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          Fakta Menarik Tentang Dinosaurus        
Menurut sejumlah penelitian terbaru, Dinosaurus diperkirakan tetap bertahan selama lebih dari 700.000 tahun setelah bumi dihantam meteorit raksasa, yang awalnya diyakini telah mengalamai kepunahan. Berikut adalah beberapa fakta menarik tentang dinosaurus.

1. Dinosaurus Terberat


Dinosaurus terberat adalah Brachiosaurus, yang beratnya sekitar 80 ton. Setara dengan 17 gajah Afrika. Brachiosaurus memiliki tinggi 16 m dan panjang 26 m, merupakan kerangka dinosaurus terbesar yang terpasang di museum.


2. Dinosaurus Terkecil


Fosil dinosaurus terkecil seluruhnya dari jenis burung pemakan tumbuhan seperti Lesothosaurus, yang hanya seukuran ayam. Contoh fosil yang lebih kecil ditemukan pula namun masih berupa bayi.


3. Telur Dinosaurus Terkecil


Telur dinosaurus terkecil yang telah ditemukan hanya sepanjang 3 cm, namun tidak diketahui dari jenis apa.


4. Dinosaurus Paling Cerdas


Salah satu dinosaurus paling cerdas adalah Troodon. Tergolong dinosaurus pemburu yang panjangnya sekitar 2 meter. Memiliki ukuran otak mirip mamalia, dengan pengelihatan tajam (stereoskopik vision), dan cengkeraman tajam.


5. Dinosaurus Dengan Otak Terkecil


Stegosaurus memiliki ukuran otak sebesar buah kenari, dengan panjang 3 cm dan berat 75 gr. Dibandingkan ukuran otak dengan ukuran tubuh sauropodomorph, seperti Platesaurus, mungkin dinosaurus ini adalah dari jenis yang paling bodoh.


6. Dinosaurus Tertinggi


Dinosaurus tertinggi adalah Brachiosaurus dari kelompok sauropoda. Kaki depannya lebih panjang dibandingkan dengan kaki belakang, mirip jerapah. Dikombinasikan dengan lehernya yang sangat panjang, dapat berdiri secara tegak, sehingga dapat menjelajahi pohon-pohon tertinggi.

Jenis dari kelompok Brachiosaurus yang diketahui setinggi 13 meter. Jenis sauroposeidon tersebut besar dan dapat tumbuh hingga mencapai 18,5 meter, sehingga merupakan dinosaurus tertinggi.


7. Dinosaurus yang Mampu Berjalan Tercepat


Dinosaurus tercepat adalah dari jenis Ornithomimids semacam burung unta, seperti Dromiceiomimus, yang mampu berjalan dengan kecepatan hingga 60 km/jam.


8. Dinosaurus Tertua


Dinosaurus tertua yang diketahui berusia 230 juta tahun, dan telah ditemukan di Madagaskar. Dino jenis ini belum resmi diberi nama. Sebelumnya ada dinosaurus dari jenis Eoraptor yang usianya diperkirakan 228 juta tahun.


9. Nama Dinosaurus Terpanjang


Dinosaurus dengan nama paling panjang adalah Micropachycephalosaurus yang berarti 'kadal berkepala mini'. Fosil dino jenis ini ditemukan di Tiongkok dan telah diberi nama pada tahun 1978 oleh paleontolog Tiongkok, Dong.


Berapa banyak, jenis dinosaurus yang telah ditemukan di Inggris ?


Sejauh ini ada sekitar 108 spesies dinosaurus telah ditemukan di Inggris. Inggris merupakan wilayah penting selama Era Mesozoic, yang bertindak sebagai jembatan antara Amerika Utara dengan Eurasia.

Dinosaurus Inggris termasuk Megalosaurus, Iguanodon, Neovenator, Eotyrannus dan Cetiosaurus.

Sumber :
sourceflame.blogspot.com
          World: Food Assistance Outlook Brief, August 2017        
Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

This brief summarizes FEWS NET’s most forward-looking analysis of projected emergency food assistance needs in FEWS NET coverage countries. The projected size of each country’s acutely food insecure population is compared to last year and the recent five-year average. Countries where external emergency food assistance needs are anticipated are identified. Projected lean season months highlighted in red indicate either an early start or an extension to the typical lean season. Additional information is provided for countries with large food insecure populations, an expectation of high severity, or where other key issues warrant additional discussion.


          19.11.17 14:00 Uhr - Erlangen - Südafrika        
Tickets erhältlich unter: http://www.frankentipps.de/veranstaltung202433-tickets

Wir freuen uns, in Zusammenarbeit mit unserem Gastland Südafrika die farbenprächtige Multivision "Von Kapstadt zum Krügerpark" für den Festivalssonntag gewonnen zu haben!

In einer "tierisch" spannenden und humorvollen Live-Reportage steht Dirk Bleyer Rede und Antwort auf alles was man wissen muss, um den südafrikanischen Safari-"Alltag" meistern zu können. Monatelang und zu jeder Jahreszeit ist er in der Kaprepublik unterwegs, um für seine Multivision zu fotografieren.

Highways, Staubpisten und verborgene Elefantenpfade führen ihn aus Kapstadt hinaus zu subtropischen Stränden an der Garten Route, ins wilde Buschland der Karoo und zu ursprünglichen Dörfern in der Wild Coast und den Drakensbergen von Lesotho. Dabei erfährt der Reisende immer wieder südafrikanische Gastfreundschaft, ob beim König der Venda, im Township Soweto oder bei den Buschmännern in der Kalahari.

Auf dem Weg zum Krüger Nationalpark überrascht Bleyer mit skurrilen Beziehungen zwischen Mensch und Vierbeiner, die Fragen aufwerfen wie: „Was haben Erdmännchen gegen neue Autos?“ oder „Sollten Nilpferde fernsehen oder nicht?“…
          Hány ország van a földön?        
Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

Afganisztán - Kabul
Albánia - Tirane
Algéria - Algiers
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Angola - Luanda
Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
Argentína - Buenos Aires
Örményország - Yerevan
Ausztrália - Canberra
Ausztria - Vienna
Azerbajdzsán - Baku
Bahamák - Nassau
Bahrein - Manama
Banglades - Dhaka
Barbados - Bridgetown
Fehéroroszország - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Belize - Belmopan
Benin - Porto-Novo
Bhután - Thimphu
Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
Botswana - Gaborone
Brazília - Brasilia
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgária - Sofia
Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
Burundi - Bujumbura
Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
Kamerun - Yaounde
Kanada - Ottawa
Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
Csád - N'Djamena
Chile - Santiago
Kína - Beijing
Kolumbia - Bogota
Comore-szigetek - Moroni
Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
Costa Rica - San Jose
Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
Horvátország - Zagreb
Kuba - Havana
Ciprus - Nicosia
Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
Dánia - Copenhagen
Dzsibuti - Djibouti
Dominika - Roseau
Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
Ecuador - Quito
Egyiptom - Cairo
El Salvador - San Salvador
Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
Eritrea - Asmara
Észtország - Tallinn
Etiópia - Addis Ababa
Fidzsi - Suva
Finnország - Helsinki
Franciaország - Paris
Gabon - Libreville
Gambia - Banjul
Grúzia - Tbilisi
Németország - Berlin
Ghána - Accra
Görögország - Athens
Grenada - Saint George's
Guatemala - Guatemala City
Guinea - Conakry
Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
Guyana - Georgetown
Haiti - Port-au-Prince
Honduras - Tegucigalpa
Magyarország - Budapest
Izland - Reykjavik
India - New Delhi
Indonézia - Jakarta
Irán - Tehran
Irak - Baghdad
Írország - Dublin
Izrael - Jerusalem
Olaszország - Rome
Jamaica - Kingston
Japán - Tokyo
Jordánia - Amman
Kazahsztán - Astana
Kenya - Nairobi
Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
Dél-Korea - Seoul
Koszovó - Pristina
Kuvait - Kuwait City
Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
Laosz - Vientiane
Lettország - Riga
Libanon - Beirut
Lesotho - Maseru
Libéria - Monrovia
Líbia - Tripoli
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Litvánia - Vilnius
Luxemburg - Luxembourg
Macedónia - Skopje
Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
Malawi - Lilongwe
Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
Maldív-szigetek - Male
Mali - Bamako
Málta - Valletta
Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
Mauritánia - Nouakchott
Mauritius - Port Louis
Mexikó - Mexico City
Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
Moldova - Chisinau
Monaco - Monaco
Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
Montenegró - Podgorica
Marokkó - Rabat
Mozambik - Maputo
Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
Namíbia - Windhoek
Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
Nepál - Kathmandu
Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
Új-Zéland - Wellington
Nicaragua - Managua
Niger - Niamey
Nigéria - Abuja
Norvégia - Oslo
Omán - Muscat
Pakisztán - Islamabad
Palau - Melekeok
Panama - Panama City
Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
Paraguay - Asuncion
Peru - Lima
Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
Lengyelország - Warsaw
Portugália - Lisbon
Katar - Doha
Románia - Bucharest
Oroszország - Moscow
Ruanda - Kigali
Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
Santa Lucia - Castries
Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
Szamoa - Apia
San Marino - San Marino
São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
Szenegál - Dakar
Szerbia - Belgrade
Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
Sierra Leone - Freetown
Szingapúr - Singapore
Szlovákia - Bratislava
Szlovénia - Ljubljana
Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
Szomália - Mogadishu
Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
Spanyolország - Madrid
Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
Szudán - Khartoum
Suriname - Paramaribo
Szváziföld - Mbabane
Svédország - Stockholm
Svájc - Bern
Szíria - Damascus
Tajvan - Taipei
Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
Thaiföld - Bangkok
Togo - Lome
Tonga - Nuku'alofa
Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
Tunézia - Tunis
Törökország - Ankara
Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
Uganda - Kampala
Ukrajna - Kyiv
Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
Egyesült Királyság - London
Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
Uruguay - Montevideo
Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
Vanuatu - Port-Vila
Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
Venezuela - Caracas
Vietnam - Hanoi
Jemen - Sanaa
Zambia - Lusaka
Zimbabwe - Harare

          Fan-trekking-tastic Lesotho        
We're back from our trip to Lesotho, and not knowing much about the trek beforehand, it was all that I'd hoped and more.  Erica and I met our sitemate Gracey and two other volunteers in Maputo, where we got a bus to Johannesburg, where we rented a car to drive to Lesotho.  We spent a night in Malealea Lodge and set out from there on a three-day pony trek through the mountains of Lesotho.  This took us through some hair-raising passes, but our patient guides and surefooted horses never let us [fall] down.  That being said, it's a good thing we only trekked for three days; by day three, my fear buffer was running low and I don't think my poor little coração could have handled too many more spikes in my blood pressure.  We spent two nights sleeping in a thatched brick hut in a small, local village and hiked one afternoon to a stunning waterfall, where I swam with frog (singular) in the chilly water.  Heading back to the lodge on the last day, we got stuck in the rain, and due to the loss of my rain jacket in my May robbery, I got more cold and wet than would be medically advisable, but my Viking stock did me well and, Look Mom, no hypothermia!  We took our time driving through delightfully developed South Africa on the way home and stopped in Clarens, a quaint touristy town, where we appreciated art and window-shopped.  Erica and I are now back home and getting ready for upcoming sub-Saharan travels with her sister and dad and my sister and mom, so from here on up, it's all downhill. 

          No Proselytizing in Pão, Please        
Classes are done! Maybe that does not accurately convey my immense excitement and enthusiasm—classes are OVER! Fim! Finito! Done-zo! And that makes me so-oo happy. After classes ended, we had a week to prepare students’ grades, copy them onto the various official documents, and decide who would and would not pass. Within the last two trimesters, the national stipulations for passing students changed not just once, but two times, so within one school year, we have had three different systems for passing students into the next grade. Need I say that this week of grades was more than a little confusing and messy? Well, it was. Because students fail many disciplines, but instead of making their classes easier to pass, most teachers assign grades, balk at the number of failing students, and tweak grades after writing them in ink in all of the grade sheets. This is tedious, stressful, and fraudulent work, and when the national passing criteria changed for the second time after the week of doing grades, most teachers did more artful erasing and re-inking in the official documents to help students pass. But what is to be done? The education system here is broken, in my honest opinion, with regulations that change on a whim and don’t really match up. For example, with the newest stipulations, students don’t pass into the next grade if they fail design, agriculture, and physical education. Yet officially, they can pass with failing grades in math, the sciences, and the humanities. So without talking to other teachers, I would have had only four students in my class of 40 pass into ninth grade. In the end, 15 students passed—a whopping 37.5% of my class. And as a result, because my school is fairly new and repeatedly fails its eighth graders, it has almost 1000 eighth graders, while only 500 students have trickled into ninth grade, and 300 have squeaked by into tenth grade. It almost makes me want to be a teacher in the United States for a year or two, just to be able to compare the education systems. Almost... but after this, I think I will be a little burned out on teaching for a while.

The work in school is not yet done, however. Currently, the tenth graders are taking national exams. These exams are taken very seriously, with all students in Mozambique taking the same tests on the same day at the same time. The tests arrive in sealed packets, which are opened in every classroom at the exact moment when the bell rings. Yet these elaborate anti-cheating measures are nullified when teachers responsible for controlling the exams and responding to questions simply give out answers. All I can say is, ridiculous. Again, this system is broken, and I don’t see anything changing anytime soon without major, major reform. I’m trying not to lay it on too thick, but this is the reality.

On a lighter note, Erica and I are fleeing Mozambique and these wretched exams to go to Lesotho tomorrow for a three-day pony trek. It could not be better timing for us, as we are both sick to death of school. There will be a second round of national exams in a few weeks, but this trip will give our bodies a break from the heat and give us the boost we need to keep going and not be viciously bitter towards our poor colleagues in the weeks to come. Once December hits, we’re in the clear; we’ll have family coming and will do some traveling around Mozambique and South Africa, hitting the beaches and visiting Kruger National Park to see lions and tigers and bears, oh my! (Although I’m not so sure South Africa has bears, but you get the picture.)

Meanwhile, in Chibuto and outside of school, things are good. We’re having a small fence built for the dogs so they won’t chase and eat our neighbors’ chickens while unsupervised during our vacation. We just gave our house an interior makeover, throwing out tons of junk left by previous PCVs and even fashioning a couch out of my old mattress. With the temperature rising daily, there is the purchase of a fan in my near future. It’s been a long but good year, and we’re trying to exercise some control over a few small things in our life to close this year on a positive note and carry us into the next year. With that, I leave you with these pictures: me and Erica on my birthday (note the lovely mural left by a previous PCV) and a sandwich menu that features the most delightfully terrible English translation I’ve encountered in Mozambique. When things get rough, we toast simple.

          Winter that Refuses to Fall Gently into Summer        
August and September have been topsy-turvy months. August brought the start of the final trimester and a string of canine-related incidents, while September brought the regional Science Fair and the dreaded arrival of summer heat. I’m holding out for October, which brings the end of classes, Halloween, and most importantly, my birthday. But first, here’s a rundown of August and this half of September.
One Saturday afternoon, Erica and I were walking to a nearby shop and suddenly heard a dog yelping as we passed an empty lot. We looked over and saw a group of young boys beating a stray puppy that was hanging upside down from a tree, tied from its back two legs. We immediately began furiously scolding the children, and set out to find a knife to cut down the unfortunate creature. Within a minute of reaching the safe ground, it died. Erica wisely tried using the incident as a teaching moment to tell these boys that even if the puppy was causing problems and stealing food, there are better ways to cull animals. The boys laughed amongst themselves as we walked away. When peoples’ lives are so difficult here, why worry about a dog?
That same day, our own puppy Shingove became listless and lost interest in food. He soon stopped eating altogether and was quickly reduced to a shaking frame of skin and bones. Erica’s family called several times with different tips and information, so with this guidance, we nursed our sick li’l pup back to health, giving him human medicine and food with a dropper and keeping him hydrated. Come Sunday, he was back to our romping, mischievous Shingove that attacks us as we do exercises; Monday morning, a neighbor girl came to our kitchen window to say that a car had hit our dog. Not just hit, completely ran over our dog with a velocity that should be illegal in a small neighborhood. The bizarre mix of foreshadowing and irony was almost too much, and it was certainly too much for a Monday morning.
On top of the dog drama, someone stole our shampoo, face wash, sponge, and razors out of our bathroom. And one slightly-off man started coming to the school to jabber English gibberish at me, while another slightly-off man started coming to the house to jabber Portuguese gibberish at us. Evidently, we are magnets not only for canine disaster, but also for theft and mentally instable individuals. Cool.
Yet just as I was beginning to slide into a jaded, pessimistic funk, a friend gave us a replacement puppy, and although it didn’t leave much time for the death of Shingove to stop smarting, our new puppy, Havu (Shangana for “monkey”), is adorable and oh-so-affectionate. One would think I’d learn to stop being so attached to cute puppies, but what’s the use? Why fight it?
Science Fair should have happened during the last weekend of August, but due to a few days of unrest for rising fuel and food prices in Maputo and other larger cities, we were forced to push it back a week. (Thankfully, there were no notable demonstrations in Chibuto, so aside from a brief travel ban and fluctuation in bread prices, we were unaffected.) In the date change, we lost the opportunity to have a sound system and one of our guest speakers, but everything else went pretty smoothly. Projects ranged from making electronic doorbells and motorized cars to making coconut oil to making juice… from a package. While that last one was a bit of a stretch, we were happy to have so many participants—50 or so students from around 15 schools in Maputo and Gaza Provinces. This is nothing by American standards, but in Mozambique, nothing is as easy as it seems it should be, and nearly everything that could go wrong often does, so it was a small miracle we pulled it off. Although we were absolutely exhausted afterwards, it was worth it.
As September slides downhill into October, I’m trying to get a few students mobilized to do some health presentations at school, and Erica has projects of her own at her school. We’re planning our final lessons; I’m in the midst of the reproductive system, and it is just amazing to me how students never tire of saying “vagina,” which by the way is Portuguese for (you guessed it) “vagina.” Even after classes end, we’ll have several weeks of grading national exams and the odious task of writing thousands of grades by hand that will extend into December. But since we have family coming in December and a possible venture into Lesotho in November, and since we are volunteers after all, Erica and I will be able to get out of some of it. Because volunteers without volition make for unhappy PCVs.
I hope those of you back home are enjoying the fall colors and brisk air for me. Once it gets hotter here and cooler there, I’ll see what I can do about sending some of our heat your way. There’s more than enough around here.


          Killing us softly         

A recent public outcry in China, sparked by a damning documentary about air pollution, was based on well-founded fear:

Of the 100 million people who viewed the film on the first day of its online release, 172,000 are likely to die each year from air pollution-related diseases, according to regional trends.* 

Worldwide, pollution kills twice as many people each year as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined,** but aid policy has consistently neglected it as a health risk, donors and experts say. 

Air pollution alone killed seven million people in 2012, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figures released last year, most of them in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the Asia Pacific region.*** 

In a self-critical report released late last month the World Bank acknowledged that it had treated air pollution as an afterthought, resulting in a dearth of analysis of the problem and spending on solutions. 

“We now need to step up our game and adopt a more comprehensive approach to fixing air quality,” the authors wrote in Clean Air and Healthy Lungs. “If left unaddressed, these problems are expected to grow worse over time, as the world continues to urbanise at an unprecedented and challenging speed.”

A second report released last month by several organisations – including the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, an international consortium of UN organisations, governments, development banks, NGOs and academics – also called for more funding towards reducing pollution. 

“Rich countries, multilateral agencies and organisations have forgotten the crippling impacts of pollution and fail to make it a priority in their foreign assistance,” the authors wrote. 

Housebound in China 

A dense haze obstructs visibility more often than not across China’s northern Hua Bei plain and two of its major river deltas. Less than one percent of the 500 largest cities in China meet WHO’s air quality guidelines. Anger over air pollution is a hot topic among China’s increasingly outspoken citizenry.  

“Half of the days in 2014, I had to confine my daughter to my home like a prisoner because the air quality in Beijing was so poor,” China’s well-known journalist Chai Jing said in Under the Dome, the independent documentary she released last month, which investigated the causes of China’s air pollution.

The film was shared on the Chinese social media portal Weibo more than 580,000 times before officials ordered websites to delete it. 

Beyond the silo

Traditionally left to environmental experts to tackle, the fight against pollution is increasingly recognised as requiring attention from health and development specialists too. 

“Air pollution is the top environmental health risk and among the top modifiable health risks in the world,” said Professor Michael Brauer, a public health expert at the University of British Columbia in Canada and a member of the scientific advisory panel for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a consortium of governments and the UN Environment Programme. “Air pollution has been under-funded and its health impacts under-appreciated.”

Pollution – especially outdoor or “ambient” air pollution – is also a major drag on economic performance and limits the opportunities of the poor, according to Ilmi Granoff, an environmental policy expert at the Overseas Development Institute, a London-based think tank. It causes premature death, illness, lost earnings and medical costs – all of which take their toll on both individual and national productivity.

“Donors need to get out of the siloed thinking of pollution as an environmental problem distinct from economic development and poverty reduction,” Granoff said. 

Pollution cleanup is indeed underfunded, he added, but pollution prevention is even more poorly prioritised: “It’s underfunded in much of the developed world, in aid, and in developing country priorities, so this isn’t just an aid problem.”

Mounting evidence 

Pollution kills in a variety of ways, according to relatively recent studies; air pollution is by far the most lethal form compared to soil and water pollution. 
 

Microscopic particulate matter (PM) suspended in polluted air is the chief culprit in these deaths: the smaller the particles’ size, the deeper they are able to penetrate into the lungs.  Particles of less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to reach the alveoli, the deepest part of the lungs, and to enter the blood stream.  

From there, PM2.5 causes inflammation and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood clotting processes - the precursors to fatal stroke and heart disease.  PM2.5 irritates and corrodes the alveoli, which impairs lung function - a major precursor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also acts as a carcinogen.

Most research looks at long-term exposure to PM2.5 but even studies looking at the hours immediately following bursts of especially high ambient PM2.5 (in developed countries) show a corresponding spike in life-threatening heart attacks, heart arrhythmias and stroke.

Asia worst affected

The overwhelming majority - 70 percent - of global air pollution deaths occur in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions.  South Asia has eight of the top 10 and 33 of the top 50 cities with the worst PM concentrations in the world.  

 

WHO says a city’s average annual PM levels should be 20 micrograms per cubic meter.  But cities such as Karachi, Gaborone, and Delhi have yearly PM averages above 200 micrograms per cubic meter. 

The main source of PM2.5 in indoor air, or household air, is burning solid fuels for cooking and heating, using wood, coal, dung or crop leftovers - a common practice in rural areas of low and middle-income countries that lack electricity.  

Almost three billion people live this way, the majority in the densely populated Asia Pacific region: India and China each hold about one quarter of all people who rely on solid fuels. For these people, the daily average dose of PM2.5 is often in the hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter. 

Filling the gaps

Unlike many other health risks air pollution is very cost-effective to address, Brauer said. Analysis of air quality interventions in the US suggests a return on investment of up to $30 for every dollar spent. 

“We already know how to reduce these risks, as we have done exactly that in high income countries, so this is not a matter of searching for a cure - we know what works,” he said.

But the World Bank report said that unless it starts gathering better data on local air quality in LMICs, the amounts and sources of air pollution and the full gamut of its health impacts, “it is not possible to appropriately target interventions in a cost-effective manner.”

Granoff said there are also gaps in government capacity to monitor, regulate and enforce pollution policy. 

Beijing hopes to bring PM2.5 concentrations down to safe levels by 2030, and has said it will fine big polluters. 

The World Bank report said China is also charging all enterprises fees for the pollutants they discharge; establishing a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network; instituting pollution control measures on motor vehicles; and controlling urban dust pollution.

But enforcing environmental protections has been a longstanding problem in China.

“Pollution policy will only succeed if citizens are aware of the harm, able to organise their concern [through advocacy campaigns], and have a responsive government that prioritises public welfare over the narrower interests of polluting sectors,” Granoff said. 

While more people die from household air pollution than from ambient air pollution, the latter – through vehicles, smokestacks and open burning – still accounted for 3.7 million deaths in 2012, according to the WHO. 

A change in the air

Kaye Patdu, an air quality expert at Clean Air Asia, a Manila-based think tank - and the secretariat for the UN-backed Clean Air Asia Partnership, comprising more than 250 government, civil, academic, business and development organisations - said the aid community is finally starting to recognise the importance of tackling air pollution.  

• Last year’s inaugural UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution calling for strengthened action on air pollution.  
• WHO Member States are planning to adopt a resolution on health and air quality at the upcoming World Health Assembly in May. 
• The proposed Sustainable Development Goals, which will set the post-2015 international development agenda, address city air quality and air, soil and water pollution. 

None of the experts IRIN contacted could provide a breakdown of total aid spending on all forms of toxic pollution (air, water and soil pollution that is harmful to human health).  So IRIN asked each of the major global donors for their figures.  

Three responded.  

A back-of-envelope calculation of all reported spending on toxic pollution by USAID, the European Commission and the World Bank suggests that between them they committed about US$10 billion over 10 years. This does not include aid spending on the diseases that pollution causes. The World Bank’s spending figures eclipsed those of other the other donors. 

By very rough comparison, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, with half the death toll of air pollution, received $28 billion via public sector commitments to the Global Fund – the world’s largest financier of programs that tackle these diseases – over the same period, a fraction of total spending on these diseases. 

gh/ha/bp

*Based on WHO statistics for per capita mortality rates in the Western Pacific region in 2012. 

**The mortality figures for air pollution come from 2012 statistics and were released by WHO in 2014, while the figures for the infectious diseases come from 2013 statistics and were released by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in 2014 (the Global Burden of Disease study).

***Includes deaths from both household air pollution (4.3 million) and ambient air pollution (3.7 million): the combined death toll is less than the sum of the parts because many people are exposed to both. 

For more: 

The relationship between household air pollution and disease

Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke 

Cardiovascular effects of exposure to ambient air pollution 

Particulate air pollution and lung function  

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: Results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE Project  

OECD's The Cost of Air Pollution report
 

101285 200901271.jpg Analysis Health Killing us softly Gabrielle Babbington IRIN HONG KONG Congo, Republic of Djibouti DRC Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda Angola Botswana Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Cape Verde Chad Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Colombia Haiti United States Bangladesh Cambodia Indonesia Iran Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Myanmar Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam
           Effects of climatic change on water resources for irrigation: an example from Lesotho         
Institute of Hydrology. 1988 Effects of climatic change on water resources for irrigation: an example from Lesotho. Institute of Hydrology, 48pp. (UNSPECIFIED) (Unpublished)
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Photographer Tom Oldham, whose new exhibition ‘The Herder Boys of Lesotho’ looks at life in the southern African country, joins us to talk about his career. Plus: we also meet Tamsie Thomson, director of the the London Festival of Architecture, and speak with author and critic Brian Dillon about his new book ‘Essayism’.
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Restricted countries for the bonus: Poland, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Croatia, Ukraine, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Russia, Czech Republic, Portugal, Slovakia, Latvia and Thailand

Restricted countries for the casino: American Samoa, Cyprus, Guam, Marshall Islands, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and Virgin Islands), Afghanistan, Algeria, Belgium, Bouvet Island, British Indian Ocean Territory, Bulgaria, Comoros, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Greenland, Guam, Holy See (Vatican City State), Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland (sports betting prohibited), Israel, Italy, Jordan, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Kuwait, Libya, Malaysia, Montenegro, Myanmar, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Pakistan, State of Palestine, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovenia, Somalia, South Africa, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Sudan, Spain, Sudan, Syria, The Faroe Islands, Turkey, Western Sahara, Yemen, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bhutan, Bonaire; Sint Eustatius and Saba, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Costa Rica, Congo, Congo; Democratic Republic of, Cook Islands, Cote d’Ivoire, Cuba, Curacao, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Equitorial Guinea, Eritrea, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Lao People’s Republic, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mauritius, Micronesia, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Niue, Norfolk Island, Oman, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Pitcairn, Rwanda, Saint Helena; Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Saint Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent & Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome & Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sint Maarten, Solomon Islands, Suriname, Swaziland, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Turks & Caicos, Tuvalu, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Virgin Islands; British, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


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Players from the following countries are not eligible for the no deposit free spins: Albania (AL), Algeria (DZ), Angola (AO), Austria (AT), Bahrain (BH), Bangladesh (BD), Belarus (BY), Benin (BJ), Bosnia and Herzegovina (BA), Botswana (BW), Bulgaria (BG), Burundi (BI), Cameroon (CM), Cape Verde (CV), Chad (TD), Comoros (KM), Croatia (HR), Czech Republic (CZ), Côte d’Ivoire (CI), Djibouti (DJ), Egypt (EG), Equatorial Guinea (GQ), Eritrea (ER), Ethiopia (ET), Gabon (GA), Gambia (GM), Georgia (GE), Ghana (GH), Great Britain (GB), Greece (GR), Guinea (GN), Guinea-Bissau (GW), Hungary (HU), India (IN), Indonesia (ID), Iran (IR), Iraq (IQ), Islamic Republic of (IR), Jordan (JO), Kenya (KE), Kuwait (KW), Lebanon (LB), Lesotho (LS), Liberia (LR), Macedonia Republic of (MK), Madagascar (MG), Malawi (MW), Malaysia (MY), Mali (ML), Mauritania (MR), Mauritius (MU), Moldova Republic of (MD), Mongolia (MN), Montenegro (ME), Morocco (MA), Mozambique (MZ), Namibia (NA), Nepal (NP), Niger (NE), Nigeria (NG), Oman (OM), Pakistan (PK), Palestine State of (PS), Philippines (PH), Poland (PL), Portugal (PT), Romania (RO), Russian Federation (RU), Rwanda (RW), Sao Tome and Principe (ST), Senegal (SN), Serbia (RS), Seychelles (SC), Sierra Leone (SL), Slovakia (SK), Slovenia (SI), Somalia (SO), South Sudan (SS), Sudan (SD), Swaziland (SZ), Syrian Arab Republic (SY), Tanzania United Republic of (TZ), Thailand (TH), Togo (TG), Tunisia (TN), Uganda (UG), Ukraine (UA), United Arab Emirates (AE), United Kingdom (UK), United States of America (US), Vietnam (VN), Yemen (YE), Zambia (ZM) and Zimbabwe (ZW).


          FIFA Best/Worst Ranking - August 2014        
Nations currently at their best or worst all-time ranking position in the August 2014 FIFA Rankings.

Best Ranking
1 - Germany
15 - Costa Rica
29 - Venezuela
50 - Sierra Leone
73 - Azerbaijan
105 - Lesotho
165 - Montserrat


Worst Ranking
122 - Canada
157 - Thailand
167 - Liechtenstein
197 - Cayman Islands
201 - British Virgin Islands
201 - Cambodia
203 - Eritrea
205 - Djibouti
206 - Cook Islands
207 - Anguilla
208 - Bhutan
208 - San Marino

          Redbull - Under The Horn of Capricorn (Full Length)        

Planning a trip can generally go two ways. One, there’s a predisposed theme. Follow the Silk Road or head to the Galapagos for example. Secondly, pick a place that has good skating, is picturesque and people want to visit.

For years I have wanted to visit a small enclave country known as Lesotho, filmmaker Patrik Wallner had always wanted to visit Namibia and we both really wanted to go to Cape Town. So, it was settled: we would take off for Under The African Capricorn, where all three countries lie, to see what they had in store. - Sam McGuire -

Filmed and Edited by Patrik Wallner
Skateboarding by Walker Ryan, Sebo Walker, Jamie Toncowny, Thynan Costa
Additional Videography by Walker Ryan
Photography by Sam McGuire

redbull.com/en/skateboarding
visualtraveling.com

Cast: Patrik Wallner

Tags: Skateboarding, Red Bull, Africa, Namibia, Visualtraveling, Lesotho, Patrik Wallner, Sebo Walker, Walker Ryan, Thaynan Costa, Sam McGuire and Jamie Toncowny


          Episode 272: Lesotho, No That Is Not Some Kind of Disease        
Well new event hits the game at the same time as about 5 other things. The crew spends a good bit of time talking about the event Lords of Lesotho.
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

CurrencySymbol
Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Euro€
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forintFt
Icelandic krónakr
Indian rupee₹
Indonesian rupiahRp
Iranian rialï·¼
Iraqi dinarع.د
Israeli new shekel₪
Jamaican dollar$
Japanese yen¥
Jersey pound£
Jordanian dinarد.ا
Kazakhstani tenge₸
Kenyan shillingSh
Kiribati dollar$
Kuwaiti dinarد.ك
Kyrgyzstani somлв
Lao kip₭
Latvian latsLs
Lebanese poundل.ل
Lesotho lotiL
Liberian dollar$
Libyan dinarل.د
Lithuanian litasLt
Macanese patacaP
Macedonian denarден
Malagasy ariaryAr
Malawian kwachaMK
Malaysian ringgitRM
Maldivian rufiyaaރ.
Manx pound£
Mauritanian ouguiyaUM
Mauritian rupee₨
Mexican peso$
Micronesian dollar$
Moldovan leuL
Mongolian tögrög₮
Moroccan dirhamد.م.
Mozambican meticalMTn
Myanma kyatK
Nagorno-Karabakh dramդր.
Namibian dollar$
Nauruan dollar$
Nepalese rupee₨
Netherlands Antillean guilderƒ
New Taiwan dollar$
New Zealand dollar$
Nicaraguan córdoba
          Countries in Africa        
Africa is the second-largest continent in the world.Here is the list of 55 countries in Africa and their capitals.
Africa
Africa






S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Algeria
Algiers
2.
Angola
Luanda
3.
Benin
Porto-Novo
4.
Botswana
Gaborone
5.
Burkina Faso
Ouagadougou
6.
Burundi
Bujumbura
7.
Cameroon
Yaoundé
8.
Cape Verde
Praia
9.
The Central African Republic
Bangui
10.
The Comoros
Moroni
11.
Cote d'Ivoire
Yamoussoukro
12.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa
13.
Djibouti
Djibouti
14.
Egypt
Cairo
16.
Equatorial Guinea
Malabo
17.
Eritrea
Asmara
18.
Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
19.
Gabon
Libreville
20.
The Gambia
Banjul
21.
Ghana
Accra
22.
Guinea
Conakry
23.
Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
24.
Chad
N'Djamena
25.
Kenya
Nairobi
26.
Lesotho
Maseru
27.
Liberia
Monrovia
28.
Libya
Tripoli
29.
Madagascar
Antananarivo
30.
Malawi
Lilongwe

31.
Mali
Bamako
32.
Mauritania
Nouakchott
33.
Mauritius
Port Louis
34.
Morocco
Rabat
35.
Mozambique
Maputo
36.
Namibia
Windhoek
37.
Niger
Niamey
38.
Nigeria
Abuja
39.
The Republic of the Congo
Brazzaville
40.
Rwanda
Kigali
41.
Sao Tome and Principe
São Tomé


42.
Senegal
Dakar
43.
The Seychelles
Victoria
44.
Sierra Leone
Freetown
45.
Somalia
Mogadishu
46.
South Africa
Pretoria
47.
Sudan
Khartoum
48.
Swaziland
Mbabane
49.
Tanzania
Dodoma
50.
Togo
Lomé
51.
Tunisia
Tunis
52.
Uganda
Kampala
53.
Western Sahara
Laayoune
54.
Zambia
Lusaka
55.
Zimbabwe
Harare

          Renewable energy and energy efficiency on 10th June 2013        

Blogs

Goldman Ups Renewable Energy Investment - June 6, 2013 - Zacks ...
By Zacks Equity Research
Following the announcement of its plans to invest about ??50 billion ($487 million) in the Japan Renewable Energy Co. unit, a solar power generation company in Japan over the next 5 years, The Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.'s private equity ...
Zacks Investment Research - All...

Google Signs Renewable Energy Deals For Finnish Data Center ...
By Chris Crum
Google announced on Tuesday that it has signed agreements with O2 and Allianz, which will will power its Finnish data center with renewable energy for the next ten years. This marks Google's fourth long-term agreement for renewable ...
WebProNews

Interior Department Approves New Renewable Energy Projects
By SilvioMarcacci
DOE has been considered the catalyst of renewables in America, but two major announcements by the Interior Department may have just served notice it could be the real driver of clean energy growth during President Obama's second term.
The Energy Collective - The world's...

China Has Invested Billions Of Dollars In Renewable Energy ...
By Mridul Chadha
China has invested at least $40 billion, mostly in developed countries, to support 6000 MW of renewable energy projects over the last 10 years.
CleanTechnica

GLREA's Michigan Energy Fair Highlights Renewables « CBS Detroit
By Matt Roush
If you wanted to learn more about the business case for renewable power, the Michigan Energy Fair in West Michigan's Ludington was the place to be Friday.
CBS Detroit

Renewable Energy in Australia | The Energy Collective
By SilvioMarcacci
Australia may be one of the most coal-dependent economies in the world, but a new analysis of government data compiled finds Australia on track to not only hit 22% renewables by 2020, but an unprecedented 51% of all electricity by 2050.
The Energy Collective - The world's...

Secretary Jewell Announces Approval of Three Renewable Energy ...
Secretary Jewell Announces Approval of Three Renewable Energy Projects in Arizona and Nevada.
ExcitingAds! DOI

Renewable energy electrcity sales rise 2012 led by Portland and ...
Renewable energy sales for the top 10 green power utility programs was up 8 percent to 4.2 million MWs in 2012, the National Renewable Energy Lab reports.
Denver Post: All Blogs

Tea Party and Renewable Energy | The Energy Collective
By JosephRomm
The fight to bring cheaper, clean energy to Georgia is uniting some unlikely allies. Renewable energy advocates and leaders of the Atlanta Tea Party are taking on utility giant Georgia Power.
The Energy Collective - The world's...

Renewable Energy Rolls On – Drawing Support From Industry and Ag
By greenman3610
Renewable energy lobbyists are undefeated this year in defending the state-level purchasing mandates that have helped fuel explosive growth in industries like wind and solar, and that streak looks set to remain intact as part-time state ...
Climate Denial Crock of the Week

FAIR Coalition Forms to Level the Playing Field for Renewable ...
Renewable energy companies across the US formed FAIR to lobby for passage of the Master Limited Partnerships Act. ... It would simply extend Master Limited Partnerships (MLPs) to renewable energy projects as well. Believe it or not, ...
SustainableBusiness.com Investor News

Interior approves 3 renewable energy sites in West - 8 News NOW
The Interior Department has approved three renewable energy projects in Nevada and Arizona that officials say will generate enough electricity to power nearly 200000 homes. The projects are the...
Las Vegas News from 8NewsNow.com

Renewable Energy Mandate in California | The Energy Collective
By HermanTrabish
A just-proposed California law would do away with the state's 33 percent renewables mandate in favor of a coherently procured greentech future. The plan is backed by renewables advocates and approved by grid operator leadership.
The Energy Collective - The world's...

Vermont's Standard Offer Renewable Energy Program: Episode 10 ...
By John Farrell
“A lot of the utilities don't totally understand this new paradigm that's coming.” David Blittersdorf of AllEarth Renewables has been working to advance renewable energy in Vermont for years, and was instrumental in getting the state's standard ...
Institute for Local Self-Reliance...

Fuel Fix » Colorado officials talk secession over renewable energy ...
By Associated Press
Colorado officials talk secession over renewable energy law, other issues.
Fuel Fix

Commentary: MLPs a powerful tool to boost renewables | Midwest ...
By guest contributor
It's time to allow renewable energy access to this important market tool, which has spurred tremendous investment in the nation's energy infrastructure.
Midwest Energy News

Interior Department Approves Up To 4GW In New Renewables ...
By Silvio Marcacci
Interior Department approves 3 major renewable energy projects & announces first offshore wind lease auction, totaling up to 4GW in new renewable capacity.
CleanTechnica

Hickenlooper to Sign Renewable Energy Bill Today - Colorado Pols
By Colorado Pols
Fox 31's Eli Stokols has the story: After nearly a month of deliberation, Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper is expected to take action Wednesday on a handful of controversial bills that remain unsigned.
ColoradoPols.com - ColoradoPols.com

US Military and Renewable Energy Goals | The Energy Collective
By TinaCasey
National Renewable Energy Laboratory announced a switchgrass-based jet biofuel process that is expected to involve 95 percent fewer greenhouse gas emissions than conventional jet fuel production.
The Energy Collective - The world's...

5 MW Lithium-Ion Energy Storage System Unveiled In Oregon -- Will ...
By Nathan
The new energy storage system — which is a demonstration project — will allow the storage of the excess electricity occasionally produced by some intermittent renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, as well as providing other ...
CleanTechnica

Renewable energy and Realpolitik - Scots Politics
By Ross Garner
In the week after Scotland misses its green emissions target, ROSS GARNER untangles the tricky web surrounding the deceptively-simple notion of fighti.
Scots Politics

US Navy Renewable Energy News | The Energy Collective
By TinaCasey
The Navy got its first ever solar powered electric vehicle charging station last week, in yet another demonstration of a slow but steady transition out of petroleum dependency by the US military.
The Energy Collective - The world's...

Nebraska Ethanol Plant Sold to Green Plains Renewable Energy ...
By Meghan Sapp
In Nebraska, Green Plains Renewable Energy Inc. and Choice Ethanol Holdings LLC have signed an agreement to purchase the former Nedak Ethanol plant in Atkinson. The deal includes an ethanol plant with an annual production capacity ...
Biofuels Digest

Provide Equal Benefits for Renewable Energy Producers ! PLEA ...
By Cher C.
Provide the same tax benefits and financing to renewable energy producers that coal, oil and natural gas producers have received for decades.
Care2 News Network

The Trouble with Renewable Energy Forecasting | The Energy ...
By robertwilson190
Adding 1200 GW of new solar to electricity grids each year will quickly see solar power saturating. Will we figure out how to store electricity on a multi gigawatt scale within a decade?
The Energy Collective - The world's...

DoD Buzz | Green Energy Deal Tops $23 Billion in May Awards
By Brendan McGarry
The Army plans to buy the renewable energy from privately developed power plants, according to the May 7 announcement. The facilities are to be built, operated and maintained by companies under an agreement hailed by service officials ...
DoD Buzz

Natural Gas Stock Alert: Clean Energy (CLNE ... - InvestorIdeas.com
Natural Gas Stock Alert: Clean Energy (CLNE) and Covanta (CVA) Open First CNG Fueling Station in Nationwide Partnership to Transition Garbage Truck Fleets to Cleaner Natural Gas.
Investorideas.com renewable energy...

Legislation is key for renewables in Libya – Khairy Agha, REAoL ...
By Sami Zaptia
Speaking on Wednesday at the third and final day of the MEED “Libya Projects 2013” conference in Tripoli, Khairy Agha, Chairman of the Renewable Energy Authority of Libya (REAoL) said that legislation was the key to Libya's policy in this ...
Libya Herald

Powering our Finnish data center with Swedish wind energy ...
By Green Blog
We've just inked agreements with O2 and Allianz to supply our Finnish data center with renewable energy for the next 10 years—our fourth long-term agreement to power our data centers with renewable energy worldwide, and our first in ...
Google Green Blog

NLP Solar Sales Training June 12 & 13 - New Bonus for Contractors ...
By Rich Hessler
The World's #1 Renewable Energy Network for News & Information. Sign In or Register · Renewable Energy World Logo. Friday, June 07, 2013. Sections · Home · News · Opinion & Commentary · Featured Blogs · Research & Reports · Video ...
Renewable Energy News - RenewableEner...

A Significant Win for Clean Energy in Colorado | Noah Long's Blog ...
By Noah Long
With today's signature, Senate Bill 252, increases Colorado's Renewable Energy Standard for co-operative associations that provide wholesale electricity in the state, and for large electric associations that provide service to at least 100,000 ...
Switchboard, from NRDC › Noah...

What Happens When California's 33 Percent Renewables Mandate ...
By Herman K. Trabish
Assembly Bill 177 (AB 177), authored by Assemblyman V. Manuel Perez (D-56th District), describes a new way for California to approach the procurement of renewables like solar, wind and geothermal, along with energy efficiency (EE) tools ...
Greentech: Other Energy

DTE Energy requests drop in surcharge for customers : News ...
By Roxanne Werly
DTE Energy has filed an amended renewable energy plan with the Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC) that proposes to lower the monthly renewable energy surcharge paid by residential customers from $3 to 43 cents.
Up North Live - Local News

Why A National Energy Policy Would Benefit the Insurance Industry ...
By Christine Hertzog
Some insurance companies already offer insurance products for renewable energy projects. But it hasn't really gone mainstream yet, with most insurance being custom-designed for projects. Typically, insurance companies provide ...
Smart Grid Library

Mainstream Renewable Power, Actis Announce 600 Mw Solar, Wind ...
CLEANTECHNICA - Attracted by the aggressive renewable energy planned in Chile, project developer Mainstream Renewable Power and investor Actis have announced plans to set a joint venture in the South American country. The joint ...
solarplaza.com latest news

California's Renewable Restrictions May Slow Arizona Solar Plant ...
By Chris Clarke
The Interior Department approved three new renewable energy projects on public lands in Arizona and Nevada on Monday. But one of those plants probably won't be built until the developer finds a California utility to buy the power, and that ...
KCET Feed

ARENA's big regional boost for renewable energy | Eco News
By David Twomey
The Australian Labor government's Resources and Energy Minister Gary Gray has announced a major program expected to generate 150 megawatts (MW) of electricity from renewable energy sources in regional and remote locations within ...
Eco News

Bristol MPs back South West green energy manifesto - Bristol24-7
By Christopher Brown
Renewable energy not-for-profit group Regen SW are the drivers behind the new pledge. Their research suggests the region is not on track to hit government renewable energy targets of 15% by 2020, despite some 10,000 people being ...
Bristol24-7

Investorideas.com Newswire - SURVEY: THE GREENER THE ...
WASHINGTON, D.C. - June 6, 2013 (Investorideas.com renewable energy newswire) Three out of four small businesses responding to a recent survey reported that, unlike much of the economy, sales for green products and services actually ...
Investorideas.com renewable energy...

Community Solar Concept A Big Hit At Michigan Energy Fair « CBS ...
By Matt Roush
It may just be the way solar energy finally fulfills its promise of cheap, clean electricity. The dedication of a new community solar installation in Traverse City Friday was the buzz on Saturday at the Great Lakes Renewable Energy Association's ...
CBS Detroit

Stand Firm | War on Subsidies: Brussels Questions German Energy ...
By Sarah
Since 2000, Germany has used the EEG to promote the expansion of renewable forms of energy. To ensure that the construction of expensive solar and wind farms is worthwhile for private individuals and investors, they receive a guarantee ...
Stand Firm

Investorideas.com - Surging Demand for CIGS Solar in Japan ...
Point Roberts, WA - June 10, 2013 (Investorideas.com newswire) Investorideas.com, an investor research portal specializing in investing ideas in leading sectors including renewable energy stocks, reports on recent news and developments ...
Investorideas.com renewable energy...

