tablespoons of oil and heat until the oil shimmers place the patties well spaced out onto the fry pan lower heat to medium.
    7) Pan fry for about 3 minutes each side for a thin lightly browned crust about 10 minutes for a darker thicker crisper crust. Wait until the patties can be released from the pan with a shake of the pan or a light turning of the patty using your fingers before flipping over to cook the other side of the patty add the remaining 1½ tablespoons of oil when you flip the patties. Flip only once. You can fry the sides of the patty if you want brown sides on your patty.

    Pictorial Guide
    Some of the ingredients
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    Starting to mix the patty mixture           
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    About ready to be tested
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    The test ball to check if the mixture will hold together
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    Form patties using a ½ cup measuring cup
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    Crumb (bread) the patties                   
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    Cover and refrigerate


    Preheat frying pan add oil wait until the oil shimmers add patties well spaced out onto the pan
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    Wait until the patties can be released by a light shaking of the pan or by finger-turning the patty and then flip the patties over add some extra oil (these were fried for 10 minutes)
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    Enjoy picture perfect patties
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    This patty was pan-fried on my cast iron fry pan notice the shiny very crisp crust as compared to the patty above
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    Zucchini, prosciutto & cheese fritters


    Servings: makes about 8-10 two inch (five cm) fritters
    Recipe can be doubled
    adapted from http://smittenkitchen.com/2011/08/zucchini-fritters/

    This makes a great light lunch or a lovely side dish for dinner. 

    Ingredients:
    500 gm (½ lb) zucchini (two medium)
    1 teaspoon (5 ml) (7 gm) salt
    ½ cup (120 ml) (60 g/2 oz) grated cheese, a strong bitty cheese is best
    5 slices (30 gm/1 oz) prosciutto, cut into small pieces
    ½ cup (120 ml) (70 gm/2½ oz) all-purpose (plain) flour plus ½ teaspoon baking powder, sifted together
    2 large eggs, lightly beaten
    2 spring onions, finely chopped
    1 tablespoon (15 ml) chilli paste
    1 teaspoon (5 ml) (3 gm) black pepper, freshly cracked
    2 tablespoons (30 ml) oil, for frying

    Directions:
       
    • Grate the zucchini with a box grater or food processor. Place into large bowl, add salt, wait 10 minutes.
    •  
    • While waiting for the zucchini, pan fry the prosciutto pieces until cooked. Remove from pan and place prosciutto onto rack this will crisp up the prosciutto when it cools. Paper towels tend to make prosciutto soggy if left on them.
    •  
    • When zucchini is ready wrap in a cloth and squeeze dry with as much force as you can you will get a lot of liquid over ½ cup, discard liquid it will be too salty to use.
    •  
    • Return dried zucchini to bowl add prosciutto, cheese, pepper, sifted flour and baking powder, chilli paste, pepper, a little salt and the lightly beaten eggs.
    •  
    • Mix until combined if the batter is too thick you can add water or milk or another egg, if too wet add some more flour. It should be thick and should not flow when placed onto the frying pan.
    •  
    • Preheat a frying pan (cast iron is best) until medium hot, add 1/3 of the oil wait until it shimmers.
    •  
    • Place dollops of batter (about 2 tablespoons each) onto the fry pan widely spaced out, with the back of a spoon smooth out each dollop to about 2 inches (5 cm) wide, do not make the fritters too thick. You should get three or four fritters in the average-sized fry pan. Lower heat to medium
    •  
    • Fry for 3-4 minutes the first side, flip, then fry the other side about 2-3 minutes until golden brown.  Repeat for the remaining batter. Adding extra oil as needed.
    •  
    • Place cooked fritters into a moderate oven on a baking dish for 10 minutes if you want extra crispy fritters.


    Pictures of process – fresh zucchini, grated zucchini, liquid released from salted and squeezed dry zucchini, ingredients for the fritters, fritter batter and frying the fritters.
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    Cooked fritters
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    California Turkey Burger


    Servings: makes about 10 burgers
    Recipe can be doubled
    adapted from Cooking Light Magazine September 2005:
    http://www.myrecipes.com/recipe/california-burgers-10000001097016/

    Sauce:
    ½ cup (120 ml) ketchup
    1 tablespoon (15 ml) Dijon mustard
    1 tablespoon (15 ml) fat-free mayonnaise

    Patties:
    ½ cup (120 ml) (60 gm/2 oz) finely chopped shallots
    ¼ cup (60 ml) (30 gm/1 oz) dry breadcrumbs
    1 teaspoon (5 ml) (6 gm) salt
    1 teaspoon (5 ml) Worcestershire sauce
    ¼ teaspoon (¾ gm) freshly ground black pepper
    3 garlic cloves, minced
    1¼ lbs (600 gm) ground turkey
    1¼ lbs (600 gm) ground turkey breast
    Cooking spray

    Remaining ingredients:
    10 (2-ounce/60 gm) hamburger buns
    10 red leaf lettuce leaves
    20 bread-and-butter pickles
    10 (1/4-inch thick/5 mm thick) slices red onion, separated into rings
    2 peeled avocados, each cut into 10 slices
    3 cups (750 ml) (60 gm/2 oz) alfalfa sprouts

    Directions:
    1. Prepare the grill to medium-high heat.
    2. To prepare sauce, combine first 3 ingredients; set aside.
    3. To prepare patties, combine shallots and the next 7 ingredients (through turkey breast), mixing well. Divide mixture into 10 equal portions, shaping each into a 1/2-inch-thick (1¼ cm thick) patty. Place patties on grill rack coated with cooking spray; grill 4 minutes on each side or until done.
    4. Spread 1 tablespoon sauce on top half of each bun. Layer bottom half of each bun with 1 lettuce leaf, 1 patty, 2 pickles, 1 onion slice, 2 avocado slices, and about 1/3 cup of sprouts. Cover with top halves of buns.                                                                                                         

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    Yield:  10 servings (serving size: 1 burger) - Nutritional Information – CALORIES 384(29% from fat); FAT 12.4g (sat 2.6g,mono 5.1g,poly 2.8g); PROTEIN 31.4g; CHOLESTEROL 68mg; CALCIUM 94mg; SODIUM 828mg; FIBER 3.9g; IRON 4mg; CARBOHYDRATE 37.5g
    Lisa’s Notes:
    Nutritional information provided above is correct for the recipe as written.  When I make these burgers, the only ingredients I change are using regular mayo, and dill pickles.  My red lettuce of choice is radicchio.  I’ve both grilled and pan fried these burgers and both are delicious.  If you decide to pan fry, you’ll need a little extra fat in the pan – so use about 2 tsp. of extra virgin olive oil, or canola oil before laying your patties on the pan.  Cook for approximately 5 minutes on each side, or until done.  Do not overcook as the patties will dry out and not be as juicy and tasty! :)

    French Onion Salisbury Steak


    Courtesy of Cuisine at Home April 2005 edition
    Makes 4 Steaks; Total Time: 45 Minutes

    Ingredients:
    1 1/4 lb (600 gm) ground chuck 
    1/4 cup (60 ml) (30 gm/1 oz) fresh parsley, minced
    2 tablespoons (30 ml) (⅓ oz/10 gm) scallion (spring onions), minced
    1 teaspoon (5ml) (3 gm) kosher salt or ½ teaspoon (2½ ml) (3 gm) table salt
    1/2 teaspoon (2½ ml) (1½ gm) black pepper
    2 tablespoons (30 ml) (½ oz/18 gm) all-purpose (plain) flour
    2 tablespoons (30 ml) olive oil
    2 cups (240 ml) (140 gm/5 oz) onions, sliced
    1 teaspoon (5 ml) (4 gm) sugar
    1 tablespoon (15 ml) (⅓ oz/10 gm) garlic, minced
    1 tablespoon (15 ml) (½ oz/15 gm) tomato paste
    2 cups (240 ml) beef broth
    1/4 cup (60 ml) dry red wine
    3/4 teaspoon (2 gm) kosher salt or a little less than ½ teaspoon (2 gm) table salt
    1/2 teaspoon  (2½ ml) (1½ gm) dried thyme leaves
    4 teaspoons (20 ml) (⅓ oz/10 gm) fresh parsley, minced
    4 teaspoons (20 ml)  (2/3 oz/20 gm) Parmesan cheese, shredded

    Cheese Toasts
    4 slices French bread or baguette, cut diagonally (1/2" thick) (15 mm thick)
    2 tablespoons (30 ml) (30 ml/1 oz) unsalted butter, softened
    1/2 teaspoon (2½ ml) (2 gm) garlic, minced
    Pinch of paprika
    1/4 cup (60 ml) (30 gm/1 oz) Swiss cheese, grated (I used 4 Italian cheese blend, shredded)
    1 tablespoon (15 ml) (⅓ oz/10 gm) Parmesan cheese, grated

    Directions:
    1. Combine chuck, parsley, scallion, salt and pepper. Divide evenly into 4 portions and shape each into 3/4"-1" (20-25 mm) thick oval patties. Place 2 tablespoons flour in a shallow dish; dredge each patty in flour. Reserve 1 teaspoon flour.
    2. Heat 1 tablespoon oil in a sauté pan over medium-high heat. Add patties and sauté 3 minutes on each side, or until browned. Remove from pan.
    3. Add onions and sugar to pan; sauté 5 minutes. Stir in garlic and tomato paste; sauté 1 minute, or until paste begins to brown. Sprinkle onions with reserved flour; cook 1 minute. Stir in broth and wine, then add the salt and thyme.
    4. Return meat to pan and bring soup to a boil. Reduce heat to medium-low, cover and simmer 20 minutes.
    5. Serve steaks on Cheese Toasts with onion soup ladled over. Garnish with parsley and Parmesan.

    For the Cheese Toasts
    6. Preheat oven to moderately hot 200°/400ºF/gas mark 6.
    7. Place bread on baking sheet.
    8. Combine butter, garlic and paprika and spread on one side of each slice of bread. Combine cheeses and sprinkle evenly over butter. Bake until bread is crisp and cheese is bubbly, 10-15 minutes.

    French Onion Salisbury Steak
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    Potato Rösti


    Servings: makes two large rösti
    adapted from a family recipe

    The classic rösti; cheap, easy and so tasty.

    Ingredients:
    1 kg (2½ lb) potatoes
    1 teaspoon (5 ml) (6 gm) salt
    2 teaspoons (10 ml) (6 gm) black pepper, freshly milled
    1 large egg, lightly beaten
    2 tablespoons (30 ml) (½ oz/15 gm) cornflour (cornstarch) or use all-propose flour
    3 tablespoons (45 ml) oil, for frying

    Directions:
       
    1. Grate lengthwise the peeled potatoes with a box grater or a food processor.
    2.  
    3. Wrap the grated potato in a cloth and squeeze dry, you will get a lot of liquid over ½ cup, discard liquid since it is full of potato starch.
    4.  
    5. Return dried potato to bowl add the egg, cornflour, pepper, and salt.
    6.  
    7. Mix until combined.
    8.  
    9. Preheat a frying pan (cast iron is best) until medium hot, add 2 teaspoons of oil wait until oil shimmers.
    10.  
    11. Place half of mixture into the pan, flatten with a spoon until you get a smooth flat surface. Lower heat to medium.
    12.  
    13. Fry for 8-10 minutes (check at 6 minutes) the first side, flip by sliding the rösti onto a plate then use another plate invert the rösti then slide it back into the pan, then fry the other side about 6-8 minutes until golden brown. Repeat to make another rösti


    Pictures of process – Peel 1 kg spuds, grate lengthwise, squeeze dry, add 1 egg, 2 tablespoons starch, salt and pepper. Pan fry.
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    Pictures of the grated potato before (left) and after (right) squeezing dry. Notice in the left hand pictures the gratings are covered in moisture and starch, while in the right hand pictures the grated potato is dry and doesn't stick together.
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    Pictures of the finished small rösti
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    Pictures of the large rösti
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    Chicken, potato and corn patties
    I had some leftover chicken legs and boiled potatoes from dinner last night so I made up some patties. The patties are made from 1 kilogram of finely grated cold boiled potatoes, 4 chicken legs meat removed and finely chopped, and one can of corn kernels. The binder was one egg and 1/4 cup of self-raising wholewheat flour.

    The crumbed (breaded) patties waiting to be pan fried
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    Patties pan frying
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    The finished patties
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    Meatballs
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    I made meatballs using high quality ground veal and pork (30% fat) I didn't use any binders in the mixture just a little seasoning chilli, garlic and dried mushroom powder.

    The meatballs waiting to be fried
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    Frying the meatballs
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    The finished meatballs
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    Of course I made spaghetti and meatballs for dinner so so delicious
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    Thai Fish Cakes
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    I adore Thai fish cakes but I have never really made them I was surprised how simple it is if you have a very strong food processor. Basically you make a paste from 1/2 kg (1 lb) of white fillet fish (I used catfish (basa) fillets) with 1 egg and 6 tablespoons of flavourings (a combination of 1 Tbsp fish sauce, 1 tsp chilli, 2 Tbsp red curry paste, 1 Tbsp coconut cream, 1 Tbsp chilli crab flakes, 1/2 tsp sugar, 1/2 tsp salt, 1/2 tsp shrimp paste, a few spices), 6 kaffir lime leaves and 2 tablespoons cornflour (cornstarch) with a teaspoon of baking powder, you form small patties (each 2 tablespoons) from the paste and pan fry until cooked. These are just as good as the cafe ones I buy and only cost about 30 cents each instead of $1.90 at the cafe. A good basic recipe for Thai fish cakes is here http://thaifood.about.com/od/thaiseafoodrecipes/r/classicfishcakes.htm I added some extra baking powder and cornflour to the basic recipe since it makes the cakes rise and the interiors are light and fluffy. Super tasty and so cute.

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    Storage & Freezing Instructions/Tips:
    Most rissoles, croquettes and dry fritters keep well for three or four days if covered and kept in the fridge. Uncooked and cooked rissoles and croquettes can be frozen for at least one month.

    Additional Information: 
    An index of Aussie patty recipes http://www.taste.com.au/search-recipes/?q=patties&publication=
    An index of Aussie rissole recipes http://www.taste.com.au/search-recipes/?q=rissoles&publication=
    An index of American patty recipes http://allrecipes.com/Search/Recipes.aspx?WithTerm=patty%20-peppermint%20-dressing&SearchIn=All&SortBy=Relevance&Direction=Descending
    An index of American burger recipes http://busycooks.about.com/cs/easyentrees/a/burgers.htm 
    A great vegetable and chickpea recipe http://www.exclusivelyfood.com.au/2006/06/vegetable-and-chickpea-patties-recipe.html
    A baked vegetable patty recipe http://patternscolorsdesign.wordpress.com/2011/02/20/baked-vegetable-patties/
    Vegetable patty recipes http://www.divinedinnerparty.com/veggie-burger-recipe.html
    Best ever beet(root) and bean patty http://www.thekitchn.com/restaurant-reproduction-bestev-96967
    Ultimate veggie burgers http://ask.metafilter.com/69336/How-to-make-awesome-veggie-burgers
    One of best zucchini fritter recipes http://smittenkitchen.com/2011/08/zucchini-fritters/ 
    Old School Meat rissoles http://www.exclusivelyfood.com.au/2008/07/rissoles-recipe.html
    How to form a patty video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iHutN-u6jZc
    Top 12 vegetable patty recipes http://vegetarian.about.com/od/veggieburgerrecipes/tp/bestburgers.htm
    Ultimate Meat Patties Video http://www.chow.com/videos/show/youre-doing-it-all-wrong/55028/how-to-make-a-burger-with-hubert-keller
    Beautiful vegetable fritters so pretty http://helengraves.co.uk/tag/beetroot-feta-and-chickpea-fritters-recipe/   
    Information about veggie patties http://kblog.lunchboxbunch.com/2011/08/veggie-burger-test-kitchen-and-lemon.html  

    Disclaimer:
    The Daring Kitchen and its members in no way suggest we are medical professionals and therefore are NOT responsible for any error in reporting of “alternate baking/cooking”.  If you have issues with digesting gluten, then it is YOUR responsibility to research the ingredient before using it.  If you have allergies, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. If you are lactose intolerant, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. If you are vegetarian or vegan, it is YOUR responsibility to make sure any ingredient in a recipe will not adversely affect you. The responsibility is YOURS regardless of what health issue you’re dealing with. Please consult your physician with any questions before using an ingredient you are not familiar with.  Thank you! :)
              Camiseta geométrica chico DIY – DIY boy geometric t-shirt        

    Empezamos semana con un DIY para chicos por petición popular. Actualizar vuestras prendas a golpe de formas geométricas sólo os llevará media hora y os marcaréis un tanto con el sector mujeril. Palabra ;)

    Let's start this week with a DIY for boys by popular demand. Update your clothes with geometric shapes will take you only half an hour and girls will appreciate it. I give you my word ;)

    Para este tuneo he utilizado pintura textil opaca pero también la podéis encontrar en versión flúor, transparente para tejidos claros, reflectante, metalizada... Es muy barata, fácil de trabajar porque se disuelve con agua y se vende en la mayoría de tiendas de manualidades. La única indicación es que sobretodo recordéis planchar bien la pieza cuando se haya secado, para que después la podáis lavar con total tranquilidad. ¡Al lío!

    In this project I've used opaque textile panit but you can also find its fluor version, transparent for clear fabrics, reflective, metallic...It's cheap, easy to work with because it dissolves in water and it's sold in most craft stores. The only advice is to remenber to iron it properly once it gets dry, to ensure you can wash it with confidence.


    Necesitarás: cualquier prenda que quieras customizar, pintura textil, pincel, cinta de pintor, papel de periódico y plancha.

    You'll need: any garment you want to customize, fabric paint, brush, masking tape, newspapers and iron.


    Introduce el periódico en medio de la camiseta para que la pintura no traspase.


    Introduce a newspaper between both sides of your t-shirt so paint won't go through.

    "Dibuja" la forma geométrica que te dé la gana con cinta de pintor.


    "Draw" the geometric shape you like the most with masking tape.

    Vierte un poco de pintura y moja el pincel.
    Pour a bit of paint and dip brush.

    Si el tejido es elástico como el de una camiseta aplica la pintura a toques, nunca arrastrando el pincel.


    If your fabric is stretchy like a t-shirt paint it with little touches, never dragging brush.

    Cuando hayas acabado espera a que la pintura seque, retira la cinta de pintor y plancha la zona pintada unos 2-3mins para fijar el color. (Queridos lectores impacientes: el secado se puede acelerar con un secador)

    Wait for the paint to get dry after finishing, remove masking tape and iron 2-3 mins to fix color. (Dear impatient readers: You can speed drying with a hairdryer)


    Fin de la historia. A fardar de camiseta tuneada con tus propias manitas.
    End of history. Boast about your t-shirt customized with your own hands.

    El mundo de los DIY's ha estado monopolizado por el sector femenino hasta ahora. Por suerte me consta que cada vez hay más hombres que empiezan a enseñarnos sus habilidades como

    Daniel de Studs and Buttonholes (no os lo perdáis!!)

    En este blog hemos visto otras técnicas que también podéis aplicar como:

    - La estampación con plastidecores- La estampación con fotocopias- Crear un aplique sin coser- Customizar encolando

    ¡¡Nos os cortéis y empezar a experimentar!!

    The world of DIY's has been monopolized by female sector up to now. Luckily some guys are starting to show their amazing skills such as Daniel from Studs and Buttonholes (don't miss him!!!) Anyway there are other techniques previously featured in this blog which you can use like:
    - Print with crayons
    - Print with photocopies
    - No sewing appliqué
    - Customize gluing
    Don't be shy and start experimenting!!

