Math Instructor        
Treetops, Education: Seeking: Math Instructor New Hire Salary Range: $40,682 - $65,940 This job listing brought to you by The Traverse City Record Eagle
          Mathias has arrived… well, for quite some time now!        

Well, I had a VERY good reason for disappearing from here for a couple of months. Our son Mathias Julian Costa was born last December the 7th, at 11:20pm, twenty days before my very own birthday! I can’t believe he is almost three months old now. He is a very sweet boy who looks a […]
          '..If you can’t see this next crisis coming, you’re not paying the right kind of attention .. Financial politicians..' (no replies)        
'..If you can’t see this next crisis coming, you’re not paying the right kind of attention..'

'This Fed has already engineered the next crisis, just as Greenspan kept rates too low for too long, ignored his regulatory responsibility, and engineered the housing bubble and subprime crisis. If you can’t see this next crisis coming, you’re not paying the right kind of attention. The Trump Fed is going to have to deal with that crisis, but we still have many questions as to what a Trump Fed will actually look like or do.'

John Mauldin (Source, Jun 25, 2017)

'..Their empathy circuits get turned off.'

'Powerful people everywhere routinely make decisions that hurt others. We see it in central bankers, politicians, corporate CEOs, religious groups, universities – any large organization. The old saying is right: Power really does corrupt. And corruption is a barrier to sustainable economic growth. This is more than a political problem; it has a serious economic impact.

Recent psychological research suggests that powerful people behave remarkably like traumatic brain injury victims. Controlled experiments show that, given power over others, people often become impulsive and less sensitive to risk. Most important, test subjects often lose empathy, that is, the ability to understand and share the feelings of others.


Powerful people also lose a capacity called “mirroring.” When we observe other people doing something, our brains react as if we were doing the same thing. It’s why, when you watch a sporting event, you may unconsciously mimic a golf swing or the referee’s hand signals. Some portion of your brain thinks you are really there. But when researchers prime test subjects with powerful feelings, their mirroring capacity decreases.

You can see why this is a problem. The Protected-class members of the Federal Open Market Committee must feel quite powerful when they gather in that fancy room to make policy decisions. It’s no wonder they forget how their decisions will affect regular working-class people: Their empathy circuits get turned off.'

- Patrick Watson, The Wedge Goes Deeper, June 30, 2017

'..I now feel that it's highly likely we will face a major financial crisis, if not later this year, then by the end of 2018 at the latest..'

'Re-entering the news flow was a jolt, and not in a good way. Looking with fresh eyes at the economic numbers and central bankers’ statements convinced me that we will soon be in deep trouble. I now feel that it's highly likely we will face a major financial crisis, if not later this year, then by the end of 2018 at the latest. Just a few months ago, I thought we could avoid a crisis and muddle through. Now I think we’re past that point. The key decision-makers have (1) done nothing, (2) done the wrong thing, or (3) done the right thing too late.

Having realized this, I’m adjusting my research efforts. I believe a major crisis is coming. The questions now are, how severe will it be, and how will we get through it? With the election of President Trump and a Republican Congress, your naïve analyst was hopeful that we would get significant tax reform, in addition to reform of a healthcare system that is simply devastating to so many people and small businesses. I thought maybe we’d see this administration cutting through some bureaucratic red tape quickly. With such reforms in mind I was hopeful we could avoid a recession even if a crisis developed in China or Europe.


One news item I didn’t miss on St. Thomas – and rather wish I had – was Janet Yellen’s reassurance regarding the likelihood of another financial crisis. Here is the full quote.

Would I say there will never, ever be another financial crisis? You know probably that would be going too far, but I do think we’re much safer, and I hope that it will not be in our lifetimes and I don’t believe it will be. [emphasis added]

I disagree with almost every word in those two sentences, but my belief is less important than Chair Yellen’s. If she really believes this, then she is oblivious to major instabilities that still riddle the financial system. That’s not good.


Financial politicians (which is what central bankers really are) have a long history of saying the wrong things at the wrong time. Far worse, they simply fail to tell the truth. Former Eurogroup leader Jean-Claude Juncker admitted as much: “When it becomes serious, you have to lie,” he said in the throes of Europe’s 2011 debt crisis.'

- John Mauldin, Prepare for Turbulence, July 9, 2017

'..Market distortions – including valuations, deeply embedded complacency, and Trillions of perceived safe securities – have become only further detached from reality. And the longer all this unstable finance flows freely into the real economy, the deeper the structural maladjustment.'

'This week marks the five-year anniversary of Draghi’s “whatever it takes.” I remember the summer of 2012 as if it were yesterday. From the Bubble analysis perspective, it was a Critical Juncture – for financial markets and risk perceptions, for policy and for the global economy. Italian 10-year yields hit 6.60% on July 24, 2012. On that same day, Spain saw yields surge to 7.62%. Italian banks were in freefall, while European bank stocks (STOXX600) were rapidly approaching 2009 lows. Having risen above 55 in 2011, Deutsche Bank traded at 23.23 on July 25, 2012.

It was my view at the time that the “European” crisis posed a clear and immediate threat to the global financial system. A crisis of confidence in Italian debt (and Spanish and “periphery” debt) risked a crisis of confidence in European banks – and a loss of confidence in European finance risked dismantling the euro monetary regime.

Derivatives markets were in the crosshairs back in 2012. A crisis of confidence in European debt and the euro would surely have tested the derivatives marketplace to the limits. Moreover, with the big European banks having evolved into dominant players in derivatives trading (taking share from U.S. counterparts after the mortgage crisis), counter-party issues were at the brink of becoming a serious global market problem. It’s as well worth mentioning that European banks were major providers of finance for emerging markets.

From the global government finance Bubble perspective, Draghi’s “whatever it takes” was a seminal development. The Bernanke Fed employed QE measures during the 2008 financial crisis to accommodate deleveraging and stabilize dislocated markets. Mario Draghi leapfrogged (helicopter) Bernanke, turning to open-ended QE and other extreme measures to preserve euro monetary integration. No longer would QE be viewed as a temporary crisis management tool. And just completely disregard traditional monetary axiom that central banks should operate as lender of last resort in the event of temporary illiquidity – but must avoid propping up the insolvent. “Whatever it takes” advocates covert bailouts for whomever and whatever a small group of central bankers chooses – illiquid, insolvent, irredeemable or otherwise. Now five years after the first utterance of “whatever it takes,” the Draghi ECB is still pumping out enormous amounts of “money” on a monthly basis (buying sovereigns and corporates) with rates near zero.


Thinking back five years, U.S. markets at the time were incredibly complacent. The risk of crisis in Europe was downplayed: Policymakers had it all under control. Sometime later, the Financial Times - in a fascinating behind-the-scenes exposé - confirmed the gravity of the situation and how frazzled European leaders were at the brink of losing control. Yet central bankers, once again, saved the day – further solidifying their superhero status.

I’m convinced five years of “whatever it takes” took the global government finance Bubble deeper into perilous uncharted territory. Certainly, markets are more complacent than ever, believing central bankers are fully committed to prolonging indefinitely the securities bull market. Meanwhile, leverage, speculative excess and trend-following flows have had an additional five years to accumulate. Market distortions – including valuations, deeply embedded complacency, and Trillions of perceived safe securities – have become only further detached from reality. And the longer all this unstable finance flows freely into the real economy, the deeper the structural maladjustment.'

- Doug Noland, Five Years of Whatever It Takes, July 29, 2017

'..This whole episode is likely to end so badly that future children will learn about it in school and shake their heads in wonder at the rank stupidity of it all, just like many of us did when we learned about the Dutch Tulip mania.'

'While I've written about numerous valuation measures over time, the most reliable ones share a common feature: they focus on identifying "sufficient statistics" for the very, very long-term stream of cash flows that stocks can be expected to deliver into the hands of investors over time. On that front, revenues are typically more robust "sufficient statistics" than current or year-ahead earnings. See Exhaustion Gaps and the Fear of Missing Out for a table showing the relative reliability of a variety of measures. In April 2007, I estimated that an appropriate valuation for the S&P 500 stood about 850, roughly -40% lower than prevailing levels. By the October peak, the prospective market loss to normal valuation had increased to about -46%. As it happened, the subsequent collapse of the housing bubble took the S&P 500 about -55% lower. In late-October 2008, as the market plunge crossed below historically reliable valuation norms, I observed that the S&P 500 had become undervalued on our measures.

Again attempting to “stimulate” the economy from the recession that followed, the Federal Reserve cut short-term interest rates to zero in recent years, provoking yet another episode of yield-seeking speculation, where yield-starved investors created demand for virtually every class of securities, in the hope of achieving returns in excess of zero. Meanwhile, Wall Street, suffering from what J.K. Galbraith once called the “extreme brevity of the financial memory,” convinced itself yet again that the whole episode was built on something more solid than quotes on a screen and blotches of ink on paper..


..greater real economic activity was never the likely outcome of all this quantitative easing (indeed, one can show that the path of the economy since the crisis has not been materially different than what one could have projected using wholly non-monetary variables). Rather, Ben Bernanke, in his self-appointed role as Mad Hatter, was convinced that offensively hypervalued financial markets - that encourage the speculative misallocation of capital, imply dismal expected future returns, and create temporary paper profits that ultimately collapse - somehow represent a greater and more desirable form of “wealth” compared with reasonably-valued financial markets that offer attractive expected returns and help to soundly allocate capital. Believing that wealth is embodied by the price of a security rather than its future stream of cash flows, QE has created a world of hypervaluation, zero prospective future returns, and massive downside risks across nearly every conventional asset class.

And so, the Fed created such an enormous pool of zero interest bank reserves that investors would feel pressure to chase stocks, junk debt, anything to get rid of these yield-free hot potatoes. That didn’t stimulate more real, productive investment; it just created more investors who were frustrated with zero returns, because someone had to hold that base money, and in aggregate, all of them had to hold over $4 trillion of the stuff at every moment in time.

When you look objectively at what the Fed actually did, should be obvious how its actions encouraged this bubble. Every time someone would get rid of zero-interest base money by buying a riskier security, the seller would get the base money, and the cycle would continue until every asset was priced to deliver future returns near zero. We’re now at the point where junk yields are among the lowest in history, stock market valuations are so extreme that we estimate zero or negative S&P 500 average annual nominal total returns over the coming 10-12 year horizon, and our estimate of 12-year prospective total returns on a conventional mix of 60% stocks, 30% Treasury bonds, and 10% Treasury bills has never been lower (about 1% annually here). This whole episode is likely to end so badly that future children will learn about it in school and shake their heads in wonder at the rank stupidity of it all, just like many of us did when we learned about the Dutch Tulip mania.

Examine all risk exposures, consider your investment horizon and risk-tolerance carefully, commit to the flexibility toward greater market exposure at points where a material retreat in valuations is joined by early improvement in market action (even if the news happens to be very negative at that point), fasten your protective gear, and expect a little bit of whiplash. Remember that the “catalysts” often become evident after prices move, not before. The completion of this market cycle may or may not be immediate, but with the median stock at easily the most extreme price/revenue ratio in history, and a run-of-the-mill outcome now being market loss on the order of -60%, the contrast between recent stability and likely future volatility could hardly be more striking.'

- John P. Hussman, Ph.D., Hot Potatoes and Dutch Tulips, July 31, 2017


(2017) - '..a deeply systemic debt crisis akin to the aftermath of 1929 .. the stage has now been set..'

(Banking Reform - Monetary Reform) - '..debt is our biggest security threat..'

'..the Next 30 Years: “Everything is Deflationary”..'

          (2017) - '..a deeply systemic debt crisis akin to the aftermath of 1929 .. the stage has now been set..' (no replies)        
'..But after a decade of unprecedented expansion of government debt and central bank Credit, the stage has now been set for a more systemic 1929-like financial dislocation.'

'June 27 – Reuters (William Schomberg, Marc Jones, Jason Lange and Lindsay Dunsmuir): “U.S. Federal Reserve Chair Janet Yellen said on Tuesday that she does not believe that there will be another financial crisis for at least as long as she lives, thanks largely to reforms of the banking system since the 2007-09 crash. ‘Would I say there will never, ever be another financial crisis?’ Yellen said… ‘You know probably that would be going too far but I do think we're much safer and I hope that it will not be in our lifetimes and I don't believe it will be,’ she said.”

While headlines somewhat paraphrased Yellen’s actual comment, “We Will not see Another Crisis in Our Lifetime” is reminiscent of Irving Fisher’s “permanent plateau” just weeks before the great crash of 1929. While on the subject, I never bought into the popular comparison between 2008 and 1929 – and the related notion of 2008 as “the 100-year flood”. The 2008/09 crisis was for the most part a private debt crisis associated with the bursting of a Bubble in mortgage Credit – not dissimilar to previous serial global crises, only larger and somewhat more systemic. It was not, however, a deeply systemic debt crisis akin to the aftermath of 1929, which was characterized by a crisis of confidence in the banking system, the markets and finance more generally, along with a loss of faith in government policy and institutions. But after a decade of unprecedented expansion of government debt and central bank Credit, the stage has now been set for a more systemic 1929-like financial dislocation.

As such, it’s ironic that the Fed has branded the banking system cured and so well capitalized that bankers can now boost dividends, buybacks and, presumably, risk-taking. As conventional central bank thinking goes, a well-capitalized banking system provides a powerful buffer for thwarting the winds of financial crisis. Chair Yellen, apparently, surveys current bank capital levels and extrapolates to systemic stability. Yet the next crisis lurks not with the banks but within the securities and derivatives markets: too much leverage and too much “money” employed in trend-following trading strategies. Too much hedging, speculating and leveraging in derivatives. Market misperceptions and distortions on an epic scale.

Compared to 2008, the leveraged speculating community and the ETF complex are significantly larger and potentially perilous. The derivatives markets are these days acutely more vulnerable to liquidity issues and dislocation. Never have global markets been so dominated by trend-following strategies. It’s a serious issue that asset market performance – stocks, bond, corporate Credit, EM, real estate, etc. – have all become so tightly correlated. There are huge vulnerabilities associated with various markets having become so highly synchronized on a global basis. And in the grand scheme of grossly inflated global securities, asset and derivatives markets, the scope of available bank capital is trivial.

I realize that, at this late stage of the great bull market, such a question sounds hopelessly disconnected. Yet, when markets reverse sharply lower and The Crowd suddenly moves to de-risk, who is left to take the other side of what has become One Gargantuan “Trade”? We’re all familiar with the pat response: “Central banks. They’ll have no choice.” Okay, but I’m more interested in the timing and circumstances.

Central bankers are now signaling their desire to proceed with normalization, along with noting concerns for elevated asset prices. As such, I suspect they will be somewhat more circumspect going forward when it comes to backstopping the markets - than, say, back in 2013 with Bernanke’s “flash crash” or with the China scare of early-2016. Perhaps this might help to explain why the VIX spiked above 15 during Thursday afternoon trading. Even corporate debt markets showed a flash of vulnerability this week.'

- Doug Noland, Weekly Commentary: The Road to Normalization, July 1, 2017

Context (Banking Reform - English/Dutch) '..a truly stable financial and monetary system for the twenty-first century..'

'Unsound Finance gets to the heart of the issue.'

'..Like monetarists, Keynes held no capital theory .. the role time plays..' - Jesús Huerta de Soto

'..Loose financial conditions and record debt issuance..'

'..investors’ fear of missing out is looking increasingly desperate..'

'..a giant passive 'beta' bubble .. This may be the Mother of all beta bubbles..'

'..The same combination prevailed at the 1929, 1972, 1987, 2000, and 2007 market peaks..'

(Banking Reform - Monetary Reform) - '..debt is our biggest security threat..'

          (Bazaarmodel - To Heal - Teal) - ' it possible to build a truly Evolutionary-Teal school?' (no replies)        
'This factory-like system seems increasingly out of date. More and more people are crying out for innovation in education and starting to experiment with curricula, technologies, and governance in schools. But is it possible to build a truly Evolutionary-Teal school? And what would it look like? A superb example can be found in the center of Berlin in Germany. The “ESBZ” is a grade 7-12 school that opened its doors in 2007 with more than a bit of improvisation. Just three months before the start of the school year, the city council had suddenly given a decrepit prefabricated building from communist times to a group of pesky parents who simply wouldn’t let go of their dream. When the school year started, only 16 students were registered. A few months later, at the mid-year point, 30 more students had joined, mostly rejects and troublemakers other schools had expelled. Hardly a promising start for a new school. And yet today, only a few years later, the school has 500 students and attracts hundreds of principals, teachers, and education specialists from all over the country who want to study the ESBZ model.'

- Frederic Laloux, (Reinventing Organizations, Chapter 2.2 _ Self-management Structures), page 93

'..Yet unlike Sudbury, Montessori or Steiner schools, Rasfeld’s institution tries to embed student self-determination within a relatively strict system of rules. Students who dawdle during lessons have to come into school on Saturday morning to catch up, a punishment known as “silentium”. “The more freedom you have, the more structure you need,” says Rasfeld.

The main reason why the ESBC is gaining a reputation as Germany’s most exciting school is that its experimental philosophy has managed to deliver impressive results..'

'..At Oberländer’s school, there are no grades until students turn 15, no timetables and no lecture-style instructions. The pupils decide which subjects they want to study for each lesson and when they want to take an exam.

The school’s syllabus reads like any helicopter parent’s nightmare. Set subjects are limited to maths, German, English and social studies, supplemented by more abstract courses such as “responsibility” and “challenge”. For challenge, students aged 12 to 14 are given €150 (£115) and sent on an adventure that they have to plan entirely by themselves. Some go kayaking; others work on a farm. Anton went trekking along England’s south coast.

The philosophy behind these innovations is simple: as the requirements of the labour market are changing, and smartphones and the internet are transforming the ways in which young people process information, the school’s headteacher, Margret Rasfeld, argues, the most important skill a school can pass down to its students is the ability to motivate themselves.

“Look at three or four year olds – they are all full of self-confidence,” Rasfeld says. “Often, children can’t wait to start school. But frustratingly, most schools then somehow manage to untrain that confidence.”

The Evangelical School Berlin Centre (ESBC) is trying to do nothing less than “reinvent what a school is”, she says. “The mission of a progressive school should be to prepare young people to cope with change, or better still, to make them look forward to change. In the 21st century, schools should see it as their job to develop strong personalities.”

Making students listen to a teacher for 45 minutes and punishing them for collaborating on an exercise, Rasfeld says, was not only out of sync with the requirements of the modern world of work, but counterproductive. “Nothing motivates students more than when they discover the meaning behind a subject of their own accord.”

Students at her school are encouraged to think up other ways to prove their acquired skills, such as coding a computer game instead of sitting a maths exam. Oberländer, who had never been away from home for three weeks until he embarked on his challenge in Cornwall, said he learned more English on his trip than he had in several years of learning the language at school.

Germany’s federalised education structure, in which each of the 16 states plans its own education system, has traditionally allowed “free learning” models to flourish. Yet unlike Sudbury, Montessori or Steiner schools, Rasfeld’s institution tries to embed student self-determination within a relatively strict system of rules. Students who dawdle during lessons have to come into school on Saturday morning to catch up, a punishment known as “silentium”. “The more freedom you have, the more structure you need,” says Rasfeld.

The main reason why the ESBC is gaining a reputation as Germany’s most exciting school is that its experimental philosophy has managed to deliver impressive results..


Aged 65 and due to retire in July, Rasfeld still has ambitious plans. A four-person “education innovation lab” based at the school has been developing teaching materials for schools that want to follow the ESBC’s lead. About 40 schools in Germany are in the process of adopting some or all of Rasfeld’s methods. One in Berlin’s Weissensee district recently let a student trek across the Alps for a challenge project. “Things are only getting started,” says Rasfeld.

“In education, you can only create change from the bottom – if the orders come from the top, schools will resist. Ministries are like giant oil tankers: it takes a long time to turn them around. What we need is lots of little speedboats to show you can do things differently.” '

- Philip Oltermann, No grades, no timetable: Berlin school turns teaching upside down, July 1, 2016


(To Heal - Teal - Bazaarmodel) - Striving for wholeness '..We have let our busy egos trump the quiet voice of our soul; many cultures often celebrate the mind and neglect the body..'

(Bazaarmodel - To Heal - Teal) - 'Your physical .. cultural .. soul heredity..'

(To Heal) - Overview of Focus Levels ' areas of greater free will choice.'

(To Heal) - Overview of Focus Levels ' areas of greater free will choice.'

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          Merry Christmas        

Merry Christmas

Christmas is a wonderful time of year. It really brings out the best in people. Spending time with family and friends, great food and, of course, great drinks! I hope everyone enjoyed it and is looking forward to New Year’s celebrations!

Once again, I haven’t posted in several weeks. Things have been extremely busy since getting back from Afghanistan. As of yesterday, I am no longer on active duty with the Air Force. I am now a reservist with the 914th at Niagara Falls! That also means that today is my first day working ‘full time’ with New Buffalo Brewing.

We have done a lot in the last month, but we haven’t talked about it much. We set up a small lab in Clarence, and are currently dialing in on what we think will be our first four beers.  We are also working on a Kickstarter Campaign, which is a huge project. The support we receive from donors will make the difference between opening this spring and pushing off for several more months.

I want to talk about the lab in today’s post. It’s small, with a Brew Magic as our system, six half-barrel fermenters, and room for only one and a half barrels of finished beer. We are producing all the beer we need to have ready between now and April on this nano- of nano systems! You can imagine space will become an issue.

The plan is as follows: We are going to brew six beers between January 25th and March 10th. We aren’t publicizing the names yet, but we will have a brown ale, bitters, APA, and IPA. Our last two are still wild cards. We have two dry stout variants, a sweet stout and a porter. As much as I like the sweet stout, I think it’s on the chopping block. Many people we have talked to have varying degrees of lactose intolerance, and we want to make sure we are making something everyone can enjoy.

So where is this beer going? We have a couple of big things in the pipe. First, we want to be able to enter all our beers into the Amber Waves of Grain on March 10th.  Second, we need to have samples for the distributors and the bank to try. But I’m sure most people are interested in our the tastings…

We are planning four events to go with our Kickstarter campaign, three in Buffalo and one in Rochester. We’ll be sure to give everyone a big heads up once we have the locations nailed down. So far we have one place approved and three in the works.

So watch for an active blog again, and I will be updating the main site often over the next month or so as we get ready to announce our ‘official’ beers. Thanks for reading!


          What does a Buffalo Drink?        

More work is getting done n the last week. We have started collection data from Buffalo Bar’s on what it is people are drinking. Hopefully we can get an honest look at what kind of beers people are buying. Its one of those hard things in Craft Brewing. You get allot of false positives from things with a ton of awards and then find you sell hardly any of it. Dogfish Head World Wide Stout is a great example, a couple hundred barrels a year for that amazing brew! Over the next month we’ll get some on the ground information and see what people are really buying and use that to adjust our offerings. It’s not to say we’re not going to do what we want. Statistically most people are drinking Bud Light, we’re not making Bud Light. Period. Since you didn’t read the period as ‘period’ I thought I’d write it out for you. Point being please tell us what beers your buying and what beers you want to buy. It’s important for us to make what Buffalo demands.

