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          Hány ország van a földön?        
Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

Afganisztán - Kabul
Albánia - Tirane
Algéria - Algiers
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Angola - Luanda
Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
Argentína - Buenos Aires
Örményország - Yerevan
Ausztrália - Canberra
Ausztria - Vienna
Azerbajdzsán - Baku
Bahamák - Nassau
Bahrein - Manama
Banglades - Dhaka
Barbados - Bridgetown
Fehéroroszország - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Belize - Belmopan
Benin - Porto-Novo
Bhután - Thimphu
Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
Botswana - Gaborone
Brazília - Brasilia
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgária - Sofia
Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
Burundi - Bujumbura
Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
Kamerun - Yaounde
Kanada - Ottawa
Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
Csád - N'Djamena
Chile - Santiago
Kína - Beijing
Kolumbia - Bogota
Comore-szigetek - Moroni
Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
Costa Rica - San Jose
Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
Horvátország - Zagreb
Kuba - Havana
Ciprus - Nicosia
Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
Dánia - Copenhagen
Dzsibuti - Djibouti
Dominika - Roseau
Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
Ecuador - Quito
Egyiptom - Cairo
El Salvador - San Salvador
Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
Eritrea - Asmara
Észtország - Tallinn
Etiópia - Addis Ababa
Fidzsi - Suva
Finnország - Helsinki
Franciaország - Paris
Gabon - Libreville
Gambia - Banjul
Grúzia - Tbilisi
Németország - Berlin
Ghána - Accra
Görögország - Athens
Grenada - Saint George's
Guatemala - Guatemala City
Guinea - Conakry
Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
Guyana - Georgetown
Haiti - Port-au-Prince
Honduras - Tegucigalpa
Magyarország - Budapest
Izland - Reykjavik
India - New Delhi
Indonézia - Jakarta
Irán - Tehran
Irak - Baghdad
Írország - Dublin
Izrael - Jerusalem
Olaszország - Rome
Jamaica - Kingston
Japán - Tokyo
Jordánia - Amman
Kazahsztán - Astana
Kenya - Nairobi
Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
Dél-Korea - Seoul
Koszovó - Pristina
Kuvait - Kuwait City
Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
Laosz - Vientiane
Lettország - Riga
Libanon - Beirut
Lesotho - Maseru
Libéria - Monrovia
Líbia - Tripoli
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Litvánia - Vilnius
Luxemburg - Luxembourg
Macedónia - Skopje
Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
Malawi - Lilongwe
Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
Maldív-szigetek - Male
Mali - Bamako
Málta - Valletta
Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
Mauritánia - Nouakchott
Mauritius - Port Louis
Mexikó - Mexico City
Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
Moldova - Chisinau
Monaco - Monaco
Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
Montenegró - Podgorica
Marokkó - Rabat
Mozambik - Maputo
Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
Namíbia - Windhoek
Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
Nepál - Kathmandu
Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
Új-Zéland - Wellington
Nicaragua - Managua
Niger - Niamey
Nigéria - Abuja
Norvégia - Oslo
Omán - Muscat
Pakisztán - Islamabad
Palau - Melekeok
Panama - Panama City
Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
Paraguay - Asuncion
Peru - Lima
Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
Lengyelország - Warsaw
Portugália - Lisbon
Katar - Doha
Románia - Bucharest
Oroszország - Moscow
Ruanda - Kigali
Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
Santa Lucia - Castries
Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
Szamoa - Apia
San Marino - San Marino
São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
Szenegál - Dakar
Szerbia - Belgrade
Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
Sierra Leone - Freetown
Szingapúr - Singapore
Szlovákia - Bratislava
Szlovénia - Ljubljana
Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
Szomália - Mogadishu
Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
Spanyolország - Madrid
Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
Szudán - Khartoum
Suriname - Paramaribo
Szváziföld - Mbabane
Svédország - Stockholm
Svájc - Bern
Szíria - Damascus
Tajvan - Taipei
Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
Thaiföld - Bangkok
Togo - Lome
Tonga - Nuku'alofa
Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
Tunézia - Tunis
Törökország - Ankara
Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
Uganda - Kampala
Ukrajna - Kyiv
Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
Egyesült Királyság - London
Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
Uruguay - Montevideo
Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
Vanuatu - Port-Vila
Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
Venezuela - Caracas
Vietnam - Hanoi
Jemen - Sanaa
Zambia - Lusaka
Zimbabwe - Harare

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          Northeastern Quartersphere - Wikipedia        

Northeastern Quartersphere

This is the Wikipedia article for "Northeastern Quartersphere" as it appeared on January 26, 2012, shortly prior to its expected deletion as original research.

The terms Northeastern Quarter or Northeastern Quadrant or simply Northeast are sometimes applied to the portion of the Northern Hemisphere in the Eastern Hemisphere or vice versa. If it's lateral boundaries are based on the Prime Meridian, this region includes most of Asia and Europe, a large portion of Africa and some islands in Oceania. The Northeast covers about two fifths of the Earth's land surface area and hosts 75-80% of the world's population. It is the only quarter bounded by the Prime Meridian and Equator that is mostly land. The Northeast hosts about two fifths of the world's economic activity.
Eastern portion of Earth's Northern Hemisphere

Countries

* Europe
o If the Prime Meridian is used as the Western boundary, all except Portugal, most of the United Kingdom, much of Spain and France. If the 20th meridian west, then all of Europe.

* Africa
o If the Prime Meridian is the lateral boundary, then all of Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, most of Somalia, most of Kenya, most of Uganda, Southern Sudan, part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, parts of Gabon, parts of Equatorial Guinea, parts of Rio Muni, parts of Sao Tome and Principe, Cameroon, Nigeria, Benin, Chad, most of Niger, part of Mali, most of Algeria, Libya and Tunisia are in this region. If the 20th meridian west is used, then all of Africa North of the Equator.

* Asia
o all except some portions of Indonesia.

* Oceania
o If Prime Meridian is used as the lateral boundary, then Palau, Guam, the Marianas Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, part of Kiribati and Wake Island. If the 20th meridian west is used as the boundary in the West and the 160th meridian east in the East, then only Palau, Guam, the Marianas, and the Federated States of Micronesia.

Bodies of water

* The Arctic Ocean in the Eastern Hemisphere,
* The Western portion of the North Sea, most of the Mediterranean Sea, and all of the Baltic Sea and Black Sea of the Atlantic Ocean,
* The Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean,
* The Eastern Bering Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan/East Sea, the Yellow Sea, East China Sea the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, Gulf of Thailand and open ocean in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

CurrencySymbol
Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Euro€
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forintFt
Icelandic krónakr
Indian rupee₹
Indonesian rupiahRp
Iranian rialï·¼
Iraqi dinarع.د
Israeli new shekel₪
Jamaican dollar$
Japanese yen¥
Jersey pound£
Jordanian dinarد.ا
Kazakhstani tenge₸
Kenyan shillingSh
Kiribati dollar$
Kuwaiti dinarد.ك
Kyrgyzstani somлв
Lao kip₭
Latvian latsLs
Lebanese poundل.ل
Lesotho lotiL
Liberian dollar$
Libyan dinarل.د
Lithuanian litasLt
Macanese patacaP
Macedonian denarден
Malagasy ariaryAr
Malawian kwachaMK
Malaysian ringgitRM
Maldivian rufiyaaރ.
Manx pound£
Mauritanian ouguiyaUM
Mauritian rupee₨
Mexican peso$
Micronesian dollar$
Moldovan leuL
Mongolian tögrög₮
Moroccan dirhamد.م.
Mozambican meticalMTn
Myanma kyatK
Nagorno-Karabakh dramդր.
Namibian dollar$
Nauruan dollar$
Nepalese rupee₨
Netherlands Antillean guilderƒ
New Taiwan dollar$
New Zealand dollar$
Nicaraguan córdoba
          Countries in Australia        
Australia(Oceania) is the smallest continent in the world and the sixth largest country in the world,comprising of 17 countries.Here is the list of 17 countries in Australia and their capitals.



 Australia
S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Australia
Canberra
2.
East Timor
Dili
3.
Fiji
Suva
4.
Indonesia
Jakarta
5.
Kiribati
South Tarawa
6.
The Marshall Islands
Majuro
7.
Micronesia
Palikir
8.
Nauru
Yaren
9.
New Zealand
Wellington
10.
Palau
Melekeok
11.
Papua New Guinea
Port Moresby
12.
Samoa
Apia
13.
The Solomon Islands
Honiara
14.
Tonga
Nuku'alofa
16.
Tuvalu
Funafuti
17.
Vanuatu
Port Vila

          Object journeys: working with the Kiribati community in the UK        
When I was asked back in 2014 to start thinking about the upcoming Object Journeys project, my mind immediately turned to the possibility of bringing the British Museum’s Micronesia collection in to f ... - Source: blog.britishmuseum.org
          MTS57 - Forest Rohwer - Curing the Corals        

It never occurred to me that the human body and a coral reef have a lot in common--until I spoke to Forest Rohwer for this podcast. Rohwer is a microbiologist at San Diego State University, and he studies how microbes make coral reefs both healthy and sick. Just as we are home to a vast number of microbes, coral reefs depend on their own invisible menagerie of algae and bacteria to get food, recycle waste, and fend off invaders. But as Rohwer writes in his new book, Coral Reefs in the Microbial Seas, we humans have thrown this delicate balance out of kilter, driving the spread of coral-killing microbes instead.

Additional Reading:

Viral communities associated with healthy and bleaching corals.
The lagoon at Caroline/Millennium atoll, Republic of Kiribati: natural history of a nearly pristine ecosystem.
Metagenomic analysis of stressed coral holobionts.


          Unscramble within        
All content copyrighted.

The truth behind our comforting lies stays cloaked in fear. The fear forms a whiteboard against which we present our ideas, hopes...a refracting surface. A place to point to if anyone asks about ambition, hopes and dreams. A collage of "would be's if not for...".It allows us to pretend for ages. A lifetime if the need to look within stays unexamined and untended.

I've been able to pontificate about this for ages. But I realized when writing my wish list, and more importantly working on the fashion forward article and the follow up guest post by my friend and fellow blogger Shabana Feroze, that I am such a giant clucking chicken when it comes to facing ridicule and negative opinion. I knew it and tried to make the fear smaller than what it was. In short, I tried to fake it till I made it...but the only thing fake was my smile of unconcern, and secret attempts to stay on every contradictory person's good side.

by adamr through www.freedigitalphotos.net
And while I wrote about hopes for visiting Kiribati and Montana, and my hopes for a fashion redemption, I realized that the only factor that kept me from feeling better about my life in general was my "over conformist" attitude. Especially when every fiber within rebels against everything. No wonder my children are so contrary. I think I've been a mass of knots for ages. And when wondering about fashion choices, every choice I struggled against, and every decision I made was put through a mental council...a council made up of all the people in my life who would be unhappy with my choices.

Do you know the feeling? That feeling you get when you're being judged and held accountable for doing what you wanted to do? If you're a conformist who hates being one, you know what I'm talking about. The stomach dropping fear, surging rage and going hot and cold at once. Yeah. It can get that bad!

Now, I'm trying to breathe and stretch and twist it all out. Every little bit of discomfort and angst that makes a comfortable home in my body is being breathed out. Every time I ease into an asana, I put all my latent hopes into my body, and breathe out everything that is holding me back.

There will never be the perfect time to speak my mind, wear that dress I've hoped to, say what I meant to, write another book, or...yes...practice yoga.

It seems crystal clear to me, as clear as the popping in my hip indicating a long road ahead to true yogi-hood, that there is no perfect time to quieten enough to hear my own voice. The one that is constantly drowned in others' cacophony.

It must be now.

Image credit : "Beautiful Woman Practive Yoga On River in Nature by adamr through www.freedigitalphotos.net


          Commentaires sur Occlusions veineuses rétiniennes par MichaelNex        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          The development benefits of expanding Pacific access to Australia’s labour market        

The long-term development prospects for the Pacific are bleak, yet it is an integral region for Australia’s strategic and development interests. One proposal that has the potential for transformational change in the region is enabling greater Pacific access to Australia’s labour market. This analysis models how significant these benefits could be. Photo: Getty images/Jonas Gratzer

Tuesday, December 13, 2016

          Titanic (commemorative) Week ending with that sinking feeling        

In the 1990s Kiribati issued a very small 1/20 ounce gold coin and Somaliland issued a 40mm copper-nickel coin depicting the Titanic with the stern raised and a few lifeboats nearby in the water. These were done due to the sheer … Continue reading

The post Titanic (commemorative) Week ending with that sinking feeling appeared first on Numismatic News.


          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our team is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps, VISAs and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
Our company is a unique producer of quality fake documents. We offer only original high-quality fake passports, driver's licenses, ID cards, stamps and other products for a number of countries like: USA, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Italy, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom. This list is not full. 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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          3 mundos en pequeña escala aislados y colapsados por el hombre        

El desarrollar una gran sociedad, requiere  de un espacio lo suficientemente grande, y sobre todo, de una utilización responsable de los recursos disponibles. En todo caso, el desafío, será encontrar el equilibrio entre el tamaño de una sociedad y el espacio que lo rodea. Caso contrario, los experimentos estarán destinados al fracaso.

Entre las tantas culturas que vivieron un colapso hasta el extremo de desaparecer como sociedad, existen ejemplos a muy pequeña escala que resultan por demás ilustrativos de la importancia del desarrollo en una escala sostenible. Nacidas como pequeñas comunidades encerradas en islas remotas, en su supervivencia desplegaron un crecimiento desmedido, o especialmente, un modelo de desarrollo que en la terminología actual debería calificarse como insostenible. El resultado para cada uno de los ejemplos tiene ribetes de catástrofe: básicamente colapsaron. Quizás el mayor ejemplo, sea el de la Isla de Pascua, modelo con el que comenzamos la trilogía.

1. La isla de Pascua. Aunque aún hoy no está claro el origen de la población originaria de la isla de Pascua, los Rapanui, si hay cierto consenso en cuanto a su colapso como cultura.