    Besos!! Estaré al otro lado de mi galería de DIY's, Facebook y Twitter.Kisses! I'll be on the other side of my DIY gallery, Facebook and Twitter.


              Want Kent State II? Then pander to Donald Trump. A few thoughts for the media.        
    Ohio National Guardmen killed Bill Schroeder, an ex-Eagle Scout, 46 years ago today, at Kent State University. As a reporter for The Lorain Journal, his hometown daily, I covered the death of this ROTC cadet. Do you realize what America was like back then? People actually phoned up our factory-town newspaper and praised the guardsmen […]
              Smart move: The Grahams’ spin-off of The Washington Post        
    Jack Shafer, the Reuters columnist, wrote last year that Graham family should spin off the Washington Post newspaper from the company of the same name. As the buyer he suggested Michael Bloomberg. “Not so crazy an idea,” I said on the Solomon Scandals site and in the Georgetown Dish. Now the spin-off will become a […]
              Happy 4th of July        
    This 4th of July is another time to celebrate our Independence. It was somewhat of a sombering year here in Chico, as the abundant wildfires had most fireworks cancelled. It was the first year in my life where Fireworks were not going to be displayed. At about 11pm my son ran downstairs as he saw some fireworks from his bedroom window. We all got in the car and drove towards the fireworks. It was the local Chico baseball team having fireworks at Nettleton stadium. We saw the last 2-3 minutes, the kids were happy and we went back home. This 4th of July was a trying day for myself and my family on a personal level as we had to take my 3 year old son to the emergency room when he drank something he shoulden't have. He is okay.

    We spent the day at home after this incident and laid low.

    Our national Independence is becoming an interdependence upon other nations in terms of borrowing money, and oil. It is becoming so apparent that oil is the lifeblood of this economy. The senate and congress better get their act in gear. Americans are actually becoming more united than I have ever seen when I talk to people. It isn't about the war any longer, it is about the slumping economy at home and the oil economy. I hope that you all speak to your friends and family about the oil crisis, and how we need to drill here, drill now. See newt.org for that information. We should make this our Oil independence day and declare to meet our own needs at home by whatever means necessary, ANWR, oil shale, etc. Thomas Jefferson never wanted us to be 'hocked' to a local banker who is in turn 'hocked' to a foreign banker. That's essentially what we have with Oil. Jefferson knew this situation would be disastrous for the republic.

    The doom and gloom surrounding the media's daily negative agenda provides a constant reason to be bitter and worried. That we should let our government fix this problem is their answer.

    I submit to you who read this blog and who are independent minded to not despair, but rejoice in the fact that you are making preparations and live your life in a manner that you can take care of yourself, and are not reliant upon the government. The agrarian lifestyle is going to re-emerge in the years to come. The US of A once was an agrarian country through the mid 20th century, where we all met our own needs. Look at the situation we now deal with when we move away from this mindset.

    I hope all of you had a great 4th of July. We should pray for this country and thank God for what blessings we have. Regardless of what CNN and the local newspapers will tell you, the USA is still the greatest country the world has ever seen, and we are blessed by it's people through their generosity, hard-working nature and conservative roots- not political leaders in the government who seek to have us become part of Europe.

    Brock
              The 200% World Cup: Tales Of An ABE        

    There is usually no moral dilemma for a fan of “anyone but England” (ABE) approaching a major international football tournament – or, for that matter, any England game. And the pathological ABEs will never have such a dilemma.  As “Britain’s best sporting comic” Andy Zaltzman noted in an Independent newspaper World Cup preview which I […]

    The post The 200% World Cup: Tales Of An ABE appeared first on Twohundredpercent.


              Helloween Show, Oct. 2        
    Sometimes, something happens that blows your mind. If your mind printed a newspaper, the headline would be 80-point type. Yet it would probably only sell one copy on the newsstand because no one else seems to care.
    Granted, it doesn't happen too often. The marathon's world record was broken recently, and I thought that was awesome, and while I realize this was probably not front page news in most people's Brain Bugle, my Twitter feed was full of people saying, at least, "huh, look at that."
    But it did happen to me many months ago. That's when Helloween announced they were coming to Denver.
    Helloween, as you probably guessed, is a metal band. But they're a fascinating one, and they've always been one of my absolute favorites. They also almost never  come to the U.S.
    Helloween came out as one of the leaders of the speed metal movement of the mid-80s, and for a while, they almost made it as big as the Big Four (Anthrax, Slayer, Metallica, Megadeth). They were a faster version of Iron Maiden. They were also weird. Their first big album featured a 13-minute opus, "Halloween," and it was titled "Keeper of the Seven Keys, Part I." What the hell? The title made it seem like a soundtrack for a "Dungeons and Dragons" movie. Yet I bought it because I read a review comparing them to Iron Maiden, and as a huge Maiden fan, that was enough back then. I was in high school. It's not like I had a girlfriend to spend the money on.
    That name didn't help either. Helloween sounds like a demonic, thrashing band with a vocalist who swallowed a broken bottle. It is exactly the opposite. In fact, I can't think of a goofier band in metal. One of their biggest hits was "Dr. Stein." "Dr. Stein grows funny creatures, lets them run into the night. They become great rock musicians and their time is right." That sounds like a nursery rhyme, doesn't it? I think the band thought Helloween was a funny, ironic name that would make people laugh, but I have a feeling it scared more people off than made them laugh.
    Anyway, this is already more than you wanted to know, but Helloween released Part II a couple years later. Both albums, in my mind, were metal masterpieces, a perfect blend of melody, whismy, terrific musicianship, songwriting and soaring vocals. The band had a hit, "I Want Out," from the album, in addition to "Dr. Stein," and MTV put them in heavy rotation on "Headbanger's Ball," which was big in the late 80s. By that point, Helloween was a top-5 band for me, just behind Iron Maiden and Metallica, and I desperately wanted to see them in concert. Only, as I said, the German band never came to America much.
    And then Helloween fell apart. They released two albums after, and both of them emphasized even goofier lyrics and more of a commercial sound, and both were just terrible. Awful. I've never known a band to be so good, and then so bad. Yes, many bands come out with good debuts and fade away, but those bands were usually just enjoyable, not as epic as Helloween. It was as if Steely Dan decided to become a polka band.
    So I gave up on them. Years later, I heard they got a new lead singer and were still putting out albums. I bought a couple and was underwhelmed, despite showing some promise with one, "The Dark Ride." So I gave up on them again. 
    I'm not sure why I bought "Gambling With The Devil," Helloween's 2007 album. I can't remember. I guess I heard from the two or three other people I know who like Helloween that it was really good. And there was a basis for that. Helloween had a stable lineup and was releasing fast, hard and heavy songs again. Their lead singer had been with them a long time and had turned into not only a good vocalist but a good songwriter as well. The band's core was still there.
    I loved the record. And the next, "7 Sinners," was nearly as good. When Helloween released its next in January, "Straight Out of Hell," I bought it without question, and I can name a handful of bands I'll purchase without hearing the album. Helloween is back in my top 5.
    So a band with a revamped lineup has had two periods of releasing outstanding albums, including its current one.
    So you can see why I geeked out. You can see why I'm geeking out now.
    * * *
    No one else would go with me to the show. I had a couple friends, some WPBT buddies, of course, who would go, but Colorado is too far. 
    Helloween, as stated, is from Germany, and papers are a problem to tour for more than a few days. That's why you won't see them all over the U.S. I think the last time they made it out to Colorado was in 2003.
    The other problem, as stated, is most, if not almost all, people don't share my infatuation with them. Helloween is a little too much for even my metal-loving friends back here. I'd argue less than 1,000 in Denver or northern Colorado ever owned one of their albums, and that was probably 20 years ago. I was worried that the band might think the trip wasn't even worth the trouble.
    My fears seemed realized when I arrived at The Gothic in Englewood, after an hour drive from Greeley. There were 20 waiting in line, a half-hour before the show. Oh man. Would the band even get 100?
    Three bands were opening. To show how things have changed from high school, this annoyed me because I really wanted to see Helloween and get home to bed. I also wore earplugs. Like I said, things have changed. I'm old now.
    Even with my worries about getting to bed at a decent hour, I was pleasantly surprised to see Cellador on the bill as well. No, I'm not going to write 750 words on Cellador. The band is a part of the melodic speed metal resurgence and sounds a lot like late-80s Helloween. They played five songs, including one, "Leaving All Behind," that sometimes makes my 5K race playlists. They're fast, like Dragonforce, and kind of annoying like them too. But they're also great musicians, and I enjoyed their brief set.
    The first band was local and horrible, and the third seemed to take all the bad qualities of Five Finger Death Punch and blend them together without bringing any of the good.
    Helloween hit the stage at 9:30 p.m. after "For Those About To Rock" blasted over the soundsystem (awesome) and opened with "Eagle Fly Free," the opening track to part II. I was immediately enthralled. I wouldn't have been surprised if Helloween had ignored the late 80s. Even if that was the band's heyday, the breakup with their lead singer wasn't good, and there was a lot of strife at that time. So I was thrilled that I was getting to hear some of the songs I adored in high school live for the first time. Andi Deris couldn't hit the highest notes, but the band ripped through it, which was impressive for a bunch of older guys, as the song's HARD. Dani Loble's drumming was especially impressive, as Helloween couldn't perform the song live for years because they couldn't find a drummer who could pull it off. Loble had no trouble. 
    I glanced around from my perch in the balcony, where I could sit and yet was practically on top of the band, and noticed I wasn't the only one enthralled. Suddenly the place seemed alive and full of maybe 300 people.
    Helloween, as I expected, didn't scowl or drink blood or sacrifice goats the way their name implies. In fact, they avoided all the cliches. They didn't bang their heads in that way that makes their hair fly. 
    Instead, Sascha Gerstner spent most of his time playing a game with bassist Markus Grobkopf, where he would toss a pic at the feet of Markus, and he tried to kick it into the audience. Michael Weikath looked bored until he made goofy faces to us in the balconies.
    This show was no frills. Not much dry ice smoke, minimum lighting, that sort of thing. I always found that stuff distracting anyway unless Iron Maiden was doing it. 
    Helloween then went right into "Nabataea," the first track off its latest, another fast, difficult song, and they crushed it. After a few more tracks from their latest, Loble launched into a drum solo that was, as they usually are, too long and too cliched to keep my interest.
    I perked right up when I heard "I'm Alive" when the band came back out. "I'm Alive" is the title track to "Keeper of the Seven Keys part I." I used to listen to it in high school when I was depressed, which was more often than I'd like to admit, and the lyrics always perked me up a bit. It's a catchy, inspirational song, and it was fun to hear it 20 years later.
    After that, the band played a terrific mix of old and new hits. They played a track from "The Dark Ride and a couple new ones and a couple classics, including "Future World" and "Dr. Stein." 
    Those last two were encores. The band did two encores, and I know they are a concert tradition, but I've never been a fan. We shouldn't have to beg the band to come out, and on the second, we had to wait more than five minutes. Did one of the guys have to take a shit? Just get out there and play the songs. 
    "Are You Metal," one of the band's best, wiped away any annoyance I had (and let's be honest, I was probably cranky because it was past my bedtime and I knew I had an hour's drive ahead of me). There were other tracks I wanted to hear that I knew weren't going to be played, but after that, I was satisfied. I got my money's worth, I thought. I heard what I could reasonably expect to hear. There's no better feeling when you know a concert's winding down.
    * * * 
    I did a little people watching while I let the crowd thin out. This is what amazes me about metal fans. It's pretty rare to see another or talk to another metal fan outside of a show. Hey, the music's abrasive, loud and hard to follow. I get it. It's even rarer to see a metal fan who is pronounced about being a metal fan, like someone with long hair or wearing a black concert T-shirt or headbanging in public. It's not like we're ashamed of it. But metal has to be the only music that seems to demand an identity as well as a preference for shredding guitars. You could argue that for hip-hop, too, but it's far too popular now. It attracts too wide a demographic. Dave Matthews fans are some of the most passionate in the world, one of the few bands that inspires the kind of loyalty that metal fans display, and yet, they look like everyone else too. Metal fans, when they are being metal fans, look like metal fans. They do not look like accountants going to Katy Perry. They stand out in huge crowds. They look like Al Can't Hang. 
    Well, most of them do, anyway. I am a massive exception. In the throng attending the show, there was a guy who wore one of those Vegas-type button-down shirts and had short hair, and there was a guy who wore a bow tie, a pink button-down shirt and jeans the color of a 50-year-old woman who had a lifetime membership to a tanning salon (that guy, by the way, had to know what he was doing). And then there was me. I wore a Dream Theater long-sleeved, long-underwear looking concert shirt, but my short hair, thin jawline and nervous expression just can't pull off the metal look. I've even tried to have long hair, but it curls in several wrong ways and tends to frizz more than kick ass. I had to settle for a mullet with an earring in high school, and if I wore that now, I'd look creepy, not badass. I am far too Kohl's and not nearly enough Spencer's. 
    My point, though it is drifting, is that although these people stand out in society, at a small show that only a tiny portion of the population would ever attend, we're all together. I stand out at these shows, but in society, I blend, probably far too much. There was a sea of black glorifying Masterplan and Gamma Ray and Slayer (of course) from both the guys and the girls. Long hair, tattoos, piercings, you name it. I loved it. I loved it because they share a love for metal, and knowing that makes me feel less weird about being so passionate about a form of music that most people find scary.
    It turns out I wasn't the only one excited about Helloween coming to Colorado. I just had to wait to stand with them.



    Starter list:

    Here's a starter list of albums, with key tracks, in case you're actually interested in Helloween after reading this screed.

    • "Walls of Jericho" — "Ride The Sky," "Guardians" and "How Many Tears." 

    (Look for "Judas" and "Starlight," a couple rare tracks, on iTunes as well).
    • "Keeper of the Seven Keys" Part I — "I'm Alive," "Future World" and "Halloween."
    • "Keeper of the Seven Keys" Part II — "I Want Out," "Eagle Fly Free," "Save Us," "March of Time" and "Keeper of the Seven Keys."
    • "The Dark Ride" — "Mr. Torture," "The Dark Ride," "If I Could Fly," "Salvation" and "We Damn The Night."
    • "Gambling With The Devil" — "Paint a New World," "Kill It" and "Bells of the Seven Hells"
    • "7 Sinners" — "Are You Metal?," "Where The Sinners Go."
    • "Straight Out Of Hell" — "Nabataea," "Burning Sun," "Waiting for the Thunder" and "Church Breaks Down."


              Voices         
    The kickball hung in the air, and I stationed myself under it. I had one thing going for me. No one was paying attention.
    I caught it, slapping my arms against the grooved rubber, and gave a glance to first to keep the runner honest. Then I rolled it back to the pitcher.
    "Did you see THAT?" one of the kids yelled.
    He said it in surprise, like he figured there was no way I'd have a chance to complete even a routine play. I let it go, just like I let the other thousands of derogatory comments go before them. By then, all those comments had taken root.
    "He's right," I thought to myself. "I was lucky. I'm just glad no one was paying attention."
    • • • 
    By the time I reached seventh grade, my place had been well established. I was a bottom feeder, someone the crows sought out when they needed to nibble on some roadkill. Part of that, of course, meant that the bullies assumed I was not an athlete, and that, because I was sort of a loser, that I was lucky to be able to walk through the hallways without tripping. 
    This was the 1980s, when bands were macho (even the hair metal bands who put on lipstick and used hairspray leered at hot chicks in 97.3 percent of their videos), movies like Rambo and Rocky and Red Dawn killed the box office and bullies could call us "fags" without worrying about a sensitivity meeting with the principal. Sports, and the ability to play them, ruled my junior high school. There wasn't much room for individualism, and no group hung together to encourage it. There was no perk to being a wallflower. I was in band. I was a good player, too. The only people who cared were other band people. Not many of us fit in.
    Here's the thing. It may not seem like it, but I'm over it.
    I had a good time in high school, and I had enough friends in college that I could even be considered kinda popular. I blossomed like the second half of an ABC afterschool special.
    Besides, they were right, in a way. I'm not a natural athlete. I've never swung a club, but I doubt I could ever hit a fairway. I'll never dunk. I'll never return a kick for a touchdown. I'm not sure I could even catch the football. I played basketball in a rec league with the newspaper, and my only flaw was I couldn't run and dribble at the same time. I played soccer as a kid and, well, um, same thing.
    So I'm over it.
    Just not completely.

    • • • 
    When I first turned to running, I did it to stay in shape for the mountains. I chose the mountains because they weren't really a sport. They were an activity. They were scenic, and I loved them for the simple fact that I wasn't much different from my golden retriever: I loved to be outside.
    I moved out to Colorado to be close to them after years of spending almost every day of my vacation from the Salina, Kan. paper every summer climbing them with my father. When I did make the move, I spent five years doing something only a few thousand have achieved. I climbed all 54 14ers in the state.
    I fell in love with them in junior high school for another reason. My taunters weren't around when I was climbing them. And my climbing partners, even my father, were much older and knew nothing about the emotional battering I absorbed in school. They simply encouraged me. They even said things like how they wished they had my ability to climb rock.
    I've talked about my running journey before. I've talked about it enough. It was, initially, a way to keep in shape for the mountains, but I got hooked on it, and I became a runner.
    It was, at times, hard to wrap my head around that transformation. Running was not only a sport, it was one of the hardest, and remember, I had been convinced that I was not an athlete. That famous T-shirt is right: My sport is your sport's punishment. It hurts in so many different ways. It burns and aches and fatigues. I had to start using an inhaler for exercise-induced asthma: Even with all the mountain climbing, I never knew I had it until I started running.
    It fit me, though, because determination mattered, not skill, and the peaks taught me how to be determined. Running is tough, but it is also generous. It gives you back what you put into it.
    Running also meant I began hanging around people who possibly would have made fun of me in junior high school. They were definitely athletes, real studs, some of them. When I went to my 20th high school reunion, I spent as much time with the guys on the cross-country team as my old friends, even though I had exchanged maybe a half-dozen words with them when I went to school.
    Some had even come out to race the Pikes Peak Ascent, they told me, and though they did better than me — my school's cross-country team was a state champion — we all laughed over stories about wanting to puke as the trail climbed above 12,000 feet.
    I took it a step further when I began to offer a few tips. I recently wrote about that here. It turned out to be one of the more amazing and encouraging experiences of my life.
    The running's gotten better every year, despite me turning 41. And I think I know one reason why.
    We have a local running club here. We like to think it's pretty special, but you probably have one like it at your running store. Anyway, more than 25 gather once a week to run intervals together. Intervals are what we do to remind ourselves how much running can hurt. I guess they help you improve, too. Anyway, there are always new people, but it's a pretty loyal group, and there are many who still run who were there years before I joined them in 2005.
    Many are great runners, people who have qualified for the Boston Marathon or run 50-mile races or won their age groups in big races.
    I love the group because these are great athletes, and as such, they don't like being passed. They will challenge you. They will push you. But they will also tell you when you're doing well, and you know they're not bullshitting you.
    These first two weeks, I know my running is going better than ever because I'm passing some of the better runners in the group. At first I thought it was because I was just pushing it a little harder than I should. But it's felt good. It feels like I'm flying, and it's easier than it should be.
    It's not just the training. That's part of it to be sure. I've worked hard. But it's their voices in my head as I pass them, or as they work to keep up with me: Nice. You're looking FAST. Strong work.
    Last week, after one interval, I overheard one running talking about me, and it reminded me of the kickball years: "Did you see THAT?" Then she smiled at me.
    People can tear you down and make you believe in your limitations. They want to set your ceilings for you because that way you can't rise above them. You can believe in those ceilings for your whole life. It's hard to completely shake them.
    But there are others out there who want to lift you up.
    It's taken me a long time to figure out that those voices are the ones you should listen to.
    It's taken me my whole life, really, but I have started to believe them.


