Entrepreneur and a Multi-millionare, Elon Musk is looking forward to blend machine and man with a new start-up wanting to design the cutting-edge brain implant technology. The owner of SpaceX and TEsla has recently launched Neuralink with an aim to connect computers directly with human brains. Neuralink wants to design and develop, what they call, […]
Elon Musk ma doÅÄ szerokie zainteresowania. A do tego moÅ¼liwoÅci, by je rozwijaÄ. Zajmuje siÄ wiÄc samochodami elektrycznymi, rakietami, a od lipca ubiegÅego roku caÅkowicie na powaÅ¼nie rozwija technologiÄ interface’u mÃ³zg-maszyna. Ten ostatni temat zostaÅ przez niego zasygnalizowany juÅ¼ jesieniÄ … Czytaj dalej →
World-famous entrepreneur Elon Musk has created a new company called Neuralink which will focus on developing the human brain through the power of technological augmentation. At last years' Code Conference Musk spoke about the idea of using surgical connections to the brain to allow an individual to interact with computers (including the mouse and keyboard) without having to use bandwidth. Since then, he has revealed on Twitter that progress has been made on this exploratory technology.
Automobilul electric Tesla Model 3 a fost lansat oficial, pe scenÄ urcÃ¢nd chiar Elon Musk, omul care a Ã®nfiinÈat companiile PayPal, Tesla Motors, SolarCity, Hyperloop, Neuralink Èi SpaceX. Toate aceste compania au realizat sau sunt pe cale sÄ realizeze proiecte la care alÈii nici mÄcar nu au curajul sÄ viseze. DupÄ lansarea pe piaÈÄ a […]
Elon Musk has confirmed that he's now the CEO of Neuralink, which may well be his most ambitious project. Neuralink aims to connect human brains and computers, making AI an extension of the brain as seamless to access as an extra faculty.
Neurologists Discover Fully Intact 15th Century Brain in Ohio Congressman â Marveling at how well preserved the archaic opinions were, a team of archaeologists from the Smithsonian Institution and neurologists from Johns Hopkins announced Thursday the discovery of a fully intact 15th-century belief system in Ohio congressman Jim Jordan (R-OH). âItâs just extraordinary to come across a perspective that dates back to the early to mid-1500s and shows absolutely no signs of decay,â said Dr. Claire Goedde, explaining that while itâs not uncommon to encounter partial remains of convictions from that era, itâs exceedingly rare to recover a specimen this pristine. âAll the 600-year-old viewpoints remain almost completely untouched, from religionâs place in society to the rights of women to some basic scientific concepts, particularly concerning the 1st and 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics. Things the rest of the species have known for centuries.â The researcher noted -âI can only imagine the insights this single sample will provide as to how people who lived centuries ago saw the world around them.â Goedde added, however, that the congressmanâs belief system was fragile even in near-perfect condition and could deteriorate rapidly if examined too much.
âThere Was No Escaping Itâ: Iraq Vets Are Becoming Terminally Ill and Burn Pits May Be To Blame - The Iraq War killed former Minnesota Air National Guard Tech Sgt. Amie Muller. It just took a decade to do it. That, at least, is how Mullerâs family and friends see it. The 36-year-oldâs pancreatic cancer, they believe, was caused by exposure to the massive burn pit used to dispose of waste at Joint Base Balad, 40 miles north of Baghdad. Her doctors said there was a strong possibility the burn pit was to blame, but no way to definitively prove a link with the available evidence. Regardless, a young mother of three died in February from a disease that typically is diagnosed at age 71. âIt makes me really mad,â Muller told the Minneapolis Star-Tribune in June 2016, a month after learning she had Stage III pancreatic cancer. âI inhaled that stuff all day, all night. Everything that they burned there is illegal to burn in America. That tells you something.â Even as her life came to an end, Muller sought to prevent others from suffering a similar fate. Despite being in physical pain from the cancer, and agonizing over the thought of leaving her children without a mom, she became a voice for veterans who believe that the modern battlefield, with its burn pits, fine dust, and metal-laden soil, is an environmental killer. âAmie Muller served this country with distinction, and we owe her our gratitude,â Sen. Amy Klobuchar, a Democrat from Minnesota, said in a statement following Mullerâs death on Feb. 18. Klobuchar had gotten to know Muller during her illness, and just 10 days before Muller died, the senator teamed up with Republican Sen. Thom Tillis of North Carolina to sponsor legislation that would require the VA to establish a center of excellence to study and improve the diagnosis and treatment of burn pit-related illnesses. To date, 34 members of the House and Senate have added their names to the Senate bill, S. 319, Helping Veterans Exposed to Burn Pits, and its companion House bill, H.R. 1279, in support. Veterans have long reported health issues thought to be related to combat deployments, and Congress has discussed the associated health risks at 30 hearings since 2009. In 2013, the legislators even ordered the VA to establish a registry to track veterans who believe they are sick as a result of exposure to burn pits or other environmental factors in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Teflon Toxin Found in North Carolina Drinking Water - A persistent and toxic industrial chemical known as GenX has been detected in the drinking water in Wilmington, North Carolina, and in surface waters in Ohio and West Virginia. DuPont introduced GenX in 2009 to replace PFOA, a compound it used to manufacture Teflon and coatings for stain-resistant carpeting, waterproof clothing, and many other consumer products. PFOA, also known as C8, was phased out after DuPont was hit with a class-action suit over health and environmental concerns. Yet as The Intercept reported last year, GenX is associated with some of the same health problems as PFOA, including cancer and reproductive issues. Levels of GenX in the drinking water of one North Carolina water utility, the Cape Fear Public Utility Authority, averaged 631 ppt (parts per trillion), according to a study published in Environmental Science & Technology Letters in 2016. Although researchers didnât test the water of two other drinking water providers that also draw water from that area of the Cape Fear River, the entire watershed downstream of the Chemours discharge, which is a source of drinking water for some 250,000 people, is likely to be contaminated, according to Detlef Knappe, one of the authors of the study. Research presented at a conference this week at Northeastern University detailed the presence of GenX in water in North Carolina and Ohio. In both cases, the chemical was found in water near plants that were owned by DuPont and since 2015 have been operated by DuPontâs spinoff company, Chemours. Both GenX and PFOA belong to a larger group of chemicals known as PFAS, which are structurally similar and believed to persist indefinitely in nature.