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Imagen Individuo

La cultura Rapanui no llega a padecer mayormente el impacto de la llegada de los europeos, porque el agotamiento de los recursos naturales de la isla no les da tiempo a sobrellevar su prosperidad. La isla de Pascua y su cultura, muchas veces es expuesta como un ejemplo de colapso social: una sociedad que agota sus recursos y no se adapta a los cambios, una respuesta ineficiente ante el problema (los nativos aceleran su colapso al consumir más recursos para construir las estatuas moái, en honor a sus ancestros, y con la esperanza de que tal respeto les acercaría un futuro más próspero), y para rematarla, una cultura y sociedad compleja con cimientos sobre una isla de territorio limitado y recursos insuficientes. La erosión del bosque, termina por consolidar la deforestación de la isla y la insuficiencia de recursos para construir barcos y herramientas. Obstruidos para obtener los suministros básicos, todo el sistema colapsa, y ante la hambruna y una guerra civil, la cultura rapanui desaparece hasta que sus pocos descendientes, caen debilitados en manos de cazadores de esclavos.

2. Isla Malden. Es básicamente insignificante, un territorio pequeño perdido en el Pacífico perteneciente a la República de Kiribati.

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Tiene la forma de un triángulo con 8 kilómetros de lado, un territorio bajo que apenas alcanza unos 10 metros sobre el nivel del mar, y a simple vista, poco para hacer. Sin embargo, en tan poco territorio, perduran las ruinas que en la escala de la isla, resultan asombrosas. Restos de templos, estructuras de piedra, pirámides, plataformas, carreteras, antiguas casas y tumbas que evidencian una antigua cultura nada numerosa, pero como mínimo notable. Según los estudios del arqueólogo Kenneth Emory, son los restos de una pequeña población de la Polinesia que sobrevivió por varias generaciones algunos siglos atrás. Se cree que el abandono de la isla, está relacionado con un agotamiento  de los recursos, o nuevamente, un números de pobladores que superaba el nivel de desarrollo sostenible.

3. Islas Pitcairn. El archipiélago de la Polinesia en Oceanía, territorio de ultramar británico, es famoso por albergar los descendientes de los amotinados del barco Bounty junto a un grupo de tahitianos que se asentaron en la isla en el año 1790.

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Imagen wileypics

Hoy es el país menos poblado del mundo, aunque no es una nación soberana, con sólo nueve familias y 46 habitantes. Pitcairn también tuvo su colapso en el año 1850, cuando la sobrepoblación hizo insostenible la supervivencia en el lugar. Unos meses después, algunos de los habitantes retornaron a la isla para repoblarla con un número que se equilibra gracias a la emigración actual hacia Nueva Zelanda.

Estoy en Twitter @visionbeta


          GBIF abre convocatoria BID a propuestas del Caribe y el Pacífico        

GBIF invita a la presentación de propuestas de financiamiento del Caribe y el Pacífico bajo el programa de Información de Biodiversidad para el Desarrollo (BID). El financiamiento total potencialmente asignado a estas dos convocatorias es de €1.000.000, o €500.000 para cada región.

Lea las convocatorias completas para:

La primera fase del financiamiento de proyectos a través del BID proveyó cerca de €1 millón a 23 proyectos en el África sub-sahariana. Los beneficiarios incluyen 34 organizaciones de 20 países africanos, cuyos proyectos fueron merecedores de selección por un jurado internacional a partir de un grupo inicial de 143 propuestas.

Las nuevas convocatorias para el Caribe y el Pacífico buscan proyectos que:

  • Movilizarán datos de biodiversidad relacionados con áreas protegidas, especies amenazadas y especies invasoras
  • Usarán y extenderán mejores prácticas para digitalizar colecciones de historia natural y movilizar otros datos de biodiversidad
  • Aplicarán datos de biodiversidad en apoyo a la toma de decisiones e investigación
  • Desarrollarán redes nacionales, regionales o temáticas duraderas para apoyar el compartir y reutilizar datos

Tipos de financiamiento

GBIF invita propuestas en tres categorías generales de financiamiento.

  1. Financiamiento de movilización de datos de biodiversidad regionales que establecen o fortalecen colaboraciones internacionales para incrementar la disponibilidad y utilización de datos de biodiversidad. NOTA: Un consorcio regional debe involucrar socios de al menos tres diferentes países o territorios de ultramar de la región. El coordinador del consorcio y al menos uno de los otros socios debe estar localizados en un país de la region (ver la lista de países elegibles en el Caribe y el Pacífico). Cada socio puede recibir hasta €20.000 y el coordinador del consorcio puede recibir un máximo de €30.000.
  2. Financiamiento para movilización de datos de biodiversidad nacionales que establecen o fortalecen instalaciones de información en biodiversidad nacional e incrementar los datos de biodiversidad disponibles acerca del país para responder a prioridades nacionales. Hasta €60.000 serán puestos a disposición por financiamiento nacional.
  3. Financiamiento de movilización de datos de biodiversidad pequeños que movilizan datos de biodiversidad relevantes para prioridades de conservación de biodiversidad con un máximo de €5.000.

Proceso de solicitud y cronograma

Dos jurados de expertos internacionales con experiencia en las regiones respectivas, evaluará las solicitudes a través de un proceso competitivo de dos etapas.

  • Notas conceptuales iniciales, usando las plantillas provistas, debe ser entregada antes del 10 de Noviembre del 2016.
  • Basado en las recomendaciones de los jurados, GBIF invitará un grupo seleccionado de solicitantes a preparar propuestas completas, para entregar a principios de Febrero del 2017.
  • Luego de una revisión y selección final a cargo de los jurados, GBIF anunciará los proyectos a financiar en Mayo del 2017.

Las plantillas de la nota conceptual y las directrices que le acompañan están disponibles para cada uno de los tres tipos de beca en el sitio de los solicitantes al BID.

Aquellos interesados en recibir actualizaciones sobre el programa BID pueden inscribirse para recibir alertas de correo electrónico. Preguntas y solicitudes generales pueden ser enviadas a BID@gbif.org.


European Union

 

Este programa está financiado por la Unión Europea.

 


Nuestro agradecimiento a William Ulate, Biodiversity Heritage Library / TDWG / Missouri Botanical Garden, y Anabela Plos, GBIF Argentina, por su ayuda con la traducción al español.

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Isla de manglares

Isla de manglares, Caye Caulker, Belize. CC BY-NC-SA 2009, CameliaTWU.

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GBIF opens BID calls for proposals from the Caribbean and the Pacific

          GBIF ouvre deux appels à projets BID pour les régions des Caraïbes et du Pacifique        

GBIF invite dès maintenant à soumettre des projets pour les régions des Caraïbes et du Pacifique en vue d’obtenir un financement dans le cadre du programme BID (l'Information sur la Biodiversité pour le Développement). Le montant total potentiel de ces deux appels à projets est 1.000.000 €, soit 500.000 par région.

Voyez ici les appels à projets détaillés:

La première phase du projet BID a permis de financer pour près d’un million d’euros 23 projets en Afrique subsaharienne. Les bénéficiaires sont 34 organisations issues de 20 pays africains dont les projets ont été sélectionnés par un jury international parmi 143 propositions initiales.

Ce nouvel appel à projets pour les régions des Caraïbes et du Pacifique cible des projets visant à :

  • Mobiliser des données sur la biodiversité concernant les zones protégées, les espèces menacées et les espèces exotiques envahissantes.
  • Utiliser et étendre les bonnes pratiques pour la numérisation des collections d’histoire naturelles et la mobilisation d’autres types de données.
  • Utiliser les données de biodiversité pour la prise de décision et la recherche.
  • Développer des réseaux nationaux, régionaux et thématiques durables de façon à soutenir les activités futures de partage et de réutilisation des données.

Catégories de subventions

GBIF lance un appel à projets pour trois grandes catégories de subventions:

  1. Subventions régionales pour la mobilisation de données établissant ou renforçant des collaborations internationales visant à augmenter la disponibilité et l’usage des données sur la biodiversité. A NOTER : un consortium régional doit impliquer des partenaires issus d'au minimum 3 pays / territoires d’outre-mer de la région. Le coordinateur du consortium et au moins un autre partenaire doivent être situés dans un pays ACP (voir la liste des pays éligibles dans les régions des Caraïbes et du Pacifique). Chaque partenaire pourra recevoir jusqu’à 20.000 €, et le coordinateur du consortium pourra recevoir jusqu’à 30.000€.
  2. Subventions nationales pour la mobilisation de données établissant ou renforçant un point nodal GBIF national et visant à augmenter la quantité de données disponibles sur le pays de façon à répondre aux priorités nationales. Jusqu’à 60.000 € pourront être alloués par subvention nationale.
  3. Petites subventions pour la mobilisation de données mobilisant des données de biodiversité adaptées aux priorités en matière de conservation, pour un financement maximal de 5000 €.

Procédure et délai

Deux jurys composés d’experts internationaux ayant de l’expérience dans la région évalueront les propositions selon une procédure en deux temps :

  • Une note conceptuelle initiale utilisant le formulaire fourni devra être soumise au plus tard le 10 novembre 2016.
  • Suivant les recommandations du jury, le GBIF invitera un groupe candidats sélectionnés à préparer une proposition détaillée pour début février 2017.
  • Après une évaluation finale et une sélection par les jurys, les projets financés démarreront en avril 2017.

Le formulaire pour la note conceptuelle et les recommandations associées sont disponibles sur le site BID pour chacune des trois catégories de subventions.

Si vous souhaitez recevoir les nouvelles informations sur le programme BID, vous pouvez vous inscrire aux alertes par courriel. Les questions et demandes d’ordre général peuvent être transmises à BID@gbif.org.


European Union

 

Ce programme est financé par l'Union européenne.

 


Nos remerciements à Nicolas Noé, Belgian Biodiversity Platform pour le soutien de la traduction.

 

 

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Mangrove island, Caye Caulker, Belize. CC BY-NC-SA 2009, CameliaTWU.

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GBIF opens BID calls for proposals from the Caribbean and the Pacific

          GBIF opens BID calls for proposals from the Caribbean and the Pacific        

GBIF invites the submission of proposals for funding from the Caribbean and the Pacific through the EU-funded Biodiversity Information for Development (BID) programme. The total potential funding assigned to these two calls is €1,000,000, or €500,000 for each region.

Read the complete calls for:

The first phase of project funding through BID provided nearly €1 million to 23 projects in sub-Saharan Africa. The recipients include 34 organizations from 20 African countries, whose projects earned selection by an international panel from an initial pool of 143 initial proposals.

The new calls for the Caribbean and the Pacific seek projects that will:

  • Mobilize biodiversity data relating to protected areas, threatened species, and invasive alien species
  • Use and extend best practices for digitizing natural history collections and mobilizing other biodiversity data
  • Apply biodiversity data in support of decision-making and research
  • Develop lasting national, regional or thematic networks to support ongoing data sharing and reuse

Types of grants

GBIF invites proposals in three broad categories of grants.

  1. Regional biodiversity data mobilization grants that establish or strengthen international collaborations to increase the availability and use of biodiversity data. NOTE: A regional consortium must involve partners from a minimum of three different countries or overseas territories from the region. The consortium coordinator and at least one other partner must be located in an ACP country (see the list of eligible countries in the Caribbean and the Pacific). Each partner can receive up to €20,000 and the consortium coordinator may receive a maximum grant of €30,000.
  2. National biodiversity data mobilization grants that establish or strengthen national biodiversity information facilities and to increase the biodiversity data available about the country to respond to national priorities. Up to €60,000 will be made available per national grant.
  3. Small biodiversity data mobilization grants that mobilize biodiversity data relevant for biodiversity conservation priorities with a maximum funding of €5,000.

Application process and timeline

Two panels of international experts with experience in the respective regions will evaluate applications through a competitive two-stage process.

  • Initial concept notes, using the templates provided for the Caribbean and the Pacific, must be submitted by 10 November 2016.
  • Based on the panels’ recommendations, GBIF will invite a select group of applicants to prepare full proposals, due in early February 2017.
  • Following a final review and selection by the panels, funded projects will start in April 2017.

The concept note template and accompanying guidelines are available for each of the three grant types on the BID grantseekers’ site.

Those interested in receiving updates on the BID programme can sign up for email alerts. General questions and inquiries may be sent to BID@gbif.org.


European Union

 

This programme is funded by the European Union.

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Mangrove island

Mangrove island, Caye Caulker, Belize. CC BY-NC-SA 2009, CameliaTWU.

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          Batas Penanggalan Internasional Dalam Tahun Masehi        
Ketika naik pesawat dari Tonga menuju Samoa  kita membutuhkan waktu dua jam. Jika kita berangkat pukul 12:00 pada hari Selasa, kita akan tiba pukul 14:00 pada hari Senin. Sementara itu, seseorang di Samoa yang menanyakan penerbangan keberangkatan kemungkinan dijawab tidak ada penerbangan hingga keesokan harinya. Di Samoa kita akan mengulangi hari Senin. Entri di jurnal dan foto mungkin tidak berurutan, dan jadwal pemakaian obat seseorang bakal salah. Selain itu, mereka yang akan melanjutkan penerbangan dengan pesawat lain mungkin akan memilih tanggal yang salah untuk reservasi. Ini semua terjadi karena perjalanan yang kita lakukan melintasi batas kesepakatan penanggalan internasional.



Batas penanggalan internasional (International Date Line)
adalah suatu garis khayal di permukaan bumi yang berfungsi untuk mengimbangi (offset) penambahan waktu ketika seseorang bepergian menuju arah timur melalui berbagai zona waktu. Sebagian besar garis ini berada pada bujur ±180°, di bagian Bumi yang berhadapan dengan garis Bujur Utama (Prime Meridian). Garis ini berbentuk lurus kecuali saat melewati wilayah Rusia dan pulau-pulau di Samudra Pasifik.