State imposes 'double standard' for green energy - WND
By Jack Minor
While wind and solar are defined as renewable energy that count towards the goal, hydro power, which many rural electric associations use, does not. Democrats specifically rejected an amendment by Saine that would have included hydro ...
WND

Alistair Carmichael writes…We should be talking about how Lib ...
By Alistair Carmichael MP
Yesterday I voted against the inclusion in the Energy Bill of a target for decarbonisation to be met by 2030. In truth I think that the setting of a target would have been sensible and that is why I am content with it being party policy. So why vote ...
Liberal Democrat Voice

Governor Sides With Green Lobby On Rural Energy Mandate | The ...
By Valerie Richardson
DENVER--Rural Coloradans lost a tug-of-war with their urban counterparts Wednesday as Gov. John Hickenlooper signed a divisive renewable-energy mandate expected to increase electricity costs for farming and ranching communities.
The Colorado Observer

Google Powering Finnish Server Farm with Swedish Wind Farm ...
By Jason Verge
“As a carbon neutral company, we're always looking for ways to increase the amount of renewable energy we use,” said Urs Hoelzle, Senior Vice-President of Technical Infrastructure at Google. “This long term agreement, our fourth globally, ...
Data Center Knowledge

MPs pledge renewables support - Business Cornwall
By Nick Eyriey
Twenty three MPs have proclaimed their support for the development of a “world-leading” renewable energy industry in the south west by signing up to the UK's first regional renewable energy manifesto at Westminster.
Business Cornwall

When renewable subsidies fail - The CLIMATE SCEPTICS Blog
By Geoff Brown
When renewable subsidies fail. When inefficient renewable energy power sources need to be subsidised, power users get ripped off. Although there are plentiful supplies of cheap coal and gas for power creation, the Greens don't approve of ...
The NO CARBON TAX Climate Sceptics Blog

Rural Energy Investment Act Introduced | Hoosier Ag Today
By Andy Eubank
The legislation would provide more than a billion-dollars in mandatory funding over the next five years for renewable energy programs. Kaptur says the legislation would invest in programs with a proven track record of developing renewable ...
Hoosier Ag Today

Dominion's Energy Conservation Blog: NREL Lists Dominion ...
By Courtney@dom
The Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has released its assessment of leading utility green power programs, and for the first time since the program launched in 2009, Dominion Green Power® was ranked ...
Dominion's Energy Conservation Blog

News

Brookfield Renewable Energy Partners to Begin Trading on New York Stock ...
MarketWatch
HAMILTON, BERMUDA, Jun 06, 2013 (Marketwired via COMTEX) -- Brookfield Renewable Energy Partners L.P. (TOR:CA:BEP.UN) ("Brookfield Renewable") today announced that it expects its L.P. units to begin trading on the New York Stock Exchange ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable Energy Vital for Myanmar's Development
Huffington Post
While much of the energy demand will be met in the long term through large-scale hydropower, natural gas and coal-fired plants powering the national grid, the case for off-grid renewable energy solutions can't be ignored, particularly in the short term ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable energy sources in focus
Times of Oman
Muscat: The Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects utilise huge amounts of energy in its operations and, therefore, it is important to consider using renewable energy sources. Producing steam for thermal EOR requires large amounts of natural gas.
See all stories on this topic »

Google expands renewable energy sourcing
Financial Times
The electricity that technology companies need for their data centres has made them a target of environmental campaigners and has prompted some, such as Apple, to start to run their centres on renewable energy. But few match Google's investment in new ...
See all stories on this topic »

DTE Energy files amended renewable energy plan; surcharge to lower
MarketWatch
DETROIT, June 4, 2013 /PRNewswire via COMTEX/ -- DTE Energy has filed an amended renewable energy plan with the Michigan Public Service Commission (MPSC) that proposes to lower the monthly surcharge paid by residential customers to 43 cents ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable-energy deal tops May defense awards
Washington Post
Renewable-energy deal tops May defense awards. The Defense Department announced 247 awards in May with a combined maximum value of $19.4 billion, a 2.1 percent increase from the $19.0 billion in contracts disclosed in April. Read related article.
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable energy projects get increased local control
The Chronicle Journal
The new Ontario government is making key changes to increase local control over the siting of renewable energy projects. As a former mayor and regional chair, I understand how important it is for communities to be involved in decision making from the ...
See all stories on this topic »

Interior approves 3 renewable energy sites in West
The Seattle Times
The Interior Department has approved three renewable energy projects in Nevada and Arizona that officials say will generate enough electricity to power nearly 200,000 homes. The projects are the first renewable energy projects on public lands approved ...
See all stories on this topic »

State renewable energy laws survive repeal attempts — so far
Midwest Energy News
Renewable energy lobbyists are undefeated this year in defending the state-level purchasing mandates that have helped fuel explosive growth in industries like wind and solar, and that streak looks set to remain intact as part-time state legislatures ...
See all stories on this topic »

Mongolia eyes renewable energy as climate warms
Sydney Morning Herald
Mongolia, which is banking on a mining-led investment boom to develop its economy, is aiming to turn itself into a regional renewable energy hub as it tries to fight off the pressures of global warming, the country's president said. "Mongolia is ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable Energy Gets a Rural Boost in Colorado
Energy Collective
Colorado Gov. John Hickenlooper has signed legislation that will double the amount of energy that his state's large rural electric coops and the utilities that provide them power must get from renewable sources to 20% by 2020. Enactment of the ...
See all stories on this topic »

SA joins renewable energy club
iAfrica.com
Apart from South Africa, the founding members of the Renewables Club include China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Morocco, Tonga, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the UK — along with International Renewable Energy Agency director-general Adnan ...
See all stories on this topic »

'Renewable Energy' as a PPKS subject
The Borneo Post
As part of the preparation for the new subject for the engineering school of iCATS, PPKS held intensive training for lecturers and tutors of School of Engineering on Green & Renewable Energy Training recently at its newly completed Green Technology Lab.
See all stories on this topic »

Three Big Renewable Energy Projects Approved on Public Lands
SustainableBusiness.com
Heliostats focus the sun's energy onto a central tower, where liquid molten salt captures and stores the sun's thermal energy, which can be used as needed to drive steam turbines to generate electricity. Its dry-cooling technology requires hardly any ...
See all stories on this topic »

Review: 'Power Surge' says oil, gas and renewable energy all part of America's ...
Washington Post
“The Power Surge: Energy, Opportunity, and the Battle for America's Future” (Oxford University Press), by Michael Levi. In recent years, the seemingly dry subjects of oil and gas drilling and renewable energy have become fodder for Hollywood movies, ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable Energy Projects Announced in Nevada, Arizona
Mesquite Citizen Journal
WASHINGTON, D.C. – As part of President Obama's all-of-the-above energy strategy to continue to expand domestic energy production, Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell announced the approval of three major renewable energy projects that, when built, ...
See all stories on this topic »

Alternative Energy Schemes Share Same Drawback: Ratepayer Subsidies
NJ Spotlight
Environmental groups were unhappy, arguing that any ratepayer subsidies should be solely dedicated to promoting renewable energy, and not ones that produce greenhouse gas emissions. Still, the bills had their proponents, especially a measure (S-2651) ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable energy supports transportation in UK and Hong Kong
Hydrogen Fuel News
Supporting renewable energy is not always a financial issue. In many ways, ensuring that renewable energy has a future means working to integrate clean technologies and clean forms of power into society. If renewable energy can be made an integral part ...
See all stories on this topic »

Goldman Sachs lifts investment in Indian renewable energy
Financial Times
Goldman Sachs's private equity arm will add to its investment in an Indian wind farm company, putting another $135m into ReNew Wind Power, in a sign of the increasing interest in Asian renewables. The planned investment follows last month's pledge from ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable Energy workers assured of safety
Philippine Information Agency
CEBU CITY, June 7 (PIA) -- The Department of Energy (DOE) recently conducted a public consultation on the Code of Practice of Renewable Energy Safety, Health and Environment Rules and Regulations (RESHERR), which according to a DOE official, will ...
See all stories on this topic »

SADC Renewable Energy Strategy Key to Sustainable Energy for All
AllAfrica.com
Southern Africa has the potential to achieve universal access to modern energy services if the region puts in place a sound and vibrant strategy to harness its huge renewable energy resources. Meeting in Maseru, Lesotho, the 33rd SADC Energy Ministers ...
See all stories on this topic »

Tees Renewable Energy Plant is hit by policy delays
Gazette Live
MGT Power chiefs had hoped a final investment decision on the £600m Tees Renewable Energy Plant would be in place by now. But Department of Climate Change (DECC) hold-ups to key decisions, including the fixing of subsidies for new-build projects, ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable Energy Use Hits Record Heights in Australia
DesignBuild Source
The latest data from Australia's peak clean energy body indicates that the country's use of renewable energy hit record heights last year. According to figures from the Clean Energy Council's 2012 Clean Energy Australia Report, a record-breaking 13.14 ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable energy influencing global grid storage market
Hydrogen Fuel News
Lux Research, a leading market research firm, has released a new report concerning the state of global energy grid storage demand. An energy grid is the foundation of a country's electrical infrastructure, responsible for the storage and distribution ...
See all stories on this topic »

Coalition of Renewable Energy Companies Established to Advocate for a Level ...
Fort Mills Times
Leading renewable energy companies from across the country today announced they have formed a coalition to advocate for equal treatment between clean energy and fossil fuels that would allow average Americans to invest in renewable energy projects in ...
See all stories on this topic »

Clean Energy Woes: 21 lakh renewable energy certificates lie unsold with ...
Economic Times
NEW DELHI: Renewable energy projects — once lucrative enough to attract even alcohol makers and farm traders — are feeling the heat as a key attraction, the market for green certificates issued to developers, has collapsed alarmingly, casting a ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable energy threatens big utilities
Boulder Weekly
It has been assumed that renewable energy sources are limited by the fact they are intermittent. The sun doesn't always shine and the wind isn't always blowing. However, the EEI report says “one can imagine a day when battery storage technology or ...
See all stories on this topic »

China to supervise renewable energy law implementation
China Daily
BEIJING -- China's top legislature on Wednesday established an inspection team to oversee the implementation of the Law on Renewable Energy. The team consists of three groups that will be sent to North China's Inner Mongolia autonomous region, East ...
See all stories on this topic »

Renewable energy and sustainability take a step forward in UK
Hydrogen Fuel News
Sustainability is not solely achieved through the adoption of renewable energy. Finding ways to use environmentally friendly materials in construction is also a step toward sustainability that often goes overlooked in the flood of attention that ...
See all stories on this topic »<

          Video: Following The Horsemen        
Claudio Calouri and Kevin Landry in a short adventure film from Lesotho's horse trails
          Fakta Tentang Dinosaurus        
Dinosaurus adalah hewan purbakala yang bertahan hidup lebih dari 700 ribu tahun. Penelitian terbaru menyatakan mereka punah setelah bumi ditumbuk meteorit yang besar. Di samping itu, ada fakta-fakta menarik seputar hewan yang dikenal dengan ukuran tubuh jumbo ini.

Dikutip dari laman The Telegraph, berikut beberapa fakta yang perlu ada anda ketahui dari hewan purbakala ini:

1. Dinosaurus terberat
Gelar ini diberikan kepada Brachiosaurus dengan berat 80 ton. Ini setara dengan berat 17 gajah Afrika. Brachiosaurus memiliki tinggi 16 meter dan panjang 26 meter. Ini merupakan kerangka terbesar dinosaurus yang dipasang di museum.

2. Dinosaurus terkecil
Fosil Dinosaurus dewasa terkecil adalah burung-berpinggul kecil pemakan tumbuhan seperti Lesothosaurus. Dino ini hanya seukuran ayam. Contoh fosil yang lebih kecil pernah ditemukan, tapi itu dinosaurus bayi.

3. Telur Dinosaurus terkecil
Sejauh ini, telur dino terkecil yang pernah ditemukan hanya sepanjang 3 centimeter (cm). Peneliti belum tahu dari spesies manakah telur ini.

4. Dinosaurus terpintar
Salah satu dino paling pintar adalah Troodon. Sehari-hari, Troodon berburu dino lainnya. Dia memiliki panjang sekitar 2 m dengan otak sebesar burung atau mamalia saat ini. Dia juga memiliki lengan yang mampu memegang.Hidup pada zaman Cretaseous akhir.

5. Dinosaurus terbodoh.
Ada dino terpintar, maka ada juga dino terbodoh. Posisi ini diduduki Stegosaurus yang memiliki otak sebesar kacang walnut, panjang hanya 3 cm dengan berat 75 gram.

6. Dinosaurus tertinggi
Dinosaurus tertinggi adalah kelompok Brachiosaurid dari sauropoda. Kaki depan yang lebih panjang dari kaki belakang memberi mereka sikap seperti jerapah. Hal ini dikombinasikan dengan leher yang sangat panjang, memampukan kelompok ini menelusuri pohon tertinggi. Brachiosaurus -dino paling tenar dari grup ini- memiliki tinggi sampai 13 meter. Jenis lainnya, Sauroposeidon, diperkirakan bisa tumbuh sampai 18,5 m.

7. Pelari tercepat
Dino paling cepat adalah Dromiceiomimus yang memiliki mimik menyerupai burung unta. Dia bisa lari dengan kecepatan 60 km per jam.

8. Dinosaurus tertua
Dino paling tua yang pernah ditemukan berusia 230 juta tahun dan ditemukan di Madagasgar. Namun, mereka belum diberi nama resmi. Sebelum ini Eoraptor, yang berarti ‘pencuri fajar’, telah memegang gelar di 228 juta tahun.

9. Nama paling panjang
Dinosaurus yang memiliki nama paling panjang adalah Micropachycephalosaurus yang berarti kadal tebal berkepala kecil. Fosil hewan ini ditemukan di China dan diberi nama tersebut pada 1978 oleh ahli paleontologi China.

          Five Weeks Ending May 11        
Chipping away here to see if I can't get caught up on this blog before I toe the line at Western States in three and a half weeks. It has been an incredibly busy last couple of months, so the old blog has had to take a back seat as other priorities have demanded my time. With the summer season now pretty much in full effect here on the Front Range, things are finally beginning to ease up a bit and I can start catching up with other items on the to-do list.

The long and the short of the last few months is that I raced a couple of big races, a 100 miler included; put on a 50 miler; traveled a good bit for work; chauffeured kids around town; turned 40; squeezed in mileage; knocked out my 100th Horsetooth of the year; and attempted to be a good husband to boot. The usual stuff. Next year, I plan on calming things down significantly by taking a few things off my plate. I really don't enjoy being madly busy.

And now I find myself a few short weeks removed from the 'Big dance,' 'the Track Race,' 'the Showdown in the Sierras.' That's right, Western States has crept up and it's almost time to start thinking about tapering. The last three weeks - missing from the recap below - have been pretty solid, so I'm happy enough with where my fitness is right now even if, in relative terms, I might be a half step behind where I've been in past years. But the beauty of the 100 mile race is that pure fitness is by no means the be all and end all of competing successfully. It's important for sure, but so is being in the right head space, having experience, possessing superior physical & mental toughness, and a whole host of race-day intangibles. Throw a Yahtzee on race day and I could end up PR'ing and challenging again for a podium spot - fitness be damned. Launch an air ball, and, well, you know, I may not even get to the finish line. Such a fickle distance.

Anyway, I am very calm about this year's race, especially as I've barely had a moment to think about it, and I'm quietly confident that I'll end it out with another top 10 finish to my name. In the name of keeping things simple, I'm setting no other goals.

In other news, I'll be heading off to South Africa in November for the race of a lifetime at SkyRun South Africa. Not only is the race taking part in a fantastically remote subrange of the Drakensberg Mountains bordering Lesotho - navigation skills required - but this will be my first ever trip to the African continent and one that will include a host of other non-race-related activities that promise to be equally as fun. This has already been an incredible year for run-travel opportunities, so I really couldn't think of a better capstone to a memorable 2014, my 40th year on this planet.

Anyway, to get caught up:

Week Ending April 13

This was Mount Fuji 100 minus three weeks. The plan here was to put in a regular week of training to be concluded with a training race weekend at the Lake Sonoma 50. The week was composed of mainly Horsetooth summits, a 31 minute Towers time trial and otherwise easy mileage.

The Lake Sonoma weekend was as fabulous as always, with picture perfect weather, a fun wine tasting the day after the race, and a hugely impressive field of runners to watch perform on race day. My plan going into this one was to pace things at slightly quicker than 100 mile effort, perhaps run at the pointy end of the women's field, test out the UTMF gear set-up, and come out the other end feeling intact and ready to race 100 miles in two weeks time.

Ian Sharman and I had exchanged emails leading up to the race and had decided to run the race together as we were both looking for nothing more than a solid long-run workout, but as he was in the port-a-john when the gun went off that never happened. Instead, I found myself running the first half of the race in the small three-runner group of lead women. Emily Harrison was doing most of the running, with Stephanie Howe and Jodee-Adams seemingly content to follow. About 20 miles in, Emily made a decisive move that would be good enough to propel her to the win and course record. Meanwhile, I was happy to keep things steady, take my time at the aid stations and generally enjoy the day.

Lingering in the penultimate aid station, with 12 miles left to go, I was a little surprised to have Kaci Lickteig catch up to me, clearly running a well-paced race and forcing me to notch my now-lazy effort a rung or two. The last 10 miles passed by a lot quicker than they have the last two years when I've typically found myself slogging pretty hard to get to the finish. Coming into the quarter mile out and back down to the last aid station, five miles from the finish, we passed Stephanie Howe in second. This clearly lit a fire under Kaci and she was off to the races, while I hung out at the aid station shooting the breeze with the volunteers for a couple of minutes. Heading back out I crossed paths with Ian and he would (finally) catch up to me with a few miles left to the finish. A couple of miles out from the aid we caught back up to Kaci and tried to drag her along to see if we couldn't track down Stephanie. We never did, but it was fun to finish out the race with an up-tempo last couple of miles, and to also keep the Ian & Nick bromance alive by crossing the line as one, ending up in 7:37, good for a mid-teen finish in the overall placings against a fast crop of runners.

I got back out to the lake the next day for an hour or so of super easy mileage and felt great, closing out a 100 mile week with 20,000'+ and feeling like I'd put in just the right effort the day before. I came away from the Sonoma weekend with a good sense of confidence for a strong run in Japan.

The bromance lives on! Pic: Ultrarunning Magazine
Week ending April 20

I typically do a three-week taper before goal 100 mile races, but as UTMF sat right in the middle of the Western States training block, I decided instead to begin a shorter two-week taper after Lake Sonoma. The only goal for this week therefore was to knock out the six remaining Horsetooth summits I needed for 100 on the year before my Saturday flight out to Tokyo. Mileage was right around 60 on the week, with something in the vicinity of 10,000 feet of vert.

Ziggy gave me a kiss for my 99th summit.
Downing Sake at 6:30 am for my 100th Horsetooth of the year. With Celeste, Pete, Slusher, Ryan, Sarah and Emily.
Week Ending April 27

Flew out to Tokyo on the Saturday and arrived on Sunday feeling not too worse for wear. I checked into an economy room I'd booked by the airport, which was a whole lot bigger than I was expecting, and then snuck out for a gentle five miler on some of the Narita back roads. Geez, I even found a little section of trail to roll on for a while. The trip was off to a good start.

Trail and greenery in Narita.
After another morning jaunt on the Narita loop early Monday, I caught a train into Tokyo to meet up with the incomparable Takashi Fukuchi, Altra's man in Japan. With the help of his wonderful wife, Rae, I would be given the royal treatment for the rest of my stay. Really, as fun as the race itself was, the lasting memories from this trip will come from the wonderful human interactions and generous hospitality that I encountered while in Japan.

We stayed a couple of days in Tokyo, visiting a few trail and outdoor store accounts of Takashi's, getting out for the classic Imperial Palace 5k loop, and eating tons of great food. The trail market is clearly thriving in Japan, just as it is in the United States, probably more so when one considers the Japanese love of gear, a love affair that might even rival that of the continental European need for trail-running 'stuff.'
Views from the Imperial Palace 5k loop.
First pair of Olympus Altras to hit Japan at Run Boys! Run Girls!
More Japanese Altras.
The Altra crew.
Wednesday, we met up with one of the Altra founders, Brian Beckstead and his (very pregnant) wife, Zanna, before taking off for Kawaguchiko and the general Fuji area. I'll save the rest of the Fuji experience for a separate post, but the short and dirty is that the first 70 miles were about as good as they get. However, a bowl of miso soup soon thereafter turned the whole race on its head and I ended up facing a tortured, stomach-turning last 30 miles. Somehow, I still managed to crack the top 10, and ended up being incredibly happy to simply get to the finish and complete the circumnavigation of a truly impressive mountain.

With the race and various jogging outings, the week came in at about 128 miles w ~30,000' of accumulated gain.

Week Ending May 4

Flew back to Colorado on the Monday, then took the next few days off despite feeling remarkably unscathed from the 105 miles it took to get around Mount Fuji.

I got out Thursday for an early 8 miles with Sarah on the Blue Sky Trail, and while I could definitely feel a good bit of fatigue in the pins, soreness was almost completely lacking. Nonetheless, I capped the run at 8 miles rather than the originally intended 10.

Friday, Saturday & Sunday, I got out and bagged Horsetooth summits (101, 102, 103), with runs of between 6 and 10 miles. Total running on the week was 31 miles w/ 6,000' of vert.

Week Ending May 11

Despite feeling like I got out of Japan in pretty good physical shape, I decided to keep to the game plan of taking two weeks of significantly reduced mileage to aid the recovery process. Maintaining discipline here was aided significantly by the fact that I had a 50 mile race to pull off that weekend.

The week consisted of two Horsetooth summits (105) and the course-marking process which began Wednesday in a hailstorm and ended Friday afternoon with JoeGFM on a casual Horsetooth loop to take care of the loose ends on the heavily trafficked trails near the main trailhead. Saturday and Sunday I didn't run a step.

As always, it was extremely gratifying to put on the Quad Rock Trail Races. This year, we catered to over 360 starters and enjoyed our typical mixed May conditions of sun, cloud and rain. All in all, Pete and I were happy with how the day unfolded, and judging from the post-race survey we conducted it seems that most of our runners were too. We'll be sharing the results of the survey here in the near future once we've (well, once Gary David has) been able to convert the raw data to a digest'able report. In the meantime, we've got a post-race wrap of the day on the race website here.

Total on the week was 40 miles w/9,000' vert. 

Stay tuned for more gripping catch up reporting and maybe even a race report or two.
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          Lesotho Voices        
Listen to a special report from the UK Committee for UNICEF on mothers, children and HIV in Lesotho.
          Â¿Que debo hacer para que un Documentos surta efecto en el Exterior?        


La Legalizacion

La legalización es dar fé de la firma del funcionario público que autoriza el documento, sin prejuzgar la forma y el contenido del mismo. La Legalización de los Documentos Extranjeros es imprescindible para que surta efectos en cualquier País de que se trate. Y salvo que exista Convenio, Tratado o Acuerdo internacional que exima de su legalización, la misma se hará conforme a uno de los dos procedimientos siguientes dependiendo del país que expida el documento:

A) Apostilla de La Haya. De acuerdo con el Convenio de La Haya, de 5 de octubre de 1961, la única formalidad que se exige para los documentos procedentes de los Estados parte de dicho Convenio es el sello de La Apostilla que coloca la autoridad competente del Estado del que emana el documento y surte efectos directamente ante cualquier autoridad en el País en el que se pretenda utilizar con validez.

B) La Vía Diplomática. Es el procedimiento a utilizar para la legalización de los documentos extranjeros de Registro Civil, Notariales y Administrativos expedidos en países no firmantes del Convenio de La Haya.

¿Qué es La Apostilla?
La Apostilla de La Haya es un método simplificado de legalización de documentos a efectos de verificar su autenticidad en el ámbito internacional. Físicamente consiste en una hoja que se agrega a los documentos que la autoridad competente estampa sobre una copia del documento público. Proviene del Convenio de La Haya del 5 de octubre de 1961, también conocida como la Convención de la Apostilla, firmado en La Haya, Países Bajos, que suprime el requisito de legalización de los documentos públicos extranjeros. Entró en vigor el 24 de enero de 1965. Sólo tiene validez entre los países firmantes de este tratado, por lo que si el país donde se necesita utilizar el documento no pertenece a él, entonces será necesaria una Legalización Diplomática.
De acuerdo con el artículo 6 del Convenio, Venezuela designo como autoridad competente para expedir el sello apostilla al Ministerio De Relaciones Exteriores.
Todo documento que presente el sello de la apostilla, en Venezuela o en cualquier país parte del convenio, surte efectos legales sin necesidad de ser legalizado.  

¿En qué consiste?
Consiste en certificar que la firma y el sello de un documento público ha sido puesto por una autoridad competente. Al igual legalización, únicamente certifica que la firma o sello que muestra el documento fue emitido por un funcionario público en ejercicio de sus funciones, pero no certifica la validez del contenido del mismo. Sirve para que un documento nacional sea reconocido en un país extranjero. En principio, se reconoce en aquellos países que hayan firmado un tratado internacional, conocido como la Convención de la Haya, para disminuir así los trámites necesarios para el reconocimiento de estos en países diferentes al que fue emitido.

Documentos que se consideran Públicos:
Los documentos emanados de una autoridad o funcionario vinculado a una jurisdicción del Estado, incluyendo los provenientes del ministerio público, o de un secretario, oficial o agente judicial; b) los documentos administrativos; c) los documentos notariales; d) las certificaciones oficiales que hayan sido puestas sobre documentos privados, tales como menciones de registro, comprobaciones sobre la certeza de una fecha y autenticaciones de firmas. Pero la Convención no se aplica a los siguientes documentos: a) los documentos expedidos por agentes diplomáticos o consulares; b) los documentos administrativos que se refieran directamente a una operación mercantil o aduanera.

Miembros de la Convención de la Haya:
Actualmente existen 92 miembros de la Convención de la Apostilla: Albania, Alemania, Andorra, Antigua y Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bahamas, Barbados, Bielorrusia, Bélgica, Belice, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Brunei, Bulgaria, China, Colombia, Islas Cook, Corea, Croacia, Chipre, República Checa, Dinamarca, Dominica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eslovaquia, España, Estados Unidos de América, Estonia, Fiji, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Granada, Honduras, Hungría, India, Islandia, Irlanda, Israel, Italia, Japón, Kazakstán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Malawi, Malta, Islas Marshall, Mauricio, México, Moldova, Mónaco, Montenegro, Namibia, Nueva Zelanda, Niue, Noruega, Países Bajos, Panamá, Polonia, Portugal, República Dominicana, Reino Unido, Rumania, Federación Rusa, Saint Kitts y Nevis, Santa Lucía, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Samoa, San Marino, Serbia, Sudáfrica, Surinam, Swazilandia, Suecia, Suiza, Antigua República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Tonga, Trinidad y Tobago, Turquía, Ucrania y Venezuela.

MINISTERIO DEL PODER POPULAR PARA RELACIONES EXTERIORES
Es la autoridad competente para expedir el sello apostilla al Ministerio De Relaciones Exteriores, de conformidad con el artículo 6 del Convenio de la Haya..

Los Documentos a ser legalizados ó apostillados por el M.P.P.R.E, deben previamente ser presentados ante las siguientes instituciones:

DOCUMENTOS DE ESTUDIOS:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Títulos
● Diplomas
● Programas
● Constancias
● Notas Certificadas
● Actas de Grado
● Documentos de Educación Básica, Media y Superior

1. Departamento de Legalización del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación


2. Departamento de Legalización del Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Educación Superior.

Los Títulos emitidos por Universidades Privadas en todo el Territorio Nacional que vengan debidamente refrendados por el Ministro del Poder Popular para la Educación Superior, o en su defecto por el funcionario en quien se haya delegado la firma, se legalizarán directamente ante este Despacho.

DOCUMENTOS CIVILES:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Matrimonio
● Buena Conducta
● Carta de Soltería
● Actas de Nacimiento
● Antecedentes Penales
● Defunción Sentencias de Divorcio
● Otros Documentos inherentes al Registro Civil.
1. Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Interiores y Justicia


CERTIFICADOS DE SANIDAD ANIMAL O VEGETAL:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Traslados de Animales y Plantas.

1. Ministerio de Producción y Comercio
2. Servicio Autónomo de Sanidad Agropecuaria (SASA)

DOCUMENTOS LABORALES O DE SEGURIDAD SOCIAL:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Constancias de Trabajo.
● Cotizaciones del Seguro Social
1. Ministerio del Trabajo

DOCUMENTOS DE TRANSITO Y TRANSPORTE:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Registro Automotores
● Licencias de Conducir.
● Cartas Consulares
1. Ministerio de Infraestructura
2. Dirección de Transito Terrestres

DOCUMENTOS RELATIVOS A SALUD:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Certificados e Informes Médicos.
● Titulos de Postgrado realizados en centros Hospitalarios.
1. Ministerio de Salud

CERTIFICADOS COMERCIALES:
DOCUMENTO
INSTITUCIÓN
● Origen, antigüedad, envejecimiento de invención.
● Calidad y apto para el consumo humano.
Ministerio de Producción y Comercio
Ministerio de Salud

 BASE LEGAL
    * Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela.
    * Convenio para Suprimir la Exigencia de Legalización de los Documentos Públicos Extranjeros.
    * Código Civil.
    * Ley Orgánica para la Protección del Niño y del Adolescente.
    * Decreto con Rango y Fuerza de Ley sobre Simplificación de Trámites Administrativos.
    * Reglamento Orgánico del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores.




          Guatemala Quetzal(GTQ)/Lesotho Loti(LSL)        
1 Guatemala Quetzal = 1.7386 Lesotho Loti
          List of countries of Africa by Region        
The countries of Africa by region are as follows; Angola Cameroon Central African Republic Chad DR. Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon Republic of Congo Sao Tome and Principe Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe  Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Sudan Tunisi Botswana Lesotho Maurtius NamibiaSouth ...
          Documento de posición de Nigeria en relación al Africa        
Revista de Relaciones Internacionales Nro. 2
La dimensión económica de la política exterior de Nigeria
Prof. Dr. Okon Edetuya (Embajador de Nigeria)
Introducción
Permítanme comenzar agradeciendo a las autoridades de esta institución por la oportunidad de encontrarme nuevamente aquí para interactuar en este magnífico medio académico. Esto es testimonio de las crecientes y confiablemente beneficiosas relaciones entre su institución y la Embajada, en primer término, y la Argentina y Nigeria, en segundo lugar.
Les felicito, en particular, por la decisión de inaugurar un programa de Estudios Africanos, a nivel de postgrado en vuestra institución. Como probablemente sabrán, postulo firmemente que las emergentes y crecientes relaciones entre Africa y América Latina en los campos político, diplomático y económico deben aclararse sólidamente en conocimientos concretos, intelectualmente convalidados y firmes acerca de las mutuas condiciones actuales. Es mi firme convicción que relaciones perdurables y significativas solo pueden conformarse superando la ignorancia mutua, que lamentablemente, aún caracteriza ampliamente nuestro enfoque recíproco.
Al embarcarse en la tarea de estudiar a Africa. permítanme solicitarles tener en cuenta lo siguiente:
I. Que los estudios africanos han madurado enormemente en los últimos 30 años y que, por lo tanto, no pueden ser ya considerados como un área de curiosidad de turismo intelectual, sino como un asunto digno de rigurosa y seria atención académica.
II. Que, ampliamente, si bien europeos y norteamericanos continúan realizando excelentes investigaciones acerca de Africa, los africanos, tanto en el continente como fuera de el, han surgido como los intérpretes más confiables de su realidad ante el mundo exterior, mediante la investigación rigurosa. Es, entonces, importante que los puntos de vista de estos investigadores africanos sean considerados ante asuntos importantes que se refieran al continente.
III. Que se ha producido una gran revolución en las perspectivas y enfoques metodológicos aplicados al estudio de Africa, debida al creciente reconocimiento de que la naturaleza de sus sociedades, incluyendo las perspectivas culturales y las cosmologías, debe influir significativamente en la selección de las perspectivas y los métodos para el estudio del continente. En realidad, se acepta actualmente en general que nadie puede llamarse investigador de la realidad africana, sin incorporar deliberadamente una perspectiva afrocéntrica y una metodología multidisciplinaria.
Espero que tengan presente los comentarios generales precedentes al estructurar los programas de enseñanza e investigación de los estudios africanos. De todos modos, pueden siempre contar con el apoyo intelectual y la cooperación de la Embajada de Nigeria y la Comunidad Académica Nigeriana en esta digna empresa.
Sobre la base de lo antedicho, permitanme compartir con ustedes algunos de mis pensamientos acerca de un importante aspecto de la política exterior de Nigeria; tal es, la dimensión económica en su concepción, articulación y práctica. En primer término, hare un breve comentario acerca de los parámetros generales de la diplomacia nigeriana, dentro de los cuales puede apreciarse mejor el componente económico.
PARAMETROS GENERALES
A pesar de haberse producido variantes en estilo de una administración a otra y a pesar de los frecuentes cambios de liderazgo y la alternancia entre regimenes civiles y militares en el país, los intereses de la política exterior de Nigeria han mantenido suficiente consistencia, si bien algunos aspectos han recibido mayor énfasis en determinadas circunstancias, reflejando las necesidades del momento, los intereses y las cambiantes alianzas a nivel nacional, regional y global. Las preocupaciones que han dominado las relaciones de Nigeria, tanto en el plano bilateral como multilateral, fueron así identificadas: protección de la soberanía e integridad territorial del Estado Nigeriano, principalmente mediante la promocion del bienestar socio-económico y político de los nigerianos, respeto por la integridad territorial y la soberania de otros estados africanos; promoción de la unidad y solidaridad de los estados africanos; incluyendo la total emancipación política, económica, social y cultural y el rejuvenecimiento de Africa; el apoyo a la autodeterminación de todos los pueblos, incluyendo el compromiso inquebrantable con la eliminacion del colonialismo, el apartheid y el racismo en todo el mundo; la promoción de la cooperación y la comprensión internacionales en los campos económico, social y político, conducentes a la consolidación de la paz y la seguridad esenciales para el rápido desarrollo de nuestra aldea global; garantizar la dignidad y la promoción del bienestar de los africanos y los pueblos de ascendencia africana en todo el mundo; y finalmente, compensar los desequilibrios en las estructuras de poder internacionales que han tendido a frustrar e invalidar el desarrollo adecuado y ordenado y la maduración de los pueblos del mundo en desarrollo.
Los teorizadores de la política exterior de Nigeria han postulado que esta puede representarse cabalmente como operando dentro de tres círculos concéntricos. El núcleo interior corresponde a las actividades de Nigeria dentro de la sub-región del Africa Occidental, principalmente a traves de la ECOWAS (Comunidad Económica de Estados del Africa Occidental). El círculo medio representa la preocupación de Nigeria por, y sus actividades dentro de Africa, frecuentemente descriptas como la pieza central de su política exterior. El círculo exterior corresponde a las relaciones de Nigeria con el mundo no Africano. En años recientes, especialmente en vista de que la política exterior de Nigeria ha sido identificada como el principal instrumento para el desarrollo económico del pais, se ha volcado un esfuerzo conciente para dividir al mundo no africano en dos categorías mayores, a saber, los paises recientemente industrializados de Asia y América latina, especialmente Argentina, Brasil, Malasia, las dos Coreas, Indonesia e India, que son vistos actualmente como zonas preferenciales para la adquisición de nuevas tecnologías; y las naciones de más larga historia industrial, aún consideradas como fuente importante de capital para el desarrollo.
Se considera actualmente, en general, que aún durante las dos primeras décadas de vida independiente, cuando el multilateralismo era visto como un refugio para las naciones débiles, con el objeto de encarar con efectividad a los fuertes y poderosos, la política exterior de Nigeria siempre fue una saludable combinación de bi- y multilateralismo, especialmente en materia económica. Un cuidadoso análisis de las actividades de Nigeria en organismos multilaterales tales como la ECOWAS, la OAU (Organización de la Unidad Africana), el Commmonwealth británico de naciones y las Naciones Unidas y sus varias Agencias, confirma que, dada su envergadura y su enorme base de recursos naturales, minerales y humanos, Nigeria ha surgido como líder en Africa y como miembro de equipo respecto de temas fundamentales en la escena mundial. Esto es particularmente así en asuntos relativos a la descolonización, la lucha contra el apartheid, y, quizás lo más importante dentro de este contexto, los problemas de atraso social y económico y la continuada y expansiva disparidad económica entre las naciones ricas y las pobres del mundo.
Naturalmente, los temas relativos a la descolonización, el apartheid y el racismo y la necesidad de sensibilizar a la comunidad internacional respecto de su recurrencia en el mundo, especialmente en Africa, dominaron la diplomacia nigeriana de los primeros años. En realidad, el país asumió la carga de un liderazgo autoimpuesto en esta materia, especialmente respecto de la lucha para terminar con el apartheid en sus variadas manifestaciones en Africa del Sur, con la sincera convicción de que la independencia de Nigeria no habría de tener sentido hasta tanto Africa se liberara del flagelo del colonialismo y el racismo.
En 1963, a pesar del continuado énfasis puesto sobre los asuntos políticos, el compromiso de Nigeria de aplicar la diplomacia como importante instrumento para el desarrollo económico del continente africano, había pasado al frente. En el contexto africano, esto tomó forma mediante el apoyo a la incorporación de un componente económico a la doctrina, y posteriormente, a la Carta de la naciente Organización de la Unidad Africana. Así, en una presentación ante la Conferencia Cumbre Africana de Mayo, 1963, el Primer Ministro de Nigeria, Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa insistía en que, mientras algunos líderes africanos compartían el punto de vista acerca de que la unidad africana debería alcanzarse mediante la fusión política de los diferentes Estados africanos, la posición de Nigeria era que "la unidad africana podría alcanzarse tomando algunas medidas prácticas de cooperación económica, educativa, científica y cultural". Más aún, mientras Nigeria apoyaba la idea de un Mercado Común Africano, mantenía el punto de vista que era de aplicación práctica entonces, "un Mercado Común Africano basado sobre ciertos agrupamientos tales como el de Africa del Norte, el de Africa Occidental y el de Africa Oriental" Nigeria se constituyó en un de los principales promotores del enfoque práctico y progresivo para la cooperación e integración en Africa, que ha pasado a ser el modus operandi de la Organización de la Unidad Africana para asuntos económicos. En realidad, Nigeria ha continuado insistiendo en que una integración exitosa del continente africano sólo podrá tener lugar mediante agrupamientos sub-regionales o regionales basados sobre la cooperación entre los Estados miembros en áreas específicas tales como comercio, transporte, comunicación, y recursos naturales. La carta de la OAU, aprobada en mayo de 1963, específicamente obliga a los estados africanos a "coordinar e intensificar su cooperación y esfuerzos para alcanzar un mejor nivel de vida para los pueblos de Africa, armonizando sus políticas generales en el campo de la cooperación económica, incluyendo transporte y comunicaciones".
En 1976 se hizo cada vez más obvio que la recientemente ganada independencia de los países africanos no tenía sentido sin el concomitante desarrollo económico y la autosuficiencia. Nigeria fue uno de los países que insistió en realizar una Sesión Extraordinaria del Consejo de Ministros de la Organización de la Unidad Africana dedicada exclusivamente a asuntos económicos. El foro multilateral, que tuvo lugar en Kinshasha, Zaire, recomendó la formación de una política energética común para el continente; la promoción de la Cooperación Inter-Africana para completar el emergente nuevo Orden Económico Internacional y el establecimiento de un Banco de Datos Económico, por la Comisión Económica para Africa (ECA), y la OAU. Nigeria también desempeñó un activo rol en varios symposios destinados a analizar y desarrollar una perspectiva más panafricanista y afrocéntrica del desarrollo africano, durante las décadas de 1970 y 1980. El symposiun de Monrovia de 1979, uno de los más exitosos, reclamó una nueva pedagogía orientada hacia la unidad africana; la necesida de apoyar el desarrollo africano sobre valores científicos, culturales y sociales; el control de los instrumentos vitales técnicos y financieros para alcanzar tal desarrollo, y un nuevo enfoque de la cooperación internacional destacando los lazos entre los países en desarrollo. En 1973, los Jefes de Estado africanos suscribieron la Declaración Africana de Cooperación, Desarrollo e Independencia Económica que compromete explícitamente a las naciones africanas a actuar para redimensionar el compromiso económico del continente y prestar especial atención a los temas económicos en reuniones subsiguientes. En una de las sesiones, Nigeria insistió en que "en la búsqueda de soluciones a los actuales problemas económicos mundiales, nosotros, como africanos, debemos realizar nuestra contribución positiva reorganizando nuestras prioridades económicas y promoviendo el contacto y la cooperación". Era la firme convicción de Nigeria que "la cooperación económica africana no es simplemente un ideal excelso. Es una realidad de la vida, es una necesidad de nuestro tiempo". Estas variadas actividades culminaron en la cumbre de la OAU en Lagos, Nigeria, en 1980, que fue testigo de la adopción del Plan de Acción de Lagos (LPA), para el Desarrollo Económico de Africa, así como del Acta Final de Lagos, considerada como el anteproyecto del desarrollo económico de Africa.
El plan de Acción de Lagos, por ejemplo, preveía el establecimiento de un Mercado Común Africano para el año 2.000 sobre la base de una economía continental autosustentada y autoregulada, fundada sobre agrupamientos económicos sub-regionales. El desarrollo de la alimentación y la agricultura, la industria, la ciencia y la tecnología, el transporte y las comunicaciones, el comercio y las finanzas y los recursos humanos y naturales fueron identificados como las principales áreas de interés. No es necesario decir que el optimismo con que se recibió la adopción de estos documentos fundamentales no se materializó debido a la mala administración interna, el medio económico internacional desfavorable, la corrupción nacional, la caída en los ingresos por exportaciones, el colapso de los precios del mercado internacional para los productos primarios, el declinante flujo de recursos y el proteccionismo de las economías desarrolladas, y, quizás, lo más importante, el peso de la deuda. Estos serían algunos de los temas fundamentales que ocuparían a la diplomacia nigeriana en las décadas de 1980 y 1990.
Indeclinablemente, Nigeria ha continuado defendiendo y articulando nuevos enfoques para abordar los problemas económicos. Por ejemplo, en 1984, Nigeria convocó a una cumbre de la OAU para revisar los progresos realizados en la implementación del Plan de Acción de Lagos y el Acta Final de Lagos, así como formular una programa de emergencia ante la crisis económica africana. Se estableció un Comité de Conducción Permanente, conformado por Argelia, Côte D'Ivoire, Senegal, Tanzania, Zimbabwe y Nigeria. También se constituyó un Fondo Especial de Asistencia de Emergencia (SEAF) para Sequías y Hambrunas en Africa, al que Nigeria contribuyó con U$S 3 millones. Finalmente, la 21a. Cumbre convocada subsiguientemente, dedicada exclusivamente a temas económicos, adoptó el Programa Prioritario Africano para la Recuperación Económica (APPER), para 1985-1990, el que, entre otras cosas, reclamaba la convocatoria de una conferencia internacional sobre la deuda externa africana, bajo los auspicios de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas que tuviera lugar en New York, desde el 27 de mayo al 1º de junio de 1986. La conferencia adoptó el Programa de Acción de Naciones Unidas para la recuperación Económica y el Desarrollo, que comprometía a los gobiernos africanos a implementar reformas políticas y a reunir U$S 82.5 mil millones para la ejecución del proyecto y la provisión por parte de la comunidad internacional de U$S 46.1 mil millones para financiar el proyecto. Los focos principales eran alimentación y agricultura, desarrollo de recursos humanos, industrialización y temas afines, el medio económico internacional y sequías y desertificación. Nigeria, que jugó un rol catalítico en los pasos conducentes a la convocatoria de la conferencia, encabezó la discusiones sobre los temas relativos a alimentación y agricultura.
Como es sabido, en gran parte debido a la incapacidad de la comunidad internacional para cumplir con su compromiso con el programa, a pesar de los programas de ajuste estructural en los que se embarcaron muchos países africanos, la crisis económica africana ha continuado siendo una de las mayores preocupaciones de todos los Estados africanos, Nigeria incluída, ante numerosos foros multilaterales tales como la OAU, las N.U., el Grupo de los Quince, y otros. Como miembro activo de tales grupos, Nigeria continua aplicando su músculo diplomático para llamar la atención sobre, y articular soluciones para la crisis económica africana, que es realmente la crisis económica africana, que es realmente la crisis de los paises en desarrollo vis-a-vis el mundo desarrollado, particularmente el problema de la deuda externa. En realidad, Nigeria participó activamente en la Sesión Extraordinaria de la Asamblea de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la OAU realizada en Addis Abeba en diciembre de 1987, que adoptó una Posición Africana Común sobre la Deuda Externa de Africa, la que, en 1986 se estimaba en U$S 200 mil millones alcanzando el 45% del Producto Bruto interno combinado del continente. Entre las propuestas se contaba con el mejoramiento del medio económico internacional, un incremento en el flujo de recursos, un tope en los pagos del servicio de la deuda pendiente. Nigeria se mantiene como miembro del Grupo de Contacto Permanente establecido por la conferencia para controlar el desarrollo de tales temas.
Las iniciativas diplomáticas de Nigeria y su apoyo a la aplicación de las relaciones exteriores entre los países de Africa para promover el desarrollo económico rápido y la integración del continente culminó en la 27a. Cumbre de Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la OAU, concluida recientemente en Abuja, nueva Capital Federal de Nigeria, en junio de 1991, que finalmente aprobó el acuerdo de constitucion de una Comunidad Economica Africana. Los objetivos de la comunidad incluyen:
I. promoción del desarrollo económico, social y cultural e integración de las economías africanas, a fin de incrementar la autoregulación y un desarrollo endógeno autosuficiente.
II. establecimiento, a escala continental, de una estructura para el desarrollo, la movilización y el aprovechamiento de los recursos humanos y materiales de Africa con el objeto de alcanzar un desarrollo autoregulado.
III. promoción de la cooperación en todos los campos del quehacer humano con el objeto de elevar el nivel de vida y mantener y garantizar la estabilidad económica, promover relaciones estrechas y pacíficas entre los estados miembros y contribuir al progreso, al desarrollo y la integración económica de Africa.
IV. coordinar y armonizar políticas entre las comunidades existentes y las futuras con el objeto de promover el gradual afianzamiento de la Comunidad Economica Africana.
Sin pecar de inmodestia, la adopción del tratado y su pendiente ratificación por los Estados miembros marca un hito importante en la búsqueda de la integración económica de Africa. Es aún más importante, en cuanto no podemos olvidar que las expotencias coloniales han probado todo recurso posible para mantener sus reductos de influencia, especialmente económica, en Africa y han manipulado frecuentemente tales influencias para frustrar la aspiraciones africanas de unidad e integración, superando el elegado separatista linguístico y cultural del colonialismo. A pesar de los obvios problemas de implementación, el tratado puede considerarse como el comienzo de una nueva alborada en la cooperacion e integración económica de Africa. Dentro de este contexto, el tratado convalida la correción del enfoque gradual, práctico y concreto para la integración de Africa promovido por Nigeria desde 1963. En este sentido, se lo puede considerar un triunfo de la diplomacia nigeriana en Africa.
En las Naciones Unidas, la principal organización multilateral del mundo, la voz de Nigeria en apoyo de los temas referidos al desarrollo económico, especialmente respecto del mundo en desarrollo, no ha sido menos sonora y efectiva. Cuando Nigeria se constituyó en el 99 miembro de la Organización en 1960, existía un creciente reconocimiento de la necesidad internacional de prestar especial atención a la transformación económica, social y política de las emergentes nuevas naciones en desarrollo de Africa y Asia. De particular importancia fue el reconocimiento del rol de las Naciones Unidas para encarar problemas de seguridad económica, la reestructuración del orden económico internacional, la autoregulación y la cooperación entre los países en desarrollo. Nigeria, que ha destacado en forma consistente los logros de Naciones Unidas y sus organismos especializados en áreas tales como educación, alfabetización, alimentación, agricultura y asistencia técnica para el desarrollo, se ha sentido igualmente perturbada por lo que percibe como "el peligro de la paz y estabilidad mundiales ante un orden económico caracterizado por la existencia en un mismo mundo de pequeñas islas de abundancia en medio de un océano de pobreza y privaciones". Desde el punto de vista de Nigeria, la independencia política de las nuevas naciones no tiene sentido sin una adecuada seguridad económica, dado que su continuada dependencia económica las hace vulnerables ante ideologías y otras formas de presión externas.
Con una firme convicción e independencia nacional; y no alineamiento positivo, Nigeria apoyó activamente la adopción de la Primera Década de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (1961- 1970), propuesta para acelerar la evolución de las naciones en desarrollo, reduciendo así la brecha entre el mundo desarrollado y el mundo en desarrollo. Es así que Nigeria participó activamente en las actividades conducentes a la convocatoria de la primera Conferencia de Naciones Unidas sobre Comercio y Desarrollo (UNCTAD) realizada en Ginebra en 1964. El grupo de los 77, que se constituyó en foro de coordinación de puntos de vista de los países en desarrollo, preparatorios de la reunión de Ginebra, fue aceptado por Nigeria como importante plataforma y fuerza vital para armonizar las posiciones de estos paises ante cuestiones de economia internacional. Del mismo modo, Nigeria participó efectivamente en el desarrollo de los aspectos doctrinarios de la Segunda Década para el Desarrollo, especialmente en cuanto a la adopción de la Estrategia Internacional para el Desarrollo, que definió metas específicas de crecimiento en educación, comercio, empleo, finanzas, salud, vivienda, y producto nacional en 1980. Estas metas, como es sabido, no fueron alcanzadas, especialmente con posterioridad a la caída de las instituciones de Bretton Woods en 1971 y el abandono del patrón oro como medida de intercambio por los EE.UU. Nigeria denunció cambios unilaterales en el sistema monetario, insistiendo en que tales "medidas financieras, tomadas por países avanzados y poderosos, con economías altamente desarrolladas, han causado incertidumbre que provocara graves efectos sobre los países cuyas economías no son tan avanzadas". Nigeria reclamó consultas entre las naciones desarrolladas y en desarrollo para examinar la situación y participó en la reafirmación de la posición de la Cumbre de No Alineados que tuvo lugar en Argelia en 1973, sobre el mismo tema. A posteriori, en la primavera de 1974, la Sesión de la Asamblea General sobre Materias Primas y Desarrollo adoptó la Declaración y Programa de Acción para el establecimiento de un Nuevo Orden Económico Internacional (NOEI), que entre otras cosas, proclamó la determinación de los Estados miembros de Naciones Unidas de trabajar mancomunadamente por la evolucion de un nuevo orden que eliminara desigualdades, redujera injusticias y, finalmente, eliminara la brecha de desarrollo entre las naciones desarrolladas y las en desarrollo. El programa contempla las relaciones entre los precios de los productos básicos exportados desde los países en desarrollo y los de las manufacturas que importan, la reforma del sistema monetario internacional, involucrando a los países en desarrollo en los procesos de toma de decisiones por parte de las instituciones financieras internacionales, el mejoramiento de los términos de intercambio de los países en desarrollo y el incremento en la producción y exportación de alimentos desde estos países.
Si bien Nigeria recibió con beneplacito estos avances, continuo reclamando mayores medidas para encarar estos asuntos, tales como el derecho de los Estados a controlar sus propios recursos, y la regulación y supervisión de las corporaciones transnacionales. Esta posición fue compartida por la mayoría de los Estados miembros, los que, en diciembre de 1974, aprobaron la Carta de Naciones Unidas sobre Derechos y Deberes Económicos de los Estados. La Carta, entre otras cosas afirma los derechos de los Estados al control soberano de sus recursos naturales y a establecer procedimientos para la regulación, nacionalización, expropiación y transferencia de la titularidad de empresas extranjeras en tales países. Este interés en la interdependencia entre las naciones desarrolladas y las en desarrollo, basada sobre el respeto a las respectivas soberanías y la necesidad de modificar las estructuras económicas existentes y las disposiciones para facilitar el desarrollo de las naciones de Africa, Asia y America Latina, ha continuado siendo un importante elemento de la política exterior nigeriana. En realidad, en los ccomienzos de la crisis de las economías de la mayoría de las naciones africanas en la década de 1980, caracterizada por el colapso de los precios de la mayoría de los productos básicos, incluído el petróleo; declinantes ingresos nacionales, escasez de alimentos, hambrunas, sequías, reducción en el flujo de recursos; términos de intercambio comercial en deterioro, resultando una pérdida de alrededor de U$S 50 mil millones entre 1986 y 1990; y el enorme peso de la deuda, estimada actualmente en U$S 272 mil millones o el 109% de su Producto Bruto Interno; estas preocupaciones han adquirido mayor significatividad y prominencia.
Como señalara anteriormente, Nigeria jugo un rol importante al sensibilizar a la comunidad mundial ante estos problemas y al buscar y articular soluciones para ellos dentro de la OUA y las NU y sus organismos especializados. La posición de Nigeria continua sosteniendo que, a pesar de los valerosos profundos ajustes estructurales, que acarrean considerable riesgo político y costo social a partir de los sacrificios que se pide de los pueblos africanos, la fortuna económica del continente continúa siendo abismalmente descorazonadora dado que " las contribuciones de la comunidad internacional para la implementación del Programa han quedado muy por detrás de las expectativas de los paises africanos". Queda en claro que esta preocupación por el desarrollo económico de Africa se mantendrá como plataforma fundamental de la política exterior de Nigeria durante varios años por venir. En realidad, se cuenta con que sea el tema dominante de la contribución de Nigeria a las deliberaciones de la próxima Conferencia del Grupo de los 15 a realizarse en Caracas, Venezuela.
Mientras Nigeria ha enfocado correctamente su accionar en foros internacionales para la articulación y promoción de la dimensión económica de su política exterior afrocéntrica, no ha ignorado los foros bilaterales. Nigeria cuenta actualmente con convenios de cooperación económica bilateral con muchos países africanos y no africanos. Los ejemplos mejor conocidos de ellos son la Comisión Conjunta con Niger y los acuerdos de joint-venture con las Repúblicas de Guinea y Benin para la explotación de uranio, producción de cemento, refinado de azucar y construcción vial. A ellos podemos agregar la Comisión de la Cuenca de Lake Chad que reune a Camerun, Chad, Niger y Nigeria para la exploración y desarrollo conjunto de los recursos de Lake Chad y la Comunidad Económica de los Estados de Africa Occidental (ECOWAS) que agrupa a 16 países de la sub-región del Africa Occidental. Muchos países de Africa, incluídos Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Côte D'Ivoire, Etiopía, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Mauricio, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, Tanzania y Togo se han beneficiado con el Fondo Fiduciario de Nigeria administrado por el Banco Africano de Desarrollo para la ejecución de proyectos específicos de desarrollo.
Mas recientemente, en 1986, la Administración Babangida organizó el Esquema de Cuerpos de Asistencia Tecnica (TAC) cuyo objetivo es abordar las cruciales necesidades técnicas de los países receptores, así como "promover la cooperación y el entendimiento, de importancia crítica en las relaciones internacionales contemporáneas". El esquema también ha sido diseñado para facilitar "contactos significativos entre grupos de jovenes nigerianos dinámicos y otros africanos, así como con poblaciones de ascendencia africana en las regiones del Pacífico y el Caribe, con el objeto de establecer un punto de apoyo, a partir del cual forjar relaciones interpersonales entre Nigeria y otros pueblos africanos". Como explicara el Presidente, Comandante en Jefe de las FF.AA. de Nigeria, General Ibrahim Babangida, en ocasión del lanzamiento formal del Esquema, el 7 de octubre de 1987:
El esquema de Cuerpos de Asistencia Técnica forma parte de nuestro compromiso con nuestra política exterior que coloca a Africa como pieza central. Esta administración considera que, por ser parte del interés nacional de Nigeria, debe considerarse como un deber sagrado, el dignificar el status de toda persona negra en el mundo. Intentamos alcanzar este objetivo sin interferir en los asuntos de otros pueblos, ni haciendo el papel de Papa Noel, sino incorporando mayor realismo a nuestra política, brindando asistencia sobre la base de las necesidades de sus beneficiarios en tanto son percibidas y evaluadas, sin descuidar nuestro interés nacional.
El objetivo del Esquema es compartir know-how tecnológico disponible y experiencia en areas claramente identificadas, con las naciones menos afortunadas de Africa, el Pacífico y el Caribe. El gobierno de Nigeria se hace cargo de los gastos y pasajes de voluntarios cuidadosamente seleccionados asignados a estos países por dos años. Desde 1991, los siguientes países se han beneficiado con este Esquema: Cabo Verde, Guinea Ecuatorial, Fiji, Gambia, Jamaica, Kenya, el Reino de Lesotho, Mozambique, las Seychelles, Sierra Leona, Tanzania y Zambia. Las áreas de especialización de los participantes incluyen Medicina, Ingeniería, Contaduría, Investigación, Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Leyes, Historia y Enfermería. El Esquema de Cuerpos de Asistencia Técnica ha sido recibido calurosamente por los países beneficiarios "como una demostración práctica de la Cooperación Sur-Sur dentro del contexto de la Cooperación Económica Universal entre los Países en Desarrollo (ECDC)".
Diplomacia Económica
Como señalara al principio de esta presentación, una de las principales preocupaciones de la política exterior de Nigeria ha sido el aplicarla como instrumento fundamental para promover el bienestar de los nigerianos, que es considerado esencial para la protección de la soberanía y la integridad territorial del Estado nigeriano. Si bien esta preocupacion de la soberania y la integridad territorial del estado nigeriano, siempre estuvo presente, fue la Administración actual del General Babangida que la bautizó como "Diplomacia Económica" en 1987. En este sentido amplio, la Administración Babangida considera a la diplomacia económica significativa en la circunstancia actual, sólo si contribuye a resolver los acuciantes problemas económicos que agobiaron al país desde principios de la década de 1980. Así, ademas de los intereses tradicionales panafricanistas y los temas relativos a la paz y la seguridad, desde 1987 en adelante se tomó la decisión deliberada de enfatizar la dimensión económica de las relaciones de Nigeria con otros países. En realidad, la designación de los Jefes de Misión ha estado determinada ampliamente por una evaluación de su capacidad para contribuir a este proceso. La medida en que se logre atraer la participación externa a las actividades económicas de Nigeria es criterio fundamental para evaluar su desempeño.
La Diplomacia Económica implica el reconocimiento explícito por parte de Nigeria de que la diplomacia sin el componente económico no es más que la retórica vacía. Además, involucra la decisión de abrir la economía nigeriana, hasta entonces ampliamente controlada por el Estado, a la empresa privada, incluyendo empresas extranjeras. En realidad, el proyecto integra deliberadamente al sector privado en el plano de la política exterior. Tercero, la diplomacia económica incluye el deseo expreso de redimensionar los desequilibrios en los sistemas económico y monetario internacionales, que fueron identificados como parte responsable de las contínuas dificultades económicas de las naciones en desarrollo. Finalmente, especialmente en cuanto a la adquisición de tecnologías de producción apropiadas, se tomó la decisión de otorgar mayor prominencia a las naciones de potencia intermedia, recientemente industrializadas de Asia y América Latina, con la convicción de que tales naciones estarían mejor dispuestas a compartir su know-how tecnológico en el espíritu de la cooperación Sur-Sur.
Para apreciar plenamente este postulado de la política exterior de Nigeria, es importante tener en cuenta que, a pesar de sus ampliamente conocidos vastos recursos naturales, minerales y humanos, capaces de transformar a Nigeria en una nación altamente industrializada, el país no ha logrado aún desarrollarse plenamente en toda su potencialidad. Como la nación negra más populosa del mundo, con una población estimada en 110 millones de personas, núcleo del mercado de la ECOWAS que abarca una población superior a los 200 millones de personas, 6º productor mundial de petróleo, con reservas estimadas en 17.1 mil millones de barriles, contando al mismo tiempo con reservas de gas natural, oro, piedra caliza, manganeso, estaño y uranio, con su inmenso espacio geográfico, tanto físico como humano, capaz de generar una razonable demanda interna, indispensable para un crecimiento autocentrado y autosuficiente, Nigeria no ha logrado aún satisfacer las expectativas de su ciudadanía y de la comunidad internacional. La diplomacia económica fue concebida como un importante paso para revertir esta situación inaceptable.
La intención fue instaurar políticas e incentivos que atrajeran el know-how tecnológico y capital necesarios para la rápida transformación del país en una economía vibrante y garantizar la autosuficiencia en el área crítica de la alimentación.
En el terreno de la industrialización, el énfasis actualmente está puesto sobre la creación de un clima apropiado, que sea propicio a la incorporación de capital y tecnología extranjeros para la industrialización del estado nigeriano. Se ha dispuesto un paquete de incentivos, incorporados a un documento titulado Nueva Política Industrial de Nigeria. Estos incluyen: la creación de un departamento de coordinación del desarrollo industrial, como agente de diligenciamiento en un sólo paso de solicitudes y aprobaciones, eliminando así los cuellos de botella burocráticos; la eliminación de licencias de importación, otra de las trabas fundamentales de nuestro comercio; privatización y comercialización de las empresas públicas; libre acceso a la divisa extranjera, a través del Mercado de Cambios; garantías para la libre repatriación de beneficios, dividendos, honorarios de consultoría, derechos y por servicios técnicos y de administración, revisión del Decreto de Promoción de Empresas para permitir al capital extranjero ser titular de hasta el 80% de participación en empresas que requieran gran inversión de capital y/o tecnología sofisticada; el establecimiento de una zona de opción libre donde los extranjeros pueden participar hasta con el 100% de la titularidad; así como generosos incentivos impositivos, incluyendo la exención para inversiones en sectores pioneros de la economía.
Los principales objetivos de la política industrial son la expansión de oportunidades laborales, incremento de exportaciones del sector no petrolero, dispersión de industrias a las áreas rurales del país, perfeccionamiento de la capacidad tecnológica, creciente uso de materias primas locales, atracción de capital extranjero y el incremento de la participación del sector privado, tanto nativo como extranjero.
Las áreas industriales pioneras, donde los incentivos son particularmente atractivos y generosos son las siguientes: cultivo y procesamiento de alimentos, vegetales y frutas; manufactura de productos sobre la base de cacao; procesamiento de oleaginosas para la producción de aceites vegetales; producción láctea integral; cría de ganado en general; triturado de huesos; pesca, ya sea de altura, costera o en aguas interiores; procesamiento de sal; explotación de plomo y zinc; manufactura de hierro y acero a partir de mineral de hierro; fundición y refinado de metales no ferrosos y manufacturas en sus aleaciones; explotación de minerales varios; manufactura de materiales para perforación petrolera; cemento; vidrio y artículos de vidrio; cal a partir de piedra caliza, mármoles; manufactura de productos cerámicos, productos químicos industriales básicos; productos farmacéuticos, instrumental quirúrgico; almidón vegetal; producción de levaduras; alcohol y derivados; alimentos para animales; producción de papel; curtidos de cuero y manufacturas en cuero; fibras textiles naturales y sintéticas ; artículos de metal; maquinaria; productos total o parcialmente de caucho; redes de pesca con materia prima local; cultivo y procesamiento de trigo local; cultivo y procesado de aceite de palma; cultivo y procesado de caucho; de goma arábiga; producción integral de madera; producción de fertilizantes y fabricación de vehículos comerciales. Otros sectores que reclaman la inversión extranjera son el petróleo y la explotación de las enormes reservas de gas natural. La política exterior de Nigeria actualmente, y en los años por venir, continuará orientando sus esfuerzos a la mejor aplicación de la diplomacia para atraer capitales y know-how tecnológico necesarios para la rápida transformación del Estado Nigeriano. La diplomacia económica es, por lo tanto, considerada como importante componente de nuestro proyecto de recuperación económica.
Aludí anteriormente al hecho que, buscando las fuentes de tecnología de producción adecuadas, Nigeria ha enfocado su interés sobre las naciones recientemente industrializadas del mundo, especialmente en América Latina, especialmente con Argentina y Brasil.
Nigeria cree firmemente que los lazos económicos fuertes y la interacción económica entre Africa y América latina redundarán en el beneficio mutuo de ambas regiones, especialmente dentro del contexto de la problemática del intercambio y el comercio internacionales durante el período posterior a 1992. Lo que es más importante aún, es que las tecnologías de producción existentes en países como la Argentina en áreas tales como alimentos, fármacos, maquinaria industrial, servicios y mantenimiento, transporte y energía nuclear para fines pacíficos, son más adecuadas a nuestra circunstancia presente que aquellas tecnologías más sofisticadas que ofrecen las naciones altamente industrializadas. Uno de los objetivos más importantes en nuestras relaciones con este país es el atraer e involucrar a estas tecnologías en el desarrollo económico de Nigeria.
Para tal fin, el 17 de agosto de 1988, Nigeria y Argentina firmaron un Acuerdo de Cooperación Económica, Científica y Técnica, ya ratificado por parte de la Argentina. Este acuerdo de resguardo, entendido como para insuflar vida y confianza a la cooperación económica, establece claramente las áreas específicas de cooperación económica y científica, tal como indique antes y, quizás lo más importante, estipula las modalidades para la incorporación de los sectores privados de ambos países para la implementación del acuerdo. El mismo facilitara el incremento de las actividades de joint-venture, a las que se están incorporando en forma creciente empresas privadas argentinas y nigerianas. Sea como fuere, Nigeria cree firmemente que se impone una mayor cooperación económica entre nuestros países, por el hecho de ser vecinos y por la complementaridad existente entre la tecnolgía argentina y las necesidades de Nigeria. Creemos también que los empresarios aún no han sacado el máximo provecho de las oportunidades que ofrece Nigeria para la inversión de su experiencia y capital, si bien hay indicios de que el ritmo se ha acelerado en los últimos dos o tres años.
Conclusión
En esta reseña he intentado destacar la dimensión económica de la política exterior de Nigeria, tanto en el plano bilateral como el multilateral. De ello surge que, aún cuando los temas relativos a la descolonización, el racismo y la lucha contra el apartheid han dominado las relaciones de Nigeria con el resto del mundo, el componente económico ha sido persistente y contínuo. Es así que, durante la gestión del actual Presidente Ibrahim Babangida y su actual Ministro de Asuntos Exteriores, General I.O.S. Nwachukwu, que esta dimensión económica de la política exterior ha sido manifestada explícita y expresamente como el componente más importante de nuestra política exterior, que ha sido bautizado como "la diplomacia económica". En tanto persistan los actuales dilemas económicos de Africa y otras naciones en desarrollo este énfasis continuará dominando la diplomacia nigeriana en los tiempos por venir. En este aspecto recae el peso del contenido del mensaje dirigido por el Presidente Ibrahim Babangida en ocasión del sexto aniversario de su administración, el 27 de agosto de 1991. Decía el Presidente:
"Deseo aprovechar la ocasión de este aniversario para destacar los fuertes lazos que unen a nuestras políticas interna y exterior dentro del programa de transición. Estamos conformando un nuevo orden socio-político según el cual el país no se mantendrá aislado de Africa ni del resto del mundo. Al mismo tiempo, deseamos garantizar que Nigeria se encuentre mejor equipada que en el pasado para interactuar con otros países. El objetivo es continuar promoviendo el bienestar y la amplitud de horizontes para nuestro pueblo como así también, contribuir a la paz y seguridad internacionales. Nuestro punto de partida es una economía nacional sólida y una situación política democrática estable sobre la base de la justicia social y la autorregulación, que sustente una política exterior dinámica.