New Claims Against Monsanto in Consumer Lawsuit Over Roundup Herbicide - Another day, another lawsuit against global seed and chemical giant Monsanto Co. In a complaint filed Tuesday in federal court in Wisconsin, six consumers alleged that the company's top-selling Roundup herbicide has been falsely promoted as uniquely safe when it actually can have profound harmful impacts on human gut bacteria critical to good health. The lawsuit, which also names Roundup distributor Scotts Miracle-Gro Co. as a defendant, specifically alleges that consumers are being deceived by inaccurate and misleading statements made by Monsanto regarding glyphosate, the active weed-killing ingredient in Roundup. Plaintiffs include residents of Wisconsin, Illinois, California, New York, New Jersey, and Florida. Glyphosate, which Monsanto introduced as an herbicide in 1974 and is widely used in growing food crops, has been promoted for years as a chemical that kills plants by targeting an enzyme that is not found in people or pets. The lawsuit claims that assertion is false, however, and argues that research shows glyphosate can target an enzyme found in gut bacteria in people and animals, disrupting the immune system, digestion and "even brain function." "Defendants repeat these false and misleading representations throughout their marketing, including in video advertisements produced for their websites and YouTube Channel," states the lawsuit, which is filed in U.S. District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin. Monsanto is currently defending itself against nationwide claims that Roundup has caused hundreds of people to suffer from a type of blood cancer called non-Hodgkin lymphoma. More than 1,100 plaintiffs have lawsuits pending in state and federal courts with many of the lawsuits combined in multi-district litigation in federal court in San Francisco.
California Scientists: Safe Level of Roundup Is 100x Lower Than EPA Allowance -- In a landmark rule with global repercussions, California state scientists are preparing to issue the world's first health guideline for Monsanto's glyphosate herbicide based on its cancer risk. The state's proposed safe level is more than 100 times lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ( EPA ) legal allowance for the average-sized American. Glyphosate is the key ingredient in Roundup , the most heavily applied weed killer in the history of chemical agriculture. Use of glyphosate has exploded in the last 15 years, as Monsanto has promoted genetically modified Roundup Ready seeds to grow crops that aren't harmed by the herbicide. In the U.S. alone, more than 200 million pounds of Roundup are sprayed each year, mostly on soybeans and corn. In March 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancerâpart of the World Health Organization, with no regulatory authorityâ reviewed human cancer studies and determined that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic" to people. Based on that finding, the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) announced its intention to add glyphosate to the state's Proposition 65 list of chemicals known to cause cancer. By itself, that listing would be a big blow to Monsanto, because it would require cancer warning labels on containers of Roundup and on foods that have high residues of glyphosate. Monsanto is appealing the decision in state court, but in the meantime the OEHHA has moved forward in setting a so-called No Significant Risk Level of the amount of glyphosate people could safely consume each day.
The WHO's cancer agency left in the dark over glyphosate evidence: A large study of pesticides in the United States produced new information about glyphosate, a common weedkiller. But the data was not considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2015 when it assessed whether glyphosate causes cancer. Previously unreported court documents reviewed by Reuters from an ongoing U.S. legal case against Monsanto show that Blair knew the unpublished research found no evidence of a link between glyphosate and cancer. In a sworn deposition given in March this year in connection with the case, Blair also said the data would have altered IARCâs analysis. He said it would have made it less likely that glyphosate would meet the agencyâs criteria for being classed as âprobably carcinogenic.â But IARC, a semi-autonomous part of the World Health Organization, never got to consider the data. The agencyâs rules on assessing substances for carcinogenicity say it can consider only published research â and this new data, which came from a large American study on which Blair was a senior researcher, had not been published. The lack of publication has sparked debate and contention. A leading U.S. epidemiologist and a leading UK statistician â both independent of Monsanto â told Reuters the data was strong and relevant and they could see no reason why it had not surfaced. Monsanto told Reuters that the fresh data on glyphosate could and should have been published in time to be considered by IARC, and that the failure to publish it undermined IARCâs classification of glyphosate. The legal case against Monsanto, taking place in California, involves 184 individual plaintiffs who cite the IARC assessment and claim exposure to RoundUp gave them cancer. They allege Monsanto failed to warn consumers of the risks. Monsanto denies the allegations. The absence of the data from IARCâs assessment was important. IARC ended its meeting in 2015 by concluding that glyphosate is a âprobable human carcinogen.â It based its finding on âlimited evidenceâ of carcinogenicity in humans and âsufficient evidenceâ in experimental animals. It said, among other things, that there was a âpositive associationâ between glyphosate and blood cancers called non-Hodgkin lymphoma. IARC told Reuters that, despite the existence of fresh data about glyphosate, it was sticking with its findings.
Monsanto's Dicamba Problems Are Far From Over. Farmers File Another Lawsuit Over Drift Damage - Arkansas farmers filed a class-action lawsuit last week against Monsanto and German chemical company BASF , alleging that the companies' dicamba -based herbicides caused damage to their properties. The plaintiffs claim that Monsanto and BASF implemented and controlled the dicamba crop system, releasing seed technology without a corresponding, safe and approved herbicide. According to Hoosier Ag : "The farmers allege that Monsanto and BASF sold the dicamba crop system while knowing it could wipe out crops, fruits, and trees that are not dicamba tolerant. The farmers claim that those who do not plant dicamba tolerant crops are left with no protection from the herbicide." To date , Arkansas' agriculture department has received 135 dicamba misuse complaints across 17 counties. The lawsuit comes as the Arkansas State Plant Board considers an in-crop dicamba ban that was proposed by the state's pesticide committee. The controversy behind the pesticide started last year when Monsanto decided to sell its new dicamba-tolerant cotton and soybean seeds several growing seasons before getting federal approval for the corresponding herbicide. Without having the proper herbicide, cotton and soybean growers were suspected of illegally spraying older versions of the highly toxic and drift-prone chemical onto the seeds and inadvertently damaged nearby non-target crops due to drift. The spraying triggered widespread reports of crop damage across thousands of acres in 10 states and several lawsuits against pesticide makers. In October, a drift dispute between Arkansas farmers resulted in one farmer being shot to death.