Batas penanggalan internasional
Fenomena pertama berkaitan dengan masalah penanggalan mencuat sewaktu pelayaran keliling dunia oleh Ferdinand Magellan. Magellan bersama para anak buah kapal (ABK) kembali ke persinggahan milik Spanyol pada suatu hari yang telah dipastikan menurut catatan pelayaran. Ternyata hari tersebut berbeda dengan hari di daratan itu. Walaupun hal ini sekarang dapat dimengerti, banyak orang yang terkejut pada saat itu, bahkan sebuah delegasi khusus bertemu dengan Paus untuk menjelaskan keanehan itu kepada Bapa Suci.
Sebagian besar Batas Penanggalan Internasional mengikuti garis bujur 180°. Dua penyimpangan terbesar dari garis bujur tersebut bertujuan untuk menjaga keutuhan zona waktu internal beberapa negara. Di Pasifik Utara, batas penanggalan berayun ke timur melalui Selat Bering dan kemudian ke barat melewati Kepulauan Aleutian untuk menetapkan Alaska (bagian dari Amerika Serikat) dan Rusia di dua sisi yang saling berhadapan sepenuhnya. Di Pasifik Tengah, batas penanggalan dipindahkan pada 1995 supaya memanjang di sekeliling, daripada melalui, wilayah Kiribati. Sebelum penggantian zona waktu ini, Kiribati dilalui oleh batas penanggalan; akibatnya, kantor pemerintah di seberang garis hanya dapat berkomunikasi selama empat hari ketika kedua sisi mengalami masa lima hari kerja secara serentak. Selain itu, akibat dari revisi zona waktu itu ialah Pulau Caroline memiliki status baru sebagai wilayah paling timur yang didiami manusia yang memasuki tahun 2000 terawal, suatu keunikan yang ditonjolkan oleh pemerintah Kiribati untuk menarik turis.
Kenyataannya hingga tahun 2000-an, banyak pembuat peta yang tidak merevisi perpindahan garis di wilayah Kiribati, melainkan tetap membuat garis lurus di sekitar Kiribati.

Dampak akibat mengabaikan batas penanggalan dapat dilihat pada novel fiksi Mengelilingi Dunia Dalam 80 Hari karya Jules Verne, di mana mereka yang kembali ke London setelah perjalanan mengelilingi dunia berpikir bahwa mereka telah kalah dalam taruhan – sinopsis utama cerita itu. Setelah bepergian ke arah yang berlawanan dengan Magellan, mereka percaya tanggal di sana lebih cepat satu hari dari yang sebenarnya.
Seseorang yang bepergian ke arah barat dan melewati garis itu harus menambah satu hari dari tanggal dan waktu yang mereka percayai sebelumnya. Sebaliknya, mereka yang menuju ke arah timur harus mengurangi satu hari. Para ABK Magellan dan tokoh-tokoh di novel karya Verne mengabaikan revisi tersebut.

          Tarara des Kiribati        
Paru le 26.04.2017 - Jean-Marie Hosatte, Helder Da Silva, Fondation culturelle Musée Barbier Mueller -

Après Tooksipa et le tabouret d’or, inspiré par le peuple Gan du Burkina Faso, voici un nouveau conte de la collection initiée par la fondation culturelle du Musée Barbier-Mueller à Genève, pour découvrir l’organisation sociale, les coutumes et les croyances de peuples d’Afrique, d’Asie et d’Océanie sans écriture, dont la culture est menacée de disparition.

 

Cet Ethno-conte part à la rencontre du peuple du Pacifique Sud qui habite les îles Gilbert, composant la république de Kiribati, entre Micronésie et Polynésie.

On y découvre des éléments de la mythologie des Gilbertiens mais aussi le combat de ce peuple insulaire que la montée du niveau de la mer, provoquée par le réchauffement climatique, condamne. Un peuple à l’écart de notre espace et de notre temps, qui est en train de perdre sa terre mais se bat pour préserver son identité et sa dignité.

Des thèmes graves, auxquels les jeunes lecteurs sont particulièrement sensibles, illustrés avec pertinence et poésie. Tel est d’ailleurs le propos de toute la collection « Ethno-contes », qui met en résonance les traditions les plus anciennes et l’actualité de la planète, les particularités de ses peuples et les valeurs universelles de l’humanité.


          The Latvian Presidency's plans        
In case anyone has missed it (make that most people rather than anyone), Latvia has taken on the rotating presidency of the European Union. So, naturally, their representatives have been presenting plans for the next six months and, we have to assume, somewhere among those plans there is the usual one about cutting red tape and encouraging business and entrepreneurship.

Here is what the Minister of Agriculture Janis Duklavs said to the Committee for Fisheries (PECH) in the European Parliament:
Multiannual management plan for Baltic Sea cod, Baltic herring and sprat stocks is the first multiannual fishing plan of the new generation. This file is essential for ensuring sustainability of the stocks and at the same time offers more predictability and certainty to the industry. The proposal is therefore on the top of the Presidency’s priorities.

Proposal for Regulation on introduction of the landing obligation: the Latvian Presidency will be fully involved in the outstanding work on the new rules. The obligation to land some fish species entered into force on 1 January this year, but fishermen still have no clear rules on the application. The EU institutional agreement on this file should be completed as soon as possible.

External dimension of fisheries (sustainable fishing partnership agreements with third countries, negotiations with coastal states and representation in international organizations): the Minister underlined the importance of fisheries agreements for a viable and competitive EU fishing fleet in high-seas. It is expected that the work on negotiations for agreements with Mauritania, Kiribati, Seychelles and other countries would be smoothly continued in the first half of 2015.

Let us note immediately the reference to the "competitive EU fishing fleet". Whether it is competitive or not is irrelevant. Nothing much in the EU is competitive, after all. The point is that it is an EU fishing fleet. Or, let me spell it out, for the benefit of politicians, should they bother to read this blog, no amount of reforming has changed the fact that the UK (and that would have been true for a Scotland "independent within the EU) has no fishing fleet of its own while the country remains part of the Common Fisheries Policy, that is, part of the European Union.

That, of course, applies to the internal arrangements as well. Decisions will be taken for political reasons at the centre and relayed down to the regional institutions for them to implement. That, in essence, is the extent of those much-vaunted reforms.



          10 “thiên đường" đẹp mê hồn trên mặt đất        
Những vùng đất xa xôi kỳ bí không dễ tìm thấy trên bản đồ thế giới, những bãi cát trải dài, những thung lũng rực rỡ nắng vàng, những vách đá dựng đứng tráng lệ tưởng chỉ tồn tại trong mơ chính là “thiên đường trên mặt đất” vẫn còn sót lại trên thế giới này.
Cách xa khỏi nhịp sống tấp nập và ồn ào khói bụi của đô thị hiện đại, xa cả  sức ép của cuộc sống và những toan tính thường ngày, nếu bạn thá»±c sá»± muốn tìm đến một nÆ¡i hoang sÆ¡, tráng lệ, ít người biết đến thì sẽ phải vượt qua một cuộc hành trình rất dài và gian khó. Tuy vậy, đích đến sẽ là phần thưởng tuyệt vời nhất dành cho những ai thích phiêu lÆ°u mạo hiểm.

Sau đây là 10 vùng đất trong mơ vẫn còn sót lại trên thế giới này.
1. Thảo nguyên Patagonia, Chile


 

Pantagonia là một vùng đất xa xôi nằm ở phía Đông Nam lục địa Nam Mỹ, giữa Argentina và Chile, nổi tiếng với những cánh rừng bạt ngàn, những thảo nguyên hoang sơ rộng lớn và những dãy núi băng tuyệt đẹp.

Đây là nơi hội tụ đầy đủ những cảnh sắc thiên nhiên kỳ thú nhất, với những cao nguyên dạng bậc cao dần từ Đông sang Tây, bị phân cách bởi dãy núi Andes, các thung lũng trũng và thấp. Phía đông, bờ cao nguyên đổ xuống Đại Tây Dương tạo thành các bậc cao 100 - 200m, còn độ cao tối đa ở phía Tây đạt tới 2.200m.

2. Núi lửa Kauai, Hawaii


Trên quần đảo Hawaii, một bang của Mỹ, cách Honolulu 120km có một hòn đảo nhỏ gọi là đảo Kauai, đẹp như một hòn ngọc màu lục gắn trên biển xanh. Bãi biển trên đảo có một đồi cát cao 18m trên mặt biển, toàn bộ là cát trắng sạch. Cách đồi cát không xa có một bãi đá đen bởi dung nham. Dung nham bị nước biển xâm thực thành nhiều hang nhỏ. Trong đó có một lỗ huyệt giống như suối phun giãn cách, phun bọt nước trắng xóa.

Đảo Kauai phong cảnh tuyệt vời. Ngồi trên xe đi men theo khe suối sẽ thấy được cảnh điền viên êm ả. Bầu trời sau mưa bao giờ cầu vồng cũng hiện ra, đôi khi 5-6 cầu vồng đều xuất hiện, có khi 2 cầu vồng chồng lên nhau. Góc phía Đông Bắc của núi Waialeale có lượng mưa trung bình hàng năm lớn nhất thế giới, đạt 11.684mm. Càng lạ hơn nữa là dốc núi Tây Nam của Waialeale lại chỉ có lượng mưa 460mm.
3. Vườn quốc gia Kruger Park, Nam Phi


Khu rừng rậm nguyên sinh, nơi hội tụ đông đủ nhất các loài thú hoang dã và quý hiếm nhất hành tinh có thể tìm thấy ở Thornybush Game thuộc Vườn quốc gia Kruger Park.

Đi ôtô dạo quanh rừng người ta sẽ có cơ hội tận mắt nhìn thấy những chú sư tử oai phong, những nàng báo hoa thoắt ẩn thoắt hiện trên cây hay nhìn ngắm từng đàn ngựa vằn đang nhởn nhơ uống nước. Hãy thử trải nghiệm một đêm sống trong căn lều giữa thiên nhiên, chắc chắn bạn sẽ thấy thú vị.

4. Quần đảo Fernando de Noronha, Brazil


Nằm ở đông bắc bờ biển Brazil, bao quanh là Đại Tây Dương, với điều kiện khí hậu lý tưởng, quần đảo Fernando de Noronha được xem là thiên đường của nhiều loại cá tuyệt đẹp. Hàng năm, nơi đây đón nhận một lượng đông đảo du khách yêu biển và yêu môn lặn đến tham quan và du hành vào "vương quốc cá".

Quần đảo Fernando de Noronha gồm 21 đảo nhỏ nhưng chỉ có 240 người sinh sống. Bạn có thể thoải mái tắm nắng và ngâm mình dưới làn nước trong lành không chán.
5. Vùng Cotswolds, Anh Quốc


Những triền đồi đầy hoa dại trải dài, những thung lũng ngập nắng, những dòng sống hiền hòa thơ mộng chảy len lỏi trong thị trấn và những ngôi nhà tranh cổ kính, xinh xắn nằm lọt thỏm giữa các khu vườn đầy hoa trái … Cotswolds là vùng đất đặc trưng và lâu đời nhất có thể tìm thấy ở xứ sở sương mù, nơi cất giữ nền văn hóa nông trại lâu đời từ hàng ngàn năm trước.

Đến với Cotswolds người ta như lạc vào một miền đất thần tiên dường như chỉ tồn tại trong cổ tích. Sẽ không có gì đáng ngạc nhiên khi những chính trị gia hay những ngôi sao tên tuổi nhất nước Anh đều sở hữu một ngôi nhà cổ ở Cotswolds để về nghỉ vào mỗi dịp cuối tuần.
6. Isla Vieques, Puerto Rico


Chỉ cách bờ biển khoảng 10km, Isla Vieques như một vùng đất bị lãng quên trên trái đất với những khu rừng xanh tươi, bãi cát trắng dài tít tắp và những ngọn đồi nhấp nhô.

Cho đến năm 2003, hòn đảo vẫn nằm dưới sự kiểm soát của Hải quân Mỹ, nhưng giờ thì họ đã đi khỏi, thiên đường đang rộng cửa đón du khách.
7.  Công viên Algonquin, Canada



Công viên Algonquin nằm giữa Vịnh Georgian và Sông Ottawa ở trung tâm Ontario, Canada, được xây dựng từ năm 1893 với diện tích khoảng 7.653km2. Công viên được coi như một phần biên giới giữa miền Bắc và Nam Ontario và chỉ mất ba giờ lái xe từ Toronto là tới.

Nơi đây trải dài trên 200km là rừng hoang sơ với những cây thông cổ thụ. Những dòng sông, hồ, suối len lỏi trong rừng với những dãy núi đẹp như tranh soi mình xuống dòng nước trong xanh, phẳng lặng.

Công viên có hệ sinh thái với thảm động, thực vật vô cùng phong phú. Ở đây, du khách có thể khám phá những khu rừng với các cây gỗ quý như linh sam, vân sam, thông đỏ, tùng trắng, dương, sồi, lim, thích đường, tần bì và đặc biệt là cây phong.
8. Quần đảo Tristan da Cunha


Cách St. Helena 2.000km và mũi Hảo Vọng (Nam Phi) 2.789km, quần đảo xa xôi và ít người ở nhất thế giới này rất khó tìm thấy trên bản đồ thế giới. Tuy nhiên, với những bãi biển lộng gió, những vách đá bazan tráng lệ và các thung lũng hoang sơ, Tristan da Cunha sẽ là nơi lý tưởng để các đôi uyên ương chạy trốn khỏi thế giới này và tìm đến với thiên đường trong mơ.
9. Vùng núi Morzine, Pháp


Morzine là một khu nghỉ mát hàng đầu trên vùng Alpes thuộc Pháp. Mùa đông, nơi đây được xem là thiên đường cho những ai thích môn trượt tuyết. Mùa hè là thời điểm thích hợp để những người thích các môn thể thao cảm giác mạnh như: dù lượn, nhảy dù dốc, xe đạp núi, trượt thác... có thể cùng nhau tranh tài.

Khi tuyết tan, các đường trượt trở thành nÆ¡i dành cho dân thích chạy xe đạp núi.  Nếu không thích đi xe đạp, đi bộ là một cách tối Æ°u để bạn có thể ngắm nhìn thiên nhiên tuyệt đẹp nÆ¡i đây. Khi du lịch đến dãy Alpes vào mùa đông hay mùa hè các bạn vẫn có thể tận hưởng mọi thú vui tại đây.
10. Quốc đảo  Kiribati, Micronesia


Tại điểm cực đông của thế giới là một quốc đảo nằm cách Hawaii 4.000km. Bắc qua đường xích đạo, quốc đảo này bao gồm 33 hòn đảo và là nơi có khu bảo tồn sinh vật biển lớn nhất thế giới. Với những hàng dừa cao tít tắp, bãi biển trắng muốt và làn nước trong suốt, vùng đất giống như một khu nghỉ dưỡng cao cấp giúp bạn hòa nhập hoàn toàn với thiên nhiên.