          We have A Brewer        

This week we have brought on two more contracted people onto the New Buffalo Team. Jimmy Bass and Jon Downing, of Buffalo News Fame. Jimmy is a prior Marine and I think he will fit in with the rest of the group. (3 out of 8 players are vets).

Jimmy is developing some beers for use while I’ll be in Afghanistan under the mentorship of Jon. This is a very big deal for New Buffalo since Jimmy is training to be a ‘real’ brewer. Not to knock my home brew creations or that of any other home brewer but there is a distinct difference between a home brewer and the formally trained. Jon Downing made introductions to New Buffalo Brewing and I think we’re well on our way. Bringing on Jon and already having Tim we now have a combined 60 years and 180 breweries worth of experience.

I was also contacted to use the New Buffalo Brewing logo in an art project. 26 painting about buffalo each with one letter. They are going to be shown Nov 2nd I think. Sadly I will be unable to be there for the display but we we’re invited to do a beer tasting. I really want to pursue that if possible. I wrote over to custom Beer Crafters to see what it would cost to do a 10bbl run.  While in Nov we’ll still be 6-7 months from producing ourselves I think it would be good to at least get some beer into the hands of the people. It would also let us spread those kegs out over 2 months or so and hit up a few tastings. 

With Jimmy and Jon on board we have the how part of New Buffalo locked in pretty well. The two remaining questions are what and where. As we said in the last post we effectively abandoned the building we had a couple months sunk into and are looking anew.  Putting that aside I’m focused on the what.

On the main page we posted most of my experimental brews for the year and a half. Jimmy is going to redo at least two of them into something that can be scaled up and start creating new brews. Statically I know what we should do, and IPA (20% market share) and a Pale Ale (18%) market share. With the assort packs, I’d safely toss in another 7% . (Assortments and Seasonals made up just over 20%). These are two styles I’m really not interested in doing. There are allot of each on the market, it’s a crowded space and there so overdone. The thing I found the most reveling in the top 15 styles, not a single black beer made it.  These happen to be some of my favorite beers. So it begs the question do we enter the fray with our own Pale and IPA or do we try to seize a niche market? 

I’m sure we can get allot of insight from Tim and Jon on the topic. Point being the other big ones with Amber larger, meaning most craft beer drinkers are still looking for a fairly pale, crystal clear beer. Bitter seems to be the name of the game for the last 10 years.

We have a little time yet, but I’d love to hear from beer drinkers what they want.  

          Business in Buffalo        

Allot was accomplished while back in Buffalo over break. Some of it was already mentioned on facebook but this is where I can do some less official ranting.

So what I want to talk about is doing business in Buffalo. I’m sure allot of people have heard horror stories about working with in the city limits. I know for years people don’t me, don’t even bother if you’re not in the old boys club you can’t get anywhere in the city.  My experience was completely the opposite.

We had narrowed our search into the Black Rock area. I think it’s really an area on the up and up. The people there are really passionate about the neighborhood and eager for business to come back. The success of the black rock bar and kitchen and delish are sort of the test beds. As Chippewa seems to be  kicking out the college crowd there is going to need to be somewhere for all those older college students to go. I’m not saying Black Rock should open clubs and go crazy, just that older crowd is going to be looking for somewhere new to go and that could be black rock without a problem. Elmwood can be a bit ‘high end’ and Buff State is right across the river. Honestly Amherst is going to be where it’s at.

I’ve had the pleasure to bounce around the country for the last couple of years. My position in the Air Force requires allot of traveling form base to base, and I’ve found the same formula in all the ‘up and coming’ urban places is the same.

Provide a service or good that’s 100% better at 50% more cost. It’s what Craft Beer is all about, but it’s also what the whole urban movement seems to be able.  When I visit other cities and find something I think  could be a knock-out in Buffalo I write it down or grab a menu. Sadly for all the great ideas there is only so much money, but the formal is the same.

Chef’s in Manhattan KS is one of the business restaurants I’ve ever been in. It costs about 50% more then Denny’s but when you get Salmon Eggs Benedict, the $5 extra over a grand slam seems like nothing. I’m not saying I’ve stumbled upon the Holy  Grail or anything. I’m just finding that it seems to be true across the whole of the United States. It might the ‘Europeanization’ of America.  That’s a different topic so I’ll get back to Buffalo.

Where I wanted to get was armed with this formal and some really impressive growth numbers from Craft Beer the Councilmen Joe Golombek was willing to sit down for almost 2 hours with us, from that we got an audience with the City Office of Strategic Planning, Department of Labor, Tonawanda BOA, NYSBDC, SBA, ECIDC, NYSIDC. I’m missing once person from that list so I apologize. Point being they we’re great to sit down with, tell them what we want to do, and offer some suggestions on how to go about it. I didn’t run into some brick wall or have to cow tow to anyone to get this. I grew up 25 miles outside of the city, I went to School in Rochester. While Buffalo is my city, its not like I have a network. No Doubt I’m developing one, and the other companies we work with have been paramount to that.

Allot of reasons and things like the $1,000,000,000 that state is talking about I honestly don’t think is going to have nearly the effect it could have if it was $1 thousand million dollar grants or 10,000 $100,000 grants. The things about doing business in NYS being hard then other states.  That’s absolutely true, the taxes are terrible, the bureaucracy is enormous, and the law suits plentiful. Despite all that Government workers are really trying to work around it and with it to get Buffalo back on top.

Point being is Buffalo wants to grow, and the real growth is going to be by small business making an investment in the city, living here working here making that lifelong commitment to the area. There isn’t going to be a hand out from the government to get you started. It’s going to be with the help of people in Buffalo and on your own labors. I encourage anyone who’s thinking about starting to do
          Merry Christmas!        
I’ve been busy on all fronts the last month and have no posted here as I would have liked to. I really need to take a page out of CBWs book and do a stern 1 week update. It’s never that there isn’t anything to talk about. More an issue of, should some of it be spoken about in a public form. 

We’re trying to get a deal together on a building in Black Rock and the support from the community has been tremendous. I really can’t say how great they have been to work with and we’re only pitching some ideas right now. The actually negotiations on the building have not been progressing as I’ve like. Hopefully I’ll have better news on that front by the 6th of Jan. If not I’ll like be forced to put everything on ice until I get back.

Speaking of getting back, I’m leaving for a bit. The USAF finally have dates ‘set in stone’ for deploying to Afghanistan. They’ve told me that these ones are for sure so I will be out of the country for 10 of 12 months in 2012. Longer then original expected but it will help buffer some of the startup costs, and I should get allot less smack talk from the Army. (a value in its self). This will delay the start up by 9 months, why so much more? Winter, its allot harder to move equipment in, doing concrete work in the middle of winter makes things harder than it should be; so we’ll wait for spring of 2013. Not what I want to do but what is necessary to do. 

This week I also brought Dana Saylor of to do some research. She has a pretty cool site and its interesting work. I haven’t seen the finished product so I can’t vouch for her as of yet, but I feel pretty good about it so far. 

Lastly I promised more book reviews. I read a handful on my last few trips across the country. Just for a quick notes on them I’ll say if I liked them or not.

Great American Ale Trail: Its just a list of bars and a couple of lines about them. It’s sort of a good reference and The Blue Monk in Buffalo was in the notable mentions section for NY. If you’re thinking about opening a beer bar up I would say it’s pretty good. Other than that I don’t know anyone with the time or money to visit 1000+ beer bars in the country. Once we get New Buffalo Brewing, I’ll have my beer books on site so if someone wanted to stop in and check for a place feel free.

The Story of the Irish Pub: The begging with a history of the licensed trade was good, so about 70 pages of the book are good, the remaining 150, not worth it. Just little notes of where a bar is and who owns it. Over all very disappointing. If your going to Ireland it might be fun to stop  into one, but that’s about it.

In the Classic Beer Style Series, I picked up and read, Porter, Brown Ale and Stout. This series has been pretty fun to read, and for a serious home brewer I’d recommend them They all are set up with a little history, some water information, a few home brew recipes and a list of examples that are current for the time it was published (the early ones are over 12 years old). This book are really great for someone looking to starting a microbrewer, to see how far the brewing world has come in a decade. Also as an American, to see how we have consistently tossed out style guild lines and made so many great new beers. 

Porter was a really weak read, maybe if I hadn’t already read the mild book it wouldn’t have seemed poor.

Brown Ale was very good, tons of information on the different sub sets of Brown Ale and good information all around. So many beers in this style and information about most of them.

Stout has been the best read so far, The writer has a clear passion for stouts and has offered an immense amount of information on it, the different sub-styles and many references to Guinness. I’d recommend this the most of any of them so far. I will put out the disclaimer that I too love stouts. If there is just one style of beer I could have it’s a thick cream stout.

This should have been spread out to a couple of updates, but with the holidays I don’t know if I will get around to many in the next two weeks. Also one last pitch for buying our sweet gear for someone over Christmas!

          A Buffalo Church as a New Buffalo Brewery        

In Buffalo NY it’s hard to not be drawn to a church for a brewery right away. It’s like a brewing palace. Beautiful surroundings, ceiling heights that are unmatched, since it was for people to gather the utilities are surprisingly low (several feet of brick and mortar are even better than 6 inch of fiberglass, the temp stability is amazing) and Buffalo has a bunch of extra churches right now that could use a, well use. 

So what’s the problem? They came in a couple of flavors (Sadly the flavors are like skunked Bud Light, and not a Buffalo micro-brew). 

1) If the church is owned by the Papacy it cannot be used for a brewery, period dot. That takes out many of the primary candidates 

2) Most of the churches need some repairs, the first church we looked at required over 500k in stabilization and another 400-500k in conversation costs. The second needs 300k, but the conversion costs were down to about 100k. That is almost the entire budget for New Buffalo. In this same category, if there’s not a door I can get the tank thought I don’t want to bust down walls to get them installed, that’s not hard and fast just a bit of the preservationist that lingers. 

3) A brewery falls under a M1 Zoning, churches are a C1, the first city councilmen I tried to work with refused to talk to me about it for several  weeks before giving me a “I won’t actively try to stop you, but I’m not going to help you in anyway” kind of answer.  The Councilmen Franczyk, who’s district I wasn’t working in was excited about the idea. In any case not being zoned correctly is another huge risk for use to undertake, a 6 month wait would bankrupt us in our first year   

 4) There is no equity in churches so the bank will not lend us money to fix a church for the most part.  On top off that even as we pay down the merger costs of the church we can’t barrow against it later own to expand like a normal building. 

5) Preservation, on one hand it has some money we can tap into in, almost 50% of the stabilization or big repair costs could be deferred by public funds,  however you have to keep the building the way the rules call for which in the case of the first building, we would have had the largest tasting room in the world (not proven but I don’t know of any breweries with 12,000sqft of tasting space, and two levels with a stage in the middle) 

6) Transportation, I need to be able to bring in semi’s, right now were planning on a grain bin for the pale malt, and I have to be able to get that into the building, also just in the first year we’ll be moving a couple truckloads of beer a week. I have to be in a place they can get too. 

To sum it up, were still looking for a church that could hold us but it’s not our focus anymore. Unless we received a grant for $1million it looks like it’s going to be a goal to expand too.  I know the city has money like that, and that $5million went to the Staler. The city isn’t going to trust a young guy like me, my background is Intelligence and factory work, not history building refurbishing. 

This was a very long post, but I wanted to hit on it since several people have asked me about it. Chris Fetter has been a tremendous help, sending us updates when a non-Catholic church comes on the market.  We hope this will work out, but we can’t wait forever. 

This post is in response an exchange with, on our facebook page

          5 Best Joomla Security Extensions For You to Breathe Easy        

Apart from WordPress and Drupal content management systems, Joomla is the most popular CMS used all over the world to power websites of all sorts and sizes. Just like any other open-source CMS, Joomla powered sites also have to deal with hacking attacks. In fact, almost every day Joomla powered site encounter callous hackers who mutilate website pages, upload backdoors and steal or delete sensitive information. And sadly, most of the attacks cost website owners substantial amount of time and money in getting the damage fixed. And so, it becomes needful for website owners take all the possible measures into account that helps to strengthen security of their Joomla site.

In this post we have come up with a list of remarkably useful Joomla extensions that helps to secure your Joomla website. 



jHackGuard is an extension designed by Siteground that helps to protect the websites of Joomla users from being hacked. The extension is made publicly available to Joomla site owners, irrespective of whether they're using Siteground hosting services or not. This extension is a blend of a security plugin (that does the system work) and component (that helps to handle configurations) – that helps to protect a Joomla site by filtering the user's input data and integrating more PHP security settings. But, the plugin is disabled so that filters don't prevent authenticated administrators from performing their administrative tasks.

jHackGuard is compatible with Joomla version 3 and higher. And so, if you want to protect your site security running on an older Joomla version, you can choose to download the appropriate versions of jHackGuard for the older Joomla versions such as jHackGuard for Joomla 1.5 or other.

Akeeba Backup

Persyaratan kesehatan perumahan yang meliputi persyaratan lingkungan perumahan dan pemukiman serta persyaratan rumah itu sendiri, sangat diperlukan karena pembangunan perumahan berpengaruh sangat besar terhadap peningkatan derajat kesehatan individu, keluarga dan masyrakat. Persyaratan kesehatan perumahan dan lingkungan pemukiman menurut keputusan Menteri Kesehatan (Kepmenkes) No. 829/Menkes/SK/VII/1999 meliputi parameter sebagai berikut:

Lokasi Rumah
Tidak terletak pada daerah rawan bencana alam seperti bantaran sungai, aliran lahar, tanah longsor, gelombang tsunami, daerah gempa dan sebagainya.
Tidak terletak pada daerah bekas tempat pembuangan akhir (TPA) sampah atau bekas tambang
Tidak terletak pada daerah rawan kecelakaan dan daerah kebakaran seperti jalur pendaratan penerbangan.

Kualitas Udara
  • Kualitas udara di lingkungan perumahan harus bebas dari gangguan gas beracun dan memenuhi syarat baik mutu lingkungan. Parameter teknisnya sebagai berikut:
  • Gas H2S dan NH3secara biologis tidak terdeteksi
  • Debu dengan diameter kurang dari 10 g maksimum 150 g/m3
  • Gas SO2 maksimum 0,10 ppm
  • Debu maksimum 350 mm3/m2per hari

Kebisingan dan Getaran
  • Kebisingan dianjurkan 45 dB.A, maksimum 55 dB.A
  • Tingkat getaran maksimum 10 mm/detik

Kualitas Tanah di Daerah Perumahan dan Pemukiman
  • Kandungan timah hitam (Pb) maksimum 300 mg/kg
  • Kandungan Arsenik (As) total maksimum 100 mg/kg
  • Kandungan Cadmium (Cd) maksimum 20 mg/kg
  • Kandungan Benzo(a)pyrene maksimum 1mg/kg

Vektor Penyakit
  • Indeks lalat harus memenuhi syarat
  • Indeks jentik nyamuk dibawah 5%

Prasarana dan Sarana Lingkungan
  • Memiliki taman bermain untuk anak, sarana rekreasi keluarga dengan konstruksi yang aman dari kecelakaan.
  • Memiliki sarana drainase yang tidak menjadi tempat perindukan vektor penyakit
  • Memiliki sarana jalan lingkungan dengan ketentuan konstruksi jalan tidak mengganggu kesehatan, konstruksi trotoar tidak membahayakan pejalan kaki dan penyandang cacat, jembatan harus memiliki pagar pengaman, lampu penerangan jalan tidak menyilaukan mata.
  • Tersedia cukup air bersih sepanjang waktu dengan kualitas yang memenuhi persyaratan kesehatan
  • Pengelolaan pembuangan tinja dan limbah rumah tangga harus memenuhi syarat kesehatan
  • Memiliki akses terhadap sarana pelayanan kesehatan, komunikasi, tempat kerja, tempat hiburan, tempat pendidikan, kesenian dan lain sebagainya.
  • Pengaturan instalasi listrik harus menjamin keamanan penghuninya
  • Tempat pengelolaan makanan (TPM) harus menjamin tidak terjadi kontaminasi makanan yang dapat menimbulkan keracunan.

Pepohonan untuk penghijauan lingkungan pemukiman merupakan pelindung dan juga berfungsi untuk kesejukan, keindahan dan kelestarian alam.  Secara umum rumah dikatakan sehat apabila memenuhi kriteria sebagai berikut (PPM & PL, 2002) :
  • Memenuhi kebutuhan fisiologis antara lain pencahayaan, penghawaan dan ruang gerak yang cukup, terhindar dari kebisingan yang mengganggu.
  • Memenuhi kebutuhan psikologis antara lain privacy yang cukup, komunikasi yang sehat antar anggota keluarga dan penghuni rumah.
  • Memenuhi persyaratan pencegahan penularan penyakit antar penghuni rumah dengan penyediaan air bersih, pengelolaan tinja dan limbah rumah tangga, bebas vektor penyakit dan tikus, kepadatan hunian yang tidak berlebihan, cukup sinar matahari pagi, terlindungnya makanan dan minuman dari pencemaran, disamping pencahayaan dan penghawaan yang cukup.
  • Memenuhi persyaratan pencegahan terjadinya kecelakaan baik yang timbul karena keadaan luar maupun dalam rumah, antara lain persyaratan garis sempadan jalan, konstruksi yang tidak mudah roboh, tidak mudah terbakar, dan tidak cenderung membuat penghuninya jatuh tergelincir.

Resiko Kecelakaan
Rumah yang sehat harus dapat mencegah dan mengurangi resiko kecelakaan seperti terjatuh, keracunan dan kebakaran (APHA). Beberapa aspek yang harus diperhatikan dalam kaitan dengan hal tersebut antara lain :
  • Membuat konstruksi rumah yang kokoh dan kuat
  • Bahan rumah terbuat dari bahan tahan api
  • Pertukaran udara dalam rumah baik sehingga terhindar dari bahaya racun dan gas
  • Lantai terbuat dari bahan yang tidak licin sehingga bahaya jatuh dan kecelakaan mekanis dapat terhindari.

Demikian tadi artikel Health & Sport Citra Property Land berjudul RUMAH SEHAT.  Smoga membantu Anda dalam mencari rumah sehat idaman.


Lihat dulu yuk  contoh Perumahan sehat ...
Segera hubungi Citra Property Land



 Ilustrasi Membeli Rumah dari Developer.  Sumber : ini


Membeli rumah dari developer / pengembang merupakan salah satu cara yang banyak digunakan orang untuk memiliki rumah.  Cara ini banyak ditempuh, terutama oleh emreka yang tinggal di kawasan perkotaan,  sebab harga tanah di perkotaan sudah sangat tinggi, sehingga menjadi tidak mudah jika membangun rumah sendiri.

Membeli rumah melalui developer akan memberikan banyak kemudahan, diantaranya :

  • Kawasan yang sudah jadi, artinya developer menyediakan lokasi perumahan yang tertata dan dilengkapi fasilitas umum serta khusus.
  • Tidak perlu repot mengurusi proses pembangunan rumah, dari membuat desain, menyusun RAB, hingga mengawasi pembangunan rumah.
  • Tersedianya fasilitas kerjasama KPR (Kredit Pemilikan Rumah) dengan bank.

Namun calon pembeli rumah wajib tahu mengenai Tahapan Proses Membeli Rumah dari Developer.  

Beli Rumah Kok Cuma Dikasih Gambar !!

Pernah mendengar istilah “beli rumah dari developer itu beli gambar” ?  Istilah itu maksudnya adalah: saat kita membeli rumah di developer, rumahnya secara fisik belum ada.  Kita hanya tahu seperti apa rumah dan perumahan itu nantinya kalau sudah jadi, melalui gambar dan maket yang dibuat oleh developer.  Kenapa begitu ?  Sebab developer membutuhkan dana kucuran dari KPR untuk membangun rumah yang kita pesan.

Dan berikut ini proses yang lazim dilalui jika kita membeli rumah dari developer.


Secara umum, proses pembelian rumah dari developer menggunakan skema KPR atergambar dari flowchart berikut ini:

 Flowchart Proses Membeli Rumah dari Developer


Penjelasan singkat mengenai flowchart di atas adalah sebagai berikut :
Tahapan 1Memilih Rumah dari Developer Terpercaya

Tahapan 2 Membayar Booking Fee untuk memesan rumah.

Tahapan 3 Mengajukan KPR dan mendapatkan persetujuan kredit dari bank. Tanpa KPR (Kredit Pemilikan Rumah), rumah tidak bisa mulai dibangun oleh developer. Jika pembelian dilakukan secara tunai, proses ini tidak diperlukan.

Tahapan 4 Menandatangani Perjanjian Jual Beli (PPJB) dengan developer. PPJB ini penting untuk dibaca karena didalamnya termuat klausul mengenai janji developer soal kapan rumah jadi, proses balik nama sertifikat dan lain- lain. Sampai disini status rumah masih PPJB.

Tahapan 5 Rumah selesai. Biasanya setelah 6 bulan s/d 1 tahun, tapi ada juga yang lebih dari 1 tahun, misalnya jika perumahan yang dikerjakan skala besar, dan unit yang dibangun banyak.  Setelah proses pembangunan rumah rampung, rumah siap ditempati.

Tahapan 6 Proses pemecahan sertifikat HGB developer yang dilakukan setelah rumah jadi. Pemecahan harus dilakukan terlebih dahulu supaya sertifikat bisa dibalik nama ke pembeli

Tahapan 7 Dilakukan Akta Jual Beli (AJB) dengan notaris.

Tahapan 8 Balik nama sertifikat HGB developer ke pembeli.

Tahapan 9 Meningkatkan  status menjadi Sertfikat Hak Milik (SHM)

Demikian artikel PROSES MEMBELI RUMAH DARI DEVELOPER YANG WAJIB DIKETAHUI, semoga artikel singkat ini membantu Anda.

Ingin mendapatkan informasi lebih jelas ?
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          Simple Equations are No Good When the Variables are Meaningless        
A few weeks back, I reflected on why mathematical biology can be so hard to learn—much harder, indeed, than the mathematics itself would warrant. The application of mathematics to biological evolution is rooted, historically, in statistics rather than in dynamics. Consequently, a lot of model-building starts with tools that belong, essentially, to descriptive statistics (e.g., … Continue reading Simple Equations are No Good When the Variables are Meaningless
          Reflecting on Confusion        
While I was writing Multiscale Structure in Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics, I found myself having a frustrating time reading through big chunks of the relevant literature. The mathematics in the mathematical biology was easier than a lot of what I’d had to deal with in physics, but the arguments were hard to follow. At times, it was … Continue reading Reflecting on Confusion
Last night I thought of a way to summarize why my current big research project appeals to me. The SIC problem gives us the opportunity to travel all throughout mathematics, because, while the definition looks pretty small, the question is bigger on the inside. For a taste of why this is so, try here: M. … Continue reading Aphorism
          Ubisoft's disturbing equine fetish continues with Horse Adventure: Tale of Etria        

image (3)Someone at Ubisoft really loves horses. Possibly to a creepy and/or illegal-in-most-jurisdictions degree. In 2014 the publisher released a mobile version of Howrse, a sort of horse-themed management/pirate math game. Then in 2015 they brought us Horse Haven Adventures, which may or may not be about a demonic princess riding the mythical Mares of Diomedes across a defeated and despoiled Earth. Now they're back with Horse Adventure: Tale of Estria, a third horse-themed game seemingly unconnected to the other two.