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          Resoluciones de Naciones Unidas sobre los derechos del niño. Noticias de la especial situación de Irak        
Aquí vemos resoluciones de la ONU que pueden guiar para la comprensión del problema y sobre como hacer resoluciones en modelos de naciones unidas. Especialmente se tiene en cuenta la situación de los niños de Irak para iluminar la problemática

Julio Daniel Nardini

GENERAL
A/54/601
30 de noviembre de 1999
ESPAÑOL
Original: ÁRABE




Quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones
Tema 112 del programa

Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño


Informe de la Tercera Comisión


Relator: Sr. Naif Bin Bandar Al–Sudairy (Arabia Saudita)


I. Introducción
1. En su tercera sesión plenaria, celebrada el 17 de septiembre de 1999, la Asamblea General, por recomendación de la Mesa, decidió incluir en el programa del quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño” y asignarlo a la Tercera Comisión.
2. La Tercera Comisión examinó el tema en sus sesiones 23ª a 28ª, 35ª, 41ª y 43ª, celebradas los días 27 a 29 de octubre y 1°, 5, 10 y 11 de noviembre de 1999. La reseña de las deliberaciones de la Comisión figura en las actas resumidas correspondientes (A/C.3/54/SR.23 a 28, 35, 41 y 43).
3. Para su examen del tema la Comisión tuvo ante sí los siguientes documentos:
a) Informe del Secretario General relativo a la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265);
b) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía (A/54/411);
c) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados (A/54/430);
d) Carta de fecha 17 de mayo de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Bangladesh ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el Programa del Siglo XXI por la Paz y la Justicia aprobado por la Conferencia del Llamamiento por la Paz, celebrada en La Haya del 12 al 15 de mayo de 1999 (A/54/98);
e) Carta de fecha 28 de septiembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Islandia ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite la Declaración de los Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de los países nórdicos contra la utilización de niños soldados (A/54/419);
f) Carta de fecha 15 de octubre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Sudáfrica ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el comunicado de la reunión de Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores y Jefes de Delegación del Movimiento de los Países No Alineados celebrada en Nueva York el 23 de septiembre de 1999 (A/54/469–S/1999/1063);
g) Carta de fecha 3 de noviembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Turquía ante las Naciones Unidas (A/54/528–S/1999/1126).
4. En su 23ª sesión, celebrada el 27 de octubre, formularon declaraciones introductorias el Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados, la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, el Director General de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, el Director de la oficina de Nueva York del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y la Directora Ejecutiva del UNICEF (véase A/C.3/54/SR.23).



II. Examen de propuestas


A. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46
5. En la 35ª sesión, celebrada el 5 de noviembre, el representante de Namibia, en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Angola, Argelia, la Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaiyán, las Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Botswana, el Brasil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, Chile, China, Chipre, Colombia, el Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Cuba, Dinamarca, el Ecuador, Eritrea, Eslovenia, Etiopía, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Fiji, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Ghana, Grecia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Ecuatorial, Guyana, Haití, Hungría, Indonesia, Irlanda, Islandia, las Islas Salomón, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburgo, Malasia, Malawi, Malí, Mauricio, Mónaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, Papua Nueva Guinea, el Paraguay, el Perú, Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Democrática del Congo, la República Dominicana, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Rumania, Rwanda, Santa Lucía, el Senegal , Seychelles, Singapur, Sudáfrica, Suecia, Suriname, Swazilandia, Tailandia, Ucrania, el Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe presentó el proyecto de resolución titulado “La niña” (A/C.3/54/L.46). Posteriormente Antigua y Barbuda, Australia, Belarús, Belice, Camboya, España, Granada, Jamaica, la India, Madagascar, Panamá, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, San Marino, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Uganda y Uzbekistán, se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
6. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución I).


B. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3.54/L.49
7. En la 41ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, el representante de Finlandia en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Argelia, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bangladesh, Belarús, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, China, Chipre, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Dinamarca, Egipto, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia, España, Estonia, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, la Federación de Rusia, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Guinea, Hungría, la India, el Iraq, Irlanda, Islandia, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kazajstán, Kenya, Kirguistán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Madagascar, Malasia, Malí, Malta, los Estados Federados de Micronesia, Mónaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, el Pakistán, el Perú (en nombre de los Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas que pertenecen al grupo de Estados de América Latina y el Caribe), Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Checa, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, Rumania, San Marino, el Senegal, Sierra Leona, Sudáfrica, Sudán, Suecia, Tailandia, Túnez, Turquía, Ucrania y Uzbekistán presentó un proyecto de resolución titulado “Los derechos del niño” (A/C.3/54/L.49). Posteriormente, Camboya, el Congo, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea Ecuatorial, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Mozambique, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Swazilandia, el Togo, Uganda, y Zimbabwe se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
8. En la 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Secretaria del Comité leyó una declaración del Contralor sobre las consecuencias para el presupuesto por programas del proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).
9. En la misma sesión, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución II).
10. Tras la aprobación del proyecto de resolución, formularon declaraciones los representantes de Singapur, los Estados Unidos de América y el Uruguay (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).



C. Proyecto de decisión propuesto por el Presidente
11. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, a propuesta del Presidente, la Comisión decidió recomendar a la Asamblea General que tomara nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265) (véase el párrafo13).



II. Recomendaciones de la Tercera Comisión
12. La Tercera Comisión recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe los siguientes proyectos de resolución:



Proyecto de resolución I

La niña


La Asamblea General,

Recordando su resolución 53/127, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y todas las resoluciones anteriores sobre la cuestión, incluidas las conclusiones convenidas de la Comisión de la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 7 (E/1999/27), cap. I, secc. B.IV., en particular las pertinentes a la niña,

Recordando también todas las conferencias anteriores pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo., así como el reciente examen y evaluación al cabo de cinco años de la ejecución del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo,

Profundamente preocupada por la discriminación contra las niñas y la violación de sus derechos, como consecuencia de lo cual las niñas suelen tener menor acceso que los niños a la educación, la nutrición y la atención de la salud física y mental y disfrutar de menos derechos, oportunidades y beneficios de la niñez y la adolescencia y con frecuencia son víctimas de diversas formas de explotación cultural, social, sexual y económica y de violencia y prácticas perjudiciales como el infanticidio, el incesto, el matrimonio precoz, la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto y la mutilación genital femenina,

Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr la igualdad de género de modo de asegurar un mundo justo y equitativo para las niñas,

Observando con profunda preocupación que en situaciones de pobreza, guerra y conflicto armado las niñas figuran entre las víctimas más perjudicadas, lo cual limita sus posibilidades de pleno desarrollo,

Observando con preocupación que la niña ha pasado además a ser víctima de enfermedades venéreas y de contaminación con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, lo que afecta la calidad de su vida y la deja expuesta a mayor discriminación,

Tomando nota de que en 1999 se cumple el décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo. y el vigésimo aniversario de la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer Resolución 34/180, anexo.,

Reafirmando la igualdad de derechos de mujeres y hombres consagrada, entre otros instrumentos, en el Preámbulo de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer y la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño,

1. Subraya la necesidad de que se materialicen de manera cabal y urgente los derechos que se garantizan a la niña en todos los instrumentos de derechos humanos, en particular la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño3 y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer4, así como la necesidad de que esos instrumentos sean ratificados universalmente;

2. Insta a todos los Estados a que tomen todas las medidas necesarias y adopten las reformas jurídicas para garantizar el disfrute pleno y en condiciones de igualdad por parte de la niña de todos los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, a que tomen medidas eficaces contra las violaciones de esos derechos y libertades y a que utilicen los derechos del niño como base de las políticas y los programas relativos a la niña;

3. Insta a los Estados a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes que estipulen que sólo se podrá contraer matrimonio con el libre y pleno consentimiento de los futuros cónyuges, a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes relativas a la edad mínima para expresar consentimiento y contraer matrimonio y a que eleven la edad mínima para contraer matrimonio cuando sea necesario;

4. Insta además a los Estados partes a que cumplan las obligaciones que han contraído en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer, así como el compromiso de llevar a la práctica la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer Informe de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, Beijing, 4 a 15 de septiembre de 1995 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.96.IV.13), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo I.;

5. Insta asimismo a todos los Estados a que promulguen y apliquen leyes que protejan a las niñas contra todas las formas de violencia, con inclusión del infanticidio y la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto, la mutilación genital femenina, la violación, la violencia en el hogar, el incesto, el abuso sexual, la explotación sexual, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, y a que establezcan programas y servicios de apoyo médico, social y sicológico adecuados a la edad, seguros y confidenciales para ayudar a las niñas que son objeto de actos de violencia;

6. Exhorta a todos los Estados y a las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que, en forma individual y colectiva, sigan aplicando la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, en particular los objetivos estratégicos relativos a la niña;

7. Insta a los Estados a que adopten medidas especiales para proteger a los niños y, en particular, a las niñas, de la violación y de otras formas de abuso sexual y violencia por motivos de sexo en situaciones de conflicto armado, prestando especial atención a las niñas refugiadas y desplazadas, y a que, al ofrecer asistencia humanitaria, tengan en cuenta las necesidades especiales de las niñas;

8. Insta además a los Estados a que formulen planes, programas o estrategias nacionales completos, multidisciplinarios y coordinados, para eliminar todas las formas de violencia contra las mujeres y las niñas, a los que deberán dar amplia difusión y en los que habrán de fijar objetivos y calendarios para la aplicación, y procedimientos nacionales eficaces para hacer cumplir las normas pertinentes mediante mecanismos de supervisión en que intervengan todas las partes interesadas, incluidas las consultas con las organizacio- nes de mujeres, y a que, al hacerlo, tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones relativas a la niña formuladas por la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la violencia contra la mujer, con inclusión de sus causas y consecuencias;

9. Exhorta a los gobiernos, a la sociedad civil, incluidos los medios de difusión, y a las organizaciones no gubernamentales a que fomenten la educación en materia de derechos humanos y el pleno respeto y disfrute de los derechos humanos de la niña mediante, entre otras cosas, la traducción, la producción y la difusión en todos los sectores de la sociedad, y en particular entre los niños, de material informativo sobre estos derechos adecuado a la edad de los destinatarios;

10. Pide al Secretario General que, en su calidad de Presidente del Comité Administrativo de Coordinación, vele por que todas las organizaciones y los órganos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, tanto por separado como colectivamente, en particular el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, tengan en cuenta los derechos y las necesidades particulares de la niña en sus programas de cooperación por países, de conformidad con las prioridades nacionales y con el Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo;

11. Pide a todos los órganos creados en virtud de tratados sobre derechos humanos, procedimientos especiales y otros mecanismos relativos a los derechos humanos de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos y a la Subcomisión de Promoción y Protección de los Derechos Humanos que adopten permanente y sistemáticamente una perspectiva de género en la ejecución de sus mandatos e incluyan en sus informes análisis cualitativos sobre violaciones de los derechos humanos de la mujer y la niña, y alienta a aumentar la cooperación y coordinación a ese respecto;

12. Exhorta a los Estados y las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que movilicen todos los recursos, el apoyo y la acción necesarios para alcanzar las metas y los objetivos estratégicos y aplicar las medidas que se proponen en la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer;

13. Destaca la importancia de realizar una evaluación sustantiva de la aplicación de la Plataforma de Acción dentro de una perspectiva del ciclo de vida, de modo de determinar cuáles son las lagunas y los obstáculos con que se ha tropezado en el proceso de puesta en práctica y plantear nuevas medidas para el logro de las metas de la Plataforma de Acción;

14. Insta a los gobiernos, los organismos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en particular la División para el Adelanto de la Mujer de la Secretaría, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y las organizaciones de mujeres a que procuren que en los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General titulado “La mujer en el año 2000: igualdad entre los géneros, desarrollo y paz en el siglo XXI”, se tomen debidamente en cuenta las necesidades en los derechos de la niña y se los integre en todas las actividades;

15. Pide al Secretario General que vele por que se evalúen concretamente las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en el examen de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social Informe de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, El Cairo, 5 a 13 de septiembre de 1994 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.95.XIII.18), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo. que se realizará en junio del año 2000;

16. Pide además al Secretario General que, en consulta con el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Banco Mundial, vele por que se preste atención especial a las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en todos los preparativos a escala nacional, regional e internacional, incluido el informe sobre Evaluación de la Educación para Todos en el año 2000 Véase A/54/128–E/1999/70. y el programa del Foro Mundial de la Educación, que se celebrará en abril de 2000;

17. Pide asimismo al Secretario General que se asegure de que las necesidades y los derechos de la niña se tengan en cuenta en la labor preparatoria del período extraordina- rio de sesiones de la Asamblea General sobre el seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia que se celebrará en el año 2001, entre otras cosas, presentando a la Asamblea General un informe completo basado en las experiencias y resultados de los exámenes de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer y el Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social, y en la labor preparatoria del Foro Mundial de la Educación.



Proyecto de resolución II

Los derechos del niño
La Asamblea General,
Recordando sus resoluciones 53/127 y 53/128, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y la resolución 1999/80 de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, de 28 de abril de 1999 Véase Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 3 (E/1999/23), cap. II, secc. A.,
Teniendo presente la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo., destacando que las disposiciones de la Convención y otros instrumentos pertinentes de derechos humanos deben constituir la norma en la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño y reafirmando que el interés superior del niño ha de ser una consideración primordial en todas las medidas que se adopten en relación con los niños,
Reafirmando, la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño y el Plan de Acción para la aplicación de la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño en el decenio de 1990, aprobados en la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que se celebró en Nueva York el 29 y 30 de septiembre de 1990 A/45/625, anexo., en particular el compromiso solemne de asignar alta prioridad a los derechos del niño, su supervivencia, su protección y su desarrollo, y reafirmando asimismo la Declaración y Programa de Acción de Viena que aprobó la Conferencia Mundial de Derechos Humanos, celebrada en Viena del 14 al 25 de junio de 1993A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), cap. III., en que, entre otras cosas, se indica que deben reforzarse los mecanismos y programas nacionales e internaciona- les de defensa y protección de los niños, en particular de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles, con inclusión de medidas eficaces para combatir los casos de explotación y el maltrato de niños, como el infanticidio femenino, el empleo de niños en trabajos peligrosos, la venta de niños y de sus órganos, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de los niños en la pornografía, y en que se reafirma que todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales son universales,

Observando con profunda preocupación que la situación de los niños en muchas partes del mundo sigue siendo crítica como resultado de la pobreza, las dificultades sociales y económicas en una economía cada vez más mundializada, las pandemias, los desastres naturales, los conflictos armados, el desplazamiento de la población, la explotación, el analfabetismo, el hambre, la intolerancia, la discriminación y la protección jurídica inadecuada, y convencida de que es preciso adoptar medidas urgentes y eficaces en los planos nacional e internacional,
Destacando la necesidad de integrar la dimensión del género en todas las políticas y programas relacionados con los niños,
Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr un nivel de vida adecuado para el desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral y social del niño, así como de proporcionar un acceso universal a la enseñanza primaria en condiciones de igualdad,

Reconociendo también que la colaboración entre los gobiernos, las organizaciones internacionales y todos los sectores de la sociedad civil, en particular las organizaciones no gubernamentales, es importante para el ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Destacando la importancia del décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño para la movilización y adopción de nuevas medidas a fin de lograr el pleno ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Acogiendo con satisfacción los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General, dedicado al seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que ha de celebrarse en 2001,


I
Aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
1. Insta una vez más a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que, como cuestión prioritaria, firmen y ratifiquen la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 o se adhieran a ella, a fin de lograr el objetivo de la adhesión universal para el décimo aniversario de la celebración de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y de la entrada en vigor de la Convención en el año 2000;
2. Reitera su preocupación por el elevado número de reservas a la Convención e insta a los Estados partes a que retiren las reservas que sean incompatibles con el objeto y propósito de la Convención y que revisen periódicamente sus reservas con el fin de retirarlas;
3. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que apliquen plenamente la Convención y subraya que la aplicación de la Convención contribuye al logro de los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia;
4. Insta a los Estados a que hagan participar a los niños y a los jóvenes en las actividades para lograr los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y la Convención;
5. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que cooperen estrechamente con el Comité de los Derechos del Niño y cumplan puntualmente la obligación de presentar informes que les impone la Convención, ateniéndose a las directrices elaboradas por el Comité, y alienta a los Estados partes a que tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones formuladas por el Comité en la aplicación de las disposiciones de la Convención;
6. Exhorta asimismo a los Estados partes a que promuevan la capacitación en materia de derechos del niño de quienes participan en actividades relacionadas con niños, por ejemplo, por conducto del programa de servicios de asesoramiento y cooperación técnica en materia de derechos humanos;
7. Pide al Secretario General que facilite el personal y los medios necesarios para que el Comité pueda cumplir de manera eficaz y rápida sus funciones, y toma nota del apoyo temporal proporcionado por el plan de acción de la Alta Comisionada de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos para reforzar la importante función del Comité en la promoción de la aplicación de la Convención; y le pide que presente información sobre las medidas complementarias del plan de acción;
8. Exhorta a los Estados partes en la Convención a que adopten las medidas apropiadas para que la enmienda del párrafo 2 del artículo 43 de la Convención sea aceptada a la mayor brevedad posible por una mayoría de dos tercios de los Estados partes a fin de que entre en vigor y el número de miembros del Comité pueda aumentar de 10 a 18 expertos;
9. Invita al Comité a que siga intensificando su diálogo constructivo con los Estados partes y la transparencia y eficacia de su funcionamiento;
10. Acoge con satisfacción la atención que presta el Comité al logro de los niveles más altos posibles de salud y de acceso a la atención de la salud y a los derechos de los niños afectados por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y exhorta a los gobiernos a que, en cooperación con los órganos y las organizacio- nes de las Naciones Unidas, tomen todas las medidas que corresponda con el fin de hacer efectivos esos derechos;
11. Insta a los Estados a que protejan todos los derechos humanos de los niños migrantes, en particular los niños migrantes no acompañados, y que garanticen que el interés superior del niño sea, por tanto, la consideración principal, y alienta al Comité, al Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a otros órganos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que, en el marco de sus mandatos respectivos, presten especial atención a las condiciones de los niños migrantes en todos los Estados y, según convenga, formulen recomendaciones para fortalecer su protección;
12. Recomienda que, en el marco de sus mandatos, todos los mecanismos competentes de derechos humanos y otros órganos y mecanismos pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, así como los órganos de supervisión de los organismos especializa- dos, presten especial atención a las situaciones particulares que pongan a los niños en peligro y en que sus derechos sean violados y que tengan en cuenta la labor del Comité, y alienta a seguir desarrollando el criterio basado en los derechos del niño que ha adoptado el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a adoptar nuevas medidas a fin de incrementar la coordinación a nivel de todo el sistema y la cooperación interinstitucional para la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño;
13. Alienta al Comité a que, en su labor de supervisión de la aplicación de la Convención, siga prestando atención a las necesidades de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles;
14. Alienta a los gobiernos, a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas, a las organizaciones no gubernamentales competentes y a las personas dedicadas a las actividades en pro de la infancia a que, según corresponda, contribuyan a la base de datos que ha establecido en la red el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) a fin de continuar proporcionando información sobre leyes, estructuras, políticas y procesos adoptados a escala nacional con el objeto de llevar a la práctica la Convención;


II
Prevención y erradicación de la venta de niños y de su explotación y maltrato sexual, en particular la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía
1. Acoge con satisfacción el informe provisional de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía A/54/411. y expresa su apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial;
2. Pide al Secretario General que proporcione a la Relatora Especial toda la asistencia necesaria en materia de recursos humanos y financieros para que pueda cumplir plenamente su mandato;
3. Invita a que sigan aportándose contribuciones voluntarias por conducto de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y a que se preste apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial para que pueda cumplir su mandato con eficacia;
4. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 relativo a la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía e insta al grupo de trabajo a que concluya su labor antes de la celebración del décimo aniversario, en 2000, de la entrada en vigor de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
5. Reafirma la obligación de los Estados partes de impedir el secuestro, la venta o la trata de niños para cualquier fin o en cualquier forma y de proteger al niño de todos los tipos de explotación o abuso sexual, de conformidad con los artículos 34 y 35 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
6. Insta a los Estados a que tipifiquen como delito y castiguen eficazmente todas las formas de explotación y abuso sexual de los niños, en particular dentro de la familia o con fines comerciales, la utilización de niños en la pornografía y la prostitución infantil, incluida la explotación de niños en el turismo sexual, garantizando al mismo tiempo que los niños víctimas de esas prácticas no sean penalizados; y a que adopten medidas eficaces para garantizar el procesamiento de los delincuentes, tanto locales como extranjeros, por las autoridades nacionales competentes, en el país de origen del delincuente o en el país de destino, respetando las garantías procesales;
7. Insta también a los Estados a que en los casos de explotación de niños en el turismo sexual aumenten la cooperación internacional entre las autoridades competentes, en particular las autoridades policiales, y a que compartan los datos pertinentes a fin de erradicar esa práctica;
8. Pide a los Estados que intensifiquen la cooperación y la acción concertada a nivel nacional, regional e internacional, incluido en el contexto de las Naciones Unidas, por parte de todas las autoridades e instituciones competentes, a fin de adoptar y aplicar medidas eficaces para la prevención y la erradicación de la venta de niños y su explotación y abuso sexual y para prevenir y desmantelar redes de trata de niños;
9. Destaca la necesidad de combatir la existencia de un mercado que fomenta ese tipo de prácticas delictivas contra los niños, incluso mediante la adopción de medidas preventivas y coercitivas dirigidas contra los clientes o las personas que explotan o maltratan sexualmente a los niños;
10. Insta además a los Estados a que promulguen, apliquen, examinen y revisen, según proceda, la legislación pertinente e implanten políticas, programas y prácticas para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de la explotación y abuso sexual, incluida la explotación sexual con fines comerciales, y eliminar esas prácticas, teniendo en cuenta los problemas específicos que plantea la utilización de la Internet en este sentido;
11. Alienta a los gobiernos a que faciliten la participación activa de los niños víctimas de explotación o abuso sexual en la formulación y aplicación de estrategias para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de explotación o abuso sexual;
12. Alienta a seguir tratando de determinar a nivel regional e interregional las mejores prácticas y las cuestiones que exigen una respuesta particularmente urgente para dar seguimiento a la aplicación de medidas acordes con las indicadas en la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo.;
13. Invita a los Estados y órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que asignen recursos suficientes para la rehabilitación de los niños víctimas de la explotación y el maltrato sexual y a que tomen las medidas correspondientes para promover su plena recuperación y reintegración social;


III
Protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados
1. Acoge con beneplácito el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General sobre el efecto de los conflictos armados en los niñosA/54/430.;
2. Expresa su apoyo a la labor del Representante Especial del Secretario General, en particular sus esfuerzos por crear mayor conciencia de la cuestión en todo el mundo y por movilizar a la opinión oficial y pública en favor de la protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, a fin de promover el respeto de los derechos y las necesidades de los niños en los conflictos y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, y recomienda al Secretario General que prorrogue su mandato por un nuevo período de tres años, conforme a lo estipulado en los párrafos 35, 36 y 37 de la resolución 51/77 de la Asamblea General, de 12 de diciembre de 1996;
3. Insta al Secretario General y a todas las partes pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, incluido el Representante Especial y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, a que intensifiquen sus esfuerzos por elaborar un enfoque concertado de los derechos, la protección y el bienestar de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, incluso, según proceda, en los preparativos de las visitas al terreno del Representante Especial y en el seguimiento de dichas visitas;
4. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes interesadas a que sigan cooperando con el Representante Especial, cumplan los compromisos que han contraído, y examinen atentamente todas las recomendaciones del Representante Especial y se ocupen de las cuestiones señaladas;
5. Celebra el apoyo constante que se ofrece a la labor del Representante Especial y las contribuciones voluntarias efectuadas a ese respecto;
6. Insta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados a respetar el derecho internacional humanitario, a poner fin a cualquier forma de agresión dirigida a los niños y a los ataques a lugares en los que suele haber un número considerable de niños, exhorta a los Estados Partes a que respeten plenamente las disposiciones de los Convenios de Ginebra de 12 de agosto de 1949 Naciones Unidas, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, Nos. 970 a 973. y los Protocolos Adicionales de 1977 Ibíd., vol. 1125, Nos. 17512 y 17513., y exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a adoptar todas las medidas necesarias para proteger a los niños de los actos que constituyen violaciones del derecho internacional humanitario, incluso mediante el enjuiciamiento por los Estados, en el marco de la legislación nacional, de los responsables de dichas violaciones;
7. Reconoce, a ese respecto, que el establecimiento de la Corte Penal Internacional contribuiría a poner fin a la impunidad de los perpetradores de ciertos crímenes cometidos contra los niños, tipificados en el Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional Véase A/CONF.183/9, art. 8., que incluyen, entre otros, los que entrañan violencia sexual o la utilización de niños soldados, y tendrá también un efecto preventivo;
8. Condena el secuestro de niños en situaciones de conflicto armado o con el fin de involucrarlos en conflictos armados e insta a los Estados, a las organizaciones internacionales y a otras partes interesadas a que adopten todas las medidas que sean apropiadas para obtener la liberación incondicional de todos los niños secuestrados, e insta a los Estados a someter a los perpetradores a la acción de la justicia;
9. Toma nota de la importancia del segundo debate público sobre los niños y los conflictos armados, celebrado por el Consejo de Seguridad el 25 de agosto de 1999 Véase S/PV.4037., y del compromiso del Consejo de prestar especial atención a la protección, el bienestar y los derechos de los niños, al adoptar medidas encaminadas al mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad Resolución 1261 (1999) del Consejo de Seguridad., y reafirma el papel fundamental que corresponde a la Asamblea General y al Consejo Económico y Social en la promoción y protección de los derechos y el bienestar de los niños;
10. Exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a que velen por que el personal humanitario tenga acceso seguro y sin restricciones a todos los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, y por que se preste asistencia humanitaria a esos niños;
11. Celebra la decisión del Consejo Económico y Social Documentos Oficiales de la Asamblea General, quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones, Suplemento No. 3 (A/54/3), cap. VI, párr. 5, conclusiones convenidas 1999/1, párr. 22. de exhortar a una acción interinstitucional sistemática, concertada y amplia a favor de los niños y pedir que se asignen recursos suficientes, en forma sostenible, para prestar a los niños asistencia inmediata de emergencia y financiar medidas a largo plazo a ese respecto durante todas las etapas de una emergencia;
12. Insta a los Estados y a todas las otras partes en los conflictos armados a poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados y asegurar su desmovilización y desarme efectivo, y a adoptar medidas eficaces para la rehabilitación, la recuperación física y sicológica y la reinserción en la sociedad de todos los niños que han sido víctimas de situaciones de conflicto armado; invita a la comunidad internacional a prestar asistencia en ese empeño; y subraya que no se debe prestar a quienes utilicen niños soldados ningún apoyo que haga posible o que facilite esa práctica;
13. Exhorta a los Estados y a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas a que continúen prestando apoyo a las actividades nacionales e internacionales de remoción de minas, incluso mediante contribuciones financieras, programas de información sobre el peligro de las minas y programas de asistencia a las víctimas y de rehabilitación dedicados especialmente a los niños, y celebra también los efectos positivos que tiene para los niños la adopción de medidas legislativas concretas respecto de las minas antipersonal;
14. Toma nota con preocupación del efecto de las armas pequeñas y ligeras sobre los niños en situaciones de conflicto armado, en particular como consecuencia de su producción y tráfico ilícitos, e insta a los Estados a ocuparse de ese problema;
15. Recomienda que, cada vez que se impongan sanciones, se evalúen y vigilen sus efectos en los niños, y que las exenciones por motivos humanitarios tengan especialmente en cuenta a los niños y se formulen con unas claras directrices de aplicación;
16. Exhorta a los Estados, a los órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y a las organizaciones regionales a que integren los derechos del niño en todas sus actividades durante los conflictos armados y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, incluidos los programas de capacitación y las operaciones de socorro de emergencia, los programas en los países y las operaciones sobre el terreno encaminadas a promover la paz y a prevenir y resolver conflictos, así como en la negociación y aplicación de los acuerdos de paz, y, teniendo en cuenta las consecuencias a largo plazo para la sociedad, subraya la importancia de incorporar disposiciones específicas para los niños, incluso disposiciones relativas a la aportación de recursos, en los acuerdos de paz y en los acuerdos negociados por las partes en los conflictos;
17. Acoge con beneplácito las gestiones que realizan, entre otros, las organizaciones regionales, las organizaciones intergubernamentales y las no gubernamentales para poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados en los conflictos armados, y reafirma la necesidad urgente de aumentar la edad mínima límite establecida en el artículo 38 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 para el reclutamiento y la participación de cualquier persona en los conflictos armados, con el objeto de poner fin a la utilización de niños soldados;
18. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño relativo a la participación de los niños en los conflictos armados, y las consultas que dirige el presidente del grupo de trabajo para seguir avanzando con el fin de concluir su labor antes del décimo aniversario de la entrada en vigor de la Convención;


IV
Los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país
1. Insta a los gobiernos a mejorar la aplicación de políticas y programas para la protección, el cuidado y el bienestar de los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país, con la cooperación internacional necesaria, en particular la de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Representante del Secretario General sobre los desplazados internos, en consonancia con las obligaciones contraídas en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
2. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados, así como a los órganos y organizaciones de las Naciones Unidas, a que presten atención urgente a la protección y asistencia a los niños refugiados o desplazados en el interior del país, que están especialmente expuestos a riesgos relacionados con los conflictos armados, como los de ser reclutados forzosamente o ser objeto de violencia, maltrato o explotación sexual;
3. Expresa su profunda preocupación por el número cada vez mayor de niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados, y hace un llamamiento a todos los Estados y a los órganos y organismos de las Naciones Unidas y otras organizaciones pertinentes para que den prioridad a los programas para la búsqueda y reunificación de las familias y continúen supervisando las disposiciones en materia de cuidado de los niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados;


V
Eliminación progresiva del trabajo infantil
1. Reafirma el derecho del niño a la protección respecto de la explotación económica y la realización de cualquier trabajo que pueda ser peligroso para él o constituir un obstáculo para su educación o que pueda resultar nocivo para su salud o su desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral o social;
2. Acoge con satisfacción la aprobación por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, en el 87° período de sesiones de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, celebrado en Ginebra del 1° al 17 de junio de 1999, del Convenio No. 182 sobre la prohibición de las peores formas de trabajo infantil y la acción inmediata para su eliminación, y alienta a todos los Estados a considerar, como cuestión prioritaria, la posibilidad de ratificarlo, con miras a que entre en vigor lo antes posible;
3. Exhorta a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que consideren la posibilidad de ratificar los convenios de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo relativos al trabajo infantil, en particular el Convenio No. 29, de 1930, sobre la abolición del trabajo forzoso u obligatorio y el Convenio No. 138, de 1973, sobre la edad mínima de empleo, y los exhorta a que apliquen esos Convenios;
4. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a que traduzcan en medidas concretas su compromiso de eliminar progresiva y efectivamente las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas y los insta a que, como cuestión prioritaria, eliminen de inmediato las peores formas de trabajo infantil, enumeradas en el nuevo Convenio No. 182 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo;
5. Exhorta además a todos los Estados a que evalúen y examinen sistemáticamente la magnitud, la naturaleza y las causas del trabajo infantil y a que elaboren y pongan en práctica estrategias para la eliminación del trabajo infantil que contravenga las normas internacionales aceptadas, prestando especial atención a los peligros concretos a que hacen frente las niñas, así como a la rehabilitación y la reinserción social de los niños afectados;
6. Reconoce que la educación primaria es uno de los principales instrumentos para reintegrar a los niños que trabajan e insta a todos los Estados a que reconozcan el derecho a la educación, haciendo obligatoria la enseñanza primaria y garantizando que todos los niños tengan acceso a la enseñanza primaria gratuita como estrategia fundamental para prevenir el trabajo infantil, y reconoce, en particular, la importante función que cumplen a este respecto la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia;

7. Exhorta a todos los Estados y al sistema de las Naciones Unidas a que incrementen la cooperación internacional como medio de ayudar a los gobiernos a prevenir o a combatir las violaciones de los derechos de los niños y a alcanzar el objetivo de eliminar las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas;

8. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que fortalezcan la cooperación y coordinación en los planos nacional e internacional, para abordar efectivamente el problema del trabajo infantil, cooperando también estrechamente con la Organización Internacional del Trabajo y con el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, entre otros organismos;


VI
La difícil situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle

1. Exhorta a los gobiernos a buscar soluciones amplias a los problemas que dan lugar a que los niños trabajen o vivan en la calle y a aplicar políticas y programas apropiados para la protección y la rehabilitación y reinserción de esos niños, teniendo en cuenta que son particularmente vulnerables a todo tipo de violencia, maltrato, explotación y abandono;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a velar por que se presten servicios a los niños para evitar que se dediquen a actividades que puedan acarrearles daño, explotación y maltrato y atender a las necesidades económicas apremiantes que motivan su participación en tales actividades;

3. Insta encarecidamente a todos los gobiernos a que garanticen el respeto de los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales de todos, en particular el derecho a la vida, a que adopten con carácter urgente medidas eficaces para evitar que se mate a los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle, combatir la tortura, el maltrato y los actos de violencia contra ellos y someter a los perpetradores de tales actos a la acción de la justicia;

4. Hace un llamamiento a la comunidad internacional para que, mediante una cooperación internacional eficaz, incluida la prestación de asesoramiento y asistencia técnicos, apoye la labor de los Estados encaminada a mejorar la situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle;


VII
Niños con discapacidad

1. Celebra que, de conformidad con la decisión del Comité de los Derechos del Niño, se haya establecido un grupo de trabajo con el fin de elaborar un plan de acción en favor de los niños con discapacidad, en estrecha colaboración con el Relator Especial sobre Discapacidad de la Comisión de Desarrollo Social y otros sectores pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas Véase CRC/C/84, párrs. 219 a 222.;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que adopten todas las medidas necesarias para asegurar que los niños con discapacidad gocen plenamente y en condiciones de igualdad de todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales y a que promulguen y hagan cumplir leyes contra la discriminación de esos niños;

3. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a promover para los niños con discapacidad una vida plena y decorosa, en condiciones que aseguren la dignidad, fomenten la autosufi- ciencia y faciliten la participación activa del niño en la comunidad, incluido el acceso efectivo a la educación y los servicios de atención de la salud;


VIII

Decide:

a) Pedir al Secretario General que le presente en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones un informe sobre los derechos del niño que contenga información sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 y los problemas a que se hace referencia en la presente resolución;

b) Pedir al Representante Especial del Secretario General para la cuestión de los niños y los conflictos armados que presente a la Asamblea General y a la Comisión de Derechos Humanos informes que contengan información pertinente sobre la situación de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, teniendo en cuenta los mandatos actuales y los informes de los órganos correspondientes;

c) Seguir examinando esta cuestión en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones en relación con el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño”.
***

13. La Comisión también recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe el siguiente proyecto de decisión:



Informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
La Asamblea General toma nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño A/54/265
Iraq: ONU califica de intolerable situación de niños



25 de abril, 2008 La representante especial de la ONU para Niños en Conflictos Armados, Radhika Coomaraswamy, consideró que la situación de los niños en Iraq es intolerable debido a la violencia.
Al concluir una visita de cinco días a ese país, la enviada dijo hoy que los menores son víctimas silenciosas del entorno violento que impera

en Iraq.