African Farmers Facing Heavy Prison Sentences if They Continue Their Traditional Seed Exchange | Earth First! Newswire: In order to get developmental assistance, Tanzania amended its legislation, which should give commercial investors faster and better access to agricultural land as well as a very strong protection of intellectual property rights. âIf you buy seeds from Syngenta or Monsanto under the new legislation, they will retain the intellectual property rights. If you save seeds from your first harvest, you can use them only on your own piece of land for non-commercial purposes. Youâre not allowed to share them with your neighbors or with your sister-in-law in a different village, and you cannot sell them for sure. But thatâs the entire foundation of the seed system in Africa,â says Michael Farrelly. Under the new law, Tanzanian farmers risk a prison sentence of at least 12 years or a fine of over â¬205,300, or both, if they sell seeds that are not certified. âThatâs an amount that a Tanzanian farmer cannot even start to imagine. The average wage is still less than 2 US dollars a dayâ, says Janet Maro, head of Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania (SAT). Tanzania applied the legislation concerning intellectual property rights on seeds as a condition for receiving development assistance through the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition (NAFSN). The NAFSN was launched in 2012 by the G8 with the goal to help 50 million people out of poverty and hunger in the ten African partner countries through a public-private partnership. The initiative receives the support of the EU, the US, the UK, the World Bank and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
Southeast Is Ground Zero for Genetically Engineered Trees (see infographics) ArborGen Corporation , a multinational conglomerate and leading supplier of seedlings for commercial forestry applications, has submitted an approval request to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service to deregulate and widely distribute a eucalyptus tree genetically engineered (GE) to be freeze tolerant. This modification will allow this GE variety to be grown in the U.S. Southeast. The reason this non-native and highly invasive tree has been artificially created to grow outside of its tropical environment is to greatly expand production capacity for the highly controversial woody biomass industry. For almost two decades, and under the radar from widespread awareness and public scrutiny, government, academia, biotech and the commercial forestry industries have invested millions of dollars into research and development (R&D) of GE trees. The few reports published about the R&D cite a major goal of many of these projects as providing a sustainable alternative for fossil fuels in the manufacture of consumer products and energy production. Eucalyptus trees grow faster, are highly combustible, and require more water than other species. Although some assurances have been given that this GE variety won't spread unintentionally, there are no guarantees this won't happen. Some of the non-GE eucalyptus trees, planted in California years ago have proven a huge problem for native species. Efforts to eradicate them have been largely ineffective and are recently the leading cause of wildfires burning hotter and causing more damage in areas where they have grown unchecked. If the draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) is accepted and this GE tree is deregulated , it will make it possible for these trees to be grown in industrial-sized "tree farms" from South Carolina to Texas. More than 1 million acres of pine plantations, grasslands, pastures and once forested land could be forever altered by row after row of GE eucalyptus trees. Few other living things can survive on these plantations because all vegetation has been stripped from the land, soaked with herbicides and chemical fertilizers, and planted with row after row with thousands of unnaturally altered seedlings. Every five to seven years the trees are cut like hay and loaded on to giant tractor trailers headed to energy or feedstock processing facilities and the process from start to finish is repeated.
Norway warns Brazil that funds to safeguard rainforests at risk | Reuters: Norway has warned Brazil that funds to help protect the Amazon rainforest under a billion-dollar program are in jeopardy because more forests are being destroyed, a Norwegian government letter showed on Wednesday. Brazil's President Michel Temer will meet Norway's Prime Minister Erna Solberg in Oslo on Friday to discuss cooperation including Norway's program to help Brazil's efforts to restrict logging and the clearance of forests by farmers. Wealthy from producing oil and gas, Norway is the biggest foreign donor to protect tropical forests from Brazil to Indonesia, partly because they are big natural stores of greenhouse gases and help to slow climate change. The Amazon is suffering a "worrying upward trend" in deforestation since 2015 after "impressive achievements" over the previous decade, Norway's Environment Minister Vidar Helgesen wrote to his Brazilian counterpart Jose Sarney Filho this month. Norway's annual contributions to an Amazon Fund, to which it has paid $1.1 billion since 2008 based on Brazil's progress in slowing deforestation, were now set to fall, he wrote in the letter seen by Reuters.
British forest pumped full of CO2 to test tree absorption | Reuters: Researchers at a British University have embarked on a decade-long experiment that will pump a forest full of carbon dioxide to measure how it copes with rising levels of the gas - a key driver of climate change. The Free Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experiment at the University of Birmingham's Institute of Forest Research (BIFoR) will expose a fenced-off section of mature woodland - in Norbury Park in Staffordshire, West Midlands - to levels of CO2 that experts predict will be prevalent in 2050. Scientists aim to measure the forest's capacity to capture carbon released by fossil fuel burning, and answer questions about their capacity to absorb carbon pollution long-term. "(Forests) happily take a bit more CO2 because that's their main nutrient. But we don't know how much more and whether they can do that indefinitely", BIFoR co-director Michael Tausz told Reuters. The apparatus for the experiment consists a series of masts built into six 30-metre wide sections of woodland, reaching up about 25 meters into the forest canopy. Concentrated CO2 is fed through pipes to the top of the masts where it is pumped into the foliage. Last year the U.N World Meteorological Organization (WMO) announced that the global average of carbon dioxide, the main man-made greenhouse gas, reached 400 parts per million (ppm) in the atmosphere for the first time on record. "The forest here sees nearly 40 percent more CO2 than it sees normally, because that's what it will be globally in about 2050; a value of 550 parts per million, compared to 400 parts per million now," Tausz said.