Read More

Ubisoft's disturbing equine fetish continues with Horse Adventure: Tale of Etria was written by the awesome team at Android Police.

          Comment on Baseball Mathematics – Free, Fun Learning Game! by Ellie madison        
wow really goood games
          Comment on Baseball Mathematics – Free, Fun Learning Game! by Emma        
Love these games they are very helpful thank you ;-)
          Comment on ĐỊNH LÝ SAU CÙNG CỦA FERMAT (FERMAT’S LAST THEOREM) by trantancuong        
Particularly for intelligence,I do not want to take the bad name of bullying Andrew Wiles. Because he is a mathematician who has contributed for the mathematical system in the 21st century.But in Piere de Fermat’s case, Andrew Wiles was embarrassed to design a 400-page version for mathematical problem that contain three words x,y,z. Why did Andrew wiles failure during Fermat’s model about math in the 17th century ? Why not go to the destination like Fermat but have to wait until there is a combination of elliptic curve then this problem was finished In my childhood, I wanted to grow up as a paper shaver like Andrew wiles. But since knowing thoughts, I wonder why we have to go to Roma by wheelbarrow while we can get there by airplane. To prove x^n+y^n=/z^n. with z,x,y,n integer and n>2 Suppose x^n+y^n=z^n Given the current condition that was given by fermat, I try for create some irrational. If you find a suitable number (a) we will create some necessary irrational.It is z¹/a. Keep the number z¹/a as the basis for proof the absurd. Let’s try to have equation: an.z^n= [z¹/a / (x¹/a+y¹/a — z¹/a)].{ nax^(na — 1)/a.y¹/a+….+nax¹/a.y^(na — 1)/a — [+….+naz¹/a.d^(na — 1)+d^na] }, So we have a false assumption or x^n+y^n=/z^n In the fact ,this proof is; Because suppose x^n+y^n=z^n so ( x¹ / a+y¹/a)^na =(z¹/a+d)^na So: x^n+nax^(na — 1)/a.y¹/a+….+nax¹/a.y^(na — 1)/a+y^n=z^n+naz^(na — 1)/a.d+….+naz¹/a.d^(na — 1)+d^na. So: nax^(na — 1)/a.y¹/a+….+nax¹/a.y^(na — 1)/a — [naz^(na — 1)/a.d+….+naz¹/a.d^(na — 1)+d^na]=0 So: naz^(na — 1)/a.d =nax^(na — 1)/a.y¹/a+….+nax¹/a.y^(na — 1)/a — [+….+naz¹/a.d^(na — 1)+d^na] So: naz^(na — 1)/a={ nax^(na — 1)/a.y¹/a+….+nax¹/a.y^(na — 1)/a — [+….+naz¹/a.d^(na — 1)+d^na] } / (x¹/a+y¹/a — z¹/a) so na.z^n= [z¹/a / (x¹/a+y¹/a — z¹/a)].{ nax^(na — 1)/a.y¹/a+….+nax¹/a.y^(na — 1)/a — [+….+naz¹/a.d^(na — 1)+d^na] } fermat given na.z^n is an integer but here it is equal an irrational number.Does not accept So x^n+y^n=/z^n
          Comment on ĐỊNH LÝ SAU CÙNG CỦA FERMAT (FERMAT’S LAST THEOREM) by xuanthinh        
I use the infinity to prove Fermat, mathematicians do not like infinity because it is so broadly and ambiguous to define.Here Fermat give one condition , however , follow my analizing in this case will be transformed into infinite condition and they different. Suppose x^n+y^n=z^n. define n=2a x^a+y^a=z^a+d (x^a+y^a)²=(z^a+d)² x^n+y^n+2x^a.y^a=z^n+d²+2z^a.d because x^n+y^n=z^n so 2x^a.y^a=d²+2z^a.d Named x^a+y^a=S and x^a.y^a=P P=(d²+2z^a.d) / 2 Because P is integer so condition is (d²+2z^a.d) =2k Suppose x^n+y^n=z^n. define n=3b x^b+y^b=z^b+m Named x^b+y^b=S and x^b.y^b=P ( x^b+y^b) ^3=(z^b+m)³ x^n+y^n+3SP=z^n+m³+3(z^b.m)(z^b+m) Because x^n+y^n=z^n so 3SP=m³+3(z^b.m)(z^b+m) Because SP is integer so condition is [m³+3(z^b.m)(z^b+m)] =3K Suppose x^n+y^n=z^n. define n=4c x^c+y^c=z^c+v (x^c+y^c)⁴=(z^c+v)⁴ x^n+4(x^c)³.(y^c)+6(x^c)².(y^c)²+4(x^c).(y^c)³+y^n=z^n+4(z^c)³v+6(z^c)².v²+4(z^c)v³+v⁴ Because x^n+y^n=z^n 4(x^c)³.(y^c)+6(x^c)².(y^c)²+4(x^c).(y^c)³ — [6(z^c)².v²+4(z^c)v³+v⁴]=4(z^c)³v { 4(x^c)³.(.y^c)+6(x^c)².(y^c)²+4(x^c).(y^c)³ — [6(z^c)².v²+4(z^c)v³+v⁴] } / [4(z^c)³] = v because v is integer so { 4(x^c)³.(.y^c)+6(x^c)².(y^c)²+4(x^c).(y^c)³ — [6(z^c)².v²+4(z^c)v³+v⁴] } = [4(z^c)³] K Suppose x^n+y^n=z^n. define n=5r, x^r+y^r=z^r+t (x^r+y^r)⁵=(z^r+t)⁵ x^n+5(x^r)4.(y^r)+10(x^r)³.(y^r)²+10(x^r)².(y^r)³+5(x^r).(y^r)⁴+y^n=z^n+5(z^r)⁴.t+10(z^r)³.t²+10(z^r)².t³+5(z^r).t⁴+t⁵ Because z^n=x^n+y^n 5(x^r)4.(y^r)+10(x^r)³.(y^r)²+10(x^r)².(y^r)³+5(x^r).(y^r)⁴ — [10(z^r)³.t²+10(z^r)².t³+5(z^r).t⁴+t⁵]=5(z^r)⁴.t { 5(x^r)4.(y^r)+10(x^r)³.(y^r)²+10(x^r)².(y^r)³+5(x^r).(y^r)⁴ — [10(z^r)³.t²+10(z^r)².t³+5(z^r).t⁴+t⁵] }/ 5(z^r)⁴=t because t is integer so { 5(x^r)4.(y^r)+10(x^r)³.(y^r)²+10(x^r)².(y^r)³+5(x^r).(y^r)⁴ — [10(z^r)³.t²+10(z^r)².t³+5(z^r).t⁴+t⁵]=[5(z^r)⁴]k Similar , sequence continue infinite: define n=6g, define n=7u, define n=8f ,…….. so appear unlimited conditions that necessary according. Wow! too many conditions. I can’t suffer anymore Let me be king, I must give up
          Contrasting styles help Sri Lanka        
Contrasting styles help Sri Lanka Having lost the toss and been put in to bat, Sri Lanka’s 1xbet innings was built around two contrasting half-centuries – one a patient effort from captain Mathews, the other a brief, big-hitting display from Prasanna. Having arrived at the wicket with the tourists 56-3 after Willey and Woakes had removed […]
          LE PARIS DES FEMMES        
Pour sa 5ème édition, le Paris des Femmes se déroulera du vendredi 8 au dimanche 10 janvier 2016 au Théâtre des Mathurins, sur le thème "Crimes et Châtiments" VENDREDI 8 JANVIER 20H30 LECTURE-SPECTACLE [...]
          Coup de cœur Cinéma: My Old Lady        
Réalisé par Israel Horovitz Avec Kevin Kline, Maggie Smith, Kristin Scott Thomas Au cinéma le 06 mai 2015 Mathias, la cinquantaine, new-yorkais, divorcé et sans ressources, débarque à Paris [...]
          Coup de coeur Théâtre : Les mioches        
Au Théâtre BO Saint-Martin Jusqu'au 31 mars Auteur : Anne Didier Artistes : En alternance : Aurélia BM, Nathalie Mathieu, Anne Didier, Géraldine Germanaud Enfin les langues se délient ! Enfin [...]
          Coup de coeur Cinéma : L'art de la fugue        
Réalisé par Brice Cauvin Avec Laurent Lafitte, Agnès Jaoui, Benjamin Biolay Au cinéma le 4 mars Antoine vit avec Adar, mais il rêve d'Alexis... Louis est amoureux de Mathilde alors il va épouser [...]
          C#/.NET Little Wonders Anthology        

Originally posted on:

The following is the complete anthology of Little Wonders, Pitfalls, and Presentations.  

Enjoy!  A new little puzzler will be coming out this week.

The C# 6 Little Wonders

The Original C#/.NET Little Wonders Trilogy

The C#/.NET Little Wonder Sequels

The Visual Studio Little Wonders

The C#/.NET Concurrent Little Wonders

The C#/.NET Little Pitfalls

The C#/.NET Little Wonders and Little Pitfalls Presentations

C#/.NET Little Wonders from BlackRabbitCoder

More Little Wonders of C#/.NET from BlackRabbitCoder

C#/.NET Little Pitfalls from BlackRabbitCoder

The C#/.NET Fundaments: Of Lambdas and LINQ Presentation

Of Lambdas and LINQ from BlackRabbitCoder


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          â€œWhat Does it Mean to Say that Economics is Performative?,” M. Callon (2007)        
With the last three posts being high mathematical-economic theory, let’s go 180 degrees and look at this recent essay – the introduction of a book, actually – by Michel Callon, one of the deans of actor-network theory (along with Bruno Latour, of course). I know what you’re thinking: a French sociologist of science who thinks […]
          Vilsen, desperat eller galen?         

Det har nu gÃ¥tt 24 timmar sen festen som jag gick pÃ¥ tillsammans med Mimmi började och efter en känslofylld bergochdalbana tror jag ändÃ¥ att jag har kommit underfund med mina känslor. Jag gick dit med inställningen att "hooka" (skaminspirerat) nÃ¥gon vilket jag ganska snabbt insÃ¥g förmodligen inte skulle hända. Men eftersom jag var där med Mimmi och dels eftersom jag var utrustad med alkoholhaltiga drycker sÃ¥ hade jag väldigt roligt ändÃ¥ och sen när folk vi kände kom blev det ännu bättre. Men dÃ¥ hände det oförberedda, eller det var ju förberett undermedvetet men jag hade släppt den tanken för längesedan. Jag fick kontakt med en kille, som btw och i och för sig var väldigt snygg, vilket ledde till att vi "hookade". Men gud vad det kändes fel. Riktigt fel. Jag är sÃ¥ trött pÃ¥ att känna sÃ¥här, pÃ¥ att inte veta vad jag vill, för det är ju det som är felet. Jag tror att jag känner mig själv och vet vad jag vill ha, behöver och mÃ¥r bra av men sÃ¥ är det ju tydligen verkligen inte. Fick höra nÃ¥gra kloka ord av Mathilda idag och det jag ska ta med mig av detta är erfarenhet, erfarenhet och erfarenhet och hoppas pÃ¥ att jag aldrig mer träffar den där killen.... och pÃ¥ att jag hittar mig själv snart, börjar tröttna pÃ¥ denna förvirring. Detta blev ett ganska personligt inlägg jämfört med mina andra. Men som tur är sÃ¥ har jag bara drygt tvÃ¥ trogna läsare.

          Miscomputation: Learning to live with errors        

If trials of three or four simple cases have been made, and are found to agree with the results given by the engine, it is scarcely possible that there can be any error (...).

Charles Babbage, On the mathematical
powers of the calculating engine (1837)

Anybody who has something to do with modern computers will agree that the above statement made by Charles Babbage about the analytical engine is understatement, to say the least.

Computer programs do not always work as expected. There is a complex taxonomy of errors or miscomputations. The taxonomy of possible errors is itself interesting. Syntax errors like missing semicolons are quite obvious and are easy to catch. Logical errors are harder to find, but at least we know that something went wrong. For example, our algorithm does not correctly sort some lists. There are also issues that may or may not be actual errors. For example an algorithm in online store might suggest slightly suspicious products. Finally, we also have concurrency errors that happen very rarely in some very specific scenario.

If Babbage was right, we would just try three or four simple cases and eradicate all errors from our programs, but eliminating errors is not so easy. In retrospect, it is quite interesting to see how long it took early computer engineers to realise that coding (i.e. translating mathematical algorithm to program code) errors are a problem:

Errors in coding were only gradually recognized to be a significant problem: a typical early comment was that of Miller [circa 1949], who wrote that such errors, along with hardware faults, could be "expected, in time, to become infrequent".

Mark Priestley, Science of Operations (2011)

We mostly got rid of hardware faults, but coding errors are still here. Programmers spent over 50 years finding different practical strategies for dealing with them. In this blog post, I want to look at four of the strategies. Quite curiously, there is a very wide range.

          Getting more than you give        

Stay-at-home mom returning to school makes time for others

Turning her experience as a returning learner into an opportunity to help others with math, Nikki Engelbrecht volunteers in the Adult Education and Literacy (AEL) program at St. Charles Community College.

Nikki said it was a little scary going back … Continue reading

The post Getting more than you give appeared first on SCC Blogs.

          Krokus & Krokan        

Nesten uten Ã¥ vite det har Blomsterstjernen helt i det skjulte utviklet en samlemani pÃ¥ en blomst svært fÃ¥ nevner i de store ordelag, men som alle elsker nÃ¥r de fÃ¥r den i sitt vÃ¥rlige skue. 

Ta vel i mot: 
♡ krokan for øyet â™¡

Av en eller annen uforstÃ¥elig grunn rangeres denne fargesprakende flottingen som annenrangs sammenlignet med de mer "adelige" løkvekstene; pÃ¥skeliljer, tulipaner og snøklokker. Men det gjør den ikke mindre vakker av den grunn? 

En perifer nabo er innehaver av en stilfull krokus-eng - uten et spor av oransje!
Fra gamledager huskes krokusen som dyp lilla i de stilfulle hagene eller som knall-oransje i de mer usmakelige hagene. Men det var nok snarere de elleville potpurri kulørte galmanns-hagene som infiserte den unge Blomsterstjernen... En infeksjon som har ulmet og ulmet siden 80-tallet og som endelig har kommet til overflaten. Og nÃ¥r krokusen nÃ¥ til dags att pÃ¥ til finnes i milliarder av fargenyanser, fasonger og størrelser, ja da er det pÃ¥krevd med samling! Flere samlere der ute? Eller takket de fleste for seg i Ã¥r 4000

Utrolig nok kan det i enkelte tilfeller være en fordel Ã¥ inneha en av Norges bratteste hager! For med en plen-helning pÃ¥ bortimot 88 grader smelter is og snø som dugg for vÃ¥rsolen. Grunnlaget for den perfekte krokus-eng! De siste 3 sesongene har Blomsterstjernen derfor sakte men sikkert tilført nye krokus-arter i bratthenget. Alle farger er lov! MÃ¥let er at man innen 2020 ikke skal kunne se et eneste gressstrÃ¥ for alle krokusene!

heldigvis lenge igjen til 2020...

Fremdeles er det kanskje et lite stykke igjen? Men Blomsterstjernen nyter hver eneste krokus i lange drag, fra morgen til kveld. I Ã¥r har ogsÃ¥ den iskalde vÃ¥ren gjort at pÃ¥skeliljene ligger milevis bak skjema! Litt av et sammentreff? Krokusen blir derfor Ã¥rets pÃ¥skeblomst. 

Og om man studerer krokusen på litt ekstra nært hold, ja så begynner det nesten å se ut som om det bugner i hagen? Bilder lyver aldri...

Bare vent til neste år!

De beste påskehelghilsener,

P.S. Dersom du vil se utviklingen fra i fjor og i forfjor kan du lese mer her og der. Ikke mye Ã¥ skryte av. Men det gjør jeg da heller ikke? Eller gjør jeg det?

          Basar, bingo och loddtrekning...        

Ja sÃ¥ var ventetiden endelig over! Etter 3 pinefulle, endeløse, langdrøye uker i smigerens tegn kan Blomsterstjerne-kikkerne nÃ¥ velfortjent lene seg tilbake i godstolen uten Ã¥ mÃ¥tte veie hvert bidige ord og hver eneste handling opp mot Blomsterstjernens noe innfløkte loddsankingsregler... Dere er FRI!!! Dere er i MÅL! Gratulerer!

Noen vil gjerne si at det kanskje gikk litt pÃ¥ galleien med denne loddbasaren etterhvert? Det kunne kanskje virke som om loddsankingkriteriene ble mer og mer utflytende..? Ja det virket nesten som om nye regler poppet opp i takt med lesernes økende freidighet?!? Joda... Men sÃ¥nn skal det ogsÃ¥ være i Blomsterstjerneland! Alt er lov, ingenting er forbudt!

Her ser vi Miss-Mette og Elisabeth Innerst i veien (til høyre) sette inn nådestøtet!
Noen freske smiskepoeng smyges inn under bordet...
Det skulle lønne seg.

Etterhvert dukket det opp bÃ¥de hemmelige omregnede svenskepoeng, imponerende mimrepoeng, frekke blunkepoeng, sleipe dobbelvenn-poeng, selvpinende planespotterbonus og ikke minst todoble klumpepoeng... Folk gikk amok! Folk overgikk hverandre! Folk gjorde alt de kunne for Ã¥ hanke inn flest mulig lodd! Postkassen rant over av nakenbilder, skitne truser og skitne triks! Loddskalaen ble sprengt i fillebiter! Hele 57 loddbøker ble fylt til randen av loddtakere! Stakkars materialforvalteren...

Blomsterstjernen hadde et svare strev med å telle alle loddpoengene!
Langt bedre gikk det da Fjordlykke, Millie Moi og Mathildes Eden stakk innom for å "hjelpe" (dvs smiske...)
Loddpoengene rant inn hos den høykorrupte materialforvalteren....

En ting er Ã¥ annonsere loddtrekning, en helt annen ting er Ã¥ gjennomføre den, pÃ¥ rettferdig vis!!! For hvordan skulle man egentlig kunne vekte loddkjøperne riktig? Hvordan skulle man klare Ã¥ gjøre forskjell pÃ¥ dem som kjøpte 3 usle lodd og dem som forbrøt seg til hele 17 lodd?!? Hvordan skulle man fÃ¥ trekningen til Ã¥ gÃ¥ matematisk riktig for seg?!?

Her ser vi de proppfulle loddbøkene til Maria fra Idekroken og Shy B (fra høyre til venstre)

For som alle sikkert vet er jo en hver bloggkonkurranse juks fra ende til annen? Bloggeieren gir i 999 millioner av 1 milliard tilfeller enkelt og greit give-awayen til den deltakeren som bor nærmest sitt eget hus, slik at man elegant slipper unna de fæle 9,50 i porto. Det eksisterer ALDRI noen reell trekning... Dessverre...

Stemningsrapport fra loddsanking, Avdeling Sør.
Hver fredag kl 9:00 samles de 100 mest ihuga Blomsterstjerneleserne hjemme hos November Symra (mormor)
Her ser vi husholdersken og Hverdagsglede i fint driv nedover siste langside mens de teller opp lodd.

Men heldigvis finnes det en og annen hederlig person der ute i verden... Og Blomsterstjernen er en av dem, av og til... En  notorisk sporadisk gentleman..? Han slÃ¥r til nÃ¥r man minst aner det! Og i dag er en slik dag! Han ønsker Ã¥ la rettferdigheten seire! Han bryr seg ikke om vinneren sitter i Tsjernobyl eller Sudan! De er like mye verdt og fortjener like sjanser...

Det var bare en ørliten utfordring... Hvilket instrument skulle han benytte seg av til trekkingen? Hva ville gi mest rettferdig resultat? Trekkbasun? Trekkspill? Trekkfugler? Dynetrekk? Gjennomtrekk? HjortetrÃ¥kk? Versaillestraktaten? Kaffetrakter? Kaffetraktor? Kiropraktor? Kiruna? Malm? Narvik? Tyskere? Tysk hÃ¥rgele med kokos & ananas smak???

Blomsterstjernen gikk i harnisk da det gikk opp for ham at hele 289 basardeltagere ikke hadde kjøpt lodd!!!
En skandale!!! Minuspoengene florerte til de 289 skamfulle leserne!

Blomsterstjernen var sagtens rådvill! Han snekret derfor like godt opp et excel-program som kunne gjøre trekkingen for ham! Nå var det bare til å trykke på en knapp, og vips ville programmet plukke ut de hederlige vinnerne helt på egenhånd, naturlig vektet opp mot sine prosentuelle vinnersjanser! Blomsterstjernen selv kunne lene seg godt tilbake i det bobleskumfylte badekaret mens han nøt det hele på god avstand.

Et ulykkeshjul?

Det interessante med rettferdig trekning er at det ofte er svært urettferdig... For er man uheldig og konkurrerer mot såkalte heldiggriser eller lykketroll med sterke vinneregenskaper sliter man. I teorien kan vi jo ende opp med at en og samme person vinner samtlige premier!?!

Hagealven Lunalu med 2 av sine magiske lodd...

Vinnersjansene reduseres jo ikke om man allerede har vunnet 1 gang. Det er jo ikke tilfeldig at det er de samme tussaladdene som vinner i lotto hver bidige uke... Jaja, de om det! Trøsten er at man ikke blir lykkelig av premier..?

Nei, la oss få det hele overstått!

La oss trekke VINNERNE!!!
"Excel Excel åpn deg opp!!!"
All makt er i dine hender...

Aller siste utgave av Excel ble brukt til loddtrekningen

  • ARMBÅND 1: Elisabeth - Innerst i veien
  • ARMBÅND 2: Hagealven
  • ARMBÅND 3: Miss-Mette
  • HAPPYLIGHTS: Millie Moi

Honen mann!!! Hva i all verden!?! Det er det verste jeg har sett... Her har det tydeligvis sneket seg med en skikkelig "Heldigper" i gavedrysset... Hagealven Lunalu ble trukket ut hele tre (3) ganger!!! For en heldiggris! For en vinnerevne! For en vinnerlykke! For en urettferdighet...

Ikke alle var like heldige med loddtrekningen...
Her ser vi Tigertina og KlumpeSissel dobbelsjekke kupongen
Om og om igjen, til liten nytte...

Hadde kanskje Hagealven innledet et hemmelig forhold med Mr. Excel?!?! Hadde hun blunket seg elegant forbi alle de andre konkurrentene? Men hadde hun strengt tatt bruk for 2 sommerfuglbusker? Neppe...