              The joy of treks        
    Oh, how I looked forward to the week off.
    Every year I take a week off from running. It's my bye week. It's a week to heal chronic aches, like that barking hamstring you've been reading about,  and that's how I justify it to myself. But really, it's as much as a break from my mind as it is my body. Probably more so.
    I don't do anything halfway. Rather than just climb some of the more interesting 14,000-foot peaks in Colorado, I had to climb them all. Rather than just play Angry Birds, I have to get three stars on every level. I have never not finished a book, even when I hated it halfway through. I don't just play cards. I play poker.
    I know. It sounds like bragging, doesn't it? But I'm also obsessed about goals. That's a blessing and also a curse. Because many times I forget to do something just for fun. I'm almost incapable of it.
    I think it's pretty obvious now that I love running. I think anyone who reads this blog has seen it. I'll miss it terribly when I can't do it any longer. But again, it's not something I can do just for fun.
    There's a whole industry built on people like me. Hell, Garmin makes a living off us. The company manufactures GPS devices that tell us, down to the second, what pace we're running and just how far we're running, too, down to the foot.

    Races market themselves on courses where you have a good chance to achieve a "PR." A PR, which, by the way, is what I did in Vegas, is the serious runner's ultimate goal. It means you've improved. It means all that work is paying off. It means you've justified it!
    There's also a reason races give out medals.*
    *On a side note, there are certain things you just don't do, unless you want to be known as a goob, knob or, honestly, complete dork. You don't wear the race shirt to the race, and you DEFINITELY don't wear the finisher's medal the next day. I saw a couple wearing their medals around the Aria the day after the Vegas race, and they looked like complete douchebags, even the female, and it's rare when females achieve that status. It's like calling trips a "set" in poker.
    Magazines like Runner's World and gurus like Hal Higdon teach us that every run should have a PURPOSE. A serious intent. A reason. You do tempo runs and speed workouts and long runs.


    You don't just go out for a run when you're a serious runner. Well, that's not exactly true. But when you do, we call those "easy" runs.
    That's right. Marathon plans, or plans for any race, really, have "easy" runs built into them. Fun runs, in other words, scheduled out with your 20-milers. Does anyone else see the irony in that?
    Races are fun, really fun. But I always have one bought and paid for, staring me down on the calendar, to keep me motivated. I've got a half marathon signed up for late SEPTEMBER.
    You're getting the idea, right? Rather than just run, I follow a plan and stick to it with the regimen of a general.
    Well, usually.
    The thing is, I learned something about myself when I took that week off.
    Those first four days, I felt great. I slept in before work. My hamstring didn't ache when I sat at my desk. I got a lot of things done around the house. I read a book in just a few days. I took long, hot showers. I pussyfooted. I read the whole newspaper. When you stop working out, you discover your body doesn't hurt and all this extra free time. It's tempting to quit for good.
    It was tempting until day five. That's when the blahs came along.
    I don't have another word for it. I felt sluggish. Crappy. I didn't sleep well. I felt wound up and tired at the same time. My back started to hurt. I was edgy, even cranky. I wanted to eat a lot of bad food. I craved sugar and salt and chips. It was almost as if...yeah, almost as if I was feeling my 40 years. I felt old, dammit.
    I was almost downright thrilled to be lacing up my shoes that Monday, even if it was 6:30 a.m. and I didn't get to bed until 11:15 p.m. When I went out, it was 15 degrees, and my fingers hurt from the cold, and I felt as if I had a tractor tire roped to me. I couldn't run anywhere near my normal pace, and when I did, I was panting like a unshaved sheepdog in summer.
    That sucked, I thought that morning, as I tore off my clothes, in a hurry once again, to get a quick shower before work. Why do I do it? Why did I feel so badly that I needed to do it?
    A couple hours later, I had my answer. The blahs were gone.
    Yes, my hamstring ached a bit, and I was yawning a bit, but I also suddenly had a lot more energy. I wanted to sing at my body electric. I felt myself again.
    Now before you think running comes naturally to me, like I'm some sort of gazelle or something who just needs to move, trust me, it doesn't. It took three weeks, thanks to the half marathon and that week break, before a run felt good again. Most of the time during a run I felt like shit (sorry but there's no other word for it), and sometimes I whined my sorry ass, waaa waaa waaa all the way home.
    Running can be a struggle, but it gives me something that nothing else can. It gives me life in my old bones. I really DO need it.
    I still wear my Garmin most of the time, and even when I don't, during those "easy" runs, I could probably tell you how fast I'm going. I'm still following a schedule in my head. I'm planning on going for a tempo run tomorrow. Most runs still have a purpose.
    But not always. I'm trying to change that, and after that week off, I'm more determined than ever.
    Christmas Day, I got up with the kids, early of course, which was fine, and opened presents and played with them and assembled their toys, which was great. Then I had an hour. I don't normally run Sundays. It's my scheduled day off. But I gave Kate that look, and she asked how far I was going to go.
    It turned out to be five through my favorite park in Greeley. The sun was out, the air was cold and warm at the same time, and the snow crunching beneath my feet accompanied the music through my ears.
    It was nice to be outside. Even more than that, it was fun.








              DIY: Spray-Paint Faux Antlers        

    So the title of this post pretty much depicts already what you have to do with this sucker of a DIY. Alls you need are some faux antlers and some spray paint! I got both things super cheap at Hobby Lobby (which is God's gift to mankind, but is very sparse on the Northeast coast. I had to take an afternoon trip with my mom up North.)

    IMG 1701

    Spray paint is so much more expensive in the city and up at Hobby Lobby in New Hampshire, it was only $5.99 a bottle and the antlers were $14.99! So this project in total costed less than $22, which is WAY less than buying one on Etsy or Anthropologie or wherever. 

    IMG 1706

    Just make sure that you have a place where you can spread out lots of newspaper or take it outside! 

    IMG 1716

    IMG 1749

    And here's the debut:

    IMG 1721

    Enjoy! And let me know if you've done anything like this or end up doing something like this!!


              James        
    It might have been a mistake for James to move in with Kevin. At first it seemed ideal: Kevin had a huge, empty house and James needed a place to stay.

    It began with simple requests:
    "James, will you hand me the newspaper?"
    "James can you load the dishwasher?"


    But now it never stops
    "James, can you get me my ball point pen?"
    "James, answer the door will you?"
    "James, will you rub my bunions. my feet really took a beating on the golf course today?"


    It never, ever stops. What does Kevin want, James' head on a platter?

              Criminal Justice Alumna Featured in Wheeling Newspaper        

    Female Officers Sought for Ohio County Sheriff, Police Departments by Casey Junkins, business/energy writer WHEELING — Ohio County sheriff’s deputy Brenda Lesnett does not pretend her job would be easy under any scenario, but serving as one of the precious few policewomen working for either the city of Wheeling or the county can present even … Read More

    The post Criminal Justice Alumna Featured in Wheeling Newspaper appeared first on News & Media Relations.

    The post Criminal Justice Alumna Featured in Wheeling Newspaper appeared first on Academics.


              2013, Lets do this        
    I wanted to write about my New Years resolutions.
    I always want a list. THE list. What I need to do before I'm 30. What I need to see before this and that.
    I think my lists only got up to #5. And it was tough getting there. This year I decided to be a bit more realistic than "Travel to China".

    1. Clean the house
    My house is clean, but I want to be the queen of clean. Spotless clean. I used to be like that, but then I moved into a teeny tiny house and things started to pile up. This August we're supposed to be moving into a new house, and I plan on keeping it spick-and-span. AKA, shoes off at the door!

    2. Get a Cat
    Or a rabbit. Y is OK for either. Or both. That will happen in the new house as well.

    3. Cut the sugar
    Almost three years ago I went on a Candida diet. It lasted for almost 5 months until I broke down and ate a piece of chocolate. Since then I've only felt guilty every time I eat junk food of chocolate. Both Y and myself plan on eating healthier, less fat, sugar, meat. Tons more veggies and grains.
    Make more food at home to take to work, freeze in advance. It's possible, I did it before, I can do it again.

    Lululemon, Runder Under Pant


    4. Fitness
    Tomorrow I'm in the gym. I'm not a bum, but I need to work out more. Besides, I need an excuse for new running gear :) AKA, I need to loose 3 kg.

    5. Read more
    I used to love reading, and I still do, but it seems I don't have any time. A newspaper just isn't enough. 10 minutes before I go to bed is a good start.

    This is getting harder...

    6. Read more design magazines
    Actually READ them. Cut out the pictures I like and want for inspiration, and do it. It's really not that hard. Just a matter of doing.

    Agas & Tamar, Gold Studded Earrings


    7. Buy myself jewelry
    Because I deserve it.

    8. Sew more
    Even if it's late at night and just for 15 minutes. I know I'm pushing everything until our new house, but once we move, we'll finally have room for an actual studio, and it will make things easier. These days I need to pull out the ironing board on the kitchen counter, clear off the table for my cutting board... It wi;; be easier once everything is already OUT.

    9. Be a better person
    Be more polite. Say good morning to more people. Talk less behind people backs. Offer to help, don't turn people down. Be more patient. Keep my voice down. Stress less. Don't take my work home, don't bring my personal life to work. Bake more for co-workers. Smile more.
    Mostly, think before talking/doing.


    10. Drink more wine
    And learn how to make cocktails. Every now and then a Mojito is nice to drink.

    11. Try new things
    Be open to new ideas. Change is not always bad.

    12.
    #12 is reserved for something private. But it's there and happening. Hopefully it's something that I'll be able to have accomplished by 2014 :)

    OK 2013, I'm ready Let's do this!



              The Power of Economic Inefficiency        
    I grew up in a time when long distance domestic phone calls from AT&T costed $0.20/minute off peak ($1.30 in today's dollars). I also grew up close to AT&T Bell Labs, a mecca that claimed more PhDs than any university many doing independent research. Now I get all the phone minutes I can use and Bell Labs is a tiny fraction of what it once was. Was it a good trade?

    Technology has helped eliminate many of the economic inefficiencies. Usually for the better but sometimes these inefficiencies has good side effects. For another example take airlines--we can now so easily compare airlines on price so they often compete on price at the cost of service. Don't even get me started on newspapers.

    Universities remain one of the institutions where technological change has not had the cost savings effect that we've seen in communication and transportation. That's one of the reasons that universities have become more expense. We can't keep raising tuition and being pushed to focus on eliminating inefficiencies, seeking new ways to deliver classes for example. Will the research university as we know it survive?
              Is God Relevant Today        
    We now live in a very modernistic world and continue to demand more modern all the time. It causes in us a very short sense of historical perspective. We are encouraged to discard and forget the past history and embrace the New World ideas (we have somehow evolved into a higher life form, from any other people who lived before us. And so now, think that we can dismiss the wisdom of the aged and the vitally important historical lessons; we then design our New World lifestyles.) We have been so bombarded with modernism and materialism from the TV, school, magazines, movies, newspapers, computers and advertising that we have become conditioned to the idea of a world that is without any real god or even the need for one. It’s like we have been brainwashed by all this, it is a false idea and a shallow lifestyle. Like someone who is so taken up with the Internet that he scarcely notices his family, so we are today - so taken up with the larger-than-life world that we scarcely notice God - the material world becomes so real, that the spiritual world is basically lost to us.
    There is a saying - "There is no such thing as an atheist on the battle field." When we find ourselves in a situation where we are stripped of our security and comfort, many of us ask a God, who supposedly does not exist, to help us in our hard times. God is there all the time but many of us only acknowledge when we must.
    Many question the existence of God, but not the theory of the 'atom' - for it is still only a theory - it sounds like a good theory to me too, but total proof is not available; yet we put great faith in it. The theory of the atom was first recorded by Democritus, a Greek philosopher around 465 BC. He gave us the word 'atom'. Are we much more clever and enlightened now or is it just more technology? Technology and new medical advances can produce a wonderful new drug to alleviate pain, but then people use the drug to escape reality and destroy themselves as well.
    High technology does not equate to wisdom and spiritual insight. God and the spiritual realm are out of reach of the scientific sphere - they cannot be measured and tested in the same clinical way in a laboratory. Why then does man consider that he understands enough about God and the spiritual realm, to declare them obsolete? Stephen Hawking the brilliant theoretical physicist and mathematician, his work helped confirm the 'big bang' theory to Evolutionists and yet I heard him state on radio recently: "We still do not know the origin of the universe or why we are here."
    (Even many evolutionary scientists are now saying that the theory of Evolution is not really plausible without their being some kind of 'higher intelligence'. They propose that, that higher intelligence could be the combined intelligence of the universe. Hmm, I do not think that a rock has very much intelligence and certainly not enough to create the full range of incredibly complex of life forms in evidence on the earth today. The ‘Big Bang’ theory suggests that while ‘first there was nothing’, this “nothing” exploded into millions of huge stars bigger than our sun.’ How? Where is the mechanism for such a process? There are thousands of scientists around the world, now declaring evolution as impossible.)

    Some will say to me "I don't need God, why should I ?" And true enough in a physical sense most of us can live without God, but if God does exist, as I propose, He says no person can have any quality of life at all in the next life, without living for Him in this life.
    Desire a simple yet thorough Bible timeline? Go to our website and see a marvellous teaching illustration and personal Bible timeline material.
              Comment on Privacy Policy by Michael Salami        
    Is there anyway i can get in touch with a man who came for help having triplet babies you publish on your newspaper 22/06/2011.
              Comment on Advertise With Us by fam f        
    <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman";} @page Section1 {size:595.3pt 841.9pt; margin:72.0pt 90.0pt 72.0pt 90.0pt; mso-header-margin:35.4pt; mso-footer-margin:35.4pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> HABA!!! LEGISLATORS   Rueben Abati once wrote in one of his prolific weekly crossroads in the Guardian newspaper (6 Sunday,  2005…page 38)…..”that an assessment of reports in Nigeria media prove one major point, namely that we have serious problems in this country….that we are people without standards, values, beyond shame, we live in a society where anything is possible, we worship persons, we place them above the rule of laws, ANYTHING CAN BE RATIONALIZED” What yard stick would any mathematician if any, or accountant would use to rationalize the disposal of 6million naira worth of car to be sold to legislators for pea nut of N850,000. Evaluators should be invited to work out the appropriate value of each car considering longevity of use and depreciation work out appropriately. I am infinitely saddened that the law makers are taking laws into their hands. Some principled people in Nigeria can still rationalize. The sale of cars must stop                                                                                       G . Famoti  
              Etisalat Nigeria ‘faces bank takeover’        
    Three banks will take over Etisalat Nigeria because of $1.72bn debts, says unconfirmed report in Nigerian newspaper
              More media stuff        

    The Guardian seems to have started a Wire discussion group. It would be churlish to suggest that the Guardian, as an entity, never took as much interest in the Wire before it centred round a newspaper office.

    (Charlie Brooker and a couple of other Guardian tv reviewers were the honourable exceptions to this.)

    I’m going to steal its intro warning to explain why I haven’t been indulging in my customary gushing over the genius of the Wire:

    SPOILER ALERT: Usual rules: No giving the game away if you’ve gone further; don’t spoil it for yourself if you are further behind.

    Basically, it’s too difficult to remember which Wire events are OK to write about and which aren’t, in case I spoil someone’s enjoyment. Sadly, I’ve already spoilt it for myself by seeing it already. I know what’s going to happen in the wind-up part of the 5-series set, so I don’t want to watch it until I’ve forgotten enough detail to make it watchable again.

    There’s an Iraq war short series from “the team who brought you the Wire.” I would be grateful if someone who’s seen it in the US will tell me if it’s good. I’ve decided to wait till it’s on television here, so as not to spoil it, in case it is good.

    However, I’m so squeamish that I won’t want to watch it if it’s too distressing. Which, given that it’s about the Iraq war, is probably a certainty. So I’m in two minds about the whole thing and would welcome any guidance.

    Otherwise completely unconnected to the above rambling, except for being also interesting in today’s Guardian, there’s an article by Hicham Yezza, the academic who’s waiting to be deported after downloading the al-qaeda manual for a colleague.

    The UN’s committee on human rights has just published a report criticising Britain’s anti-terror laws and the resulting curbs on civil liberties. For many commentators the issues raised are mostly a matter of academic abstractions and speculative meanderings. For me, it is anything but. These laws have destroyed my life. (from Hicham Yezza in the Guardian.)

    I had lazily assumed that this nonsense was all sorted out months ago. It appears not. Just because the media have lost interest doesn’t mean that this absurdity has been undone. In fact, some inexorable process – that Yezza characterises as Kafkaesque – seems have been set going.


              New Dr Who series        

    There’s a hallowed Whydontyou tradition that this blog has to get out a quick comment on any new Dr Who series. The first episode was OK, on balance.

    I’m not the world’s biggest fan of Catherine Tate (a UK comedian) and it was a national embarrassment to see Tony Blair mouthing her catchphrases (worse even than his Simpson’s cameo.) Her Dr Who character just seemed like a more sympathetic portrayal of half of her standard comedy characters. All the same, she’s very gifted and wasn’t as irritating as she might have been.

    It was telling to realise that I was actually hoping for the return of Billie Piper, although her apperance seems to have just been a two-second teaser. According to the Register, Lily Allen was the top assistant choice in November. I don’t know if that was just a wild Register rumour or if it’s still a possibility. IMHO, the best assistant in the new set of Dr Who series has been Freema Agyeman.

    The space ship effects were good. I’m a sucker for well done 3-d graphics and good special effects.

    (Except for the hanging bit, which was exactly as silly as almost every other “hanging from the side of a building” scene ever. I mean, just try hanging from anything, even if your life DOESN’T depend on it. If you can manage 15 seconds and you aren’t an experienced mountain climber – total respect. Or try and find a multi-storey building that doesn’t generate its own wind system. )

    Cultural refs:

    • A merge of the Supernanny and Anne Robinson stereotypes of bossy female Englishwomen. There aren’t many recognizable examples outside the TV world and some newspaper columns, but, hey, that’s the world now anyway.
    • The supposedly increasingly fat UK population is a really popular topic, of course. Here the idea was that excess lard turned into a life form, which was an entertaining idea.
    • People’s endless desire for any diet pills that will magically trim fat.
    • Office work. Office blocks. Those cages that hold the window cleaners who don’t actually have to abseil down the side of your building.
    • Alien visitor, crop circles and random conspiracy theories. Need I say more. Obviously, they usually turn out to be true in Dr Who.

              8 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Me        

    When tapped to share “8 things you probably didn’t know about” James Farrar he noted that blogging is quite the “exhibitionist” activity. Much of my blogging experience these past years has been more in audience capacity; a vicarious blog explorer, rather than an active onstage character. Vicarious means I observe certain events by “imaginative or sympathetic participation in the experiences of another”.

    Others’ blogs expose me to great examples of: storytelling, journalism, innovation and when done expertly well, art. While exploring, I’m often wondering what it would be like to write as prolifically or as creatively or as knowledgeably as the bloggers whose contents I follow. Fair, although hardly shy, I do feel a bit the wallflower while the nimble waltz me by with dizzyingly and dazzlingly clever insights, observations, perceptions and opinions.

    I’ve imagined what I would write on the off-chance that someone might tag me for the “8 things you probably don’t know about me” meme. But I was caught off guard (gobsmacked as the brits would say) when I happened upon my name in James’ blog: the Wisdom of Clouds. It’s like someone asked the ungainly girl at the school party to dance to be nice. Thanks James.

    Eight is a lot. I’ll start chronologically.