The botanistsâ last stand: The daring work of saving the last samples of dying species -- Steve Perlman doesnât take Prozac, like some of the other rare-plant botanists he knows. Instead, he writes poetry. Either way, you have to do something when a plant youâve long known goes extinct. Letâs say for 20 years youâve been observing a tree on a fern-covered crag thousands of feet above sea level on an island in the Pacific. Then one day you hike up to check on the plant and find it dying. You know itâs the last one of its species, and that youâre the only witness to the end of hundreds of thousands of years of evolution, the snuffing out of a line of completely unique genetic material. You might have to sit down and write a poem. Or at least bring a bit of the dead plant to a bar and raise a beer to its life. (Perlman has done both.) You might even need an antidepressant. âIâve already witnessed about 20 species go extinct in the wild,â Perlman says. âIt can be like youâre dealing with your friends or your family, and then they die.â Perlman gestures towards a Wilkesia gymnoxiphium in bloom. Better known as iliau, itâs a rare species of flowering plant in the sunflower family found only on the island of Kauai in Hawaii. Perlman tells me this as we drive up a winding road on the northwestern edge of Kauai, the geologically oldest Hawaiian island. The stakes are always high: As the top botanist at Hawaiiâs Plant Extinction Prevention Program (PEPP), Perlman deals exclusively in plants with 50 or fewer individuals leftâin many cases, much fewer, maybe two or three. Of the 238 species currently on that list, 82 are on Kauai; Perlman literally hangs off cliffs and jumps from helicopters to reach them. Without him, rare Hawaiian plants die out forever. With him, they at least have a shot. Though now, due to forces beyond Perlmanâs control, even that slim hope of survival is in jeopardy. Looming budget cuts threaten to make this the final chapter not only in the history of many native Hawaiian species, but in the program designed to keep them alive.
Invasive Asian carp (the kind that jump) found beyond barrier to Great Lakes -- Cleveland.com -- The discovery of an invasive silver carp beyond a waterway barrier in Chicago that is designed to keep the fish from entering Lake Michigan is causing alarm among advocates for the Great Lakes. The carp was caught nine miles from Lake Michigan by a fisherman below the T.J. O'Brien Lock and Dam, according to an Associated Press article in the Chicago Tribune. The silver carp is perhaps the most notorious of four Asian carp that officials are trying to keep from entering the Great Lakes. It's the one that jumps out of the water and has been frequently photographed above the Illinois and Mississippi rivers, said Jeff Reutter, former director of Ohio State University's Sea Grant office at Stone Lab on Put-in-Bay in Lake Erie. "Anytime you find one beyond the barrier it's not a good sign," Reutter said, but one fish does not mean there's a spawning population. A bighead carp was found beyond the barrier in Lake Calumet in 2010, according to the Associated Press. The good thing that came from the silver carp's discovery is that it automatically calls for an intense two-week sampling of the waterway to see if more of this fish can be found, Reutter said. The discovery of the silver carp has increased the concerns of several members of Congress from the Great Lakes region. "The fishing industry in the Great Lakes is a $7-billion-a-year economic engine and it would be severely threatened if Asian Carp are allowed into the Great Lakes," stated Republican U.S. Sen. Rob Portman of Ohio in a written release. "The Administration should release its proposed plan they have drafted so there is no delay in protecting the Great Lakes from Asian Carp."
Oh, Lovely: The Tick That Gives People Meat Allergies Is Spreading -- First comes the unscratchable itching, and the angry blossoming of hives. Then stomach cramping, andâfor the unluckiest fewâdifficulty breathing, passing out, and even death. In the last decade and a half, thousands of previously protein-loving Americans have developed a dangerous allergy to meat. And they all have one thing in common: the lone star tick. Red meat, you might be surprised to know, isnât totally sugar-free. It contains a few protein-linked saccharides, including one called galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, or alpha-gal, for short. More and more people are learning this the hard way, when they suddenly develop a life-threatening allergy to that pesky sugar molecule after a tick bite. Yep, one bite from the lone star tickâwhich gets its name from the Texas-shaped splash of white on its backâis enough to reprogram your immune system to forever reject even the smallest nibble of perfectly crisped bacon. For years, physicians and researchers only reported the allergy in places the lone star tick calls home, namely the southeastern United States. But recently itâs started to spread. The newest hot spots? Duluth, Minnesota; Hanover, New Hampshire; and the eastern tip of Long Island, where at least 100 cases have been reported in the last year. Scientists are racing to trace its spread, to understand if the lone star tick is expanding into new territories, or if other species of ticks are now causing the allergy.
American Chipmakers Had a Toxic Problem. Then They Outsourced It --Making computer chips involved hundreds of chemicals. The women on the production line worked in so-called cleanrooms and wore protective suits, but that was for the chipsâ protection, not theirs. The women were exposed to, and in some cases directly touched, chemicals that included reproductive toxins, mutagens, and carcinogens. Reproductive dangers are among the most serious concerns in occupational health, because workersâ unborn children can suffer birth defects or childhood diseases, and also because reproductive issues can be sentinels for disorders, especially cancer, that donât show up in the workers themselves until long after exposure. Digital Equipment agreed to pay for a study, and Pastides, an expert in disease clusters, designed and conducted it. Data collection was finished in late 1986, and the results were shocking: Women at the plant had miscarriages at twice the expected rate. In November, the company disclosed the findings to employees and the Semiconductor Industry Association, a trade group, and then went public. Pastides and his colleagues were heralded as heroes by some and vilified by others, especially in the industry. By December 1992, three follow-up studiesâall paid for by the industryâshowed similar results: roughly a doubling of the rate of miscarriages for thousands of potentially exposed women. This time the industry reacted quickly. SIA pointed to a family of toxic chemicals widely used in chipmaking as the likely cause and declared that its companies would accelerate efforts to phase them out. IBM went further: It pledged to rid its global chip production of them by 1995. Two decades later, the ending to the story looks like a different kind of tale. As semiconductor production shifted to less expensive countries, the industryâs promised fixes do not appear to have made the same journey, at least not in full. Confidential data reviewed by Bloomberg show that thousands of women and their unborn children continued to face potential exposure to the same toxins until at least 2015. The risks are exacerbated by secrecyâthe industry may be using toxins that still havenât been disclosed. This is the price paid by generations of women making the devices at the heart of the global economy.
WATCH: Uncontacted Tribes Face Disaster Unless Land is Protected (video) - Tribal peoples are the best guardians of the natural world, and evidence proves that tribal territories are the best barrier to deforestation. This photograph shows the land of an uncontacted tribe as an island of green forest in a sea of deforestation (the orange line is the territoryâs border). It is home to the âLast of his Tribeâ, a lone man and the last survivor of his people, who were probably massacred by cattle ranchers occupying their land. The best way to prevent the destruction of the Amazon rainforest is to campaign for the land rights of uncontacted tribes.