En este sentido, instó a los líderes religiosos, políticos, militares y comunitarios del país a enviar un mensaje claro a la niñez iraquí para que se mantengan el margen de las hostilidades y vuelvan a la escuela.

Coomaraswamy urgió a todas las partes en conflicto a apegarse estrictamente a los estándares humanitarios internacionales sobre la protección de los niños y a liberar de inmediato a los menores de 18 años que estén asociados a cualquier organización combatiente.

Señaló que más de la mitad de los desplazados y refugiados iraquíes son niños que afrontan grandes dificultades en los lugares donde llegan a asentarse ya sea en su propio país o en uno ajeno.

“La comunidad internacional debería asistir a los países anfitriones para garantizar que se protejan los derechos de los niños y que tengan acceso a servicios básicos como la educación y los servicios de salud”, enfatizó la representante especial.


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Kadhum Al-Sahir, nuevo Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, habla sobre las necesidades de los más pobres
BAGDAD, Iraq, 9 de mayo de 2011. Kadhum Al-Sahir, el cantante iraquí mundialmente reconocido como uno de los más grandes representantes de la música árabe contemporánea, se convirtió hoy en el primer Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq. Al regresar a su país tras 14 años de ausencia, Al-Sahir destacó la necesidad de luchar por la igualdad en pro de los niños más necesitados de Iraq.

VÍDEO (en inglés): 5 de mayo de 2011. El famoso cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir, recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, compuso una nueva canción, titulada "Juntos por los niños", en la que convoca a todos los segmentos de la sociedad de su país a que ayuden a poner fin a las penurias que afrontan los jóvenes y niños.
"Los niños y niñas de Iraq han sufrido penurias indescriptibles en las últimas dos décadas, en las que cientos de miles de menores sufrieron las consecuencias brutales de la violencia y las privaciones inhumanas", dijo. "Ha llegado la hora de poner fin a esa situación".
Al-Sahir es uno de los más destacados músicos en la historia de Iraq y uno de los artistas más populares de la región.
El cantante aboga por los niños y jóvenes desde hace mucho tiempo. Ese apoyo comenzó en 1998, cuando compuso e interpretó "Tathakkar" ("Recuerda"), una canción sobre los niños en las situaciones de conflicto. El tema recibió un premio de UNICEF por tratarse de una contribución sobresaliente al mejoramiento de las vidas de los niños en situación de necesidad. En 2004, Al-Sahir ofreció un concierto a beneficio de más de 50.000 niños y niñas de Oriente Medio.



Juntos por los niños
Continuando en la misma vena, Kadhum Al-Sahir presentó hoy "Juntos por los niños", una nueva canción que es también un llamamiento a la acción.



© UNICEF Iraq/2011/Arar
Kadhum Al-Sahir, el famoso cantante recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, regresa a su país tras una ausencia de 14 años.
La canción rinde homenaje al coraje de los niños de Iraq en versos que dicen, por ejemplo, "¿Hay alguien que haya sufrido las penurias que sufrieron ustedes? Porque ustedes han superado los límites del temor y las privaciones".
El cantante convocó a todos los segmentos de la sociedad iraquí a que ayuden a mejorar la situación de sus niños. "Unámonos a UNICEF, y marchemos juntos para poner fin a las muertes, las enfermedades, el abandono y la pobreza", añadió. "Ayudemos a los niños que son víctimas de las guerras. Vengan y hagamos algo para que sus penurias se conviertan en prosperidad. Vengan, trabajemos todos juntos".
Las cuestiones que afectan a los niños de Iraq
En el decenio de 1970, Iraq era uno de los mejores países de Oriente Medio y África septentrional si se era niño, pero tras varias décadas de guerra y abandono, hoy es uno de los peores. Entre las cuestiones más graves que afectan a los casi 15 millones de niños y niñas iraquíes figuran las siguientes:
 Unos 35.000 lactantes mueren anualmente durante su primer año de vida.
 Más de 1,5 millones de niños menores de cinco años sufren desnutrición.
 Unos 700.000 niños y niñas en edad escolar no asisten a clases, mientras que cientos de miles de niños que inician sus estudios no los terminan.
 Unos 2,5 millones de niños carecen de acceso al agua potable y unos 3,5 millones no cuentan con instalaciones de saneamiento adecuadas.
 Unos 800.000 niños y niñas de 5 a 14 años de edad trabajan.


© UNICEF-Iraq/Arar/2011
El cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir se dirige a un grupo de periodistas tras el anuncio en Bagdad de su nombram
          Bulan Oktober        
1 Oktober
Republik Rakyat Cina Berdiri

Tanggal 1 Oktober tahun 1949, Republik Rakyat Cina secara resmi memproklamasikan diri dengan Mao Zedong sebagai presiden. Negara yang memiliki kekayaan peradaban kuno itu, pada akhir abad ke-16 berada di bawah kekuasaan sejumlah negara Eropa. Pada tahun 1912 dimulailah sebuah revolusi besar di bawah pimpinan Sun Yat Sen dengan tujuan untuk meruntuhkan Dinasti Militer Manchu. Revolusi itu berhasil menumbangkan pemerintahan Manchu dan mendudukkan Sun Yat Sen sebagai presiden.
Pada tahun 1931, pasukan Jepang melakukan agresi ke Cina. Pada saat itu, di dalam negeri Cina sendiri tengah terjadi perebutan kekuasaan antara Mao Zedong yang beraliran komunis melawan Chiang Kai Sek yang berhaluan nasionalis. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1945, saat Jepang menyerah kepada pasukan Sekutu yang menandai berakhirnya Perang Dunia Kedua, perang antara Cina dan Jepang juga berakhir. Berakhirnya perang antara kedua negara itu membuat perang saudara antara para pendukung Mao Zedong dan Chiang Kai-shek kembali berlanjut. Perang ini dimenangkan oleh Mao Zedong. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1949, Mao Zedong memproklamasikan berdirinya Republik Rakyat Cina yang berhaluan komunis. Chiang Kai-shek sendiri bersama pendukungnya kemudian melarikan diri ke Pulau Taiwan dan mendirikan pemerintahan baru di sana.
Cina adalah negara dengan penduduk paling banyak di planet bumi ini. Negara ini memiliki luas 9.560.779 kilometer persegi. Cina berbatasan dengan negara-negara Rusia, Mongolia, Korea Utara, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Butan, Birma, Laos, dan Vietnam.

Nigeria Merdeka
Tanggal 1 Oktober 1960, negara Nigeria meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris.Tanggal 1 Oktober kemudian dijadikan sebagai hari nasional negara itu. Awalnya, Nigeria dijajah Portugis pada abad 15. Satu abad kemudian, kawasan ini dijajah Inggris. Setelah jatuh di bawah kolonialisme Inggris, Nigeria menjadi pusat perdagangan perbudakan dunia.
Tahun 1914, Inggris menyatakan bahwa dua kawasan Nigeria Utara dan Nigeria Selatan digabungkan ke dalam koloni Britania. Empat puluh tahun berikutnya, negara ini menyatakan diri sebagai wilayah otonom dan menjadi anggota negara-negara persemakmuran. Pada tahun 1960, lewat sebuah referendum, rakyat Nigeria menghendaki sebuah pemerintahan independen dan melepaskan diri secara penuh dari kekuasaan Inggris.
Nigeria memiliki luas wilayah 923.768 kilometer persegi dan terletak di bagian barat benua Afrika. Negara ini berbatasan dengan Kamerun, Chad, Niger, dan Benin.

Markas PLO di Tunisia Dibom Israel

Tanggal 1 Oktober 1985, pesawat perang rezim Zionis menggempur markas Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina, PLO di Tunisia. Dalam serangan ini, sekitar 70 orang tewas dan sejumlah orang lainnya luka-luka. PLO telah memindahkan markasnya dari Libanon ke Tunisia karena menyusul serangan Zionis terhadap markas tersebut pada tahun 1982. Serangan Rezim Zionis ini menimbulkan kemarahan dunia internasional, namun karena perlindungan Amerika, Dewan Keamanan PBB tidak bisa mengambil tindakan serius apapun.

2 Oktober
Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi Merebut Baitul Maqdis

Tanggal 2 Oktober tahun 1187, Shalahuddin Al-Ayyubi, komandan pasukan Islam dalam Perang Salib berhasil membebaskan Baitul Maqdis. Tahap pertama Perang Salib dimulai sejak tahun 1095 dan empat tahun kemudian perang tersebut berakhir dengan serangan tentara Salib ke Baitul Maqdis dan pendudukan kota itu oleh Pasukan Salib. Pada tahap kedua, Shalahudin Al-Ayyubi setelah menduduki Suriah, Libanon, dan Mesir, mengepung Baitul Maqdis dan memaksa Tentara Salib yang bercokol di sana untuk menyerah. Setelah kekalahan ini, pasukan Salib kembali mengirimkan balatentara dalam jumlah besar ke Baitul Maqdis. Namun, Pasukan Salib tidak berhasil menduduki kota ini dan Baitul Maqdis tetap berada di tangan kaum muslimin. Perang Salib terus berlangsung, khususnya untuk menguasai Mesir, pusat kekuasaan kaum muslimin pada zaman itu. Akhirnya pada tahun 1270, perang berakhir dengan kekalahan di pihak Pasukan Salib.

Graham Green Lahir
Tanggal 2 Oktober 1904, Graham Green, seorang penulis terkenal Inggris, terlahir ke dunia. Dalam karya-karyanya, Green selalu menggambarkan pertentangan antara kebaikan dan kejahatan. Green dalam buku terkenalnya yang berjudul "The Power and The Glory" menunjukkan bahwa kesabaran dan menjalani kesulitan adalah sebuah kebaikan. Di antara karya-karya Green yang lain adalah novel berjudul "The Third Man", "The Ministry of Fear", dan "This Gun For Hire". Graham Green meninggal dunia pada tahun 1991.

Kolonel Taqikhan Pesyan Dibunuh
Tanggal 2 Oktober 1921, Kolonel Muhammad Taqi Khan Pesyan, komandan militer provinsi Khurasan, Iran, dibunuh oleh para pendukung pemerintah Iran waktu itu. Karena memiliki pemikiran kebebasan, Kolonel Khan Pesyan memperoleh pengaruh di tengah masyarakat. Setelah terjadinya kudeta terhadap Reza Khan pada tahun 1920, Kolonel Khan Pesyan meraih kekuasaan di provinsi Khurasan. Dia kemudian berjuang melawan pemerintahan pusat karena melihat bahwa pengaruh asing, terutama Inggris di Iran telah menimbulkan kesengsaraan rakyat. Perjuangan yang dipimpin oleh Kolonel Khan Pesyan ini disebut sebagai kebangkitan para perwira militer Khurasan. Dalam sebuah perang melawan tentara yang berpihak kepada pemerintah pusat, Kolonel Khan Pesyan terbunuh dan kebangkitan para perwira militer Khurasan pun ditaklukkan oleh pemerintah pusat.

Hitler Mengistruksikan Penyerangan Kedua ke Soviet
Tanggal 2 Oktober 1941, Adolf Hitler mengeluarkan perintah kepada pasukan Nazi Jerman untuk melakukan serangan kedua terhadap Uni Soviet. Dalam serangan Jerman yang pertama, yang dimulai tanggal 22 Juni 1941, Jerman berhasil menduduki sebagian wilayah Soviet. Tujuan serangan kedua ini adalah untuk menguasai wilayah lainnya, terutama kota Moskow, ibu kota Soviet. Namun, perlawanan kuat dari tentara Merah Soviet, ditambah karena suplai senjata dari sekutunya serta datangnya musim dingin yang sangat dahsyat, membuat tentara Jerman kewalahan. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1944, tentara Jerman terpaksa mundur dari wilayah Uni Soviet.

Ghana Merdeka

Tanggal 2 Oktober 1958, negara Ghana berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya dari Perancis dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Nasional Ghana. Pada akhir abad ke-19, Portugis menduduki Ghana. Sejak abad ke-19, pengaruh Perancis di Ghana semakin meningkat sampai akhirnya pada tahun 1849, Ghana resmi menjadi negara jajahan Perancis. Pada tahun 1946, Ghana memperoleh status sebagai daerah otonomi. Akhirnya, setelah melalui referendum, negara ini menuntut pemisahan diri dari Perancis dan memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Ahmad Sekouture terpilih menjadi presiden Ghana yang pertama.
Ghana terletak di bagian barat benua Afrika dan berbatasan dengan Senegal, Mali, Pantai Gading, Liberia, dan Guinea Bissau, dan Siera Leone.

3 Oktober
Perjanjian Wina Ditandatangani

Tanggal 3 Oktober tahun 1866, Perjanjian Wina ditandatangani oleh Italia dan Austria. Atas dasar perjanjian ini, negara bagian Venesia diserahkan oleh Austria kepada Italia. Selain itu, kekaisaran Austria tidak boleh lagi mencampuri urusan dalam negeri Italia. Perjanjian ini membuka jalan bagi terwujudnya persatuan Italia pada tahun 1870.

Irak Merdeka
Tanggal 3 Oktober 1932, Irak memproklamasikan kemerdekaannnya dari Inggris. Irak memiliki peradaban kuno, yaitu Assyria dan Akkad. Mulai tahun 539 sebelum Masehi, Irak menjadi bagian dari imperium Iran sampai kedatangan pasukan muslimin ke wilayah Irak pada tahun 642. Irak kemudian berada di bawah pemerintahan Dinasti Bani Umayah dan ketika Dinasti Abasiah berkuasa, kota Baghdad dijadikan ibu kota kekhalifahan Islam. Sejak pertengahan abad ke-10, Irak berada di bawah kekuasaan Iran hingga direbut oleh pemerintah Utsmani.
Menyusul kekalahan Utsmani pada Perang Dunia Pertama, Irak diserahkan kepada Inggris. Rakyat Irak dengan dipimpin para ruhaniwan melakukan perlawanan keras terhadap Ingris, sampai akhirnya Inggris terpaksa mengakui kemerdekaan Irak pada tahun 1932.

Uji Coba Bom Atom Pertama Inggris
Tanggal 3 Oktober 1952, Inggris berhasil menguji coba bom atom pertamanya. Selama Perang Dunia Kedua, 50 ilmuwan Inggris bekerja pada program bom atom AS di Los Alamos New Mexico. Setelah perang usai, para ilmuwan tersebut direkrut untuk melakukan program rahasia pembuatan bom atom di Inggris. Proyek pembuatan bom yang disebut sebagai "A-bomb" ini secara resmi dimulai tahun 1947 di bawah pimpinan William Penney. Pada bulan Februari 1952, Perdana Menteri Inggris saat itu, Winston Churchill mengumumkan rencana uji coba senjata nuklir Inggris. Pada tanggal 3 Oktorber 1952, sebanyak 25 kiloton bom atom yang setara dengan berat bom yang dijatuhkan AS di Nagasaki, diledakkan di pulau Monte Bello, di lepas pantai timur laut Australia. Dengan demikian, Inggris menjadi negara ketiga pemilik senjata nuklir, setelah Amerika dan Uni Soviet.

Imam Khomeini Pergi ke Kuwait
Tanggal 3 Oktober 1978, Imam Khomeini meninggalkan Irak untuk menuju Kuwait. Imam Khomeini diasingkan ke Irak oleh rezim Pahlevi karena aktivitas politik beliau yang mengancam kedudukan Shah Pahlevi. Kemudian, pemerintah Irak yang bekerja sama dengan Rezim Shah menyuruh agar Imam Khomeini meninggalkan negeri itu. Namun, Kuwait juga tidak mau menerima kehadiran Imam Khomeini. Oleh karena itu, beberapa hari kemudian Imam Khomeini hijrah ke Perancis dan di sana beliau menggerakkan rakyat Iran untuk meneruskan revolusi mereka untuk menumbangkan Rezim Shah yang despotik.

Jerman Barat dan Timur Kembali Bersatu
Tanggal 3 Oktober 1990, Jerman Barat dan Jerman Timur kembali bersatu secara resmi setelah terpisah selama 45 tahun. Setelah kekalahan Jerman dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, Jerman Timur dikuasai oleh Soviet dan Jerman Barat dikuasai oleh negara-negara Barat. Pada tahun 1949, Jerman Barat dan Jerman Timur masing-masing mendirikan sebuah negara tersendiri dengan bentuk pemerintahan dan sistem ekonomi yang berbeda. Pada tahun 1961, Soviet mendirikan Tembok Berlin dengan tujuan mencegah rakyat Jerman Timur melarikan diri ke Jerman Barat. Perubahan politik dunia pada akhir dekade 1980-an, membuka kesempatan bagi bersatunya Jerman Barat dan Jerman Timur.

4 Oktober
Belgia Merdeka

Tanggal 4 Oktober 1830, Belgia memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Negara ini sejak awal abad ke-18 berada di bawah kekuasaan Austria dan pada akhir abad itu pula, Belgia dikuasai oleh Perancis. Namun, setelah kekalahan Napoleon dari negara-negara Eropa, pada tahun 1815, Belgia dan Belanda membentuk negara persatuan. Namun, persatuan ini tidak berlangsung lama karena terjadi peperangan antara rakyat Katolik Belgia dan rakyat Protestan Belanda. Kedua bangsa itu kemudian mendirikan dua negara terpisah. Serangan Belanda ke Belgia berakhir dengan kekalahan karena campur tangan Inggris dan Perancis. Raja Belgia yang pertama adalah Raja Leopold dan sistem pemerintahan negara ini berbentuk monarkhi konstitusional.
Belgia memiliki luas wilayah 30 ribu km persegi dan berbatasan dengan Perancis, Jerman, dan Luxemburg.

Satelit Pertama Diluncurkan Rusia
Tanggal 4 Oktober 1957, satelit pertama yang menyerupai bulan untuk pertama kali diluncurkan oleh Rusia. Peluncuran bulan artifisial ini menandai dimulainya era antariksa. Bulan buatan yang diberi nama Sputnik I ini selama 92 hari mengelilingi bumi sebanyak 1400 kali dan untuk pertama kalinya mengirimkan pesan radio dari ruang angkasa ke bumi. Sputnik I memiliki berat 83 kilogram dan diameter 85 sentimeter, serta dilengkapi dengan dua pesawat pengirim pesan radio.

Angin Topan Menghancurkan Pelabuhan Karibia
Tanggal 4 Oktober 1963, angin topan dahsyat yang dinamakan "Topan Hitam Karibia" mulai bertiup dan menghancurkan semua bangunan di pelabuhan-pelabuhan dan pulau-pulau di lautan Karibia. Kecepatan topan dahsyat ini adalah 150 kilometer perjam. Jumlah korban tewas sekitar 6000 orang, yang sebagian besarnya warga Kuba dan Haiti.

Lesotho Merdeka
Tanggal 4 Oktober 1966, Lesotho berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Nasional Lesotho. Sebelum merdeka, negara ini bernama Basotuland dan dijajah oleh Inggris sejak tahun 1883. Penjajahan Inggris terhadap negara ini berlangsung hingga tahun 1966. Lesotho memiliki luas wilayah 30355 kilometer persegi dan terletak di selatan benua Afrika.

Gedung Parlemen Rusia Diduduki Pemberontak
Tanggal 4 Oktober 1993, para pemberontak Rusia yang menduduki gedung parlemen Rusia atau "Gedung Putih", menyerah setelah sepuluh jam dikepung oleh pasukan tank baja. Para pemberontak itu dipimpin oleh Wapres Aleksander Rutskoi dan Pemimpin Parlemen Ruslan Khasbulatov. Presiden Rusia saat itu, Boris Yeltsin, sebelumnya baru lolos dari impeachment dari parlemen Rusia (Duma).
Ia kemudian membubarkan parlemen pada tanggal 21 September dan menyatakan akan mengadakan pemilu. Rutskoi, Khasbulatov, dan anggota parlemen garis keras lainnya menanggapi pembubaran ini dengan menduduki gedung parlemen dan memilih Rutskoi sebagai Presiden Rusia yang baru. Yeltsin kemudian mengirimkan pasukan yang mengepung gedung parlemen itu yang berakhir dengan serangan tank. Para pemberontak akhirnya menyerah dan ditahan.
Pada Desember 1993, diadakan pemilihan umum untuk memilih anggota parlemen. Dalam sebuah referendum, disahkan pula undang-undang Rusia yang baru, yang memberikan kekuasaan eksekutif yang lebih luas kepada Yeltsin dan mengurangi otoritas Duma. Setelah memimpin selama satu dekade secara kontroversial, akhirnya pada tahun 1999, Yeltsin mengundurkan diri dan digantikan oleh Vladimir Putin.

Dr. Muhamad Asady Meninggal

Tanggal 4 Oktober 1996, Doktor Murtadha Asady, seorang ilmuwan terkemuka Iran meninggal dunia. Dia banyak mengabdikan dirinya dalam bidang penerjemahan teks sastra dan Islam. Penguasaannya terhadap bahasa Arab dan Inggris membuatnya sangat produktif dalam penerjemahan buku-buku asing ke dalam bahasa Persia. Selain menerjemahkan, dia juga menulis buku-buku. Di antara karya-karya Doktor Murtadha Asady adalah buku berjudul "Peperangan Salib dan Dimulainya Penelaahan Islam di Barat" dan "Dunia Islam". Karya-karya terjemahannya antara lain adalah "Pemuda Muslim dan Dunia Baru", "Filsafat Politik", dan "Baitul Muqaddas".

5 Oktober
August Burger Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 5 Oktober 1794, Gottfried August Burger, seorang penyair dan penulis Jerman meninggal dunia. Penyair Jerman ini lahir pada tahun 1747. Dia menuangkan kegagalan yang dialaminya dalam hidupnya ke dalam syair-syair yang hingga kini tetap hidup dalam kesusasteraan Jerman. Karya terpenting Burger adalah "Pemburu Kejam dan Lelaki Pemberani" yang dianggap sebagai karya abadi dalam sastra Jerman.

Denis Didero Lahir
Tanggal 5 Oktober 1713, Denis Didero, seorang filsuf dan penulis Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. Karya terpenting Didero adalah ensiklopedia besar yang memakan waktu penyusunan selama 21 tahun. Didero berperan sebagai supervisor tim penulis ensiklopedia tersebut. Selain itu, Didero juga menulis naskah drama dan roman, yang di antaranya berjudul "Bapak Keluarga", dan "Jacques Sam." Denis Didero meninggal dunia pada tahun 1783.

Louis Lumierre Lahir
Tanggal 5 Oktober 1864, Louis Lumierre, seorang ahli kimia dan inventor Perancis, terlahir ke dunia di kota Besancon. Bersama saudaranya, Auguste, Louis Lumierre bekerja di perusahaan fotografi. Louis berperan sebagai fisikawan dan saudaranya, Auguste menjadi manajer. Setelah ayah mereka pensiun, kedua bersaudara ini membuat gambar bergerak. Mereka juga memproduksi alat yang bisa jadi kamera dan proyektor sekaligus yang diberi nama "cinematographer". Eksibisi pertama alat ini dilakukan pada tanggal 28 Desember 1895 di Paris.

Pelabuhan Solonik Direbut Sekutu
Tanggal 5 Oktober 1915, pelabuhan Solonik yang merupakan pelabuhan strategis di timur laut Yunani, direbut oleh Pasukan Sekutu. Kejadian ini terjadi dalam sebuah operasi militer terpenting pada Perang Dunia Pertama. Negara-negara seperti Inggris, Perancis, dan Rusia, telah berusaha keras untuk mempertahankan pelabuhan ini. Namun, karena setengah pasukan mereka telah tewas, mereka mengalami kekalahan dan pelabuhan Solonik pun direbut oleh Sekutu.

Imam Khomeini Hijrah ke Perancis
Tanggal 5 Oktober 1978, Imam Khomeini hijrah dari Irak ke Paris, Perancis. Sebelumnya, selama bertahun-tahun Imam Khomeini berada di Irak untuk menjalani masa pengasingannya yang diberlakukan oleh Rezim Shah Pahlevi. Rezim Ba'ats Irak menghalang-halangi aktivitas politik Imam Khomeini di negara ini. Imam dalam jawabannya kepada para pejabat politik Irak, berkata, "Ini adalah kewajiban syar'iy saya dan saya akan tetap menulis pernyataan, berbicara di mimbar, dan merekam suara saya, serta mengirimkannya ke Iran. Ini adalah kewajiban syar'iy saya dan silakan kalian melaksanakan apapun kewajiban yang kalian miliki."Akhirnya, dengan semakin kerasnya tekanan dari rezim Saddam, Imam berniat hijrah ke Kuwait, namun pemerintah Kuwait menolak kehadiran beliau. Akhirnya, Imam berangkat ke Paris dan dari sanalah beliau meneruskan perjuangannya.

Slobodon Milosevic Dipecat
Tanggal 5 Oktober 2000, Slobodan Milosevic, diktator Yugoslavia, pelaku utama perang berdarah di Balkan, dipecat dari kekuasaannya. Sebelumnya, selama berbulan-bulan, Milosevic mendapatkan protes dan penentangan dari dalam negeri dan dunia internasional. Pada masa Perang Bosnia, Milosevic melindungi orang-orang Serbia di negara ini dan berperan utama dalam pembasmian etsnis muslim Bosnia.
Setelah Perang Kosovo, Milosevic dengan menggunakan berbagai cara, berusaha menggagalkan usaha-usaha untuk menumbangkan rezimnya. Usaha terakhirnya adalah mengubah undang-undang dasar negara dan mengadakan pemilihan presiden. Namun, dalam pemilu itu, Milosevic gagal terpilih kembali dan rakyat Serbia yang mendapat dukungan dari luar negeri, bangkit menentang Milosevic dan memaksanya untuk turun dari kursi kepresidenan. Pengganti Milosevic kemudian menyerahkannya ke pengadilan penjahat perang internasional di Belanda.

6 Oktober
Rusia Mobilisasi Pasukannya ke Polandia

Tanggal 6 Oktober tahun 1768, dalam kelanjutan aksi ekspansi yang dilakukan Kaisar Rusia The Great Cathrine, dikirimlah sebuah pasukan pasukan besar ke kawasan Polandia. Akibatnya, Kesultanan Turki Utsmani mengumumkan perang kepada Rusia. Sepanjang abad 18, sebanarnya telah terjadi berkali-kali pertempuran antara dua kekuatan besar pada saat itu. Akan tetapi, perang yang disebabkan oleh masalah Polandia itu bisa disebut sebagai peperangan terbesar di antara keduanya sepanjang sejarah
Akhirnya, pada tahun 1774, pasukan Turki Utsmani mengalami berbagai kekalahan di berbagai medan pertempuran. Setelah itu, kedua pihak menandatangani perdamaian. Sebagai pihak yang kalah, Turki Utsmani harus melepaskan kawasan Karimah di utara Laut Hitam. Polandia sendiri kemudian dibagi-bagi menjadi tiga bagian dan masing-masing dikuasai oleh Austria, Prusia, dam Rusia.

Perang Keempat Arab-Israel Pecah
Tanggal 6 Oktober 1973, perang keempat antara negara-negara Arab melawan Israel meletus. Dalam peristiwa itu, tentara Mesir melakukan penyerbuan melalui terusan Suez saat tentara penjajah Quds sedang lengah. Setelah mematahkan pertahanan tentara Zionis, pasukan Mesir berhasil memasuki Gurun Sinai. Berikutnya, tentara Mesir beserta Suriah meraih berbagai kemenangan gemilang di medan-medan pertempuran. Mereka bahkan mampu menembak jatuh sejumlah pesawat tempur Isarel.
Akan tetapi, AS kemudian datang memberikan bantuan peralatan militer yang lebih canggih, hingga tentara Israel mampu menduduki kembali sejumlah kawasan yang sempat direbut pasukan Arab. Akhirnya, dengan intervensi AS dan Uni Soviet, diberlakukan gencatan senjata, dan penyelesaian atas masalah sengketa itu kemudian diserahkan kepada PBB. Salah satu pelajaran penting yang bisa diambil dari peristiwa itu adalah runtuhnya mitos bahwa tentara Israel tidak mungkin terkalahkan.


Presiden Mesir Anwar Sadat Tewas

Tanggal 6 Oktober tahun 1981, Presiden Mesir Anwar Sadat tewas di tangan sejumlah perwira militer yang tergabung ke dalam Kelompok Islam Al-Jihad. Sadat menjadi korban pembunuhan karena ia dituduh sebagai pengkhianat Islam dan dunia Arab setelah menandatangani perjanjian memalukan Camp David. Akibat perjanjian perdamaian dengan rezim perampok Israel itu, negara Mesir diasingkan dari lingkungan negara-negara Arab.
Pelaku pembunuhan Sadat sendiri adalah Khalid Islambuli, seorang perwira militer yang melakukan penembakan terhadap Sadat saat ia melakukan parade militer. Akan tetapi, selepas itu, lebih dari 3.000 orang ditangkap karena dianggap terlibat dalam peristiwa itu. Adapun Islambuli sendiri berikut sejumlah perwira lainnya dijatuhi hukuman mati oleh pengadilan Mesir.

Sejumlah Perwira Angkatan Udara Republik Islam Iran Gugur
Tanggal 6 Oktober 1981, sejumlah perwira angkatan udara Republik Islam Iran gugur dalam sebuah peristiwa kecelakaan udara. Para perwira itu sebenarnya sedang pulang ke Teheran setelah sukses melakukan operasi pematahan blokade yang dilakukan oleh tentara Irak terhadap kawasan Abadan di barat daya Iran. Mereka yang gugur dalam peristiwa kecelakaan udara itu adalah Rasyid Islam, Fallahi, Fakuri, Namjur, Kolahdouz, dan Jahan Ara.

Charles Richter, Penemu Alat Ukur Kekuatan Gempa, Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 6 Oktober 1985, Charles Richter, ilmuwan penemu alat ukur kekuatan gempa, meninggal dunia di AS dalam usia 75 tahun. Bersama rekan-rekannya sesama ilmuwan, Richter berhasil menemukan alat ukur kekuatan gempa yang didasarkan kepada tingkat energi yang dilepaskan pusat gempa. Richter dan kawan-kawannya membagi tingkat kekuatan gempa itu dari ukuran satu hingga sembilan. Sebelumnya, para ilmuwan mengukur dan membandingkan tingkat-tingkat kekuatran gempa berdasarkan akibat-akibat yang ditimbulkan oleh gempa, yang tentu saja sangat jauh dari ketelitian.

7 Oktober
Suhrab Sepehri Lahir ke Dunia

Tanggal 7 Oktober 1928, Suhrab Sepehri, penyair dan pelukis kontemporer Iran, terlahir ke dunia di kota Kashan, Iran tengah. Sepehri menerbitkan buku kumpulan syairnya yang pertama pada tahun 1951 dengan judul "Kematian Berwarna". Sepehri dikenal sebagai penyair yang menggunakan bahasa-bahasa yang baru, sederhana, dan pendeskripsian yang unik. Suhrab Sepehri meninggal dunia dan dikuburkan di tanah kelahirannya pada tahun 1980. Karya-karya Sepehri yang lain berjudul "Kehidupan Mimpi", "Musafir", dan "Nyanyian Matahari".

Romania Diduduki Pasukan Nazi
Tanggal 7 Oktober 1940, Romania diduduki oleh pasukan Nazi Jerman dalam Perang Dunia Kedua. Dengan kemenangan Jerman ini, jalan bagi Jerman untuk menyerang Soviet telah terbuka. Serangan terhadap Soviet tersebut dilaksanakan pada tanggal 22 Juni 1941. Romania sebelumnya diperintah dengan sebuah sistem kerajaan.

Negara Jerman Timur Didirikan
Tanggal 7 Oktober 1949, negara Jerman Timur didirikan dengan bentuk pemerintahan Republik Demokratik. Dalam bulan-bulan terakhir Perang Dunia Kedua, bagian timur Jerman dikuasai oleh Soviet sedangkan bagian barat Jerman diduduki oleh negara-negara Barat. Pada bulan Mei 1949, kawasan barat Jerman mendirikan Republik Federal. Pada bulan Oktober tahun itu pula, kawasan timur Jerman membentuk pemerintahan yang berhaluan komunis. Akhirnya, 41 tahun kemudian, pada tahun 1990, kedua bagian Jerman bersatu kembali menjadi sebuah negara.

RRC Serang Tibet
Tanggal 7 Oktober 1950, setahun setelah didirikannya pemerintahan komunis di Cina, tentara negara ini menyerang dan menduduki Tibet. Tibet yang terletak di bagian barat Cina ini, hampir di sepanjang sejarah merupakan bagian dari kekuasaan Cina. Namun kemudian, Inggris menguasai Tibet. Ketika Cina kembali menduduki wilayah ini, rakyat Tibet menentangnya dan melakukan pemberontakan pada tahun 1959 dengan dipimpin oleh Dalai Lama. Pemberontakan ini ditumpas oleh tentara Cina dan Dalai Lama diasingkan. Tibet yang dijuluki sebagai "Atap Dunia" karena letaknya yang sangat tinggi ini, memiliki luas wilayah 1 juta 22 ribu kilometer persegi. Saat ini, Tibet merupakan wilayah otonomi di bawah pemerintahan Cina.

Amerika Memulai Invasi Militernya ke Afganistan

Tanggal 7 Oktober 2001, Amerika memulai invasi militernya ke Afganistan. Serangan ini dilakukan dengan alasan untuk menumpas kelompok teroris Al-Qaeda. Washington sebelumnya telah menuduh Al-Qaida berperan dalam peristiwa teror 11 September 2001 di AS. Selama beberapa hari, tentara AS menyerang berbagai wilayah yang dikuasai oleh Al-Qaida, sehingga sangat banyak rakyat sipil yang tewas, terluka, dan menjadi pengungsi. Meskipun pemerintahan Taliban di Afganistan berhasil ditumbangkan, namun AS tetap tidak berhasil menangkap Usamah bin Laden, pemimpin Al-Qaeda.

8 Oktober
Universitas Sorbonne Didirikan

Tanggal 8 Oktober 1256, Universitas Sorbonne didirikan di kota Paris. Secara bertahap, aktivitas universitas ini semakin meluas dan semakin banyak memiliki jurusan keilmuan, sehingga akhirnya menajdi sebuah universitas terkemuka di dunia. Pendiri salah satu universitas tertua di dunia ini adalah Robert Sorbonne.

Hubungan Gereja Inggris Putus dengan Gereja Roma
Tanggal 8 Oktober 1534, parlemen Inggris yang berada di bawah pengaruh Raja Henry Kedelapan, mengesahkan sebuah hukum yang menyebabkan hubungan antara gereja Inggris dan gereja Katolik Roma terputus. Raja Henry Kedelapan pada awalnya memiliki hubungan yang baik dengan Paus Clement Ketujuh. Namun, ketika Paus menolak permintaan Henry Kedelapan untuk menceraikan istrinya, hubungan keduanya memburuk, bahkan Paus menyatakan bahwa Raja Henry telah kafir. Setelah Raja Henry menikah kembali, dia diangkat sebagai pemimpin gereja Inggris. Dengan demikian, sejak saat itu gereja di Inggris berdiri sendiri dan dikenal dengan nama "Canterbury".

Usaha Pertama Untuk Mengetahui Bentuk Planet Bumi

Tanggal 8 Oktober 1735, dimulailah usaha pertama para ilmuawan geografi dan matematika untuk mengetahui bentuk planet bumi yang sesungguhnya. Usaha ini dilakukan oleh para ilmuwan Perancis dan untuk itu, pemerintah negara ini memberikan anggaran dana yang sangat besar kepada Akademi Perancis. Setelah melakukan banyak penelitian, kelompok ilmuwan dari Akademi Perancis ini berhasil menemukan bahwa ada peninggian di daerah khatulistiwa dan penurunan di dua kutub bumi.

Perancis Mengokohkan Kekuasaannya atas Vietnam

Tanggal 8 Oktober 1885, Perancis mengokohkan kekuasaannya atas Vietnam. Sebelum dikuasai oleh Perancis, Vietnam merupakan bagian dari wilayah Cina. Namun, ketika kekuatan Cina semakin melemah akibat perang saudara dan penjajahan bangsa Eropa di negara itu, Perancis menduduki sebagian wilayah Cina. Perancis sejak pertengahan abad ke-19, memulai pendudukannya atas wilayah Vietnam dan pada tanggal 8 Oktober 1885, Vietnam resmi menjadi jajahan Perancis. 70 tahun kemudian, rakyat Vietnam melakukan perlawanan dan terjadi berbagai peperangan. Akhirnya Perancis terpaksa angkat kaki dari negara ini pada tahun 1945.

Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Mudaris
Tanggal 8 Oktober 1928, Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Mudaris diserang oleh pasukan Syah Reza Pahlevi. Serangan ini dilakukan karena aktivitas perjuangan Ayatullah Mudaris dalam melawan rezim Syah yang diktator. Pasukan Syah Pahlevi kemudian mendatangi rumah Ayatullah Mudaris dan memukulinya sampai luka-luka, lalu membawanya ke luar kota Teheran. Anggota keluarga dan pendukung Ayatullah Mudaris pun ikut ditangkap. Beberapa lama kemudian, Ayatullah Mudaris diasingkan ke kota Kashmer, di timur Iran. Di kota itu pula, pada tahun 1937, beliau gugur syahid setelah diracuni oleh antek-antek Shah Reza.

Zionis Kembali teror Jemaah Sholat di Masjid Al-Aqsha
Tanggal 8 Oktober 1990, tentara Zionis kembali melakukan teror terhadap para jemaah sholat di Masjid Al-Aqsha. Dalam serangan ini, 20 warga Palestina gugur syahid dan puluhan orang lainnya luka-luka. Masyarakat internasional mengecam aksi teror Rezim Zionis ini, namun karena perlindungan AS, tidak bisa dilakukan tindakan nyata apapun terhadap Tel Aviv.

9 Oktober
De Cervantez Lahir

Tanggal 9 Oktober tahun 1547, Miguel de Cervantez, seorang penulis kenamaan Spanyol lahir ke dunia. Pada masa mudanya, ia sempat bergabung ke dalam angkatan angkatan laut Spanyol dan dengan itu, ia melakukan banyak pelayaran ke berbagai tempat di dunia. Pada saat itulah ketertarikannya kepada dunia sastra mulai muncul. Ia kemudian mampu menulis sebuah karya sastra legendaris berbahasa Spanyol berjudul "Don Quixote". Cervantez meninggal dunia pada usia 69 tahun.

Swedia Kalah Perang dari Rusia
Tanggal 9 Oktober 1708, Swedia mengalami kekalahan perang dari Rusia. Perang ini sebenarnya diawali pada bulan Januari tahun itu dengan ditandai oleh serangan yang dilakukan Swedia ke Rusia. Dalam perang ini, sekitar setengah dari jumlah tentara Swedia tewas akibat dinginnya udara Rusia serta habisnya bahan makanan. Selepas ini, pada bulan Juli tahun 1709, tentara Swedia kembali mengalami kekalahan telak dari Rusia. Sisa-sisa tentara Swedia kemudian melarikan diri ke kawasan Turki yang dikuasai oleh kekaisaran Utsmani.

Uganda Merdeka
Tanggal 9 Oktober tahun 1962, Uganda meraih kemerdekaannya dari penjajah Inggris. Sejak tahun 1850, Uganda sudah dikuasai oleh penjajah Inggris. Selama masa penjajahan itu, rakyat Uganda tidak pernah berhenti melakukan perlawanan untuk mengusir tentara Inggris. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1962, pasukan penjajah bisa diusir oleh rakyat setempat. Tiap tahunnya, tanggal 7 Oktober dirayakan oleh rakyat Uganda sebagai hari nasional.
Negara Uganda berbentuk republik. Negara ini terletak di Timur Afrika dan berbatasn dengan Sudan, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, dan Republik Demokratik Kongo. Uganda memiliki luas wilayah 235.880 km persegi.

Guevara Dihukum Mati

Tanggal 9 Oktober tahun 1967, Ernesto Che Guevara, serang revolusioner Amerika Latin, beserta sejumlah kawan-kawan seperjuangannya dihukum mati oleh pemerintah Bolivia. Guevara dilahirkan di Argentina pada tahun 1928. Sikap revolusionernya muncul tatkala menyaksikan kemiskinan dan diskriminasi yang meluas di negaranya. Pada masa mudanya, ia berkenalan dengan Fidel Castro di Meksiko. Mereka berdua kemudian bahu-membahu memimpin revolusi Cuba hingga meraih kemenangan. Setelah itu, Castro menjadi pemimpin di Cuba hingga kini. Sementara itu Guevara pergi ke Bolivia pada tahun 1959. Di sana ia mendirikan organisasi gerilyawan menentang pemerintahan setempat yang dikuasai oleh AS. Akhirnya pada tahun 1967, Guevara ditangkap oleh tentara pemerintah untuk kemudian dihukum mati.

Abu Sharar Dibunuh MOSSAD
Tanggal 9 Oktober tahun 1981, Majid Abu Sharar, salah seorang tokoh perjuangan Palestina dibunuh oleh intelejen Israel, Mossad, di Italia. Abu Sharar adalah pejabat PLO yang bertanggung jawab mengkampanyekan organisasi ini ke seluruh dunia. Saat berkunjung ke Roma, Sharar kemudian menjadi menjadi korban teror licik Rezim Zionis. Pada masa-masa itu, teror terhadap para tokoh Palestina di dalam maupun di luar negeri adalah 'trend' yang diambil oleh Rezim Zionis dalam rangka menumpas perlawanan Bangsa Palestina.

10 Oktober
Pelukis Rafael Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 10 Oktober tahun 1520, Rafael, pelukis, pematung, dan arsitek Italia, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1483. Setelah berkenalan dengan pelukis-pelukis terkenal dan belajar dari mereka, Rafael akhirnya menjadi salah seorang pelukis terkenal di Italia dan Eropa. Karya-karya terkenal Rafael, di antaranya berjudul "Keluarga Suci", "Sekolah Athena" dan "Kemenangan Relijius".

Francois Gerardon Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 10 Oktober 1715, Francois Gerardon, seorang pematung Perancis, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1628. Keterkenalan Gerardon telah menarik perhatian Kanselir Perancis saat itu, Cardinal Richelieu, sehingga ia menyuruh Gerardon untuk membuat patung dirinya. Karya-karya Gerardon lainnya adalah "Apollo and The Nymphs" dan "The Rape of Proserpine".