    1. When I was 4, my sister was born on my birthday. For years afterwards I assumed that all families had that same arrangement, meaning siblings who were not twins also shared a common birthday. The realization that my belief system was faulty was very traumatic.

    2. When I was about 8 years old, I separated from my parents while on board the Sternwheeler (steamboat) called the "The American". We were visiting an ill-fated and short-lived amusement park in the Bronx (New York) called: Freedomland U.S.A. There is a certain irony to all this. The year was 1960 and the civil rights movement was coming into its own with the Greensboro Four staging a peaceful sit-in at Woolworth’s in North Carolina, breaking down the segregation walls in the south. Back on the steamboat, my parents found me quickly. I was staging my own sit-in of sorts, in the steamship’s bandstand. There they found me sitting entranced on a trumpet player’s lap. His name: Louie Armstrong. I’ve always loved his voice and music.

    3. When I was 10 I decided to have a “penny fair” and created an amusement park in my yard. I gathered $5.57 cents from all of our neighborhood children (a great many pennies). Although rather pleased with my entrepreneurial success, I wound up donating the money to a school for mentally handicapped children. The principal sent me and the neighborhood children a very nice thank you letter.

    4. When I was 16 I discovered that although my sister and I shared the same birth date, it wasn’t the one recorded in our birth certificates. My mom had changed them both by a few days to give us the opportunity of starting kindergarten early. I think it was a shocking revelation that documents could be misleading or doctored.

    5. At 20 I took a road trip across the US. It was the summer of ’74 and in California, after a day of many driving mishaps; I got pulled over by the police. I had gotten a ticket earlier that day for speeding on the freeway. While paying my speeding ticket, I parked in a no-parking zone. I then proceeded to run a stop sign. It was a bad-hair driving day.When I saw the flashing lights in the rear-view mirror I was baffled. Couldn’t think of a single additional infraction I might have committed other than the fact that our car was a real jalopy with only one workable door, totally dust-covered and we (my future husband and I) looked a bit like ’70’s hippies after our 6 weeks on the road. I roll down my window (I’m the driver) and ask: “yes officer?”, failing to notice the growing number of squad cars accumulating behind us. The policeman looks oddly tense. “Did you hear about the bank robbery?”, says he. “Oh sure”, says I., “I’m Bonnie and this” (pointing to my future husband) “is Clyde”. The policemen weren’t particularly amused as they pulled me out of the car thinking I was the fugitive kidnapped newspaper heiress turned militant, Patty Hearst .

    6. I studied theater directing in the Tel Aviv University drama department. In 1979 I turned down an invitation by the national theater to assistant direct and work with theater luminary Joseph Chaiken on “The Dybbuk”. What we do for love. I was expecting my first child.

    7. In the early eighties, before “Glastnost” and the subsequent transparency policies of Gorbachev, I went on a small mission to meet with prisoners of conscience and human rights activists in a number of cities in the Ukraine and found myself and travel partner “interviewed” by the KGB concerning our activities in each city. I think I’m a “persona non grata” in the former Soviet Union.

    8. In the middle nineties started a grassroots movement of citizens concerned about environmental hazards and the rights of local residents and was invited to speak in the Israeli Parliament, together with my Bedouin neighbors.

    Now, grannimari is quietly and sedately working as an online community evangelist for the Business Process Expert Community. And looking to the community members who inspire and challenge her thinking. In that spirit of letting no good deed go unpunished, I’ll tag: Jim Spath , Eddy De Clercq , Jen Robinson, Thomas Ritter, Dick Hirsch and Ram Tiwari


              The Beauty, Power & Brilliance of Matriarchy        
    As we all sit awestruck in front of the T.V., the computer or the newspaper, Russell offers us a solution to the current Global calamity. In this beautiful forty-five minute FREE video, Russell explains both how the World got into this mess and how we can move towards sanity and wholeness.
              Britain's anti-Christian brave new world        
    AD2000 REPORT

    The head of the British Christian Legal Centre sees persecution of Christians in public life looming behind controversial recent remarks by the Equality and Human Rights Commissioner Trevor Phillips.

    Andrea Minichiello Williams, who directs the legal centre, said that Phillips also sounded "naive," saying he "doesn't seem to be living in the same Britain that I'm living in."

    Williams is not the only one who wondered where Phillips got some of the ideas he expressed in an interview on 19 June with the London Telegraph newspaper. The equality commissioner indicated that Muslim immigrants were integrating better into British society than many Christian populations, and said that Catholic adoption agencies were more clearly discriminatory than Sharia courts.

    Phillips also said British Christians tended to imagine discrimination against them where none existed. And he indicated that believers should not expect exemptions from the 2010 Equality Act, with its controversial language on sexual orientation, once they stepped outside "the door of the church or mosque."

    Williams, whose legal centre advocates for the rights of British Christians in the public square, said her country's Christian roots once made it "a land of great freedom," where "freedom of conscience" was respected.

    "Those things we have seen eradicated under the Equalities agenda, which is Trevor Phillips' approach," she said in a 30 June interview. "Secularism, under the Equalities agenda, is not neutral. It punishes dissenters."

    Williams said the system of equality laws, which began under Prime Minister Tony Blair and continued with his successor Gordon Brown, "sounds like utopia - but in fact, it leads to the beginnings of tyranny."

    "If you enter into the public sphere, or a public sector job, you have to speak and act the prevailing Equalities agenda. If you do not do that, if you disagree, then you are punished. You lose your job. You become under investigation. You perhaps get accused of hate speech. These are our realities in the United Kingdom."

    Phillips' most blatant criticism of traditional Christianity in the Telegraph interview came during a discussion of immigrant populations from Africa and the Carribean.

    The commissioner acknowledged that there was "an awful lot of noise about the Church being persecuted," but said the "more real issue" for "conventional churches" was the influx of "people who ... believe in an old time religion which in my view is incompatible with a modern, multi-ethnic, multicultural society."

    Williams explained that this perception of "incompatibility" came from a caricature of Christianity, not from the Gospel of Christ himself. "Everything that flows from him," she said, "leads to the recognition of the innate dignity of every human being."

    "Because Christianity is not coercive - unlike secularism, and unlike Islam - it leads to true tolerance."

    In his extensive interview with the Telegraph, Phillips said individual believers could expect the commission to stand up for their right to worship and believe as they pleased. He said it was "part of the settlement of a liberal democracy" for individuals not to be "penalised or treated in a discriminatory way" on account of "being an Anglican, being a Muslim, or being a Methodist, or being a Jew."

    Discrimination

    But Williams charged that the commission is not upholding even this limited interpretation of religious freedom.

    "What Mr Phillips needs to do," she said, "is to come spend a day at the Christian Legal Centre, run through the cases, and see the discrimination that is out there."

    "In the Sherry Chapman case, for instance - the nurse who was told to take off her cross after 38 years of wearing it in frontline nursing - exceptions were made for the Muslims, with the long flowing hijab and a big brooch."

    "Down in a South London council, Muslims are allowed to pray five times a day, but Christians are not permitted to display Christian calendars on their desks. These are our realities."

    She also pointed to the case of Eunice and Owen Johns, the elderly Pentecostal couple who were rejected as foster parents - despite their extensive experience - because they disapproved of homosexuality. "The Equality Commission intervened in that case. They intervened against the Christians," Williams noted.

    "They've intervened in a number of other high-profile cases. They have not, ever, intervened against Muslims. They've only ever intervened in the Christian cases to stand against the Christians. This is not equality. This is inequality."

    "There's a complete making-way for Islam, and yet Christianity is suppressed," Williams observed.

    "This notion of accommodating Sharia, of accepting it - and then, of saying that Catholic adoption agencies, which believe a child needs a married mother and father, should be closed - is devastating for society."

    Williams says Britain's aggressive pursuit of secularism was creating a "vacuum" that radical Muslims could seek to exploit. "Radical Islam has an agenda in this nation, and works hard," she noted.

    But many English Christians fail to stand up for biblical truth in this context. "In many ways, the Church has herself to blame for the state we're in. What we've got to do is find our voice. Otherwise, there will be increased oppression and suppression."

    Williams observed that Christianity has historically "survived much worse than attacks by Trevor Phillips." But she acknowledges that things look "very bleak" at the moment.

    "We've currently got a government that's consulting on extending civil unions to religious premises," she noted. "They said they would never do that."

    Williams and other English Christians want authentic religious freedom for themselves and others. But they understand the conflict with secularism is part of the cost of discipleship.

    "Jesus suffered a false trial, was hated by the world, put on the cross," she recalled. "But there was his resurrection, and the great hope that flows from that."

    With acknowledgement to Catholic News Agency.


              Brand It!        
    With all that has been happening in our lives lately, you may wonder why I am posting on something seemingly so silly. But, I think Marc Ecko is quite a genius when it comes to business and when I saw that Barry Bonds, when referring to Ecko's plans after purchasing his 756th home run ball, stated, "He's stupid...He's an idiot" I couldn't resist giving Ecko a little time on my blog (at least for the 3-4 readers who still check it out).

    Marc Ecko is of course the very successful founder and president of Marc Ecko Enterprises. He started out as a t-shirt designer and turned his business into what is now hailed as the most succesful urban clothing line. What is most unique about Ecko is that his background is far from that of his current customer base. While his clothing tends to be worn by those most affiliated with the "Hip-Hop" culture, Marc grew up as a Jewish kid in a New Jersey town outside of Manhatten. His parents were real estate agents and his life was far more suburban than that of most of his customers. But, through hard work and uncanny "street smarts", Ecko went from nearly bankrupt to the No. 1 designer in his field.

    So what does all this have to do with Barry Bonds? Well, Ecko was the winner of the auction just recently held by Sotheby's for Bonds' record-breaking, 756th home run baseball. And he has decided to let the fans vote on what should be done with the ball. He set up a website, http://www.vote756.com/, where fans can vote to either "Bestow It" to the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, OH, "Brand It" with an asterick and then send it to Cooperstown, or "Banish It" by reportedly shooting it into outer space. And yesterday, The San Francisco Chronicle (which you may recognize as the newspaper whose reporters wrote the book on Barry Bonds' alleged steriod use - you can read my review of the book, Game of Shadows: Barry Bonds, BALCO, and the Steroids Scandal that Rocked Professional Sports, by clicking here), reported that when asked about Ecko's intentions Bonds replied, "He spent $750,000 on the ball and that's what he's doing with it? What he's doing is stupid."

    What I find most entertaining about this story is that Bonds just seems to not get it. He doesn't get it that people believe he cheated and should be punished, not celebrated for such an act. He doesn't understand marketing either. Heck, it's clear from his well-known brushes with the media that he doesn't understand the power of the media and the sway of the court of public opinion.

    Barry Bonds is wrong - Marc Ecko is a genius. He has just created friends in the baseball culture he never had before by doing this. And those who hate what he is doing? They can simply dismiss him as another crazed fashion designer. But the genius of this act shines brightest in the numbers. As of my visit, there were 3,611,765 votes cast. And how did I vote? See below.




              About Jackie Robinson        

    Who was Jackie Robinson?

     

    Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was the first black Major League Baseball. Robinson broke the baseball color barrier when he signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. As the first black man to play in the major leagues, (aside from the 1880s, before the MLB was organized) he is most known for bringing social justice to baseball, which had seperate leagues for blacks (the Negro leagues) and whites for six decades. His character and skills are what helped him challenge the traditional basis of segregation, which was prevalent in all areas of American Life, and was a catalyst to the Civil Rights Movement. Robinson was not just any other baseball player, he strived for success and achieved it, as he helped the Dodgers get to six World Series' and win it all in 1955. He was Rookie of the Year in 1947, MVP in 1949 and a six time All-Star from 1949-1954. He was then inducted to the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown in 1962 followed by all of MLB retiring the Jackie Robinson Jersey: number 42, in 1997, an honor reserved solely to Robinson. 

    Pre Baseball Life

    Jackie was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia, to a family of farmers during a Spanish flu and smallpox epidemic. He was the youngest of five children, after his brothers Edgar, Frank, Matthew, and Willa Mae. He was named "Roosevelt" as a middle name, in honor of former President Theodore Roosevelt, who died earier that month. The Robinson's moved to 121 Pepper Street in Pasadena, California after their father left them in 1920. Their mother worked various jobs to support them as they grew up in relative poverty even though Pasadena was considered an affluent place. They attended Washington Junior High School followed by Muir Tech High School. The Robinsons were superb athletes. Matthew was a silver medalist in the 1936 Olympics and he and Frank inspired Jackie to seriously pursue a career in sports. Jackie played on the Muir Tech football team as quarterback, basketball team as a guard, track team as a jumper, tennis team and baseball team as both a catcher and shortstop. In 1936, he won a Tennis Tournament and played in the Pomona baseball tournament all star team with fellow future Hall of Famers Ted Williams and Bob Lemon. 

    After High School, Jackie went on to Pasadena Junior College where he continued his involvement in sports. He also was elected to the Lancers, a local organization responsible for helping patrol school activities. In 1938, Jackie joined the All-Southland Junior College baseball team and was selected as that years MVP. He also received honors for his outstanding community service, even though he sometimes acted against those around him who seemed racist. While playing football for PJC, Jackie broke his ankle. A few days before Jackie's 19th birthday he was arrested for vocally disputing the arrest of a black friend of his. He quickly earned a reputation for being one who won't shy away from beligerrance in the face of racism.

    After graduating from PJC, Jackie's brother, Frank, was killed in a motorcycle accident which helped Jackie make a decision to move to L.A. where he could console Frank's family. Jackie decided to attend UCLA where he met is future wife, Rachel Isum, and won varsity letters in all the major sports. He won the 1940 NCAA Mens Outdoor Track and Field Championship in the Long Jump,jumping a whopping 24 Feet 10.5 Inches. Ironically, in that year, robinson batted .097 for the UCLA baseball squad. In 1941, he took a job with the NYA as an assistant athletic director, as it would have been impossible for him to get a job as a proffesional athlete due to the color barrier. Later that year he traveled to Hawaii where he had an opportunity to play for the racially mixed semi-pro Honolulu Bears' football team. After that season he would move back to L.A. to play for a local football team, not realizing that the US involvement in World War 2 would sidetrack him for a little while and end his short football career.

    Robinson was drafted to the Army in 1942 and was stationed in Fort Riley, Kansas. Throughout his 3 plus years in the Army, he was always treated as a subordinate by the White controlled military. He still managed to become a second lieutenant in 1943, and joined the Black Panthers Tank Battallion, the first Black tank unit to see combat in WWII. However, jackie was never in combat. After getting engaged to his College sweetheart, Rachel, he was sidelined after injuring the same ankle he hurt back in high school. He would finish his army service as a coach for army athletes until 1944 when he was discharged. While in the Army, Robinson made close ties with boxer, Joe Louis, as they helped each other struggle in the white dominated Army.

    In early 1945, after working some part time coaching jobs, Jackie received an offer from the Kansas City Monarchs to Play professional Baseball in the Negro Leagues. He signed a contract worth $400 a month as he played for the Monarchs for 1 Season. He played 47 games at shortstop batting .387. The Negro leagues were'nt for Jackie as he didn't like their unorganized style. Luckily he received a secret offer from the GM of the Brooklyn Dodgers, Branch Rickey, to come to NY and play for their Minor League team. They offered him $600 a month on the condition that he would be able to take abuse from other players for being the only black, but contain himself from fighting back. Jackie accepted, and immediately left the Monarchs for NYC where he would marry Rachel Isum, who was in NY studying to be a Nurse. Jackie would start with the Dodgers' AAA club in Daytona Beach, FL that next season.

    Baseball Career

    In 1946, Robinson arrived at Daytona Beach, Florida, for spring training with the Montreal Royals of the Class AAA International League (the designation of "AAA" for the highest level of minor league baseball was first used in the 1946 season). Robinson's presence was controversial in racially charged Florida. As he was not allowed to stay with his teammates at the team hotel, he lodged instead at the home of a local black politician. Since the Dodgers organization did not own a spring training facility (the Dodger-controlled spring training compound in Vero Beach known as "Dodgertown" did not open until spring 1948), scheduling was subject to the whim of area localities, several of which turned down any event involving Robinson or Johnny Wright, another black player whom Rickey had signed to the Dodgers' organization in January. In Sanford, Florida, the police chief threatened to cancel games if Robinson and Wright did not cease training activities there; as a result, Robinson was sent back to Daytona Beach. In Jacksonville, the stadium was padlocked shut without warning on game day, by order of the city's Parks and Public Property director. In DeLand, a scheduled day game was called off, ostensibly because of faulty electrical lighting.

    After much lobbying of local officials by Rickey himself, the Royals were allowed to host a game involving Robinson in Daytona Beach. Robinson made his Royals debut at Daytona Beach's City Island Ballpark on March 17, 1946, in an exhibition game against the team's parent club, the Dodgers. Robinson thus simultaneously became the first black player to openly play for a minor league team and against a major league team since the de facto baseball color line had been implemented in the 1880s. Later in spring training, after some less-than-stellar performances, Robinson was shifted from shortstop to second base, allowing him to make shorter throws to first base. Robinson's performance soon rebounded. On April 18, 1946, Roosevelt Stadium hosted the Jersey City Giants' season opener against the Montreal Royals, marking the professional debut of the Royals' Jackie Robinson. In his five trips to the plate, Robinson had four hits, including a three-run home run. He also scored four runs, drove in three, and stole two bases in the Royals' 14–1 victory. Robinson proceeded to lead the International League that season with a .349 batting average and .985 fielding percentage, and he was named the league's Most Valuable Player. Although he often faced hostility while on road trips (the Royals were forced to cancel a Southern exhibition tour, for example), the Montreal fan base enthusiastically supported Robinson. Whether fans supported or opposed it, Robinson's presence on the field was a boon to attendance; more than one million people went to games involving Robinson in 1946, an amazing figure by International League standards. In the fall of 1946, following the baseball season, Robinson returned home to California and briefly played professional basketball for the short-lived Los Angeles Red Devils.

    The following year, six days before the start of the 1947 season, the Dodgers called Robinson up to the major leagues. With Eddie Stanky entrenched at second base for the Dodgers, Robinson played his initial major league season as a first baseman. On April 15, 1947, Robinson made his major league debut at Ebbets Field before a crowd of 26,623 spectators, including more than 14,000 black patrons. Although he failed to get a base hit, the Dodgers won 5–3. Robinson became the first player since 1880 to openly break the major league baseball color line. Black fans began flocking to see the Dodgers when they came to town, abandoning their Negro league teams.

    Robinson's promotion met a generally positive, although mixed, reception among newspapers and white major league players. However, racial tension existed in the Dodger clubhouse. Some Dodger players insinuated they would sit out rather than play alongside Robinson. The brewing mutiny ended when Dodgers management took a stand for Robinson. Manager Leo Durocher informed the team, "I do not care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a fuckin' zebra. I'm the manager of this team, and I say he plays. What's more, I say he can make us all rich. And if any of you cannot use the money, I will see that you are all traded."

    Robinson was also derided by opposing teams. Some, notably the St. Louis Cardinals, threatened to strike if Robinson played. After the threat, National League President Ford Frick and Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler let it be known that any striking players would be suspended. Robinson nonetheless became the target of rough physical play by opponents (particularly the Cardinals). At one time, he received a seven-inch gash in his leg. On April 22, 1947, during a game between the Dodgers and the Philadelphia Phillies, Phillies players called Robinson a "nigger" from their dugout and yelled that he should "go back to the cotton fields". Rickey later recalled that Phillies manager Ben Chapman "did more than anybody to unite the Dodgers. When he poured out that string of unconscionable abuse, he solidified and united thirty men."