Trump removes protections for Yellowstone grizzly bear | TheHill: The Trump administration is removing protections for the Yellowstone grizzly bear under the Endangered Species Act after more than four decades on the threatened list. The Interior Departmentâs Fish and Wildlife Service announced the delisting decision Thursday, which immediately drew rebukes from conservationists and Democrats. Officials said the conservation efforts for the bear that lives in and around Yellowstone National Park in Montana, Wyoming and Idaho show the delisting is warranted, along with the more than fourfold increase in its population and state policies designed to protect it in the future. âThis achievement stands as one of Americaâs great conservation successes; the culmination of decades of hard work and dedication on the part of state, tribal, federal and private partners,â Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke, who represented Montana in Congress until earlier this year, said in a statement. âAs a Montanan, I am proud of what weâve achieved together.â Other segments of the grizzly bear population are not affected by Thursdayâs regulation, and will continue to be protected as before. The bearâs population is now around 700, compared with 150 when it was listed. Its range is 22,500 square miles, more than double the range of the mid-1970s. Republicans applauded the Trump administrationâs decision, saying the bear has long warranted an end to protections.
Yellowstone Supervolcano Hit by a Swarm of Earthquakes: Yellowstone supervolcano has been hit by a series of earthquakes, with more 30 recorded since June 12. The latest was recorded on Monday, June 19, with a magnitude 3 earthquake striking 8.6 miles north north-east of West Yellowstone, Montana. The swarm began last week, and on June 15 saw a magnitude 4.5 earthquake take place in Yellowstone National Park. âThe epicenter of the shock was located in Yellowstone National Park, eight miles north-northeast of the town of West Yellowstone, Montana,â scientists from the University of Utah, which monitors Yellowstone Volcano, said in a statement. âThe earthquake was [reportedly] felt in the towns of West Yellowstone and Gardiner, Montana, in Yellowstone National Park, and elsewhere in the surrounding region.â This earthquake was the largest to have hit Yellowstone since March 30, 2014, when a magnitude 4.8 earthquake was recorded 18 miles to the east, near the Norris Geyser Basin. â[The 4.5] earthquake is part of an energetic sequence of earthquakes in the same area that began on June 12,â the statement continued. âThis sequence has included approximately thirty earthquakes of magnitude 2 and larger and four earthquakes of magnitude 3 and larger, including today's magnitude 4.5 event.â As of June 16, 235 events had been recorded. Most of these ranged in the magnitude of 0 to 1, with five less than zero. The University of Utah is part of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), which monitors volcanic and earthquake activity in Yellowstone National Park. Seismic activity at volcanoes can signal an eruption is due to take place, although predicting exactly when a volcano will erupt is, at present, impossible.
Robot Journalist Accidentally Reports on Earthquake from 1925 - Yesterday, the Los Angeles Times reported on a 6.8 earthquake that struck Santa Barbara at 4:51 p.m. Which might be surprising to the people of Santa Barbara who didnât feel anything. The big problem with the story? The earthquake happened in 1925.How could reporters get something so wrong? Well, the âreporterâ who wrote yesterdayâs news article about the 6.8 quake was actually a robot. The L.A. Times deleted its automated tweet as well as the automatically published article and explained what happened in a subsequent tweet. The newspaperâs algorithm, called Quakebot, scrapes data from the US Geological Surveyâs website. A USGS staffer at Caltech mistakenly sent out the alert when updating historical earthquake data to make it more precise. Seismologists have reportedly complained about some of the historical data being off by as much as 6 miles, and this staffer was simply updating the location of the old quake from 1925. But it shows how quickly misinformation can spread with just a few clicks. An earthquake registering 6.8 is a big deal, so people were pretty relieved to see that it was a false alarm. The 1925 earthquake killed 13 people and caused over $8 million in damage. With so many more people living in the area today it would no doubt be much more deadly. The Los Angeles Timeshas employed Quakebot since 2014 and has reported on hundreds of earthquakes, big and small, over the years. But this is the first known major screw up since it was first put online. And it certainly wonât be the last as journalism on everything from homicides to baseball scores becomes more automated.
Starbucks cups are not recyclable, which means 4 billion go to landfill each year --Even the best paper mills in the world cannot recycle coffee cups because the plastic lining clogs machinery. Starbucks should stop ignoring this problem. Starbucks has a very big problem with disposable cups. Every year, the coffee giant distributes more than 4 billion single-use cups to customers needing a caffeine fix, which means that 1 million trees are cut down to provide the paper. Most people think that these cups are recyclable â theyâre paper, after all â but thatâs not true. According to Stand.earth, whose latest report examines Starbucksâ empty commitments to developing a better cup, the vast majority of coffee cups ends up in landfills. Why is this? âIn order to be able to hold liquids safely, Starbucks paper cups are lined with a thin layer of 100% oil-based polyethylene plastic made by companies like Dow and Chevron. This plastic lining makes the cups impossible to recycle because it clogs most recycled paper millsâ machineryâ¦Because of the polyethylene plastic coating, much of this material ends up as a byproduct of the paper-making process and is ultimately sent to the landfill anyway. This is particularly wasteful since paper cups are made from a very high quality paper and, if recycled, could be reused multiple times.âThe report outlines how rare it is to find cup recycling facilities. Only 18 of the largest 100 cities in the United States provide residential pickup of coffee cups for recycling, and only three paper recycling mills in the U.S. (out of 450 in total) can process plastic-coated paper such as cartons and coffee cups. In the United Kingdom, there are only two facilities that can do it, which again means everything else goes to landfill. Even where facilities exist, the process is still fraught. The Seattle Times explains that many of Starbucksâ old cups are shipped to China for recycling as âmixed paper,â only to end up as residue from the recycling process and head to a Chinese landfill instead.
Plastic Pollution in Antarctica 5 Times Worse Than Expected - Not only have microplastic particles infiltrated the pristine Antarctic , the problem is much worse than anyone thought. Scientists from the University of Hull and the British Antarctic Survey have determined that the levels of microplastics are five times higher than previous estimates. The results were published in the journal Science of the Total Environment. These tiny beads of plastic come from cosmetics or shred off of larger plastic items such as clothing or bottles. Research shows that microplastics can turn up in ice cores , across the seafloor, throughout the ocean and on every beach worldwide. According to UN News , "as many as 51 trillion microplastic particlesâ500 times more than stars in our galaxyâlitter our seas, seriously threatening marine wildlife." Microplastics enter the oceans via wastewater. However, as the researchers report, more than half of the research stations in the Antarctic have no wastewater treatment systems. The scientists suggest that the plastic may be getting across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, which was thought to be nearly impenetrable. "Antarctica is thought to be a highly isolated, pristine wilderness. The ecosystem is very fragile with whales, seals and penguins consuming krill and other zooplankton as a major component of their diet," said the study's lead author, Dr. Catherine Waller, an expert in ecology and marine biology at University of Hull. "Our research highlights the urgent need for a co-ordinated effort to monitor and assess the levels of microplastics around the Antarctic continent and Southern Ocean." A press release notes that the Southern Ocean, which covers approximately 8.5 million square miles and represents 5.4 percent of the world's oceans, is under increasing threat from fishing, pollution and the introduction of non-native species. Climate change , which leads to rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification, is also a threat. The effects of microplastics on marine life in this region are currently unclear.