Blomsterstjernen er derfor sÃ¥ freidig at han tillater seg Ã¥ kjøre en liten omtrekking av den ene sommerfuglbusken (om enn ikke bokstavelig talt). Det var nemlig 3 gavedryssdeltagere som i sin kommentar virkelig ønsket seg et eksemplar av disse bevingete stiklingene; Anita, Tigertina og Villrose. SÃ¥ la det stÃ¥ mellom dem!

Igjen gir vi ordet til Mr. Excel. Sim sala bim & Load Error:

Den omtrukne sommerfuglbusken går til VILLROSE!

En overlykkelig Villrose etter den noe uventede seieren i ekstratrekningen

Ja så sjofel kan verden være! Ihvertfall når en Commodore 64 styrer verden...

De heldige vinnerne bes opplyse sin adresse på mail til: blomsterstjernen★
(Helt riktig... stjernen skal byttes ut med en alfakrussedull)

Nei nå må jeg stikke! Jeg har gaver som må pakkes inn...
Gratulerer alle mine vinnere og tapere!

Kräm frän,

P.S. Da det var et sÃ¥nt voldsomt ramaskrik blant bloggleserne da det ble klart at det IKKE var fruktkurv i førstepremie har jeg bestemt at vi skal gjøre alt som stÃ¥r i vÃ¥r makt for Ã¥ ordne opp i dette til neste bursdag...

P.P.S Det er selvsagt ALT for moderne for dere andre Ã¥ benytte excel ved loddtrekning nÃ¥r dere selv en vakker dag skal kjøre gavedryss.... PÃ¥ vedlagte link finner dere et knippe hendige maskiner jeg vil anbefale pÃ¥ det varmeste...

          Banking On The Future: The Fall And Rise Of Central Banking [Audio]        
Speaker(s): Howard Davies, David Green | Not long ago, national central banks were endowed with wide-ranging authority, enormous prestige, and a high degree of independence. Today, in the aftermath of the global financial crisis, rethinking their functioning and their modus operandi is both natural and needed. Howard Davies and David Green write on this issue with authority, reflecting their practical experience, political sensitivity, and high analytic skills.
          Mathews, Selby, Ogogo, Woodhouse, Fielding Win        
          Freshman Year—Welcome to high school!        
  • Build strong academic, language, mathematics and critical thinking skills by taking challenging courses (Honors, Pre-AP). A diverse course curriculum will help you learn about a variety of subjects and possibly introduce you to new areas of interest. Colleges will evaluate your freshman grades when you apply for admission.
  • Don't be afraid to ask questions of teachers and counselors. They are there to help!
  • Get involved in extracurricular activities that you are excited about, both in school and within the community.
  • Surf the web and look at college websites. You can learn about various schools, what they offer and their admission requirements.


    • Create an informal resume of academic achievements, awards, extracurricular activities, community service hours, and any other activities. It will come in handy when you're filling out college applications or creating a formal resume.
    • Plan and register for your sophomore year schedule. You have until the end of the academic year to make changes.


    • Going on a family vacation? Is there a college nearby? Consider taking the time to visit college campuses. Seeing campuses will give you a better idea of what is important to you in a college, e.g. size, location, urban vs. rural, etc.


Forty-one students participated in the 8-week summer research program, SCOPE, a student-faculty collaborative experience, conducting research in animal behavior, biology, chemistry/biochemistry, kinesiology, math/computer science, and physics.

          Duvida MAth.random        
Topic: Duvida MAth.random

Author: rafacarmo
Replies: 1
Exibitions: 1
Last Message: staroski
          The Art of Lovin' Animals --- Featured Group of Artists Inspired by Their Beloved Pets.        
"Enilde And Our Children" Oil on Panel 42" x 60"
Painting by Luke Van Hook, 2003
Painting and Photograph copyright by Luke and Ginger E. Van Hook, 2004
Courtesy of the Van Hook Collection

The Art of Lovin' Animals
Features a group of artists inspired,
motivated or influenced by their beloved pets
and appear in this blog in the following order:

Joshua Elias, Simone Gad, Betty Glass, David Newsom,
Monrovia Association of Fine Arts supporters
(KidsArt Studio, PaintNPlay Art Studios, Tyson & Tillman Skate Dogs)
Family Dog and Cat Hospital in Monrovia, California (displays animal artwork).
Ginger Van Hook, Luke Van Hook,
Alex in Welderland, Elena Wolek, and Zareh.

Additionally as part of the "Art of Lovin' Animals"
there is a special book and movie review of
John Grogan's book "Marley and Me", and the recent hit movie
starring Jennifer Aniston and Owen Wilson

Written by Enilde G. Van Hook with special thanks to all participating artists!

Do you remember your first pet? I do. I even have a picture of how much bigger my cats’ paws were than my two feet put together at the age of three. My mother, tells me I had a yellow duck, a small dog and a large yellow tabby cat that owned me as a child.
These three pets were protective, possessive and they were my first companions as I ventured out, for the first time, into my wild back yard of dirt and weeds. I was born in Rosario Argentina and to me now as an adult, my backyard is still my world. I live in Los Angeles, California but the romance of the Argentinean Pampas is not lost on me. From the pictures of my past, I gathered that my Belgian Grandfather, Francisco, ran a plant nursery in Buenos Aires and that my father, Luis, grew up to be an inventor in America. But the most unique connection I have to my past is my relationship with animals. I’ve had a pet at almost every age as I grew up. The importance of this type of companionship has not been explored enough in the art world, at least, this is my opinion. This is the reason I am blogging about the subject of the art and inspiration of lovin’ pets. I hope to instigate discussion, if not compassion. I hope to motivate an artistic response to my thoughts as well. You may have a completely different experience, so I personally encourage you to post your comments after you read this entry.
This is what I asked myself for the subject of the essay for Ginger's Art Journal. What is the relationship of animals and pets to the art world? How involved are animals throughout the art strata? How much inspiration is gathered from the love of a pet? Can that even be measured? Does the love of a pet inspire political causes? Activism? How does one explain the pangs of loneliness from the loss of a pet? Does the death of a pet make an artist create more art? Does the gift of a new life of a pet inspire hope and renewal in artists? How do artists express their love and affection for the four-legged critters of our earth? How do animals, pets, pet trees, pet rocks or pets of any kind affect the process of making art?
There are a number of artists that I have followed for a period of time to investigate the questions that will make up this entry. Studying the work of a number of local artists from the Los Angeles and surrounding areas that work with pets in their art practice, I will present some of their unique stories with photos. The artists, in alphabetical order, include Joshua Elias, Simone Gad, Betty Glass, David Newsom, Ginger Van Hook and Luke Van Hook, Alexandra from Alex in Welderland, Lena Wolek and Zareh. Additionally, the art of lovin’ animals has made a seamless transition from the literary art into the film arts so I will discuss one of my favorite books by John Grogan named “Marley and Me” as it compares to its latest movie version of “Marley and Me” starring Jennifer Aniston and Owen Wilson which opened in December for Christmas Day.
The method selected to choose these artists was random. I began my animal photographic study in 2006. Through my daily practice of studying the arts, I have come across people who were “in my back yard” and came to connect with me in a special way. I didn’t set out to write a story about animals. I merely went about my daily routine of photographing people and artwork that caught my “eye” because I was at the right place at the right time. Believing that the universe has a special plan for me, I allowed this story to evolve of its own volition. What I discovered both surprised me and opened me up. What I mean by this is that I was surprised to discover that artists who had pets had a great deal in common with other artists who had pets. Most people know and understand the history that reveals how the Egyptians revered cats and how the dog is considered “man’s best friend”. While it was common to have general conversations about how great it was to have pets and create pet portraits, I rarely came across artists that spoke to the deeper underlying significance in the arts about this specifically. While doing this research, I came across the most extreme case of worshiping our pets. The act of cloning has been in the news ever since the cloning of “Dolly” the sheep, but did you know that now there is a company that has launched itself into a commercial venture to clone man’s best friend? I discovered this and lots more so enjoy the new year in 2009 with a renewed commitment to your beloved pet. This is an ongoing story so don’t feel left out if your best friend isn’t included in this entry. I’m still reviewing artwork and pet portraits,
feel free to send me an email about your animal story and I’ll include it in the followup stories!


Fine Arts Painter

Joshua Elias, Exhibition, DCA Fine Arts
Santa Monica, California
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook, 2007
Winston and Lucille read art literature on the couch and
wait for Joshua Elias to become inspired to feed them.
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook, 2008
Paintings by Joshua Elias
Art in the making at the Brewery Artist Colony
Los Angeles, California, 2008
Studio visit by Ginger Van Hook
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook
Artist brushes belonging to Joshua Elias
The instruments by which Joshua Elias creates the canvas of weather and inspiration.
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook, 2008
DCA Fine Arts Gallery, Joshua Elias with Mathew Heller and his girlfriend
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook 2007
Joshua Elias, Exhibition at DCA Fine Arts Gallery
Santa Monica, California
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook, 2007
Joshua Elias with his cats Winston and Lucille
in his studio at the Brewery Arts Complex in Los Angeles, California
Photo copyright Ginger Van Hook, 2008

Joshua Elias
Artist Statement

Art has become about large quantities of Resin, masquerading as Content. The focus has been on Process, confusing it with Content. Enough. I wish to focus on Content. Story and Vibration lead the way for me to paint.

I work in oil because of the depth and movement that it allows for me, as a medium. I focus on Landscapes that are rearranged. Traveling spirits act as guides, to the movement of a particular painting. The influence of Moorish architecture and its many doorways offers and allows entryways into paintings.

At present we are in a period of Time where there seems to be long standing fights over Space, Time Religion, Money, Ideology, and Relationships. Enough. The one thing we do all share is Weather. Through the action of Creating our own environment, our own personal Weather, the Repositioning of Weather can illuminate and allow for more Creation to happen, more of a Life Force to shine and to take shape.

ï¿_ Joshua Elias

Courtesy of the DCA website

Fine Arts Painter, Collage Artist, Actor and Performer
Simone Gad, Artist, Solo Show, L2Kontemporary Gallery
February 2008 Chinatown, Los Angeles, California,
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008

Selfportrait with Max and Bella/Autoportrait avec Max et Bella
Private collection, photo courtesy of Simone Gad, Artist, copyright 2005
Gad/Rin-Tin-Tin Collection Long Beach Museum of Art
Courtesy Simone Gad, Artist, copyright 2005

Picture Holocaust Clowns - Pinups 127, Gad and Poodle
Courtesy Simone Gad, Artist, copyright 2005

Selfportrait with Cat and Jesus
Private collection, Courtesy of Simone Gad, Artist, copyright 2005

Hommage a Ma Mere 2005 Painting Collage
Copyright and Collection- Simone Gad
Courtesy Simone Gad-Artist
Photograph by Antonio Garcia

Autoportrait avec Kashmir, painting collage 2005/06
Courtesy Simone Gad- Artist and L2Kontemporary Gallery
Chinatown, Los Angeles, California. Copyright Simone Gad

Portrait of Bella, the Brindle cat, acting secretary for Artist, Simone Gad
Los Angeles, California, Artist studio visit
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008

Bella the Brindle Cat, (on the Marilyn and JFK Installation)
Photo copyright and courtesy of
Jesse Bonderman and Simone Gad,

Bella, the Brindle Cat #2 (Marilyn Installation)
Photo courtesy of Jessie Bonderman and Simone Gad

Portrait of Simone Gad, Artist with companion, Bella.
Los Angeles, California, Artist studio visit
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008

Portrait of Bella
The Brindle cat, Artist assistant, model
and loyal companion to Simone Gad.
Los Angeles, California, Artist studio visit
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008

Max and Bella pose for pictures in the window of Simone Gad's artist studio
Los Angeles, California
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008

Simone Gad poses with one of her paintings of Chinatown
during her solo show at L2Kontemporary Gallery
Chinatown, Los Angeles, California
Photograph by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2008

Enilde Van Hook writer's notes: I met Simone Gad at an exhibition of her work in Chinatown in the spring of 2008. The L2Kontemporary Gallery is a unique gallery located at 990 N. Hill Street #205 in Downtown Los Angeles (90012), California. I received an email from ArtScene, a wonderful source of local Art Events that is produced by the staff of Coagula Art Journal. Special thanks to Michael Salerno and Mat Gleason, because somewhere in the announcement, I read that Simone Gad was a Belgium-born artist and this led me to want to meet her to talk about the art in Belgium, where my grandfather had been born. Once I attended her exhibit and got a chance to meet Simone, I realized there was a distinct cultural connection we had through our reverence to the animals. She used images of her cats to make intriguing and poignant self-portraits and insightful photographic collages.
I have followed Simone Gad’s work into 2009 and you will enjoy visiting her site through the L2Kontemporary Gallery located in Chinatown in Los Angeles: Follow these links to get to know a renaissance artist, a versatile film and TV actress, a woman of many talents and an artist who has a great deal of compassion to show for her animal friends: visit the online gallery site at to view her solo show at L2k for Feb 08 plus her updated resume which may be viewed at by writing in her name or by writing in Simone Gad’s name.
Special thanks to the L2Kontemporary Gallery for cooperating with my interview! ( and and phone: 323-225-1288)

Simone Gad
Artist Statement and Biography: 2009

I've been showing in museums and galleries for 40 years-am a 6 times grants recipient, including a CRA Grant 1986, the Woman's Building 1985/6, New Orleans Contemporary Museum of Art 1984, the Gottlieb Foundation-NYC/Painting Medical Emergency Grant, Change Inc-Robert Rauschenberg Foundation Grant-both in 2002 for painting and medical emergency, and Artist Fellowship Foundation Grant in 2007-NYC. I am included in the Archives of the National Portrait Gallery/Smithsonian-Washington, DC, and will also be included in the Lyn Kienholz Encyclopedia of Los Angeles Artists who have shown between 1944 and 1979. In Los Angeles, I am represented by L2kontemporary Gallery-Chinatown, Jack Fischer Gallery in San Francisco, and am showing in Spain. I am also in the traveling museum exhibition-Your Documents Please thru 2010 in Japan/Europe/Mexico curated by Daniel Georges of Brooklyn, NY. I was born in Brussels, Belgium to holocaust survivor parents, from Poland. We came to the US in the early 1950's and settled in Boyle Heights/E.L.A, after arriving at Ellis Island. My mother got me into show-biz at the age of 4 upon our immigration. I grew up in the entertainment field as a young actress-have been working professionally in film, tv, commercials and theatre ever since. Have always had a dual career-.visual/performance artist and actor. George Herms and Wallace Berman were my first mentors. Al Hansen was my mentor from 1972 to 1995 when he passed away in Koln, Germany.

My cats Max and Bella Bettina Kashmir are my inspiration for many of my painting collages-have been so for many years. I've always been inspired by my cats and dogs that I've had since I arrived to this country from War torn Europe. My father got me my first dog-Teddy Queeny when I was a child living on Folsom Street-We had just returned from a movie on Brooklyn Avenue when we saw the puppies on our way home. I was allowed to have one-and I was so happy. But my mother hated animals and wouldn't let me keep my pet with me in my bedroom and it cried all night. I was heartbroken when I got home from Nursery School the following day and found that my dog was gone. My mom told me she had sent it to New Jersey to live with my Tante Sally. I wasn't allowed to have any animals after that. Years later I visited my aunt and asked her if she had taken care of my Teddy Queeny and she told me she never did-she never got the dog-didn't know what I was talking about. I realized that my mother had lied to me and had possibly killed my beloved doggie. I had moved to Topanga Canyon for a while in the late 1960's-that's where I got to know Wallace Berman and George Herms. I was given a miniature sheppard-who I named Lady. She was my constant companion and I adored her. She was run over by a couple of friends who were staying with me one night. I found her bleeding from her mouth by the driveway. She died in my arms and I could feel her spirit leave her body. We buried her the next morning. I was devastated for years. A friend of mine gave me a dash-hound and I took it home to be with me when I left Topanga and stayed with my parents for a while. I named her Wiggle Butts because she had this habit of wiggling her behind when she walked. I was not allowed to keep her-once again-so I called a friend and had her drive from The Canyon to pick Wiggles up and take care of her for me. When I left my parents and got an apartment, I got a cat-Nathaniel-my very first cat-who was with me for 15 years until he passed away. It was then that I started to incorporate animal objects into my collages-in the mid 1970's.

copyright Simone Gad 2009 to view Simone Gad’s solo show at L2k for Feb 08 plus her updated resume-you may also get it on by writing in her name or by writing in Simone Gad’s name-



Focus One Gallery in Monrovia, California. Sponsored by M.A.F.A.,
the Monrovia Association of Fine Arts and Focus One Community Credit Union.
Photo by Ginger Van Hook, copyright 2006

Betty Glass celebrates Christmas with Lulu at home in 2008.
Lulu, wearing her new holiday sweater,
pokes her nose into the gift bag
to see if she likes what Santa has brought her.
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty Glass and James Glass.
Turtle Painting, Watercolor Artwork by Betty Glass reminiscent of her pet turtles.
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty and James Glass.
Trojan Horses, Watercolor painting by Artist, Betty Glass
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty and James Glass.
Hummy, Watercolor Painting by Artist, Betty Glass.
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty and James Glass.

Yankee and Sugar, Watercolor Painting by Artist, Betty Glass
memorializing the life of her beloved friends.
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty and James Glass.

Yankee (5-17-80 --- 4-20-94)
the larger white and orange Brittany on the right,
and Sugar (7-20-90 --- 12-24-04)
the smaller Brittany on the left.
"Beloved Friends and Forever in our hearts!"
Loyal Friends, Inspiration and Companions
to Artist, Betty Glass and her family.
(Special thanks to husband, James Glass
for his technical computer assistance
with digital photography formating of Betty Glass Artwork.)
Photo copyright and courtesy of Betty and James Glass

Enilde Van Hook, Writer's Notes:
I met Betty Glass through the Monrovia Association of Fine arts in 2006. We were showing together at the Focus One Gallery on Huntington Drive in Monrovia, California. When Betty came into the gallery, she was toting her adorable poodle named Lulu. I was charmed immediately and I just had to have a photo of this beautiful female pooch with a twinkle in her eye and the gumption to come into an art gallery where only humans gathered. This little poodle had no clue there was any difference between her and her owner, and she acted like she was looking at the art just like everyone else. At the time, I considered this a very cultured poodle and I told Betty so. Betty giggled and let me take her snapshot with Lulu and then we did not see each other again until we had another show together, also at Focus One Gallery two years later in December of 2008. When I saw Betty this time, I saw the connection of her artwork and the love of her animals come through her work and later, she agreed to participate in the interview for my blog. You may enjoy Betty Glass's artwork by visiting her website at

Betty H. Glass
Artist Statement about Animal Art

Through art we communicate our feelings and thoughts.
Our art reflects what experiences in life have influenced us.
I have had a lifetime of pets
ranging from goldfish, parakeets, and turtles and, of course,
the loyal dog—always your friend even when the sky seems to be falling.
I am still sketching and painting animals, birds, and fish.
The softness of their fur, the texture of their feathers and fins,
the variations of color are very appealing to me,
because color is part of my artistic signature.
Sometimes they are presented in a realistic fashion.

Other times I use animals in a more stylized way—
using their shapes as patterns, semi-abstracting them and their background.
For example, my painting Trojan Horses shows flattened stylized figures of horses.
Hopefully artistically pleasing and calling to mind ancient Greece.

The Entrance to the Brand Library Art Galleries in Glendale, California hosts a prominent postcard of the show "Circle in the Square" now exhibiting through September 5th, 2008