Do nằm ngoài khơi xa nên thiên nhiên nơi này rất hoang sơ. Du khách có thể đến đây tận hưởng làn nước trong xanh hoặc lặn ngắm san hô.
Nguồn VTC

                  

          Amelia Earhart's Anti-Freckle Cream Jar Possibly Found         
A small cosmetic jar offers more circumstantial evidence that the legendary aviator, Amelia Earhart, died on an uninhabited island in the southwestern Pacific republic of Kiribati. Found broken in five pieces, the ointment pot was collected on Nikumaro
          Surveys seek input on needs and resources for biodiversity data in the Pacific Islands        

To help prepare for the 2016 calls for proposals under the Biodiversity Information for Development (BID) programme, GBIF has released surveys seeking input from data holders and decision makers in the Pacific Islands—two stakeholder groups critical to the programme’s long-term success.

Data holders need resources and incentives to distribute the many types of information that they steward. Available in English and French, this survey seeks to understand the financial or technical challenges that data holders in the Pacific Islands face in sharing data and its use in research and policy.

Decision makers depend on high-quality biodiversity information to support planning and policy and to encourage world-class research. The second survey (also available in English and French versions) seeks insights into how well the information needs of decision makers in the Pacific Islands are currently served.

We invite those interested in responding to take the 12- and 13-question, 20-minute surveys, and also to share them with their contacts and networks. Wider distribution will help us gain a deeper, more practical understanding of how BID can best support data mobilization and use across the Pacific.

Those respondents who may lack sufficiently reliable Internet connectivity may download and fill out 'offline' versions of the appropriate survey in Microsoft Word:

GBIF expects to issue a call for proposals led by organizations from the ACP countries in the Pacific Islands in late August or early September 2016. Potential grantseekers can sign up to receive updates via email or visit the BID grantseekers’ site for more information as it becomes available.


European Union

 

This programme is funded by the European Union.

Images 
Aerial view of Kadavu Island, Fiji. Photo by Nick Hobgood.

Aerial view of Kadavu Island, Fiji. 2014 CC BY-NC Nick Hobgood https://flic.kr/p/puxsk5

Content GBits 

GBIF has released surveys seeking input from data holders and decision makers in the Pacific Islands to help prepare for the 2016 calls for proposals under the Biodiversity Information for Development (BID) programme.

GBIF area 
Data use 
Programme 
Organizations 
Content stream 
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          Asekantsler Reinart ÜROs: edusammudeks arengurahastamise valdkonnas on vaja heade valitsemistavade ja õigusriigi põhimõtete rakendamist        
22.-24. mail osales välisministeeriumi välismajanduspoliitika ja arengukoostööküsimuste asekantsler Väino Reinart New Yorgis ÜRO Majandus- ja sotsiaalnõukogu arengurahastamise foorumil.

Asekantsler Reinart esines koos Tonga, Nepali ja Mehhiko esindajatega foorumi ministrite tasemel ümarlaual. Reinart tõi oma sõnavõtus välja, et vastavalt Eesti kogemusele on valitsustel võtmeroll koostööd soosiva keskkonna loomisel ning partnerite kaasamisel. „Heade valitsemistavade ja õigusriigi põhimõtete rakendamine loovad eeltingimused efektiivsuseks ja vajalike tulemuste saavutamiseks arengurahastamise valdkonnas,” rõhutas asekantsler. Samuti rääkis Reinart Eesti arengu- ja humanitaarabikoostöö raamistiku (2016-2020) prioriteetidest ning rahvusvahelise koostöö olulisusest teaduse, tehnoloogia ja innovatsiooni valdkonnas. Pikemalt peatus asekantsler e-valitsemise lahendustel, mis puudutavad korruptsiooni vähendamist ja maksutulu suurendamist.

Arengurahastamise foorumil arutleti laiemalt 2015. aasta Addis Abeba arengurahastamise konverentsil vastu võetud rahvusvahelise kokkuleppe rakendamise teemadel ning võeti vastu foorumi lõppdokument. 2016. aastal kehtima hakanud kokkulepe käsitleb kestliku arengu eesmärkide elluviimise vahendeid ning kokkuleppes on sätestatud, et ametliku arenguabi ressurssidele lisanduvad riigisisesed vahendid, erasektori investeeringud ning era- ja avaliku sektori koostöö. Samuti sisaldub kokkuleppes eraldi osa teaduse, tehnoloogia ja innovatsiooni potentsiaali kasutamise kohta riikide arengus.

Üleilmsed kestliku arengu eesmärgid kiideti heaks 2015. aasta sügisel toimunud tippkohtumisel. Eesti tegi ülevaate kestliku arengu eesmärkide rakendamisest 2016. aasta ÜRO kõrgetasemelise poliitilise foorumi raames.

Samuti kohtus asekantsler Reinart New Yorgis ÜRO Arenguprogrammi (UNDP) juhi asetäitja ja välissuhete osakonna peadirektor Michael O’Neilliga. Kohtumisel kõneldi kahepoolsest koostööst ning avaldati heameelt selle üle, et Eesti E-riigi Akadeemia arengudirektor Hannes Astok viibis nõustamas UNDP e-valitsemise meeskonda, et edendada sealset digitaalse valitsemisega seotud programme ja projekte. Tegemist on esimese korraga kui Eesti ekspert oli ÜRO süsteemis sellist nõu andmas.

Kahepoolselt kohtus Väino Reinart foorumi raames ka Tonga ja Kiribati rahandusministritega, Madagaskari välisministeeriumi asekantsleri, Panama välisministeeriumi välismajandussuhete osakonna peadirektori ning Filipiinide rahandusministeeriumi kantsleriga.

Fotod: https://www.flickr.com/photos/estonian-foreign-ministry/albums/72157682028145791  



Lisainfo:

Mariann Sudakov
välisministeerium
avalike suhete osakond
521 6821
press@mfa.ee
www.vm.ee


           Acordo p a redução das emissões dos GEE da navegação mercante internacional        
Organização Marítima Internacional discutiu na semana passada um acordo para a redução das emissões dos gases de efeito estufa 
da navegação mercante internacional

Em 2017 ocorrem dois encontros para discutir como a navegação marítima internacional pode reduzir suas emissões de gases de efeito estufa.  O primeiro deles aconteceu na semana passada na sede da Organização Marítima Internacional (IMO) em Londres, Reino Unido, onde 172 nações (uma lista completa de membros pode ser encontrada aqui), ONGs e lobistas da indústria discutem como impedir a atual tendência de que as emissões da navegação subam de 50% a 250% até meados deste século, dependendo do cenário econômico e do avanço das tecnologias.

A demanda por transporte marítimo aumentou significativamente nas últimas décadas: navios transportam cerca de 90% do comércio mundial.  As emissões dos gases de efeito estufa do setor tiveram crescimento igualmente impressionante: 70% desde 1990. Atualmente o setor é responsável por entre 2% e 3% da emissão global de gases de efeito estufa.  Se as emissões da navegação fossem reportadas como se fossem de um único país, o transporte marítimo ocuparia um lugar entre o Japão e a Alemanha no ranking dos maiores emissores de CO2, respondendo por um volume maior do é emitido por todos os países da África juntos. Sem um esforço adicional significativo por parte da indústria marítima, o setor colocará em risco os compromissos do Acordo de Paris pela manutenção do aquecimento global bem abaixo dos 2°C sobre os níveis pré-industriais.  Por isso, a IMO pretende lançar em 2018 uma estratégia inicial de redução de emissões de gases de efeito estufa, muito provavelmente envolvendo uma trajetória de longo prazo para a redução das emissões de CO2 e medidas práticas de curto, médio e longo prazos.

Para o Brasil, a navegação é um setor vital para as exportações de commodities como minério de ferro, soja, petróleo, açúcar e café, entre outras.  95% do comércio exterior passa pelos portos, que bateram o recorde de um bilhão de toneladas movimentadas em 2015. Para alguns setores, a importância é ainda maior: o Brasil é o segundo maior exportador de minério de ferro após a Austrália – tanto que a Vale está presente na IMO com dois representantes, mesmo número da Petrobras.   

Os negociadores brasileiros na IMO têm tradicionalmente sido contrários ao endurecimento do regime regulatório, argumentando que isso penalizaria os países no final das cadeias de suprimento, especialmente aqueles distantes dos mercados exportadores.  As colocações do Brasil anteriores à reunião desta semana reforçam essa postura. O país se opôs ao estabelecimento de uma meta de longo prazo para as emissões do setor, com o argumento de que esta representa ‘um impedimento não desejável para o comércio internacional’, adicionando que uma meta deste tipo pode (e isso é improvável) levar a um aumento do transporte de carga via aérea.  O país também tem feito lobby pelo o estabelecimento de dados precisos de emissão de GEE como uma precondição para maiores investimentos em medidas de eficiência (um regime mandatório de reporte de emissões da IMO passará a ocorrer a partir de 2019), e quer investimentos para o auxílio à instalações portuárias verdes (apesar de portos não fazerem parte das discussões da OMI).

Apesar disso, um estudo do WWF Brasil sugere que muitas das apreensões do país são infundadas. Por exemplo, mesmo que se faça um acordo sobre um nível de preço para o carbono de US$ 12 por tonelada de CO2 emitida (três vezes mais alto que o preço atual da UE), as exportações e a economia “não seriam significantemente afetadas” e as medidas poderão, inclusive, gerar benefícios para alguns setores da economia brasileira. Uma  pesquisa  comissionada pela ONU demonstrou que aumentos no custo das importações são frequentemente muito pequenos, tipicamente, um aumento de 10% nos custos da emissão de carbono ou dos combustíveis gera um aumento de menos de 0,2% no preço final das mercadorias importadas.

Impactos econômicos negativos provavelmente seriam maiores sobre os pequenos países insulares em desenvolvimento (SIDS na sigla em inglês) e nos países menos desenvolvidos (LDCs), em virtude de suas frequentemente remotas e mal servidas rotas comerciais, de sua alta dependência de importações, de seu já desproporcional custo per capita de transporte e pela sua baixa capacidade de absorção de aumentos de preços sem impactos sociais significativos. Apesar disto, vários SIDS, tais como as Ilhas Marshall e Salomão, estão entre aqueles que clamam da IMO uma linha dura na questão climática.

Antígua, Barbuda, Bélgica, Dinamarca, França, Alemanha, Kiribati, Ilhas Marshall, Ilhas Salomão, Suécia, Tonga e Tuvalu estão entre os países que defendem que, para garantir a efetividade climática, é importante definir um alto nível de ambição de redução de emissões alinhado com o objetivo de temperatura do Acordo de Paris, e que este seja adotado o mais rapidamente possível, ou seja, em 2018, quando a estratégia inicial será adotada.


LINHA DO TEMPO DAS NEGOCIAÇÕES CLIMÁTICAS DO TRANSPORTE MARÍTIMO

1997 – A IMO torna-se responsável pelo acompanhamento das regulações da indústria da navegação internacional sob o Protocolo de Kyoto e, novamente em 2015, sob o Acordo de Paris.
2011 – A IMO afirma que “a navegação dará sua justa e proporcional contribuição” (MEPC 63/5/5, Resultado da Conferência de Mudanças Climáticas da ONU, em Durban, África do Sul, de 28 de novembro a 11 de dezembro de 2011, nota do Secretariado da Convenção) no manejo das mudanças climáticas, mas falha em definir o que isso significa exatamente.
2013 – A IMO divulga padrões de eficiência para todas as embarcações produzidas a partir de 2013. Essa medida levará toda uma geração para afetar a frota total existente e contribuirá muito pouco, dado que o crescimento esperado de 50% a 250% nas emissões até 2050 já inclui os efeitos dessas regulações em eficiência.
2015 – As Ilhas Marshal demandam que a IMO estabeleça uma meta de redução de emissão de GEE para a navegação internacional que seja consistente com a manutenção do aquecimento global abaixo de 1,5°C e que feche acordo contendo as medidas necessárias para o atingimento de tal meta.
2016 – A IMO adota um caminho (roadmap) climático, com a adoção de uma estratégia inicial em 2018 e uma estratégia a ser revisada em 2023 para incluir medidas de redução de GEE em 2023. A definição do mapa desse caminho começa nesta semana.

Fonte: AVIV Comunicação 
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          Bioethicist: The climate crisis calls for fewer children        
NPR correspondent Jennifer Ludden profiled some of my work in procreative ethics with an article entitled, “Should we be having kids in the age of climate change?,” which summarized my published views that we ought to consider adopting a “small family ethic” and even pursuing fertility reduction efforts in response to the threat from climate change. ... Perhaps many of us in rich countries (the “us” who might be reading this) will be largely protected from these early harms; but that doesn’t make them less real to the vulnerable citizens of, say, Bangladesh, Kiribati or the Maldives. In fact, it...
          Grappling With The Bomb: Britain’s Nuclear Testing In Kiribati        

Nic Maclellan

March 7, 2017

Under Operation Grapple, the United Kingdom conducted nine atmospheric nuclear tests in 1957-8 in the British Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony - today, the Republic of Kiribati.

Nearly 14,000 British, New Zealand and Fijian military personnel staffed the nuclear test sites on Christmas Island (Kiritimati) and Malden Island, supported by dozens of Gilbertese labourers and two English women from the Women’s Voluntary Service.

This year is the 60th anniversary of the Grapple nuclear tests, yet the British authorities continue to resist recognition and compensation for the nuclear veterans, who face adverse health effects common to survivors of US and French nuclear testing across the region.

In this seminar, Nic Maclellan will present research drawn from his forthcoming book “Grappling with the Bomb” (ANU Press), based on archival research and interviews with nuclear survivors in Fiji, New Zealand and Kiribati.

Nic Maclellan works as a journalist and researcher in the Pacific islands. As a correspondent with Islands Business magazine (Fiji) and other regional media, he has written widely on environment, development and demilitarization in the Pacific islands. He is also a regular contributor of the international and regional review for The Contemporary Pacific.