    Robinson received significant encouragement from several major league players. Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese once came to Robinson's defense with the famous line, "You can hate a man for many reasons. Color is not one of them." In 1948, Reese put his arm around Robinson in response to fans who shouted racial slurs at Robinson before a game in Cincinnati. A statue by sculptor William Behrends, unveiled at KeySpan Park on November 1, 2005, commemorates this event by representing Reese with his arm around Robinson. Jewish baseball star Hank Greenberg, who had to deal with racial epithets during his career, also encouraged Robinson. After colliding with Robinson at first base on one occasion, Greenberg whispered a few words into Robinson's ear, which Robinson later characterized as "words of encouragement." Greenberg had advised him that the best way to combat the slurs from the opposing players was to beat them on the field.

    Robinson finished the season having played in 151 games for the Dodgers, with a batting average of .297, an on-base percentage of .383, and a .427 slugging percentage. He had 175 hits (scoring 125 runs) including 31 doubles, 5 triples, 12 home runs, driving in 48 runs for the year. Robinson led the league in sacrifice hits, with 28, and in stolen bases, with 29. His cumulative performance earned him the inaugural Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award (separate National and American League Rookie of the Year honors were not awarded until 1949).

    Following Stanky's trade to the Boston Braves in March 1948, Robinson took over second base, where he logged a .980 fielding percentage that year (second in the National League at the position, fractionally behind Stanky). Robinson had a batting average of .296 and 22 stolen bases for the season. In a 12–7 win against the St. Louis Cardinals on August 29, 1948, he hit for the cycle—a home run, a triple, a double, and a single in the same game. The Dodgers briefly moved into first place in the National League in late August 1948, but they ultimately finished third as the Braves went on to win the league title and lose to the Cleveland Indians in the World Series.

    Racial pressure on Robinson eased in 1948 as a number of other black players entered the major leagues. Larry Doby (who broke the color barrier in the American League on July 5, 1947) and Satchel Paige played for the Cleveland Indians, and the Dodgers had three other black players besides Robinson. In February 1948, he signed a $12,500 contract (equal to $120,914 today) with the Dodgers; while a significant amount, this was less than Robinson made in the off-season from a vaudeville tour, where he answered pre-set baseball questions, and a speaking tour of the South. Between the tours, he underwent surgery on his right ankle. Because of his off-season activities, Robinson reported to training camp 30 pounds (14 kg) overweight. He lost the weight during training camp, but dieting left him weak at the plate.

    In the spring of 1949, Robinson turned to Hall of Famer George Sisler, working as an advisor to the Dodgers, for batting help. At Sisler's suggestion, Robinson spent hours at a batting tee, learning to hit the ball to right field. Sisler taught Robinson to anticipate a fastball, on the theory that it is easier to subsequently adjust to a slower curveball. Robinson also noted that "Sisler showed me how to stop lunging, how to check my swing until the last fraction of a second". The tutelage helped Robinson raise his batting average from .296 in 1948 to .342 in 1949. In addition to his improved batting average, Robinson stole 37 bases that season, was second place in the league for both doubles and triples, and registered 124 runs batted in with 122 runs scored. For the performance Robinson earned the Most Valuable Player award for the National League. Baseball fans also voted Robinson as the starting second baseman for the 1949 All-Star Game—the first All-Star Game to include black players.

    That year, a song about Robinson by Buddy Johnson, "Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball?", reached number 13 on the charts; Count Basie recorded a famous version. Ultimately, the Dodgers won the National League pennant, but lost in five games to the New York Yankees in the 1949 World Series.

    Summer 1949 brought an unwanted distraction for Robinson. In July, he was called to testify before the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) concerning statements made that April by black athlete and actor Paul Robeson. Robinson was reluctant to testify, but he eventually agreed to do so, fearing it might negatively affect his career if he declined.

    In 1950, Robinson led the National League in double plays made by a second baseman with 133. His salary that year was the highest any Dodger had been paid to that point: $35,000 ($338,091 in 2012 dollars). He finished the year with 99 runs scored, a .328 batting average, and 12 stolen bases. The year saw the release of a film biography of Robinson's life, The Jackie Robinson Story, in which Robinson played himself, and actress Ruby Dee played Rachael "Rae" (Isum) Robinson. The project had been previously delayed when the film's producers refused to accede to demands of two Hollywood studios that the movie include scenes of Robinson being tutored in baseball by a white man. The New York Times wrote that Robinson, "doing that rare thing of playing himself in the picture's leading role, displays a calm assurance and composure that might be envied by many a Hollywood star."

    Robinson's Hollywood exploits, however, did not sit well with Dodgers co-owner Walter O'Malley, who referred to Robinson as "Rickey's prima donna". In late 1950, Rickey's contract as the Dodgers' team President expired. Weary of constant disagreements with O'Malley, and with no hope of being re-appointed as President of the Dodgers, Rickey cashed out his one-quarter financial interest in the team, leaving O'Malley in full control of the franchise. Rickey shortly thereafter became general manager of the Pittsburgh Pirates. Robinson was disappointed at the turn of events and wrote a sympathetic letter to Rickey, whom he considered a father figure, stating, "Regardless of what happens to me in the future, it all can be placed on what you have done and, believe me, I appreciate it."

    Before the 1951 season, O'Malley reportedly offered Robinson the job of manager of the Montreal Royals, effective at the end of Robinson's playing career. O'Malley was quoted in the Montreal Standard as saying, "Jackie told me that he would be both delighted and honored to tackle this managerial post"—although reports differed as to whether a position was ever formally offered.

    During the 1951 season, Robinson led the National League in double plays made by a second baseman for the second year in a row, with 137. He also kept the Dodgers in contention for the 1951 pennant. During the last game of the season, in the 13th inning, he had a hit to tie the game, and then won the game with a home run in the 14th. This forced a playoff against the New York Giants, which the Dodgers lost.

    Despite Robinson's regular-season heroics, the Dodgers lost the pennant on Bobby Thomson's famous home run, known as the Shot Heard 'Round the World, on October 3, 1951. Overcoming his dejection, Robinson dutifully observed Thomson's feet to ensure he touched all the bases. Dodgers sportscaster Vin Scully later noted that the incident showed "how much of a competitor Robinson was." He finished the season with 106 runs scored, a batting average of .335, and 25 stolen bases.

    Robinson had what was an average year for him in 1952. He finished the year with 104 runs, a .308 batting average, and 24 stolen bases. He did, however, record a career-high on-base percentage of .436. The Dodgers improved on their performance from the year before, winning the National League pennant before losing the 1952 World Series to the New York Yankees in seven games. That year, on the television show Youth Wants to Know, Robinson challenged the Yankees' general manager, George Weiss, on the racial record of his team, which had yet to sign a black player. Sportswriter Dick Young, whom Robinson had described as a "bigot", said, "If there was one flaw in Jackie, it was the common one. He believed that everything unpleasant that happened to him happened because of his blackness." The 1952 season was the last year Robinson was an everyday starter at second base. Afterward, Robinson played variously at first, second, and third bases, shortstop, and in the outfield, with Jim Gilliam, another black player, taking over everyday second base duties. Robinson's interests began to shift toward the prospect of managing a major league team. He had hoped to gain experience by managing in the Puerto Rican Winter League, but according to the New York Post, Commissioner Happy Chandler denied the request.

    In 1953, Robinson had 109 runs, a .329 batting average, and 17 steals, leading the Dodgers to another National League pennant (and another World Series loss to the Yankees, this time in six games). Robinson's continued success spawned a string of death threats. He was not dissuaded, however, from addressing racial issues publicly. That year, he served as editor for Our Sports magazine, a periodical focusing on Negro sports issues; contributions to the magazine included an article on golf course segregation by Robinson's old friend Joe Louis. Robinson also openly criticized segregated hotels and restaurants that served the Dodger organization; a number of these establishments integrated as a result, including the five-star Chase Park Hotel in St. Louis.

    In 1954, Robinson had 62 runs, a .311 batting average, and 7 steals. His best day at the plate was on June 17, when he hit two home runs and two doubles. The following autumn, Robinson won his only championship when the Dodgers beat the New York Yankees in the 1955 World Series. Although the team enjoyed ultimate success, 1955 was the worst year of Robinson's individual career. He hit .256 and stole only 12 bases. The Dodgers tried Robinson in the outfield and as a third baseman, both because of his diminishing abilities and because Gilliam was established at second base. Robinson, then 37 years old, missed 49 games and did not play in Game 7 of the World Series. Robinson missed the game because manager Walter Alston decided to play Gilliam at second and Don Hoak at third base. That season, the Dodgers' Don Newcombe became the first black major league pitcher to win twenty games in a year.

    In 1956, Robinson had 61 runs, a .275 batting average, and 12 steals. By then, he had begun to exhibit the effects of diabetes, and to lose interest in the prospect of playing or managing professional baseball. After the season, Robinson was traded by the Dodgers to the arch-rival New York Giants for Dick Littlefield and $35,000 cash (equal to $299,192 today). The trade, however, was never completed; unbeknownst to the Dodgers, Robinson had already agreed with the president of Chock full o'Nuts to quit baseball and become an executive with the company. Since Robinson had sold exclusive rights to any retirement story to Look magazine two years previously,[165&91; his retirement decision was revealed through the magazine, instead of through the Dodgers organization.

    Legacy

    Robinson's major league debut brought an end to approximately sixty years of segregation in professional baseball, known as the baseball color line. After World War II, several other forces were also leading the country toward increased equality for blacks, including their accelerated migration of to the North, where their political clout grew, and President Harry Truman's desegregation of the military in 1948. Robinson's breaking of the baseball color line and his professional success symbolized these broader changes and demonstrated that the fight for equality was more than simply a political matter. Martin Luther King, Jr. said that he was "a legend and a symbol in his own time", and that he "challenged the dark skies of intolerance and frustration." According to historian Doris Kearns Goodwin, Robinson's "efforts were a monumental step in the civil-rights revolution in America ... [His&91; accomplishments allowed black and white Americans to be more respectful and open to one another and more appreciative of everyone's abilities."

    Beginning his major league career at the relatively advanced age of twenty-eight, he played only ten seasons, all of them for the Brooklyn Dodgers. During his career, the Dodgers played in six World Series, and Robinson himself played in six All-Star Games. In 1999, he was posthumously named to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team.

    Robinson's career is generally considered to mark the beginning of the post–"long ball" era in baseball, in which a reliance on raw power-hitting gave way to balanced offensive strategies that used footspeed to create runs through aggressive baserunning. Robinson exhibited the combination of hitting ability and speed which exemplified the new era. He scored more than 100 runs in six of his ten seasons (averaging more than 110 runs from 1947 to 1953), had a .311 career batting average, a .409 career on-base percentage, a .474 slugging percentage, and substantially more walks than strikeouts (740 to 291). Robinson was one of only two players during the span of 1947–56 to accumulate at least 125 steals while registering a slugging percentage over .425 (Minnie Miñoso was the other). He accumulated 197 stolen bases in total, including 19 steals of home. None of the latter were double steals (in which a player stealing home is assisted by a player stealing another base at the same time). Robinson has been referred to by author David Falkner as "the father of modern base-stealing."

    "I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me ... all I ask is that you respect me as a human being." —Robinson, on his legacy

     

    Historical statistical analysis indicates Robinson was an outstanding fielder throughout his ten years in the major leagues and at virtually every position he played. After playing his rookie season at first base, Robinson spent most of his career as a second baseman. He led the league in fielding among second basemen in 1950 and 1951. Toward the end of his career, he played about 2,000 innings at third base and about 1,175 innings in the outfield, excelling at both.

    Assessing himself, Robinson said, "I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me ... all I ask is that you respect me as a human being." Regarding Robinson's qualities on the field, Leo Durocher said, "Ya want a guy that comes to play. This guy didn't just come to play. He come to beat ya. He come to stuff the goddamn bat right up your ass."

    Post-baseball life

    Robinson as ABC sports announcer in 1965

    Robinson retired from baseball on January 5, 1957. Later that year, after he complained of numerous physical ailments, his doctors diagnosed Robinson with diabetes, a disease that also affected his brothers. Although Robinson adopted an insulin injection regimen, the state of medicine at the time could not prevent continued deterioration of Robinson's physical condition from the disease.

    In his first year of eligibility for the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962, Robinson encouraged voters to consider only his on-field qualifications, rather than his cultural impact on the game. He was elected on the first ballot, becoming the first black player inducted into the Cooperstown museum.

    In 1965, Robinson served as an analyst for ABC's Major League Baseball Game of the Week telecasts, the first black person to do so. In 1966, Robinson was hired as general manager for the short-lived Brooklyn Dodgers of the Continental Football League. In 1972, he served as a part-time commentator on Montreal Expos telecasts.

    On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers retired his uniform number, 42, alongside those of Roy Campanella (39) and Sandy Koufax (32). From 1957 to 1964, Robinson was the vice president for personnel at Chock full o'Nuts; he was the first black person to serve as vice president of a major American corporation. Robinson always considered his business career as advancing the cause of black people in commerce and industry. Robinson also chaired the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) million-dollar Freedom Fund Drive in 1957, and served on the organization's board until 1967. In 1964, he helped found, with Harlem businessman Dunbar McLaurin, Freedom National Bank—a black-owned and operated commercial bank based in Harlem. He also served as the bank's first Chairman of the Board. In 1970, Robinson established the Jackie Robinson Construction Company to build housing for low-income families.

    Robinson was active in politics throughout his post-baseball life. He identified himself as a political independent although he held conservative opinions on several issues, including the Vietnam War (he once wrote Martin Luther King, Jr. to defend the Johnson Administration's military policy). After supporting Richard Nixon in his 1960 presidential race against John F. Kennedy, Robinson later praised Kennedy effusively for his stance on civil rights. Robinson was angered by conservative Republican opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. He became one of six national directors for Nelson Rockefeller's unsuccessful campaign to be nominated as the Republican candidate for the 1964 presidential election. After the party nominated Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona instead, Robinson left the party's convention commenting that he now had "a better understanding of how it must have felt to be a Jew in Hitler's Germany". He later became special assistant for community affairs when Rockefeller was re-elected governor of New York in 1966. Switching his allegiance to the Democrats, he subsequently supported Hubert Humphrey against Nixon in 1968.

    Protesting the major leagues' ongoing lack of minority managers and central office personnel, Robinson turned down an invitation to appear in an old-timers' game at Yankee Stadium in 1969. He made his final public appearance on October 15, 1972, throwing the ceremonial first pitch before Game 2 of the World Series. He gratefully accepted a plaque honoring the twenty-fifth anniversary of his MLB debut, but also commented, "I'm going to be tremendously more pleased and more proud when I look at that third base coaching line one day and see a black face managing in baseball." This wish was fulfilled only after Robinson's death: following the 1974 season, the Cleveland Indians gave their managerial post to Frank Robinson (no relation), a Hall of Fame-bound player who would go on to manage three other teams. Despite the success of these two Robinsons and other black players, the number of African-American players in Major League Baseball has declined since the 1970s.

    Family life and death

    After Robinson's retirement from baseball, his wife, Rachel Robinson, pursued a career in academic nursing—she became an assistant professor at the Yale School of Nursing and director of nursing at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. She also served on the board of the Freedom National Bank until it closed in 1990. She and Jackie had three children: Jackie Robinson Jr. (born November 18, 1946), Sharon Robinson (born January 13, 1950), and David Robinson (born May 14, 1952).

    Robinson's eldest son, Jackie Robinson Jr., had emotional trouble during his childhood and entered special education at an early age. He enrolled in the Army in search of a disciplined environment, served in the Vietnam War, and was wounded in action on November 19, 1965. After his discharge, he struggled with drug problems. Robinson Jr. eventually completed the treatment program at Daytop Village in Seymour, Connecticut, and became a counselor at the institution. On June 17, 1971, at the age of 24, he was killed in an automobile accident. The experience with his son's drug addiction turned Robinson, Sr. into an avid anti-drug crusader toward the end of his life.

    Robinson did not long outlive his son. Complications of heart disease and diabetes weakened Robinson and made him almost blind by middle age. On October 24, 1972, he died of a heart attack at home in Stamford, Connecticut, aged fifty-three. Robinson's funeral service on October 27, 1972, at New York City's Riverside Church attracted 2,500 admirers. Many of his former teammates and other famous black baseball players served as pallbearers, and the Rev. Jesse Jackson gave the eulogy. Tens of thousands of people lined the subsequent procession route to Robinson's interment site at Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York, where he is buried next to his son Jackie and mother-in-law Zellee Isum. Jackie Robinson Parkway also runs through the cemetery.

    After Robinson's death, his widow founded the Jackie Robinson Foundation, of which she remains an officer as of 2009. On April 15, 2008, she announced that in 2010 the foundation will be opening a museum devoted to Jackie in Lower Manhattan. Robinson's daughter, Sharon, became a midwife, educator, director of educational programming for MLB, and the author of two books about her father. His youngest son, David, who has ten children, is a coffee grower and social activist in Tanzania.

    Awards and recognition

    According to a poll conducted in 1947, Robinson was the second most popular man in the country, behind Bing Crosby. In 1999, he was named by Time on its list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Also in 1999, he ranked number 44 on the Sporting News list of Baseball's 100 Greatest Players and was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team as the top vote-getter among second basemen. Baseball writer Bill James, in The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract, ranked Robinson as the 32nd greatest player of all time strictly on the basis of his performance on the field, noting that he was one of the top players in the league throughout his career. Robinson was among the 25 charter members of UCLA’s Athletics Hall of Fame in 1984. In 2002, Molefi Kete Asante included Robinson on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans. Robinson has also been honored by the United States Postal Service on three separate postage stamps, in 1982, 1999, and 2000.

    The City of Pasadena has recognized Robinson in several ways. Brookside Park, situated next to the Rose Bowl, features a baseball diamond and stadium named Jackie Robinson Field. The city's Human Services Department operates the Jackie Robinson Center, a community outreach center that provides early diabetes detection and other services. In 1997, a $325,000 bronze sculpture (equal to $470,522 today) by artists Ralph Helmick, Stu Schecter, and John Outterbridge depicting oversized nine-foot busts of Robinson and his brother Mack was erected at Garfield Avenue, across from the main entrance of Pasadena City Hall; a granite footprint lists multiple donors to the commission project, which was organized by the Robinson Memorial Foundation and supported by members of the Robinson family.

    Major League Baseball has honored Robinson many times since his death. In 1987, both the National and American League Rookie of the Year Awards were renamed the "Jackie Robinson Award" in honor of the first recipient (Robinson's Major League Rookie of the Year Award in 1947 encompassed both leagues). On April 15, 1997, Robinson's jersey number, 42, was retired throughout Major League Baseball, the first time any jersey number had been retired throughout one of the four major American sports leagues.

    As an exception to the retired-number policy, MLB has recently begun honoring Robinson by allowing players to wear number 42 on April 15, Jackie Robinson Day. For the 60th anniversary of Robinson's major league debut, MLB invited players to wear the number 42 on Jackie Robinson Day in 2007. The gesture was originally the idea of outfielder Ken Griffey, Jr., who sought Rachel Robinson's permission to wear the number. After receiving her permission, Commissioner Bud Selig not only allowed Griffey to wear the number, but also extended an invitation to all major league teams to do the same. Ultimately, more than 200 players wore number 42, including the entire rosters of the Los Angeles Dodgers, New York Mets, Houston Astros, Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Cardinals, Milwaukee Brewers, and Pittsburgh Pirates. The tribute was continued in 2008, when, during games on April 15, all members of the Mets, Cardinals, Washington Nationals, and Tampa Bay Rays wore Robinson's number 42. On June 25, 2008, MLB installed a new plaque for Robinson at the Baseball Hall of Fame commemorating his off-the-field impact on the game as well as his playing statistics. In 2009, all uniformed personnel (players, managers, coaches, and umpires) wore number 42 on April 15.