Photo above: 
Cathy Billings, Art Librarian and Gallery Manager of the 
Brand Library Art Galleries and Co-Curator of 
"Circle in the Square" selected Luke Van Hook 
as one of the artists to show his circle paintings 
which explore Giotto's fabled "perfect circle.
Photo below: 
Alyssa Resnick, Senior Library Supervisor, Gallery Director 
and Co-curator pictured with Luke Van Hook.
Both ladies made studio visits all over Los Angeles and surrounding communities in search of the "perfect circle" of artists to represent the illusive qualities of the circle.
It takes over a year to prepare for a large show at the Brand Library Art Galleries and no one will have a better story to tell you about the waiting process than Galleries Manager and Curator, Cathy Billings or Alyssa Resnick, Senior Library Supervisor and Gallery Director. These ladies traveled to Inglewood, California for a studio visit to see Luke Van Hook's circle paintings some time in the early summer of 2007. They told Luke that they were preparing to curate a show of artists working on the motif of the 'circle'.  They had already reviewed a number of artists and found making the final decision difficult, first because there were a number of artists who worked with this subject and secondly, the talent was very competitive. The subject of the circle and how each artist approaches this topic is worth dedicated study in and of itself.  These lovely ladies, Cathy and Alyssa, with a keen eye for artistic talent, selected a total of five talented artists to show together this summer.   
Here you will find photos of how each artist expressed their obsession with the circular form.  I'll begin my blog entry with a brief history of what I believe may have led Luke Van Hook to painting the circle and continue with the photos and biographical information of the additional four artists each selected for working with the motif of circles, independently of each other, with their own unique and individual interpretations of the circle: Yesung Kim, Barbara Kolo, Susan Sironi, and Cheryl Walker.
Luke Van Hook began his present study of the circle in 2005. He first discovered the legend of Giotto's "Perfect Circle" in a class about ancient history; but the idea didn't sink in at first. He needed time to reason with his quest. While Luke approached the specific task of painting the circle with thin paintbrushes and applying layer upon layer of color to a raw naked canvas, I set about trying to understand what the hell prompted my husband to go circle crazy in the first place.  I started researching what the circle meant and I found a lot of literature in the realm of magic, rituals, mathematics, secret societies and romance. But my first impression was that the circle was a way to get back to the beginning of things.  Then I delved deeper.  Was Luke trying to say that he was going in circles?  Were we at this artistic point in our lives as a result of a past life?  Was our circular existence referencing our cycle of birth, death and rebirth?  Or was the answer more basic than that, like "the earth is round and it's an orbital thing.' There were other issues on the table I was urged to deal with also.  Were these circle paintings partly influenced by the school we had attended?  Once we leave school we are expected to make works of art that have fresh meaning and to blow out the cobwebs of old thinking.  While at Otis College of Art and Design in Los Angeles, Luke Van Hook studied all the required areas to excel in his chosen profession as a fine arts painter including the figure, landscapes and abstracts. But the abstract visual image is what finally drew Luke back in.  Could it be the understated obvious fact that the big 'O' (which formed a circle on every memo, syllabus and brochure in the name of Otis College) was influencing him subconsciously?  
Luke's earlier work involved intricately small hatch marks that evolved into large abstract images full of vibrant colors.  This work was very reminiscent of Jasper Johns.  So where did this circle idea really emanate from?  Did his hatch marks get married or what?  Observers of Luke Van Hook's work have stated that it raises the question, 'Is it a painting or a drawing?  Is it text or writing?'  Luke will often begin a row of circles that reads from left to right just as western literature is expressed.  But sometimes he changes his mind, and the direction of his technique, and he starts to paint his rows from right to left. At other times, he completes a horizontal column of circles which refers more to ancient Asian forms of writing going from the top, down.
During his graduating year at Otis College in 2004, Luke went on a mission to explore machine technology as it pertained to replacing humans.  He painted large canvases with a number of faces and shapes that represented cyborgs expressing the fear, uncertainty and ambivalence that humans have toward our technological future.  But once out of school, a full year later, in 2005 Luke seem to have turned a corner.  He seemed to have replaced his fear of technology with a competitive defiance that defied all reason.  Luke started working with his father-in-law, in his machine shop, where he started to observe how everything around him involved the circle in one way or another.  He watched the machines (Fadal CNC's- numerical control production machines) in action. The tool would spin in circles, plunging in and out of aluminum, stainless steel and plastic materials. The space left behind was almost always a perfect circle.  Perhaps, this was Luke's starting point. It was the first time he'd really seen a machine make simple circles and Luke probably said something to himself like 'I can do this! Just watch me!' then promptly, decided to take on his destiny. To compete with a machine, may have been the early impulse that drew Luke to paint the circle, but the legend of Giotto's 'perfect circle' was what has kept Luke going full steam ahead into production of abstract works of art.  The initial pieces he created were prototypes. These were the experiments he and his father-in-law Luis Ingels, worked on before moving into the hand made pieces. As his first experiment, Luke inserted a paint brush into the collet of the machine and programmed the coordinates to match the canvas. He overshot his calculations and the brush came crashing down upon the canvas; the collet smashed the brush right through the canvas and even broke the frame. Perhaps, Luke might have thought as he and my father, Luis, looked at each other, 'it was time to go back to the drawing board'. Undaunted by initial failure, Luke did complete an entire series of machine made circles before he went on to the main event, the competition of drawing the circles, one by one, by hand.  
Each piece of artwork created since his first attempts, is meticulously reinvented into creative visual landscapes layering circles upon circles of color schemes in gradations of complementary hues.  The colors reveal very subtle changes.  The circles pull the eye in.  The images seem to have a life of their own, a vibrant quality of pushing the viewer to look for patterns while pulling the eyes into fishers, crevices, or 'wormholes' as one collector observed. I have witnessed the intimate evolution of Luke's circles only because I have the honor and privilege of being Luke's wife.  The fact that I am discussing my husband's art work is of significance only in the sense that it is somewhat rare, although not unheard of, for the artist's loved one to interject a provocative discussion of the artwork publicly in a blog; however, this is a sign of the times we live in today and I feel blessed as a writer to have this open forum to share with you the joys and struggles inherent in Luke's artistic process.
The way I see it, Luke has taken on  the impossible task of creating the perfect circle, where no perfect circle has ever existed before, despite Giotto's legend.  All mathematical equations to date reveal that there is no perfect circle. It is a myth. So why Luke has persisted in this impossible feat only reminds me of the story of Don Quixote. Here is where I see Luke chasing his windmills. This is where in my imagination, I view the circles on the canvas as Luke's quest for the impossible dream and his circles are his windmills.  His paintbrush is his sword.  Thus Luke 
Van Hook's paintings, for me, exhibit all the romantic qualities innate in a love story.  Seeking to please his beloved Lucia, these references emerging from raw canvas could be read practically like text.  Some art collectors saw the circles as Braille text or some secret code or language.  The secret, I think, lies in Luke's love of sports!  Sometimes I interpret this circle code to reflect images of the sports activities I see Luke enjoy daily;  I make visual connections to the circles on the wheels of his bicycles which hang in his studio or his skate boards that decorate the rafters of the painting bays or even the wheels that drive his car which sits resting on almost perfect circles on the driveway.
For a while, I was convinced that Luke's enthusiasm for cycling was directly influencing the subjects of his paintings because one day, I was staring at one of his earlier images, (which is hung lovingly on the wall of the dining room right over the microwave oven); I saw it hanging next to a photograph of Luke participating in the 'Death Race 1999', a bicycle ride that cycle enthusiasts pursue along the most dangerous mountainous roads known as the California Alps in Northern California at the edge of the Northern Nevada border where Markleeville meets the Carson Valley.   The image Luke had painted in 1998, while recovering, ironically, from a broken ankle suffered in a bicycle race in Minden; was the image of three bicycles in a dead heat on the gray pavement with the yellow dividing line providing a ground for what appears as three large helmets (representative of the riders) in red, green and yellow.  The eventual emergence of Luke's hatch marks from work created in 2000, can be seen on the helmets and if you are really looking for this, (with your microscope) you may even find, the very beginnings of the influences which have eventually led to this mad case of circle paintings!  The circle imagery you might be searching for could have started at the base of the bicycle's anatomy with the wheels spinning along the highway to Kingsbury Grade, somewhere near Genoa, along the bottom of the hill leading to Lake Tahoe.  I comfort myself as painter's wife, that even Picasso had his periods, as did Rembrandt, Vincent Van Gogh, Monet and Gauguin and so long as Luke Van Hook doesn't try to cut off his ear we are doing just fine with these circles.

But don't take my word for it. Luke Van Hook's circle paintings are something you should see for yourself.  The subtlety of the work is difficult to capture on film, although I tried my best to create a video after struggling with photographing the stills for three years.  But even the video work fails to reveal the whole story.  You've got to stand in front of one of these pieces to involve yourself in the novella of Luke's life.  Although I can decode a small portion of what I see through his work, the rest of the circles on the canvas are still a vague mystery to me as well.  Every relationship has its secrets.  Thus Luke and I, as artists, are no different.  Even when we know each other, there are elements of surprise and adventure that we have yet to tell each other.  The mystery in his canvases is what really thrills me to see Luke's work on display under gallery lighting! (Sales don't hurt my enthusiasm either!)

When I think of Luke Van Hook's circle paintings, today, in 2008, I often think of Luke riding a skateboard doing 'ollies' and then trying for a loop-de-loop in mid-air.  This is because in January of 2008, Luke begged for a skateboard for his birthday and little did I know what would happen when I wrapped it up for him!  He has returned to the love of his youth.  Luke Van Hook has come full circle to his beginnings to land on his home base. The skateboard has also flown in mid-air, in harmony with gravity, and both land as one in a perfect execution of a move I would never dare try to do myself.  I see each circle on the canvas as Luke's attempt to catapult his work into the mainstream of the art-world with each rotation of the paintbrush on the surface of the canvas.  This is where I see Luke Van Hook in mid catapult, surfing on the air, light in transition, from youth to inspired maturity; from student to master, with paintbrush in hand landing and continuing to roll on four wheels with a great big shit-eating grin on his face. ('four' being the lucky number of his numerology charts). I see the ordered struggle, the innate joy in the success of one loop-de-loop after another. And once in a while, I also see the crash landing and the bloody injuries.  What is more important is that Luke gets up and does it again each and every time.  Luke has to begin again with each new circle, every circle becoming a part of a larger layer of community, thus his canvases vibrate with activity, mystery, romance and adventure.  I find my own meanings in each image  as it develops day by day and I am privileged to stand beside him, admire and witness the struggle of our Don Quixote in the new millennium, first hand.
There is still time to see these painting up close and personal. The Brand Library Art Galleries is part of the Glendale Public Library, located at 1601 West Mountain Street in the City of Glendale, 91201  Telephone:  818-548-2051/ fax 818-548-2713 ;  visit the Brand Library Art Galleries online at    to  check for Library hours.
Cookie Gallegos, Ana Porras and Martha Ingels attend the opening of "Circle in the Square" to support Luke Van Hook. Brand Art Library Galleries, Glendale, California August 2, 2008 Photo by Ginger Van Hook
(From left to right) Margo Payne, Lynn Nantana-Green and Angela Williams attend the exhibition "Circle in the Square" in support of Luke Van Hook.
Lynn Lantana-Green came to support Artist, Luke Van Hook at the opening reception of "Circle in the Square" an art exhibition held at the Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California, August 2, 2008.  Photos by Ginger Van Hook
Kevin Powell came to support Luke Van Hook and enjoy the paintings at the Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale California, August 2, 2008. Photo by Ginger Van Hook

Artist Luke Van Hook brought home-made pies to his reception of the exhibition "Circle in the Square". In addition to painting, Luke Van Hook has a reputation for making awesome pies from scratch. Photographed milling around the Double Fudge Pican Pie and the Sweet Berry Pie were the grandchildren of Hector Sticker. Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California August 2, 2008. Photo by Ginger Van Hook
(From left to right) Claudio Sticker, Hector Sticker, Peter Bolten, Martha Ingels, Luke Van Hook and Luis Ingels attend the reception of  "Circle in the Square". Luke Van Hook and Luis Ingels worked together to create circles on canvas with the use of robotic CNC machines. After creating a little over a dozen machine-made paintings, Luke went on to compete with the machine and do the circles on his own by hand, one by one. Each circle is represented as being one breath and Luke Van Hook states that these are the marks he is leaving behind which define his existence during this lifetime as he continues to pursue the legend of "Giotto's Perfect Circle". Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California, August 2, 2008. Photo by Ginger Van Hook

From left to right, Ohannes Berberian, his daughter Melanie, Luke Van Hook and Rouzanna Berberian attend the opening reception of "Circle in the Square" at the Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008.  Ohannes Berberian owns DigiTECH Camera Repair in Monrovia, California ( Luke Van Hook and Rouzanna Berberian are both fine art painters and members of the Monrovia Association of Fine Arts (M.A.F.A.). Rouzanna Berberian is a teacher in the after-school arts programs supported by M.A.F.A.  which promotes the goal of enhancing the lives of those within the community through interaction with the arts and to increase the opportunities of children through art education. Photo by Ginger Van Hook

From left to right, Kathleen Zgonc, photographer Frank Zgonc and artist Luke Van Hook attend the opening reception of 'Circle in the Square' at the Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008. Frank Zgonc is a an executive member of the Monrovia Association of Fine Arts in Monrovia, California. Frank Zgonc is the vice-president and official curator of Monrovia's yearly October Art Festival. This year the October Festival will be held on Saturday and Sunday October 11th and 12th, 2008 at the Monrovia Community Center located at 119 W. Palm Avenue in Monrovia. Free and open to the public, this art event will feature work by photographer Frank Zgonc; (Scheduled from 10 am to 6pm both days).  There will also be an Opening Night Celebration Saturday, October 11th from 7-9:30 pm where the special Renaissance Award will be presented to a worthy individual who has made significant contributions to the arts. 
Photo by Ginger Van Hook
Mr. and Mrs. Luke and Ginger Van Hook attend the opening reception of 'Circle in the Square' at the Brand Libraries Art Galleries, August 2, 2008 in Glendale, California.  Luke Van Hook an artist working from Inglewood, California earned a BFA  at Otis College of ARt and Design.  For several years, Van Hook has been exploring in his work, Giotto's fabled "perfect circle".  Over time the single-minded focus on the perfection of the circle has been subsumed by the artist's interest in the aesthetic and expressive qualities of the circle. New works depict ritualistically repeated circular brushstrokes on canvas, hemp, and other materials. Van Hook states that he began " as a challenge to myself to see if a perfect circle was possible; these circles have now morphed into a challenge to myself to see if a perfect circle is  possible. These circles have now morphed into a study in patience. The sense of time and the marking of time is inherent in the meticulous application of paint. The viewer can appreciate these temporal qualities but is also compelled to bring their own  interpretation to the work. Are these circles pure abstraction? Combined do they conceal deliberate shapes and forms? or are they perhaps a secret code or language? Van Hook has exhibited at TAG Gallery, Focus One Gallery, and the Bolsky Gallery in  Westchester. Luke Van Hook's painting may also be viewed on his website:
Photo courtesy of Peter Bolten

Kevin Powell comes to support Luke Van Hook for his opening reception. Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California, August 2, 2008.  Photo by Ginger Van Hook
Jason Porras attends the opening reception to support Luke Van Hook in his endeavors to pursue Giotto's legend of the 'Perfect Circle'. Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California August 2, 2008. Photo By Ginger Van Hook.

Zoe Hengst, Ginger Van Hook and Martha Ingels attend the opening of "Circle in the Square" to support Luke Van Hook. Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California August 2, 2008. Photo courtesy of Peter Bolten.
Zoe and Jopie Hengst walk through the center of the exhibition "Circle in the Square" to support Luke Van Hook at the opening night, August 2, 2008. Paintings by Susan Sironi in the background. Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California. Photo by Ginger Van Hook.

Cookie Gallegos, Ginger Van Hook and Luke Van Hook pose for photographs in front of Luke Van Hook's painting at the Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008 Glendale, California. Photo courtesy of Peter Bolten.

Cookie Gallegos and Ana Porras watch the dance performance choreographed by Cheryl Walker, Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008, Glendale, California.
Paintings by Yesung Kim, Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008, Glendale, California. Photo by Ginger Van Hook.
Paintings by Yesung Kim, Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008, Glendale, California.
Photo by Ginger Van Hook
Yesung Kim poses for a photograph in front of her paintings at the Brand Library Art Galleries, August 02, 2008, Glendale, California. Yesung Kim from Upland, California, was born in Seoul, South Korea and holds MFA degrees from Chung-Ang University and Claremont Graduate University. Kim's mixed media pieces are seductively simple. Ordinary brown packing string is deftly applied to a painted canvas creating organic shapes that shimmer and reflect light. At times these shapes appear to be on the brink of an amoeba-like division as they spread and expand, dropping off the edge of one canvas and continuing on to another. Kim  cites the natural world and light and color as the underlying themes that both inspire and permeate her work.  Following solo shows at the Seoul Museum of Art and the Seoul Arts Center, Kim's work was most recently exhibited at the San Bernardino County Museum's Multi Media Mini Show. More information about Kim's work can be found on her website:
Photo by Ginger Van Hook
Painting by Susan Sironi, Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008 Glendale, California.
Photo by Ginger Van Hook
Glass curtain by Susan Sironi, Brand Library Art Galleries, August 2, 2008,Glendale, California. Photo by Ginger Van Hook.
Cheryl Walker designed a curtain of vinyl layers of color called 'Waterfall IV' that became the backdrop for a beautiful dance performance using the 'circle in the square' theme exhibited at the Brand Library Art Galleries in Glendale California, August 2, 2008. Cheryl Walker holds in her hand some of the vinyl circles that were placed upon the windows at the exhibition hall. Her vinyl circles upon the windows created an illusion of  the stained glass effects. The dance piece entertained a large audience on opening night as artists, collectors, art appreciators and family and friends celebrated the mythologies, geometries, magical and mystical qualities of the circle.   Dance Performers Liz  Curtis, and Martha Carrascosa performed a dance which included participation from members of the audience.  
Members of the audience interacted with the dancers Martha Carrascosa and Liz Curtis at the Brand Library Art Galleries participated in creating a colorful cascade of window art on August 2, 2008 in Glendale, California.
Audience watches dancers Liz Curtis and Martha Carrascosa from Glendale Community College as they perform a choreographed piece by Cheryl Walker, artist. "Circle in the Square", Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale California, August 2, 2008.  Photo By Ginger Van Hook
Dancers Liz Curtis and Martha Carrascosa performing dance choreographed by artist Cheryl Walker, (within the green curtain), Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California. 
Photo by Ginger Van Hook.
Cheryl Walker engaged in performance art intersecting with window art using the artistic theme of 'Circle in the Square'. Brand Library Art Gallery, Glendale, CAlifornia August 2, 2008. Photo by Ginger Van Hook.

Cheryl Walker smiles happily on opening night, Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale California. August 2, 2008. Cheryl Walker, a Los Angeles artist, earned her BA in art in her home state of Minnesota, and her MFA from California State University, Long Beach. In this exhibition Walker created two large site-specific installations of vinyl, oil pastel and natural and artificial light.  Walker explains that the driving force behind her work is "human interaction and improvisation in response to a natural phenomenon or situation." Trained as painter, Walker's installations have some of the qualities of painting; when viewed head-on the suspended layers of vinyl can appear to be two-dimensional because of their transparency and the cut shapes and forms applied to the vinyl are reminiscent of brushstrokes--but removed from the wall these works are thrust into what she calls an "interactive field of play." The fluidity of the material she works with and her interest in collaboration between the artist and the viewer have inspired Walker to create works that can be transformed into performance pieces by dance, music and in-situ art-making. In this exhibition, a dance performance captivates the audience on opening night at the Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California. August 2, 2008.  Photos By Ginger Van Hook

Barbara Kolo, Artist from "Circle in the Square" poses for a photograph in front of her painting with her husband Mr. Kolo. Barbara Kolo, a Santa Monica Artist, earned her BFA from the School of Visual Arts in New York City. Kolo Participated in a successful two-person show at the Brand Library Art Galleries in 1999. The Brand Library Art Galleries are pleased to present (nearly ten years later) a new body of work by Barbara Kolo that connects to that which was here before. In those works and these, her focus is on representing organic materials. The current large scale acrylic on canvas works are saturated with color; the stippled application of paint creates organic shapes and patterns representative of the natural world.  The subject matter is open to each viewers interpretation, where one may see a birch forest at dusk, others may see the  bold aesthetic of pure color and abstraction. Kolo has had recent solo shows at Topanga Canyon Gallery and the Off Rose Gallery in Venice, California. More information about Kolo's work can be found on her website: Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale California. Photo by Ginger Van Hook

Barbara Kolo poses for a photograph during opening night celebrations for the exhibition, "Circle in the Square" at the Brand Library Art Galleries, Augusts 2, 2008. Glendale, California.

Susan Sironi,  an artist living in Altadena, California posed for her photograph in front of her paintings at  the Brand Library Art Galleries, Glendale, California. August 2, 2008.  Susan Sironi earned her BFA at California Sate University, Long Beach. This exhibition will showcase Sironi's recent paintings as well as her Glass Curtain installation which is comprised of conjoined antique optometric lenses. Her paintings are about texture, color and process. Small dabs of oil paint are painstakingly applied to aluminum, building up an intricate, thorny surface. Highly textured and multihued when viewed up close, this surface belies the color play minimalist color-field appearance of the work at a distance . In the artist's own words "texture and color play equal roles in these works. They ... set up contradictions within each piece. Painitings  that seem to invite touch and intimacy are also reserved and automomous. Time and process are weighed against a static and minimal structure. Sironi's work was most recently seen in the Brea Art Gallery's Made in California exhibition, at the Chouinard School of Art Gallery, and the Orange County Center for Contemporary Art.  More information about Sironi's work can be found on her website:
Photo by Ginger Van Hook.  

Yesung Kim, Brand Library Art Gallery, Glendale, California, August 2, 2008.

The Entrance to the Brand Library Art Galleries in Glendale, California hosts a prominent postcard of the show "Circle in the Square" now exhibiting through September 5th, 2008

                   Luke Van Hook paintings are now showing at the Brand Library Art Galleries in
          end of the year list        

Hola friends! This year Microphones were not as active as usual due to many reasons, but we still listen a lot of music and always eager to share is with other souls through this world. Here is the list of albums we love and enjoy, music that gives inspiration and peaceful feeling of the life flow. No particular order, no ranks, just good vibes delivered by amazing artist all around the globe. Enjoy!

Braeyden Jae — Fog Mirror (Whited Sepulchre)
Ant'lrd — Sleep Drive (Whited Sepulchre)
Josephine Foster — No More Lamps in the Morning (Fire America)
Deep Magic & Mohave Triangles — Split (Diatom Bath)
Matthewdavid's Mindflight — Trust the Guide and Glide (Leaving Records)
Thousand Foot Whale Claw — Cosmic Winds (Constellation Tatsu)
Gamardah Fungus — Herbs And Potions (Flaming Pines)
Cloudsound — Static Sense & Wonder Stasis (ΠΑΝΘΕΟΝ)
Saåad — Verdaillon (In Paradisum)
Pandelindio & Bird People — Sporal Dispersal (Frente Al Fuego)
Les Halles — Transient + Sentient (Not Not Fun)
alineko — summer of love (ПANΘEON)
David Colohan — Hill of the Moon (Was Ist Das?)
Sarah Davachi — Dominions (Jaz Records)
David Parsons — Puja (Gterma)
Grykë Pyje — Fragments of High Sensitivity (Ikuisuus / Hyster Tapes)
Bear Bones, Lay Low — Hacia La Luz (Self-released)
Alone in the Hollow Garden — Receiving the 17 Daggers of Light (Self-released)
SONM — embody (Pearly Snowdrift)
Mathias Grassow & Closing The Eternity — Untitled tape (ΠΑΝΘΕΟΝ)
Directorsound — Sun Suites For a Rising Moon (ШАΛАШ)
Useless — HEXA (Terminal Dream)
TVVIN_PINEZ_M4LL — 植物波 - p l a n t w a v e (Adhesive Sounds)
Hong Kong Express — Hong Kong Express (TKX)
Hybrid Palms — Pacific Image (Sounds of the Dawn)
Lunaria — All is Dream (Sounds of the Dawn)
Julia Bloop — Bllop (Rotifer Cassettes)
Guenter Schlienz — Augenblicke (Sacred Phrases)
Guenter Schlienz ‎— Book of Dreams (Cosmic Winnetou)
Mårble — Looking for Marine Iguana (Echotourist)
Rod Hamilton and Tiffany Seal — Versatile Ambience (Ehse Records)
555 — Thee Omega Seed (MJMJ Records)
Kyle Landstra — Variables of Resolve (Moog Music)
Sunmoonstar & Inner Travels — Split tape (Scenic Rhythms)
Inner Travels — Clear Seeing (Inner Islands)
More Future Suffering — Self-titled (Winter Sea Label)
You C + Foresteppe — Seven Sleepers (ШАΛАШ)
A.Shark — 45 (Ominor Records)
Stag Hare — Velvet & Bone (Inner Islands)
Channelers — Space Makes Clearing (Inner Islands)
Ashan — Death is the New Life (Heavy Mess)
Sister Grotto — Blindside (Heavy Mess)
Eva Geist — Äquator System (Elestial Sound)
Tuluum Shimmering — Where the Turquoise Spring Sings Among Pebbles (Self-released)
Sun Cycles — It Cuts the Plow Reins (Psychic Troubles Tapes)
Paa Annandalii — Cavernous Fruits (Rotifer) 
Bird People — Down of the Hamsa (Eiderdown)
Чайник Болотных Богов — Гранатовый Сон (GV Sound)
Matthew Barlow — Sound Meditations (Sounds of the Dawn)
Jöns — Music For Euronews (Strategic Tape Reserve)

Support the artists and the labels, share music with friends, play your favourite tapes to Christmas tree!
Have a great year ahead! We wish you love & good vibes!

~ sincerely yours, microphones in the the trees team ~ 

          one in a million        

Let's get realistic about love.

For this exercise, we will make certain broad assumptions, discounting exceptions and outliers. We will try to figure what's happening statistically when two people fall in love. We will also place our exercise in an Indian social and cultural context.