Cast: East-West Center

Tags: nuclear testing, Pacific, EWC, East-West Center, Kiribati and Nic Maclellan


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Albania Beslidhja Skaut Albania
Algeria Scouts Musulmans Algériens
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Angola Associação de Escuteiros de Angola (AEA)
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Argentina Scouts de Argentina
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Armenia Hayastani Azgayin Scautakan Sharjum Kazmakerputiun (HASK)
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Australia Scouts Australia
Austria Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs
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Azerbaijan Azerbaican Skaut Assosiasiyasi
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Bahamas The Scout Association of the Bahamas
Bahrain Boy Scouts of Bahrain
Bangladesh Bangladesh Scouts
Barbados Barbados Boy Scouts Association
Belgium
Belize The Scout Association of Belize
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Bhutan Bhutan Scout Tshogpa
Bolivia Asociación de Scouts de Bolivia
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Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Council of Scout Associations in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana The Botswana Scouts Association
Brazil União dos Escoteiros do Brasil
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Brunei Darussalam Persekutuan Pengakap Negara Brunei Darussalam
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Bulgaria Organizatsia Na Bulgarskite Skauty (OBS)
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Burkina Faso
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Burundi Association des Scouts du Burundi
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Cameroon Les Scouts du Cameroun/Boy Scouts of Cameroon
Cambodia National Association of Cambodian Scouts
Canada Scouts Canada, with which is affiliatedAssociation des Scouts du Canada
Cape Verde Associação dos Escuteiros de Cabo Verde (A.E.C.V.)
(Scout Association of Cape Verde)
Chad
Fédération du Scoutisme Tchadien
(Scout Federation of Chad)
  • Eclaireurs du Tchad
  • Scouts du Tchad (Scouts of Chad)
Chile Asociación de Guias y Scouts de Chile
(Guide and Scout Association of Chile)
China, Scouts of Scouts of China
Colombia Asociación de Scouts de Colombia
(Scout Association of Colombia)
Comoros Wezombeli (Association Nationale du Scoutisme Comorien)
(The National Scout Association of Comoros)
Congo, The Democratic Republic of The Fédération des Scouts de la République démocratique du Congo
(The Scout Federation of the Democratic Republic of The Congo)
Costa Rica Asociación de Guias y Scouts de Costa Rica
(Association Guides and Scouts of Costa Rica)
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  • Les Eclaireurs Laïcs de Côte d'Ivoire
  • Les Eclaireurs Unionistes de Côte d'Ivoire (Unionist Scouts of Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Les Scouts Catholiques de Côte d'Ivoire (The Catholic Scouts of Côte d'Ivoire)
Croatia Savez Izvidaca Hrvatske
(The Scout Association of Croatia)
Cyprus Cyprus Scouts Association
Czech Republic Junák-Svaz Skautu a Skautek
Denmark
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(The Danish Scout Council)
Dominica The Scout Association of Dominica
Dominican Republic Asociación de Scouts Dominicanos
(Dominican Scout Association)
Ecuador Asociación de Scouts del Ecuador
(Scout Association of Ecuador)
Egypt Egyptian Scout Federation
El Salvador Asociación de Scouts de El Salvador
(Scout Association of El Salvador)
Estonia Eesti Skautide Ühing (Estonian Scout Association)
Ethiopia Ethiopia Scout Association
Fiji Fiji Scouts Association
Finland Suomen Partiolaiset-Finlands Scouter
France
Scoutisme Français
(French Scouting)
Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Unionistes de France (EEUF)(Unionist Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs de France (EEDF) (Guides and Scouts of France)
Les Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs Israélites de France (EEIF) (Jewish Guides and Scouts de France)
 Scouts et Guides de France (SGdF) (Scouts and Guides of France)
Scouts Musulmans de France (SMdF) (Muslim Scouts of France)
Gabon
Fédération Gabonaise du Scoutisme
(Scouting Federation of Gabon)
Eclaireurs et Eclaireuses Unionistes du Gabon (Unionist Scouts of Gabon)
Eclaireuses-Eclaireurs du Gabon (Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Scouts et Guides Catholiques du Gabon (Catholic Scouts and Guides of Gabon)
Gambia The Gambia Scout Association
Georgia sakartvelos skauturi modzraobis organizatsia
(Georgian Organization of the Scout Movement)
Germany
Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände (RdP)
(Scout Federation of Germany)
Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (BdP) (Guides and Scout Union)
Deutsche Pfadfinderschaft Sankt Georg (DPSG) (German Saint George Scout Association)
Verband Christlicher Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder (VCP) (Christian Guide and Scout Association)
Ghana The Ghana Scout Association
Greece Soma Hellinon Proskopon
(Scout Association of Greece)
Grenada The Scout Association of Grenada
Guatemala Asociación de Scouts de Guatemala
(Scout Association of Guatemala)
Guinea C National Scout Association of Guinea
Guyana The Scout Association of Guyana
Haiti Scouts d'Haïti
(Scouts of Haiti)
Honduras Asociación de Scouts de Honduras
(Scouts Association of Honduras)
Hong Kong The Scout Association of Hong Kong
Hungary Magyar Cserkészszövetség
(Hungarian Scout Association)
Iceland Bandalag íslenskra Skáta
(Icelandic Boy and Girl Scout Association)
India The Bharat Scouts and Guides
Indonesia Gerakan Pramuka
(Boy Scouts and Girl Guides Movement)
Ireland Scouting Ireland
Israel
Hitachdut Hatsofim Ve Hatsofot Be Israel
(Israel Boy and Girl Scouts Federation)
The Arab School Scout Association
The Druze Scouts Association
The Hebrew Scout Association
The Israel Catholic Scouts Association
  • The Israeli Arab Scouts Association
      The Orthodox Scout Association
taly
Federazione Italiana dello Scautismo
(Italian Scout Federation)
Associazione Guide e Scouts Cattolici Italiani (AGESCI) (Association of Catholic Guides and Scouts of Italy)
Corpo Nazionale Giovani Esploratori ed Esploratrici Italiani (CNGEI) (National Corps of Italian Boy Scouts and Girl Guides)
Jamaica The Scout Association of Jamaica
Japan Scout Association of Japan
Jordan Jordanian Association for Boy Scouts and Girl Guides
Kazakhstan Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan (OSMK)
Kenya The Kenya Scouts Association
Kiribati Kiribati Scout Association
Korea, Republic.of Boy Scouts of Korea
Kuwait Kuwait Boy Scouts Association
Latvia Latvijas Skautu un Gaidu Centrala Organizacija
(The Scout and Guide Central Organization of Latvia)
Lebanon Fédération du Scoutisme Libanais
(Lebanese Scout Federation)
One of the associations in the Federation is:
Independence Scouts
Lesotho Lesotho Scouts Association
Liberia Boy Scouts of Liberia
Libyan Arab
Jamahiriya
Public Scout and Girl Guide Movement
Liechtenstein Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Liechtensteins
(Scouts and Guides of Liechtenstein)
Lithuania Lietuvos Skautija (Lithuanian Scouting)
Luxembourg
Lëtzebuerger Guiden a Scouten (LGS) (Guides and Scouts of Luxembourg)
Macedonia, The former Yugoslav
Republic of
Sojuz na Izvidnici na Makedonija
(The Scout Association of The former Yugoslave Republic of Macedonia)
Madagascar
Firaisan'ny Skotisma eto Madagasikara
(Scout Federation of Madagascar)
Tily Eto Madagasikara (Christian Scouts of Madagascar)
Antilin'i Madagasikara (Catholic Scout Association of Madagascar)
Kiadin'i Madagasikara (Scouts of Madagascar)
Malawi Scout Association of Malawi
Malaysia Persekutuan Pengakap Malaysia
(The Scouts Association of Malaysia)
Maldives The Scout Association of Maldives
Malta The Scout Association of Malta
Mauritania Association des Scouts et Guides de Mauritanie
(The Scout and Guide Association of Mauritania)
Mauritius The Mauritius Scout Association
Mexico Asociación de Scouts de México, A.C.
(Scout Association of Mexico)
Moldova, Republic of Organizatia Nationala A Scoutilor Din Moldova
(The National Scout Organization of Moldova)
Monaco Association des Guides et Scouts de Monaco
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Mongolia Mongoliyn Skautiyn Holboo
(The Scout Association of Mongolia)
Montenegro Association of Scouts of Montenegro
Morocco Fédération Nationale du Scoutisme Marocain
(National Federation of Moroccan Scouting)
Mozambique Liga dos Escuteiros de Moçambique
(League of Scouts of Mozambique)
Namibia Scouts of Namibia
Nepal Nepal Scouts
Netherlands Scouting Nederland
(Netherlands Scouting)
New Zealand Scouting New Zealand
Nicaragua Asociación de Scouts de Nicaragua
(Scout Association of Nicaragua)
Niger Association des Scouts du Niger
(Scouts Association of Niger)
Nigeria Boy Scouts of Nigeria
Norway
Speidernes Fellesorganisasjon
(The Guides and Scouts of Norway)
Norges Speiderforbund
(Norwegian Guide & Scout Association)
(YWCA-YMCA Guides and Scouts of Norway)
Oman The National Organisation for Scouts & Guides
Pakistan Pakistan Boy Scouts Association
Palestinian Authority Palestinian Scout Association
Panama Asociación Nacional de Scouts de Panamá
(National Scout Association of Panama)
Papua New Guinea The Scout Association of Papua New Guinea
Paraguay Asociación de Scouts del Paraguay
(Scouts Association of Paraguay)
Peru Asociación de Scouts del Perú
(Scout Association of Peru)
Philippines Boy Scouts of the Philippines
Poland Zwiazek Harcerstwa Polskiego (ZHP)
The Polish Scouting and Guiding Association
Portugal
Federação Escutista de Portugal
(Scout Federation of Portugal)
Associação dos Escoteiros de Portugal (AEP) (The Scout Association of Portugal)
Corpo Nacional de Escutas (CNE) (Escutismo Catolico Portugues) (The Catholic Scout Association of Portugal)
Qatar Qatar Boy Scouts Association
Romania Cercetasii României
(The National Scout Organization of Romania)
Russian Federation Russian Association of Scouts/Navigators (RAS/N)
Rwanda Association des Scouts du Rwanda
(Scout Association of Rwanda)
San Marino Associazione Guide e Esploratori Cattolici Sammarinesi
(The Catholic Guide and Scout Association of San Marino)
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabian Boy Scouts Association
Senegal
Confédération Sénégalaise du Scoutisme
(Senegalese Scout Confederation)
Eclaireurs du Sénégal (Scouts of Senegal)
Les Scouts du Sénégal (The Scouts of Senegal)
Serbia Scout Association of Serbia
Seychelles The Scout Association of Seychelles
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Scouts Association
Singapore The Singapore Scout Association
Slovakia Slovensky skauting
(Slovak Scouting)
Slovenia Zveza tabornikov Slovenije
(Scout Association of Slovenia)
South Africa South African Scout Association
Spain
Federación de Escultismo en España (FEE)*
(Scouting Federation in Spain)
Federación de Asociaciones de Scouts de España
(ASDE) (Scouts of Spain)
Movimiento Scout Católico (MSC) (The Catholic Scout Movement) *with which is affilliated:
Federació Catalana d'Escoltisme i Guiatge (FCEG) (The Federation of Scouts and Guides in Catalonia)
Acciò Escolta de Catalunya
Escoltes Catalans
Minyons Escoltes/Guies Sant Jordi de Catalunya
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Scout Association
Saint Lucia The Saint Lucia Scout Association
Saint Vincent and The Grenadines The Scout Association of Saint Vincent & The Grenadines
Sudan Sudan Boy Scouts Association
Suriname Boy Scouts van Suriname
(Boy Scouts of Suriname)
Swaziland Emavulandlela Swaziland Scout Association
Sweden
Svenska Scoutråde t
(The Swedish Guide and Scout Council)
Frälsningsarméns Scoutförbund
(Salvation Army Guide and Scout Association)
KFUK- FKUMs Scoutförbund
(Swedish YWCA-YMCA Guide and Scout Association)
Nykterhetsrörelsens Scoutförbund
(Swedish Temperance Guide and Scout Association)
SMU-Scout
(Guide and Scout Organization of the Swedish Covenant Youth)
Svenska Scoutförbundet
(Swedish Guide and Scout Association)
Switzerland Swiss Guide and Scout Movement
Syrian Arab Republic Scouts of Syria
Tajikistan Ittihodi Scouthoi Tochikiston / Associatsia Skautov Tadjikistana
(Scout Association of Tajikistan)
Tanzania, United Republic of Tanzania Scouts Association
Thailand The National Scout Organization of Thailand
Togo Association Scoute du Togo
(Scout Association of Togo)
Trinidad and Tobago The Scout Association of Trinidad & Tobago
Tunisia Les Scouts Tunisiens
(The Scouts of Tunisia)
Turkey Turkiye Izcilik Federasyonu
(Scouting and Guiding Federation of Turkey)
Uganda The Uganda Scouts Association
Ukraine National Organization of Scouts of Ukraine
          Glasgow revels in Bolt buzz and warm glow        

The Glasgow Commonwealth Games proved to be much more than just 'Friendly' as Scottish culture, sport and six-times Olympic champion Usain Bolt combined to create a memorable 11-day event.

The success of the Games was assured with the golden seal of approval from Bolt, the world's most recognisable athlete, whose cameo in Jamaica's sprint relay triumph lit up Scotland's biggest city.

Inevitably, Bolt stole the show, providing one of the images of the "Friendly Games" as he returned home with a gold medal from his maiden Commonwealth appearance.

The Games provided few truly jaw-dropping sporting moments, but they will be remembered for the spirit in which athletes and visitors from the 71 Commonwealth nations and territories were greeted by crowds determined to enjoy the party.

"In my view, they are the standout Games in the history of the movement," Commonwealth Games Federation chief executive Mike Hooper said.

"The way in which the people of Scotland and Glasgow have embraced the Games right from the get-go has been incredible."

With England's double Olympic champion Mo Farah pulling out, it was left to the world's fastest man Bolt to provide the glamour and boost TV ratings but there was no shortage of quality on show, from the netball courts, to the judo mats, the swimming pool and the velodrome.

After reportedly making disparaging remarks about the Games, eight-times world champion Bolt did not disappoint when he finally arrived at the Hampden Park track to rapturous cheers from a capacity crowd.

"It's always great to have fun with the fans. They made the Games what it was. They are so warm, even when I was cold they were always warm," Bolt, the 100 and 200 metres world record holder, said of his time in Glasgow.

Having anchored Jamaica to victory in the 4x100 relay to give the crowd the result they craved, Bolt continued his Scottish charm offensive by donning a tartan hat and scarf while performing his 'lightning bolt' celebration and posing for selfies with ticket holders.

"I'm happy for the fans and I'm happy to get my Commonwealth gold medal. It (the Commonwealth Games) was always on my to-do list," Bolt said. "Other than the weather it's been brilliant."

There were few incidents to mar the feast of sporting action but two failed drugs tests did cast a shadow.