Sidang Pertama Mahkamah Internasional Den Haag

Tanggal 10 Oktober tahun 1902, diadakan sidang pertama Mahkamah Internasional didirikan di kota Den Haag, Belanda. Mahkamah Internasional didirikan pada tahun 1899 atas proposal Tzar Nikola, kaisar kedua Rusia. Mahkamah ini merupakan salah satu lembaga peradilan internasional tertua dan berada di bawah PBB. Salah satu kewajiban terpenting Mahkamah Internasional Den Haag adalah menyelesaikan perselisihan negara-negara dunia dan mencegah terjadinya perang di antara mereka. Dalam Mahkamah Internasional Den Haag, terdapat 15 hakim yang dipilih oleh Majelis Umum dan Dewan Keamanan PBB tanpa mempertimbangkan kewarganegaraan mereka. Negara-negara dunia dapat menerima keputusan Mahkamah Internasional, secara penuh atau dengan syarat.

Marcel Proust Meninggal
Tanggal 10 Oktober tahun 1922, Marcel Proust, seorang penulis roman Perancis meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1871 di Paris. Proust menyelesaikan pendidikannya di bidang hukum di Univesitas Sorbonne Perancis. Karya Proust yang paling terkenal adalah "Remembrance of Things Past" yang berisi otobiografinya sendiri. Di dalamnya, Proust menceritakan masa kecilnya, observasinya terhadap gaya hidup kaum aristokrat, dan berbagai pengalaman pribadi lainnya.

Jaroslav Hasek Meninggal

Tanggal 10 Oktober tahun 1922, Jaroslav Hasek, seorang penulis pejuang kemerdekaan Cheko, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan di kota Praha pada tahun 1889. Pada saat itu, negaranya berada di bawah kekuasaan imperium Austria-Hongaria. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya, Hasek memulai aktivitas perjuangan untuk kemerdekaan negerinya dan karena itu, dia berkali-kali dipenjarakan. Setelah Perang Dunia Pertama berakhir dan runtuhnya imperium Austria-Hongaria pada tahun 1918, Cheko dan Slovakia merdeka dan mendirikan negara gabungan, yaitu Chekoslovakia. Sebelum masa Perang Dunia Pertama, Hasek telah menghasilkan karya sekitar 500 cerita pendek humor. Karyanya yang paling terkenal adalah "The Adventures of The Good Soldier Scheweik".

Negara Fiji Merdeka
Tanggal 10 Oktober 1970, negara Fiji meraih kemerdekaannya dari Fiji dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Nasional Fiji. Negara ini mulai dijajah Inggris pada tahun 1873 dan terus berlangsung hingga lebih dari sembilan puluh tahun kemudian. Pada tahun 1965, diberlakukan undang-undang dasar baru di Fiji yang bertujuan untuk mendirikan pemerintahan sendiri. Akhirnya, baru pada tahun 1970, Fiji meraih kemerdekaan penuh.
Fiji adalah sebuah negara yang terdiri dari pulau-pulau dengan luas wilayah 18.274 kilometer persegi dan terletak di barat daya Samudera Pasifik.

11 Oktober
Perang di Antara Kaum Kulit Putih Afrika Selatan

Tanggal 11 Oktober tahun1899, dimulailah perang antara kaum kulit putih Afrika Selatan asal Belanda yang disebut kaum "Boer" dan pasukan Inggris. Orang-orang Belanda datang ke Afsel pada tahun 1652 dan mendirikan koloni di kawasan Tanjung. Pada tahun 1814, pasukan Inggris datang ke Afrika Selatan dan merebut kedudukan penguasa resmi daerah koloni Tanjung. Setelah pertambangan intan dan emas ditemukan, arus imigran dari Eropa, terutama dari Inggris, semakin membanjir ke Afsel. Orang-orang Boer merasa tidak senang sehingga terjadilah pertempuran antara kaum Boer dan imigran Inggris. Perang ini dimenangkan Inggris karena adanya dukungan dari pemerintah Inggris. Sejak saat itu, Afsel menjadi jajahan Inggris dan baru pada tahun 1931 berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya.

Penyair Firuzkuhi Wafat
Tanggal 11 Oktober 1984, Abdul Karim Amiri Firuzkuhi, seorang penyair dan peneliti kontemporer Iran, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1909 di sebuah desa di daerah Firuzkuhi, Iran utara. Abdul Karim Amiri Firuzkuhi mulai menciptakan syair pada masa remajanya. Dia banyak menuntut ilmu-ilmu agama, sehingga salah satu keistimewaan syair-syair Firuzkuhi adalah nilai-nilai Islam yang terkandung di dalam karyanya itu. Dia meninggalkan karya syair sebanyak hampir 15 ribu bait yang dicetak dalam dua jilid buku.

KGB Dibubarkan
Tanggal 11 Oktober tahun 1991, aktivitas agen rahasia Soviet atau KGB, dihentikan tak lama sebelum keruntuhan Uni Soviet. KGB didirikan pada tahun 1954 dengan tujuan untuk menghadapi gerakan-gerakan yang ingin menggulingkan pemerintahan komunis di Soviet. KGB juga bertanggung jawab untuk melakukan represi terhadap para penentang Partai Komunis, kegiatan mata-mata, dan anti mata-mata di dalam dan luar Soviet. Secara bertahap, akhirnya KGB menjadi sebuah lembaga yang sangat kuat pengaruhnya dalam pemerintahan Soviet. Setelah dibubarkannya KGB, tugas-tugasnya dilakukan oleh dua lembaga Rusia, yaitu Dinas Informasi Federal dan Dinas Informasi Luar Negeri.

12 Oktober

Penyair Hafizh Lahir

Tanggal 12 Oktober tahun 1348, Syamsuddin Muhamad Syirazi atau dikenal dengan nama Hafizh, seorang penyair ternama Iran terlahir ke dunia di Kota Syiraz, sebuah kawasan di selatan Iran. Hafizh dikenal menguasai tafsir Al-Quran, filsafat, dan sastra Arab. Karena kemampuannya menghafal Al-Quran dengan berbagai cara bacaannya, ia kemudian dijuluki Hafizh yang artinya penghafal. Hafizh adalah seorang sufi, pemikir, dan sastrawan besar yang meninggalkan berbagai karya sastra legendaris dalam bahasa Persia. Dengan bekal pengetahuannya yang mendalam mengenai Islam dan ilmu Al-Quran, puisi-puisi Hafizh kemudian menjelma menjadi karya sastra Persia yang paling romantis. Karya Hafizh yang paling terkenal adalah sebuah kitab puisi bernama Diwan-e Hafizh.

Serbuan Tentara Spanyol ke Peru
Tanggal 12 Oktober tahun 1532, tentara penjajah Spanyol di bawah pimpinan Francois Pizzaro melakukan penyerbuan ke sebuah kawasan di Amerika selatan yang kini bernama Peru. Saat itu, kawasan Peru berada di bawah kekuasaan sebuah suku Indian bernama Inka. Akan tetapi, para penguasa suku Inka tidak begitu mempedulikan aksi yang dilakukan tentara Spanyol tersebut. Setelah menguasai Peru, Pizzaro menyampaikan tawaran kepada Suku Inka agar mau berada di bawah kekuasaan Spanol.. Tawaran ini lantas ditolak suku Inka. Akibatnya, Pizzaro mengeluarkan instruksi kepada tentaranya agar melakukan pembunuhan secara massal terhadap seluruh suku Inka. Peristiwa pembunuhan massal ini kemudian dikenal sebagai salah satu tragedi sejarah terpahit karena keganasan tentara Spanyol itu sampai membuat peradaban suku Inka musnah tak berbekas.

George Stevenson Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 12 Oktober tahun 1848, George Stevenson, seorang ilmuwan Inggris penemu lokomotif, meninggal dunia. Stevenson dilahirkan pada tahun 1781. Sejak kecil, ia sudah memperlihatkan minatnya kepada masalah-masalah ilmu pengetahuan. Ia kemudian banyak menggeluti bidang mekanik dan matematika. Akhirnya, ia mampu menciptakan jenis kendaraan yang termasuk paling aman, yaitu lokomotif. Kendaraan pertama ciptaannya itu mampu melaju dengan kecepatan 20 km per jam dengan kapasitas penumpang maksimal 90 orang.

Guinea Merdeka
Tanggal 12 Oktober tahun 1968, negara Guinea meraih kemerdekaannya dari Spanyol, dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai hari nasional negara tersebut. Awalnya, pada abad 15, para pelaut Portugal menemukan kawasan Guinea ini. Pada tahun 1778, Portugal menyerahkan kekuasaan atas kawasan ini kepada Spanyol, hingga akhirnya, rakyat di kawasan ini mampu meraih kemerdekaan dari Spanyol.
Guinea terletak di kawasan barat Afrika. Negara ini memiliki luas wilayah 28.051 kilometer persegi, serta berbatasan dengan Gabon dan Kamerun.

Kudeta Militer di Pakistan

Tanggal 12 Oktober 1999, terjadi kudeta tak berdarah di Pakistan untuk menggulingkan pemerintahan yang dipimpin oleh Perdana Menteri Nawaz Sharif. Kudeta itu dilakukan oleh Jenderal Pervez Musharraf. Sehari sebelumnya, Musharraf dipecat oleh Nawaz Sharif dari jabatan militernya.
Musharraf mengatakan bahwa aksi penggulingannya itu dilakukan karena Nawaz Sharif terlibat korupsi, tidak mampu mennciptakan keamanan nasional, dan yang paling berat, Sharif dianggap mendalangi aksi pembajakan pesawat terbang yang ditumpangi Musharraf. Setelah terguling, Sharif dijebloskan ke dalam penjara dengan hukuman seumur hidup. Akan tetap, tidak lama kemudian, Sharif diekstradisi ke Arab Saudi.

13 Oktober
Kota Babel Ditaklukkan Cyrus

Tanggal 13 Oktober tahun 539 sebelum Masehi, kota bersejarah Babel, ditaklukkan oleh Cyrus, seorang penakluk dari Persia. Babilonia memiliki tembok pelindung yang sangat kuat. Oleh karena itu, Cyrus dalam menaklukkan kota ini memerintahkan agar aliran sungai Daljah yang mengalir di dalam kota diubah arahnya. Dengan mengikuti aliran sungai tersebut, para tentara Cyrus berhasil masuk ke dalam kota dan akhirnya menaklukkan Babilonia.

Beograd Dibebaskan Jerman
Tanggal 13 Oktober tahun 1944, dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, kota Beograd berhasil dibebaskan dari pendudukan Jerman oleh tentara Yugoslavia dengan dibantu oleh Tentara Merah Soviet. Pembebasan ibukota Yugoslavia ini dipimpin oleh pemimpin nasionalis negara ini, Joseph Tito. Kota Beograd diduduki Jerman pada tahun 1941.

UU Kapitulasi DisahkanPerlemen Iran

Tanggal 13 Oktober 1954 rancangan undang-undang Kapitulasi disahkan oleh Parlemen Iran yang berada di bawah pengaruh Shah Pahlevi. Undang-undang ini memberikan kekebalan hukum kepada tentara AS di Iran dan bila ada tentara AS yang berbuat kriminal di Iran, dia hanya bisa diadili oleh pengadilan AS. Undang-undang ini jelas menginjak-injak kedaulatan pengadilan Iran dan bangsa Iran secara keseluruhan. Oleh karena itu, beberapa hari kemudian Imam Khomeini membacakan sebuah pidato bersejarah yang isinya menolak undang-undang tersebut serta mengecam keras AS dan Shah Pahlevi. Pidato Imam ini membuat beliau diasingkan ke luar negeri oleh rezim Shah yang despotik, pada tanggal 4 November 1954.

Husein Behzad Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 13 Oktober 1958, Husein Behzad, seorang seniman besar Iran di bidang miniatur, meninggal dunia. Pada masa remajanya, Behzad sudah tertarik pada bidang seni lukis dan secara bertahap, dia melahirkan karya-karya seni bernilai. Akhirnya dia menjadi terkenal dan dianggap sebagai miniaturis terbesar di Iran pada masa itu. Seniman terkemuka Iran ini dikenal menggunakan warna-warna dengan cara yang indah. Melalui warna-warna, dia menyampaikan kesedihan dan kegembiraan kepada para penikmat seni. Di antara karya Husein Behzad yang terkenal berjudul "Shahnameh Firdausi" dan "Penaklukan Babilonia".

14 Oktober
Erwin Rommel Meninggal

Tanggal 14 Oktober 1944, Erwin Rommel, komandan pasukan Nazi Jerman yang terkenal, meninggal dunia akibat bunuh diri atas perintah Hitler. Dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, Rommel adalah komandan tentara Jerman di Afrika utara, dan berhasil memukul mundur tentara Inggris hingga ke utara Mesir. Atas keberhasilannya itu, Rommel diberi gelar Marshall. Namun, kemudian Inggris melakukan serangan balasan. Karena tidak memiliki pasukan dan peralatan yang cukup, Rommel terpaksa mundur dari Afrika utara. Pada tahun 1944, Rommel menjadi komandan pertahanan Jerman di Italia dan Balkan. Kemudian, terjadi pertentangan pendapat antara Rommel dan Hitler. Setelah terjadi percobaan pembunuhan terhadap Hitler, Rommel dicurigai sebagai dalangnya dan Hitler memerintahkannya untuk bunuh diri dengan meminum racun.

Tentara Zionis Melakukan Pembunuhan Massal di Tepi Barat
Tanggal 14 Oktober 1953, kelompok Zionis bersenjata menyerang desa Qibyah di Tepi Barat. Setelah menduduki desa itu, orang-orang Zionis itu selama dua hari melakukan pembunuhan massal terhadap orang-orang Palestina di desa tersebut dan menghancurkan rumah-rumah mereka. Terorisme ini didalagi oleh komandan tentara rezim Zionis saat itu, yaitu Ariel Sharon. Dalam aksi terorisme kejam Zionis ini, 42 laki-laki, perempuan, dan anak-anak Palestina tewas, sejumlah besar warga lainnya luka-luka, puluhan rumah, dan sebuah sekolah dihancurkan dengan bom.

Kruschev Mengundurkan Diri
Tanggal 14 Oktober 1964, Nikita Kruschev, sekjen Partai Komunis Soviet pada waktu itu, mengundurkan diri. Nama Nikita Kruschev menjadi terkenal ke seluruh dunia setelah banyak melakukan perjalanan ke luar negeri. Dia dikenal sebagai pemimpin komunis yang menghapuskan taktik represif Stalin dan memiliki gaya diplomatik yang lancang. Di antara tindakan-tindakan reformasi Kruschev adalah, merehabilitasi ratusan tahanan politik yang dipenjarakan oleh Stalin di Siberia, mengurangi kekuatan polisi rahasia dan mengganti NKVD dengan KGB, serta melarang penyiksaan. Namun, Kruschev juga membubarkan organisasi-organisasi agama dan menghancurkan atau menutup banyak gereja.
Kebijakan yang diambil Kruschev itu mendapatkan banyak penentangan sehingga akhirnya pada tahun 1963, lawan-lawan politiknya memaksanya untuk mengundurkan diri. Nikita Kruschev meninggal dunia karena serangan jantung pada tahun 1971.

Luther King Memperoleh Nobel
Tanggal 14 Oktober 1964, Dr. Martin Luther King, seorang pemimpin gerakan pembelaan hak asasi kaum kulit hitam Amerika, meraih hadiah Nobel atas perjuangannya yang tak kenal lelah dalam menghapuskan rasialisme di AS. Martin Luther King adalah orang termuda yang pernah menerima Nobel, yaitu di usia 35 tahun. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1929 di Atlanta dan memiliki gelar doktor di bidang teologi. Pada tahun 1963, ia memimpin sebuah demonstrasi besar di kota Washington dan di sana ia menyampaikan pidato legendarisnya yang berjudul "I Have A Dream". Di dalam pidato itu, ia menyampaikan harapan dan impiannya, bahwa kelak warga AS, baik kulit hitam maupun putih duduk berdampingan dan tidak ada lagi rasialisme. Pad tahun 1964, gerakan pembelaan hak asasi yang dipimpin King meraih dua keberhasilan. Pertama, diratifikasinya "Amandemen ke-24" yang berisi dihapuskannya pajak untuk mendapatkan hak memilih. Kedua, disahkannya "Akta Hak-Hak Sipil 1964", yang berisi larangan diskriminasi ras dalam pekerjaan dan pendidikan serta larangan pemisahan rasial di fasilitas publik.
Pada tahun itu pula, Martin Luther King meraih hadiah Nobel dan menyumbangkan haidah uang yang diperolehnya, yaitu sebesar 54.600 dolar kepada gerakan pembelaan hak warga sipil.

Presiden Tanzania Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 14 Oktober 1999, Julius Kambarage Nyerere, presiden pertama Republik Tanzania, meninggal dunia. Nyerere dilahirkan di keluarga bangsawan dan meraih gelar masternya di University of Edinburgh Inggris. Setelah kembali ke tanah airnya, pada tahun 1954, Nyerere masuk ke kancah politik. Pada tahun itu, dia mendirikan partai politik pertama di Tanzania, yaitu The Tanganyika African National Union yang menyatukan berbagai faksi nasionalis dan menjadi partai yang membawa Tanzania kepada kemerdekaannya. Pada tahun 1962, Nyerere terpilih sebagai presiden dan di tahun 1985, ia mengundurkan diri. Nyerere meninggal dunia akibat kanker di London pada tahun 1999.

15 Oktober
Jalaluddin Muhamad Akbar Lahir

Tanggal 15 Oktober tahun 1542, Abul Fatah Jalaludin Muhammad Akbar, raja dari Dinasti Timurian India, terlahir ke dunia. Dia dikenal dengan nama Akbar Syah. Dia naik tahta pada usia 13 tahun setelah kematian ayahnya, Hamayun. Setelah berkuasa, Akbar Syah berusaha memperluas wilayah kerajaan. Dia berhasil menguasai Bangal, Kashmir, Sindh, Punjab, Ahmadnegar, dan Kandahar. Ahmad Syah juga berhasil membebaskan semenanjung Dakan yang dijajah oleh Portugis. Masa pemerintahan Akbar Syah dianggap sebagai masa kegemilangan Dinasti Timurian. Akbar Syah meninggal dunia tahun 1605.

Perang Perancis - Prusia
Tanggal 15 Oktober tahun 1806, dimulailah perang antara Perancis dan Prusia. Sehari sebelumnya, Napoleon dalam perang enam hari yang dinamakan Perang Saxon, berhasil mengalahkan pasukan Prusia. Perang periode kedua antara kedua pasukan itu kembali dimenangkan oleh Napoleon. Pada tanggal 28 Oktober, Napoleon dan pasukannya berhasil memasuki kota Berlin, ibukota Prusia.

Pengadilan atas Drefyus
Tanggal 15 Oktober 1894 dimulailah pengadilan terhadap Alfred Dreyfus, seorang perwira Perancis keturunan Yahudi. Dreyfus diadili karena dituduh mengkhianati negaranya dengan memberikan informasi militer rahasia kepada Jerman. Pengadilan yang kontroversial ini akhirnya menjatuhkan hukuman penjara seumur hidup dan penurunan pangkat kepada Dreyfus. Beberapa tahun kemudian, terbukti bahwa Dreyfus tidak bersalah dan dia dibebaskan dari penjara. Kasus Dreyfus ini dimanfaatkan oleh orang-orang Yahudi dengan melakukan propaganda besar-besaran untuk meningkatkan rasa simpati dunia terhadap bangsa Yahudi.

Ayatullah Isfahani Dibunuh MKO

Tanggal 15 Oktober 1983, Ayatullah Ataullah Asyrafi Isfahani, wakil Imam Khomeini dan Imam Jumat provinsi Kermansyah, gugur syahid akibat teror dari kelompok MKO. Ayatullah Isfahani dalam perjuangan melawan rezim Syah Pahlevi. Aktivitasnya dalam memimpin rakyat Kermansyah membuatnya berkali-kali dipenjara oleh rezim Syah. Setelah kemenangan revolusi Islam, Imam Khomeini menunjuknya sebagai Imam Jumat di Kermansyah. Pada tanggal 15 Oktober 1983, di saat sedang mendirikan shalat Jumat, beliau dibunuh oleh teroris musuh Islam. Mengenai beliau, Imam Khomeini berkata, " Saya mengenal almarhum Syahid Ataullah Asyrafi sebagai orang yang memiliki jiwa bersih dari hawa nafsu serta memiliki ilmu yang bermanfaat dan amal saleh."

16 Oktober
Napoleon Diasingkan

Tanggal 16 Oktober tahun 1815, dimulailah periode kedua pengasingan atas Kaisar Perancis, Napoleon Bonaparte, ke pulau St. Helen. Karena ambisinya untuk menguasai dunia, Napoleon melancarkan berbagai peperangan dan awalnya berhasil menduduki sebagian besar wilayah Eropa. Namun akhirnya dalam Perang Waterloo, Napoleon dikalahkan oleh Inggris di bawah pimpinan Jenderal Wellington. Akibat dari kekalahan itu, Napoleon diasingkan oleh Inggris ke pulau St. Helen dan akhirnya pada tahun 1821 dia meninggal di dalam pengasingan.

Nietzsche Lahir
Tanggal 16 Oktober tahun 1844, Frederic Wilhelm Nietzsche, seorang filsuf terkenal Jerman, terlahir ke dunia. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikannya di bidang filologi klasik di Universitas Bonn dan Leipzig, Nietzsche mengajar di Universitas Basel. Pada saat itu, Nietzsche baru berusia 24 tahun. Salah satu filosofi Nietzsche yang paling fundamental adalah bawah nilai agama dan moral yang dipresentasikan oleh Kristen, telah kehilangan kekuatan dalam kehidupan manusia. Nietzsche menyimpulkan pandangan ini dalam sebuah kalimatnya yang terkenal, yaitu "Tuhan telah mati." Nietzsche mengklaim bahwa nilai-nilai baru bisa diciptakan untuk menggantikan nilai-nilai tradisional. Diskusi tentang hal ini kemudian melahirkan konsep superman atau manusia adidaya. Menurut Nietzsche, manusia adidaya merupakan hasil dari kekuatan manusia dan lebih unggul dari semua kebaikan dan keburukan. Karya-karya Nietzsche di antaranya berjudul The Birth of Tragedy dan Beyond Good and Evil. Di akhir hayatnya, Nietzsche mengalami gangguan mental dan akhirnya pada tahun 1900, ia meninggal dunia.

Edgar Allan Poe Meninggal
Tanggal 16 Oktober 1849, Edgar Allan Poe, seorang penulis dan penyair AS, meninggal dunia. Poe dilahirkan pada tahun 1809 dan pada usia tiga tahun, ia telah yatim piatu. Edgar Allan Poe menuntut ilmu di Universitas Virginia. Pada tahun 1827, buku kumpulan puisi pertama karya Poe diterbitkan dengan judul Tamerlane and other poems namun tidak meraih sambutan dari para kritikus. Pada tahun 1845, Poe menerbitkan kumpulan puisinya berjudul The Raven and Other Poems yang membuatnya terkenal di seluruh AS dan bahkan di luar negeri. Sejak itu, Poe dinilai sebagai seorang sastrawan yang jenius.

17 Oktober
Polisi Perancis Bunuh 200 Warga AlJazair

Tanggal 17 Oktober 1962, polisi Perancis melakukan pembunuhan massal terhadap lebih dari 200 warga Aljazair. Warga Aljazair tersebut, pada saat itu sedang melakukan demonstrasi di Paris untuk menuntut diadakannya perundingan damai dalam mengakhiri perang kemerdekaan Aljazair dari penjajahan Perancis. Situasi demonstrasi semakin memanas setelah meledaknya sebuah bom yang menewaskan beberapa polisi Paris. Kepala Polisi Paris waktu itu, Maurice Popon memerintahkan pasukannya untuk membunuhi orang-orang Aljazair. Secara resmi, polisi mengumumkan hanya 3 orang yang tewas dan 67 luka-luka. Namun, saksi mata menyatakan bahwa sangat banyak jasad yang mengambang di Sungai Seine pada kejadian itu.
Pada tahun 1998, Maurice Popon diadili atas kasus kerjasamanya dengan NAZI Jerman. Dalam pengadilan itu, kasus pembantaian warga Aljazair juga ikut terangkat dan terungkap bahwa jumlah yang tewas jauh lebih banyak daripada yang diakuinya. Popon dijatuhi hukuman sepuluh tahun penjara atas kejahatan melawan kemanusiaan.


Arab Produsen Minyak Arab Embargo Amerika dan Inggris
Tanggal 17 Oktober tahun 1973, negara-negara Arab produsen minyak memulai embargo minyaknya terhadap Amerika, Inggris, dan negara-negara lain yang menjual minyaknya kepada Israel. Embargo ini dilakukan karena Amerika dan Inggris memberikan bantuan militer secara besar-besaran kepada Zionis dalam perang antara Rezim ini dengan Syria dan Mesir yang dimulai pada tanggal 6 Oktober tahun itu. Sehari setelah pengumuman dinaikkannya harga minyak oleh OPEC, negara-negara Arab mengumumkan embargonya terhadap AS, Inggris, dan Israel. Akibatnya, harga minyak menjadi semakin tinggi. Negara-negara Barat mendapat kesulitan besar akibat embargo ini dan periode ini disebut sebagai "Oil Shock". Pada bulan Maret 1974, embargo ini ditarik kembali setelah Menlu AS, Henry Kissinger berhasil menegoisasi perjanjian gencatan senjata antara Israel dan Syria. Peristiwa ini membuktikan bahwa sesungguhnya negara-negara Timur Tengah memiliki senjata yang kuat untuk menekan AS dan Barat pada umumnya agar tidak terus melindungi rezim Zionis.

Raymond Aron Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 17 Oktober tahun 1983, Raymond Aron, seorang sosiolog terkenal dari Perancis, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1905 dan selama bertahun-tahun mengajar sosiologi di Universitas Sorbonne, Paris. Di antara pendapatnya yang terkenal adalah mengenai tiga hal utama yang menyebabkan manusia terjerumus ke dalam perang, yaitu teknologi, antusiasme yang terorganisasi, dan sekularisme agama. Menurut Aron, teknologi telah membuat manusia menyelesaikan masalah yang seharusnya bisa diupayakan melalui diplomasi, dengan peperangan. Di antara buku-buku karya Aron adalah berjudul "Awal Perang Atom" dan "Tahun-Tahun Akhir Abad Ini".

Husain Khadiv Jam Wafat
Tanggal 17 Oktober 1986, Husain Khadiv Jam, seorang peneliti dan penerjemah kontemporer Iran, meninggal dunia pada usia ke-59 tahun. Setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan tingginya, Husain Khadiv Jam mengajar bidang sastra di Universitas Masyhad dan kemudian pindah mengajar di Universitas Tehran. Dari peneliti terkemuka Iran ini, lahir lebih dari 30 jilid buku di bidang penelitian, revisi, dan penerjemahan. Di antaranya adalah revisi dan penerjemahan dari buku "Kimia-ye Sa'adat" karya Imam Muhammad Ghazali dan "Haqayiqul Akhbar" karya Nashiri.

Murtadha Hanaeh Wafat

Tanggal 17 Oktober 1989, Murtadha Hanaeh, seorang musisi terkemuka Iran, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1922 dan setelah menyelesaikan pendidikan dasarnya, ia mulai menimba ilmu musik. Hananeh adalah salah satu pendiri Orkestra Symphoni Teheran. Selain itu, dia juga banyak aktif dalam pembuatan musik untuk film. Karya-karya musik Murtadha Hanaeh di antaranya berjudul "Langkah-Langkah yang Hilang" dan "Bagaimana Aku Menciptakan Melodi".

18 Oktober
Philipina Menjadi Bagian Koloni Spanyol

Tanggal 18 Oktober tahun 1565, Philipina secara resmi menjadi bagian dari koloni Spanyol di Asia. Kawasan ini ditemukan pada tahun 1521 oleh Ferdinand Magellan, namun baru empat puluh dua tahun kemudian Philipina resmi dijadikan koloni Spanyol. Spanyol menjajah Philipina selama tiga abad dan merampas sebagian besar hasil alam bangsa ini. Pada tahun 1898, menyusul kekalahan Spanyol dari AS, Philipina diserahkan kepada Amerika. Akhirnya, bangsa Philipina berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya pada tahun 1946. Philipina terdiri dari 7000 pulau yang terletak di Asia tenggara dan memiliki luas wilayah tiga ratus ribu kilometer persegi.


Italia dan Kaisar Utsmani Tandatangani Perjanjian Damai

Tanggal 18 Oktober tahun 1912, Italia dan Kaisar Utsmani menandatangani sebuah perjanjian damai. Berdasarkan perjanjian ini, Utsmani harus menyerahkan Libya kepada Italia. Setahun sebelumnya, Italia telah mulai menyerang Lybia. Awalnya, pasukan Utsmani yang menduduki Libya berhasil menang, namun akhirnya harus takluk kepada pasukan Italia dan Lybia pun diduduki oleh Italia. Karena semakin meningkatnya gejala akan terjadinya Perang Balkan Pertama melawan Imperium Utsmani, Kaisar Utsmani terpaksa melakukan perjanjian damai dengan Italia tersebut. Bangsa Lybia kemudian selama bertahun-tahun berperang melawan penjajahan Italia. Setelah terjadi perubahan politik pasca Perang Dunia Kedua, Lybia dikuasai oleh Perancis dan Inggris. Akhirnya, baru pada tahun 1951 Lybia berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya.

Perang Balkan Pertama Pecah

Tanggal 18 Oktober 1912, Bulgaria, Serbia, Yunani, dan Montenegro, memulai Perang Balkan Pertama dengan menyerang imperium Utsmani. Inggris dan Rusia merupakan penggerak terjadinya perang ini. Mereka berharap, dengan terpecah-pecahnya wilayah kekuasaan Utsmani di Eropa, imperium ini menjadi semakin lemah. Pada Perang Balkan Pertama ini, tentara Utsmani yang baru saja kalah dalam peperangan melawan Italia serta tidak memiliki kekuatan yang memadai, terpaksa bertekuk lutut dan kehilangan sebagian kekuasaannya di Eropa.

Radio BBC Didirikan
Tanggal 18 Oktober 1922, Radio BBC Inggris didirikan. Radio ini awalnya merupakan radio swasta, namun kemudian diambil alih oleh pemerintah Inggris pada tahun 1927. Sejak itu pula, anggaran dana radio BBC yang mengudara dalam berbagai bahasa ini dipenuhi oleh pemerintah Inggris. Meskipun BBC mengklaim kenetralan siarannya, namun pada setengah abad terakhir ini, terbukti bahwa radio BBC telah menjadi alat propaganda Inggris dan memberi jalan bagi pemerintahan London untuk mencampuri urusan dalam negeri negara-negara lain. Selain itu, BBC selalu menyiarkan berita dan laporan yang tendensius yang sejalan dengan politik imperialisme dan avonturis Inggris di negara-negara dunia ketiga.

Thomas Alva Edison Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 18 Oktober 1931, Thomas Alva Edison, penemu listrik, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada bulan Februari tahun 1847 di Amerika Serikat. Edison tidak memiliki gelar pendidikan tinggi, namun dengan melakukan penelitian dan belajar secara otodidak, ia mampu memiliki pengetahuan yang tinggi. Melalui berbagai penelitian yang dilakukannya sejak remaja, Edison berhasil menemukan dan menciptakan banyak hal, yang terpenting di antaranya adalah penemuan listrik, bola lampu, gramafon, dan fonograph.

Syahid Muhammad Rejai Berpidato di depan Majelis Umum PBB
Tanggal 18 Oktober 1980, Syahid Muhammad Rejai, Perdana Menteri Republik Islam Iran saat itu, menyampaikan pidatonya di depan Majelis Umum PBB. Dalam pidatonya itu, Muhammad Rejai menyampaikan kritikannya terhadap perang yang dipaksakan oleh rezim Irak kepada Iran. Selain itu, beliau juga membiacarakan masalah penting dunia lainnya seperti penjajahan Palestina oleh Rezim Zionis, dan politik busuk yang diterapkan negara-negara imperialis di seluruh dunia. Setelah menyampaikan pidato tersebut, wakil-wakil dari AS meminta untuk bertemu dengan Syahid Rejai, namun beliau menolaknya karena politik kriminal AS di seluruh dunia.

19 Oktober
Ottoman Menduduki Kota Sofia

Tanggal 19 Oktober tahun 1386, tentara imperium Ottoman menduduki kota Sofia, Bulgaria. Kemenangan Ottoman ini bersamaan dengan serangan pasukan Timur Gurkani yang terkenal dengan nama Timur Lang ke bagian timur dari wilayah kekuasaan Ottoman. Dengan demikian, imperium Ottoman semakin memperluas wilayahnya di Balkan. Di samping itu, Makedonia dan Serbia pun dikuasai oleh imperium ini. Negara-negara Balkan berada di bawah kekuasaan Ottoman selama lima abad dan baru mencapai kemerdekaannya pada akhir abad ke-19.

Panglima Pasukan Inggris Menyerah Kepada George Washington

Tanggal 19 Oktober tahun 1781, Jenderal Cornwallis, panglima pasukan Inggris, menyerah kalah kepada George Washington, panglima pasukan Amerika. Dengan demikian, Perang Kemerdekaan AS secara resmi berakhir. Perang ini dimulai sejak tahun 1775 antara para imigran Amerika dengan panjajah Inggris. Dua tahun setelah kemenangan para imigran AS tersebut, pada tahun 1783, ditandatangani perjanjian antara kedua pihak yang berisi pengakuan Inggris atas kemerdekaan Amerika Serikat.

Perang Leipzig Berkobar
Tanggal 19 Oktober 1813, berlangsunglah Perang Leipzig atau dikenal pula sebagai Perang Bangsa-Bangsa. Perang ini merupakan perang terbesar dalam era Perang Napoleon dan kekalahan terbesar yang dialaminya. Dalam perang ini, bertarung sekitar 560 ribu pasukan, 300 ribu di antaranya pasukan gabungan beberapa negara, yaitu Swedia, Inggris, Prusia, Rusia, dan Austria. Kekalahan Napoleon di Leipzig ini mengawali kekalahannya dalam perang-perang berikutnya. Pada tahun 1814, Napoleon dibuang ke Pulau St. Elba.
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          Can Africans get along (with each other that is)?        
My beloved mother, God bless her, raised me as a World citizen. Regardless of whether she always abided by this herself, she made a point of inculcating in me the fact that all humans were created equal in rights, duties and worth, and that differences between humans were to be treated as a common wealth, because the exploration of those differences was what would ultimately bond us together. Hence I grew up with people I called uncle and aunt and cousin (very close-friends of my parents, and their children), who were black, white, brown, yellow, green, blue... you get the picture. So it really never occured to me until... about High-school that there was such a big problem with race.

What I knew however, were the problems between Africans, and differnt ethnic groups in Congo. And that was also interesting because my mother, God bless her, also inculcated me with a love and loyalty to Congo as a whole, and a very strong sense of panafricanism. Yet, I could always - and can - sense was/is some of the disdain by Congolese people, for the West Africans, which were nicknamed "waras" (in refernce tothe fact that many of them are Muslim, using the term "Wal'lahi" to say "I swear to God"). I could sense the issues between the Hutus and the Tutsi (and we saw where that ended). I have seen the clivages between French-Speaking and English-Speaking Africans, between light-skinned/mixed Africans and darker ones, between Igbos and Yorubas, Balubakats and other Katangans, Mbutis abd bantus, Muslims and Christians (and animists) in Nigeria, Ivory Coast; And later on, yes, between White and Black Africans. One often wonders whether these multiple - often VERY artificially created - will ever allow Africans to prosper harmoniously. For someone with my Panafricanism, it is often really... depressing!!!

But then, you have those moments that just re-energize me, and give me more hope for the motherland. 5 years ago, while I was a sophomore student at Earlham College, I initiated - at the request of the elder Africans on campus - the "Pan African Society at Earlham" (PASE), to unite the very few Africans, Afro-Carribeans, potentially African-Americans, and friends of Africa from other continents, on campus. PASE started-off great, with a lot of optimism, and bright ideals. But in the following years, those petty, artificial divisions - as well as some interpersonal misunderstandings - made the group go to the deep end. I was worried that after I graduated, the group would simply... disappear. Well it did NOT!! In fact, they kept going, with the organization of "Africa Fest" (Earlham's African Festival) last year, despite the straining tensions that internal disagreements were creating.

And this year, the young PASE members have outdone themselves, with a nearly flawless Africa Fest, with great advertising, and a cohesive, communal and harmonious organization that would shame even the African Union. I was impressed to see the joy and the smiles on the faces of all these students, from Zimbabwe, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Lesotho, Swaziland, Sudan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Liberia, Haiti, Jamaica, Fiji and the United States (and Congo, with me), all working together without unnecessary complaints, and annoying noises, and useless bickering... all working - even those that were not of African descent - for the motherland to be represented with dignity and quality - at least to the best of their ability. This are the small initiatives that give me hope in the future. If these students represent what the future of Africa and the world will be made of, I have hope. The synergy they displayed was a delight to watch, and observe, and participate in, and it was resounding rejection of all the apocalyptic views of Africa and its prospects.

The current PASE members and all their friends lead me to state boldly: Africans can - and WILL - get along, when given the chance. There are forces intent on us never getting that chance. Let them be warned: Their final hour is not far! Let those that have ears...

Bayete PASE!! Longonya na Afrika!!


          BRAZIL: REFORMA TRABALHISTA É BRUTAL VIOLÊNCIA CONTRA DIREITOS DAS MULHERES!        
 MULHERES NA (DES) CONSTRUÇÃO CIVIL

www.google.com.br/images. BRASIL-SÉCULO XXI: boom na construção civil transforma homens em empreendedores,  "autônomos (PEJOTIZAÇÃO)", colocando preço num trabalho disputadíssimo e advinha quem é recrutado para substituí-los ganhando menos nas milhares de construções pelo país? MULHERES.



Marina da Silva


Este artigo pretende evidenciar como a proteção ao trabalho da mulher vem se deteriorando sob a falácia da “igualdade” dos sexos em tudo, mas principalmente no mundo do trabalho, camuflando a hiperexploração de homens e mulheres! O uso da força de trabalho de crianças e mulheres, desde os primórdios do Capitalismo se dá de forma precária, desprotegida, em locais e condições de trabalho insalubres, expondo-os a abusos (físico, psicológico, sexual, moral) e sempre de forma rebaixada para baratear o trabalho dos homens!
A exploração capitalista é voraz para ambos e os conflitos são inerentes à relação capital/traballho. Até as primeiras décadas do século XIX prevalece a ausência de regulação e toda a luta trabalhista se concentra na redução de jornada e locais/condições salubres de trabalho. Somente a partir de 1833 é que podemos rastrear as primeiras leis do trabalho na Inglaterra.1
Escravagista até 1888, o Brasil foi um dos últimos países a abrir mão da escravidão (?) e tudo que se tem a partir de então são algumas leis esparsas. Até a primeira constituição republicana de 1891 não se discutia direitos trabalhistas, embora já se possa rastrear lutas pela redução da jornada e remuneração do trabalho! Na carta de 1891 cidadania é direito ao voto, mas mulheres não participam ou podem votar nas eleições!
A luta pela igualdade de direitos para homens e mulheres, longe do cenário brasileiro, terá um palco sangrento nos Estados Unidos em 8 de março de 1957. “129 tecelãs são assassinadas carbonizadas na fábrica de tecidos Cotton”, numa ação policial abominável contra mulheres que lutavam pela redução da jornada de 14h para 10h de trabalho. 

"Ainda que não exista consenso sobre o que de fato ocorreu, sabe-se que no dia 25 de março houve um incêndio na fábrica, do qual nem todos os operários escaparam. A maioria dos 600 trabalhadores conseguiu sair da fábrica, mas 146, sendo 125 mulheres, morreram.
Quando esse dia passou a ser o Dia da Mulher? Só em 1977, quando a ONU declarou o 8 de março como o Dia Internacional da Mulher, para homenagear as lutas feministas por igualdade, justiça e respeito. Desde o começo do século XX, no entanto, movimentos sociais já vinham promovendo datas internacionais de debate sobre os direitos das mulheres. Um dos mais conhecidos aconteceu em 1911 em Copenhague, na Dinamarca, quando um encontro realizado no dia 19 de março discutiu igualdade de gêneros, sufrágio feminino e outras questões envolvendo direitos das mulheres."2



"Esse dia, considerado o dia internacional da Mulher e sua luta por direitos trabalhistas vem se metamorfoseando em dia mundial contra o câncer de mama!
Somente a partir de G.Vargas (1930-1945) é que os direitos trabalhistas começam a ser constitucionalizados incluindo a igualdade entre os sexos. “Art 108 - São eleitores os brasileiros de um e de outro sexo, maiores de 18 anos, que se alistarem na forma da lei.”

Inovadora, é na Carta de 1934 que pela primeira vez se fala em Ordem econômica ordenada sob os princípios de justiça social e existência digna [Título IV, art.115] e na proteção do trabalho da mulher e do menor [art121, d,h]; responsabilidade social da empresa; amparo a maternidade e infância e educação. Ainda na constituição de 1934 o Estado institui a Justiça do Trabalho: “Art 122 - Para dirimir questões entre empregadores e empregados, regidas pela legislação social, fica instituída a Justiça do Trabalho”. Visando melhorar as condições e a proteção social legal do trabalhador, a Carta de 1934 dispõe os direitos trabalhistas no Artigo 121 entre eles: jornada de oito horas; salário mínimo; proíbe a diferença salarial entre homens e mulheres; repouso semanal, férias anuais; indenização na dispensa sem justa causa e ainda outros direitos: “Art. 121. h) assistência médica e sanitária ao trabalhador e à gestante, assegurando a esta descanso antes e depois do parto, sem prejuízo do salário e do emprego, e instituição de previdência, mediante contribuição igual da União, do empregador e do empregado(...) (grifos meus)

Resultado de imagem para lutas trabalhistas no brasil

www.google.com.br/images. Desprezando as lutas e mortes de operários brasileiros por jornada, salários, melhores condições de trabalho,  "intelectuais clássicos", seja lá o que isso signifique, teimam em afirmar que os direitos trabalhistas consolidados na CLT são obra e arte do "pai dos pobres", Getúlio Vargas! Um blá blá blá neoliberal desde os anos 1990, intensificado no governo de FHC [1994-2002], a mão esquerda do neoliberalismo truculento sobre os direitos trabalhistas no Brasil.


 
Na Carta de 1937, Art.122. 1º) todos são iguais perante a lei; mas vivemos a ditatura varguista que instaurou o “Estado Novo” suprimindo a liberdade, os direitos e garantias legais dos cidadãos e cidadãs! Família, educação, cultura são “estimulados” e a maternidade, infância e juventude merecem a proteção do Estado. É ainda no governo getulista que as leis trabalhistas, antes esparsas são consolidadas na CLT- Consolidação das Leis do Trabalho: Decreto-lei n.º 5.452, de 1º de maio de 1943.
Findo o Estado Novo fase em que a economia, antes rural agrária, é  reorientada para industrialização passamos por um breve período democrático de fortalecimento industrial, principalmente no governo progressista de JK. A nova Constituição de 1946 acrescenta a Ordem econômica a palavra social e declara: TÍTULO V. “Art 145 - A ordem econômica deve ser organizada conforme os princípios da justiça social, conciliando a liberdade de iniciativa com a valorização do trabalho humano.

A nova constituição mantem os direitos trabalhistas das Cartas de 1934/37 e acrescenta outros, entre eles: Art. 157: III - salário do trabalho noturno superior ao do diurno; IV - participação obrigatória e direta do trabalhador nos lucros da empresa; VIII - higiene e segurança do trabalho; XIV - assistência sanitária, inclusive hospitalar e médica preventiva, ao trabalhador e à gestante; (grifos meus)
O trabalho da mulher e do menor continuam protegidos constitucionalmente: IX - proibição de trabalho a menores de quatorze anos; em indústrias insalubres, a mulheres e a menores, de dezoito anos; e de trabalho noturno a menores de dezoito anos; (grifo meu)

Até o golpe militar em 31 de março de 1964, o Brasil entrava firme na era industrial tornando-se cada vez mais urbano. Data deste período o “salto” ou impulso ao crescimento econômico dado por JK e seu projeto de levar a cabo a industrialização do país fazendo “50 anos em 5” com investimento pesado em transporte e energia para sustentar a indústria de base. Todo esse esforço vai coroar-se no “Milagre brasileiro” dos primórdios dos anos 70. A Constituição de 1967 vai acompanhar a ditadura e no mundo do trabalho seguem as garantias e preceitos das constituições anteriores. O artigo 158 lista os direitos do trabalhador acrescido de novos direitos como, por exemplo: II - salário-família aos dependentes do trabalhador; IX - higiene e segurança do trabalho; XI - descanso remunerado da gestante, antes e depois do parto, sem prejuízo do emprego e do salário; XIII - estabilidade, com indenização ao trabalhador despedido, ou fundo de garantia equivalente.”

O Trabalho noturno antes proibido a menores de 16, passa a ser proibido a menores de 18 na Carta de 1967; a proteção a mulher é mantida, mas a proteção ao trabalho do menor sofre um golpe e cai para doze anos no regime militar: Art. 158. X - proibição de trabalho a menores de doze anos e de trabalho noturno a menores de dezoito anos, em indústrias insalubres a estes e às mulheres”. Acompanhe as mudanças nas Constituições ao longo da história:

Constituição de 1934. Art. 121. d) proibição de trabalho a menores de 14 anos; de trabalho noturno a menores de 16 e em indústrias insalubres, a menores de 18 anos e a mulheres;

Constituição de 1937. d) proibição de trabalho a menores de 14 anos; de trabalho noturno a menores de 16 e em indústrias insalubres, a menores de 18 anos e a mulheres;

Constituição de 1946. Art. 157. IX - proibição de trabalho a menores de quatorze anos; em indústrias insalubres, a mulheres e a menores, de dezoito anos; e de trabalho noturno a menores de dezoito anos”.

Constituição de 1967. Art.158 X - proibição de trabalho a menores de doze anos e de trabalho noturno a menores de dezoito anos, em indústrias insalubres a estes e às mulheres;

Constituição de 1988. “XXXIII - proibição de trabalho noturno, perigoso ou insalubre a menores de dezoito e de qualquer trabalho a menores de dezesseis anos, salvo na condição de aprendiz, a partir de quatorze anos; (Redação dada pela Emenda Constitucional nº 20, de 1998)”
www.google.com.br/images

Conhecida como a Constituição cidadã, a Carta de 1988 mantem no seu Art. 1º os preceitos das Cartas predecessoras: dignidade humana, valor social do trabalho e da iniciativa privada. E pela primeira vez uma constituição declara nomeadamente a igualdade de gênero:

Art. 5. I - homens e mulheres são iguais em direitos e obrigações, nos termos desta Constituição”.

Os direitos trabalhistas são listados no Art. 7º para trabalhadores urbanos e rurais, mas não são estendidos aos trabalhadores domésticos, que, em 2008 eram cerca de 7.5 milhões de trabalhadores, a grande maioria mulheres, as domésticas!
A proteção ao trabalho do menor e da mulher sofrem novo golpe: o trabalho noturno, perigoso e insalubre proibido a menores de dezoito, passa a abarcar adolescentes a partir 14/16 anos [salvo, se a lei não coibir, em todas as ocupações].
www.google.com.br/images. Desigualdade, principalmente salarial, ocupação de altos cargos, representação política, este é o quadro do papel da mulher no mundo, Brazil, incluso!



Já a mulher, além da igualdade de gênero, “ganha” o direito de ser explorada dia e noite em indústrias perigosas, insalubres, enfim, em qualquer trabalho a que antes se sujeitavam apenas homens! A igualdade na verdade coloca um véu sobre a exploração descarada do trabalho da mulher, nos mesmos moldes do trabalho do homem, só que de forma rebaixada: salários menores, relações e condições de trabalho precárias, exposição a riscos a saúde, abusos e assédio sexual, moral, físico, psicológico! 
A proteção ao trabalho da mulher, antes direito constitucionalizado, passa a depender de “incentivos específicos” - seja lá o que signifique isso- jamais saiu do papel.
Eis alguns dos novos direitos trabalhistas acrescentados pela Carta de 1988:

“II. seguro-desemprego, V. remuneração do serviço extraordinário superior, no mínimo, em cinqüenta por cento à do normal; XVII - gozo de férias anuais remuneradas com, pelo menos, um terço a mais do que o salário normal; XVIII - licença à gestante, sem prejuízo do emprego e do salário, com a duração de cento e vinte dias; XIX - licença-paternidade,; XXIII - adicional de remuneração para as atividades penosas, insalubres ou perigosas.


www.google.com.br/images. As empreguetes da novela global "Cheias de charme" cantam"Queria ver madame aqui no meu lugar, eu ia rir de me acabar"!