Let's start with the potential "universe" of people one can possibly fall in love with. We will start with the total population, and reduce for mutually exclusive groups. India has 1.2 billion people. ~50% for the opposite sex -> 600 million. India's median age is 27 years (50% population less than 27 years of age) . For this exercise, assuming that one intends to get married in the age range of 24-32, an 8-year span (our math won't vary much if we increase this window on either side by a few extra years, there is a bulge below this range), we are down to ~80 million.

It gets a little tricky from here. Remove for some semblance of economic backgrounds and we are down to ~8 million (80 lakh). Now from this, remove for religion & caste preferences (I am looking at you Brahmins), dietary preferences (no onion no garlic anyone?), height & weight preferences (taar bijli se lambe humaare piya), complexion preferences (it's only fair, right? Lovely), educational preferences, language barriers and north Indian and south Indian and Gujju and Mallu and Kashmiri and Jat preferences. And so far we haven't removed for people already married or in love with someone else who is not you. And after you have removed for all of the above, you need to be with a person with whom when you spend time, your emotional response to them lies between "surreal" and "I can stand this person" on a scale of butterflies, and the other person's emotional response also lies somewhere in the same ballpark. And whoever you are left with, you haven't even begun to find him/her yet. Given your life experiences of school, college, workplace, pubs, bars, travels, tinder and what not, and the count of people you potentially meet through these life experiences, what are the fuckin' odds.

I had always believed that the concept of "the one" does not hold. But given the odds, and given that there exists atleast "a" one, you are probably better off with a the. Two people falling in love with each other is a statistical miracle.

[from Watchmen] Miracles. Events with astronomical odds of occurring, like oxygen turning into gold. I've longed to witness such an event...; ...and out of that contradiction, against unfathomable odds, it's you - only you - that emerged. To distill so specific a form, from all that chaos. It's like turning air into gold. A miracle.

I hear "everything is great, but I am not so sure" ever so often that it's fuckin' unbelievable. I don't understand why anyone in their right mind would break up. You met someone and liked, and they liked you back, and you loved each other's company, and then you eventually started driving each other crazy and "it didn't work out"?! Huh?

For people who are single still, I feel sorry for you. The odds are stacked against you and there is little hope for you (lol). Live, is all, and maybe, just maybe lightning will strike (in this case, twice). And for people who are married or with someone and in love, go hug your Significant Other really hard right now right this moment, take a good look at them, smile, hold their hands, and know that they are your one in a million. You have witnessed a miracle.

          Burl Mathis        

I am looking for more information on a Weatherford, TX citizen named Burl Mathis. I know he worked for the Texas and Pacific as a janitor according to his WWI Draft Card. It references his birthday being 10.9.1880 and his wife being Julia Mathis. I've found other Burl Mathis' in Amarillo, TX and Oklahoma City, TX but after researching these men I do not think they are the Burl Mathis I am looking for. Burl is also African American.

Any information/tips provided are greatly appreciated.

A free Solar Eclipse Workshop, presented by Dr. Carl Rutledge of the ECU Physics Department, will be conducted at East Central University on Thursday, Aug. 3, from 1 p.m.-3 p.m. in Room 101 of ECU’s Lanoy Education Building. The workshop is geared toward educators in grades K-12. The event is designed to prepare students for the Aug. 21 solar eclipse. Each participant will receive a free pair of eclipse glasses. For more information or to reserve a spot for the workshop contact Teresia Harrison, director of the Institute for Math and Science Education, at or 580-559-5275.


For Immediate Release: 

Contact: Brian Johnson or Amy Ford

                                East Central University Communications and Marketing

                              580-559-5650 or 405-812-1428 (cell)

          Nouveau conseil d’administration 2015-2016 de GA!        

En ce 29 avril avait lieu l’assemblée générale annuelle de Génération Avenir!  Le nouveau conseil d’administration a été formé et il nous fait plaisir d’avoir de nouveaux visages au sein du conseil soient Catherine Grégoire, Alexandre Lussier, Maxime Mathieu et Alexandre Picard.  Les mandats d’Émilie Breton et de Marie-France Forand ont été reconduits. Mme Karyne […]

The post Nouveau conseil d’administration 2015-2016 de GA! appeared first on Génération Avenir.

          Mises en candidatures: Assemblée Générale Annuelle 2015        

Vous trouverez ci-joint les lettres d’intention déposés par les membres intéressés à combler les postes vacants au sein du conseil d’administration pour l’année 2015-2016. Mises en candidatures: – Émilie Breton – Jean-Philippe Doyon – Marie-France Forand – Catherine Grégoire – Alexandre Lussier – Maxime Mathieu – Alexandre Picard

The post Mises en candidatures: Assemblée Générale Annuelle 2015 appeared first on Génération Avenir.

          Wholesale Essential Oils Make Your Business More Profitable        
Essential Oils (Aromatherapy Oils) are the highly concentrated, volatile, aromatic essences of plants. The history of aromat [...]
          An example of "Calendric-clock math."        

On August 11th here in Chicago the sun rises at 5:55 am which is the beginning of the 356th minute of the day.

The full disc of the sun is visible at 5:56 am which is 135 minutes away from 8:11 am.

356 corresponds to Leo (356)

135 corresponds to Sun (135)

811 is the 142nd prime number and 8/11 is always 142 days from the end of each year.

135 (Sun) days from 8/11 is 12/24 (Christmas Eve) which is when the Sun - after standing still since the Winter Solstice - begins the first 1 degree of its ascent which culminates on Christmas Day.

In non-leap years, if you move forward 142 days into the New Year you will arrive at 5/22 which is 811 days from 8/11 two+ years into the future.

          Some numbers from this week        

Originally posted on Facebook 1/28/17:

My numerical mentor, the late Dean Fagerstrom, passed away on 2/27 in the year 2014. He wrote in his writings and told me in person that Emanuel Swedenborg had actually appeared to him 2 or 3 times during his life. These experiences had a profound impact on his life.

Emanuel Swedenborg - one of the greatest mathematician-scientist-inventor-theologians in world history (his IQ was ranked #2 by Stanford University next to Goethe among thousands of creative people who have contributed to mankind's spiritual and scientific advancement) - was born 1/29 in the year 1688.

2/27 = 227

1/29 = 129

227 + 129 = Leo (356)

Leo (356) factors into 89 prime X 4

Leo is the astrological sign for the Divine Birthmonth of August whose ruling planet is the Sun and which corresponds to the Human Heart.

Swedenborg wrote in his writings that 89 was a very special number.

Six months prior in a letter to the noted English minister John Wesley Swedenborg predicted his departure (death) from this world. He passed away on 3/29 at 5 pm in 1772, the exact date and time which he announced to his housekeeper.

3/29 was the 89th day of the year 1772.

329 + 227 = 556

556 mirrors 5:56 am which is the completion of the Leo (356th) minute of each new day.

Summary points:

1) Birth date (Swedenborg) 1/29 (129) plus the passing date (Fagerstrom) 2/27 (227) adds up to Leo (356)

2) Passing dates (Swedenborg) 3/29 (329) plus (Fagerstrom) 2/27 (227) = 556 (5:56 am which is the completion of the Leo (356th) minute of the day.

3) Swedenborg's passing 3/29 in the year 1772 was the 89th day of the year.

4) 89 is the highest prime factor of Leo (356) = 89 prime X 4

5) Swedenborg's birthdate 1/29 (129) mirrors 1:29 am which is the completion of the 89th minute of each day.

6) Dean Fagerstrom was born on 2/07 (207) which is 122 (1/22) from 3/29 (329) the day Swednborg passed away.

1/22 was the day my father was born.

          The Number 33        
What's so special about 33?

Let's break it apart.

33 = 11 X 3 (113)

33 = 3 X 11 (311)

113 and 311 are both prime numbers

33 + 113 + 311 = 457 prime

457 is the 89th prime number - one (1) is included in the count

89 is the prime of Leo (356) = 89 prime X 4

457 doubles to form 914 which corresponds to I (9) Am (14)

I (9) Am (14) = 23 prime which is our Lord's original name and title given to Moses on Mt. Sinai - "I Am....the Lord thy God..." Exodus 20:2. Which is the same as saying that 457 - the 89th prime number - is genesis (origin) of the non-prime number 914 which corresponds to I (9) Am (14).

That may seem to be a diversion, but there's more...

Digging further....

113 is the 31st prime number

311 is the 65th prime number

The 33rd prime number is 131

131 prime contains "3" in between two one's (1_1).

If we add up these three prime numbers we arrive at an interesting non-prime number 555 as follows:

113 prime + 131 prime + 311 prime = 555

555 corresponds to NEW (555)

5:55 am is always the beginning of the Leo (356th) minute of each NEW (555) Day.

31 corresponds to this phrase:

The (285) Lord (3694) God (764) = 4743 = 31 prime X 153

65 corresponds to ON (65)

131 is the conjunctive prime (highest prime factor) of ONE (655) = 131 prime X 5

113 is the conjunctive prime of the phrase "I Am One" as follows:

I (9) Am (14) One (655) = 678 = 113 prime X 6

5:55 am is ONE (1) minute from 5:56 am which is the end of the Leo (356th) minute of the day.

Rounding up the above into a general group the numbers 31, 65, 113 and 131 combine to form:

31 = "The Lord God"

65 = "ON"

113 = "I Am ONE"

131 = "ONE"

Another interesting correspondence is the fact that each year the 33rd day of the year is always 2/02 (202) which is always ONE (1) day from the 2/3 (23) month/day which corresponds to I (9) Am (14) = 23 prime.

202 = 101 prime X 2 - 101 is known as "The Perfect Unity" prime number which evokes a powerful sense of balance and oneness which mirrors the results above.

PS. For CUBS fans only:

The CUBS won the 112th World Series on 11/03/16 @ 12:47 am EST

112 is the sum of 23 " I (9) AM (14)" + 89 "Prime of Leo (356)"

The Universal Numerical Date on 11/03/16 was 738606 - ie. 11/03/16 was the 738606th day from/including August 11th in 6 BC, the Divine Birth of our Lord God Jesus Christ.

738606 coincided with the end of the 22282nd cycle of 33 days.

738606 = 31 prime X 19 prime X 19 prime X 11 prime X 3 prime X 2 prime

31 prime + 19 prime + 11 prime + 3 prime + 2 prime = 66 = 33 X 2

The mathematical proof of our Lord's birthdate (August 11, 6 BC) can be found in Dean Fagerstrom's 1400+ page "The Book of Anglion" - see the link below.

Reduced gematria: 1-9, 1-9, 1-8 = A-Z

          Colonel Sir George Everest        
 I shared this on FB 2 years ago on this day 12/23.

Colonel Sir George Everest (/ˈiːvrɨst/; July 4, 1790 — December 1, 1866) was a Welsh surveyor and geographer, and the Surveyor General of India from 1830 through 1843.

George Everest's numerical age (NA) at the time he passed was 27908 which factors into 6977 prime X 4.

6977 prime days from 17900704 brings us to August 11th in the year 1809.

He passed away on December 1, 1866 - a mo/day date which is always 23 "I (9) Am (14)" plus 89 "Prime of Leo (356)" days from August 11th. 

Leo (356) = 89 prime X 4

Leo is the astrological sign for the Divine Birthmonth of August whose ruling planet is the Sun and which corresponds to the Human Heart.  August 11th in 6 BC is the day our Lord was born - this according to the mathematical proof outlined in the late Dean Fagerstrom's 1400+ page "The Book of Anglion."
          Google is a number        
Google is a number.

G-7, O-6, O-6, G-7, L-3, E-5

Google (766735)

Google (766735) factors into the following prime numbers:

Google (766735) = 1723 prime X 89 prime X 5 prime.

89 is the prime of Leo (356) = 89 prime X 4. 

Leo is the astrological sign for the Divine Birthmonth of August whose ruling planet is the Sun and which corresponds to the Human Heart - see below. 

The Universal Numerical Date for Google (766735) brings us to November 8th in the year 2093.

11/08 is always 89 days from August 11th which is the Divine Birthdate of our Lord God Jesus Christ (6 BC).

The gentleman that taught me this stuff, Dean Fagerstrom, wrote a 1400+ page book (The Book of Anglion) that outlines a mathematical
proof - using prime numbers - that our Lord God Jesus Christ was born on August 11th in the year 6 BC.

The dates, times, events, births and deaths that happen throughout history are connected to August 11th in 6 BC in many amazing patterns that appear to glorify and shine light on that date. Google (766735) is just another one of many examples.

Also outlined in Dean's book are equations and numbers that refer to November 8th in 7 BC as the actual date of the Divine Conception of our Lord God Jesus Christ.

11/08 (1108) factors into 277 prime X 4.

277 is the prime of Divine (494955) Love (3645) = 498600 = 277 prime X 1800.

In leap years August 11th is always the completion of the 277th "Divine Love" day from/including November 8th in the previous year. 

          "Have a good one."        
This phrase seems to have become one of THE most commonly shared phrases in the English language. it's commonly shared when we leave others after sharing some time.

I've never examined this phrase numerically but I thought I would do so this morning as follows....

Have (8145) A (1) Good (7664) One (655) = 16465

16465 = 89 prime X 185

This is an AMAZING result!

89 is the conjunctive prime of the word Leo (356) - ie. it's the highest prime factor of Leo (356) = 89 prime X 4.

Leo is the astrological sign for the Divine birthmonth of August whose ruling planet is the Sun and which corresponds to the Human Heart.

The key date is August 11th.

8/11 (811) is the 142nd prime number and 8/11 is always 142 days from the end of each year.

Sun (135) days from August 11th is always 12/24 Christmas Eve which is when the Sun - after standing still for 2-3 days since Winter Solstice - begins the first 1 degree of its ascent which culminates on Christmas Day, the day we celebrate the provincial Divine Birth of our Lord God Jesus Christ.

Every year in the northern hemisphere the Sun STOPS FALLING on the Leo (356th) day of the year which is the Winter Solstice.

And if you are ever in the Chicago area on August 11th you can witness the Sun rising on August 11th at EXACTLY 5:55 am in the morning. 5:55 am is the advent of the Leo (356th) minute of the NEW (555) day. Some years it will be 5:54 am, but either way by the end of the Leo (356th) minute the full disc of the Sun will be visible above the eastern horizon of Lake Michigan.

I'll keep digging into this, but this finding is really cool!

"Have a good one!"

Note: The late Dean Fagerstrom taught me this Divine Science of Numerical Correspondences years ago. An amazing man! You can find the mathematical proof of our Lord's Divine Birth - that's embedded in the prime number system - when you read and study his 1400+ page "The Book of Anglion."

          108 is Great!!        

"Grant DePorter, who insists destiny and numerology will propel the Chicago Cubs to their first World Series title in 108 years, pointed his phone at the scoreboard behind the left-field wall at Wrigley Field, started recording and put his theory to test.

It was was Oct. 7, Game 1 of the National League Division Series between the Cubs and the San Francisco Giants. Javier Baez, the Cubs’ second baseman, was at the plate facing Johnny Cueto, the Giants’ starting pitcher.

DePorter’s video showed Cueto’s pitch count — 107 at that point in the game — just moments after DePorter predicted that Baez would hit a home run on pitch 108."

Personal notes:

One tidbit already sticks out worth noting: Charles Webb Murphy (born January 22, 1868 in Wilmington, Ohio – died October 16, 1931 in Chicago). My father was born on 1/22/25 - 57 years after Charles Murphy was born. My father turned 57 in 1982 which was the year my wife turned 23. 

My father and mother first lived at 1311 Chicago Avenue here in Evanston - after they got married in Montana where my mother is from. 1311 is an amazing non-prime number for it's the result of multiplying 23 and 57 - 2, 3, 5, 7 are first 4 prime numbers after ONE (1). If you examine the digits of pi you will find that beginning at digit 1311 you will find 8989 which factors into 101 prime X 89 prime. 

 89 is the prime of Leo (356) = 89 prime X 4. Leo is the astrological sign for the Divine Birthmonth of August whose ruling planet is the Sun and which corresponds to the Human Heart. 

Why is 89 so important to the current World Series? Well do the math: the 2016th World Series is the 112th which is the sum of 23 "I (9) Am (14)" and 89 which is the prime of Leo (356) = 89 prime X 4. 

Much of the Cubs loaded young talent were born in between 1992 and 1994 - which means they came into their 23rd "I (9) Am (14)" season of life just as the Cubs surged into the new light of this recent historic run. 2389 is a prime number composed of those 2 special prime numbers and it just happens to be the Leo (356th) prime number. 

Examining the Digits of pi: 

The string 108 occurs at position 2,534 counting from the first digit after the decimal point. The 3. is not counted. 2534 factors into 181 prime X 14. 181 is the prime of We (55) Are (195) One (655) = 905 = 181 prime X 5. You could say that the year 1991 provided a foundation for the current Cubs run for all of the young Cubs players were born in 1992 or beyond. 1991 = 181 prime X 11.

Speaking of 181 X 11 (1991).....when you combine 181 and 11 it forms the number 18111 which mirrors 010811 and 1811. Our Lord was born on 8/11 in 6 BC. When you correct for the 2334 days in BC time that he lived the "corrected year" becomes Year 1. 010811 corresponds to Year 1, Month 8, Day 11. Charles Murphy's numerical age (NA) on 10/25/16 - Day ONE (1) of the 112th World Series was 54333 which factors (partially) into 18111 X 3.

Another note on Charles Murphy (born January 22, 1868 in Wilmington, Ohio – died October 16, 1931 in Chicago):

His Numerical Age (NA) was 23277 which is isn't a prime number but is composed of 23 prime and 277 prime.  

23 corresponds to I (9) Am (14) which is our Lord's original name and title given to Moses on Mt. Sinai - "I Am...the Lord thy God..." Exodus 20:2. 

277 is the highest prime factor of this phrase "Divine Love" as follows: 

Divine (494955) Love (3645) = 498600 = 277 prime 1800. 

So you could say that Charles Murphy - even for as much as he was a "hated man" - lived a Numerical Age that corresponds to the phrase "I Am Divine Love." 

23277 factors into 7759 prime X 3 prime. 

7759 days prior to January 22, 1868 - Charles Murphy's birth - we arrive at October 25 in the year 1846 which was EXACTLY 170 years prior to October 25, 2016 which was Game ONE (1) of the 2016 World Series. 

If we move ahead 23277 "I Am Divine Love" days from October 25, 1846 we will arrive at July 19, 1910.  This is a significant date for a few reasons: 

1) 7/19 is always 23 "I (9) Am (14)" days from August 11th, the Divine Birthdate

2) 7/19 (719) corresponds to "Christ The Lord God GO" - which mirrors "Chicago" as follows: 

Chi (389) is the Greek letter "X" which stands for "Christos" which is where the English "Christ" originated from

Ca (31) is the prime of The (285) Lord (3694) God (764) = 4743 = 31 prime X 153

GO (76) 

Chi-Ca-GO = Chicago (3893176) 

Christ (389912) The (285) Lord (3694) God (764) Go (76) = 394731 = 719 prime X 549. 

3) The Year 1910 = 191 prime X 10 which is the prime of God (764) = 191 prime X 4.
          BRAIN Initiative        
President Obama recently announced a big new effort to map and understand the human brain. What are we trying to learn about our brains? One thing we will earn is how our brains are structured, "not this well-organized hierarchical control system where everything is in order." Another is how much of mental illness is shaped by experience and society, as opposed to chemical or structural factors. What do we already know about our brains? 12 Things We Know About How The Brain Works. And we know that unconcious processing improves decision-making. That brain structure may be linked to placebo response. And that unconcious brains can read and do math. We know a little bit more about how the brain responds to addiction. And we know that "genetic, molecular and cellular mechanisms" in childhood can have permanent ill effects. We think that differences in our brain reflect political differences. But we know that a lot of pop neuroscience is bollocks. What could we do with new information? Could we reverse-engineer AI? Manipulate our brains, neuron-by-neuron? Make better soldiers? Or record dreams? Or activate neurons with light? Or make better, crowdsourced brain maps? Neurotechnology, Social Control, And Revolution
In our neuro-centric world-view, a person is equated to his brain. The neuro-discourse has penetrated all aspects of our lives from law to politics to literature to medicine to physics. As part of this neuro-revolution, huge military funding is supporting neuro-scientific research; a huge body of basic knowledge on memory, belief formation, cognition and sensory modalities has been gathered over years, with fieldslike social neuroscience, cultural neuroscience, neuroeconomics and neuromarketing has emerging to improve our lifestyle; neurotechnological know-how from wireless non invasive technologies to neuroelectronic interfaces is exponentially advancing; and neurotechnology business reports indicates the rapid increase in neurotechnological start ups and the willingness of bringing neurotechnological products to the market. In my opinion, all the aforementioned indicators indicate that neurotechnology can be potentially used to control social dynamics.

          Wake Forest School of Medicine Hosts Summer STEM Camp        
This week, Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, is hosting a free science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) camp for area students heading into grades 6 through 12.
          Wake Forest School of Medicine Transforms How K-12 Students Learn by Offering Problem-Based Learning Training to Teachers        
  The Center of Excellence for Research, Teaching and Learning (CERTL) at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, hosted 175 K-12 teachers from 86 schools in 16 Piedmont Triad school districts this week as part of their commitment to providing effective problem-based learning training to educators. The ongoing training provides local teachers with the tools and knowledge to effectively prepare K-12 students for careers in science, technology, engineering and math – commonly known as STEM.  