    At the November 2006 groundbreaking for a new ballpark for the New York Mets, Citi Field, it was announced that the main entrance, modeled on the one in Brooklyn's old Ebbets Field, would be called the Jackie Robinson Rotunda. The rotunda was dedicated at the opening of Citi Field on April 16, 2009. It honors Robinson with large quotations spanning the inner curve of the facade and features a large freestanding statue of his number, 42, which has become an attraction in itself. Mets owner Fred Wilpon announced that, in conjunction with Citigroup and the Jackie Robinson Foundation, the Mets will create a Jackie Robinson Museum and Learning Center, located at the headquarters of the Jackie Robinson Foundation at One Hudson Square in lower Manhattan. The main purpose of the museum will be to fund scholarships for "young people who live by and embody Jackie's ideals."

    Since 2004, the Aflac National High School Baseball Player of the Year has been presented the "Jackie Robinson Award".

    Robinson has also been recognized outside of baseball. In December 1956, the NAACP recognized him with the Spingarn Medal, which it awards annually for the highest achievement by an African-American. President Ronald Reagan posthumously awarded Robinson the Presidential Medal of Freedom on March 26, 1984, and on March 2, 2005, President George W. Bush gave Robinson's widow the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian award bestowed by Congress; Robinson was only the second baseball player to receive the award, after Roberto Clemente. On August 20, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and his wife, Maria Shriver, announced that Robinson was inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts in Sacramento.

    A number of buildings have been named in Robinson's honor. The UCLA Bruins baseball team plays in Jackie Robinson Stadium, which, because of the efforts of Jackie's brother Mack, features a memorial statue of Robinson by sculptor Richard H. Ellis. City Island Ballpark in Daytona Beach, Florida—the baseball field that became the Dodgers' de facto spring training site in 1947—was renamed Jackie Robinson Ballpark in 1989. A number of facilities at Pasadena City College (successor to PJC) are named in Robinson's honor, including Robinson Field, a football/soccer/track facility named jointly for Robinson and his brother Mack. The New York Public School system has named a middle school after Robinson, and Dorsey High School plays at a Los Angeles football stadium named after him. In 1976, his home in Brooklyn, the Jackie Robinson House, was declared a National Historic Landmark. Robinson also has an asteroid named after him, 4319 Jackierobinson. In 1997, the United States Mint issued a Jackie Robinson commemorative silver dollar, and five dollar gold coin. That same year, New York City renamed the Interboro Parkway in his honor.

    In 2011, the U.S. placed a plaque at Robinson's Montreal home to honor the ending of segregation in baseball. The home is located at 8232 avenue de Gaspe south of rue de Guizot Est and near Jarry Park and close to Delorimier Stadium, where Robinson played for the Montreal Royals during 1946. In a letter read during the ceremony, Rachel Robinson, Jackie's widow, wrote: "I remember Montreal and that house very well and have always had warm feeling for that great city. Before Jack and I moved to Montreal, we had just been through some very rough treatment in the racially biased South during spring training in Florida. In the end, Montreal was the perfect place for him to get his start. We never had a threatening or unpleasant experience there. The people were so welcoming and saw Jack as a player and as a man."

    Career statistics

    YearTeamGABRH2B3BHRRBISBCSBBSOAVGOBPSLGTBSHSFIBBHBPGDPE
    1945 Kansas City 47 163 36 63 14 4 5 23 13       .387                  
    1946 Montreal 124 444 113 155 25 8 3 66 40   92 27 .349                 10
    1947 Brooklyn 151 590 125 175 31 5 12 48 29   74 36 .297 .383 .427 252 28     9 5 16
    1948 Brooklyn 147 574 108 170 38 8 12 85 22   57 37 .296 .367 .453 260 8     7 7 15
    1949 Brooklyn 156 593 122 203 38 12 16 124 37   86 27 .342 .432 .528 313 17     8 22 16
    1950 Brooklyn 144 518 99 170 39 4 14 81 12   80 24 .328 .423 .500 259 10     5 11 11
    1951 Brooklyn 153 548 106 185 33 7 19 88 25 8 79 27 .338 .429 .527 289 6     9 10 7
    1952 Brooklyn 149 510 104 157 17 3 19 75 24 7 106 40 .308 .440 .465 237 6     14 16 20
    1953 Brooklyn 136 484 109 159 34 7 12 95 17 4 74 30 .329 .425 .502 243 9     7 12 6
    1954 Brooklyn 124 386 62 120 22 4 15 59 7 3 63 20 .311 .413 .505 195 5 4a   7 13 7
    1955 Brooklyn 105 317 51 81 6 2 8 36 12 3 61 18 .256 .378 .363 115 6 3 5b 3 8 10
    1956 Brooklyn 117 357 61 98 15 2 10 43 12 5 60 32 .275 .382 .412 147 9 2 2 3 9 9
    TotalsBrooklyn13824877947151827354137734197 740291.311.409.47423101049772113107
     Career155354941096173634267161867248   .316    97   

    a The sacrifice fly (SF) as a unique statistical category did not exist in Major League Baseball from 1940 through 1953. Any pre-1954 sacrifice flies by Robinson would be reflected in the sacrifice hit (SH) category.

    b Likewise, the intentional walk (IBB) category only became a unique statistic beginning in 1955. Any intentional walks issued to Robinson before that year would be reflected in the walk (BB) category.

     


              RE: Drop the politics...        
    What's political about being upset over 12 hour days, forced over time and a sleazy company? "The reporter, You Wang, and editor, Bao Wen, work for the China Business News, a Shanghai-based daily newspaper. Wang confirmed that they have had their credit cards, apartments and car confiscated for writing an article on June 15 that said employees at Foxconn's Shenzhen factory work 12 hours a day, exceeding the hours-per-week work limit. The report also alleged that workers had to stand while working for 12 hours every day without rest and were not allowed to talk. Female workers reportedly fainted during the long hours."
              Free Howdy Humor To Your E-Mail Box        


    Direct to your mailbox from Howdy:







              Howdy's New Car        



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              The Bedroom Police        


    "University of Florida employees have to pledge
    that they're having sex with their domestic partners
    before qualifying for benefits under a new health
    care plan at the university."

    MORE!!!

              Bay windows are a designer favorite        
    The Raleigh News & Observer was so nice to ask me to write an article for their "Ask A Designer" series.  It appeared in today's Home section--here's the link: http://www.newsobserver.com/2012/03/31/1964910/ask-a-designer-what-will-make.html.

    The whole section was packed with lots of designer tips as well as gardening info, which I love to read while eating my Saturday morning blackberry pancakes.

    However, the layout of my article was unfortunate, as they did not include a picture that I repeatedly referred to!  Readers must have been a bit puzzled.  So, taking matters into my own hands, I'm showing the correct picture in this post.  How handy to have a blog!

    Here's the "before" picture that the reader provided, showing her design dilemma:


    It's a bay window area in her master bedroom and she doesn't know how to finish it.  Nice problem to have, right?  It's a lovely space, looking out at a wooded area. The reader and her hub want a spot to sit with their coffee and newspaper.

    This is the "after" picture that I created:

    I used a neat design softeware to build the room right on top of her picture.  Clients love to have as much help as possible to visualize what their space could look like.  The drapes in this picture are based on one of the fabrics that DeCocco Design is using in our new line of semi-custom window treatments.  The chaise is from West Elm, but folks in the Raleigh area can get the same look and shop local at Dexter Furniture on Glenwood Ave.  They've got a great selection of fabrics, so customizing the chaise to the space would be easy peasy lemon squeezy.

    Hub is painting a new wall color in the Library, in preparation for installation of lovely drapes (again, using one of our fabulous fabrics--I cannot wait to show them all to you!).   Stay tuned for how that turns out!

    Ciao,
    Anne


              Timberwolves uniforms: Let's all agree to disagree        
    The Timberwolves introduced two new uniforms (with two more to come) Thursday, continuing an evolution of appearances spanning nearly three decades as an organization. Their web site suggests this new look is the fifth different style the Wolves have had since they joined the NBA in 1989. There were the originals worn until 1996; there was a re-brand in 1996 to capitalize on the dawn of the Kevin Garnett era; there was a switch in 2008, then a tweak in 2010, and now Thursday’s Nike reveal. My contention is there are really only four distinct looks because 1) The uniforms they wore for two seasons starting in 2008 were so hideous that we should never be forced to look or talk about them and 2) the Wolves quickly realized this and revamped those duds in 2010 with a similar but much better effort. So after the new releases Thursday, there were two burning questions that needed answering: 1) What did folks think of the new jerseys? 2) If they had to rank the four (defined by me) eras of Wolves jerseys 1-4, what would be their order? None of the responses truly shocked me. Instead, they only served to reinforce two ideas: People love to have STRONG opinions about the clothing athletes wear, and those opinions are quite diverse. (When the Lynx unveil a new logo Friday during halftime of their game, it will give everyone a chance to have new opinions). On the subject of the two new Wolves uniforms, there seemed to be a predictably even split between love and hate. I really like the clean lines, simple look and color scheme (and I’m not just saying that because Glen Taylor owns the Timberwolves and this newspaper). Others on Twitter agreed with sentiments such as, “They look great!” while others said the stripes were “hideous” or compared the jerseys to those a team might use for practice. The greater controversy (such as it is) seemed to emerge, though, when attempting to rank the four eras of Wolves jerseys. My order puts the original uniforms on top, with the new uniforms second, the ones they just replaced third and the Garnett-in-his-prime era jerseys last. There was plenty of support for the contention that the original jerseys — and the logo of the wonderful, almost smiling Timberwolf — are the best. There are those among us who remember having a baseball cap with that logo that was so stained with sweat by the time it was tossed out that the smell couldn’t even be eradicated by a run through the dishwasher. As it turns out, nostalgia and green trees are a powerful combination for plenty of other folks who said they like the 1996-2007 Wolves jerseys the best. To be fair, the Timberwolves have never made the playoffs wearing any other clothes, and those jerseys did span almost the entire original Garnett era (though KG conveniently wore each of the first three styles, as pictured above). Some of us just don’t like the trees or the font. That’s OK! Some people really didn’t like the jerseys the Wolves just replaced, but others of us were just fine (if not overly inspired) by them. At least we could all agree that the jerseys worn briefly in the late 2000s were terrible. Wait. “I mean, these actually weren’t terrible. I appreciated the green elements” one Twitter reply stated. With uniforms as in so many aspects of life these days, perhaps the only thing we can agree on is to disagree.
              Spirit Mountain Lodge is Awsome!!!! Always a pleasure to stay there.        
    I give this lodge two thumbs up. The rooms are always clean and comfortable. The staff is always friendly and courteous. Never have had a single problem while staying there. Always look forward to returning upon leaving. They offer a great continental breakfast each morning. They also offer free daily newspapers during the week. I'm a non-smoker and they offer many non-smoking rooms. the interior of the lodge as well as the grounds surrounding it are always meticulousy kept up. Can't say enought good things about this place. I highly recommend it. Stay there and you'll see what I mean.Chris S.Portland,OR
              News Quiz: Test Your Knowledge Of Iowa Newspaper History        
    For as long as Iowa has existed newspapers have recorded the events and people shaping communities, informing current residents but also leaving a history for future generations. But you might not be aware of a few things found in the history of Iowa newspapers.
              [news/commentary] Building ISV Relationships: Targeting SMEs - Part I        
    Thursday, September 16, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    New column on the AlwaysOn Network.  It's on the potential downside of offshoring (the downside for the States, that is).  For the next five days, see http://www.alwayson-network.com ; the permanent link is at http://tinyurl.com/4e4q4 .  It got the ire of a lot of readers and a lot of views (I'm projecting nearly 500 in less than one day).  The article which was the basis for my column is getting a lot of attention in the States.  Worth reading.
     
    Building ISV Relationships: Targeting SMEs -- Part I
     
    First, a bit of commentary.  One thing all smart SIs (systems integrators) do is develop partnerships and alliances with ISVs (independent software vendors, i.e., software publishers/software companies in a broad sense).  Of course, it's difficult to be the 1,000th entrant in the game and expect to get any traction/assistance from your ISV partner.
     
    SIs in China ALWAYS use the approach of offering localization services and OFTEN offer to help push an ISV's product within the domestic market in China.  Frankly, this is what the (usually American) ISV wants, too.  Does this strategy work?  Well, sometimes.  However, even in the case of high profile alliances such as some of those Microsoft has in China (and I won't name names to protect the innocent), it's really nothing more than window dressing.  Everything looks good on paper, but the reality is something quite different.
     
    Regardless, this does NOT address the need and desire for SIs in China to build their market in the States.  And when this issue becomes center stage, ISVs frequently respond with something bordering on contempt.  Some ISVs are getting clued that their American channel partners absolutely need partners in China and other low(er)-cost development areas in order to win bids.  Let's face it, it's all about closing deals.  And if an ISV's competitors have channel partners which can put together winning bids, perhaps in part (and perhaps in LARGE part) due to an offshoring component with their channel partner's SI partner(s) in China, then the ISV with an indirect link to China has a competitive advantage.  I don't view this as a sufficient condition to winning bids, but it's increasingly a necessary condition.
     
    Clued ISVs want their American channel partners to have an offshoring option, but this requires that their channel partners have relationships with SIs in a country such as China.  But ISVs tend to focus their channel development efforts on their American partners and might develop a couple/few relationships in China, but usually NOT tied to their channel development efforts in the States.  Goofy and shortsighted, to say the least.
     
    But how can SIs in China get traction with American ISVs, especially since they're almost always late to the game (in other words, the American ISV already has a well-developed channel)?  The answer (or, at least one answer):  Focus on servicing the needs of SMEs (small and medium enterprises, which is also referred to as "SMBs" -- small and medium businesses).
     
    There's another reason this makes sense:  Most of the SIs in China are already focused on servicing SMEs/SMBs in China.  It might be nice to bag a large SOE (state-owned enterprise), but the reality is that most firms in China, especially the burgeoning number of privately-held firms, are SMEs by definition.  Hence, the experiences gained by SIs in China is already within the same market, although I'd be the first person to warn than company size and even similar domains does not necessarily equate to directly transferable skills.  Fact is, things in China are often quite different from the way they are in the States, especially in a "hot" ITO (IT outsourcing) market like financial services.  More about this in a forthcoming postingBottom line:  Give serious thought to targeting the SMB/SME market in the States.  (Part II of this commentary might be a while in coming.)
     
    IT Tidbits
     
    Lots of tidbits this week.
     
    Controlling project costs.  My favorites:  Scope creep, not understanding project financing, "big-bang" projects, overtesting (although I'm not sure I agree with this one), poor estimating.  Good stuff, with recommended solutions.  See http://tinyurl.com/6rfkg .
     
    Challenges for China's SIs.  Adapted from a Forrester report.   For starters, how about:  Improving account management (are there really any account managers in China, or at least any who can manage accounts with U.S. clients?   ), moving away from technology-centric messages that often alienate business buyers (better yet, moving away from messages in Chinglish), investing in vertical-specific skills (how many times have I said this?) and becoming more multicultural organizations (yes, and let's start with learning English!).  See http://tinyurl.com/4avfo .
     
    "Yee Haw" as an outsourcing option.  Forget India.  Forget China.  Forget the Philippines.  Let's go to Arkansas!!  See http://tinyurl.com/7ya9p .
     
    American start-ups go offshore.  Try Corio (is Corio really a start-up?), CollabNet, Aarohl, Infinera, and many others.  See http://tinyurl.com/3wm3o .  Another good article with a BPO spin in Venture Capital Journal, http://tinyurl.com/4rfsa .
     
    Offshorings mixed results.  "Vietnam and Myanmar were also in demand ..."  Really?  See http://tinyurl.com/647ap .
     
    Looking for SI partners?  Kennedy ranks the largest firms.  As I've said in the past, I like their reports.  (No, I don't get a cut.)  Satyam and TCS didn't make the grade, though.  See http://tinyurl.com/4s965 .
     
    Another challenge to conventional outsourcing and offshoring "wisdom."   "Services-driven development models, such as the one at work in India, broaden the global competitive playing field.  As a result, new pressures are brought to bear on hiring and real wages in the developed world - pressures that are not inconsequential in shaping the jobless recoveries unfolding in high-cost wealthy nations.  For those in the developed world, successful services- and manufacturing-based development models in heavily populated countries such as India and China - pose the toughest question of all: what about us?"  For more, see http://tinyurl.com/4acm4 .
     
    Forget the Golden Triangle.  How about China + India vs. the world (or, sans the world)?  "Newspaper headlines portray China as the world's manufacturing base for low-cost goods, like clothing and shoes, and India as the global IT monopoly-to-be.  Unfortunately, media outside Asia have failed to acknowledge the growing partnership between the two giants."  "Given the complementary nature of their economies and the size of their markets (nearly 2.2 billion people in total), the nascent cooperation between the two holds the potential to dramatically alter the world trade balance.  A perusal of the Shanghai technology corridor reveals a hint of the countries' industrial interconnectedness.  Walk through one of the main complexes in Shanghai's Pudong Software Park, and you will see a prominently displayed sign for Infosys, one of India's most respected IT firms.  The same complex also holds Satyam, the first of India's software service companies to set up offices in Shanghai.  Nearby are the headquarters of the largest software services company in Asia, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), which currently runs an outsourcing center for GE in the town of Hangzhou.  TCS is owned by the Tatas, one of India's most prominent business families.  Across the river is NIIT, the principal software training center in India's private sector.  NIIT, operating in China since 1998, now runs an extensive two-year course in 25 provinces, training around 20,000 students to be software professionals.  There is widespread speculation that Wipro, India's only giant IT firm without a presence in the city, will establish a Shanghai office very soon.  It is no surprise that Indian software companies are setting up in China. They, like everyone else, sense great opportunity in one of the largest, fastest-growing economies in the world."  (Bold is my emphasis.)  All true, and they even forget MphasiS.  See one of my must-read sources, YaleGlobalhttp://tinyurl.com/6ltaz .
     
    The partnering wave of the future.  I've talked about this many times in previous postings.  This time CTG dances with Polaris Software.  See http://tinyurl.com/5tbqd .
     
    CMMi:  The key to success.  A little simplistic and uses incorrect definitions, but still worth reading.  See http://tinyurl.com/4gp9u .
     
     
     
     
     
    How about Microsoft vs. China in an AO "Grudge Match"?  See a lengthy article in CFO titled, "Does Microsoft need China?"; link at http://tinyurl.com/476bo .  China: The champion of open source!!
     
     
    Business creativity 101.  "A new book from Wharton School Publishing, The Power of Impossible Thinking by Jerry Wind and Colin Crook prompts you to rethink your mental models and transform them to help you achieve new levels of creativity. In this book, the authors give a set of guidelines on how to see differently."  Examples:  Listen to the radicals; embark on journeys of discovery; look across disciplines.  See http://tinyurl.com/6fvo8 .
     
    The innovator's battle plan.  "Great firms can be undone by disruptors who analyze and exploit an incumbent's strengths and motivations.  From Clayton Christensen's new book Seeing What's Next."  GREAT stuff (although John Dvorak won't like it).  What about asymmetric warfare theories applied to the realm of corporate innovation and creativity?  Just a thought ...  See http://tinyurl.com/6mbcy .
     
    Your next competitors?  Have you thought about Senegal, Uganda, Kenya, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, especially in the BPO space?  See http://tinyurl.com/5h93z .
     
    Message to product companies: go sell services!!  Interesting take from a VMI perspective.  See http://tinyurl.com/5tqrt .
     