Somente em 02 de abril de 2013, duas décadas e meia depois da promulgação da Carta de 1988, todos os direitos do Art. 7° são estendidos às domésticas: “Parágrafo único. São assegurados à categoria dos trabalhadores domésticos todos os direitos trabalhistas”. 02-04-2013.
www.google.com.br/images. "Empreguetes" na vida real, APÓS 70 ANOS DA CLT-01-05-1943...ainda é "casa grande e senzala".


Situação do trabalho doméstico no País. "Em 2011, no Brasil, havia 6,7 milhões de trabalhadores domésticos, dos quais 93% são mulheres (6,16 milhões), conforme a Pesquisa Nacional de Amostragem por Domicílio (Pnad). Este número se diferencia pouco daquele medido em 2009, quando havia 7,2 milhões de trabalhadores, dos quais 6,7 milhões eram mulheres. Entre as trabalhadoras, 62% são negras (4,4 milhões)".


Estamos no século XXI, segunda década, e a igualdade entre homens e mulheres sequer desponta no horizonte e será, neste compasso, uma meta hercúlea para um milênio! A precarização do trabalho ganhou força com dois fenômenos vitais ao capitalismo flexível: a arregimentação em massa da mão-de-obra feminina e a “Terceirização” que no Brazil é sinônimo de precarização e tem “rosto de mulher”! Em 2010, segundo a ANPT- Associação Nacional dos Procuradores do Trabalho eram cerca de 10 milhões de trabalhadores que:

“Além de ganhar menos e trabalhar mais, os terceirizados são empregados em funções que trazem maior risco de acidente e mortes. De acordo com estatísticas citadas pelo presidente da ANPT, oito em cada 10 acidentes no ambiente de trabalho envolvem funcionários terceirizados”.
www.google.com.br/images Ministério Dilma, primeira presidenta do país, é composto por 9 mulheres e 28 homens; dos 81 senadores apenas 8 mulheres; na câmara federal são 45 mulheres e 468 homens. Qual é o lugar da mulher na política?

A igualdade entre homens e mulheres propugnada na Carta de 1988 é mera ficção, uma igualdade de papel! No mundo real, no viver a vida, o trabalho da mulher continua rebaixado em relação ao trabalho do homem!

"Poder. De acordo com o último relatório (2009/2010) do Observatório Brasil da Igualdade de Gênero, cujo tema-foco foi “Mulheres, Poder e Decisão”, as mulheres representam mais da metade da população e do eleitorado, tem maior nível de escolaridade, representa quase 50% da população economicamente ativa do País, mas não chegaram a 20% nos cargos de maior nível hierárquico no Parlamento, nos governos municipais e estaduais, nas secretarias do primeiro escalão do Poder Executivo, no Judiciário, nos sindicatos e até nas reitorias.A proporção de mulheres dirigentes (4,4%) também é inferior à proporção de homens dirigentes (5,9%)

Somos uma das dez potências capitalistas da atualidade, PIB de trilhões de dólares, mas continuamos com a mentalidade sexista, machista, racista e violenta contra as mulheres: "Salários. O mais recente Censo Demográfico (2010) do País mostra que o rendimento médio mensal dos homens com Carteira Profissional assinada foi de R$ 1.392, ao passo que o das mulheres foi cerca de 30% abaixo disso, atingindo R$ 983.”

www.google.com.br/images  "Você não passa de uma mulher, viu!" Martinho da Vila avisava às mulheres que entravam de forma maciça no mercado de trabalho e faculdades nos anos 1970!


“Contando jornada doméstica, mulher trabalha mais do que homem, diz OIT.Estudo concluiu que mulheres trabalham 5 horas a mais por semana. Essas trabalhadoras, além da sua jornada semanal de 36 horas, em média, no mercado de trabalho, dedicavam cerca de 22 horas semanais aos afazeres domésticos, ao passo em que entre os homens tal dedicação era de 9,5 horas semanais, ou seja, 12,5 horas a menos", informou a OIT no levantamento”


A grande jogada da Constituição de 1988: igualou a mulher ao homem não somente em direitos e deveres colocando ambos a exploração absurda da acumulação flexível atual como retirou a proteção ao trabalho feminino que persistiu nas constituições anteriores! Como os homens, as mulheres agora podem ser exploradas em condições insalubres, atividades perigosas, de alto risco, atividades em indústrias insalubres, com o respaldo da Carta de 1988 e a CLT-flex!


www.google.com.br/images



"Dados sobre a distribuição por setor de atividade apontam uma clara segmentação ocupacional, tanto relacionada ao gênero, quanto à raça. As mulheres – especialmente as negras – estão mais concentradas no setor de serviços sociais (aproximadamente 34% da mão de obra feminina), grupo que abarca serviços de cuidado em sentido amplo (educação, saúde, serviços sociais e domésticos). Já os homens, sobretudo os negros, estão sobrerrepresentados na construção civil. Em 2009, esse setor empregava quase 13% dos homens e menos de 1% das mulheres, indica o estudo do Ipea".http://www.brasil.gov.br/secoes/mulher/desigualdade-de-generos/mulheres-x-homens

Multifacetada, multifuncional, multiflexível, pau-pra-toda-obra, “paraíba-masculina, mulher-macho”, atualmente mais de 50% da PEA-população economicamente ativa brasileira é formada por mulheres! É praticamente impossível imaginar a acumulação de capitais atual sem o recrutamento capital da mão-de-obra feminina!
Mas as mulheres precisam conquistar, em primeiro lugar, O DIREITO A VIDA!


www.google.com.br/images. MARCHA DAS VADIAS: homens e mulheres protestam contra as violências cometidas contra mulheres, especialmente, contra a vida das mulheres! Marcha mundial das vadias! 25-05-2005

E as mulheres que trabalham como terceirizadas e no trabalho doméstico, além da vida, lutam pelo respeito no ambiente de trabalho!



Resultado de imagem para novela sangue bom TITO E EMPREGADA

www.google.com.br/images.  SANGUE BOM. Parece ficção, mas é a novela da vida real de milhares de domésticas no Brasil.
Tito ["'Predador' de mulheres na trama, Rômulo Neto"] obriga a empregada a  servi-lo sexualmente à força, onde e quando quer! A arte imita a vida e a REDE GLOBO perpetua o lugar social destinado às domésticas, negros, gays, etc, no Brasil sangue bom Para Todos!



FONTES:
1. MARX, KARL. O capital.: crítica da economia política: livro I.RJ:Civilização brasileira.1998, p.207-509.
2. 8 de Março. Dia internacional da mulher. Sobre o assunto ver http://www.cartaeducacao.com.br/reportagens/me-explica/por-que-8-de-marco-e-o-dia-internacional-da-mulher/




                  

          University A Capella Shares Music with South Africa        

After three weeks of singing, dancing, praying, and sight-seeing, the University A Cappella is back in the United States from an international tour of South Africa May 7–27, 2017.

“This place has been on our hearts and minds for more than two years,” said Dr. Kurt von Kampen, conductor. “We didn’t know what God had in store for us but we were prepared to serve Him through our singing and interactions with the people of South Africa. It was hard to leave a country we've come to love. The people were kind, humble and gracious.”

The internationally acclaimed choir performed concerts at churches and schools in eight cities on their 20-day tour. Concert sites include Atlanta, Georgia, Johannesburg, Middelburg, Kruger, Swaziland, St. Lucia, Durban, Lesotho and Pretoria.

During their travels, they were able to experience safaris and tour the city of Durban, as well as visit the Nelson Mandela museum. They also performed with a Swazi Tribal Choir and visited Krueger National Park.

“Seeing the students’ world view expand right before my eyes was the most fulfilling part of the tour,” said von Kampen. “Their ability to share music back-and-forth with the South Africans and the care they took was most satisfying.”

Because of the unique style of the South Africans, the choir seldom performed complete concerts as they are accustomed to in the United States. They would begin a concert and after a few songs, someone would shout out a call and there would be a response from the audience with a refrain. Then a soloist would begin another section – all in their native Zulu. The natives would then begin dancing in the aisles while pulling the students in and teaching them the verses and dances.

The students adapted quickly, picking up on the verses and bits of the language while also sharing their own blessings and benedictions.

“Like most trips, it's easy to wonder how the time flew by so quickly,” von Kampen said. “One thing that will always stick with us is the incredibly warm reception we have enjoyed at each stop along the way. I suspect there will always be a part of each of us that will remain in Africa.” 


          Concordia University's A Cappella Choir to perform throughout South Africa        
The University A Cappella Choir from Concordia University, Nebraska will travel to South Africa for its international tour May 7–27, 2017. The University A Cappella Choir from Concordia University, Nebraska will travel to South Africa for its international tour May 7–27, 2017.

The University A Cappella Choir from Concordia University, Nebraska, will travel to South Africa for its international tour May 7–27, 2017. The 74 voice choir was auditioned to get the number of students to 44, which is the optimum number to travel with internationally.

“This place has been on our hearts and minds for more than two years,” said Dr. Kurt von Kampen, conductor. “We don’t know what God has in store for us but we are prepared to serve Him through our singing and interactions with the people of South Africa. We know that will be blessed as much as those who come to hear us perform.”

The internationally acclaimed choir will perform concerts at churches and schools in eight cities on their 20-day tour. Concert sites include Atlanta, Georgia, Johannesburg, Middelburg, Kruger, Swaziland, St. Lucia, Durban, Lesotho and Pretoria.

During their travels, the choir will get to experience a safari and tour the city of Durban, as well as visit the Nelson Mandela museum. They will also get to perform with a Swazi Tribal Choir and visit Krueger National Park.

The choir performs full-length concerts, high school assemblies and church worship services.  The repertoire of sacred and secular choral compositions spans all historical periods and is representative of many cultures. This year’s concert features the works of Paul Manz, Johann Sebastian Bach, Franics Poulenc, Austin Theriot, Robert Shaw and Alice Parker, among others. 

The A Cappella Choir has toured the U.S. each year and internationally approximately every four years since its inception in 1939, performing throughout Europe, the Middle East, Australia, Asia and Mexico. It also has participated in international choral festivals in Australia and Austria, placing first and third respectively while under the direction of Dr. von Kampen.

Von Kampen earned a bachelor’s degree in music from Concordia University, Nebraska, a master’s degree in choral conducting from Oakland University and a doctorate in choral music education from the University of Nebraska.

Members of the A Cappella Choir traveling to South Africa include:

SOPRANO I

  • Vanessa Marsh, sophomore, Concordia, Mo.
    • B.A. Music and Communication
  • Kayleah Moravec, sophomore, Seward, Neb.
    • B.S. Biology (Pre-Med)
  • Emily Sievert, junior, Frankenmuth, Mich.
    • B.S. Education (Secondary) English, Music Minor
  • Meredith Locke, junior, Winter Haven, Fla.
    • B.A. Music, Performance

SOPRANO II

  • Corrianne Cain, freshman, Cedarburg, Wis.
    • B.S. Education (Middle/Secondary) LTD
  • Sarah Krause, junior, Rockford Ill.
    • B.S. Education (Elementary), B.A. Music; violin
  • Sarah Mueller, sophomore, Hemlock, Mich.
    • B.A. Theology, Psychology, Behavioral Sciences
  • Mallory Parrish, junior, Auburn, Neb.
    • B.S. Business Administration, B.S. Business Communications
  • Paige Stadler, sophomore, Columbus, Neb.
    • B. Mus. Music Education
  • Lauren Wilcox, junior, Seward, Neb.
    • B.S. Education (Elementary)

ALTO I

  • Kaitlyn Christensen, sophomore, Kenosha, Wis.
    • B.Mus. Vocal Music Education, LTD
  • Hannah Davis, sophomore, Coon Rapids, Minn.
    • B.S. Education (Early Childhood), LTD
  • Emily Jensen, senior, Sioux City, Iowa
    • B.S. Education (Secondary) Vocal Music; Drama
  • Emily Kollbaum, senior, Concordia, Mo.
    • B.S. Education (Secondary) Theatre, English
  • Jennifer Reynolds, senior, Ft. Wayne, Ind.
    • B. Mus. Music Education
  • Clara Rich, senior, Lincoln, Neb.
    • B.A. Music, B.S. Biology
  • Ann Spilker, Junior, Ashland, Neb.
    • B.S. Biology (Organismal)

ALTO II

  • Emma Gremmer, sophomore, New Braunfels, Texas
    • B.S. Accounting
  • Laura Hedstrom, junior, Lakefield, Minn.
    • B.Mus. Church Music
  • Sophie Hoelz, freshman, Milwaukee, Wis.
    • B.S. Education (Secondary) Spanish
  • Audrey Rich, sophomore, Lincoln, Neb.
    • B.S. Biology, B.A. Psychology
  • Megan Sparling, senior, Columbus, Neb.
    • B.A. Music; Business Minor

TENOR I

  • Albert Boldt, sophomore, Hewitt, Minn.
    • B.A. Music; Vocal Performance
  • Matthew Gerhold, sophomore, Atkins, Iowa
    • B.Mus. Vocal Music Education, LTD
  • Nathanael Patron, sophomore, North Newton, Kan.
    • B.A. Biology: Optometry
  • Jeramy Willis, junior, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
    • B.A. Psychology, CEL, DCE

TENOR II

  • David Dieckhoff, sophomore, Seward, Neb.
    • B.A. Physics
  • Micah Holten, junior, Nicollet, Minn.
    • B.M. Church Music
  • Micah Most, sophomore, Ogallala, Neb.
    • B.S. Biology/Chemistry, Pre-Veterinary
  • Jonathan Rippe, sophomore, Gretna, Neb.
    • B.A. Music; Psychology and Accounting Minors

BASS I

  • Isaiah Armbrecht, sophomore, Williamsburg, Iowa
    • B.A. History, Pre-Seminary
  • Joshua Brumm, sophomore, Seward, Neb.
    • B.A. Theology, DCE
  • Jacob Fink, junior, Long Beach, Calif.
    • B.S. Education (Secondary), History and Theology
  • Jacob Henson, junior, Herrin, Ill.
    • B.S. Computer Science; B.A. Music
  • Brandon Holmes, freshman, Waconia, Minn.
    • B.Mus. Music Education
  • Alex Kaldahl, freshman, Spencer, Iowa
    • B.S. Education (Secondary)
  • Mason Koeritz, senior, Northrop, Minn.
    • B.A. Music, B.S. Chemistry
  • Benjamin Leeper, junior, Denver, Colo.
    • B.A. Theater, Communications; Pre-Seminary

BASS II

  • Cameron Christiansen, senior, Palmer, Ala.
    • B.A. Psychology and Behavioral Science
  • Tyler Miles, senior, Omaha, Neb.
    • B.A. Psychology, CEL
  • Timothy Rasch, sophomore, Jos, Nigeria
    • B.S. Math, Computer Science
  • Aaron Strackbein, junior, San Antonio, Texas
    • B.A. Theology, DCE
  • Austin Theriot, junior, Lake Charles, La.
    • B.M. Church Music
  • Caleb Worral, junior, Fargo, N.D.
    • B.A. English, Pre-Seminary

          Bottle School in the Phillipines - How To Build        

http://www.inspirationgreen.com/plastic-bottle-schools.html

Bottle Schools



plastic bottle school

Pepsi partnered with the My Shelter foundation to build this school house made of 9,000 plastic bottles in San Pablo, Philippines. Thousands of volunteers recruited by Pepsi -- collected the used bottles, helped to raise awareness of the Philippines classroom shortage and participated in building the structure. Pepsi's clean-up campaign website, sarapmagbago.com and lots more photos here: facebook.com/pepsisarapmagbago
Photo © Kristel Marie Fuentes Gonzales.




plastic bottle school

After the 9,000 bottles were collected each 1.5 and 2-litre bottle was filled with adobe (sand, clay, and water with a bit of straw, twigs or manure thrown in). This machine made the filling much easier. Pic: 1.bp.blogspot.com Video: www.youtube.com




plastic bottle school

The filled bottles set out to dry...




plastic bottle school

The building process begins. Pic: www.micealiling.com




plastic bottle school

String is used to keep the bottles in place as the adobe is being applied.
Pic: www.micealiling.com




plastic bottle school

Ran out of caps...




plastic bottle school

A bit more cement will be applied and smoothed out.
Photo © Kristel Marie Fuentes Gonzales




plastic bottle school

Photo © Kristel Marie Fuentes Gonzales




plastic bottle school

Almost there. The roof is made of compressed tetra packs.
Photo © Kristel Marie Fuentes Gonzales



bottle school

One wall is made of glass bottles.
Photo © Kristel Marie Fuentes Gonzales


plastic bottle school

The inside walls were whitewashed.
Pic: campaignbrief.com www.bottleschoolproject.org



plastic bottle construction

Photo © Kristel Marie Fuentes Gonzales
www.bottleschoolproject.org




On the other side of the planet:



plastic bottle school

In Guatemala, volunteers with the help of the community, build plastic bottle school houses using a construction method pioneered by non-profit Pura Vida. The first plastic bottle school in Guatemala was started by volunteers in the Peace Corps and when they ran out of resources they called on Hug It Forward, an NGO that has now helped build numerous plastic bottle schools accross Guatemala. www.hugitforward.com



plastic bottle school

First, the students and volunteers stuff the plastic bottles with insulating trash. Each student is asked to collect and fill at least 20 bottles. They stuff each bottle with plastic waste, such as styrofoam, snack wrappers and plastic bags - the more compacted, the sturdier the building blocks and the less garbage remaining on the streets. www.flickr.com




plastic bottle construction

Hugitforward builds bottle schools a different way.
www.hugitforward.com




plastic bottle construction

The stuffed bottles are tied with string to keep them in place. Pictured is the 5th Hug it Forward school, under construction in La Cereza, finished July 2010. www.hugitforward.com




plastic bottle construction

Bottles strung to chicken wire on one side. Now the chicken wire will be placed on this side as well. www.flickr.com




plastic bottle school

Students stuff waste plastic in between the bottles. www.flickr.com




plastic bottle construction

The older students are called in for the higher work. www.flickr.com




plastic bottle construction

Applying cement to the inside of the building...
Students help sift the sand, mix and then apply cement that was donated. www.flickr.com



plastic bottle construction

And on the outside... Three layers of cement are applied. www.flickr.com




plastic bottle construction

Neater job = better trowel...
This is the 5th Hug it Forward school, under construction in La Cereza, finished July 2010. www.hugitforward.com




plastic bottle building

This school used metal frames instead of cement posts.
www.hugitforward.com




plastic bottle building

This one with a thatched roof. www.flickr.com




plastic bottle building

The final look - you would never know the main ingredient if they did not leave cutouts... www.flickr.com




plastic bottle construction

A cutout. Just a reminder...
www.hugitforward.com



plastic bottle construction

Outside -- under construction. A bench surrounding a tree. www.flickr.com




Bottle Construction ‘How-to’ By Laura Kutner, Peace Corps/Guatemala
Source: www.peacecorps.gov

1. Make sure your community is involved and that you have a safe/approved location to build.
2. Make sure you have a budget and enough funding.
3. Collect and stuff bottles and gather lots of inorganic trash. Each bottle and all of the stuffing material has to be clean (rinsed in water) and dried. If anything is wet or dirty it will become moldy and start to smell. Organic trash, such as paper, cardboard, dirt, and rocks, cannot be used.
4. Set up a frame, foundation, and roof comprised of either wood, metal or cement columns.
5. Start putting chicken wire on the outside of the frame, then work on the inside in sections, putting in the bottles while you slowly connect the inside layer of chicken wire to the outside, securing the bottles tightly.
6. Continue section by section, until bottles are placed, then stuff all empty leftover spaces with inorganic trash.
7. Test the cement mixture (no limestone) to make sure it sticks. Then start placing the first layer of cement.
8. When this dries, start a second layer.
9. Finish with a third layer then lay the flooring.
10. Inaugurate and celebrate!


Hug it Forward's
"The Bottle School Manual" a step-by-step guide to building a bottle school, complete with pictures and diagrams of each stage of the construction process. www.bottleschools.com


Another organization working with plastic bottles in Latin America: www.longwayhomeinc.org
A plastic bottle latrine with composting toilet: catorcekt.wordpress.com


See IG's Plastic Bottle Homes page as well... inspirationgreen.org/plastic-bottle-homes


Hug It Forward - 3 Months of filming compressed into a 3 minute video. This is a good overview of the hard work, dedication, win-wins, and excitement surrounding Bottle Schools.

Share this page... http://www.inspirationgreen.com/plastic-bottle-schools.ht

See comments and more ideas on InspirationGreen.com


< Previous1234Next >
Keyhole Gardens
This sustainable gardening method uses kitchen and garden waste and gray water (or wash water) as food for your vegetables.
Moon Gates
A threshold between worlds, (or garden features).
Dry Stone Walls
Constructed without mortar or cement. The art of the waller.
Wattle Edging
Ancient as gardening. Wattling is fun and attractive.
Wattle Fence
Since Neolithic times we have fenced our sheep and vegetables in this easy to make (albeit time consuming) wooden fence.
Earth Sheltered
The earth-house uses the ground as an insulating blanket that efficiently protects it from temperature extremes, wind, rain and extreme weather events.
Modern Underground
Underground homes with a modern bent. A large thermal mass stabilizes inside temperatures, giving you free heat in the winter, free cooling in the summer.
Pit Greenhouses
For those in northern, high altitude or windy climates who wish to grow their food year round. Take advantage of the insulating properties of the Earth.
Stacking Firewood
Ingenious ways to stack firewood.
Rocket Mass Heaters
The rocket mass heater works on similar properties as a masonry heater. A fast, high heat and oxygen-fed fire burn up the volatile gases and particulates, leaving very little pollution, and turn almost every ounce of wood fuel into energy.
Masonry Wood Cookstoves
Masonry heaters can incorporate cook stoves. And cook stoves can act as masonry heaters for small homes.
Masonry Heaters with Ovens
Bake ovens can be either white (the fire is in another box, usually below the oven) or black (the fire is in the same compartment as the food being cooked).
Masonry Heaters
Heat, not pollution. The cleanest burning wood stoves have been around for centuries, yet have taken a backseat to metal wood stoves and other polluting energy sources for far too long. Time for a revival!
Indoor Pizza Ovens
If you live in a cool climate, you might as well investigate adding a masonry heater along side your pizza oven. Or at least understanding them so that you might take advantage of exhaust heat.
River Rock Fireplaces
Although lots of mass and beautiful, most heat goes straight up the flue. Build a conventional fireplace for beauty alone, build a masonry fireplace for heat.
Container Homes
Somewhere around 30 million steel shipping containers exist today. 8 feet wide by 8.5 feet high, and either 20 or 40 feet long, they have been the globally standardized transportation module since 1956.
Insect Hotels
Call them bug condos, insect hotels, insect habitats, wildlife stacks, insect boxes, insect houses, insect walls, wild bee walls, insect accommodation, wild bee houses, solitary bee walls or wild bienenhaus. Wildlife habitat is rapidly disappearing. Building beneficial insects a special habitat will help your garden and the bugs.
Outdoor Earth Ovens
Examples of pure cob and adobe, and refractory castable cement over bricks.
Outdoor Brick Ovens
Recycle some old bricks...into an oven.
Outdoor Masonry Ovens
Build an outdoor oven with local stone and DIY skills for a few hundred dollars. Or, buy an oven kit and have it veneered for a few thousand.
Showing 1 - 20 of 62 Articles
< Previous1234Next >

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          Africa Cup of Nations Qualifying Review: Kekana takes the spotlight, Cape Verde beaten        
Hlompho Kekana lit up Saturday's action in Africa Cup of Nations qualifying by scoring from his own half in South Africa's 2-2 Group M draw at Cameroon. Bafana Bafana were without a win heading into the clash in Limbe and were unable to pick up their first three-point haul despite Kekana's remarkable strike. Tokelo Rantie gave the visitors the lead after 17 minutes, but Cameroon – coached for the first time by Hugo Broos – hit back through Sebastien Siani before half-time. Kekana put the South Africa back in front after spotting the goalkeeper off his line, before Nicolas Nkoulou headed what could prove to be a hugely significant leveller. The result lifts South Africa off the bottom of the group, but they remain five points adrift of leaders Cameroon and four behind Mauritania at the midway point, with the 13 group winners and two best runners-up progressing to the tournament. Top-ranked African side Cape Verde suffered a setback as they lost 1-0 at home to Morocco, who go three points clear at the top of Group F following Herve Renard's first game in charge. Democratic Republic of Congo leapt from third to first in Group B thanks to a 2-1 home win against Angola, while Senegal maintained their 100 per cent record by beating Niger 2-0. That win sends them six points clear of their three Group K rivals, with Namibia having claimed a 3-1 victory at Burundi. Jonathan Pitroipa netted the only goal from the penalty spot as Burkina Faso replaced 10-man Uganda at the top of Group D and Seychelles got the better of Lesotho 2-0. In the day's remaining fixture, Mauritius beat Rwanda 1-0.
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualifying Review: Adebayor makes triumphant return        
Togo striker Emmanuel Adebayor put his differences with the national team behind him, scoring the winner to earn his country a 2-1 success over Liberia in African Cup of Nations qualifying. The Tottenham forward was axed from the squad to face Ghana in a friendly on Monday, after reportedly failing to report for the team's training camp. Adebayor has since made up with head coach Tom Saintfiet, however, and his decisive strike in Sunday's Group A fixture can only have helped repair the relationship further. Togo fell behind to William Jebor's effort three minutes before half-time, but Sadat Ouro-Akoriko equalised shortly after the hour and then Adebayor snatched the winner three minutes from time. Cameroon were grateful to Vincent Aboubakar's last-minute effort for their 1-0 win over Mauritania which enabled them to go top of Group M, while Ghana had no such problems in seeing off Mauritius 7-1. Asamoah Gyan and Jordan Ayew both scored twice for this year's beaten finalists, while the other game in Group H saw Rwanda claim a 1-0 win at Mozambique. Seven-time champions Egypt were comfortable 3-0 winners over Tanzania as they got their Group G campaign off to a strong start - Rami Rabia, Basem Morsi and Mohamed Salah all finding the net. In Group B, goals from Firmin Mubele and Joel Kimwaki earned Democratic Republic of Congo a 2-1 home success over Madagascar. Ethiopia also prevailed by the same scoreline, Gatoch Panom and Saladin Said on target as they overcame Lesotho in Group J. The game between Congo and Kenya finished 1-1, as did the clash involving 2015 hosts Equatorial Guinea and Benin. Elsewhere, Souleymane Sacko's penalty earned Niger a 1-0 victory over Namibia in Group K, and another game was decided by a spot-kick as Ramadan Alagab's successful attempt saw Sudan defeat Sierra Leone 1-0.
          Africa Cup of Nations Qualification Preview: Egypt, Nigeria target AFCON return        
Hector Cuper's first key assignment as Egypt coach begins on Sunday as the seven-time continental champions begin qualification for the Africa Cup of Nations. Egypt were absent from the most recent AFCON after bowing out in qualification, with the former Inter boss appointed in March. Cuper's men are at home to Tanzania, while the other fixture in Group G sees 2013 champions Nigeria host Chad. Stephen Keshi's men also failed to qualify for this year's competition and the Super Eagles' qualification build-up has been marred by reports of a bust-up between the coach and midfielder John Obi Mikel. "I don't have a problem with Mikel," Keshi responded this week. "I spoke with him before I invited his fellow players for this game. We don't need him at this moment. In September we might need his services if he is available." Ghana will be heavy favourites to move into the next round from Group H as this year's beaten finalists welcome Mauritius while group rivals Mozambique and Rwanda meet in Maputo. Holders Ivory Coast travel to hosts and automatic qualifiers Gabon for a friendly without influential midfielder Yaya Toure with Sierra Leone and Sudan looking to get some early momentum in the only three-team group. George Weah junior - son of the legendary Liberia striker - could make his international debut for James Debbah's men when they face Togo in Lome. Elsewhere in Group A, Africa's lowest-ranked side Djibouti will hope to pull off a surprise result against Tunisia while Aliou Cisse takes charge of his first competitive Senegal match against Burundi in Dakar. The former Senegal international has been keen to play down his side's favourites tag, but will nonetheless be confident following March's friendly win over Ghana. Group K's other fixture sees COSAFA Cup winners Namibia travel to Niger, while there are also away trips for Libya, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, who travel to Morocco, Guinea and Malawi. Group M favourites Cameroon and South Africa face Mauritania and Gambia, with Cape Verde Islands hosting Sao Tome e Principe and Guinea-Bissau taking on Zambia. Elsewhere, Uganda and Burkina Faso entertain Botswana and Comoros, and Congo and Congo DR take on Kenya and Madagascar. In Group C, Equatorial Guinea - hosts of 2015's competition - welcome Benin as Mali face South Sudan. Guinea-Bissau meet Zambia in Ndola with Algeria taking on Seychelles and Lesotho travelling to Ethiopia.
          AFCON Qualifying Wrap: Holders Nigeria out        
Stephen Keshi's Nigeria side, defending champions after their success in South Africa last year, failed to win any of their opening three Group A matches but gave themselves hope of a great escape by beatingSudan and Congo. Those wins meant they were second ahead of their final game against South Africa, but a 2-2 draw saw them fail to reach the tournament proper for the first time since 2000. Tokelo Rantie's double put South Africa in control, before Sone Aluko pulled one back in the 68th minute to offer hope to the home fans at the Akwa Ibom Stadium. A red card for South Africa's Reneilwe Letsholonyane gave Nigeria further optimism and Aluko scored again in stoppage time, but it was too little too late. South Africa, who have still yet to beat Nigeria in a competitive fixture, subsequently finish top of the group unbeaten, while Congo's 1-0 win at Sudan means they will also contest the tournament slated to start in Equatorial Guinea in January. Egypt are also out after their chances of securing the qualifying spot for thebest third-placed teamwere dashed when they surrendered alead to lose2-1 at Group G winnersTunisia. With Tunisia and Senegal having already qualified, Egypt -the most successful team in AFCON history -needed to win by at least two clear goals to earn a reprieve but fell short. Senegal rounded off their campaign witha 3-0 win at home to Botswana. Egypt's failure meant that Democratic Republic of Congo take the vacant spot for the best of the restafter they defeated Sierra Leone 3-1 in Group D. The Ivory Coast secured second spot in the pool after a 0-0 draw with group leadersCameroon - who had Stephane Mbia sent off - but the game was marred by a mass pitch invasion, which saw fans and police clash. Ghana booked their place courtesy of a 3-1 success at home to Togo in a close Group E, from which all four teams harboured hopes of qualifying. The Black Stars' defeat to Uganda last Saturday meant they needed at least a point to qualify and Abdul Majeed Waris' first international goal in 13 months and a 35-yard rocket from Wakaso Mubarak put them 2-0 ahead by half-time. Togo pulled one back shortly after the restart through Jonathan Ayite but Ghana's stand-in captain Emmanuel Agyemang-Badu made sure of the points in the 69th minute, meaning they finish top ahead of Guinea who beat Uganda 2-0. In Group B Mali's 2-0 win over table-toppers Algeria saw them progress at the expense of Malawi who could only draw 0-0 with Ethiopia, while in Group C Gabon overtook Lesotho courtesy of a 4-2 win andBurkina Faso ended their successful campaign with a 1-1 draw against Angola, going through top. Elsewhere, Cape Verde lost 1-0 at Zambia but both teams had qualifiedfrom Group F. The pool's other sidesNiger and Mozambique drew 1-1.
          AFCON Qualifying Preview: Nigeria eye great escape        
The West African side failed to win a single one of their opening three Group A matches, casting doubt over whether they would get the chance to defend the title they won in South Africa in 2013. Nigeria now sit second following victories over Sudan and Congo,but know anything less than a win against the alreadyqualified South Africa on Wednesday could end their hopes of making the tournament in Equatorial Guinea. Congo - third by virtue of their inferior head-to-head record against Nigeria - head to Sudan knowing they must better Nigeria's result. Group E remains wide open, with all four teams still harbouring dreams of qualification. Ghanalead the way with eight pointsand a draw againstTogo - bottom on six - would be enough to see them through, although they come into the fixture on the back of a 1-0 defeat in Uganda, and defeat would ensure theyfinish outside the top two. It is impossible for Guinea and Uganda to qualify together automatically, so their encounter on Wednesday is effectively a play-off. Those who miss out in Groups A and E could be afforded a reprieve, as the poolslead the way in the chase for the best third-placed nation. Algeria have run away with Group B and head to a Mali side desperate to edge Malawi to qualification. Second-placed Mali hold a four-goal advantage over their rivals, who visit Ethiopia, so a win should be enough to see them progress. Group D leaders Cameroon have already booked their place at next year's tournament and host Ivory Coast in Abidjan this week. The Ivorianssit three points clear of third-placed Democratic Republic of Congo, but a defeat coupled with a win for their nearest rivals over Sierra Leone would see them miss out on a top-two finish, owing to their having scored fewer goals in matches between the two nations. Cape Verde and Zambia meet in Group F having already made certain of their finals place, while Mozambique aim to enhance their slim chances of finishing as the best third-placed team at Niger. It is a similar story in groups C and G, withBurkina Faso, Gabon, Tunisia and Senegal having already qualified, andAngola and Egypt scrapping in third. Angola head to Burkina Faso in Group C, while Lesotho are at Gabon, and Group G sees Tunisia host Egypt and Senegal face Botswana.
          AFCON Qualifying Wrap: Keet honours Meyiwa        
Former goalkeeper and captain Meyiwa was shot and killed in Johannesburg last month, with Saturday's meetingrepresenting Bafana Bafana'sfirst fixture since the tragedy. Goals from Thulani Serero - his first in international football -and Tokelo Rantie clinched victoryand also confirmedSouth Africa's passage to the tournament proper, to be held in Equatorial Guinea next year. Keet, who replaced Meyiwa in goal for the hosts,was understandablyemotional in the aftermath of the victory. "The verse on there [hisgloves]was John 15:17, where it says, 'there's no greater love than to lay down one's life for one's friend'," he said. "I'm emotional of course, he was a great friend of mine.I just want to pay tribute and honour him. I never got the chance to go to the grave,but I hope he's watching us from above and knows that we are thinking about him. "I just wish he was here with us, that's all I can say, that's what makes it emotional, is that he is not here with us. We want him here as a team, but unfortunately his time has gone and we have to move on and his memory will stay strong." Elsewhere in Group A, the race for second place between Congo and Nigeria will go down to the final game, after goals from Ikechukwu Uche and Aaron Samuel earned Nigeria a 2-0 win over their rivals. South Africa are one of nine nations to have secured their place in the finals, alongside the likes of Cape Verde and Zambiawho both sealed their progress from Group F. Cape Verde advancedwith a 3-1 home win over Niger, while Zambia were grateful to Given Singuluma's goal for their 1-0 success against Mozambique. By contrast, Group E will go down to the wire with all four teams separated by just two points. Ghana sit top on eight points after their 1-0 loss to Uganda, who are a point behind in second. Guinea also have seven points after Idrissa Sylla's hat-trick inspired them to a 4-1 win over Togo, who sit bottom of the group on six. Senegal joined Group G rivals Tunisia in qualifying, as they overcame Egypt 1-0 away from home,while Algeria maintained their 100 per cent record in Group B with a 3-1win over Ethiopia. Malawi did their hopes of claiming the runners-up spot in that group the power of good as they beat Mali 2-0, leaving both sides level on six points heading into the final round of fixtures. In Group D, Ivory Coast's 5-1 thrashing of Sierra Leone means they need just a point from their final game to advance, after Congo DR went down 1-0 to Cameroon. Elsewhere,Burkina Faso and Gabon are assured of their progression from Group C. The former edged past Lesotho 1-0 away from home, while Gabon's clash with Angola ended goalless.
          AFCON Qualifying Preview: Uncertainty shrouds finals        
Morocco wasstripped of the right to host the finals by CAF on Tuesday after requesting that the tournament be postponed due to fears over the spread of the Ebola virus. Additionally, Morocco'steam have been disqualified from competing at the event. African football’s governing body CAF is now scrambling to find an alternative location just two months before the AFCON is due to start, although president Issa Hayatou expects a new host to be confirmed in the next two to three days. The furore has not affected the final two rounds of qualification, the first of which takes place this weekend with reigning champions Nigeria battling to reverse what has been a dreadful campaign thus far. The Super Eagles currently sit third in Group A with only the top two guaranteed automatic qualification. Nigeriatravel to second-placed Congo -who they are three points behind -on Saturday knowing that a victory by two goals is necessary to overtake their hosts on head-to-head record after Congo's 3-2 win in their first encounter. Nevertheless, coach Stephen Keshi, who recently returned to his post after being asked to step down, is still upbeat about his side's chances of retaining the title they won in South Africa in 2013. "We have the players who can do Nigeria proud in the remaining qualifyinggames and I know somehow we will make to the finals and retain our trophy,"Keshi said. Another continental giant who desperately need a win to boost their chances of automatic qualification are Ivory Coast, who currently sit third in Group D. They take on winless Sierra Leone this weekend, with their opponents'inability to play at home die to the Ebola epidemic meaning the game will take place in Abidjan.Group D's other game sees top two Cameroon and DR Congo clash in Yaounde. The second qualification spot in Group B remains very much up for grabs, as just three points separate Mali, Ethiopia and Malawi behind already-qualified Algeria. Mali and Malawi meet this weekend, while Ethiopia visit Algeria. Surprise package Cape Verde sit on top of Group F and face Niger, with 2012 AFCON champions Zambia and Mozambique, who play each other on Saturday, set to fight it out for second spot. The most successful African team of all time, Egypt, lie third in Group G, one point behind second-placed Senegal - who they meet this weekend in a match that could make-or-break their campaign. Meanwhile, leaders Tunisia take on winless Niger. Group C sees Gabon needing just a point from their trip to Angola to secure qualification, while Burkina Faso face Lesotho. Finally, in Group E, leaders Ghana - who are missing key duo Asamoah Gyan and Kwadwo Asamoah to injury - travel to Uganda while Togo and Guinea face-off.
          AFCON Qualifying Wrap: Cape Verde advance        
The Ivorians have reached the quarter-finals at each of the past five AFCON tournaments, including two runner-up appearances - but a thrilling loss to DR Congo in Abidjan put their progression from Group D in jeopardy. Both sides have six points through four matches, and trail leaders Cameroon (10 points) - with only two sides guaranteed a place in the continental finals - with third spot heading into the play-offs. Neeskens Keban put the Congolese visitors in front in the 21st minute, only for Manchester City star Yaya Toure to provide an equaliser four minutes later. However, a two-minute blitz had Congo well on top - Junior Kabananga's stunning scissor putting them up in the 35th minute before Jeremy Bokila added another moments later. The hosts' chances of victory were further hampered two minutes into the second half, with Franck Kessie sent off. Ivory Coast fought back admirably via Salomon Kalou's cameo, the Hertha Berlin striker firing in goals in the 69th and 72nd minutes. But Congo had the final say, Bokila flicking home the winner with the outside of his right boot after being played in by Mbidi Mavuanga. Cameroon were comfortable 2-0 winners at home to Sierra Leone, Leonard Kweuke and Stephane MBia scoring inside seven minutes. In Group F, Cape Verde secured progression to the 16-strong tournament courtesy of a 1-0 win over Mozambique. Rui Aguas' men cannot fall out of the top two, hence the nation's first trip to the AFCON finals was confirmed. Zambia and Mozambique are level on five points, the former enjoying a 3-0 home win over Niger. Algeria are the only team in qualifying with a perfect record, the north Africans making it four wins from four with a 3-0 victory over Malawi. Coach Christian Gourcuff has led Algeria to the finals for just the third time since 2004, with a fourth-place finish in 2010 their best effort since winning the event in 1990. Also in Group D, Ethiopia had a last-gasp 3-2 win away in Mali to earn their first points in qualifying, and join the side they conquered on three points in the race for a play-off spot. In Group A, leaders South Africa were held to a 0-0 draw by Congo, while Nigeria enjoyed a 3-1 victory over Sudan to move off the bottom of the group. Angola thrashed Lesotho 4-0 to move third in Group C, while Gabon fought back to draw 1-1 with Burkina Faso to retain top spot. Ghana remain unbeaten in Group E after a 3-1 victory over Guinea, while Togo edged Uganda 1-0. Botswana were the first team eliminated from the group phase, after a 2-0 loss to Egypt in Group G. Tunisia scored at the death to edge Senegal 1-0, and remain three points clear top of the group and almost assured of a spot in Morocco.
          AFCON Qualifying Preview: Nigeria on the brink        
Shockingly, Nigeria sit bottom of Group A with just one point from their three games so far, and realistically must beat third-placed Sudan on Wednesday to stand any hope of progressing. Newly elected Nigeria Football Federation president Amaju Pinnick has piled on the pressure by criticising the team's "embarrassing" and "awful" qualifying performances. Coach Stephen Keshi hit back, claiming some are out to "sabotage" his team's chances, and urged Nigeria's supporters to get behind the players in Abuja. "We just hope that the fans will come out and encourage the players, and also support them. They also have to be patient with the players, and try not to boo them," Keshi said. By contrast, Group A leaders South Africa can all-but seal their place at Morocco 2015 with a win over Congo. In Group B, leaders Algeria are out to maintain their 100 per cent record against Malawi, while Mali host Ethiopia, and Group C sees top-placed Gabon visit second-placed Burkina Faso and Lesotho play Angola. Cameroon of Group D will be out to improve on Saturday's 0-0 draw in Sierra Leone when Johnny McKinstry's side visit Yaounde, with Ivory Coast and Congo DR facing off in the pool's other fixture. Just two points separates top and bottom in a tight Group E, with leaders Ghana meeting Guinea and Uganda playing Togo this week. Cape Verde Islands can cement their place at the summit of Group F with a win over their closest challengers Mozambique and Zambia entertain Niger, while Group G sees top two Senegal and Tunisia clash while Egypt play Botswana.
          AFCON Qualifying Preview: Crunch time for Egypt        
The North African giants find themselves bottom of Group G, six points behind joint leaders Senegal and Tunisia, and with the same record as lowly Botswana who they travel to face on Friday night: played two, lost two and a minus-three goal difference. Anything but a win will pile pressure on Egypt coach Shawky Gharib who has been told by the Egyptian Football Association (EFA) president Gamal Allam that he will be fired if he cannot guide his team to the tournament in Morocco. "The national team's failures are the responsibility of its technical staff. We will hire a foreign manager if Gharib fails to take the team to Morocco," Allam declared last week. Egypt's plight is not helped by four players missing due to injury: Al Ahly goalkeeper Sherif Ekramy, Zamalek winger Hazem Emam, Smouha attacker Hany El Egiazy and Hull City winger Ahmed Elmohamady. "I know that we are not in a good situation after losing the first two matches, but we still have hope to qualify. We will do our best in the next matches," Gharib added. Another pedigree team who find themselves languishing bottom of their group are Angola. AFCON quarter-finalists in 2010, Angola travel to Lesotho desperate for their first points in Group C after an away defeat to Gabon and a 3-0 home thumping at Burkino Faso's hands. However, coach Romeu Filemon will have to unlock his squad's goal scoring potential after a measly return of one goal in their last four matches. In Group F, surprise package and leaders Cape Verde Islands go to Mozambique looking for a victory which could put them on the brink of assuring the tiny island nation of their first ever appearance at the tournament. In the other Group F game, 2012 champions Zambia are hunting a first win of the phase away to Niger to get their first qualification victory following a shock loss to Cape Verde and poor 0-0 draw with Mozambique. Three giants of African football are fighting it out in Group D as leaders Cameroon also look to maintain a 100 per cent record against winless Sierra Leone in Freetown. Third-placed Ivory Coast are looking to bounce back against Democratic Republic of Congo after their 4-1 humbling by Cameroon in the previous round. Anything less than a draw will leave Herve Renard's men adrift of the group's pacesetters and under pressure in their remaining matches. A big day in Group A sees South Africa face surprise leaders Congo who have already beaten Nigeria away and Sudan at home. The game will be played in Pointe Noire, the scene of a notoriously bruising encounter in a 1997 World Cup qualifying match that still rankles with the South Africans who lost 2-0 that day. The local media has also expressed concerns over the artificial pitch in Congo but Bafana Bafana captain and goalkeeper Senzo Meyiwa has moved to allay those fears. "We are all well prepared for Congo and we will not be affected by the artificial surface. The way we play will remain the same," said Meyiwa. "At Orlando Pirates, we played on a similar surface during the CAF Champions League. It is likely to be the same." In the other Group A game, Nigeria travel to Sudan with only one point from their two group games so far. In Group E, second-placed Ghana travel to Guinea looking to put some daylight between them and the team in third, while table-toppers Uganda welcome winless Togo to the Mandela National Stadium in Kampala looking for another three points. Group B leaders Algeria travel to second-placed Mali knowing a win will virtually assure their qualification and leave their opponents, Malawi and winless Ethiopia fighting it out for the last remaining automatic spot.
          PETA BARU POTENSI ENERGI SELURUH DUNIA        
NRLab tidak sendirian dalam membantu negara-negara berkembang memperoleh akses ke energi yang dapat diandalkan.  Sebuah program yang ditetapkan oleh Bank Dunia membantu negara-negara berkembang memetakan potensi energi mereka.  Harapannya adalah dengan peta baru ini akan memberikan sebuah rencana  bagi berbagai negara untuk membuat infrastruktur energi terbarukan dan mandiri.  Semoga saja.
Program Bank Dunia ini juga mencakup model-model energi solar dan angin yang sudah kuno guna menyediakan data riil bagi pemerintah di berbagai negara agar mereka dapat memahami potensi sumber daya mereka.  Pakistan melambangkan tantangan energi yang dihadapi oleh negara-negara berkembang.  Meskipun mempunyai sumber daya energi terbarukan yang melimpah, seperti air, limbah bio, surya, dan angin - sepertiga populasi Pakistan hidup tanpa adanya akses ke listrik secara rutin.  Pakistan mempunyai tujuan mulia untuk program-program energi surya dan angin yang saat ini sedang dikembangkan, sedangkan proyek-proyek inovatif seperti yang ditawarkan oleh NRGLab hilang begitu saja.
"Pentingnya pemetaan sumber daya ini tidak dapat dianggap berlebihan," ujar Arif Alauddin, Direktur Pakistan’s National Energy Conservation Center. "Kekurangan energi di negara ini belum pernah terjadi sebelumnya, biaya akan naik, dan impor minyak bumi memakan sebagian besar penghasilan dari ekspor Pakistan.  Ada kebutuhan untuk beralih ke sumber-sumber energi terbarukan dari dalam negeri."
Meskipun peta-peta tenaga surya dan angin sudah ada selama beberapa tahun belakangan ini, namun peta tersebut gagal mengenali proyek-proyek sektor swasta yang memerlukan dana pembangunan. Jadi pada dasarnya, yang kaya tetap kaya, sedangkan para ilmuwan lain dalam komunitas sains berjuang agar mendapat perhatian.
Karena permasalahan ini jugalah maka Bank Dunia bergabung dengan sembilan negara lain termasuk Pakistan, Indonesia, Lesotho, Madagaskar, Mawadewa, Papua Nugini, Tanzania, dan Zambia membuat peta baru potensi energi terbarukan. Dengan pendanaan dari Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), peta tersebut akan meliputi tenaga surya, angin, biomassa, dan potensi kecil PLTA.
Pemetaan sumber daya tentu saja merupakan sebuah langkah ke arah yang benar. Namun, apakah itu benar-benar mencakup berbagai peluang energi yang disajikan oleh NRGLab?
Dengan teknik gasifikasi revolusioner yang dimilikinya, NRGLab dapat mengubah semua gas alam, batu bara, sekam padi, dan APG menjadi bahan bakar yang dapat digunakan. Untuk negara-negara berkembang, ini berarti meningkatkan bagian mereka dalam pasar energi global, selain membuat infrastruktur domestik yang berkelanjutan dan mandiri.
"Pemetaan sumber daya adalah sebuah langkah penting dalam menyediakan sumber daya dan kepastian kebijakan yang diperlukan para pengembang komersial untuk meningkatkan investasi dalam bidang energi terbarukan," ungkap Oliver Knight, Senior Energy Specialist at ESMAP. Selain itu, otoritas pemerintah sebaiknya diberi tahu saat menegosiasikan proyek-proyek tertentu, sehingga para donor akan dapat melihat kejelasan data dan kebutuhan kapasitas, serta potensi energi terbarukan dari klien mereka."
NRGLab telah memfokuskan pada tujuan ini sedari awal.  Menyediakan energi alternatif yang hemat biaya dan bersih adalah solusi terhadap krisis energi.  Untuk informasi selengkapnya mengenai kemitraan dengan NRGLab, silakan mengunjungi www.nrglab.asia.
Bersama kita bisa memastikan masa depan yang lebih hijau. Untuk anak-anak kita.  Dan untuk anak-anak mereka.  Berabad-abad kemudian setelah masa kita berakhir.