Nigeria's 16-year-old weightlifter Chika Amalaha was stripped of her gold medal after failing a doping test and Botswana's former 400m world champion Amantle Montsho also tested positive for a banned substance.

HEART-WARMING STORIES

But among the 6,500 athletes representing 71 mostly former British colonies, there were many heart-warming stories.

Kiribati celebrated its first Commonwealth medal after guitar-strumming David Katoatau won weightlifting gold while compatriot Taoriba Biniati fought another woman for the first time as women's boxing made its Games debut.

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Cyclist Muhammad I’maadi Abd Aziz, Brunei's only athlete at the Games, enjoyed his lonely ride and the balti boys, Muzahir Shan and Mohammed Qureshi, co-owners of a curry house in Glasgow, formed part of Pakistan's first lawn bowls team.

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At the other end of the scale, Olympic champion Chad le Clos of South Africa secured the biggest individual medal haul of the Games with seven podium finishes in the pool, including two golds. For Australia's Sally Pearson, the Games offered a chance of redemption.

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Vilified by Athletics Australia head coach Eric Hollingsworth for her decision to miss a pre-tournament training camp with her team mates in Glasgow, Pearson stormed to gold in the women's 100m hurdles to defend the title she won in Delhi four years ago.

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The Australian swimming team dominated, winning 57 of 133 medals on offer at the Tollcross Swimming Centre, and breaking the only world record during the Games in the women's 4x100 freestyle relay, beating a time set by the Netherlands in the now-banned bodysuits in 2009.

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The Australian team could not stop England topping the medals table with 58 golds, surpassing their arch-rivals for the first time since 1986 when the Games were last held in Scotland.

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Among the gold rush for England was three-times world champion Nick Matthew, who resorted to 'caveman' tactics to retain his squash title in an epic final against compatriot James Wilstrop and secure the highest honour in a sport still excluded from the Olympic programme.

_6">

Diver Tom Daley successfully defended his 10m platform title with a stunning performance, combining power and finesse to add to the silver he won in the synchronised event.

_7">

At the Chris Hoy velodrome, Olympic cycling champion Laura Trott overcame a kidney infection to win the women's 25km points race, but it was not all good news for England as 2012 Tour de France winner Bradley Wiggins had to settle for silver on his return to the track in the team pursuit.

_8">

Cycling ended on the rainy streets of Glasgow on Sunday in the road race, where Welshman Geraint Thomas overcame a late puncture in treacherous conditions to claim gold and provide late drama on the last day of the Games.gl

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Australia's Gold Coast will host the Commonwealth Games in 2018. The south-eastern Queensland city has a lot to live up to.

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(Editing by Ed Osmond and Martyn Herman)

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          Community Event        
Name * What would you like to invite the community to? (Ballet performance, rugby game, chess tournament, piano recital, etc...) * Wanna give some more details? Date/Time * Where will it be held? * AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBhutanBoliviaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBrazilBruneiBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaColombiComorosCongo (Brazzaville)CongoCosta RicaCote d'IvoireCroatiaCubaCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEast Timor (Timor Timur)EcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFijiFinlandFranceGabonGambia, TheGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreeceGrenadaGuatemalaGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHondurasHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIranIraqIrelandIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, NorthKorea, SouthKuwaitKyrgyzstanLaosLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedoniaMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMarshall IslandsMauritaniaMauritiusMexicoMicronesiaMoldovaMonacoMongoliaMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepaNetherlandsNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNorwayOmanPakistanPalauPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPolandPortugalQatarRomaniaRussiaRwandaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint VincentSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbia and MontenegroSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyriaTaiwanTajikistanTanzaniaThailandTogoTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVatican CityVenezuelaVietnamYemenZambiaZimbabwe Website Upload Flyer or Photo (optional) Prev Next Submit
          Encuentra personas mdiante su telefono y el GPS        
A continuacion les presentamos esta innovacion para localizar gente mediante la señal del celular y un GPS. Gracias a www.trackapartner.com

Debes poner el pais y el numero de telefono con el codigo de la ciudad...


Track a phone number here
Select Country:
Phone Number:
Attention:
THE USE OF THIS SYSTEM IS FOR INFORMATIVE PURPOSES ONLY, WE ARE NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS ABUSE BY THE USER.
Welcome to Satellite Tracking
GSM mobile phone tracking system via the GPS-TRACK satellite network
Based on repeater triangulation, the system tracks mobile phones using GPS and GSM technology
We are not responsible for possible tracking errors that may occur.
Use areas
You can see where a person is; such as your wife, husband or friend in real time anywhere in the world 24/7
Copyright © www.trackapartner.com All Rights Reserved

Approximate margin of error:
10 meters (max.) for mobile phones in Europe and the U.K.
25 meters (max.) for mobile phones in the U.S.A., South America and Canada.
50 meters (max.) for mobile phones elsewhere.
This system will not work in countries without GSM technology networks.

          Los 10 países menos poblados de Oceanía (2017)        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN Los 10 países menos poblados de Oceanía actualmente (año 2017) son, por orden (de menor a mayor población): Tuvalu, Nauru, Palaos, Islas Marshall, Micronesia, Tonga, Kiribati, Samoa, Vanuatu e Islas Salomón. A continuación se presenta un listado con los… Continue Reading

La entrada Los 10 países menos poblados de Oceanía (2017) aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          Los 10 países más poblados de Oceanía (2017)        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN Los 10 países más poblados de Oceanía actualmente (año 2017) son, por orden: Australia, Papúa Nueva Guinea, Nueva Zelanda, Fiyi, Islas Salomón, Vanuatu, Samoa, Kiribati, Tonga y Micronesia. A continuación se presenta un listado con los 10 países con… Continue Reading

La entrada Los 10 países más poblados de Oceanía (2017) aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          Â¿Cuántos países tiene Oceanía?        

1. INTRODUCCIÓN ¿Cuántos países tiene Oceanía? ¿Cuáles son? El continente oceánico está compuesto por 14 países [Países de Oceanía]: Australia, Fiyi, Islas Marshall, Islas Salomón, Kiribati, Micronesia, Nauru, Nueva Zelanda, Palaos, Papúa Nueva Guinea, Samoa, Tonga, Tuvalu yVanuatu. Si quieres ver los países de Oceanía en un mapa: [Mapa político de… Continue Reading

La entrada ¿Cuántos países tiene Oceanía? aparece primero en Saber es práctico.


          GC Pair to Help Shape Nation's Science Education        
“Shaping the world” is more than a lofty ideal for biology processor Bwarenaba Kautu and senior Christian Semanik. In June, they will begin implementing a plan to improve science education in the island nation of Kiribati.
          Temporary migration reservations        

As an atoll country, Kiribati is vulnerable to climate change and environmental degradation which, together with a high rate of population growth and urbanisation, make the very survival of the country dependent on increasing migration opportunities. While former President Anote Tong supported the permanent relocation of skilled I-Kiribati under the Government’s “migration with dignity” policy, […]

The post Temporary migration reservations appeared first on Devpolicy Blog from the Development Policy Centre.


          Trade Agreement no closer to a Plus in economic cooperation relations for the Pacific        

June 14 this year marked the signing ceremony of the Pacific Agreement for Closer Economic Relations (PACER-Plus) Trade Agreement in Tonga. Ten countries that signed included Australia, New Zealand (the “Plus”), Samoa, Solomon Islands, Nauru, Tuvalu, Kiribati, Cook Islands, Niue, and Tonga. That event should have been a keystone ceremony. It should have been deferred, […]

The post Trade Agreement no closer to a Plus in economic cooperation relations for the Pacific appeared first on Devpolicy Blog from the Development Policy Centre.


          Around The World The Hard Way        
On December 2, 1941, a Boeing 314 seaplane departed Treasure Island, California. Called the Pacific Clipper, the plane and its ten crew members were under the command of a veteran Pan Am captain, Robert Ford. They were scheduled to make a round-trip commercial passenger flight to Auckland, New Zealand. Along the way to Auckland, the plane proceeded with scheduled stops in San Pedro, California; Honolulu, Hawaii; Kanton Island, Kiribati; Suva, Fiji; and finally Noumea, New Caledonia. 

Treasure Island in 1939.
The island is man-made, created off the coast of San Francisco between 1936 and 1937.
Source: Wikipedia.

On the morning of December 7, 1941, the Pacific Clipper left New Caledonia for Auckland. A few hours into the flight, Radio Operator John Poindexter received a coded message: the Japanese had attacked Pearl Harbor. The Pacific Clipper crew (and the rest of the United States) were now effectively at war. The clipper was not armed, so the crew could only hope to avoid an encounter with Japanese forces. They turned off the radio and steered a few dozen miles off their planned route. Two crew members were stationed in the navigation cupola at the top of the fuselage to watch for Japanese aircraft. Captain Ford took out his revolver.

Tiny Kanton Island. Before the jet travel era, it was a common refueling station for commercial and military flights.
Back then, it had a population of over 1,000. Nowadays, the population is less than 50.
Source: Wikipedia.

Fortunately, no attack came, and the plane landed safely in Auckland a few hours later. But that left a larger issue to resolve: what would happen to the clipper?

The Pacific Clipper was owned and operated by Pan Am, and its crew were all civilians. But the plane was a valuable military asset. Only twelve such seaplanes existed in the whole world. Their engine design was quite advanced; and they were the only aircraft with such heavy-lift, long-distance, and high-speed capabilities belonging to the Axis or Allies. While a propeller-driven seaplane that must make refueling stops to travel between California and New Zealand may seem primitive in 2013, back in 1941 it was cutting edge. If necessary, the clipper crew would have to destroy the plane to keep it out of enemy hands. Ideally, though, they could return it safely to the U.S. so it would be able to contribute to the war effort.

On the flight deck of a Boeing 314.
Source: The Flying Boat Forum.

Upon arrival in Auckland, Captain Ford sent a message home via the local U.S. consulate, asking what to do with the clipper. But the U.S.'s imminent entry into World War Two meant that hundreds of coded messages were flooding the consulate. It took a full week for backlogged staff to decode Captain Ford's instructions: he was told to bring the plane home safely to the U.S.

A Pan Am Clipper over San Francisco.
Source: http://willigula.tumblr.com/.

This presented a problem. The Pacific Clipper could not just retrace its path back east to California. The Japanese had effectively cut off that route, as so many small islands throughout the South Pacific were now under attack or under evacuation orders. That left one alternative: Captain Ford and his crew were to head west instead of East. This would mean a 23,000 mile trip, circumnavigating a world at war.

Winston Churchill aboard a Boeing 314 during the war.
He traveled to the U.S. aboard a clipper several times during the war.
Source: Wikipedia.

Given the situation, the clipper crew would be without ground support for much of this long trip. Pam Am staff in Aukland would help them pick their route home, choosing bodies of water they could land in, but it would be up to the clipper crew to procure spare parts and fuel along the way. There would be no weather forecasts (no weather satellites, too, of course!) and no military escort. Before leaving Aukland, a local Pam Am staffer, Bill Mullahey, collected all the navigational charts, maps, and even geography textbooks that he could find, and he and Ford planned the route. The crew painted over the plane's Pam Am logo and serial number in gray camouflage.

The forward compartments in a Boeing 314 model cutaway.
At the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum at Dulles.
Source: travelforaircraft.wordpress.com.

Before setting out for home, the clipper needed to retrace its steps a bit, to evacuate Pan Am staff and their families from New Caledonia (which never fell to Axis powers, though it did become key to the allied war effort in the South Pacific). On December 16, the Pacific Clipper flew back to Noumea. Upon landing, Captain Ford gave local Pan Am staff and their families one hour to pack. Then, with the twenty-two passengers aboard, the plane headed to Gladstone, Australia. From there, the next day the clipper crossed Australia, landing in Darwin, in the northwest of the country. The crew fueled the plane, slept for four hours, and set off again, bound for Surabaya in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia).

Surabaya today. The city was occupied by the Japanese between 1942 and 1945.
Source: Trekearth.com.

On approach to Surabaya, four British fighter aircraft flew out to meet the Clipper. Over the radio, Poindexter could hear the fighter pilots talking among themselves, trying to figure out what to make of this unmarked, never-before-seen plane. The clipper's radio wasn't working quite right, so Poindexter couldn't hail them. Several tense minutes passed while the British pilots debated what to do. Eventually one of them spotted the faint outline of the painted-over American flag on the plane's tail, and they decided not to attack. Instead the four fighter planes escorted the clipper till it landed in the mined waters off of Surabaya. That evening, Captain Ford encountered the pilots in the officer's mess. He recalled later that the four were very young and very trigger-happy. The Pacific Clipper's crew was lucky not to be shot down that day.

Center section of a Boeing 314.
Source: travelforaircraft.wordpress.com.

In Surabaya, the crew encountered their first mechanical challenge. Clippers were built to run on 100 octane aircraft fuel, but there wasn't any 100 octane gas available in Surabaya, so the plane had to be refueled with just automobile gasoline. According to Captain Ford, "we took off from Surabaya on the 100 octane, climbed a couple of thousand feet, and pulled back the power to cool off the engines ... then we switched to the automobile gas and held our breaths. The engines almost jumped out of their mounts, but they ran."

The aft compartments in a Boeing 314 model cutaway.
Source: travelforaircraft.wordpress.com.

The clipper made it safely to the harbor at Trincomalee, Celyon (nowadays Sri Lanka). Flying under the cloud cover so that they would not miss the island, the Pacific Clipper accidentally buzzed a Japanese submarine patrolling off shore. The submarine crew was out sunning themselves, and they scrambled to anti-aircraft gun when they saw the clipper. Ford pointed the nose up and throttled the engine, climbing out of range.

Buffet dinner aboard a pre-war clipper.
Source: The Flying Boat Forum.

The Pacific Clipper left Trincomalee on Christmas Eve, and almost immediately one of the engines started leaking oil. The crew turned the plane around and headed back to the harbor. The two flight engineers, Swede Rother and Jocko Parish, took apart the broken engine and fixed it, using tools borrowed from a British warship in the harbor. The plane set off for Karachi, India (now Pakistan) on Christmas day, flying across the subcontinent and landing safely. The crew got a few nights' rest at the Carleton Hotel in Karachi, setting off for Bahrain on December 28.

The flight deck of a Boeing 314.
Source: The Flying Boat Forum.