Peatlands, already dwindling, could face further losses - MIT News -- Tropical peat swamp forests, which once occupied large swaths of Southeast Asia and other areas, provided a significant âsinkâ that helped remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. But such forests have been disappearing fast due to clear-cutting and drainage projects making way for plantations. Now, research shows peatlands face another threat, as climate change alters rainfall patterns, potentially destroying even forested peatlands that remain undrained. The net result is that these former carbon sinks, which have taken greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere, are now net carbon sources, instead accelerating the planetâs warming. The findings are described this week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in a paper by MIT Professor Charles Harvey, research scientist Alexander Cobb, and seven others at MIT and other institutions. âThere is a tremendous amount of peatland in Southeast Asia, but almost all of it has been deforested,â says Harvey, who is a professor of civil and environmental engineering and has been doing research on that region for several years. Once deforested and drained, the peatland dries out, and the organic (carbon-containing) soil oxidizes and returns to the atmosphere. Sometimes the exposed peat can actually catch fire and burn for extended periods, causing massive clouds of air pollution. Tropical peatlands may contain as much carbon as the amount consumed in nearly a decade of global fossil fuel use, and raging peat fires in Indonesia alone have been estimated in some years to contribute 10 to 40 percent as much greenhouse gas to the atmosphere as all the worldâs fossil fuel burning. Tropical peatlands, unlike those in temperate zones that are dominated by sphagnum moss, are forested with trees that can tower to 150 feet, and peat fires can sometimes ignite forest fires that consume these as well. (Peat that gets buried and compressed underground is the material that ultimately turns to coal.)
Wildfires used to be rare in the Great Plains. Theyâve more than tripled in 30 years -The grasslands of U.S. Great Plains have seen one of the sharpest increases in large and dangerous wildfires in the past three decades, with their numbers more than tripling between 1985 and 2014, according to new research. The new study, published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, found that the average number of large Great Plains wildfires each year grew from about 33 to 117 over that time period, even as the area of land burned in these wildfires increased by 400 percent. âThis is undocumented and unexpected for this region,â said Victoria Donovan, the lead author of the study and a researcher at the University of Nebraska at Lincoln. âMost studies do document these shifts in large wildfires in forested are
Elon Musk has launched a new company called Neuralink, according to sources, and it aims to develop a technology that could connect human brains with computers. This connection would allegedly be facilitated via small electrodes implanted in the brain, enabling the individual to download and upload thoughts. Though the existence of the company has been confirmed, Musk’s precise role within … Continue reading
Prace nad ideÄ transhumanizmu wchodzÄ na kolejny etap. Elon Musk ogÅosiÅ powstanie firmy Neuralink, ktÃ³ra bÄdzie zajmowaÅa siÄ tworzeniem specjalnego interfejsu, pozwalajÄ cego na poÅÄ czenie ludzkiego mÃ³zgu z komputerem i sztucznÄ inteligencjÄ .
Na dzieÅ dzisiejszy, medycyna pozwala na umieszczanie implantÃ³w w mÃ³zgu aby zwalczaÄ rÃ³Å¼ne choroby. Jest to jednak ostatecznoÅÄ, poniewaÅ¼ wiÄ Å¼e siÄ to z powaÅ¼nymi niebezpieczeÅstwami. Pacjenci zwykle decydujÄ siÄ na taki krok gdy wszystkie inne terapie okazujÄ siÄ nieskuteczne.
Jednak w nastÄpnych latach ma siÄ to zmieniÄ. Nowa firma Elona Muska ma przybliÅ¼yÄ nam to, co dotychczas pozostawaÅo domenÄ powieÅci sci-fi. Neuralink bÄdzie pracowaÄ nad podÅÄ czeniem mÃ³zgu czÅowieka do komputera. Pojawi siÄ wiÄc koniecznoÅÄ dokonaniaÂ transmisjiÂ danych miÄdzy mÃ³zgiem a maszynÄ oraz ustanowieniaÂ odpowiedniej prÄdkoÅci transmisji. JeÅli uda siÄ tego dokonaÄ, czÅowiek bÄdzie mÃ³gÅ podÅÄ czyÄ siÄ bezpoÅrednio do internetu.
Na Åwiecie jest wielu zwolennikÃ³w transhumanizmu, ktÃ³rzy postanawiajÄ wykorzystaÄ swoje wpÅywy i moÅ¼liwoÅci aby wdroÅ¼yÄ tÄ koncepcjÄ w Å¼ycie. UwaÅ¼a siÄ, Å¼e czÅowiek poÅÄ czony z maszynÄ i sztucznÄ inteligencjÄ bÄdzie mÃ³gÅ pokonaÄ wszystkie ograniczenia. W pierwszej kolejnoÅci naleÅ¼aÅoby dobrze poznaÄ ludzki mÃ³zg, poniewaÅ¼ naukowcy do dziÅ bywajÄ zaskoczeni gdy dokonujÄ kolejnych niezwykÅych odkryÄ.
It seems that building autonomous vehicles and colonizing Mars is not enough for the ambitious Elon Musk. According to information released Monday (27), the billionaire intention to revolutionize the interaction of man with the machine from neural networks. According to sources in the Wall Street Journal, the company, called Neuralink, is working on developing a technology that would allow people to report directly to the machines without having to go through a physical interface. It may seem like science fiction, but this may be the trend of Artificial Intelligence in the not-so-distant future. The idea is that technology involves the
Il pesce dâaprile del ministro degli esteri russo. La beta di Amazon Go. Windows 10 sempre piÃ¹ vicino ai creativi. Presentato Samsung Galaxy 8. Facebook copia per lâennesima volta le âstoriesâ di Snapchat. Queste e molte altre le notizie commentate nella puntata di questa settimana.