Diterjemahkan dari Bahasa Inggris, artikel asli di publikasikan tanggal di 17.06.13:     http://nrglabjohnwish.wordpress.com/2013/06/17/in-desperate-times-new-map-shows-world-wide-energy-potential/
[ Program bank dunia, NRGLab, Arif Alauddin, National Energy Conservation Center, ESMAP, PLTA, APG ]

          Daftar Keanggotaan di WOSM         
Albania Beslidhja Skaut Albania
Algeria Scouts Musulmans Algériens
(Algerian Muslim Scouts)
Angola Associação de Escuteiros de Angola (AEA)
(Scout Association of Angola)
Argentina Scouts de Argentina
(Scouts of Argentina)
Armenia Hayastani Azgayin Scautakan Sharjum Kazmakerputiun (HASK)
(Armenian National Scout Movement)
Australia Scouts Australia
Austria Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs
(Scouts and Guides of Austria)
Azerbaijan Azerbaican Skaut Assosiasiyasi
(The Association of Scouts of Azerbaijan)
Bahamas The Scout Association of the Bahamas
Bahrain Boy Scouts of Bahrain
Bangladesh Bangladesh Scouts
Barbados Barbados Boy Scouts Association
Belgium
Belize The Scout Association of Belize
Benin Scoutisme Béninois
(Benin Scouting)
Bhutan Bhutan Scout Tshogpa
Bolivia Asociación de Scouts de Bolivia
(The Scout Association of Bolivia)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Council of Scout Associations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana The Botswana Scouts Association
Brazil União dos Escoteiros do Brasil
(Brazilian Scouts Association)
Brunei Darussalam Persekutuan Pengakap Negara Brunei Darussalam
(Brunei Darussalam National Scout Association)
Bulgaria Organizatsia Na Bulgarskite Skauty (OBS)
(Organization of Bulgarian Scouts)
Burkina Faso
Fédération Burkinabé du Scoutisme
(Scout Federation of Burkina Faso)
  • Les Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses du Burkina Faso (The Scouts and Guides of Burkina Faso)
  • Les Scouts du Burkina Faso (The Scouts of Burkina Faso)
Burundi Association des Scouts du Burundi
(Scout Association of Burundi)
Cameroon Les Scouts du Cameroun/Boy Scouts of Cameroon
Cambodia National Association of Cambodian Scouts
Canada Scouts Canada, with which is affiliatedAssociation des Scouts du Canada
Cape Verde Associação dos Escuteiros de Cabo Verde (A.E.C.V.)
(Scout Association of Cape Verde)
Chad
Fédération du Scoutisme Tchadien
(Scout Federation of Chad)
  • Eclaireurs du Tchad
  • Scouts du Tchad (Scouts of Chad)
Chile Asociación de Guias y Scouts de Chile
(Guide and Scout Association of Chile)
China, Scouts of Scouts of China
Colombia Asociación de Scouts de Colombia
(Scout Association of Colombia)
Comoros Wezombeli (Association Nationale du Scoutisme Comorien)
(The National Scout Association of Comoros)
Congo, The Democratic Republic of The Fédération des Scouts de la République démocratique du Congo
(The Scout Federation of the Democratic Republic of The Congo)
Costa Rica Asociación de Guias y Scouts de Costa Rica
(Association Guides and Scouts of Costa Rica)
Côte-d'Ivoire
Fédération Ivoirienne du Scoutisme
(Scout Federation of Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Les Eclaireurs Laïcs de Côte d'Ivoire
  • Les Eclaireurs Unionistes de Côte d'Ivoire (Unionist Scouts of Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Les Scouts Catholiques de Côte d'Ivoire (The Catholic Scouts of Côte d'Ivoire)
Croatia Savez Izvidaca Hrvatske
(The Scout Association of Croatia)
Cyprus Cyprus Scouts Association
Czech Republic Junák-Svaz Skautu a Skautek
Denmark
Fællesrådet for Danmarks Drengespejdere
(The Danish Scout Council)
Dominica The Scout Association of Dominica
Dominican Republic Asociación de Scouts Dominicanos
(Dominican Scout Association)
Ecuador Asociación de Scouts del Ecuador
(Scout Association of Ecuador)
Egypt Egyptian Scout Federation
El Salvador Asociación de Scouts de El Salvador
(Scout Association of El Salvador)
Estonia Eesti Skautide Ühing (Estonian Scout Association)
Ethiopia Ethiopia Scout Association
Fiji Fiji Scouts Association
Finland Suomen Partiolaiset-Finlands Scouter
France
Scoutisme Français
(French Scouting)
Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France (EEUF)(Unionist Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France (EEDF) (Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Israélites de France (EEIF) (Jewish Guides and Scouts de France)
 Scouts et Guides de France (SGdF) (Scouts and Guides of France)
Scouts Musulmans de France (SMdF) (Muslim Scouts of France)
Gabon
Fédération Gabonaise du Scoutisme
(Scouting Federation of Gabon)
Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses Unionistes du Gabon (Unionist Scouts of Gabon)
Eclaireuses-Eclaireurs du Gabon (Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Scouts et Guides Catholiques du Gabon (Catholic Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Gambia The Gambia Scout Association
Georgia sakartvelos skauturi modzraobis organizatsia
(Georgian Organization of the Scout Movement)
Germany
Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände (RdP)
(Scout Federation of Germany)
Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (BdP) (Guides and Scout Union)
Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg (DPSG) (German Saint George Scout Association)
Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (VCP) (Christian Guide and Scout Association)
Ghana The Ghana Scout Association
Greece Soma Hellinon Proskopon
(Scout Association of Greece)
Grenada The Scout Association of Grenada
Guatemala Asociación de Scouts de Guatemala
(Scout Association of Guatemala)
Guinea C National Scout Association of Guinea
Guyana The Scout Association of Guyana
Haiti Scouts d'Haïti
(Scouts of Haiti)
Honduras Asociación de Scouts de Honduras
(Scouts Association of Honduras)
Hong Kong The Scout Association of Hong Kong
Hungary Magyar Cserkészszövetség
(Hungarian Scout Association)
Iceland Bandalag íslenskra Skáta
(Icelandic Boy and Girl Scout Association)
India The Bharat Scouts and Guides
Indonesia Gerakan Pramuka
(Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Movement)
Ireland Scouting Ireland
Israel
Hitachdut Hatsofim Ve Hatsofot Be Israel
(Israel Boy and Girl Scouts Federation)
The Arab School Scout Association
The Druze Scouts Association
The Hebrew Scout Association
The Israel Catholic Scouts Association
  • The Israeli Arab Scouts Association
      The Orthodox Scout Association
taly
Federazione Italiana dello Scautismo
(Italian Scout Federation)
Associazione Guide e Scouts Cattolici Italiani (AGESCI) (Association of Catholic Guides and Scouts of Italy)
Corpo Nazionale Giovani Esploratori ed Esploratrici Italiani (CNGEI) (National Corps of Italian Boy Scouts and Girl Guides)
Jamaica The Scout Association of Jamaica
Japan Scout Association of Japan
Jordan Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides
Kazakhstan Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan (OSMK)
Kenya The Kenya Scouts Association
Kiribati Kiribati Scout Association
Korea, Republic.of Boy Scouts of Korea
Kuwait Kuwait Boy Scouts Association
Latvia Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrala Organizacija
(The Scout and Guide Central Organization of Latvia)
Lebanon Fédération du Scoutisme Libanais
(Lebanese Scout Federation)
One of the associations in the Federation is:
Independence Scouts
Lesotho Lesotho Scouts Association
Liberia Boy Scouts of Liberia
Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya
Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement
Liechtenstein Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Liechtensteins
(Scouts and Guides of Liechtenstein)
Lithuania Lietuvos Skautija (Lithuanian Scouting)
Luxembourg
Lëtzebuerger Guiden a Scouten (LGS) (Guides and Scouts of Luxembourg)
Macedonia, The former Yugoslav
Republic of
Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija
(The Scout Association of The former Yugoslave Republic of Macedonia)
Madagascar
Firaisan'ny Skotisma eto Madagasikara
(Scout Federation of Madagascar)
Tily Eto Madagasikara (Christian Scouts of Madagascar)
Antilin'i Madagasikara (Catholic Scout Association of Madagascar)
Kiadin'i Madagasikara (Scouts of Madagascar)
Malawi Scout Association of Malawi
Malaysia Persekutuan Pengakap Malaysia
(The Scouts Association of Malaysia)
Maldives The Scout Association of Maldives
Malta The Scout Association of Malta
Mauritania Association des Scouts et Guides de Mauritanie
(The Scout and Guide Association of Mauritania)
Mauritius The Mauritius Scout Association
Mexico Asociación de Scouts de México, A.C.
(Scout Association of Mexico)
Moldova, Republic of Organizatia Nationala A Scoutilor Din Moldova
(The National Scout Organization of Moldova)
Monaco Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco
(Association of Scouts and Guides of Monaco)
Mongolia Mongoliyn Skautiyn Holboo
(The Scout Association of Mongolia)
Montenegro Association of Scouts of Montenegro
Morocco Fédération Nationale du Scoutisme Marocain
(National Federation of Moroccan Scouting)
Mozambique Liga dos Escuteiros de Moçambique
(League of Scouts of Mozambique)
Namibia Scouts of Namibia
Nepal Nepal Scouts
Netherlands Scouting Nederland
(Netherlands Scouting)
New Zealand Scouting New Zealand
Nicaragua Asociación de Scouts de Nicaragua
(Scout Association of Nicaragua)
Niger Association des Scouts du Niger
(Scouts Association of Niger)
Nigeria Boy Scouts of Nigeria
Norway
Speidernes Fellesorganisasjon
(The Guides and Scouts of Norway)
Norges Speiderforbund
(Norwegian Guide & Scout Association)
(YWCA-YMCA Guides and Scouts of Norway)
Oman The National Organisation for Scouts & Guides
Pakistan Pakistan Boy Scouts Association
Palestinian Authority Palestinian Scout Association
Panama Asociación Nacional de Scouts de Panamá
(National Scout Association of Panama)
Papua New Guinea The Scout Association of Papua New Guinea
Paraguay Asociación de Scouts del Paraguay
(Scouts Association of Paraguay)
Peru Asociación de Scouts del Perú
(Scout Association of Peru)
Philippines Boy Scouts of the Philippines
Poland Zwiazek Harcerstwa Polskiego (ZHP)
The Polish Scouting and Guiding Association
Portugal
Federação Escutista de Portugal
(Scout Federation of Portugal)
Associação dos Escoteiros de Portugal (AEP) (The Scout Association of Portugal)
Corpo Nacional de Escutas (CNE) (Escutismo Catolico Portugues) (The Catholic Scout Association of Portugal)
Qatar Qatar Boy Scouts Association
Romania Cercetasii României
(The National Scout Organization of Romania)
Russian Federation Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators (RAS/N)
Rwanda Association des Scouts du Rwanda
(Scout Association of Rwanda)
San Marino Associazione Guide e Esploratori Cattolici Sammarinesi
(The Catholic Guide and Scout Association of San Marino)
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Boy Scouts Association
Senegal
Confédération Sénégalaise du Scoutisme
(Senegalese Scout Confederation)
Eclaireurs du Sénégal (Scouts of Senegal)
Les Scouts du Sénégal (The Scouts of Senegal)
Serbia Scout Association of Serbia
Seychelles The Scout Association of Seychelles
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Scouts Association
Singapore The Singapore Scout Association
Slovakia Slovensky skauting
(Slovak Scouting)
Slovenia Zveza tabornikov Slovenije
(Scout Association of Slovenia)
South Africa South African Scout Association
Spain
Federación de Escultismo en España (FEE)*
(Scouting Federation in Spain)
Federación de Asociaciones de Scouts de España
(ASDE) (Scouts of Spain)
Movimiento Scout Católico (MSC) (The Catholic Scout Movement) *with which is affilliated:
Federació Catalana d'Escoltisme i Guiatge (FCEG) (The Federation of Scouts and Guides in Catalonia)
Acciò Escolta de Catalunya
Escoltes Catalans
Minyons Escoltes/Guies Sant Jordi de Catalunya
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Scout Association
Saint Lucia The Saint Lucia Scout Association
Saint Vincent and The Grenadines The Scout Association of Saint Vincent & The Grenadines
Sudan Sudan Boy Scouts Association
Suriname Boy Scouts van Suriname
(Boy Scouts of Suriname)
Swaziland Emavulandlela Swaziland Scout Association
Sweden
Svenska Scoutråde t
(The Swedish Guide and Scout Council)
Frälsningsarméns Scoutförbund
(Salvation Army Guide and Scout Association)
KFUK- FKUMs Scoutförbund
(Swedish YWCA-YMCA Guide and Scout Association)
Nykterhetsrörelsens Scoutförbund
(Swedish Temperance Guide and Scout Association)
SMU-Scout
(Guide and Scout Organization of the Swedish Covenant Youth)
Svenska Scoutförbundet
(Swedish Guide and Scout Association)
Switzerland Swiss Guide and Scout Movement
Syrian Arab Republic Scouts of Syria
Tajikistan Ittihodi Scouthoi Tochikiston / Associatsia Skautov Tadjikistana
(Scout Association of Tajikistan)
Tanzania, United Republic of Tanzania Scouts Association
Thailand The National Scout Organization of Thailand
Togo Association Scoute du Togo
(Scout Association of Togo)
Trinidad and Tobago The Scout Association of Trinidad & Tobago
Tunisia Les Scouts Tunisiens
(The Scouts of Tunisia)
Turkey Turkiye Izcilik Federasyonu
(Scouting and Guiding Federation of Turkey)
Uganda The Uganda Scouts Association
Ukraine National Organization of Scouts of Ukraine
          [41] Cutting Culture: Tuskegee Redux? Legal and Ethical Problems of the Ramp Up to Male Circumcision in Africa        

Travis Wisdom, a student of Women's Studies at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, organized a daylong conference on male circumcision and the issues surrounding identity and body ownership. The second speaker of the day was John Geisheker of Doctors Opposing Circumcision, who discussed the dubious nature of the 3 African studies that are now being used to promote circumcision in the name of HIV prevention. Here is a recording of the presentation, and a transcript follows.

Transcript
(slightly modified)

Eliyahu Ungar-Sargon

From the White Letter Productions studios in Los Angeles, California, I'm [Eliyahu] Ungar-Sargon, and this is The Cut Podcast.

Christina Hernandez[?]

Our next presenter, John [D.] Geisheker, is the Executive Director and General Council of Doctors Opposing Circumcision. [He] is a powerful ally in the medical field, promoting awareness of and mobilization against [non-therapeutic neonatal] circumcision. Please join me in welcoming him.

John Geisheker

Thanks very much.

Many of you will have read—because it's become a commonplace meme in the American journals of all kinds—that HIV can be solved in Africa by circumcision. The [risk reduction] number that's commonly [claimed] is 60% [to] 63%. [However], you probably don't know the backstory [behind those figures], and I'm going to give it to you now.

Now, you'll have to be a little tolerant of this; it's a little “word heavy”, it's a little abstract, and it's a little statistical—and I'm not a stats expert, but I kind of know bad statistics when I see them by instinct. So, what I've done here is distill the work of Dr. Robert Van Howe, the pediatrician in Marquette, Michigan, who has done extensive [analyses] on the 3 African RCTs, as they're called: The Random[ized] Controlled Trials in Africa, [which have been used to promote circumcision].

First, the nature of the crisis, so you understand it: HIV is indeed a scourge in Africa—there's no doubt about it.

  • 15 million Africans have died since the beginning of HIV, which by the way, extends all the way to the 1930s when the virus first crossed from the monkey community into the human community. So, we have lost 15 million, and probably many more actually, because no one knew what the disease was in the 1940s and 1950s.

  • 1.3 million Africans die each year [due to HIV].

  • 22.5 million of them are living with AIDS currently.

  • That leaves 14.8 million children who are orphans or who have lost at least one parent.

Currently, only 25% of [infected] Africans get what's called the antiretroviral therapy [(ART)]. The highest number is [in] South Africa, which has switched from being a country where they were very slow to get started on this, to being the country that's the most aggressive about fighting HIV in Africa (and you'll see why in a second); so, 37% of infected South Africans get the antiretroviral therapy—which, by the way, [is a therapy that] not only saves your life, [but also] makes [it] virtually impossible [for you] to transmit the virus to a partner, which is a very useful feature of the ARTs.

Look at the graph of what's happened since 1988 in Africa; you can see that [the HIV prevalence starts around] 1%-to-5%, [and then later], it goes up to 5%-to-10%, and here in 1998, you can see especially in South Africa and [various] areas [that] it's beginning to [rise to] 20%-to-30%. There are regions of Africa where the [prevalence] is 40%! [It's] unbelievable if you think about it. Here's a graph showing the [prevalence]. Notice it's flattening out a little bit; it actually has slowed down in its virulence in Africa.

Here's the U.S. situation by contrast. Now, these numbers are high, but they are a tiny percent of what's happening in Africa.

  • We have 0.5 million people who have died since the early 1980s when it was first discovered in the U.S.

  • About 1 million people are infected, and 20% of those are unaware that they are infected.

  • 54 thousand people acquire the infection each year, but we have a country of 350 million people, so that's not exactly a huge epidemic at this point.

  • The [prevalence] is 0.6%, which means 6 people in a thousand in the population [have] HIV, and we have a high ART [usage]—a [large number] of people [are] covered by antiretroviral therapies.

    There are hotspots like Washington, D.C., which for cultural reasons [has an incidence of] 3% and even towards 6% in the poorer regions of Washington, D.C.

  • It's disproportionately, alas, a disease of men having unprotected sex with other men, and of people who inject illegal [intravenous] drugs.

Now, since 2005 ([with] the beginnings of the studies in Africa), the notion that HIV can be stopped by circumcision has sort of risen on our cultural radar. It's in the form of a meme. How many of you know the term “meme” or use it casually? A meme is a unit of culture—I think the term was invented by Richard Dawkins in his various books on [evolution]. [A] meme is a unit of culture that gets transmitted from person to person [in a folkloric way] without the backup analysis of why that might be the case. It is, in a sense, a free-floating idea or belief.

Here are the RCTs and the individuals responsible for them:

  • In Rakai (Uganda) in 2005, Ronald Gray began a study of some individuals (we'll see in a second how many).

  • In Kisumu (Kenya), Robert Bailey ran a study

Those are both [mid-east African] countries. [Lastly]:

  • In Orange Farm ([South] Africa), Bertrand Auvert, who is a French epidemiologist, ran another study.

The Ugandan study had almost 5000 participants, [the one in] Kenya [had] almost 3000, and [the one in] South Africa [had] a little over 3000.

I want to thank here Dr. Van Howe [for his] statistical [analysis], and also Hugh Young, a fellow New Zealander (I'm from New Zealand)—an aside by the way: New Zealend abandoned circumcision; New Zealand's rate of circumcision in [the] 1950s went to 99.9% (nobody escaped; very few escaped. Maoris did by the way; the indigenous polynesian people escaped completely, because they have very strong beliefs about having to need [the] entire body [throughout] life, [which] is very sensible in my opinion). [Nevertheless], they dropped circumcision in the 1960s like a hot potato! There have been no infant circumcisions in New Zealand since [the] mid-1960s; it's amazing, and yet, a whole generation of grandfathers [were] completely circumcised. The fathers are sort of hit and miss, and the sons wonder: What happened to their poor fathers and grandfathers?

OK. Here's the method they used in Africa to do this study: They took groups of HIV-negative men and divided them randomly into 2 groups:

  • A control [group].
  • An experimental group.

The control group was offered an immediate circumcision (and we'll talk later about the problems [with] that), and the experimental group was promised a free circumcision later on, perhaps 2 years later (but it never quite got there, actually). Then the [numbers of] seroconversion[s] [within the groups]—that is, the number of [people who became] infected [with HIV]—were compared[.] Now, here's a little warning for you about statistics (I love this quote):

The American mind seems extremely vulnerable to the belief that any alleged knowledge which can be expressed in figures is in fact as final and exact as the figures in which it is expressed.

Richard Hofstadter, Anti-Intellectualism in American Life

Also, there's a common statistical thing you will all notice, and that's the deep decimals: [If] somebody says something happens 10.003% of the time, you're inclined to think that just because there's a thousandth of a percent in there [(".003%")], somehow that suggests the accuracy of the statistic, but statistics can lie gloriously, as we know.

So, here [are] the results:

  • The number of men who were circumcised [as part of the control group], [and] who got infected [with HIV] after 12 months was 1.5% of the [group]—I've combined the stats to make [conveying the information] easy, but the studies were very similar.

  • The intact [group]—that is, the men who were not circumcised—their infection rate was higher: 3.38% of their group.

So, the absolute risk reduction you could argue [that circumcision provides] is 1.8%. This is the stat you should be reading in your newspaper, not this 53%, because that's the relative risk reduction—comparing the 2 little groups. So, one of the commonest [tricks] in statistics is for people to jack up their results by talking about relative changes and not talking about absolute changes.

I sometimes joke that I could protect you by 1000% from being hit by a meteorite by insisting you live in a coal mine, and you'd say:

“But geeze, I don't really have a very high risk of getting hit by a meteorite—”

“But listen to me! I'm talking about protecting your life! 1000%! Are you not interested in that?”

and, of course, you really shouldn't be [interested in that].

All right, here's what the graph looks like if you do an honest graph of the difference between the absolute benefits between circumcision and not-circumcision. It's pretty unimpressive, isn't it?

Here's another way of looking at it (the green are the HIV-negative people): A good number were lost from the study, and the HIV-positive is the small red group at the bottom; once you look at the overall picture of the number of people, and the number of people who actually seroconverted, it doesn't look very impressive—it certainly has nothing to do with 60%.

Here's my favorite cartoon on the subject (this is courtesy of Hugh Young, a fellow countryman):

“Thanks to circumcision, HIV has decreased 60%!”

and I love the comment:

"Question. Are you asking a room full of engineers to be excited about a big percentage decrease over a trivial base!?"

It's a good question! Then the final panel:

“[Answer]. You leave me no choice but to call you an anti-circ zealot; nobody listens to them.”

So, that's great.

All right. Now let's go through the flaws. This gets a little statistical—hang in there; it'll get interesting. It is interesting.

  • Flaw number one: Over half the infections were non-sexual. One of the biggest secrets of the RCTs in Africa is that an awful lot of African HIV infections are caused by physicians!

    • Reusing one-use medical supplies.

    • Not autoclaving the equipment.

    • Attending people who have HIV, but not worrying about the next person who might get HIV from the tools they just used on the first person.

    So, iatrogenic transmission of HIV is itself a huge and scandalous event in Africa. If you remove all the non-sexual infections—that is, those that came from blood transfusions and medical care—all the Africa RCTs disappear, because [then] their results are not statistically significant.

    Here's my favorite quote on this; it comes from Dr. Jennifer Vines up in Oregon:

    In the article by Auvert et al regarding incidence rates of HIV infection in circumcised versus uncircumcised men, the finding of 60% fewer infections among the former group is compelling [1]. I must echo the comments submitted by others and question these findings in light of the fact that the authors did not control for other sources of HIV transimission such as blood transfusions or exposure through infected needles.

    While the literature supports sexual (primarily heterosexual) activity as the main route of HIV transmission in South Africa, the behavioral factor of “Attending a clinic for a health problem related to the genitals,” initially reported by approximately 10% of both the intervention and control groups, corresponds to a significantly elevated HIV incidence rate. It is plausible that these men presented with urogenital complaints that resulted in antibiotic or other therapeutic treatments administered with unsterile needles. This could represent a significant confounder in that the uncircumcised men, if indeed more prone to sexually transmitted infections (STI), were more likely to present for STI care and become infected through the health care setting rather than through unprotected sexual intercourse.

    Controlling for this route of infection could result in a smaller difference between HIV infection rates in the circumcised versus uncircumcised groups, indicating that circumcision may not be as effective at decreasing HIV transmission as the article suggests.

    "Reader Response" to Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagarde E, Sobngwi-Tambekou J, Sitta R, et al. (2005) Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Med 2(11): e298.

    I would say “Indeed.”

  • Flaw number two: Researcher expectation bias.

    Remember, these can't be double-blind studies; I mean, you know if you've been circumcised, and the doctor knows if you've been circumcised. There's no sense [in] pretending. You can't [explore] a placebo effect in this kind of a study.

    [The researchers are] known [to have been] proponents of male circumcision prior to [their interest in] HIV. In a sense, I have [just] said—it's a bit cynical—that the HIV crisis in Africa was a gift to male-circumcision proponents; their claim is that there is sufficient evidence to recommend universal circumcision, which is frankly what they're really looking for.

  • Flaw number three: Participant expectation bias.

    What did the participants in the trial[s] expect? Well, they were told that circumcision [is] protective, which [is information] that would affect their behavior. There was a lack of blinding, [as just described], and there was a desire for circumcision.

    Why an African man would submit to circumcision without being campaigned on this subject (if he's an adult) is an interesting question. Remember a lot of African cultures have already existing traditions of bush circumcision, which are both dangerous and painful, and I can see a 16 year old African man saying [to himself]:

    “Geez, do I want to have a circumcision that at least provides anesthesia and has a semblance of Western medicine to it, or do I want to go to the bush and have one of those initiation rites that my friends tell me are horribly painful?!

    Well, I know the choice that I [(and most of you)] would make.

    The RCT authors created a demand for male circumcision among unemployed young men by bribing them, frankly. Participants were interested in the promise of a free male circumcision and other benefits—and we'll get to that in a second.

  • [Flaw number four: Statistical overpowering.]

    [This] is a bit tough to understand. The study, claims Van Howe, was overpowered; that is to say, it was big enough (at more than 10 thousand individuals) that you could find some correlation between something.

    If you gave me 10 thousand people, I bet I could prove that people [who] own brown hats have small dogs, because there would be enough people [in the group] that [I could find a sizeable number of them for whom that correlation is true].

    So, the more individuals you have, the more you can data mine for your particular conclusion (if you work at it). [Dr. Robert Van Howe] says this is large enough to find identifiable differences that are clinically unimportant; in other words, you could do a gigantic drug study and still find correlations that don't mean anything medically.

    [This can be seen in the frequent flip-flopping with which we are all familiar]. You know: Butter is bad [for your health], butter is good, butter is bad, butter is good. You have to read a newspaper to see what [the “consensus”] is today.

  • Flaw [number] five: Selection bias.

    Only men interested in male circumcision were included [in the study], so that automatically excludes others who might have been at lower risk [of HIV infection] because of behavior or genetics—we don't know. So, that's a flaw of this study itself.

  • [Flaw] number six: [The participants] were well paid.

    [Most] were unemployed [and living in the Orange Farm]—Orange Farm, South Africa, is a horrible horrible slum with an employment rate of like 50% and worse, and frankly, the young men were desperate, and [joining the study there was a way that]:
    • They would get cash.

    • They would get a free circumcision.

    • They would get free healthcare for a year or 2, which in the U.S., would be like giving you 12 thousand dollars.

    So, just the very structure of these studies makes them unethical in the U.S., but you can get away with it if you can work it in black Africa.

  • [Flaw number seven]: Now, here's the geographical bias.

    This is intriguing to me. No studies were done in:

    • Ghana
    • Cameroon
    • Tanzania
    • Lesotho
    • Malawi
    • Rawanda
    • Swaziland

    [These are] places where circumcised men are more likely to be [HIV infected]. Just look at Ghana and Cameroon to make it easy:

    • The HIV prevalence in Ghana among circumcised men is 1.6%; [among] intact men, it's actually lower.

    • Now, Cameroon is interesting, because the HIV prevalence [among] circumcised men is like more than 3 times the [prevalence among] intact men!—exactly the opposite of the claims of the RCTs.

    and so on. Each of those countries has the same problem, which is: How do you explain that [in these places], circumcised men actually have more HIV?

  • Flaw number eight: Ethical problems.

    We've already hinted at these. South African men were not told their HIV status. The claim of the people who did the studies was that the men are from cultures where being HIV positive would stigmatize [them], and so [the researchers] didn't want to tell the men that they [have] HIV, because that would be embarassing [and problematic] for them.

    [So], as a “practical” matter, they sent men home to infect their partners, and that's exactly the problem that we had with Tuskegee. Some of you may know the history of Tuskegee; I know that my colleagues here do. In [the] 1930s, the CDC in conjunction with [the U.S. Public Health Service] designed a study of syphilis among black males, and [the researchers] didn't tell them [when] they had syphilis, because they wanted to see what would happen long-term.

    So, hundreds and hundreds of people got tertiary syphilis—which, by the way, is not just the genital disease; it eventually affects your brain, and is a horrible way to go at the end. [This incident] is the gold standard for unethical behavior in medicine and bioethics, and precisely that same condition happened in the RCTs in Africa, and they haven't been called to account for it!

    There was no full disclosure with informed consent. Basically, it was a scanty consent, as you can imagine; the men were circumcised that same day. Certainly, they were never ever told the sexual effects of the kind that Marilyn so articulately described for this surgery.

    So, in other words, if you were doing a lawyerly analysis of the accounts here, it would be that the participants were placed at risk in a study with built-in biases, which guaranteed the investigators the results they wanted, and the benefits were coerceive and unethical.

  • [Flaw number nine]: Lead-time bias.

    This is an interesting one; it requires a little thinking for a second. The [group circumcised in the beginning] were told to avoid sex for 4 to 6 weeks, so what happened was if you compare the results over 1 year, somebody got a 2 month head start; the men who were circumcised early [on] got a 2 month head start where they didn't have sex, so they weren't put at risk [for sexually transmitted HIV during that time], and that affects the result entirely. The [bias-based] overestimate according to [Dr. Robert Van Howe] is on the order of 10%, which wipes the whole studies out.

    Yes mam?

Woman

It was suggested in a—

John Geisheker

In the 3rd study they adjusted it somewhat.

Woman

Yeah, it was suggested the men themselves might have gotten longer because of the effects of the circumcision, too.

John Geisheker

I hadn't heard that, but I'm not terribly surprised. Mind you, it could also be counter balanced by men who were desperate enough to have sex when they still had something of an open wound, and you know, that would kind of counterbalance the notion, but in any case, it's not a very good study if you're looking for purity of results.

  • [Flaw number ten: Cultural differences].

    In [the] South Africa study, the 2 groups differed by age, religion, and tribe (and that tribe makes a big difference in Africa). There was no attempt to reconcile that.

  • [Flaw number eleven: Loss from study].

    For every participant infected, a huge number were lost [from the study]. At the highest, 7.4 for every individual that was [infected] was lost. You have to wonder what would have happened had those people stayed in the study. For every sexually transmitted infection of HIV, up to 17.6 participants were lost. Small differentials in the loss group could negate these [RCT] findings, too.

    All of these flaws are cumulative! The more flaws you have in the study, the more the results of the study (especially when they're small) are called into question.

    Now, here's my favorite quote about ignoring dropouts, and it comes from Bad Science by Goldacre (drug studies are an example):

    People who drop out of trials are statistically much more likely to have done badly, and much more likely to have had side-effects. They will only make your drug look bad. So ignore them, make no attempt to chase them up, do not include them in your analysis.

    Bad Science by Ben Goldacre, Fourth Estate, London (2008), p. 209

    That's a great quote. That's a great way to run a drug study—and by the way, there's a scandal that just came out this week about how Africa is being used by Big Pharma and big American institutions like Johns Hopkins University of Illinois, etc., to do studies that they couldn't run ethically in the United States. They're [basically using] Africa as a guinea pig for whatever drugs and whatever procedures they can come up with. I think [this] is a huge scandal; it's definitely going to hit the wall.

Woman

They can't run [such studies] ethically there either; they just do it anyway!—

John Geisheker

Well, they do it, because they can get away with it. Frankly, there is so much money free-floating [in Africa] (provided by the Gates Foundation and others) that local African officials who are poor—and even if they're the honest chief medical officer of a small African colony, country, or tribe, they can't turn down scads of American money, which they could use for other kinds of things. So, of course, they're going to say “Yeah! Let's start a circumcision campaign!”, so they can get the money into their system, so they can use it for useful things (we're hoping they'll use it for more useful things), but you can't blame poor countries for being attracted by American cash. You simply cannot.

  • [Flaw number twelve: Unequal crossovers].

    This is a bit abstract, too, but let's hit it:

    • The number of men [randomly] assigned to be circumcised who were not, and

    • The number of men [randomly assigned] to wait [to be circumcised], but got circumcised early for whatever reason (maybe they elected to)

    [were] not equal[.] [That suggests that] the men who did not receive the immediate, free [circumcision] they wanted dropped out. So, that affects the accuracy of the study as well.

  • Flaw [number] thirteen: [Unequal Treatment].

    (Are you getting saturated on the flaws here? Have I convinced you!?)

    Men [who] were [randomly assigned] to early circumcision had follow up visits. Now, I actually think this is very criticial; if I were [Dr. Robert Van Howe], I would put this on the front end, because I think it's the biggie (along with the relative/absolute [percentages] problem).

    Men [randomly assigned to] early circumcision had follow up visits, [and] this allowed the staff to influence them—to urge them, to provide safe sex advice, etc., etc. So, they were continually being educated, which [surely affected] their behavior.

  • [Flaw number fourteen]: Early termination.

    The proponents quit the study after one year, saying it would be unethical to continue it because the results were so overwhelmingly positive in favor of circumcision that even waiting would be unethical.

    Well, isn't that convenient?

    If the study had been big and long, maybe the benefits they saw would have roughened out, and [maybe] the stats [would have] come to nothing at the very end, but that's not exactly the result they wanted.

    [Ending the study early] also amplifies the lead-time bias. If you have a short study, that 8-week lead time [which] the men who were circumcised got [is] a bigger percentage of the [study time]; if you run [the study] out 2 years, [a 2-month lead time] is only one twelfth [of the study time]. If you run the study for only a year, that lead time is a full one sixth [of the study time]—quite a difference.

So, here [are] some anomalies for you:

  • Why did participating increase risk?

    • Medical exposure? (asks [Dr. Robert Van Howe]).

    • Or [was it a] self-selected population at a higher risk to begin with? That's certainly possible, too.

  • In South Africa, the intervention was not consistent between tribes, for probably cultural reasons.

  • In Kenya, the intervention was effective for one group of young men, but not [for] the 18 year olds. Why is that? We don't know.

Facts that don't make sense:

  • Why is HIV [prevalence] higher [among circumcised] men than [among] intact men in South Africa?

  • Why is the [prevalence] of heterosexually transmitted HIV so much higher in the U.S. than it is in Europe? The answer could be that Americans don't like condoms because they're circumcised. There are lots of different things you could ask about that.

  • If the increase in protection [provided] by a 90% circumcision rate (which they'll never get to in our lifetime) can be undone by a 5% decrease in condom usage, then what's the point [of the circumcision]?

  • If antiretroviral therapy—which, remember, prevents seroconversion even between what's called discordant partners ([one of them is infected, while the other is not])—and treating STDs [are together a] more effective, less costly, and less invasive [way to prevent HIV than circumcision], then why bother with circumcision?

Here are [some contradictory] studies—including 3 by the authors of the African RCTs! [These are] studies, in other words, that show that the effect [of circumcision] is not as good as [they] would hope [for reducing the transmission of HIV to men], or (and we'll talk about it in a minute) [circumcision] endangers women! There's a remarkable number of them; we won't go through [all of] them, but they're available to you if you want to look; [they are] fully explained in a wonderful website you should know about called Circumstitions (once again by Hugh Young, the guy [who] did the Dilbert cartoon).

[Dr. Michel Garenne] authored:

Long-term population effect of male circumcision in generalised HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

Michel Garenne, who is at the Institute Pasteur in Paris, says:

In most countries with a complex ethnic fabric, the relationship between men's circumcision status and HIV seroprevalence was not straightforward, with the exception of the Luo in Kenya and a few groups in Uganda. These observations put into question the potential long-term effect of voluntary circumcision programmes in countries with generalised HIV epidemics.

Well, it's worse than that, Dr. Michel, because it's not going to be “voluntary” circumcisions. That's what they talked about in 2005 and 2006, but I have watched very carefully (so has Marilyn, so has Gillian, [etc.]) as they've gone from “voluntary” circumcision for men, to semi-voluntary circumcision for young men, to involuntary circumcision for infants, which is plan C, and was, I think, the plan all along.

Here's my comment on this. This is epidemiology and anthropology 101. First of all, the biggies:

  • The risk avoidance by confident, [circumcised] men.

    A lot of health officers in Africa are themselves concerned that young men are cheerfully lining up for circumcision so they can avoid using condoms, and so they can tell women that they're HIV-negative and will stay so because they [were] circumcised. In other words, they're going to use their circumcision status to give up on the only thing[s] that [prevent] HIV:

    • Abstinence
    • Condoms
  • So they are putting themselves and their partners at risk, and the risk to women is substantial, because here what I haven't mentioned and could have mentioned upfront: All the RCTs only say that the male is protected from an infected woman; she is not, however, [necessarily] protected if he's HIV [positive]. In fact, she's even more at risk, according to the Wawer study.

    Does that make sense?

    So this is the most sexist plan for almost a billion African people that you can imagine. This is just a recipe for a gigantic epidemic disaster.

  • The other thing is [that the] 60% protection [for men], even if it's true, is not 95% (the gold standard for all immunizations). It is what I call viralette—viral roulette; you're basically just playing with time, and infection will occur eventually. It just may take longer.

  • We should mention is that the effort against HIV in Africa is a zero-sum game. Male circumcision, which is expensive (95 times more expensive than condoms would be), is draining the dollars away from more effective programs.

  • Bush circumcisions (in other words, circumcisions [outside of a sterile, medical environment]) of men are not going to be [performed] by doctors, because there aren't enough doctors to [circumcise] 900 million black Africans; they're going to be done by traditional “healers”.

    I was in Mexico in 2008, and I talked to people who were proposing this program, and they freely admit [that] there aren't enough doctors, [and] that they're going to have to train locals to do one procedure only [(namely, circumcision)], and there's going to be no follow up! The van pulls [into] town, they [circumcise] the whole village, and [then] drive away! There's no follow up, and there [are] plenty of opportunies for iatrogenic HIV infection.

  • Condoms have other uses, too!

    • Preventing pregnancy.

    • Preventing HPV (which we've already mentioned is one of the vectors for cervical cancer), and other sexually transmitted infections.

  • Now, something you may not know is that this idea (a white-people's invented idea) that circumcision solves the HIV problem in Africa has been pitting tribes against tribes; in Kenya, for instance, the Luo (which is the tribe of Barack Obama and his father), do not circumcise, and haven't historically.

    [However], the Kikuyu—anybody see the movie Out of Africa? That's the tribe that's featured in there, the Kikuyu. They do have a long standing tradition of circumcision.

    [The Kikuyu] have been accusing the Luo of being the problem, because they've been told that uncircumcised—intact—men transmit HIV, so they've been capturing—waylaying—Luo men who are found alone, and [then] circumcising them traumatically right in the street, as kind of a tribe against tribe [act of domination].

    By the way, there's probably pretty good odds that—this is an aside, of course—there's probably pretty good odds that Barack Obama is himself intact.

    • His mother was a hippie atheist.
    • His father was an upperclass Luo.

    So, it's very likely that [his mother] either honored his request (or he insisted) that the boy be left intact, but we're not going to know until he's retired.

  • Cutting as a first line disease control defense always strikes me as dodgy. The human body has evolved for many hundreds of thousands of years, and if we take the notion that the way to solve disease is to start lopping parts off, there [is] no [end] to [the number of] surgies you could invent that solve problems [in that way].

    I mean, I don't have any tonsils, because some doctor made a car payment in 1958 off of them. I mean, it was fantastic fraud in the 1950s; play this game sometime at a party: Ask all the people who have had tonsillectomies to put up their [hands], and you will find that everybody [who raises his or her hand] is [in his or her] 50s and 60s. Almost nobody in [his or her] 20s and 30s is without [tonsils]. It's interesting. It was just the “fashion” of the day!

  • Male genital-cutting and female genital-cutting traditions are self-sustaining; the cut become cutters. This is an anthropology rule—a fixed rule. Once someone has had a genital mutilation, [he or she seems] to have some embedded, psychosexual need to have the next generation [undergo] that same initiation right (or that same limitation). There are thousands of explanations for this; I'm fantastically beyond my pay scale by even speculating on any of them, but I leave you with that thought, in any event.

  • This is [Dr. Robert] Van Howe talking about how circumcisions [are] a wasteful distraction. This is Hugh Young's illustration; if the African studies are correct—if everything I've said about their flaws is inconsequential, and [these studies] are correct—it's still going to take 56 circumcisions to prevent one HIV case per year, and it will [still] fail to prevent one—not much of a gain, and that's true in Uganda, [where there is] a 4% HIV [prevalence]; we have a 0.6% HIV [prevalence] in the U.S.—6 in 1000. Statistically, it would take 380 circumcisions to stop one HIV case—so, at huge expense.

To give you a flavor of the professionalism that surrounds the RCTs in Africa, [consider] these quotes:

  • “We're hacking away. Those foreskins are flying!” That's Robert Bailey [of the] University of Illinois, quoted in the New York Times barely a month ago. It's amazing to me; I can't see how a man could possibly have that casual an attitude toward a surgery that serious on so many people and be able to keep this in his head. It just appalls me to my core.

  • The other [quote] that struck me was one from Dr. Renee Stein [of] St. John's Emergency Medical Center in St. Louis talking about their circumcision rate there: “We whack 'em all!” she said. Wow. What a treat. You can imagine how cold I was when I saw that in the Times.

  • Here, one of my colleagues, David Llewellyn of Atlanta, Georgia, went to a meeting at the CDC in Atlanta. [One of] the presenters to the CDC on how circumcision should be proposed for Africa made fun of intact men (David is intact and proud of it) by using this slide, showing the man as an elephant. So, question of taste? Do you think there's any taste problem there?

  • Here's Israeli Inon Shenker (whom I met in Mexico in 2008) with the Zulu chief, Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu. I talked to Inon Shenker for quite a long time in Mexico, and frankly, I said to him:

    You're Israeli, and you're calling your [plan to circumcise Africans] “Operation Abraham?” Why didn't you call it “Operation Sterile Procedure” or “Operation HIV Prevention”? Why did it get called “Operation Abraham”? It has a slighly religious connotation for some of us.

    and [his response was that] he was offended by that, [and] it wasn't his choice, [and so on]. He generally thinks that this is an opportunity for the Israelis[;] his claim is that Israelis have a unique expertise in adult male circumcision, because they did them wholesale to Russian immigrants to Israel in the 1970s when there was a huge outpouring of Russian Jews into Israel. So, he's on a quest for the business, as it were.

  • Now, here's a picture I found:

    “The operation is a good chance for safe sex education”

    One of the things that Shenker and colleagues talked about in Mexico in 2008 when I met them was that the circumcision procedure itself [is] a marvelous opportunity for the man to have “a quiet reading moment”, where he could read about safe sex [in] brochures they were going to have him read.

    Well, I don't know what your attention span is like during surgery—even surgery with a decent local anesthetic—but I don't think I'd be reading much. At the time, it struck me as a very thin reason to perform a procedure—you could also put him up on a table, all stand around, not cut him, hand him the brochure, then have [a test afterward] to see if he read the material, and you [would] get the [same] benefit.

  • Here's a billboard on the Ethiopian–Sudan boarder, showing that you should get circumcised, and there's a ton of these in Africa—tons and tons of them, put up by the local health authorities and by individuals who have much to gain.

  • Here's Orange Farm in South Africa:

    The young men have flocked by the thousands to this clinic for circumcisions.

    ...

    “I've done 53 in a seven-hour day, me, myself, personally,” said Dr. Dino Rech, who helped design the highly efficient surgical assembly line… for cutting off foreskins.

    ...

    Well, I submit to you that if you do 53 procedures in a day, your first one might be decent, but I wonder about your 53rd. I think I'd want to be the mid-morning appointment—somewhere where you're back in the swing of it, but [aren't] yet exhausted, do you know what I mean? I mean, it's just insane to think you can do 900 million circumcisions in Africa without a single problem. We have hard enough problems doing circumcisions to a decent standard in U.S. hospitals that are first rate, let alone in bush clinics and vans all over sub-Saharan Africa.

So, thanks very much.

I actually have 2 more slides. This is me sailing rather than talking about penises [laughter], and this is my houseboat out in Seattle, which I built.

Thank you. Any questions?

Woman

Can you explain how you calculate the absolute reduction in risk vs. the relative reduction?

John Geisheker

Well, they're not my numbers for a start (they're [Dr. Robert] Van Howe's), and I will happily give you his handout, which he would be delighted if we shared. In fact, I thought I had given it to Travis to reproduce. Is it here? Ah! That's excellent. Why don't you check those numbers in there.

Marilyn Milos

[NOTE: Marilyn Milos previously threatened legal action for transcribing her words. Therefore, they have not been reproduced here.]

John Geisheker

Oh, relative and absolute?—

Woman

Well, just how are they calculated in general? How does one calculate an absolute risk versus a relative risk?

John Geisheker

Well, let me give you an example [which] is a bit closer to home.

One of the claims of people who propose circumcision is that it solves urinary tract infections for boys under 1 year [of age]. But, the actual rate—and even this I think is questionable for reasons I may mention in a minute—the absolute rate, if you believe it, of UTIs in [male] infants is 1% (1 boy in 100). Now, the proponents [of circumcision] claim that if you circumcise boys, only 1 in 1000 will get a urinary tract infection. So, rather than saying to a parent:

You know, he has only a [1 in 100] chance of having a UTI, [but] we could marginally improve on that by circumcising him, so then it will go down to 1 in 1000.

Instead, what they do is they say:

Circumcision confers a 10 times protective effect!

So, they use the relative difference between 1/100th and 1/1000th, and [they sell circumcision using] that [relative] scale, rather than using the absolute, which is the 1 in 100 that you should be talking about as the “high” risk side.

Does that make sense to you?

Woman

Yeah, but—

John Geisheker

The same thing is happing in the RCTs.

Woman

Right. It just [seems] like the absolute reduction was really low then. It was like 1.8%, and so in a population when HIV is so much more prominent, it just seems like it [is] a strange number. So, I was just curious how they kind of got that.

John Geisheker

This is the slide you're talking about, right?

Woman

[Yes]

John Geisheker

Yeah, well, see, [among] those who got a circumcision [early on], out of every 100, a little over 1.5 of them got HIV, whereas [among those not circumcised until later, out of every 100, a little over] 3.3 [of them got] HIV, and it's the [proportionality] between those 2 that gives you your big number if you're dishonest about it.

Yeah, I'll stick with [the word] “dishonest”, because I frankly think these studies are rankly dishonest, and they have been marketed at their highest point of possible [benefit], and none of the shades—none of the nuances—have been [discussed]. [Unfortunately], [their results] are so deeply embedded now, you could walk out on Marilyn's street here, stop a cab, and [the driver] will tell you [that circumcision confers a] “60% protective effect”. You know, it's deep; it's in place.