A.    Strukturalisme, Posstrukturalisme, dan Neostrukturalisme
1.   Strukturalisme dalam linguistik
Linguistik strukturalime memainkan peran patron general strukturalisme, suatu peran yang telah diprediksikan oleh Saussure bagi linguistik berkenaan dengan semilogi, dalam linguistik dibedakan dua strukturalisme, yaitu strukturalisme Eropa dan Amerika. Dasar-dasar strukturalisme Eropa dikemukakan oleh Saussure dan Hjemslev yaitu mengenai para ahli linguistik Praha.
Sebagai kelanjutan genealogi ini, strukturalis Perancis A. Martinet harus disebutkan disini tesisnya tentang pengartikulkasian bahasa secara ganda memainkan peran penting dalam perkembangan yang mengarah dari strukturalisme ke semiotik . Teori strukturalis bahasa yang dibawakan Jacobson membawa pengaruh perkembangan paling langsung pada perkembangan strukturalimse Perancis. Berbeda halnya dengan penganut strukturalisme yang murni, yakni Saussure dan Hjemslev, aliran Praha tetap menolak untuk menganggap bahwa sebagai suatu sistem sinkronis bentuk asli yang terpisah. Pendekatan mereka terhadap struktur bahasa didasarkan pada istilah-istilah kunci dan komunikasi.
Para ahli linguistik aliran praha seperti Vachek, Dudrot dan Todorof telah menetapkan pendekatan mereka sendiri sebagai strukturalisme fungsional. Inti kontribusi aliran praha terhadap linguistik terletak pada bidang fonologi. Penemuan ciri-ciri desain sebagai atom-atom bahasa dan prinsip-prinsip fungsional analisis fonologis memberikan kontribusi secara signifikan terhadap penelitian struktural sistem tanda, tetapi kontribusi aliran praha terhadap semiotik tidak terbatas pada lingusitik saja. Jacobsson, Mukadovsky, dan yang lain-lain merupakan orang-orang yang memberikan kontribusi yang berpengaruh terhadap estetika.
1.1  Fungsi, Komunikasi, dan Sistem
Diantara inovasi-inovasi progamatis para ahli linguistic aliran Praha merupakan upaya mereka untuk mengatasi perbedaan tajam antara statika dan dinamika dalam linguistik sinkronis dan diakronis. Bahasa dideskripsikan sebagai suatu sistem fungsional yang berguna untuk tujuan komunikasi. oleh karena itu, sistem bahasa tidak dapat tetap bersifat statis, tetapi harus mempertahanakan keseimbangan yang dinamis. Pendekatan dinamis terhadap bahasa juga diperluas untuk mengkaji sintaks (struktur kalimat) dan teks. Dalam teori perspektif kalimat fungsional, analisis dilakukan terhadap distribusi unsur-unsur informasi yang diberikan dan yang baru dalam kalimat dan teks. Dsitribusi dinamis dan kemajuan unsur-unsur dalam teks ini dideskripsikan sebagai dinamisme komunikasi.
1. 2Penemuan fonem
Penelitiannya dalam bidang fonologi, Turbetzkoy menjadi penemu struktur atom bahasa yang memperkenalkan perbedaan antara fonologi dan fonetik. Fonetik adalah kajian bunyi-bunyi materiil dan pengartikulasian dalam tuturan (parole) apapun sifat-sifat sistemiknya. Fonologi (para ahli linguistik Amerika lebih memilih fonemik) mengkaji bunyi-bunyi suatu bahasa sebagai unsur-unsur fungsional dalam sistem bentuk dan isi (langue). teori ini sependapat dengan Sasussure yang membedakan antara langue dan parole.
Dari sudut pandang fonetis, sejumlah perbedaan fonetis yang hamper tak terbatas dapat ditemukan dalam analisis terhadap bunyi-bunyi yang benar-benar diucapkan (yang kemudian yang disebut phone) fonologi mereduksi perbedan-perbedaan ini menjadi perbedaan-perbedaan yang memainkan peran fungsioanal dalam sistem tersebut, yakni apa yang disebut oposisi fonologis. Kriteria fungsionalitas merupakan efek perbedaan-perebedaan terhadap makna efek ini dites dengan menggunakan penggantian bunyi dalam konteksnya (tes komutasi) kelas-kelas bunyi yang komutasinya (saling bergantian) dalam kata-kata menyebabkan perbedaan makna disebut fonem, misalnya kata KUCING yaitu berasal dari fonem /K//U//C//I//N//G/ apabila fonem-fonem tersebut diubah akan menyebabkan perbedaan makna.
1. 3Prinsip kejituan analisis etik ke analisis emik
Kejituan (relevansi) mengacu pada ciri keberbedaan dalam suatu sistem. Prinsip ini menuntut pembedaan tingkat-tingkat analisis yang berbeda. Relevansi pada sistemik pada tataran fonem dapat diputuskan hanya dengan mengacu pada tataran struktur linguistik yang lebih tinggi pada tataran morfem (morfologi, dan semantik), karena hanya perbedaan semantik dalam komutasi membuktikan relevansi sistemik perbedaan fonetis.
Pike (1967) dalam buku semiotik memperkenalkan istilah etik dan emik, etik dari kata fonetik bersifat nonstruktural dan mengkaji fenomena-fenomena dalam struktur lahirnya, sedangkan emik berasal dari fonemik dan akhirnya dari kata sistemik. Pendekatan emik dalam fenomena semiotik menganggap unsur-unsur sistem tanda dalam kaitannya dengan fungsinya dalam kode.
1. 4Ciri-ciri yang berbeda dalam oposisi-oposisi biner
Jakobson mereduksi fonem-fonem menjadi sistem ciri-ciri yang berbeda dalam oposisi-oposisi biner. Di dalam sistem biner ciri-ciri yang berbeda, setiap fonem secara struktural dikarakterisasikan oleh ciri-ciri yang dimilikinya. Jakobson sendiri mengembangkan prinsip-prinsip analisis ciri yang berbeda terhadap morfologi.

Dasar-dasar strukturalisme Amerika telah dikemukakan oleh Bloomfield (1933) dan dengan Haris (1951) pada buku semiotic, metodologi strukturalis dalam linguistik Amerika mencapai puncaknya. Dua karakteristik utama pendekatan-pendekatan terhadap bahasa ini adalah deskriptivisme, antimentalistik dan distribusionalisme .
Aliran linguistik Bloomfield bersisat antimentalistik dan lebih memilih pendekatan behavioristik terhadap bahasa tidak ada fakta-fakta mental internal seperti gagasan, konsep, atau niat yang harus dipertimbangkan dalam analisis semiotik.
Merupakan pendekatan kaum strukturalis Amerika terhadap aspek-aspek system bahasa. Distribusi adalah kejadian unsur-unsur bahasa dalam lingkungan linguistiknya yang pas. Unsur-unsur ini ditentukan menurut tipe-tipe konteksnya.
Antropologi Struktural Levi Strauss
Fonologi sebagai paradigm ilmu manusia
Levi straus menemukan fonologi strucKtural dan menjadi yakin bahwa linguistik struktural harus menjadi patron general ilmu tentang manusia. Ia berpendapat bahwa sesungguhnya linguistik struktural dapat memainkan peran yang sama berkenaan dalam kaitannya dengan ilmu-ilmu sosial. Levi Strauss memperoleh keempat prinsip analisis berikut: (1) perubahan dari kajian terhadap fenomena-fenomena kesadaran ke kajian infrastruktur bawah sadar, (2) perubahan dari istilah-istilah tersebut ke hubungan-hubungan antara istilah-istilah tersebut, (3) kajian terhadap sistem tersebut secara keseluruhan, dan (4) penemuan hukum-hukum yang bersifat umum di dalam sistem. Levi Strauss menekankan karakter inovatif pendekatan struktural dalam berbagai ilmu pengetahuan tentang manusia. Tema yang selalu muncul dalam berbagai kajiannya adalah analogi struktural antara bahasa dan kebudayaan.
Struktur-struktur kekerabatan
Sistem-sistem kekerabatan mengungkapkan aturan-aturan perkawinana terlarang. Dalam sistem-sistem ini, Levi staruss memisahkan unit-unit kekerabatan terkecil sebagai struktur-struktur dasar suatu masyarakat. Namun, struktur-struktur ini tidak diberikan secara biologis, tetapi mewakili simbolisme kulturalisme.
-          Formalism Russia
Tujuan kalangan formalis adalah untuk mengembangkan suatu pendekatan ilmiah terhadap sastra dan seni. Para penentang kalangan Formalis menuduh aliran ini hanya menaruh perhatian terhadap bentuk dan mengabaikan dimensi isi. Seni dan puisi dikaji sebagai sistem-sistem yang otonom yang menarik perhatian terhadap dirinay sendiri dan tidak dapat direduksi pada isinya. Menurut Sklovskij (1916), piranti seni memiliki fungsi sentral untuk “membuat aneh”, menyebabkan pembaruan persepsi terhadap latar belakang proses otomatisasi di mana kita menjadi terbiasa dengan tindakan-tindakan dan persepsi-persepsi sehari-hari. Berbagai pertimbangan pragmatis dan fungsional terhadap seni ini menunjukkan bahwa kalangan Formalisme mengembangkan analisis mereka di luar tataran ekspresi bentuk. Dalam kontribusi mereka terhadap narativitas, kalangan formalism bahkan tertarik pada struktur-struktur isi. Salah satu konsep yang paling berpengaruh dalam bidang ini adalah pembedaan antara cerita dan alur cerita yang diajukan Sklovkijj.
-          Semiotik teks aliran praha
Para ilmuwan seperti B. Havranek, R. Jakobson, J. Veltrusky, F. Vodicka, dan sebagai tokoh utama, Jan Mukarovsky, mengembangkan sebuah teori estetika dan sastra dengan unsure-unsur semiotic khusus.  Strukturalis Praha mengembangkan konsep struktur yang dinamis, struktualis praha menekankan pendekatan fungsional terhadap kebudayaan, Strukturalis Praha mengembangkan analisis mereka dari ekspresi linguistic ke struktur-struktur isi
-          Semiotik Soviet
Dua pusat penelitian yang dominan di Soviet adalah Moskow dan Tartu, Estonia. Pusat-pusat penelitian ini juga dikenal sebagai Moscow-Tartu Semiotics School. Semiotik Soviet berkembang dari proyek-proyek sebelumnya dalam terjemahan mesin. Proyek ini terus mengembangkan semiotic dengan landasan yang kuat dalam informasi, komunikasi, dan teori system. Karakteristik penelitian semiotic Soviet adalah semantisasi bentuk ekspresi. 
Semiotik Teks Barthes
  1. Konotasi dan metabahasa
Barthes (1957; 1964a; 1967b) mendefiniskan tanda sebagai suatu sistem yang terdiri atas hurf E, expression= ekspresi (atau signifier= penanda), in relation (R) to (dalam hubungannya dengan) C, content = isi (atau signified =petanda) : ERC. Sistem tanda primer semacam ini dapat menjadi unsur sistem tanda yang lebih komprehensif jika perluasan tersebut adalah perluasan isi, tanda primer (E1R1C1) menjadi ekspresi tanda sekunder: E2(=E1R1C1) R2C2  (Barthes 1964a: 89). Dalam hal ini, tanda premier tersebut adalah tanda semiotik denotatif sedangkan tanda sekundernya adalah tanda semiotik konotatif. (dalam Noth, 2006: 315)


Isi 2
Ekspresi1                                                                     isi1
Tanda sekunder
Gambar B 2. Model Konotasi Barthes sebagai perluasan semantik tanda denotatif (cf. Barthes 1957: 115; 1964b: 28) (dalam Noth, 2006: 315)



Gambar B 3. Model metabahasa Barthes (1964a: 90) (dalam Noth, 2006: 315)
Dalam tanda-tanda metalinguistik (cf. Gambar B3 ), dimana sistem primernya adalah bahasa objek, dan sistem sekundernya terdiri atas metabahasa. (dalam Noth, 2006: 315)
  1. Mitologi dan ideologi
Dalam Mythologies-nya  (1957: 131), dia mendefinisikan sistem-sistem makna sekunder semacam ini sebagai mitos (q. V. 3.). kemudian, Barthes mendeskripsikan bidang konotasi ini sebagai bidang ideologi (q. V. 2. 1. 1). Media massa menciptakan mitologi-mitologi atau ideologi-ideologi sebagai sistem-sistem konotatif sekunder dengan berupaya memberikan landasan kepada pesan-pesan mereka dalam alam, yang dianggap sebagai sistem denotatif primer (cf. Ibid.) (dalam Noth, 2006: 316)
  1. Penelitian dalam sistem semiotik
Dalam The Fashion System (1967b), Barthes melakukan usaha yang terperinci dan pada saat yang sama melakukan upaya yang dapat dicontoh untuk mengkaji sistem tanda di luar lingkup bahasa dan sastra. Objek kajian ini adalah mode (pakaian) di Prancis menurut dua majalah tahub 1958—1959. Ciri-ciri utama pendekatan strukturalis semiotiknya dapat dirangkum sebagai berikut:
1.      Sesuai dengan prinsip-prinsip strukturalisme linguistik, Barthes memilih bentuk tertutup (yakni, majalah mode satu musim) agar dapat mengaitkannya dengan analisis sinkronis.
2.      Metode-metode linguistik struktural, seperti analisis distribusional dan tes komutasi, diterapkan pada data-data analisis tersebut agar dapat menentukan ciri-ciri sistem mode yang selalu ada dan atau yang berbeda.
3.      Analog dengan dikotomi Saussure antara langue dan parole, Barthes membedakan antara kode vestimenter (keagamaan), yakni sistem unsur-unsur dan kaidah-kaidah mode, aktualisasi individunya dalam garmen. 
... . Mode adalah “sistem semantik yang tujuan satu-satunya adalah untuk merongrong makna yang diuraikannya begitu berlebihan. [...] Tanpa isi, mode [...] membuat sesuatu yang tidak signifikan menjadi berarti” (Barthes 1967b: 269, 288). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 316—317)
  1. Sistem objek sebagai sistem sekunder
Barthes berpendapat bahwa pakaian pada majalah mode dapat bermakna di luar tataran dasar tertentu hanya karena uraian-uraiannya mengarahkan perhatian pembaca pada ciri-ciri pakaian tertentu, dan penjelasan-penjelasannya hanya menghasilkan makna dengan “mengurangkan penanda-penandanya” dari objek-objeknya dan dengan “menyebutkan petanda-petandanya” (Barthes 1967b: xi; 1964a: 10). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 317)
  1. Hubungan antara linguistik dan semiotika
Barthes menyimpulkan bahwa “ linguistik bukan bagian dari ilmu tanda secara umum, bahkan bukan merupakan bagian yang istimewa, ia  merupakan semiologi yang merupakan bagian dari linguistik” (1964a: 11). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 317)
  1. Barthes tentang keterbatasan semiotik strukturalis
Dengan membedakan antara “semiologi [...] sebagai ilmu tanda yang positif” dan “semiologi saya” (ibid. : 471), dia mendeskripsikan bahasa sebagai sebuah sistem yang menindas, sastra sebagai pemberontakan terhadap bahasa, dan semiotika sebagai aktivitas kreatif:
Semiologi [...] tidak bertumpu pada “semiofisis,” suatu kealamiahan tanda yang tak berdaya, dan ia juga bukan merupakan “semioklastri,” yakni penghancuran terhadap tanda. Malahan, [...] ia merupakan semiotropi: yang berubah ke arah tanda, semiologi ini terperangkap oleh dan menerima tanda, memperlakukannya, dan jika perlu, menirukannya sebagai kacamata imajiner. Singkat kata, ahli semiologi adalah seorang seniman ... .(ibid.: 474—475). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 318)
Semantik Struktural Greimas dan proyek Semiotik Teks
  1. Proyek Semiotik Greimas
1.      Dari Strukturalis ke Semantik Struktural
Strukturalisme dalam inguistik dan dalam antropologi Levi-Strauss, serta dalam teori-teori tindakan formalis awal propp dan Souriau dalam naratif serta dalam drama telah memengaruhi semiotik Greimas. Titik tolaknya adalah berasal dari upayanya untuk menerapkan metode-metode penelitian mulai dari linguistik struktural (fonologi, semantik, dan sintaksis) hingga analisis teks, yang didefinisikan Greimas sebagai wacana. Kerangka linguitiknya ditentukan oleh konsep struktur Saussure sebagai perbedaan, prinsip perlawanan  biner dsn keberbedaan fonologi fungsional, dan model tanda glosematikHjelmselve (cf. Greimas 1974a: 58). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 320)
2.      Konsep Semiotik Greimas
Terhadap Pierce, Greimas & Courtes mengajukan keberatan terhadap konsep semiotik sebagai teori tanda. Menurut mereka, semiotik harus merupakan “teori penandaan” yang “dapat beroperasi hanya bila ia menempatkan analisis-analisisnya pada tataran dan yang lebih rendah daripada tanda”(1979: 287, 147). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 320)
  1. Model Analisis Wacana Generatif
1.      Lintasan Generatif
Lintasan generatif mendeskripsikan pemroduksian wacana ekonomi sebagai sebuah proses yang berkembang dalam berbagai macam tahap, yang masing-masing memiliki subkomponen sintaksis dan semantik . ... . Seluruh lintasan mendeskripsikan struktur-struktur “yang mengaturpengorganisasian wacana sebelum terwujud dalam bahasa alam tertentu (atau dalam sistem semiotik non-linguistik): Greimas & Courtes 1979: 85). (Dalam Noth, 2006: 320)
2.      Struktur-struktur Semio-Naratif
Struktur semio-naratif mendeskripsikan kompetensi

Kata Pengantar

Asalammualaikum Wr.Wb
Puji syukur kehadirat Allah SWT yang telah melimpahkan rahmat dan nikmatnya kepada penulis untuk menyelesaikan makalah tentang Pendekatan Parafrastis dan Analitis pada Puisi Tidak terlupakan penulis mengucapkan terima kasih yang sebesar-besarnya kepada pihak-pihak yang telah membantu menyelesaikan makalah ini, antara lain :
1.      Maulfi Syaiful Rizal, M. Pd  sebagai dosen pengampu matakuliah Apresiasi Puisi.
2.      Orang tua yang senantiasa mendoakan.
3.      Teman-teman Kelas A Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia yang telah memberikan motivasi.
Penulis sadarbahwa makalah ini masih jauh dari kesempurnaan, oleh karena itu  penulis mengharapkan saran dan kritiknya.
 Wasalammualaikum Wr.Wb   

      Malang, 26 April 2013

Intan Suryana, Pipit Rohmatul dan Yanuar Handhika Putra

I.                   PENDAHULUAN
1.1  Latar Belakang
Rendahnya kemampuan pemahaman terhadap sebuah karya puisi menuntut adanya pendekatan yang relevan dalam pengajarannya. Hal ini berhubungan dengan  kurang bervariasinya metode pembelajaran. Mengapresiasi sebuah puisi bisa dilakukan dengan melakukan parafrase puisi tersebut. Memparafrase merupakan sebuah kegiatan reseptif dalam kegiatan apresiasi. Pendekatan Parafrastis merupakan sebuah pendekatan dengan cara mengungkapkan kembali gagasan yang disampaikan pengarang melalui karyanya menggunakan bahasa sendiri.
Menurut Aminuddin (2010:44), Pendekatan Analitis adalah suatu pendekatan yang berusaha memahami gagasan, cara pengarang menampilkan atau mengimajikan ide-idenya, sikap pengarang dalam menampilkan gagasan-gagasannya, elemen intrinsik dan mekanisme hubungan dari setiap elemen instrinsik itu, sehingga mampu membangun adanya keselarasan dan kesatuan dalam rangka  membangun totalitas bentuk maupun totalitas maknanya.
Pembelajaran sastra Indonesia secara umum dirasakan lebih sulit dari pada materi kebahasaan. Kesulitan ini terasa sekali pada saat pembelajaran apresiasi sastra khususnya puisi. Hal ini terjadi bukan karena materi tersebut sulit melainkan ada kemungkinan terjadi suatu proses yang salah dalam pembelajaran. Sesulit apapun sebuah materi pasti dapat diajarkan apabila pendekatan, metode, dan teknik yang dipergunakan tepat. Pembelajaran apresiasi puisi merupakan sebuah problematika yang memerlukan pemikiran dan pemecahan masalah.
Pada dasarnya banyak sekali pendekatan yang bisa dipergunakan untuk mengajarkan materi apresiasi puisi, tetapi tidak semua pendekatan yang ditawarkan bisa dilaksanakan atau dipergunakan. Kemampuan guru dalam menyediakan sarana/media, dan kemampuan guru yang terbatas tentu saja sangat menentukan dalam memilih sebuah pendekatan dalam pembelajaran.
Menyikapi semua hal tersebut ditawarkan alternatif lain yang mungkin bisa dijadikan bahan pilihan pendekatan pembelajaran apresiasi puisi di sekolah. Pendekatan yang ditawarkan ini yaitu Pendekatan Parafrastis dan Analitis. Pendekatan tersebut akan dibahas dalam makalah ini, sehingga diharapkan pembaca atau guru tidak salah dalam memilih pendekatan dalam mengapresiasi sebuah puisi.

1.2  Rumusan Masalah
1.      Apakah yang dimaksud dengan Pendekatan Parafrastis?
2.      Apa yang dimaksud dengan Pendekatan Analitis?
3.      Bagaimanakah penerapan Pendekatan Parafrastis dan Analitis dalam penggalan puisi berjudul Sajak Putih karya Chairil Anwar, dan Pendekatan Analitis pada puisi berjudul Prologuekarya Sapardi Djoko Damono?

1.3  Tujuan Penulisan
1.      Mendeskripsikan pengertian Pendekatan Parafrastis.
2.      Mendeskripsikan pengertian Pendekatan Analitis.
3.      Mengidentifikasi penerapan Pendekatan Parafrastis dalam penggalan puisi berjudul Sajak Putih karya Chairil Anwar, dan Pendekatan Analitis pada puisi berjudul Prologuekarya Sapardi Djoko Damono.

2.1  Pendekatan Parafrastis
Pendekatan Parafrastis ini berangkat dari sebuah asumsi bahwa kata-kata dalam puisi pada umumnya padat dan sering mengalami elipsis/penghilangan. Waluyo dalam buku Apresiasi Puisi (2002:1) menyatakan bahwa puisi adalah karya sastra dengan bahasa yang dipadatkan, dipersingkat, dan diberi irama dengan bunyi yang padu dan pemilihan kata-kata kias. Untuk itu memahami sebuah puisi yang cenderung mengalami elipsis dan pemadatan makna ini bisa dilakukan dengan menguraikan kembali puisi atau kata-kata tersebut dengna model kalimat yang berbeda. Memparafrase sebuah puisi bisa diartikan memprosakan sebuah puisi atau mengubah bentuk puisi menjadi prosa dengan tetap mempertahankan sudut pandang dan kondisi makna tersurat dan tersirat dalam puisi tersebut.
Menurut Aminuddin (2010:41), Pendekatan Parafrasis adalah strategi pemahaman kandungan makna dalam satuan cita sastra dengan jalan mengungkapkan kembali gagasan yang disampaikan pengarang dengan menggunakan kata-kata maupun kalimat yang berbeda dengan kata-kata dan kalimat yang digunakan pengarangnya. Tujuan akhir dari penggunaan parafrasis itu adalah untuk menyederhanakan pemakaian kata atau kalimat seorang pengarang, sehingga pembaca lebih mudah memahami kandungan makna yang terdapat dalam suatu cipta sastra.
Prinsip dasar dari penerapan Pendekatann Parafratis pada hakikatnya berangkat dari pemikiran bahwa (1) gagasan yang sama dapat disampaikan lewat bentuk yang berbeda, (2) symbol-simbol yang bersifat konotatif dalam suatu cipta sastra dapat diganti dengan lambang atau bentuk lain yang tidak mengandung makna, (3) kalimat-kalimat atau baris dalam suatu cipta satra yang mengalami pelepasan dapat dikembalikan lagi kepada bentuk dasarnya, (4) pengungkapan kembali suatu gagasan yang sama dengan menggunakan media atau bentuk yang tidak sama oleh seorang pembaca akan mempertajam pemahaman gagasan yang diperoleh pembaca itu sendiri, (5) pengungkapan kembali suatu gagasan yang sama dengan menggunakan media atau bentuk yang tidak sama oleh seorang pembaca akan mempertajam pemahaman gagasan yang diperoleh pembaca itu sendiri.
Bagaimanakah sebenarnya memparafrase sebuah puisi? Sebenarnya bukan hal yang sangat sulit untuk membuat parafrase dari sebuah puisi. Membuat sebuah parafrase puisi pada dasarnya merupakan kegiatan mengembangkan atau memunculkan kembali bagian-bagian dari puisi tersebut yang sebenarnya sengaja dihilangan oleh seorang penulis.  Biasanya kebanyakan puisi hanya terdiri atas penggunaan yang sangat minim. Bahkan biasanya untuk tidak mengikuti aturan-aturan kebahasaan demi kepentingan rima, tipografi, dan kedalaman makna. Kerja para peneliti atau apresiator adalah berusaha mengembalikan bagian-bagian lain yang hilang agar didapatkan sebuah pemahaman yang utuh terhadap makna puisi tersebut.
2.2  Pendekatan Analitis
Menurut Aminuddin (2010:44), Pendekatan Analitis adalah suatu pendekatan yang berusaha memahami gagasan, cara pengarang menampilkan atau mengimajikan ide-idenya, sikap pengarang dalam menampilkan gagasan-gagasannya, elemen intrinsik dan mekanisme hubungan dari setiap elemen instrinsik itu, sehingga mampu membangun adanya keselarasan dan kesatuan dalam rangka  membangun totalitas bentuk maupun totalitas maknanya.
Penerapan Pendekatan Analitis itu pada dasarnya akan menolong pembaca dalam upaya mengenal unsur-unsur intrinsik sastra yang secara aktual telah berada dalam suatu cipta sastra dan bukan dalam rumusan-rumusan atau definisi seperti yang terdapat dalam kajian teori sastra. Selain  itu, pembaca juga dapat memahami bagaimana fungsi setiap elemen cipta sastra dalam rangka membangun keseluruhannya.
Tujuan dari pendekatan ini yaitu menyusun sintesis lewat analisis. Lewat penerapan pendekatan ini diharapkan pembaca pada umumnya menyadari bahwa cipta sastra itu pada dasarnya diwujudkan lewat kegiatan yang serius dan terencana, sehingga tertanamkanlah rasa penghargaan atau sikap yang baik terhadap karya sastra. Selain itu, pendekatan ini akan membantu pembaca dalam upaya mengenal unsur-unsur intrinsik sastra yang secara aktual telah berada di dalam suatu cipta sastra. Unsur intrinsik yang dapat dikaji di dalam puisi terdiri dari tema, amanat, nada, perasaan, tipografi, enjambemen, akulirik, rima, gaya bahasa, dan citraan.