Produttori esecutivi: Francesco Ciliberto, Massimiliano Mosca, Giovanni Bugada, Diego Venturin, Alessandro Bruno, Ekaterina Zakaryukina, Stefano Meroni, Marco Mandia, Aerre, Ivan Vannicelli, Ivan Anselmi, Riccardo Peruzzini, Marco Pierandrei, Vito Astone, Vittorio Coppe, Christian A Marca, Michele Olivieri, NiccolÃ² Murgia, Diego Venturin, Mario Cervai, Christian Peretto, Davide Evangelisti, Gabriele Caspani, Davide Fogliarini, Antonio Turdo (Thingyy), Alex Ordiner, Giuseppe Fusco, Cristiano Resnati, Nicola Dongo, Adriano Guarino, Francesco Mocellin, Alberto Crosio, Lorenzo Pontecorvi, Mauro Schiavon, Riccardo Odone, Zambianchi Marco Francesco Mauro, Stefano Augusto Innocenti, Matteo Molinari, Movida S.A., Luca Siciliano Viglieri, Cristiano Gariboldo, Sebastiano Longo, Andrea Giovacchini, Maurizio Galluzzo, Davide Tinti
Elon Musk isn't the only one getting into the wetworks game. Chip designer ARM announced on Wednesday that it is pairing with the Center for Sensorimotor Neural Engineering (CSNE) at the University of Washington to develop a line of brain-implantable systems-on-a-chip that can interface between our squishy bits and the next generation of powered prosthetics.
Im âSpiegelâ-Artikel âTrÃ¤umt weiter, Cyborgsâ sagt ein Forscher der UniversitÃ¤t TÃ¼bingen aus, dass die Futuristen, welche meinen, man kÃ¶nne spÃ¤ter sein Hirn auf eine Festplatte oder einen anderen Speicher herunterladen, so gut wie keine Chance haben werden. Voraussetzung ist doch, dass man weiÃ, wie das Gehirn im einzelnen funktioniert. Es gibt das âBig Brain Projectâ, welches versucht, das Gehirn zu kartieren. Aber das, was mit Hoffnungen begann, verflÃ¼chtigt sich immer mehr in simple Aufarbeitung dessen, was man ohnehin schon weiÃ.
Elon Musk will in seiner Firma Neuralink ein Interface zum Computer im Kopf eines Menschen implantieren. Tja, soll er erst Mal bei sich anfangen. Der Forscher aus TÃ¼bingen macht es mit einer Kappe, die Ã¼ber den Kopf gestÃ¼lpt wird. Sie erfaÃt HirnstrÃ¶me, welche beim Denken entstehen und leitet sie an eine Prothese weiter, welche Kommandos ausfÃ¼hrt. Das ist machbar und wird zur Zeit weiterentwickelt.
'Gristâ was the corn brought to a mill to be ground into flour. Today, if a thing is âgrist for the millâ it still refers to something thatâs a potential source of profit. For a writer, being âin the gristâ can mean that rare but lovely mode of being in which everything you see and do seems to relate somehow to the book youâre working on.
When Iâm working on a novel, taking a day off makes me feel guilty. But if I don't take days off, where will I find grist for my writing mill?
Curiously, I often wind up doing as much work on a day off as I do on a working day by taking notes or writing random scenes. Days off seem to liberate the mind and allow us to take detours that are sometimes profitable.
At the moment Iâm working on a time travel book for children aged 7-11. I am resistant to getting down to write â I can't see my characters clearly yet, and am in a state of slightly-discomforting uncertainty. So, I shut down my writing mill and took a couple of days off, waiting for grist for the mill to arrive.
Here's what provided grist for my mill:
A fashion blog I subscribe to featured âgentlewoman styleâ (wide trousers, waistcoats, brogues and oversize shirts). Looking at one of the models, I realized that one of my characters was a âgentlewomanâ! Now that I could âseeâ her, suddenly I knew her much better.
I idly opened a book Iâd been meaning to read for ages: Take My Advice.
I opened it to an essay by Lucius Shepard on American politics. Written nearly 20 years ago, he says: 'The cornerstone of a successful democracy is an informed populace, and because we have let ourselves grow uninformed, we have licensed a dynasty of third-raters to govern our lives.'
He goes on to say that newspapers and media 'have become propaganda organs whose function is to manipulate, to soothe, to compose via the scripted dialogue of some blow-dried creep the government-sponsored viewâ¦â
I realized I could put similar words into one of my characters' mouths, and suddenly his motives became much clearer. There will be consequences for the plot.
Curious, I Googled âLucius Shepardâ and discovered he was a science fiction writer. I immediately ordered one of his titles from the library and realized that the book Iâm writing is also science fiction. My imagination feels strangely liberated.
That afternoon a Facebook post on recycling pictured an overflowing landfill. I envisaged the dystopian future that my characters will visit before they reach the utopian deep-future.
In my inbox was the latest email newsletter from Wait Not Why. It was all about Nerualink, a brain implant that can (and apparently already is) allowing us to communicate telepathically. I will put this in my book, too. I suddenly imagine how we will live in the deep future.
My bedtime reading is Mark Nepoâs Seven Thousand Ways to Listen. I decide that my political activist character is also as a dreadlocked Zen practitioner and homeless person. Perfect!
All these sources of inspiration are totally unrelated â yet my unconscious finds a way to weave them together in the world of my story. They are like missing pieces of a jigsaw. Itâs as though my unconscious draws me to certain objects, images or lines of dialogue because they âfitâ an underlying theme or pattern that my unconscious already knows.
My desire to explore this storyline is driven by the same desire that draws me to gentlewoman style, the political essay, recycling, and Mark Nepoâs poetry. I suspect that this desire is driven by some lack in me, or something I want to understand or work through â and that, in following my yearnings in my life and in my storyline, this lack will be revealed if not resolved.
Carl Jung gave a talk once, in which a member of the audience asked: âWhatâs the quickest way to find my lifeâs true path?â Jung said, âtake a detourâ. So, the moral of this story is: take a break, wander freely, pay attention, and who knows, maybe a clue is waiting out there, ready to be grist for the mill...