Marilyn Milos

[NOTE: Marilyn Milos previously threatened legal action for transcribing her words. Therefore, they have not been reproduced here.]

[NOTE: The audio ends abruptly here.]


          Learning from a visit to a school using technology: Some questions to consider        
how should I frame this?
how should I frame this?

Over the past two decades, I've had the good fortune to visit hundreds and hundreds of schools across all six continents to learn about how they are using new technologies -- and hope to use them in the future. (Maybe some day I'll visit the Antarctic school that was connected to the Internet by Chile's pioneering Enlaces program and I'll be able to claim I've done this on *all* continents!)

From Korea to Costa Rica, Sri Lanka to Syria, Lesotho to Laos, Papua New Guinea to Puerto Rico: School visits in over 50 countries have run the gamut, from observing the shared use of quite old graphing calculators and lectures at the blackboard describing how to navigate Microsoft Windows (even though there was a nary a PC to be found in the building) to marvelling at technology-rich classrooms filled students and teachers doing things with hardware and software that I couldn't have dreamed of doing when I was a student myself, many years ago.

I have visited schools in prosperous countries in peacetime and in very poor countries emerging from conflict (and in some cases, still technically at war). I learned firsthand about technology use in schools in Iceland when that country was labelled the world's 'most developed' and in schools in Haiti, the poorest country in the western Hemisphere, after that country suffered its devastating earthquake.

In pretty much all cases and contexts, investments in 'technology' were meant to be deliberately forward-looking (if not always necessarily that 'strategic' or well-planned), to some extent symbols (often explicit ones) of progress and optimism about the future, no matter the education system, from the most 'high performing' to the most dysfunctional.

Because I've had lots of comparative experiences visiting schools in 'other places' around the world, I am sometimes asked to provide an 'international perspective' on what is happening within a set of schools in a given country, part of a larger effort to benchmark what is being done and planned against norms in other countries. It can be a pretty cool gig at times (although the travel can be rather punishing). I am always learning, and the dynamism and determination of students, teachers, principals and education officials whom I observe and chat with quite often leaves me inspired and (re-)energized.

Since I have been doing this for so long, I sometimes help 'train' people (at ministries of education, at NGOs) who are assuming leadership positions in educational technology initiatives on how to develop their own "carpenter's eye" -- the ability to make quick assessments and judgments about what they are seeing in ways those less experienced in the field may struggle to do.

What's a 'carpenter's eye'?
A carpenter can often quickly judge whether an angle is truly 90 degrees, or that a wrong tool was used for a particular job, or make educated guesses about why one material was employed instead of another, or that something is destined to break. Such judgments may not always be accurate, and may be informed by various biases, but they are often qualitatively different than those of people less skilled and experienced with woodworking, who may not notice such things -- and who in fact may not care about them, nor understand why they might be important.

In my personal experience working with new technologies in the education sector, many of these folks have come from 'technical backgrounds' and typically direct their gaze toward, and ask the majority of their questions about, the technology itself. Often times the end goal of such investigations is meant to build an accurate inventory the equipment that is available in a school, rather to trying to learn about how the equipment itself is being used (and not used), why this might be the case, and how people feel about this. Fair enough: We all have different bosses, different ideas about what is important, and different incentives for doing whatever it is we may do. I don't mean to deny the importance of surveying what technologies are currently available in schools. But in my experience, visiting a school to learn about the technology it has and only focusing on that technology (what processor a device has, which operating system it runs, how much memory is available) represents a real lost opportunity to learn about and gain insight into many more things at the same time.

In case it might be of use to anyone else, I have assembled a quick list of some of the things that I often ask about and consider, usually automatically and unconsciously, when I visit a school to learn about how information and communication technologies (ICTs) are being used (and not used) for a variety of purposes. It's by no means comprehensive, and of course every context is different, but I find that these are often the types of things that I ask about and look for (in addition, of course, to the more general educational and demographic stuff that would be common areas of inquiry related to most school visits, and the hyper-specific stuff that might be the reason I am visiting one school in particular).

I have cobbled this list together from a much larger, slightly unruly 'master' list of questions that I maintain, which draws on notes and emails I have shared with people over almost two decades of school visits, working with hundreds of people, many of whom had little prior experience in visiting schools to assess what was happening with technology. Sometimes -- if not often -- sharing these sorts of questions is meant as much to spark discussion and debate within a team about what might be important (and what isn't so important), and how to go about finding this out, as it is to suggest actual questions that should be posed. Every context is different.

---


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          Encuentra personas mdiante su telefono y el GPS        
A continuacion les presentamos esta innovacion para localizar gente mediante la señal del celular y un GPS. Gracias a www.trackapartner.com

Debes poner el pais y el numero de telefono con el codigo de la ciudad...


Track a phone number here
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Attention:
THE USE OF THIS SYSTEM IS FOR INFORMATIVE PURPOSES ONLY, WE ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS ABUSE BY THE USER.
Welcome to Satellite Tracking
GSM mobile phone tracking system via the GPS-TRACK satellite network
Based on repeater triangulation, the system tracks mobile phones using GPS and GSM technology
We are not responsible for possible tracking errors that may occur.
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You can see where a person is; such as your wife, husband or friend in real time anywhere in the world 24/7
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25 meters (max.) for mobile phones in the U.S.A., South America and Canada.
50 meters (max.) for mobile phones elsewhere.
This system will not work in countries without GSM technology networks.

          Exploring South Africa by Peter Adams        

At the start of February I swapped the cold and damp winter weather of North Devon for the far hotter and drier climate of South Africa’s late summer.  I spent 17 days adventuring around some of the furthest reaches of South Africa’s Eastern Cape, covering some 2273 kilometres; travelling from the coast at Port Elizabeth to the high Drakensburg Mountains overlooking the Eastern Cape and bordering on to Lesotho. I took the opportunity to climb the highest mountain in the Eastern Cape some 3001 metres above sea level, then ventured back to the coast at Kei Mouth to explore the coastal plants of South Africa; whilst visiting everywhere, it seemed in between. This included venturing over South Africa’s highest road at Naude’s Nek at 2500 metres above sea level on dirt roads that seemed to have been scratched into the mountain side with shear drops on every corner. To give you an idea of height, Ben Nevis is only 1344 metres above sea level.


South Africa is well known for its never ending array of plants, one that has strongly interested me for years as a horticulturalist,  South Africa seems to produce a never ending list of genus, that we all enjoy seeing grown in gardens all over the world and botanist continue to find new species on a regular basis even today. Yet very few horticulturalists and gardeners get to view them growing in their natural environment, often tucked away in minute plant populations in some extremely remote areas with the ever present risk of extinction caused by humans over grazing areas with animals or developing areas of land for roads and buildings; so the opportunity to fulfil the ambition of visiting South Africa was one not to be missed.

Read more


          Around Southern Africa in 31 Days        

After some thought, I’ve decided to go ahead with the overland Africa trip solo. There was the option of an organized tour, there was the option of coming back Early, and changing my flight with some heavy fees attached, or I could just wing it. Regardless, even if I were to go back to Europe before my previously scheduled time I would already miss out on the career fair, and looking at many of the companies I applied to, luckily, their interview sessions begin in January.

So… taking that in hand, I plan to do the following….

Head north from cape town, stop off at the Orange River, then up to the Namib desert for some dune boarding, then up to Walvis bay up the Skeleton coast to the land of the mud people, then to Etosha, anf off to Okavongo in Botswana for some serious game (hopefully will not contract Malaria here – yey for Malarone), then off to Kasane where I’ll do a day trip to Victoria falls and pop in to Zim to give a quick shout to Bob, back through Zambia to Botswana and down through Gaborone to Limpop back in the Republic of South Africa, and then to Mozambique for a few days of lounging on the Indian Ocean, and return to South Africa, if time allows, I’ll head down to Lesotho for some beautiful mountain viewing, and back to Cape Town through the Karoo. – 31 Days…. Whether or not it’s possible we’ll see. But sure enough, it’s man vs’ nature vs’ self.

Only thing I’m worried about is I may get the bug, and decide to go on crazy vacations from now forth instead of some boring weekend in Castelldefels.


          Sudafrica Rand(ZAR)/Lesotho Loti(LSL)        
1 Sudafrica Rand = 1.00003 Lesotho Loti
          OSCAR SUBMISSION PREDICTIONS 2015-2016, RUSSIA to VIETNAM (Pt. 5 of 5)        
And here's the last group of predictions, minus the unpredictable Russians. I will try to research the final two giant countries (France and India) over the next week. 

1. RUSSIA- "Sunstroke" Russia is particularly confusing, and a lot will depend on who exactly is on their selection committee! In 2011, there was a big controversy when Russia selected the critically maligned “Burnt by the Sun: The Citadel”, which many said was chosen due to director Nikita Mikhalkov’s political connections. It's possible though I thought this judgment was a bit harsh. It's true that Mikhalkov is a big supporter of Vladimir Putin. But, whatever his politics, he had never failed to be nominated for an Oscar, winning for “Burnt by the Sun” and nominated for “12” and “Close to Eden”. So you could argue that Russia just thought he was their best chance. Last year, people (including me) said the politicized Russian Academy would never choose “Leviathan”. Although universally praised as the best Russian film of the year, it was almost banned at home for its realistic portrayal of Russian political corruption. Film critics were thrilled when they decided to send it in after all. Why? Is the new selection committee liberal and fair? Did they do it as a small, Machiavellian gesture to make it seem that they were liberal and fair? Or did they put political considerations aside and just decide they wanted to win an Oscar? We might have a better idea this year when Nikita Mikhalkov’s latest bloated historical epic “Sunstroke” faces off against “The Fool”, another critically praised drama about Russian corruption. The three-hour “Sunstroke”, set amidst Russia’s political turmoil in the early 20th century, has been criticized for turning a four-page story into an expensive, overlong film. However (with the exception of last year’s surprise “Leviathan”) Russia almost always chooses these sorts of BIG historical dramas,  and Mikhalkov is almost a default nominee when he has a new film out. Add to that the fact that this takes place in the disputed region of Crimea, and “Sunstroke” would be a very pro-Russian choice. “The Fool” (aka “Durak”), about a lowly plumber facing off against a corrupt regional mayor, has better reviews. It won Best Screenplay at the Russian Nika Awards (beating “Leviathan”), received a Best Picture nomination and did reasonably well at the box-office. But it’s not as high-profile as “Leviathan” and there won’t be any pressure to choose another anti-corruption drama. And don’t necessarily count out the baity “Batallion”, about a battalion of female soldiers serving in a suicide squad during the Russian Civil War. This would let the Russians choose a patriotic war film while avoid the controversy of another Mikhalkov. Some online are predicting Andrei Konchalovsky’s “Postman’s White Nights” (Venice), but Konchalovsky pulled his boring film from the Oscar race last year and premiered the film on Russian television, rendering it ineligible. Konchalovsky, who lives in the US, said he didn’t want a Hollywood award.  Two other films by previously selected directors are long-shots- futuristic, existential “Under Electric Clouds” (Berlin) simply seems to make no sense, while “Zvezda”, a comedy-drama about an aspiring actress seems too light to represent the dour Russians. Other choices include “Angels of Revolution” (Rotterdam), about a female Communist official trying to “Sovietize” the Khanty and Nenets peoples of Northern Russia, “Arventur” (Moscow), an animated film based on a Chinese fable that won a Silver Prize at the Moscow Film Festival, “Orleans”, about an evil little town approached by a sort of Faustian devil and "Pioneer Heroes”, about the last generation of Soviets before the fall of the USSR. Dark horse: Ukrainian co-production “Battle of Sevastopol” wrapped up production just as Russian and Ukrainian tensions began flaring. Since the director is Ukrainian, it should compete for them. See Ukraine below. Final verdict: It's nowhere near a sure thing, but it’s stupid to bet against Nikita Mikhalkov, beloved of both Putin and AMPAS. “Batallion” and “The Fool” will duke it out for second place.

2. SAUDI ARABIA- Nothing eligible. Saudi Arabia banned cinemas in 1980, making it nearly impossible for local films to meet the AMPAS requirement that films screen in their country of origin for seven days. The female-helmed “Wadjda” managed to get around the rules by screening at foreign cultural centers and oil rigs. There are rumors that Saudi Arabia will re-open cinemas soon but for now local films cannot qualify in the normal way. Despite this, Saudi Arabia has a thriving market in short films. The second annual Saudi Film Festival in Dammam managed to go forward this year, although there were no features in competition. Ironically, the 1stand 2nd prizes went to shorts directed by Saudi women, perhaps following in Haifaa Al-Mansour’s footsteps. As for the Oscar race, I don’t think the Saudis have anything eligible.

3. SERBIA- "Enclave" Serbia unfortunately changed its selection process a few years back, and now only considers films that pay an entrance fee (I think 300 euro) to the Serbian Academy of Film Art and Science. Last year, my prediction (“Barbarians”) didn’t pay the money so it wasn't even in the running. I see as many as eight Serbian possibilities, but it’s impossible to know which films will pay the money to enter the race. This year’s obvious choice seems to be “Panama”, a youth-oriented thriller that screened in Cannes and Sarajevo about the perils of love and relationships in the modern-day world of social media.  Serbia often passes over youth-oriented films, so I think its far more likely they will send “Enclave”, a well-reviewed (and politically relevant) film about friendship across the ethnic divide in the disputed Kosovo region. Politically, it would be a good choice since Serbian foreign policy strongly advocates the return of independent Kosovo to Serbian control. Two period dramas are also in with a chance- “For King and Homeland”, about the memories of a Serbian-Yugoslavian WWII veteran and “The Man Who Defended Gavrilo Princip”, about the fate of the Serbian assassin who started World War I by killing the Archduke Ferdinand. The director of "Gavrilo Princip" is the screenwriter of three previous Serbian submissions. Basketball drama “We Will Be World Champions”, by a previously submitted director, is sort of possible but only because Serbia has selected sports-themed dramas three times, as is “Next to Me” (Best Picture, Pula), a violent drama about a woman who takes action against a gang of nationalist students who attack her because of her husband’s controversial artwork. There’s also hope for “The Disobedient” (Sundance 2014), a drama about friends reunited by a funeral, and “No One’s Child” (Venice 2014), about a feral child found in the woods. As I said, so much depends on which producers pay the entrance fee. My prediction is “Enclave” and I’m feeling pretty confident about it. Runner-ups (in order): “Panama” (with its Cannes prestige), â€œNext to Me” (which will premiere right before the deadline), â€œThe Man Who Defended Gavrilo Princip” and “No One’s Child”. 

4. SINGAPORE- "3688" Singapore celebrates 50 years of independence from Malaysia this year and several of their 20 or so local releases this year will celebrate the city-state's vibrant culture, history and traditions. “7 Letters” is a series of short films about Singapore's national identity, directed by seven of the country’s most prominent filmmakers. The film was suddenly green-lighted for a limited commercial release after special screenings sold out immediately. Among the seven directors is Royston Tan who also has a new musical- “3688”- about an aspiring singer whose dreams are hampered by taking her care of her sick father. Musicals don’t usually play well abroad, but three of Singapore’s eight previous submissions have been musicals. Randy Ang’s hotly anticipated historical drama “1965” tells the story of Singapore’s independence from Malaysia, though the film's emphasis on the importance of ethnic harmony of the film may mean it relies too much on English (Singapore's Chinese, Indian and Malay citizens typically use English when speaking across racial lines). Multi-lingual Singapore was disqualified in 2005 for having too much English in their film. Two indie films could be dark horses: Malay-language girl power sports drama “Banting” and surveillance thriller “Camera”. Unlikely: any of the numerous local Chinese comedies (the top contenders would be “Our Sister Mambo” and “Wayang Boy”). Unlikely to premiere in time: Eric Khoo’s “In the Room” (Khoo was selected to represent Singapore three times), “Endless Day” (about the WWII romance between a Japanese soldier and a Eurasian girl) and “Sinema Paradiso” (a tribute to 1950s cinema) were all scheduled for 2015 but haven't premiered. My prediction: their preferred choice “1965” has too much English, "7 Letters" is deemed too "local" for an international audience and “Sinema Paradiso” will be prepped for next year. They’ll half-heartedly send “3688”, which debuts September 17.

5. SLOVAKIA- "Comeback" Slovakia has had a fairly uneventful film year. I think they have six or seven fiction features eligible (including two unremarkable children’s films), plus a bunch of documentaries. Unlike last year, it’s a pretty ordinary lot. No majority Slovak features competed at Karlovy Vary, which usually prominently features at least one or two Slovak films. In recent years, the Slovak Academy has preferred dreary arthouse ("Made in Ash", "My Dog Killer") and quirky documentaries rather than the engaging village dramedies they used to send (I loved “Return of the Storks”). I see four Slovak possibilities: (1)- “Comeback”, a documentary following a number of recently released inmates from prison trying to reintegrate into society, (2)- “Eva Nova”, about a once-glamorous actress trying to reconcile with her son while at the same time struggling with alcoholism, (3)- “Koza” (Berlin), a docudrama about a Romany boxer who’s fallen on hard times, and his girlfriend who wants to get an abortion. It was the only Slovak film to play at a major festival in 2015, and (4)- “So Far, So Near”, a documentary about autism by Jaroslav Vojtek, who directed their 2010 submission. With "Eva" unreleased, I think this will come down to “Koza” or “Comeback”. “Koza” is the favorite (and it is filmed in much the same style as their last three grim candidates), but I’m predicting an upset for documentary “Comeback”. Unlikely: village dramedy “Hostage”, road movie “Stanko” and another documentary (about the legacy of the Communist secret police), “Salto Mortale”.

6. SLOVENIA- "The Woods are Still Green" 
Slovenia's film industry got a shock at last year’s film awards when a documentary (“A Fight For”) about Slovenia’s 2012 version of the Occupy Wall Street movement, and a 19-minute student film (“The Springtime Sleep”) split the major awards, beating out favorites “The Tree” (Karlovy Vary 2014), about a mother and her sons, and “Inferno” (Busan; it won just two tech prizes), a violent, social drama about an unemployed man facing off against society. "The Tree" managed to get Best Actor and the Audience Award, while "Inferno" just won two tech prizes. Those two arty films were also passed over at the Cannes Film Market, where Slovenia instead chose to promote a new comedy (“Siska Deluxe”) and horror film (“Idyll”), both of which will premiere in October. So, Slovenia has quite a confused race, with no obvious frontrunner. I am going to predict they make an odd choice and send German-language WWI drama "The Woods are Still Green" by Marko Nabersnik, who directed Slovenia’s 2008 submission and their biggest-ever domestic box-office hit “Rooster’s Breakfast”. Slovenia was part of German-speaking Austria during the war. It is probably the best reviewed Slovenian film of the year, if you believe it to be a Slovenian film. In 2nd place will be the angry, nihilistic “Inferno” (dir: Vinko Moderndorfer, who repped Slovenia in 2009) while the equally grim “The Tree” should place 3rd. The aforementioned winner of the Festival of Slovenian Film (“A Fight For”) probably won't come into play, as the Slovenian Academy tends to be bit more mainstream than the Festival judges. Opening too late: mystery-thriller “Nightlife” (Damjan Kozole, 2003) and drama "Mother" will not be released until fall at the earliest.

7. SOUTH AFRICA- "Treurgrond" South Africa has a number of potential submissions, including an Afrikaans-language thriller by Darrell Roodt, the director of their first-ever Oscar nominee, "Yesterday”. Roodt has three films in South African cinemas this year though the other two aren't eligible. One intriguing option is “Breathing Umphefumlo” (Berlinale 2015), a Xhosa-language operatic redux of La Bohème. However, the South African Academy didn't send the acclaimed “U-Carmen eKhayelitsha” (a Xhosa-language Carmen) by the same team, which got far better reviews. Perhaps because the director is British? Afrikaans mystery “Ballade vir n’Enkeling”, a mystery based on a popular 80s television series about a missing author got strong notices from the Afrikaner community, while urban dance drama “Hear Me Move” entertained audiences, though to me it looks like just a South African version of “Step Up”. “Love the One You Love” (Busan), about love and relationships in modern-day Cape Town, was made on a micro-budget, with improvised dialogue and mostly been warmly received by critics. Two co-productions with neighboring countries that don’t compete in the Oscars (“Dias Santana” with Angola, and “Coming of Age” with Lesotho) could also contend if South Africa considers them to be domestic productions. “Necktie Youth” has played at a number of festivals, but it seems like it has too much English. Bottom line: South Africa’s Academy is likely to choose “Treurgrond”, a thriller about the true-to-life brutal attacks that terrorize South Africa’s farms and its farmers, with low-budget “Love the One You Love” its strongest competition. 

8. SPAIN- "Ma ma" Spain doesn't have as much to choose from this year as they usually do. This year's big Goya winner ("La isla minima") was eligible last year, both their films at Cannes and Berlin were filmed mostly in English and many of their leading draws at San Sebastian will not hit cinemas until October. Never fear because Oscar winning actress Penelope Cruz is here! Cruz co-starred in both of Spain's Oscar-winning films from the 1990s ("All About My Mother" and "Belle Epoque") and her "Ma ma" (which opens September 11) looks like exactly the sort of heartwarming, sad, inspiring film that Oscar loves. It's about an academic (Cruz) battling breast cancer (cancer de mama is the Spanish for breast cancer) with the support of her family. "Magical Girl" (San Sebastian, Best Picture 2014), an odd film about a man desperately trying to obtain an anime costume as a final gift for his dying daughter, is likely to get another slot on Spain's traditional three-film shortlist. The third film is a mystery to me; it could be adolescent drama "Nothing in Exchange" (Winner, Malaga Film Festival), Basque-language mystery "Loreak" (which got a rare Best Pic nomination at the Goyas), or Agustí Villaronga's "The King of Havana", which was denied permission to film in Cuba for its story of a teenager experimenting with sex, love, rum and crime during Cuba's economic collapse in the 1990s. Villaronga was selected in 2011. Although this has been a relatively weak year for Spain, they've got lots in the pipeline and will have a very strong year next year. For now, I'm confident about "Ma ma", with "Magical Girl" and "King of Havana" filling out the shortlist. 

9. SRI LANKA- "28" Sri Lanka has sent only one film in the past ten years (and only two in Oscar history) and I don’t see any indication they will send a film this year. However, they do have a number of candidates should the new government choose to re-enter the race, perhaps to promote local cinema. The most popular choice would clearly be “Maharaja Gemunu”, an impressive-looking costume drama about a renowned King which performed well in the domestic market.  However, the two films Sri Lanka sent to the Oscars were both more arthouse efforts. In that case, the favorite would probably be “28” (Rotterdam), a drama about three men transporting the body of a murder victim, who turns out to be a relative of one of the three men. “Thanha Rathi Ranga” (Between Today and Tomorrow), about three friends visiting Northern Sri Lanka after the Civil War, could also be chosen, while “The Strange Familiar” probably won’t be considered due to its LGBT-themes as homosexuality continues to be a crime in Sri Lanka. Bottom line: in the unlikely event they send a film, it will be “28”.

10. SWEDEN- "A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence" Sweden has had a slow year filled with comedies and documentaries, so there’s little doubt they would choose Venice Golden Lion winner “A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence” if the year ended today. “Pigeon” is the final film in what Variety magazine says is probably “the lowest-grossing trilogy in history”, following the soporific “Songs from the Second Floor” and "You the Living”. Although both these plotless films were terrible, they both represented Sweden at the Oscars. “Pigeon”, which Variety swears has slightly more of a plot in its absurdist vignettes than the other two films, seems likely to follow...but I’m rooting against it. Note to the Academy: Roy Andersson’s films have been sent to the Academy three times without success. AMPAS, like me, clearly has no tolerance for his dull, nearly wordless films. Now, Sweden’s last film to get an Oscar nomination was Kay Pollak's sleeper musical drama "As It Is In Heaven” (the Swedes have been shortlisted three times since then, but never nominated) . Miles better than the similarly themed “Les choristes”  that same year, Pollak has now made a sequel- “Heaven on Earth”- which will be released in September. Choosing a sequel as your Oscar candidate is risky- most Oscar voters can't remember the first one- but I would love to see Pollak (who at least has a proven track record at the Oscars) getting this instead of a fourth failure for Andersson. Another potential dark horse is Andreas Ohman’s upcoming romantic drama “Odödliga” (premiering August 21). Ohman’s “Simple Simon” was a buzzy late release in 2010 and made it all the way to the Final Nine. There's also Berlinale adolescent drama “My Skinny Sister” about a girl going through figure skating and eating disorders (I fell asleep at a screening after a few minutes but admittedly didn’t give it much of a chance). I’m desperately trying to find a way to make a prediction against Andersson, but he’ll probably get it. Sigh. Strongest alternate is “Heaven on Earth”. 

11. SWITZERLAND- "La vanité" Switzerland would be easier to predict if only Barbet Schroeder’s “Amnesia” were eligible. The Oscar-nominated director is a Swiss citizen and his new film (his first in seven years) got good reviews in Cannes and will open the Swiss Films section in Locarno. Set in Spain with two German lead characters, much is made of the fact that the German woman insists on speaking only in English. I believe the film will be over 50% in English and won’t qualify (like last year’s “Clouds of Sils Maria”). For the past five years, Switzerland has chosen a film from either Berlinale or Locarno. That would appear to bode well for “Dora, or the Sexual Neuroses of our Parents” (Berlin) and “Pause” (Locarno), which faced off against each other at the 2015 Swiss Film Awards, where they both lost to “The Circle”. But neither “Dora”, about a mentally unstable woman who becomes pregnant, nor musician rom-com “Pause” has really wowed the critics. “Unlikely Heroes”, a comedy about a bored divorcée who finds meaning in life when she volunteers at a center for asylum seekers, has also gotten mixed reviews but it’s a definite crowd-pleaser. I loved the film and it won the Audience Award at Locarno 2014. It’s similar humor to “Late Bloomers” which Switzerland selected in 2007. Other contenders include “La vanité”, a dark French-language comedy (co-starring Spain’s Carmen Maura) about an elderly man seeking outside help to commit suicide (from a Spanish nurse and a male prostitute from Eastern Europe), “War”, about a sensitive boy forced to spend the summer working hard on a remote farm, and “Heimatland”, a series of ten shorts envisioning a dark future for Switzerland. And because the Swiss have chosen documentaries two years in a row, let’s throw in a pair of immigration-themed films, namely “Iraqi Odyssey”, a moving documentary tracking the director’s Iraqi family who have been dispersed around the world by decades of emigration and war, and “Shelter”, about migrants in Switzerland. Previously selected directors Rolando Colla (“Seven Days”) and Xavier Koller (“A Bell for Ursli”) have new films but they won’t prefer until the fall. Final predictions: hardly any of these films seem likely but I’m predicting “La vanité” pulls this off. The more grim and depressing “War” (Chrieg) has the next best chance, followed by documentary “Iraqi Odyssey” and comedy “Unlikely Heroes”. As much as I’d like to predict an unlikely victory for “Unlikely Heroes”, I’d say that’s unlikely to happen. “Dora” rounds out the Top Five choices. UPDATE: Switzerland announced their seven finalists. I’m pleased to note that four of my Top Five are on the list- “Vanité”, “War”, “Iraqi Odyssey” and “Dora”, which have been joined by “Pause”. Also on the list: “Bouboule”, a comedy about a fat kid (no chance to be selected) and “No Place to Stay”, a documentary about the Roma that I admittedly have never heard of. Out of luck: “Unlikely Heroes”. My prediction remains the same. 

12. TAIWAN- "The Assassin" Let’s review. Since 2000, the only films from China, Hong Kong and Taiwan to make it past the longlist stage were “Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon”, “The Grandmaster”, “Hero” and “Seediq Bale”. All four were artsy Chinese-language epics with tons of martial arts fighting and close attention to cinematography, color and historical detail. Taiwan thus has the easiest decision of any major country this year and will surely send Hsiao-hsien Hou’s gorgeous 9th century epic “The Assassin”. Eight years in the making, “The Assassin” has probably gotten the best reviews of Hou’s career and is also more accessible than his earlier arthouse films. "The Assassin" won Best Director at the Cannes Film Festival for its story of a female assassin torn between love and duty. “The Assassin” will bowl over the competition which was anyway weak this year. Chang Tso-chi’s grim “Thanatos Drunk” (Berlinale), set in the back-alleys of Taipei, dominated the the awards at the Taipei FIlm Festival, but it got mixed reviews internationally. Cho has been chosen before, and so has Sylvia Chang, but her slow-paced “Murmur of the Hearts” (aka Nian Nian), about reunited siblings on a small Taiwanese island, was also not beloved with critics. Better reviewed was cerebral high-school heist comedy “Meeting Mr. Sun”, which won Best Screenplay at the Golden Horse Awards but I don’t think it's very likely either. This will be an easy win for “Assassin”. 

13. TAJIKISTAN- "Tasfiya" Tajikistan last submitted a film in 2005 when they were disqualified after the official print of their film failed to arrive in time. Since then, they’ve shown no interest in the competition even during those rare years when they had suitable candidates (like Nosir Saidov’s bittersweet “True Noon”). This year’s most acclaimed Tajik film (Nosir Saidov’s “The Teacher”) premiered in Dushanbe slightly too early to qualify. They probably won't participate but they do have candidates. They had four local films (probably a record) playing at the biannual Didor International Film Festival which was held in Dushanbe in October 2014. And according to an interesting new article, Tajiki cinema has been getting a boost in funding lately. If they return, I predict they send “Tasfiya” a surreal fantasy-drama by a new female helmer, about a couple living in a small village under Soviet times.

14. TANZANIA- "Daddy's Wedding" The Tanzanians sent an obscure Swahili-language film called “Maangamizi” in 2001, but have been silent ever since. Their only really successful film of the year was critically acclaimed short film, "Fish of the Land”. The Tanzanians had quite a few local feature films in competition at the Zanzibar International Film Festival this year, but most seem to have been released the previous year, including "Kutakapokucha", which won Best Tanzanian Film and "Mr. Kadamanja" (which won the People's Choice Award). For the sake of completion, I’ll predict “Daddy's Wedding", a comedy-drama which won two of the seven awards in the local awards section (Director and Cinematography). They also have One Month Date”, a drama about the dating problems of a single mother, but I’m sure they won’t send anything this year.

15. THAILAND- "Pheun Keed Sen Tai" Thailand doesn’t have much to choose from this year. Apichatpong Weerasethakul had another slow, pretentious, lugubrious movie (“Cemetery of Splendor”) at Cannes this year, but it didn’t win any awards and nobody likes his films in Thailand anyway. After Palme d’Or winner “Uncle Boonmee” failed to get Thailand an Oscar nomination, a second chance seems unlikely (they really don't like him in Thailand). Of the major 2014 releases honored at the Thai Oscars (the “Subhannahongsa Awards”, or Golden Swans) this year, only two are eligible- documentary “The Master”, about the man who introduced arthouse films to Thailand by pirating them, and romantic comedy “I Fine Thank You Love You”, a standard rom-com. 2015 releases have been even more silly than usual. In fact, Thailand probably has fewer good options than any major country this year. Now having said that, the Thai always find something to send. Unlike most countries, they have no prejudice when it comes to genre, choosing popular romance (2014, 2009), horror films (2013), action movies (2012, 2006), arthouse (2010, 2003), musicals (2002), costume dramas (2011, 2007) and LGBT (2008), which is quite refreshing. But everything this year seems to have a major handicap…LGBT drama “How to Win At Checkers” (Berlin) has an American director. “King Naresuan 6” is visually spectacular and the end of a long series of films (it was originally a trilogy) which reportedly bankrupted its studio, but the history-in-progress plotline will be hopelessly lost on Western viewers. Expensive “Khrua Toh”, the biopic of a revered Buddhist monk, will showcase Thai culture and religion well, but the trailer looks melodramatic and dull by Western standards, and American audiences won't have a clue who he is. Horror-comedy “The Black Death” is supposed to be loads of fun but a period film about the living dead is hardly Oscar’s cup of tea. So, I’m going on a limb and choosing "Pheun Keed Sen Tai" (เพื่อนขีดเส้นใต้), an omnibus of three films by independent directors exploring friendships and relationships. It has no English title yet, but literally means "Underlining Friends". I’ll put “King Naresuan 6” in second place, with “Khrua Toh”, “Postcards from Nowhere” (about a postcard that brings interconnected characters together) and “Cemetery of Splendor” rounding out the Top Five. 

16. TUNISIA- "Tunisian Spring" Tunisia hasn’t sent a film to the Oscars since 2002- way before the chaos of the Arab Spring. This year, Tunisian features were completely absent from the Abu Dhabi Film Festival and they sent a film from last year (“Challat de Tunis”) to Cairo and Busan. That leaves three choices: (1)-  â€œBidoun 2”, the only local feature in competition at the country’s Carthage International Film Festival, (2)- “Tunisian Spring”, which represented the country at FESPACO, and (3)- the three-hour dark horse “Looking for Muhyiddin”, which combines elements of documentary and fiction. “Tunisian Spring”, a drama about the lives of four young people set against the backdrop of the 2011 Arab Spring, should be considered the front-runner. Female helmer Raja Amari is very much owed. Her film “Satin Rouge” got Oscar buzz way back in 2002 but when the Tunisian committee met (for the first time in 7 years), they picked an obscure film nobody had ever heard of instead of the feminist "Satin". Hopefully, they will send her new film and not snub her again for “Bidoun 2”, about two itinerant young people who meet during the political turmoil of 2013 (post-Arab Spring). I’m predicting (and pulling for) Amari and “Tunisian Spring”

17. TURKEY- "Mustang" Turkey's most acclaimed film of the year is clearly “Mustang”, dubbed by many as a Turkish “Virgin Suicides”. The plot is about five sisters whose innocent horseplay with the neighborhood boys sets off a local scandal and results in a loss of the girl’s freedom. It won a small award at Cannes and the Grand Prize at the much smaller Odessa Film Festival.  Despite creeping Islamization in the government, Turkey is still fairly modern and liberal so it's feminist themes shouldn't present a problem as they might in other Muslim countries. It’s main competitor is “The Miracle”, a tearjerker/romance about a city teacher whose arrival has a profound effect on a small village community in 1960s Turkey. Director Mahsun Kirmizigül was selected in 2009. The Istanbul Film Festival usually presents us with some good options, but most Turkish filmmakers boycotted this year’s event due to censorship complaints. The most likely option from there is “Ivy” (Sundance), about a group of sailors forced to stay aboard a ship’s final journey when the company goes bankrupt. At the Antalya Golden Oranges, the two big winners were a pair of family dramas, namely “Kuzu” (Best Picture), about a family preparing for their son’s circumcision feast and “Sivas”, a youth film about a boy who rescues a fighting dog. Other Turkish options include “Bahara Yolculuk”, about a teacher who dreams of opening a school in Kyrgyzstan, “Eksik”, a political historical film about life after the 1980 military coup, “Entanglement” (Sarajevo), about two laborer brothers whose relationship is strained by their mother’s death and the appearance of a woman who comes between them, “Limonata”, a comedic film about two brothers getting to know each other on a road trip and “Two Hearts as One”, about two lovers separated by WWII who spend half a century trying to reunite....I predict “Mustang” will get this with “Miracle” a close second and “Two Hearts as One”, “Bahara Yolculuk” and “Ivy” rounding out the Top Five choices for Turkey. 

18. UKRAINE- "Song of Songs" Ukraine had a great film year in 2014, but civil conflict, the annexation of Crimea and the occupation of several Ukrainian provinces by pro-Russian forces have understandably led to drastic cuts to arts and cultural programming, including cinema. Production on many films has simply stopped mid-way and it’s unclear which local films will be finished and released. The biggest Ukrainian hit of the year- “The Battle for Sevastopol”- would be a controversial choice for several reasons. Billed as the first (and last) big-budget co-production with Russia, the film was made in Ukraine’s autonomous Republic of Crimea (now annexed illegally by Russia) in the Russian language by a Ukrainian director in cooperation with a Russian studio. Despite worries that the film, about a celebrated female Soviet sniper and war heroine who made a famous visit to the United States at the height of the Cold War, would have trouble being finished and/or released in either country, it has, in fact, been a surprise success in both Russia and Ukraine. Because of the political symbolism of that film, however, I think Ukraine will instead opt for one of two other films:  "Maidan” (Cannes 2014) is an acclaimed documentary by Sergei Loznitsa ("My Joy") about the 2013-2014 protests that forced out Ukrainian President Yanukovych, while “Song of Songs” (Karlovy Vary) is the story of star-crossed young lovers living in a conservative Jewish shletl community in pre-WWII Ukraine. It won Best Ukrainian Film at the scaled-down Odessa Film Festival and has been praised for its attention to detail in portraying a community now mostly lost to history and emigration. Strong 2015 contenders like 1920s historical drama “The Occupaton” and “The Nest of the Turtle Dove”, about a woman who goes to work in Italy to send money home to her family, were still in production as of May and appear unlikely to be released in time. I had "Maidan" down as my prediction but am switching to "Song of Songs". 

19. UNITED KINGDOM- "Trash" The UK used to send mostly Welsh films and IMDB says they have two new ones this year- “Yr Ymadawiad” (The Passing), a Twilight Zone-style drama about a car crash, and “Under Milk Wood”, starring Rhys Ifans and singer Charlotte Church, which was made in both English and Welsh versions. In any case, Britain is almost certain to send “Trash”, a Portuguese-language drama about three youths living in the Brazilian favelas, which is directed by three-time Best Director Oscar nominee Stephen Daldry (“The Hours”, “The Reader”, “Billy Elliott”). Often compared to “Slumdog Millionaire”, it’s said to be a very Hollywood version of a foreign film, and likely to please the Academy. A final dark horse is “Gemma Bovery” , a majority French romantic comedy with a French-Luxembourgian director, based on a British novel and with a British lead (Gemma Arterton, “Quantum of Solace”) and which was made with the support of the British Film Institute. But Daldry's involvement and the baity "kids in peril" plotline should make this an easy win for him. Other foreign-language productions from Britain like “We Will Sing” (in Lithuanian) and “The Anglistanis” (in Hindi) are out of luck. Count on Daldry, with "Under Milk Wood" the lead challenger. 

20. URUGUAY- "A Moonless Night" (Una noche sin luna) Little Uruguay has had a fairly slow year but, as usual, they have some droll tragicomedies they could send to the Oscars. This year, I believe they have five eligible features, plus some documentaries. The directors of their 2010 and 2011 submissions, the producer of their 2013 submission and the winner of the 2009 Silver Berlin Bear (probably Uruguay’s best-ever finish at a Class A Festival) are all back with new movies and there’s also a pair of documentaries (“Tus padres volveran”, about the children of political dissidents who return to Uruguay to rejoin relatives while their parents remain in exile, and “El hombre Nuevo”, about the life of a transgendered Uruguayan) that could contend, though Uruguay tends to prefer comedy. Unlike most countries, three-fourths of Uruguay's submissions were comedies (though I didn't find "Whisky" or "A Useful Life" very funny). I think Uruguay will end up choosing between "A Moonless Night” (Una noche sin luna), about three lonely people visiting a small town on New Year’s Eve (Uruguayan summer!), and the yet-to-be-released “The Apostate”, a quirky co-production with Spain about the absurdities of religious faith.  The trailer for “Moonless Night” looks like a typical Uruguayan submission…lots of tragicomedy and quiet humor. “The Apostate” looks much more intriguing, but I have no idea whether it’s good or not, and it's tentative release date is in October, meaning it would probably need a special qualifying release. Perhaps next year.... In third place: transgender documentary “El hombre Nuevo” (Uruguay is probably the most progressive country in Latin America on LGBT rights), with footballer dramedy “El Cinco” and horror film “Dios Local” (rock musicians confronting their greatest fears in a mine shaft!) rounding out the Top Five possibilities.

21. VENEZUELA- "Dauna" Venezuela made it to the 9-film Oscar shortlist for the first time ever last year for historical drama “Libertador”. They didn’t make the Final Five, but it showed that Venezuelan cinema is on the rise. Neighbor and
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          PIH Hosts First Cross-Site Lab Training        
Photos by Kayleigh Bhangdia / PIH Mokenyakenya Matoko (from left), a lab technician in Lesotho, Damson Kasawa, a lab technician in Malawi, Christopher Hamon, PIH&#039;s manager of global logistics and distribution, and Robert Gakumba, a lab technician in Rwanda, learn to disassemble the GeneXpert during a training in France.

It was a logistical and technical feat that had never been pulled off in Partners In Health’s 30-year history. Eleven staff members from eight PIH sites around the world arrived in Toulouse, France, for a week’s worth of training on everything from standard operating procedures to complex diagnostic exams for tuberculosis, HIV, and chronic myeloid leukemia.

PIH Director of Labs Daniel Orozco saw the week’s sessions as an opportunity for technicians to meet face-to-face, share their expertise and strengthen lab skills, and create a network of support they can use in the future to troubleshoot particularly tough cases.

The training, which was co-funded by the TB Care II project and made possible through the United States Agency for International Development, was split into two focus areas: basic laboratory procedures and an intensive course on GeneXpert—a rapid molecular test created by Cepheid Inc., headquartered in Toulouse, that is used to diagnose and monitor the treatment of a range of diseases.

PIH supports more than 20 laboratories across eight sites. Some are home to more basic diagnostic capacity; others are designed to specifically focus on a single disease, such as TB. While a handful of laboratories, such as those in Sierra Leone, opened in 2015, others have been around for decades, such as those in Haiti. Laboratory expertise and technology equally vary across sites, depending on whether staff are catering to a small clinic or a large referral hospital.

Orozco, a microbiologist by training, and his team designed the March training so that the first two days focused on lab practices and strategies. They discussed the importance of standardizing procedures across sites, the logistics behind purchasing and distributing supplies, and which tests should be available at each level of the health care system—from local clinics on up to specialty hospitals.

 

Claudine Nolte (clockwise, from left), quality management officer at University Hospital in Haiti, Moise Michel, a biomedical engineer at University Hospital, Roger Calderon, lab manager in Peru, and Zhanel Zhantuarova, a lab quality officer in Kazakhstan, practice basic maintenance on the GeneXpert, an instrument used to diagnose and monitor a variety of diseases at PIH laboratories.

The following three days were a deep dive on GeneXpert, at least one of which is available at each attendee’s sites. Staff practiced pipetting samples and running tests through the instrument for diseases such as TB, HIV, and chronic myeloid leukemia. They learned how to interpret results and error messages. And they worked on troubleshooting problems and general instrument maintenance.

“The information that I got here is of high value, because I’ll be able to use it when I get home,” said Mokenyakenya Matoko, laboratory head at PIH Lesotho, where TB infection rates are among the highest in the world. “Understanding how to best use this instrument is really going to benefit our patients.”

GeneXpert, a cube-shaped instrument the size of a home office printer, has revolutionized the whole diagnostic experience for patients living in poor countries, like the ones where PIH works. Patients wait hours, not weeks, to discover whether they have TB. If they do, they also learn whether their strain is multidrug-resistant—and particularly difficult to treat. Such rapid, accurate information allows clinicians to get patients on the correct medications and avoid further transmission.

With a week’s work behind them, lab staff were energized to share what they’d learned. “I will train my colleagues, and I will share everything that we have seen with them,” said Robert Gakumba, who heads the lab at Rwinkwavu Hospital in Rwanda.

Several people said their perspective had shifted after hearing the challenges faced by other PIH colleagues. Yearning for the latest diagnostic equipment was not the same thing as struggling to maintain a reliable source of electricity. They appreciated the opportunity to swap stories and advice, and vowed to stay in touch. Since the training, Orozco and his team built a database to track GeneXpert operations to ensure trainees continue to communicate.

“I’m really happy to have had the opportunity to share our experiences,” said Roger Calderon, lab director at PIH in Peru.

Matoko agreed. “We need each other in terms of sharing documents, experiences, and technologies,” he said. “This was really helpful; I’m looking forward to the next one.”

And so is the Boston-based lab team, which continues to ramp up the program by adding more GeneXpert machines to sites, providing software updates, and finding funds to expand the menu of tests available.  


          New Birth Waiting Homes to Welcome Expectant Mothers in Sierra Leone        
Photo by Emily Bearse / Partners In Health Supporters gather near the newly built waiting homes during a ribbon-cutting ceremony at the end of April.

Others are bigger. Elsewhere they’re more plentiful. But it’s tough to beat the understated dignity of the new birth waiting homes that Partners In Health opened in eastern Sierra Leone last week.

The three white houses sit on a hill at the quiet edge of the city of Koidu. Four beds in each bright, airy building will welcome a total of 12 expectant mothers at a time. Shaded porches will provide a place to rest. At the back is a small examination room where nurses can perform daily checkups. In a covered outdoor kitchen nearby, a cook will prepare breakfast, lunch, and dinner. While other waiting homes ask mothers to pay their own way or work off the cost of meals and accommodations by washing dishes, the PIH waiting home offers everything for free. Best of all, the home sits just a stone’s throw from Wellbody Clinic, where there hasn’t been a single maternal death in two years.

In Sierra Leone, half of all women give birth at home, and many die or lose children after suffering complications that could have been addressed at a well-equipped health clinic staffed by trained personnel. The national maternal mortality rate, 1,100 per 100,000, is one of the highest in the world. The hope is that women will come to the homes ahead of their due dates, when nothing is an emergency, and then give birth in the clinic. During the soft opening this spring and summer, the home will welcome patients from the three nearby areas with the highest maternal mortality, per the advice of local health officials. They’ll then reach out to more distant regions and welcome any mother likely to have a tricky birth.

There’s no guarantee the community will take up the offer. Birth waiting homes have been around since at least the 1970s, and there have been plenty of misfires. In Ghana, an early attempt at a waiting home in an abandoned ward of a hospital attracted just one mother, and she stayed only for a night. (Feedback cited the “desolate” setting.) Mozambique’s early homes lacked local political support and failed to take off. In Indonesia, expectant mothers were asked to pay dearly for small, thatched-roof huts attached to the houses of male strangers. Needless to say, the women declined.

Waiting homes are improving on the whole, however, and are en route to being everywhere from Cuba to Mongolia. A free maternal waiting home in Malawi virtually eliminated maternal mortality in the area. At an expansive complex in Zimbabwe, up to 100 women are checked in at any time. They say the days are a rare respite from domestic responsibilities and often sing, especially while relaxing together at night.

The home in Sierra Leone is still a ways from being that established. But clinic staff have reason to be optimistic. PIH’s commitment to offer not just adequate but great health care has resulted in a half dozen successful waiting homes around the world—in Mexico, Malawi, and Lesotho. And in Sierra Leone, though the home itself is low-key and dignified, the team's PR approach is direct. They recently appeared for an hour on a talk show on the local public radio station, FM 90.2. After answering caller questions, they concluded with, “Let us encourage the women in our lives to come stay at the birth waiting home to have a safe birth!”


          TOGETHER, WE STAY        
Photo by Rebecca E. Rollins / Partners In Health Masentebale Letima (far left) and other expectant mothers spend their final month of pregnancy at a maternal waiting home in Nkau, Lesotho.

Infrastructure Manager Steve Mtewa watched as people streamed into Dambe Health Center on its opening day in Neno, Malawi, last year. He knows what people in his rural community face when they’re sick. Getting ill is possibly the worst challenge because reaching clinics is time-consuming and costly.

We treated 108 people that day, among them five patients with such severe hypertension they were at risk of stroke, four with suspected tuberculosis, and 47 who tested positive for malaria — and it wasn’t even malaria season.

This center will serve 30,000 people in and around Dambe; the staff at other facilities we built and renovated around the world this year will care for hundreds of thousands more. By investing in infrastructure, mobilizing equipment and medicine, and providing clinical expertise, we are prepared to respond to immediate and long-term crises.

New maternity waiting homes in Malawi, Haiti, Lesotho, and Mexico provide safe, clean places expectant mothers can stay before and after delivering their babies. When it comes to delivery, women have access to trained midwives and, if complications arise, they are referred to a nearby facility for lifesaving procedures.

We worked with the Ministry of Health to improve infrastructure and care at the National Tuberculosis Hospital in M