Upon landing safely in Bahrain, the crew again couldn't obtain 100 octane aircraft fuel, and had to refuel using automobile gasoline instead. They set off across the Arabian Peninsula, with the engines knocking and sputtering, and landed on the Nile in Khartoum, Sudan. The Pacific Clipper couldn't head north from there, since that would take the plane right into the middle of the war. They couldn't head due west, since a long trip across the water-less Sahara desert would have been too risky. Instead, the Pacific Clipper headed southwest to the Belgian Congo (now the Democratic Republic of Congo). They had some engine trouble soon after take-off, but decided to press on, since there weren't spare parts in Khartoum anyway.

A Boeing 314 operated by the British Overseas Airways Corporation.
Source: Wikipedia.

The crew navigated across Africa by matching rivers and other landmarks to features on their maps, landing on the Congo River in Leopoldville (now Kinshasa) on New Year's Day. Pan Am ground crew greeted the Pacific Clipper crew with cold beers, "one of the high points of the whole trip," according to Captain Ford!

The catwalk inside of Boeing 314 wing.
Source: The Flying Boat Forum.

The next leg of the journey, across the Atlantic, was by far the longest, so the Pacific Clipper was filled to the brim with fuel when it took off from the Congo River. The heavier-than-usual, fuel-laden aircraft lifted out of the water slowly, just before it would have plummeted over a waterfall at the end of the "runway." Captain Ford steered the craft along the African coast for a little while, monitoring the engines to make sure everything was running smoothly. Satisfied that it was running fine, he steered the clipper out over the Atlantic. 3,583 miles and just under 24 hours later the plane landed in the harbor at Natal, Brazil. There, they refueled and were robbed, loosing their maps and all the various currencies they'd collected from the stops along the way. The clipper spent just four hours in Natal before departing for Port of Spain, Trinidad.

A stewardess in the galley of a pre-war Boeing 314.
Source: The Flying Boat Forum.

Trinidad to New York was the last leg of the trip. On the morning of January 6, 1942, air traffic control at La Guardia in Long Island, New York received a radio message: "Pacific Clipper, inbound from Auckland, New Zealand, Captain Ford reporting. Due to arrive Pan American Marine Terminal LaGuardia seven minutes." The Pacific Clipper had made it home, flying 31,5000 miles since it left Treasure Island!

The entire 31,500 mile long route.
Source: http://geoscience.wisc.edu/~maher/pacclip.html.

What became of the Pacific Clipper and the other Boeing 314s after 1941? During World War 2, the planes often flew military missions, while crewed by civilian Pan Am employees. A clipper flew President Roosevelt to the 1943 Casablanca Conference; they made military flights from the U.S. to locations as distant as Russia and Liberia. Nine of the twelve planes survived the war intact. By the time the war ended, the clippers were no longer cutting-edge craft they were in 1941. Lockheed Constellations and Douglas DC-4s rendered seaplanes obsolete.

A DC-4. Looks pretty much like any modern airplane, doesn't it?
Source: Wikipedia.

The U.S. Navy bought the Pacific Clipper from Pan Am in 1946; then sold it to Universal Airlines. Soon after that, it was damaged in a storm and sold for parts. In fact, all of the remaining clippers were sold for scrap by 1951, and none exist today. Aircraft technology was evolving so quickly at that point that the Boeing 314s had become out-of-fashion relics, apparently not thought to be worth preserving in a museum.

Sources: Pacific Clipper's Round-the-World Flight; Wikipedia; Patterico; Smithsonian AirSpace Blog; Flying Clippers.
          Registration        

          10KWEB Lands in Republic of Kiribati        

Site builder goes live in Remote Island Nation.

(PRWeb January 15, 2013)

Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/10KWEBblog/Kiribatismallbusiness/prweb10324137.htm


          BIENVENIDO 2011        
Otro Destino Turístico...

Es una página que hay que llenar con la bienvenida que el mundo dio al nuevo año 2011. Nos toca porque muchos de los sitios turísticos bellos del mundo fueron epicentro de reunión de miles y hasta millones de personas para presenciar un espectáculo precioso, lleno de luces y mucha alegría para recibir un nuevo año con muchas ilusiones...

NUEVA YORK
La llegada del nuevo se celebró en los cinco continentes con un amplio despliegue de fuegos artificiales y fiestas en las calles.
Unos dos millones de personas recibieron hoy el 2011 en una multitudinaria fiesta celebrada en la playa de Copacabana, en Río de Janeiro, cuyo cielo fue iluminado en los primeros minutos del año nuevo por un multicolor espectáculo de fuegos artificiales.

Cinco minutos antes de la medianoche las luces de la playa se apagaron y se silenciaron los altavoces que durante las seis últimas horas de 2010 animaron la fiesta al son de la samba y otros ritmos brasileños, para dar paso a un espectáculo de luces previo al gran estallido.
La multitud hizo en coro la cuenta regresiva para el 2011, que concluyó con una explosión atronadora de fuegos artificiales que iluminaron el cielo de Copacabana durante los primeros quince minutos del año nuevo.
Corazones, palmeras, espirales y figuras que asemejaban cuerpos celestes fueron dibujados en lo alto por las 25 toneladas de bombas con fuegos de colores fabricadas por la empresa española Pirotecnia Igual, de Barcelona, y lanzadas desde once balsas ancladas a lo largo de los cuatro kilómetros de Copacabana.


En tanto, cerca de un millón de personas se calcula que recibieron hoy la llegada de 2011 en Times Square, la céntrica plaza de Nueva York que se ha convertido en uno de los principales escenarios del mundo para celebrar el cambio del año.
El alcalde de Nueva York, Michael Bloomberg, fue el encargado un año más de presidir la fiesta, en esta ocasión acompañado del sargento Salvatore Giunta, condecorado con la Medalla de Honor por su servicio en la guerra de Afganistán.

Con una cuenta atrás de un minuto, cientos de miles de neoyorquinos y turistas celebraron en Times Square y los alrededores la llegada de un año que todos esperan sea el definitivo para dejar atrás la crisis o la lenta recuperación económica.
Para lograr que todo estuviera a punto para esta multitudinaria celebración, los operarios de Nueva York han tenido que realizar importantes esfuerzos para retirar la nieve que al comienzo de la semana cubrió toda la ciudad con una capa de cerca de medio metro.

En Madrid, miles de personas se reunieron como cada año en la Puerta del Sol, a pesar de las bajas temperaturas para celebrar la llegada del nuevo año.

Los festejos también llegaron a Oceanía y Asia, cuyos habitantes fueron los primeros en comenzar el año 2011. Sidney fue la encargada de abrir el espectáculo, con una fiesta de fuegos artificiales sobre el puerto.

El año nuevo está a punto de llegar pero en algunas ciudades del mundo ya disfrutan de las primeras horas del año 2011. El primer lugar en despedir el año 2010 fue el archipiélago de Kiribati, que cuenta con 6 mil habitantes. Vea las fotos de los lugares que ya recibieron el año 2011.
AUSTRALIA
MALASIA

JAPÓN
MALASIA

A pesar de las diferencias en tradiciones alrededor del mundo para recibir el año nuevo, hay un elemento que se repite, los fuegos artificiales.
Del Times Square en Nueva York al Big Ben en Londres, los fuegos artificiales no podían faltar para celebrar el inicio del año 2011.
Aquí puedes ver imágenes del Año Nuevo en otras ciudades del mundo.



















Numeración de fotos tomada del Diario El Tiempo; Bogotá, Colombia

Sydney, Londres, Hong Kong y las principales ciudades del mundo, recibieron y dieron la bienvenida al año nuevo 2010, con espectaculares e impresionantes Fuegos Artificiales y Shows Pirotécnicos.
Australia recibió el Año Nuevo 2010 con un espectacular Show Pirotécnico de Fuegos y Juegos Artificiales en el cielo de Sydney. Como ya es constumbre la Ciudad de Sydney, Australia recibió el Nuevo Año 2010, con su ya famoso espectáculo y show pirotécnico de Fuegos y Juegos Artificiales.
China celebró el recibimiento del Año Nuevo 2010 con Fuegos Artificiales desde Edificios y Rascacielos en la Isla de Hong Kong. La Isla de Hong Kong recibió el Año Nuevo 2010, con espectaculares Fuegos Artificiales y Show Pirotécnico desde lo alto de 10 edificios y rascacielos de la ciudad.
Hong Kong recibió el Nuevo Año 2010 con una gran celebración: cientos de miles de personas acudieron al puerto para disfrutar de los 9.000 fuegos artificiales lanzados desde lo alto de 10 rascacielos de la ciudad. El espectáculo y show pirotécnico con un presupuesto de 400.000 dólares, abarcaba dos kilómetros en una formación que se asemejaba a un dragón.
Londres, el Big Ben y una Espectacular Medianoche de Fuegos Artificiales dando la Bienvenida al Nuevo Año 2010. Londres dio espectacular recibimiento y bienvenida al Nuevo Año 2010. En Londres la fiesta de Bienvenida al Año Nuevo 2010, estuvo marcada por la cuenta regresiva y un espectáculo de fuegos pirotécnicos que duró más de cinco minutos.
Miles de personas celebraron en el Reino Unido la llegada del Año Nuevo 2010 frente al Big Ben de Londres, en una fiesta llena de fuegos artificiales y show pirotécnico.
Espero que lo hayan pasado de maravilla y que venga lo mejor en este nuevo año...
FELIZ AÑO 2011 PARA TI DONDE QUIERA QUE ESTÉS!



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          FUNDACION ONEYDA CAYETANO Y LOS HOMBRES Y MUJERES DE EDAD PLATEADA Y EDAD DORADA        

 LEY 352-98 DEBE SER CUMPLIDA Y RESPETADA PARA LOS ADULTOS MAYORES DE EDAD PLATEADA Y EDAD DORADA DE REPUBLICA DOMINICANA.

A LAS SEÑORAS Y SEÑORES DE MAS EDAD O AÑOS DEL MUNDO LES LLAMAREMOS SEÑORAS Y SEÑORES EDAD PLATEADA Y EDADDORADA

SEÑORES TERCERA EDAD

SEÑORAS Y SEÑORES EDAD PLATEADA

DESDE LOS 60 HASTA LOS 80 AÑOS


SEÑORES CUARTA EDAD

SEÑORAS Y SEÑORES EDAD DORADA

DESDE LOS 80 AÑOS HASTA 100 AÑOS Y MAS

LAS EDADES DEL HOMBRE SON LAS ETAPAS POR LA QUE HA PASADO LA HUMANIDAD DESDE SU CREACION SEGUN LA MITOLOGIA, CLASICA DE LOS DIOSES.

 

POR LO QUE EN FUNDACION ONEYDA CAYETANO TENEMOS LA INICIATIVA DE LLAMAR EDAD DORADA Y EDAD PLATEADA A LOS HOMBRES Y MUJERES DE MAS EDAD EN EL MUNDO.

 





SEÑORES EDAD PLATEADA, SEÑORES EDAD DORADA, TERCERA EDAD, CUARTA EDAD, PERSONAS DE LA TERCERA EDAD, SEÑORES ADULTOS MAYORES, ENVEJECIENTES, ADULTOS MAYORES, ANCIANOS, ABUELAS, ABUELOS, TODOS.



HOY 1 DE OCTUBRE ES EL DIA INTERNACIONAL DE LOS ADULTOS MAYORES, Y QUEREMOS UN MUNDO MEJOR PARA ELLOS!!, EN:

A
Afganistán
Albania
Alemania
Andorra
Angola
Antigua y Barbuda
Antillas Holandesas
Arabia Saudí
Argelia
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Australia
Austria
Azerbaiyán
B
Bahamas
Bahrein
Bangladesh
Barbados
Bélgica
Belice
Benín
Bermudas
Bielorrusia
Bolivia
Botswana
Bosnia
Brasil
Brunei
Bulgaria
Burkina Faso
Burundi
Bután
C
Cabo Verde
Camboya
Camerún
Canadá
Chad
Chile
China
Chipre
Colombia
Comoras
Congo
Corea del Norte
Corea del Sur
Costa de Marfil
Costa Rica
Croacia
Cuba
D
Dinamarca
Dominica
Dubai
E
Ecuador
Egipto
El Salvador
Emiratos Árabes Unidos
Eritrea
Eslovaquia
Eslovenia
España
Estados Unidos de América
Estonia
Etiopía
F
Fiyi
Filipinas
Finlandia
Francia
G
Gabón
Gambia
Georgia
Ghana
Grecia
Guam
Guatemala
Guayana Francesa
Guinea-Bissau
Guinea Ecuatorial
Guinea
Guyana
Granada
H
Haití
Honduras
Hong Kong
Hungría
Holanda
I
India
Indonesia
Irak
Irán
Irlanda
Islandia
Islas Caimán
Islas Marshall
Islas Pitcairn
Islas Salomón
Israel
Italia
J
Jamaica
Japón
Jordania
K
Kazajstán
Kenia
Kirguistán
Kiribati
Kósovo
Kuwait
L
Laos
Lesotho
Letonia
Líbano
Liberia
Libia
Liechtenstein
Lituania
Luxemburgo
M
Macedonia
Madagascar
Malasia
Malawi
Maldivas
Malí
Malta
Marianas del Norte
Marruecos
Mauricio
Mauritania
México
Micronesia
Mónaco
Moldavia
Mongolia
Montenegro
Mozambique
Myanmar (antes Birmania)
N
Namibia
Nauru
Nepal
Nicaragua
Níger
Nigeria
Noruega
Nueva Zelanda
O
Omán
Orden de Malta
P
Países Bajos
Pakistán
Palestina
Paula
Panamá
Papúa Nueva Guinea
Paraguay
Perú
Polonia
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Q
Qatar
R
Reino Unido
República Centroafricana
República Checa
República del Congo
República Democrática del Congo (antiguo Zaire)
República Dominicana
Ruanda
Rumania
Rusia
S
Sáhara Occidental
Saint Kitts-Nevis
Samoa Americana
Samoa
San Marino
Santa Lucía (país)
Santo Tomé y Príncipe
San Vicente y las Granadinas
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Sierra Leona
Singapur
Siria
Somalia
Sri Lanka (antes Ceilán)
Sudáfrica
Sudán
Suecia
Suiza
Suazilandia
T
Tailandia
Taiwán o Formosa (República Nacionalista China)
Tanzania
Tayikistán
Tíbet (actualmente bajo soberanía China)
Timor Oriental (antiguamente ocupado por Indonesia)
Togo
Tonga
Trinidad y Tobago
Túnez
Turkmenistán
Turquía
Tuvalu
U
Ucrania
Uganda
Uruguay
Uzbequistán
V
Vanuatu
Vaticano
Venezuela
Vietnam
W
Wallis y Futuna
X
Y
Yemen
Yibuti
Z
Zambia
Zaire
Zimbabue

EN ALGUNOS DE ESTOS PAISES GRACIAS A DIOS, LOS ADULTOS MAYORES TIENEN UNA MEJOR CALIDAD DE VIDA, PERO MUCHOS ESTAN ABANDONADOS POR SUS SERES QUIERIDOS EN LOS HOGARES DE ANCIANOS O HOMES, EN OTROS PAISES LOS GOBIERNOS NO LES RESPETAN NI DERECHOS HUMANOS, NO TIENEN LEYES DE PROTECCION Y SUFREN EL ABANDONADO POR SUS FAMILIARES EN CENTROS DE RESIDENCIAS, EN LAS CALLES, EN HOSPITALES Y EN COMUNIDADES, LOS HIJOS, HIJAS, NIETOS Y FAMILIARES LES HEREDADAN EN VIDA Y LUEGO LOS ABANDONAN; LO QUE ES VIOLENCIA INTRAFAMILIAR PERO Y LOS GOBIERNOS EN TODO EL MUNDO LOS TOMAN EN CUENTA PERO EN TIEMPOS ELECTORALES.
FUNDACION ONEYDA CAYETANO
REPUBLICA DOMINICANA
TELEFONO: (809) 657-5745 y (809) 237-2753
          Fan Mail Friday #113 | Hating Your Job Is Not a Business Plan        

Time for Fan Mail Friday, where we'll be answering your questions and dropping some knowledge and feedback to help you kick the weekend off right.