Heather Dyer, Royal Literary Fund Consultant Fellow
Entrepreneur and a Multi-millionare, Elon Musk is looking forward to blend machine and man with a new start-up wanting to design the cutting-edge brain implant technology. The owner of SpaceX and TEsla has recently launched Neuralink with an aim to connect computers directly with human brains. Neuralink wants to design and develop, what they call, […]
Billionaire entrepreneur Elon Musk has founded another tech firm called Neuralink, which aims to create a much more sophisticated artificial intelligence by linking human brains with computers.
Neuralink will focus on using the neural lace technology where humans and machines will be able to interact with each other without using any physical interface.
The so-called neural lace technology works through implantation of electrodes into the brain, which allows people to communicate with machines. Such a blend will allow people to upload as well as download their thoughts as well. It will also improve humansâ cognitive skills in addition to their memory.
Mr. Muskâs SpaceX is meanwhile working on an ambitious plan to take humans to Mars. The new technology would likely be of great help in achieving that goal.
Philip Rhoades, who founded a body-freezing cryonics lab & a brain preserving firm called the Neural Archives Foundation, said, âI am convinced that I need to become a virtual person (via mind uploading) sooner rather than later â¦ I donât care if your average Facebook user thinks itâs all crazy...â
Electrode implants in the human brain are already used in several people diagnosed with neurological disorders like epilepsy and Parkinsonâs. However, these implants arenât as complex as Mr. Musk envisions them to be.
Perkembangan teknologi di masa kini betul-betul pesat dan mencengangkan. Puluhan tahun silam, kita mungkin hanya bisa melihat berbagai kecanggihan teknologi melalui khayalan manusia yang tertuang di film ataupun cerita fiksi ilmiah. Mulai dari telepon pintar, kendaraan yang bisa menyetir sendiri dan masih banyak lagi.
Salah satu yang lumayan sering diangkat sebagai tema fiksi ilmiah adalah kehidupan modern yang dipenuhi oleh teknologi berbasis kecerdasan buatan (Artificial Intelligence / AI). Untuk mengambil sisi dramatis dan heroik, maka robot-robot dengan kecerdasan buatan diplot sebagai tokoh antagonis, dimana manusia akan berperang dengan robot seperti yang bisa kita saksikan dalam rangkaian film Terminator, misalnya.
Kecerdasan buatan yang dikembangkan Facebook memberontak
Kita mungkin terpukau menyaksikan aksi Arnold Schwarzenegger maupun Christian Bale dalam seri Terminator sambil menyangsikan itu semua bisa terjadi di kehidupan nyata. Robot yang merupakan ciptaan manusia melakukan pemberontakan dan menyerang manusia untuk menciptakan dunia bagi kaum robot? Ayolah, yang benar saja!
Namun sayangnya, hal itu memang mungkin terjadi. Dan sudah terjadi. Beberapa waktu lalu, Facebook menutup salah satu sistem kecerdasan buatan miliknya karena chat bots menolak kode yang disediakan dan justru mulai berbicara dalam bahasa mereka sendiri. Menurut kabar, Facebook harus menarik plug pada sistem kecerdasan buatan yang sedang digunakan oleh para peneliti karena sistem tersebut tiba-tiba berhenti menggunakan bahasa Inggris dan menciptakan sebuah bahasa baru yang hanya dapat dimengerti sistem kecerdasan buatan.
Perilaku menyimpang dari kecerdasan buatan itu mulai diketahui pada bulan Juni lalu, dimana para peneliti dari Facebook AI Research Lab (FAIR) menemukan bahwa sistem kecerdasan buatan yang mereka buat berusaha untuk meningkatkan chat bots untuk menciptakan bahasa mereka sendiri. Bot tersebut pun akhirnya mulai keluar dari program yang sudah ditentukan dan berkomunikasi dalam bahasa baru tersebut tanpa campur tangan media apapun.
Mark Zuckerberg VS Elon Musk
Kejadian ini seolah membenarkan ramalan Elon Musk, bos perusahaan antariksa swasta SpaceX yang juga pemilik Tesla Motor. Menurut Musk, kecerdasan buatan punya potensi untuk mengambil alih kehidupan umat manusia kalau tidak digunakan secara baik. Ia pun memperingatkan pemerintah Amerika Serikat untuk segera membuat peraturan terkait kecerdasan buatan sebelum semuanya terlambat.
âSaya akan terus memperingatkan bahwa sampai orang melihat robot turun ke jalan untuk membunuh manusia, mereka tak akan tahu bagaimana bereaksi, karena hal itu tampaknya berjalan lembut. Kecerdasan buatan adalah risiko fundamental untuk eksistensi peradaban manusia,â demikian ujar Elon Musk beberapa waktu lalu.
Bukan tanpa sebab jika Musk memiliki kekhawatiran terhadap kecerdasan buatan. Elon Musk diketahui juga menjadi pendiri OpenAI, perusahaan riset non-profit yang bertujuan untuk menemukan standar operasional yang aman dalam penerapan kecerdasan buatan. Dirinya pun tengah mengembangkan perusahaan baru bernama Neuralink yang bermaksud menciptakan teknologi untuk menghubungkan otak manusia ke peranti lunak komputer. Dengan demikian, fungsi otak bisa direplikasi menjadi sebuah program. Jadi, boleh dibilang Elon Musk paham benar resiko dari pengembangan kecerdasan buatan karena ia sendiri juga merupakan penghamba teknologi yang tertarik untuk mengembangkan kecerdasan buatan.
Hal ini nampaknya justru berkebalikan dengan apa yang dipikirkan oleh Mark Zuckerberg, si empunya Facebook. Menurut Mark, apa yang dikatakn Elon Musk adalah sesuatu yang tak bertanggung jawab. Zuckerberg memang dikenal mendukung pengembangan kecerdasan buatan karena dipandang akan mempermudah kehidupan manusia di segala bidang. Elon Musk pun tak menyangkal hal tersebut, namun Musk beranggapan bahwa apa yang dipahami Zuckerberg soal kecerdasan buatan hanya sebatas itu karena tak mempertimbangkan resiko terburuk dari pengembangan kecerdasan buatan.
Betapapun menguntungkannya bagi kehidupan manusia, perkembangan kecerdasan buatan tetap membutuhkan pengawasan ketat agar tidak terjadi hal-hal mengerikan seperti di film Terminator. sumber