2.3  Penerapan Pendekatan Parafrastis dalam penggalan puisi berjudul Sajak Putihkarya Chairil Anwar, dan Pendekatan Analitis pada puisi berjudul Prologue karya Sapardi Djoko Damono.
2.3.1        Contoh analisis pendekatan parafrasis pada penggalan puisi Sajak Putih karya Chairil Anwar sebagai berikut:
Dengan memparafrase sebuah puisi, dimungkinkan akan mampu mempermudah pemahaman terhadap aspek makna dan pesan dari isi puisi tersebut. Parafrastis bisa dilakukan  dengan dua macam teknik, yaitu melengkapi bagian-bagian yang terelipsis dari puisi tersebut baik yang berupa ejaan maupun kata/frase, dan menulis kembali dengan kalimat lain maksud dari baris-baris puisi tersebut.
Bersandar pada tari warna pelangi
Kau depanku bertudung sutera senja
Penggalan puisi di atas dapat diparafrase dengan cara melengkapi bagian kalimat yang dielipsiskan menjadi:
Bersandar pada tari-an yang ber-warna pelangi
Kau di depanku bertudung dengan kain sutera pada waktu senja
Atau bisa pula dilakukan dengan cara mencoba memahami secara keseluruhan teks puisi tersebut kemudian menyampaikannya kembali dalam bentuk kalimat yang lain. Untuk teks di atas dapat diuraikan menjadi:  
Ketika aku berada di bayang-bayang keindahan seperti keindahan para penari dan pelangi, saat itulah kau ada di depanku, berdiri memperlihatkan kecantikanmu di bawah bayang-bayang senja.
Terlepas dari bagaimana memparafrase sebuah puisi, tidak bisa dipungkiri bahwa puisi merupakan bagian dari karya seni yang mengemban fungsi, misi, dan visi tersendiri. Karya puisi tentu harus memiliki kandungan makna yang relevan dengan pesan yang hendak disampaikan oleh penyair kepada pembaca. Makna yang terkandung dalam sebuah puisi bisa bersifat tersurat (eksplisit) dan tersirat (implisit). Makna tersirat dalam sebuah puisi ditunjukkan dalam makna denotatif/makna lugas, yaitu makna apa adanya yang melekat dan tampak nyata dalam sebuah kata. Makna denotatif merupakan dasar yang dengan pemahaman secara awam bisa dimengerti dengan mudah. Sebagai contoh dalam puisi berjudul Malam Lebaran karya Sitor Situmorang sebagi berikut:
Malam Lebaran
Bulan di atas kuburan
Secara awam makna yang tampak dalam puisi tersebut adalah pada malam lebaran bulan bersinar di atas kuburan. Titik. Hanya sebatas itu, tidak perlu dipikirkan berbagai macam hal yang rumit di balik itu, sedangkan makna tersirat ditunjukkan dalam bentuk makna konotatif/makna kias, yaitu kandungan lain dari maksud yang tampak seacara awam. Secara tersirat /malam lebaran, bulan di atas kuburan/ bisa dinterpretasikan sebagaimana kesan/efek psikologis dari eufoni dan kakafoni yang dihasilkannya, misalkan:
Malam          : gelap, menakutkan
Lebaran        : kemenangan, menyenangkan
Bulan            : keindahan
Kuburan       : kelam, seram, mistis
Berdasarkan gambaran di atas Malam Lebaran, Bulan Di atas Kuburan bisa diinterpretasikan tentang akan adanya jalan terang atau petunjuk untuk menyinari kita yang berupa kemenangan dan keindahan dari kekelaman yang selama ini kita alami. Bisa saja terjadi interpretasi sebaliknya, yaitu ketika kita berada pada titik atau derajat tertinggi dari yang bisa kita raih, justru pada saat itulah kita akan mengalami keterpurukan atau kehancuran.
Sementara itu kesan atau amanat yang disampaikan oleh penyair secara utuh justru terletak pada bagian yang bersifat implisit tersebut. Untuk itulah, demi ketercapaian penyampaian pesan moral atau amanat sebuah puisi, pemahaman terhadap cacophonydan euphonymerupakan faktor mutlak dalam proses kreatif cipta sastra.
Selanjutnya ketika kita berbicara tentang makna, hal yang ada di depan gambaran kita adalah bagaimana kita memilih kata (diksi) yang mempunyai kandungan kandungan makna tertentu atau cara kita memilih kata agar frase atau klausa yang dilekatinya menjadi bermakna sebagaimana yang kita harapkan. Memilih kata dalam proses kreatif cipta karya puisi memang bukan perupakan pekerjaan mudah. Dalam proses ini diperlukan kemampuan berbahasa, wawasan yang luas, serta kedalaman rasa sehingga dimungkinkan akan dihasilkan diksi yang tepat.
Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari pilihan kata yang dipergunakan oleh seorang benar-benar dipengaruhi oleh kondisi lingkungan tempat tinggalnya. Bisa kita bandingkan pemakaian kata-kata di lingkungan militer dengan lingkungan pendidikan, atau lingkungan pekerja proyek dengan lingkungan pondok pesantren. Terdapat perbedaan yang cukup mencolok di antara lingkungan pemakai bahasa tersebut. Bahkan dari kata-kata yang dipergunakan oleh seorang penutur bahasa, dapat diprediksikan asal lingkungan tempat tinggalnya.
Dengan mengetahui bagaimana kondisi dasar yang terdapat dalam sebuah karya puisi yang berhubungan dengan rima, cacophony dan euphony, maupun segala unsur moralnya akan mempermudah proses memparafrase sebuah puisi.
2.3.2        Contoh analisis pendekatan analitis pada penggalan puisi Prologue karya Sapardi Djoko Darmono sebagai berikut:

Dalam pelaksanaannya kegiatan analisis itu tidak harus meliputi keseluruhan aspek yang terkandung dalam suatu cipta sastra. Dalam hal ini pembaca dapat membatasi diri pada analisis unsur intrinsik. Misalnya, dengan menganalisis citraan dan gaya bahasa seperti pada contoh puisi Prologuekarya Sapardi Djoko Darmono.
Karya Sapardi Djoko Damono
          Ruang Lingkup Studi Sastra Bandingan        
Damono (2009: 1) mengatakan bahwa kajian sastra bandingan merupakan kajian dalam ilmu sastra yang tidak bisa menghasilkan teori sendiri. Jadi, kajian sastra bandingan dapat menerapkan berbagai teori, sepanjang teori itu tidak menyimpang dari prinsip-prinsip kajian bandingan.
Menurut Endraswara (2011: 95) ruang lingkup sastra bandingan lebih luas dari pada ruang lingkup sastra nasional, baik secara aspek geografis maupun bidang penelitiannya. Sastra bandingan dapat dikatakan sebagai suatu penelitian yang mempelajari hubungan dua kesusastraan atau lebih.
Sastra bandingan bertujuan membandingkan karya sastra dengan bidang lain sebagai ungkapan kehidupan (Clements dalam Noor, 2006:1).
Studi interteks dan studi bandingan akan mencari dua hal, yaitu: (1) affinity (pertalian, kesamaan) dan atau paralelisme serta varian teks satu dengan yang lain, (2) pengaruh karya sastra satu kepada karya lain atau pengaruh sastra pada bidang lain dan sebaliknya. Dua hal tersebut masih bisa dikembangkan lagi menjadi beberapa lingkup sastra, antara lain; (a) perbandingan antara karya pengarang satu dengan lainnya, pengarang yang sezaman, antargenerasi, pengarang yang senada, dan sebagainya; (b) membandingkan karya sastra dengan bidang lain; (c) kajian bandingan yang bersifat teoritik, untuk melihat sejarah, teori, dan kritik sastra.
Dari ruang lingkup demikian, sastra bandingan dapat digolongkan ke dalam empat bidang utama, yaitu:
1. Kajian yang bersifat komparatif
2. Kajian bandingan histories
3. Kajian bandingan teoritik
4. Kajian antardisiplin ilmu
Tiga lingkup sastra bandingan, yaitu:
1. Bandingan sastra lisan
2. Bandingan sastra tulis
3. Bandigan dalam kerangka supranasional
Kajian sastra bandingan secara umum dapat diketahui melalui dua madzhab yaitu:
1.       Madzhab Perancis yang menekankan pada perbandingan sastra dengan sastra nasionalis yang didasarkan pada aspek intrinsik dimana karya sastra diteliti dengan membandingkan dengan karya sastra lain atas pertimbangan dari aspek linguistik, pertukaran tema, gagasan, feeling dan nasionalisme.
2.      Madzhab Amerika lebih mengedepankan perbandingan karya sastra antarnegara, bangsa di satu pihak dan studi bandingan antar bidang di pihak lain. Keterkaitan antara sastra bandingan dan sastra nasional yang secara umum sastra nasional dianggap sebagai lingkup yang lebih tertutup dibandingkan dengan sastra bandingan. Sastra secara menyeluruh berarti mempelajari tentang gerakan dan aliran sastra yang melampaui batas nasional. Sedangkan sastra bandingan mempelajari hubungan dua kesusastraan atau lebih.


Damono, Sapardi Djoko. 2005. Pegangan Penelitian Sastra Bandingan. Jakarta: Pusat Bahasa Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.
Endraswara, Suwardi. 2008. Metodologi Penelitian Sastra. Yogyakarta: Media Pressindo.
Noor, Redyanto. 2005. Pengantar Pengkajian Sastra. Semarang: Fasindo.

          ALIH WAHANA        

Transformasi dari karya sastra ke bentuk film dikenal dengan istilah ekranisasi. Istilah ini berasal dari bahasa Prancis, écran yang berarti layar. Selain ekranisasi yang menyatakan proses transformasi dari karya sastra ke film ada pula istilah lain, yaitu filmisasi.
Ekranisasi adalah pelayarputihan atau pemindahan sebuah novel ke dalam film. Eneste menyebutkan bahwa ekranisasi adalah suatu proses pelayarputihan atau pemindahan atau pengangkatan sebuah novel ke dalam film. Eneste juga menyebutkan bahwa pemindahan dari novel ke layar putih mau tidak mau mengakibatkan timbulnya berbagai perubahan. Oleh karena itu, ekranisasi juga bisa disebut sebagai proses perubahan bisa mengalami penciutan, penambahan (perluasan), dan perubahan dengan sejumlah variasi.
Pada Kuliah wawasan ilmu sosial dan budaya, Sapardi Djoko Damono memiliki istilah alih wahana untuk membicarakan transformasi dari satu ke yang lain. Istilah ini hakikatnya memiliki cakupan yang lebih luas dari ekranisasi. Ekranisasai merupakan perubahan ke atau menuju layar putih, sedangkan alih wahana seperti yang dijelaskan Sapardi bisa dari berbagai jenis karya seni ke jenis karya seni lain. Akan tetapi, istilah ini tidak bertentangan dengan makna dan konsep dasar yang dimiliki oleh ekranisasi sebagai proses pengubahan dari satu wahana ke wahana lain.
Sapardi Djoko Damono menjelaskan bahwa alih wahana adalah perubahan dari satu jenis kesenian ke dalam jenis kesenian lain. Alih wahana yang dimaksudkan di sini tentu saja berbeda dengan terjemahan. Terjemahan dan penerjemahan adalah pengalihan karya sastra dari satu bahasa ke bahasa yang lain, sedang alih wahana adalah pengubahan karya sastra atau kesenian menjadi jenis kesenian lain. Sapardi Djoko Damono mencontohkan cerita rekaan diubah menjadi tari, drama, atau film. Bukan hanya itu, alih wahana juga bisa terjadi dari film menjadi novel, atau bahkan puisi yang lahir dari lukisan atau lagu dan sebaliknya. Alih wahana novel ke film misalnya, tokoh, latar, alur, dialog, dan lain-lain harus diubah sedemikian rupa sehingga sesuai dengan keperluan jenis kesenian lain.
Di dalam ekranisasi, pengubahan wahana dari karya sastra ke wahana film, berpengaruh pula pada berubahnya hasil yang bermediumkan bahasa atau kata-kata, ke dalam film yang bermediumkan gambar audiovisual. Jika di dalam novel ilustrasi dan penggambaran atau pelukisan dilakukan dengan menggunakan media bahasa atau kata-kata, dalam film semua itu diwujudkan melalui gambar-gambar bergerak atau audiovisual yang menghadirkan suatu rangkaian peristiwa.
Perbedaan media dua genre karya seni, memiliki karakteristik yang berbeda pula. Bahasa sebagai medium karya sastra memiliki sifat keterbukaan pada imajinasi pengarang. Proses mental lebih banyak terjadi dalam hal ini. Bahasa yang digunakan memungkinkan memberi ruang yang luas bagi pembaca untuk menafsir dan mengimajinasi tiap-tiap yang ditontonnya. Faktor lain yang berpengaruh adalah durasi waktu dalam penikmatan film. Terbatasnya waktu memberikan pengaruh tersendiri dalam proses penerimaan dan pembayangan.
Selain transformasi bentuk, ekranisasi juga merupakan transformasi hasil kerja. Dalam proses penciptaan, novel merupakan kerja atau kreasi individu, sedangkan film merupakan kerja tim atau kelompok. Novel merupakan hasil kerja perseorangan yang melibatkan pengalaman, pemikiran, ide, dan lain-lain. Maka dengan demikian, ekranisasi juga dapat dikatakan sebagai proses perubahan dari sesuatu yang dihasilkan secara individual menjadi sesuatu yang dihasilkan secara bersama-sama atau gotong royong.
Dalam sastra Indonesia, karya yang mengalami bermacam-macam alih wahana, direka ulang oleh pengarang lain dengan perubahan sudut pandang, diposisikan sebagai sebuah legenda atau cerita rakyat, dipentaskan berulang-ulang oleh sejumlah kelompok teater tradisional maupun modern, disalin ke dalam bentuk naskah atau manuskrip, atau juga dimanfaatkan sebagai nama bagi sejumlah jenis minuman dan makanan, dapat dikatakan sebagai tidak banyak jumlahnya. Transformasi, adaptasi, atau peralihan rupa yang paling lazim adalah perubahan dari novel menjadi film, atau sebaliknya, yaitu dari film diwujudkan menjadi sebuah novel. Utamanya pada dekade terakhir ini, pada awal tahun 2000-an misalnya, tercatat cukup banyak novel atau film yang mengalami perubahan bentuk itu, khususnya pada karya-karya yang cenderung dikategorikan sebagai karya populer.

Asrul Sani. 1991. Transformasi Novel ke dalam Film. Jakarta: IKIP Jakarta
Sapardi Djoko Damono. 2005. Pegangan Penelitian Sastra Bandingan. Jakarta: Pusat Bahasa
Laelasari dan Nurlailah. 2006. Kamus Istilah Sastra. Bandung: Nuansa Aulia


Komprehensi dapat didefinisikan sebagai suatu proses mental di mana pendengar mempersepsi bunyi yang dikeluarkan oleh seorang pembicara dan memakai bunyi-bunyi itu untuk membentuk suatu interpretasi tentang apa yang dia perkirakan dimaksud oleh pembicara. Setelah  pemahaman atas ujar itu terjadi, pendengar menentukan, apakah ada tindakan yang perlu dilakukan sesuai dengan apa yang difahami.
1.      Struktur Batin dan Struktur Lahir
Bahwa makna suatu kalimat ternyata tidak hanya ditentukan oleh wujud permukaan yang kita dengar atau lihat saja tetapi bahkan terutama oleh representasi yang mendasarinya. Dengan kata lain, suatu kalimat tidak hanya memiliki struktur lahir tetapi juga struktur batin
2.      Proposisi
Unit-unit makna pada kalimat dinamakan proposisi (Clarak dan Clarak 1977 : 11). Proposisi terdiri dari dua bagian ; (1) argument, yakni, ihwal atau ihwal-ihwal yang dibicarakan, dan (b). predikasi, yakni, pernyataan yang dibuat mengenai argument.
3.      Konstituen sebagai Relita Psikologis
Konstituen bukanlah hanya sekedar potongan kalimat yang sifatnya arbiter saja. Pemotingan kalimat mennjadi konstituen mempunyai landasan psikologis maupun sintaksis yang kuat. Pertama, konstituen merupakan satu kesatuan yang utuh secara konseptual. Kedua, pemotongan kelompok kata di luar konstituen akan mengganggu komprehensif. Ketiga, yang kita simpan dalam memori kita bukanlah kata-kata yang lepas dari konstituenya, tetapi kesatuan makna makna dari masing-masing konstituen.
4.      Strtegi dalam Memahami Ujaran
Dalam memahami suara ujaran. Ada paling tidak tiga faktor yang ikut membantu. Pertama adalah faktor yang berkaitan dengan pengetahuan dunia. Disamping pengetahuan tentang dunia, dalam memahami ujaran kita juga dibantu oleh faktor-faktor sintaktik . Kalimat terdiri dari konstituen, dan onstituen juga memiliki stuktur tertentu. Struktur konstituen inilah yang membantu kita memahami ujaran. Dengan kata lain, kita dapat memakai strategi-strategi sintaktik  untuk membantu memahami suatu ujaran.
Selain strategi sintaktik, ada juga memakai strategi semantik dalam memahami ujaran. Berikut adalah beberapa strategi semantik yang dipakai:
a.       Pakailah nalar dalam memahami ujaran.
b.      Carilah konstituen yang memenuhi syarat-syarat semantik tertentu.
c.       Apabila ada urutan kata N V N, maka N yang pertama adalah pelaku  perbuatan, kecuali ada tanda-tanda lain yang mengingkarinya.
d.      Bila dalam wacan kita temukan pronominal seperti dia, mereka, atau kami, mundurlah dan carilah antesiden untuk pronominal ini
e.       Informasi lama biasanya mendahului informasi baru.
5.      Ambiguitas
Dalam percakapan tersebut kadang-kadang kita menemukan kalimat yang maknanya lebih dari satu yang bisa disebut ambigu atau taksa
·         Macam-macam Ambiguitas
a.       Ambiguitas leksikal ialah ambiguitas karena bnetuk leksikal yang dipakai.
b.      Ambiguitas Gramatikal ialah ambiguitas disebabkan oleh struktur kalimat yang dipakai. Dalam bahasa Indonesia jika dua nomina berjejer sebagai frasa maka nomina yang kedua menerangkan nomina yang pertama.
·         Teori Tentang Ambiguitas
Teori yang pertama yaitu Garden Path Theory (GPT) menurut teori Frazier tahun 1987 dalam Soenjono D.:2012, orang membangun makna berdasrkan pengetahuan sintaktik. Kita seolah-olah berjalan dikebun melewati jalan setapak, tetapi setelah tahu jalan itu keliru barulah kita balik untuk mencari jaln yang lain.
Teori yang lain ialah teori yang dinamakan Constraint Satifaction Theory. Model-model teori ini mengikuti pandangan kaumkaum koreksionis yang menyatakan bahwa unit-unit pemrosesan awal memiliki daya asosiatif yang berbeda-beda.
·         Pemrosesan Kalimat Non-Harfiah
Metaphor ialah kata yangmengungkapkan persamaan sesuatu dengan sesuatu yang lain meskipun keduanya tidaklah sama.

·         Pemrosesan Secara Sintaktik atau Semantik
Kompetensi kita sebagi penutur asli sintaksis bahasa kita meupakn bekal intuitif yang membimbing kita untuk menerima, menolak, meragukan dan mendeteksi ambiguitas suatu kalimat. Sebagai penutur asli, kita juga memiliki intuisi semantic, baik yang sifatnya universal maupun local.
6.      Penyimpanan Kata
Berikut adalah proses memahami makna sebuah kata misalkan pada kata pena.
a.       Pertama, kita harus menemukan apakah keempat bunyi yang didengar , /p/ /e/ /n/ /a/, adalah bahasa kita.
b.      Kedua, kita harus mengumpulkan fitur yang secara alami melekat pada benda itu, bentuk fisiknya,
c.       Ketiga, kita harus membandingkan denan benda-benda lain yang fitur-fiturnya tumpang tindih dengan fitur-fitur kata tersebut, misalkan pensil, kapur, spidol, stabile dan marker.
d.      Keempat, memilih antara beberapa benda tersebut yang memiliki semua syarat. Selanjutnya preses yang dilakukan adalah proses eliminasi: pensil memenuhi banyak syarat tapi wujud fisik tulisannya bukan dari tinta, spidol juga memenuhi banyak syarat akan tetapi hasil tulisannya juga tidak sama.

1.      Bagaimanakan proses atau tahap-tahap ujaran manusia!
2.      Apa perbedaan struktur lahir dan batin dalam pemahaman ujaran manusia!