    Don't know much about bloggin'?  Good take on the various types of corporate blogs.  See http://tinyurl.com/6my29 .
     
    Urls as web services?  You have to read it to get it.  Might be a bit too much for the uninitiated ...  See http://tinyurl.com/563gm .
     
    Joel is back and blogging!!  Joel takes on Jakob Nielsen in "it's not just usability."  See http://tinyurl.com/6msmm .
     
    How about open source software for HPC?  See http://tinyurl.com/5qzleWARNING: Geek alert, geek alert!!
     
    Saving the best for last: a piece on Woz.  See http://tinyurl.com/4szjf .
     
    TTFN.  Expect a urls update before I go back to the States.
     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
     
    http://www.itestrategies.com (current blog postings optimized for MSIE6.x)
    http://tinyurl.com/2r3pa (access to blog content archives in China)
    http://tinyurl.com/2azkh (current blog postings for viewing in other browsers and for access to blog content archives in the US & ROW)
    http://tinyurl.com/2hg2e (AvantGo channel)
     
     
    To automatically subscribe click on http://tinyurl.com/388yf .
     

              Payments from local councils to local press        
    At the recent Revival of Local Journalism conference the Chief Executive of Liverpool City Council, Ged Fitzgerald, reminded the audience of local journalists that he’s obliged to use local newspapers to publish statutory notices for planning, road closures and “all sorts of technical type stuff.” That costs his council about £150,000 per year and overall costs the […]
              A new newspaper for Birmingham – one copy only        
    I have just launched a new newspaper for Birmingham. It has 24 pages of fantastic original content covering news, arts, politics, sport, satire. and more. What’s more, it’s written by some of the city’s best writers. The newspaper, printed by Newspaper Club’s new PaperLater service is a single-copy one-off edition. If you want to I can […]
              "Matriarchy" and the Contemporary Black Family        
    For all of you who are wondering where I've been, I'm back to let you that the last few weeks have brought some exciting changes in my life. Not only are we selling our house and moving into a beautiful new home (hopefully within the month of December because it is dang hard to keep a house clean enough to show with an 19-month-old and a 7 1/2-year-old--this situation does not accentuate my better nature!!), but I have also been assigned three new classes for the Spring semester. I am thrilled to be teaching two sections of a "Reading and Writing about Literature" class, an introductory course in the English major, and a colloquium for the Honors College. Because the theme of my colloq so well matches the focus of this blog, I thought that I'd share my syllabus and schedule with you, my loyal followers.

    I've entitled the course "'Matriarchy' and the Contemporary Black Family." As the syllabus demonstrates, we're taking as a springboard the US Department of Labor's Moynihan report of 1965 which--although likely well-intentioned--propelled the myth of the black matriarch into the forefront of the American consciousness. The report attributed the "pathology" of the black family to its "matriarchal" nature, pointing out that many black families were headed by women who oftentimes ran the home and at the same time financially supported the men in their families. The report was meant to convey the necessity of creating more jobs for black men, but many have claimed that it blamed the victims, the women who were--and had been for centuries--keeping it all together in the face of greatly oppressive social and political circumstances. The matriarch myth has stayed with us and has played out in complicated social scripts as well as in popular culture representations of black women.

    This course will therefore investigate "matriarchy," past and present. It starts with "The Articulation of the Matriarch Myth" in 1965 and then jumps back to slavery to explore what I am calling, facetiously, "The Rise of the Matriarch" from slavery times up to the 1960s or so. This portion of the course will examine the historical circumstances that positioned the black woman as so central to the black family and also media representations of this positioning, such as in Amos and Andy, for instance. Next, we will move to "Disciplining the 'Matriarch,'" which will cover the ways that both black men and mainstream America have endeavored to punish black women for their deviance and powers of emasculation in movements such as Black Power and Reaganism. In addition to the listed readings, in these weeks we will view an episode of Sanford and Son, Boyz in the Hood and a documentary on hip-hop music. The fourth unit in the course is "Michelle Obama in the Context of 'Matriarchy'" and will explore Obama's portrayal in the media as an emasculating matriarch and the ways that she has negotiated this stereotype. Finally, in "Making Sense of the 'Matriarch,'" we will try to reckon with the legacy of the matriarch myth for us today.

    I am proud of this course because my conception of the overall narrative arch of the story of the matriarch has been affirmed by the readings that I've found. Like me, many critics and theorists that I'm including in the course trace the myth of matriarchy to Moynihan, and, together, they present a complex and rich understanding of the significance of his report. In other words, the readings build on each other and complicate each other. It is awesome to see the course come together like this!!

    Please take a look at the tentative syllabus that I've posted below! I'd love to hear your suggestions about how I can make this semester an even richer experience for my students as we work together to understand black "matriarchy."

    “Matriarchy” and the Contemporary Black Family

    Instructor Information
    Name: Dr. Andrea Powell Wolfe
    Office: RB 297
    Office Hours: Tuesday 2-3 and 3:30-5, Thursday 2-2:45, and by appointment
    Email: andreapowellwolfe@gmail.com
    Website: http://andreapowellwolfe.weebly.com
    Blog: http://literatimom.blogspot.com

    Course Information
    Title: HONRS 390: Honors Colloquium
    Semester: Spring 2011
    Location: Honors House
    Meeting Times: Tuesday and Thursday 9:30-10:45
    Credit Hours: 3

    Required Texts
    Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun. (any edition)
    Williams, Sherley Anne. Dessa Rose: A Novel. (any edition)

    Additional Texts
    Readings for the course are listed on the schedule below. In addition to the two books that I’m asking you to borrow or purchase, I will also provide some handouts in hard copy. You will access the majority of the readings for this course, however, either on the World Wide Web, through Blackboard, or via Electronic Course Reserves. In order to locate readings stored in the Electronic Course Reserves, log in to CardCat and then select “Course Reserves” from the menu bar.

    Course Description
    This course will constitute a semester-long interrogation of the term “matriarchy” as it has been used over the course of decades to describe the make-up of the black American family. Grounded in an awareness of “matriarchy” as a terrible misnomer in this context, the course will explore ways that the classification of the black family as “matriarchal” has reinforced oppressive cultural and political conditions for black Americans. We will endeavor to recognize the widespread abuse and subjugation of black women over time and still celebrate the strength of black mothers who have nurtured children and maintained families in the most dire of circumstances throughout American history. We will discuss ways that black men have reacted to the labeling of their families as “matriarchal.” Perhaps most importantly, we will attempt to uncover how the stereotype of “the matriarch” continues to play out in contemporary media representations of black womanhood and how it has played out in social scripts surrounding even our current First Lady, Michelle Obama.

    Course Requirements
    Paper #1 100 points
    Paper #2 100 points
    Paper #3 100 points
    Final Exam 200 points
    Participation 20 points per class
    Quizzes 10 points each

    Papers
    Assignment sheets for each paper will be posted in the “Assignments” area in Blackboard. In general, these assignments will ask you to use textual evidence to support thoughtful and sophisticated claims regarding “matriarchy” and the black family. Papers will be 4-5 pages (1400-1750 words) in length and will be due to my email before class on the days noted on the course schedule. Late papers will lose 10 points per day late (including weekends).

    Final Exam
    The final exam will be comprehensive and will consist of short essay questions. In order to prepare for the exam, you will need to read carefully, participate attentively in class, and take good notes throughout the semester.

    Quizzes
    Quizzes over reading notes and class notes may be given without advanced notice. You are always welcome to use written or typed notes for quizzes. Quizzes cannot be made-up.

    Participation
    Your active and thoughtful participation in this course is absolutely critical to its success! Because discussion is such a big part of the Honors Colloquium experience, you will earn daily participation points for coming to class and engaging in meaningful discussion. Part of participation is also preparation to learn and interact in the classroom. This means that you must bring the appropriate reading(s) to class every day, either in hard copy or in electronic form on your laptop. Participation scores will be posted in the grade book in Blackboard after every class.

    Extra Credit
    Because I want to give you the opportunity to make up points that you might lose due to necessary absences, I will allow you to complete two extra credit assignments throughout the semester for a total of 40 points in extra credit. For each extra credit assignment, you will choose a full-length book (either critical or literary) or a film (either documentary or fictional) to review for extra credit. I will be happy to recommend texts that might match your personal interests, and, even if you do not need suggestions from me, I ask that you allow me to “approve” your selections before you begin working on these assignments. Each review should be 3-pages (1050 words) in length and should analyze the representation of black motherhood in the text that you have chosen.

    Attendance Policy
    You will lose all daily participation points when you miss class. While one or two absences may not affect your overall grade in the class, making a habit of missing class will most certainly negatively impact your grade. Any requests for a waiver of the penalty for missing class must be made before the absence for which you seek to be excused.

    Classroom Behavior Policy
    It is my goal to foster a classroom environment in which every student feels comfortable contributing to discussion. Though we will not always agree with one another, we must listen to one another with respect. Furthermore, you are never required to agree with me or with a text we are discussing; disagreement is a valuable part of the thinking process. I will not tolerate disruptive behaviors such as reading newspapers, talking on cell phones, texting, emailing, or sleeping in class. Behaviors like these will cause you to lose participation points for that day. In order to promote engaged discussion, I may ask you to close your laptop at times during class.

    Plagiarism
    In order to protect the integrity of the university and of students who work hard, I take academic dishonesty seriously. The intentional or unintentional use of another’s writing without giving proper credit or any credit is theft and the use of a previously written paper for a current course without approval of the instructor is dishonesty. These types of actions undermine the educational process and may be cause for course failure or expulsion from Ball State University.

    Disabilities/Accommodations Statement
    If you need course adaptations or accommodations because of a disability, if you have emergency medical information to share with me, or if you need special arrangements in case the building must be evacuated, please make an appointment with me as soon as possible

    Extra Help
    I am happy to meet with students about drafts, assignment questions, additional discussions of a text, and absence policies, etc. during office hours or by appointment. I also encourage you to visit a writing tutor at The Writing Center to work on your papers at any stage in the writing process.

    Syllabus Information Disclaimer
    Parts of the syllabus and the course, including the schedule and assignments, are subject to change to meet the needs of students in the course.

    Course Schedule

    Articulating the Matriarch Stereotype

    Tuesday, January 11 Introductions

    Thursday, January 13 Readings Due: Syllabus; Daniel P. Moynihan, US Department of Labor, “The Negro Family: The Case for National Action”, Chapters II-IV

    Tuesday, January 18 Reading Due: Hortense Spillers, “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book” in Blackboard

    The Rise of the “Matriarch”

    Thursday, January 20 Reading Due: Deborah Gray White, “Jezebel and Mammy: The Mythology of Female Slavery” on Reserve

    Tuesday, January 25 Reading Due: Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Chapters I-XIV

    Thursday, January 27 Reading Due: Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Chapters XV-XXXIII

    Tuesday, February 1 Reading Due: Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Chapters XXXIV-XLI; Stephanie Li, “Motherhood as Resistance in Harriet Jacobs’s Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl” in Blackboard

    Thursday, February 3 Reading Due: Deborah Gray White, “From Slavery to Freedom” handout

    Tuesday, February 8 Reading Due: YouTube videos, “Scarlett Dresses for the Barbeque”, “Mammy—Gone with the Wind”; Maria St. John, “’It Ain’t Fittin’: Cinematic and Fantasmatic Contours of Mammy in Gone with the Wind and Beyond” in Blackboard

    Thursday, February 10 Reading Due: George Kirby, “Amos and Andy: Anatomy of a Controversy”

    Tuesday, February 15 Reading Due: Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun, Acts I-2

    Thursday, February 17 Reading Due: Lorraine Hansberry, A Raisin in the Sun, Act 3; Ellen Silber, “Seasoned with Quiet Strength: Black Womanhood in Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun (1959)” in Blackboard

    Disciplining the “Matriarch”

    Tuesday, February 22 Assignment Due: Paper #1

    Thursday, February 24 Reading Due: bell hooks, “The Imperialism of Patriarchy” on Reserve

    Tuesday, March 1 Reading Due: Amiri Baraka, “20-Century Fox,” “Newshit,” “Song,” “Lady Bug,” “A Poem for Black Hearts,” “Black Art,” “For a Lady I Know,” “Civil Rights Poem,” “Beautiful Black Women . . .,” “Bludoo Baby Want Money and Alligator Got it to Give,” “Leroy,” and “Who Will Survive America” handout; Daniel Matlin, “’Lift Up Yr Self’: Reinterpreting Amiri Baraka (Leroi Jones), Black Power, and the Uplift Tradition” in Blackboard

    Thursday, March 3 Reading Due: Hortense Spillers, “Interstices: A Small Drama of Words” on Reserve

    Tuesday, March 8 No Class; Spring Break

    Thursday, March 10 No Class; Spring Break

    Tuesday, March 15 Reading Due: Herman Gray, “Reaganism and the Sign of Blackness” on Reserve

    Thursday, March 17 Reading Due: Sherley Anne Williams, Dessa Rose, “Prologue” and “The Darkey”

    Tuesday, March 22 Reading Due: Sherley Anne Williams, Dessa Rose, “The Wench” and “The Negress”

    Thursday, March 24 Reading Due: Sherley Anne Williams, Dessa Rose, “Epilogue”; Ashraf H. Rushdy, “Reading Mammy: The Subject of Relation in Sherley Anne Williams’ Dessa Rose” in Blackboard

    Tuesday, March 29 Reading Due: Linda M. Burton and M. Belinda Tucker, “Romantic Unions in an Era of Uncertainty: A Post-Moynihan Perspective on African American Women and Marriage” in Blackboard

    Thursday, March 31 Reading Due: “Between Apocalypse and Redemption: John Singleton’s Boyz in the Hood” in Blackboard

    Tuesday, April 5 Reading Due: Mark Anthony Neal, “Baby Mama (Drama) and Baby Daddy (Trauma): Post-Soul Gender Politics” on Reserve

    Michelle Obama in the Context of “Matriarchy”

    Thursday, April 7 Assignment Due: Paper #2

    Tuesday, April 12 Reading Due: Mosheh Oinounou and Bonney Kapp, “Michelle Obama Takes Heat for Saying She’s ‘Proud of My Country’ for the First Time”; Fox News, “Outraged Liberals: Stop Picking on Obama’s Baby Mama!”; Marcus Baram, “Rusty DePass, South Carolina GOP Activist, Says Escaped Gorilla Was Ancestor of Michelle Obama”; The Paparazzis, “Comedian Jay Mohr disrespects Michelle Obama”; Alicia Shepard, “Juan Williams, NPR and Fox News”

    Thursday, April 14 Reading Due: Fight the Smears, “The Truth about Michelle”; Lois Romano, “Voices of Power: White House Social Secretary Desirée Rogers,” Chapter 3; The White House, “First Lady Michelle Obama”

    Tuesday, April 19 Reading Due: The Huffington Post, “Up In Arms: Michelle Obama’s Sleeveless Style Sparks Controversy”; Wendy Donahue, “Some harrumph over Michelle Obama’s sleeveless dress”; Bonnie Fuller, “Michelle Obama’s Sleevegate: Why Can’t America Handle Her Bare Arms?”; Madison Park, “How to get Michelle Obama’s toned arms”; Andrea Sachs, “Michelle Obama’s Fashion Statement”; Danny Shea, “New York Magazine Blog Takes Down Michelle Obama Booty Post”; Gina, “Another ‘Booty’ Post: ‘That Site’ Puts the Marginalization and Dehumanization of First Lady Michelle Obama Up for Vote”; Erin Aubry Kaplan, “The Michelle Obama Hair Challenge”

    Thursday, April 21 Reading Due: The White House Organic Farm Project, “About TheWhoFarm”; Michelle Obama, “Remarks by the First Lady to Unity Health Care Center”; Sesame Street, “Sesame Street: Michelle Obama and Elmo—Healthy Habits”; AOL Health, “First Lady Michelle Obama Answers Your Questions on Let’s Move!”

    Tuesday, April 26 Reading Due: Patricia Yaeger, “Circum-Atlantic Superabundance: Milk as World-Making in Alice Randall and Kara Walker” in Blackboard; Kara Walker, “I Dream of Michelle Obama”

    Tuesday, April 26 Reading Due: Andrea Powell Wolfe, “Michelle Obama and the Historical Positioning of the Black Mother within the Nation” in Blackboard; Ann Ducille, “Marriage, Family, and Other ‘Peculiar Institutions’ in African-American Literary History” in Blackboard

    Making Sense of “Matriarchy”

    Thursday, April 28 Assignment Due: Paper #3

    Thursday, May 5 Final Exam at 9:45-11:45
              51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best? A. A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits. B. Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time. C. Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan. D. A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.         

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that: A. you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B. the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80. C. you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours. D.         

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel. A. physical, digital B. e-commerce, digital C. physical, financial D. digital, e-commerce E. digital, physical        

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________. A. Tracking cookies B. Web data C. Information D. Clickstream data E. Hyperlink data        

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information. A. regionalization B. globalization C. nationalization D. business environment         

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________. A. a code of ethics B. responsibility charters C. a strategic plan D. a mission statement E. a goals outline        

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____. A. Illegal, unethical B. Unethical, legal C. Ethical, illegal D. Unethical, illegal E. Ethical, legal        

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.
    C.   Nominal GDP values production at current prices, whereas real GDP values production at constant prices.
    D.   Nominal GDP values production at constant prices, whereas real GDP values production at current prices.
               
    23) Which of the following is not correct?
    A.   The U.S. debt per-person is large compared with average lifetime income.
    B.   In 2005, the U.S. government had a deficit. C.   A potential cost of deficits is that they reduce national saving, thereby reducing growth of the capital stock and output growth.
    D.   Deficits give people the opportunity to consume at the expense of their children, but they do not require them to do so.
               
    24) The part of the balance of payments account that lists all long-term flows of payments is called the:
    A.   balance of trade. B.   financial and capital account.
    C.   government financial account.
    D.   current account.
    25) Edward Prescott and Finn Kydland won the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2004. One of their contributions was to argue that if a central bank could convince people to expect zero inflation, then the Fed would be tempted to raise output by increasing inflation. This possibility is known as __________.
    A.   the sacrifice ratio dilemma B.   the monetary policy reaction lag
    C.   the time inconsistency of policy
    D.   inflation targeting
    26) In general, the longest lag for __________.
    A.   fiscal policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for monetary policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    B.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    C.   monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy, while for fiscal policy the longest lag is the time it takes for policy to affect aggregate demand
    D.   both fiscal and monetary policy is the time it takes to change policy
    27) Consider two items that might be included in GDP: (1) The estimated rental value of owner-occupied housing; and (2) purchases of newly-constructed homes. How are these two items accounted for when GDP is calculated?
    A.   Only item (2) is included in GDP and it is included in the investment component.
    B.   Item (1) is included in the consumption component, while item (2) is included in the investment component.
    C.   Item (1) is included in the investment component, while item (2) is included in the consumption component.
    D.   Both item (1) and item (2) are included in the consumption component of GDP.

    28) Managers will utilize __________ skills with increasing frequency as they rise within an organization.
    A.   Professional B.   Interpersonal and communication
    C.   Technical D.   Professional E.   Conceptual and decision
    29) Which of these represent skills that managers need?
    A.   Interpersonal, quantitative, and professional B.   Technical, interpersonal & communication and conceptual & decision making
    C.   Professional, technical and interpersonal & communication D.   Conceptual & decision making, professional and technical E.   Interpersonal & communication, conceptual & decision making and professional
               
    30) Building a dynamic organization is another way of describing which function of management?
    A.   Staffing B.   Organizing
    C.   Leading D.   Controlling
    E.   Planning
    31) Your roommate is interested in starting a business and everybody has been giving him different information about being an entrepreneur. Since you have been studying about entrepreneurship and new ventures, which of these would you tell him is true?
    A.   Anyone can start a business B.   All entrepreneurs need venture capital in order to get started C.   Successful entrepreneurs take very careful, calculated risks D.   Entrepreneurs are their own bosses and completely independent
    E.   Money should not be considered a start-up ingredient
    32) The term used to refer to all kinds of differences including religious affiliation, age, disability status, economic class and lifestyle in addition to gender, race, ethnicity and nationality is:
    A.   Diversity B.   Managerial ethics
    C.   Recruiting D.   Employment E.   Selection
    33) A manager's ability to stimulate people to be high performers is referred to as:
    A.   Planning B.   Supervising
    C.   Controlling
    D.   Organizing E.   Leading
    34) A series of quality standards developed by a committee working under the International Organization for Standardization to improve total quality in all businesses for the benefit of both producers and consumers is:
    A.   Total quality management B.   Customer-based integration C.   Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
    D.   Just-in-time control (JIT)
    E.   ISO 9000
    35) Japanese manufacturers' kaizen (continuous improvement) programs enable them to maintain:
    A.   A strategic alliance B.   A homogeneous workforce C.   Positive working relationships with all employees
    D.   A Learning advantage over their competition E.   Larger, faster facilities
    36) Listening to employee suggestions, gaining support for organizational objectives and fostering an atmosphere of teamwork are all considered:
    A.   Technical skills B.   Conceptual C.   Professional skills D.   Interpersonal/communication skills
    E.   Diagnostic skills
    37) The basic components of an effective sexual harassment policy include the following EXCEPT:
    A.   To develop an organization wide policy on sexual harassment B.   To establish a means for ongoing training C.   To act immediately when employees complain of sexual harassment
    D.   To establish a performance appraisal system E.   To establish a formal complaint procedure
    38) Teams that operate separately from the regular work structure and exist temporarily are known as:
    A.   Management teams B.   Transnational teams
    C.   Self-managed teams
    D.   Parallel teams E.   Self-designing teams
               
    39) The Aquatic Center, Inc. periodically reviews the goals of the company. During the process, The Aquatic Center managers analyze their current strategies as compared to their competitors, determine goals that they will pursue and decide upon specific actions for each area of the company to take in pursuit of these goals. The Aquatic Center managers have been engaged in the management function of:
    A.   Goal Coordination
    B.   Controlling C.   Organizing D.   Staffing E.   Planning
    40) As related to managing of human resources, diversity refers to:
    A.   Differences in demographics (such as age, race, gender, disability status, lifestyle, veteran status, educational level, etc.)
    B.   Differences in pay methods (such as hourly, salaried, overtime, hazard-pay, commissioned, etc.)
    C.   Differences in employee benefit plans (such as pensions, insurance, vacations, memberships, etc.)
    D.   Differences in retention strategies (such as training, hiring, incentives, etc) E.   Differences in recruiting methods (such as newspapers, schools, flyers, magazines, agencies, etc.)
               
    41) __________ is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.
    A.   Controlling B.   Decision making
    C.   Planning D.   Supervising E.   Management
    42) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, the median is _____.
    A.   3 B.   3.5
    C.   2.5
    D.   2
    43) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(S | W) is approximately _____.
    A.   .40
    B.   .30
    C.   .12
    D.   .58
               
    44) Use the following table to answer question:
     P(M  A) is approximately _____.
    A.   .50 B.   .625
    C.   .125
    D.   .25
    45) Dullco Manufacturing claims that its alkaline batteries last forty hours on average in a certain type of portable CD player. Tests on a random sample of 18 batteries showed a mean battery life of 37.8 hours with a standard deviation of 5.4 hours.
    In determining the p-value for reporting the study's findings, which of the following is true?
    A.   The p-value is equal to .05. B.   The p-value is greater than .05. C.   The p-value cannot be determined without specifying  . D.   The p-value is less than .05.
    46) William used a sample of 68 U.S. cities to estimate the relationship between Crime (annual property crimes per 100,000 persons) and Income (median income per capita). His estimated regression equation was Crime = 428 + .050 Income.
    Which outcomes would be likely in a bivariate regression on 45 randomly chosen U.S. cities in 2005 with
    Y = number of robberies in each city (thousands of robberies) and
    X = size of police force in each city (thousands of police)?
    A.   High R2 (due to city size). B.   Positive slope (due to city size).
    C.   No correlation. D.   Autocorrelation.
    47) Twelve randomly-chosen students were asked how many times they had missed class during a certain semester, with this result: 2, 1, 5, 1, 1, 3, 4, 3, 1, 1, 5, 18.
    For this sample, which measure of central tendency is least representative of the “typical” student?
    A.   Midrange
    B.   Mean C.   Mode D.   Median
               
    48) Likely reasons for inaccurate control limits would include which of the following?
    A.   Process variation was not zero, as expected. B.   The engineering parameter for variance is unknown.
    C.   There was insufficient preliminary sampling. D.   The engineers were underpaid for their work.
    49) You are faced with a linear programming objective function of:
    Max P = $20X + $30Y
    and constraints of:
    3X + 4Y = 24 (Constraint A)
    5X – Y = 18 (Constraint B)
    You discover that the shadow price for Constraint A is 7.5 and the shadow price for Constraint B is 0. Which of these statements is TRUE?
    A.   The most you would want to pay for an additional unit of A would be $7.50.
    B.   You can change quantities of X and Y at no cost for Constraint B. C.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, the price of A rises by $7.50.
    D.   For every additional unit of the objective function you create, you lose 0 units of B.
               
    50) A project has three paths. A–B–C has a length of 25 days. A–D–C has a length of 15 days. Finally, A–E–C has a length of 20 days. Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
    A.   The expected duration of this project is 25 + 15 + 20 = 60 days.
    B.   A–D–C is the critical path. C.   The expected duration of this project is 25 days. D.   A–B–C has the most slack.
    51) Which one of the following statements concerning production and staffing plans is best?
    A.   A master production schedule is a projected statement of income, costs, and profits.
    B.   Aggregation can be performed along three dimensions: product families, labor, and time.
    C.   Production plans are based primarily on information from the master production plan.
    D.   A staffing plan is the intermediate link between the business plan and the master production schedule.
               
    52) While glancing over the sensitivity report, you note that the stitching labor has a shadow price of $10 and a lower limit of 24 hours with an upper limit of 36 hours. If your original right hand value for stitching labor was 30 hours, you know that:
    A.   you would lose $80 if one of your workers missed an entire 8 hour shift. B.   the next worker that offers to work an extra 8 hours should receive at least $80.
    C.   you would be willing pay up to $60 for someone to work another 6 hours.
    D.   you can send someone home 6 hours early and still pay them the $60 they would have earned while on the clock.

    53) The costs of delivering products in the _____ channel are much higher than delivering products in the _____ channel.
    A.   physical, digital B.   e-commerce, digital
    C.   physical, financial D.   digital, e-commerce
    E.   digital, physical
    54) When customers access a Web site and make purchases, they generate __________.
    A.   Tracking cookies B.   Web data C.   Information D.   Clickstream data
    E.   Hyperlink data
    55) _____ is the integration of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enabled by information.
    A.   regionalization B.   globalization C.   nationalization D.   business environment
               
    56) Various organizations that promote fair and responsible use of information systems often develop __________.
    A.   a code of ethics B.   responsibility charters
    C.   a strategic plan D.   a mission statement E.   a goals outline
    57) What is _____ is not necessarily _____.
    A.   Illegal, unethical B.   Unethical, legal C.   Ethical, illegal D.   Unethical, illegal
    E.   Ethical, legal
    58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening.
    A.   Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language
    B.   Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C.   Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D.   Data mining, expert system E.   Multidimensional data analysis, data mining
    59) Computer support is greatest for which of the following problems?
    A.   Semistructured and strategic planning B.   Semistructured and management control
    C.   Unstructured and operational control D.   Structured and operational control E.   Structured and management control
    60) The management cockpit best exemplifies which type of system?
    A.   Decision support system B.   Functional area information system
    C.   Expert system D.   Digital dashboard E.   Group decision support system
    61) _____ is the efficient and effective execution of specific tasks.
    A.   Operational control
    B.   Expertise C.   Management control
    D.   Strategic planning E.   Wisdom
    62) Geocoding is __________.
    A.   accessing geographical information B.   integrating maps with spatially oriented databases and other databases
    C.   integrating organizational transactions with spatially oriented databases D.   programming spatially oriented databases E.   encrypting spatial information
    63) At 8% compounded annually, how long will it take $750 to double?
    A.   48 months
    B.   6.5 years C.   9 years D.   12 years
    64) Which of the following represents an attempt to measure the earnings of the firm’s operations over a given time period?
    A.   Cash flow statement
    B.   Balance sheet C.   Income statement D.   Quarterly statement
               
    65) A machine costs $1,000, has a three-year life, and has an estimated salvage value of $100. It will generate after-tax annual cash flows (ACF) of $600 a year, starting next year. If your required rate of return for the project is 10%, what is the NPV of this investment? (Round your answerwer to the nearest $10.)
    A.   $570 B.   $490 C.   $900 D.   -$150
               
    66) Disadvantages of using current liabilities as opposed to long-term debt include:
    A.   higher cash flow exposure B.   greater risk of illiquidity, and uncertainty of interest costs
    C.   decreased risk of liquidity D.   certainty of interest costs E.   uncertainty of future liabilities
    67) Petrified Forest Skin Care, Inc. pays an annual perpetual dividend of $1.70 per share. If the stock is currently selling for $21.25 per share, what is the expected rate of return on this stock?
    A.   12.5% B.   36.13%
    C.   8.0% D.   13.6%
    68) Which of the following is most consistent with the hedging principle in working capital management?
    A.   Fixed assets should be financed with short-term notes payable. B.   Inventory should be financed with preferred stock. C.   Accounts receivable should be financed with short-term lines of credit.
    D.   Borrow on a floating rate basis to finance investments in permanent assets.
               
    69) An increase in future value can be caused by an increase in the __________.
    A.   original amount invested B.   annual interest rate and number of compounding periods
    C.   rate of return D.   dividends paid E.   starting value
    70) If the quote for a forward exchange contract is greater than the computed price, the forward contract is:
    A.   at equilibrium.
    B.   undervalued. C.   a good buy. D.   overvalued.
    71) Your company is considering an investment in a project which would require an initial outlay of $300,000 and produce expected cash flows in Years 1 through 5 of $87,385 per year. You have determined that the current after-tax cost of the firm’s capital (required rate of return) for each source of financing is as follows:
    Cost of debt     8%
    Cost of preferred stock           12%
    Cost of common stock            16%
    Long-term debt currently makes up 20% of the capital structure, preferred stock 10%, and common stock 70%. What is the net present value of this project?
    A.   $1,568
    B.   $871 C.   $1,241
    D.   $463
    72) Suppose you determine that the NPV of a project is $1,525,855. What does that mean?
    A.   The project’s IRR would have to be less that the firm’s discount rate. B.   The project would add value to the firm. C.   Under all conditions, the project’s payback would be less than the profitability index.
    D.   In all cases, investing in this project would be better than investing in a project that has an NPV of $850,000.
               
    73) The common stockholders are most concerned with:
    A.   the spread between the return generated on new investments and the investor’s required rate of return.
    B.   the size of the firm’s beginning earnings per share. C.   the risk of the investment. D.   the percentage of profits retained.
    74) PepsiCo calculates unlevered betas for each peer group in order to:
    A.   eliminate different financial risks.
    B.   eliminate competitive factors. C.   eliminate judgment factors. D.   eliminate different business risks.
    75) Which of the following best represents operating income?
    A.   Income from discontinued operations
    B.   Earnings before interest and taxes C.   Income from capital gains D.   Income after financing activities
    76) In comparison to the buying of final consumers, the purchasing of organizational buyers:
    A.   is even less predictable. B.   leans basically toward economy, quality, and dependability.
    C.   is always emotional. D.   is strictly economic and not at all emotional. E.   is always based on competitive bids from multiple suppliers.
               
    77) The basic objective of the U.S. market-directed economic system is to:
    A.   achieve an annual growth rate of at least 10 percent. B.   provide each person with an equal share of the economic output.
    C.   make the most efficient use of the country's resources. D.   minimize inflation. E.   satisfy consumer needs as they--the consumers--see them.
    78) Comparing GDP for foreign countries can help a marketing manager evaluate potential markets if the manager remembers that:
    A.   GDP measures show people's tendency to buy particular products. B.   income tends to be evenly distributed among consumers in most countries. C.   GDP estimates may not be very accurate for very different cultures and economies.
    D.   Other countries most likely don’t use the US Dollar as their primary currency.
    E.   GDP measures show the degree of competition in a market.
    79) A firm's "marketing mix" decision areas would NOT include:
    A.   Promotion.
    B.   People. C.   Price. D.   Place. E.   Product.
    80) __________ is a marketing management aid which refers to how customers think about proposed and/or present brands in a market.
    A.   Brand familiarity B.   Positioning
    C.   Market scanning D.   Customer relationship management (CRM)
    E.   Market segmentation
    81) The "four Ps" of a marketing mix are:
    A.   Production, Personnel, Price, and Physical Distribution
    B.   Promotion, Production, Price, and People C.   Potential customers, Product, Price, and Personal Selling
    D.   Product, Price, Promotion, and Profit E.   Product, Place, Promotion, and Price
    82) When evaluating macro-marketing:
    A.   the evaluation is necessarily subjective. B.   the best approach is to consider the profit generated by individual firms within the overall system.
    C.   one must determine how efficiently the society's resources are used. D.   one must consider the society’s role in the marketing system. E.   one must consider each individual firm's role in the marketing system.
    83) A cluster analysis of the "toothpaste market" would probably show that:
    A.   the broad product-market can be served effectively with one marketing mix.
    B.   most consu
              58) _____ provides users with a view of what is happening, where _____ addresses why it is happening. A. Multidimensional data analysis, structured query language B. Multidimensional data analysis, neural networks C. Data mining, multidimensional data analysis D. Data mining, expert system E. Multidimensional data analysis, data mining        

    BUS/475 Guide 4


    1) The cost principle requires that when assets are acquired, they be recorded at __________.
    A.   list price B.   selling price C.   exchange price paid D.   appraisal value
    2) "Generally accepted" in the phrase generally accepted accounting principles means that the principles __________.
    A.   have been approved for use by the managements of business firms
    B.   have been approved by the Internal Revenue Service C.   have substantial authoritative support D.   are proven theories of accounting
    3) The standards and rules that are recognized as a general guide for financial reporting are called __________.
    A.   standards of financial reporting B.   operating guidelines C.   generally accepted accounting principles D.   generally accepted accounting standards
    4) Sam's Used Cars uses the specific identification method of costing inventory. During March, Sam purchased three cars for $6,000, $7,500, and $9,750, respectively. During March, two cars are sold for $9,000 each. Sam determines that at March 31, the $9,750 car is still on hand. What is Sam’s gross profit for March?
    A.   $8,250
    B.   $750 C.   $4,500
    D.   $5,250
               
    5) Hess, Inc. sells a single product with a contribution margin of $12 per unit and fixed costs of $74,400 and sales for the current year of $100,000. How much is Hess’s break even point?
    A.   2,133 units
    B.   6,200 units
    C.   $25,600 D.   4,600 units
               
    6) As Plant Controller, you are trying to determine which costs over which you have the most control on a day to day basis. Your goal is to achieve better profitability. The Plant Operations Manager suggests that overhead is the easiest area to directly reduce costs. Which of the following items would be classified as manufacturing overhead?
    A.   The western division’s vice president’s salary
    B.   Cost of landscaping the corporate office C.   General corporate liability insurance D.   Factory janitor
    7) What is the preparation of reports for each level of responsibility in the company’s organization chart called?
    A.   Master budgeting analysis
    B.   Exception reporting C.   Responsibility reporting
    D.   Static reporting
    8) Disney’s variable costs are 30% of sales. The company is contemplating an advertising campaign that will cost $22,000. If sales are expected to increase $40,000, by how much will the company's net income increase?
    A.   $6,000 B.   $12,000
    C.   $28,000
    D.   $18,000
               
    9) The cost of an asset and its fair market value are __________.
    A.   never the same B.   irrelevant when the asset is used by the business in its operations
    C.   the same on the date of acquisition D.   the same when the asset is sold
    10) Which one of the following is a product cost?
    A.   Indirect labor B.   Sales person’s salaries
    C.   Advertising costs D.   Office salaries
    11) What exists when budgeted costs exceed actual results?
    A.   A budgeting error B.   An unfavorable difference
    C.   An excess profit D.   A favorable difference
    12) The income statement and balance sheet columns of Pine Company's worksheet reflects the following totals:
                            Income Statement                  Balance Sheet
                Dr.       Cr.                   Dr.       Cr.
    Totals              $58,000           $48,000                       $34,000           $44,000
               

    Closing entries are necessary for __________.
    A.   permanent accounts only B.   both permanent and temporary accounts
    C.   permanent or real accounts only D.   temporary accounts only
    13) Managerial accounting __________.
    A.   is concerned with costing products B.   pertains to the entity as a whole and is highly aggregated
    C.   places emphasis on special-purpose information D.   is governed by generally accepted accounting principles
               
    14) H55 Company sells two products, beer and wine. Beer has a 10 percent profit margin and wine has a 12 percent profit margin. Beer has a 27 percent contribution margin and wine has a 25 percent contribution margin. If other factors are equal, which product should H55 push to customers?
    A.   Beer B.   Selling either results in the same additional income for the company
    C.   It should sell an equal quantity of both D.   Wine
    15) Lekeisha's income exceeds her expenditures. Lekeisha is a __________.
    A.   saver who demands money from the financial system B.   borrower who demands money from the financial system
    C.   borrower who supplies money to the financial system D.   saver who supplies money to the financial system
    16) Maurice receives $100 as a birthday gift. In deciding how to spend the money, he narrows his options down to four choices: Option A, Option B, Option C, and Option D. Each option costs $100. Finally he decides on Option B. The opportunity cost of this decision is __________.
    A.   the value to Maurice of the option he would have chosen had Option B not been available
    B.   $100 C.   $300 D.   the value to Maurice of Options A, C and D combined
    17) A production possibilities frontier will be a straight line if __________.
    A.   the economy is producing efficiently B.   the economy is engaged in trade with at least one other economy C.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails no opportunity cost in terms of the other good
    D.   increasing the production of one good by x units entails a constant opportunity cost in terms of the other good
               
    18) In economics, the cost of something is __________.
    A.   what you give up to get it B.   often impossible to quantify, even in principle C.   the dollar amount of obtaining it D.   always measured in units of time given up to get it
               
    19) A tax on an imported good is called a __________.
    A.   supply tax
    B.   trade tax C.   quota D.   tariff
    20) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   GDP is to a nation’s economy as household income is to a household. B.   GDP increases if the total population increases. C.   GDP measures two things at once: the total income of everyone in the economy and the unemployment rate.
    D.   Money continuously flows from households to government and then back to households, and GDP measures this flow of money.
               
    21) In computing GDP, market prices are used to value final goods and services because __________.
    A.   if market prices are out of line with how people value goods, the government sets price ceilings and price floors
    B.   Market prices are not used in computing GDP C.   market prices reflect the values of goods and services D.   market prices do not change much over time, so it is easy to make comparisons between years

    22) Which of the following statements about GDP is correct?
    A.   Nominal GDP values production at market prices, whereas real GDP values production at the cost of the resources used in the production process.
    B.   Nominal GDP consistently underestimates the value of production, whereas real GDP consistently overestimates the value of production.