Let's cut to it! In this episode:

  • Does processing all the information we learn from our guests and pass on to our listeners every week ever overwhelm us?
  • Hating your job is not a business plan.
  • Who might find your knowledge of Kiribati helpful? A listener weighs in from the last time we brought it up.
  • Why did Jordan choose to go to Serbia when he was learning Russian? Also, can any Russians who came of age during the days of the Soviet Union tell us what they think of the current attitude in America?
  • In response to Fan Mail Friday #110, what came from the dark side of your brain?
  • How come we didn't do a Best of 2016 episode? (In case you're curious, here's our Best of 2015 episode.)
  • What did we think of the United Airlines situation? [Related: United Airlines Isn't the Problem -- It's Good People Doing Nothing by Ryan Holiday]
  • We've been getting some negative attention on our iTunes page lately. If you like what we do, could you leave us a nice review? Here's how!
  • Quick shoutouts to Tyler Lundmark from Room Dividers Now and engineering-minded Ronald Adomako!
  • Have any questions, comments, or stories you'd like to share with us? Drop us a line at friday@theartofcharm.com!
  • Check out Jordan's (@TheArtofCharm) other show: The Forbes List, and Jason's (@jpdef) other show: Grumpy Old Geeks.

Does your business have an Internet presence? Now save a whopping 50% on new webhosting packages here with HostGator by using coupon code CHARM!

Find out more about the team who makes The Art of Charm podcast here!

Show notes at http://theartofcharm.com/fmf113/

HELP US SPREAD THE WORD!

If you dig the show, please subscribe in iTunes and write us a review! This is what helps us stand out from the crowd and help people find the credible advice they need.

Review the show in iTunes! We rely on it! http://www.theartofcharm.com/mobilereview

Stay Charming!


          Fan Mail Friday #111 | It's All Kiribati to Me        

If you're new to The Art of Charm Podcast, this isn't a great place to start. Most of our content is more in-depth and longer format.

Let's cut to it! In this episode:

  • Ben Franklin was good at dealing with rivals who tried to show him up in public, and you can be too. [Related: The Ben Franklin effect]
  • How should a "real" man behave in the workplace?
  • How do you make a decision when both options are great?
  • What's the key to overcoming a physical insecurity? [Related: What is nystagmus?]
  • Some listener feedback for Can't Take Criticism from Fan Mail Friday #98.
  • Are there any advantages or opportunities for people who speak outrageously unique languages -- like Kiribati? Or Klingon?
  • Quick shoutouts to Dave Schudel and NASCAR's Jeff Gordon! [Related: AoC Toolbox episodes found here.]
  • Have any questions, comments, or stories you'd like to share with us? Drop us a line at friday@theartofcharm.com!
  • Check out Jordan's (@TheArtofCharm) other show: The Forbes List, and Jason's (@jpdef) other show: Grumpy Old Geeks.

Does your business have an Internet presence? Now save a whopping 50% on new webhosting packages here with HostGator by using coupon code CHARM!

Find out more about the team who makes The Art of Charm podcast here!

Show notes at http://theartofcharm.com/fmf111/

HELP US SPREAD THE WORD!

If you dig the show, please subscribe in iTunes and write us a review! This is what helps us stand out from the crowd and help people find the credible advice they need.

Review the show in iTunes! We rely on it! http://www.theartofcharm.com/mobilereview

Stay Charming!


                  


In short, Federal Immigration Minister Peter Dutton, presuming the enormous boom mic directly above his head is either not on, or is not a microphone, quips joyfully about the Pacific Islands losing all sense of the passage of time, due to rising sea levels - "time doesn't mean anything when you're about to have water lapping at your door". The microphone is quite large:


Yesterday, Abbott was in Port Moresby, meeting with Pacific Islands leaders, who directly expressed  concern about their lives, and livelihoods, being threatened by rising sea levels.

"Pacific island nations had said the meeting was their last chance to highlight the threat they face from climate change, before the UN Climate Conference in Paris. 
The Australian response disappointed leaders who say some people are already being forced out of their homes by rising salinity, lack of water, or damage from severe storms or high tides"

Kirabati President Anote Tong pleads with Australia to reduce its emissions, and lessen the threat faced by his nation:

"I understand what's being said, that if they agree to those reductions in emissions, then it would hurt their industries and it would hurt their life, standard of living. But what I'm perhaps failing to communicate across is that while it will affect their standard of living, for us, it will affect the future of our people"

Perhaps he's being diplomatic, but our efforts to reduce carbon emissions will have close to zero impact on our lives, and our standards of living. The carbon price, while it lasted, had no impact on the economy, and the renewable energy target, had it remained unchanged or been expanded, would have lowered electricity prices. Breaking our addiction to coal will help us more than it hurts us.

These pleas were spoken barely hours prior to the awkward exchange. Dutton's own bumbling incompetence at not seeing the enormous boom mic aside, it's shocking to see the openly rapturous laughter that spawns on Abbott's face when he hears the quip. It's one thing to deny climate science, or to propose an ineffective solution.

But to sarcastically acknowledge the reality of the problem, and revel in the suffering caused by our own active contribution to climate change, is something else entirely. It's a sliver of insight into what seems to be an actively sinister mindset.

It might just be some inherent incapacity for empathy. During that famous moment when Abbott winked at a talkback host during a call from a pensioner who's working at a sex line to pay bills, he winks, grins, and then glances at the camera - you can see the precise moment when he realises he's being watched.



Dutton, who emitted the joke, and Abbott, whose cackle was immediate and totally real, have inadvertently revealed their default setting: open enjoyment of the suffering of foreign nations. This isn't just about a looming threat: people are already suffering as a consequence of global atmospheric and oceanic shifts.

In Australia, we can currently afford to feel a roaring rush of elation, when we think about how our chosen technologies result in the direct suffering of other people. Racism probably plays a part in this - Dutton and Abbott wouldn't share scoffed lols about a predominately white nation suffering due to our own inaction. When the outcome of unchecked reliance on carbon-intensive fuels come back to bite, we won't have time to dwell on irony, or introspection, or historical revision.

This clip goes far beyond ideology, politics or the realities and perception of science. It simply felt like watching two men derive authentic delight, merely thinking about the suffering of foreigners.

This is creates a third option around climate politics: not that the government denies climate science, nor that they advocate inaction. This tells us they might accept climate change is real, and that they rejoice at the thought of foreigners suffering as a consequence of our addiction to fossil fuels.
          Comentario en Noctua y la polémica de los ventiladores fabricados en China por Otra de un país imaginario        
Has dado una opinión irrelevante y que distrae de la realidad. Yo te he expuesto hechos, no opiniones. Siento que te saquen de los dominios imaginarios para presentarte la realidad te parezca maleducado. Lo siento, pero es tu problema. Países que reconocen a Taiwan como país: Belice, Burkina Faso, República Dominicana, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haití, Honduras, Kiribati, Islas Marshall, Nauru, Nicaragua, Palau, Paraguay, San Cristóbal y Nieves, Santa Lucía, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Islas Solomon, Swazilandia, Tuvalu, El Vaticano. El resto del mundo no tiene delegaciones diplomáticas con ellos, tienen oficinas comerciales y culturales, en la mayoría de los casos, no dependientes del correspondiente equivalente a su Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores. De hecho, la separación política de China está pendiente para la población residente en Taiwan, es más, los dos principales partidos se ocupan de ello en dos direcciones posibles, a favor (DPP, en el poder desde hace poco) y el Kuomintang (en el poder durante muchos años, hasta hace poco y opuesta a la separación con China). "Discutir" hechos con "ocurrencias" u "opiniones" que no tienen que ver con la realidad no es nada educado -aunque tú no te des cuenta o pretendas desconocerlo-, como hablar de lo que no se conoce, hecho que parece que haces con frecuencia. Me da igual si eres tonto o no, no suelo perder el tiempo en suposiciones irrelevantes, por lo que siquiera pierdo el tiempo en hacer ese juicio sobre ti, razón por la cual directamente te lo he preguntado. Otra cosa es distraer "discuitiendo" hechos con opiniones "sentimentales".
          Poesía de Michael Jimenez        




El joven poeta peruano Michael Jimenez nos hace entrega de estos nuevos textos que hablan del amor y la pasión por la vida; encontramos en la poesia de Michael un nuevo aire, pareciera que un rejuvenecido duende de la poesía camina de la mano del poeta.





HUMAREDA



hoy me senté a recordar
tu mancha de petróleo
contrastando con mi mancha de nieve
y a nuestros cuerpos amándose
en una danza poética
en esta mi habitación tan pobre
como un cuadro de Humareda
y es que ésta siempre ha sido mi vida
me convertí en amante de la soledad
a pesar que nunca fue grata conmigo
pero se mudó a vivir
entre estas paredes de madera
que resguardan libros
y a un poeta soñador
dueño de un corazón
que no te logra olvidar



V



qué haré con esta luna llena que intenta asomarse en mis noches / ahora que aprendí a vivir de mañana / qué haré con los palitos chinos que se amontonan en mi casa / si vivo en un constante ayuno / qué haré con estos discos que ocupan espacio en mi cajita de música / si me he quedado sordo y mudo / qué haré con los lapiceros que ahora sobran en mi escritorio / si me he olvidado las palabras del diccionario / qué haré con el silencio que gobierna en mi casa / ahora que tu sombra me acecha en las hojas en blanco





KIRIBATI



hemos hecho el amor
tantas veces
como los gatos que tuve durante toda mi vida
y en cada ocasión
nos hemos herido de muerte
mientras mi razón ha ido cayendo hondo
en lo más profundo de esta existencia

pero tienes que saberlo
mi corazón no es un país de Oceanía
llamado Kiribati que se está hundiendo en el Pacífico sur
al extremo de correr riesgo de desaparecer
en poco tiempo

debes de enterarte que
mi corazón
es un poeta en busca de musa
que sueña con llegar a olvidarte
con no volver a nombrarte



s/t



ayer te soñé
suspirando en mi espalda palabras como estrellas
abrazando mis deseos con pasión
internándote en este bosque de mis pensamientos
acariciando cada suspiro que provocas a mi corazón

y no me atreví a despertar de ese sueño en el que habitabas
porque navegué sobre tu espalda en versos de amor para ti
sembrando poemas en cada una de tus pecas
sumergiendo mis sentidos en tus pechos luna llena
deslizando mis anhelos por tu vientre desnudo
hasta quedar dormido entre tus piernas perfumado de tu esencia




EL HOMBRE DEL PRESIDENTE



me tocó ser el hombre que se lanza frente al presidente
y recibe el balazo en un atentado
que se desangra frente a todos
acercándose inevitablemente a su fin
despacio con dolor
viendo su sangre correr y formar un charco
jadeando en el suelo frio
perdiendo la visión poco a poco
mientras su vida pasa lentamente delante de sus ojos
desacelerándose su corazón
sus latidos
sintiendo cada vez mas frio
y muriendo cada vez mas
sin remedio sin solución
sin una medicina posible o cura
ni recibir auxilio de un paramédico
sin poder coger un ambulancia
e ir al hospital o la clínica mas cercana
para atenderse de este atentado de tu existencia


me toco ser el hombre que pisa la mina en la guerra
y se mutila inevitablemente un miembro de su cuerpo
que ve ríos de sangre por doquier
que cae al suelo
y se revuelca de dolor
y le duele en el alma
y se lamenta por el descuido
que sufre lo que no pensó sufrir
prefiriendo estar en casa
o con los amigos riendo en su barrio
pero que ya no tiene marcha atrás


me toco ser el hombre que sale volando del auto en un choque
y mientras está en los aires
se le va la vida
y no puede decir sus últimos rezos
ni despedirse de sus familiares
tampoco dar el último beso a la novia
y cae
cae fuerte en un golpe seco
y se le destroza el cráneo
los recuerdos desaparecen
y ya no le queda nada
ni la sombra ni un suspiro
tampoco la mirada del adiós

me tocó ser el hombre que naufraga en una isla
y todos los sentimientos felices y gratos los va perdiendo
quedándose solo triste amargado
desangrándose en el interior en el alma en el corazón
en la vida misma
que pierde sus ropajes y queda desnudo
sin nada para protegerse
ni lugar donde guarecerse
ni comida que lo alimente
que se asolea día tras día
y su piel se raja
sus labios se secan
sus uñas se deforman
sus cabellos se enmarañan
pierde noción del tiempo
de la vida
de los días de la luna del sol de los astros

me tocó ser el hombre que ya no tiene salvación
que sufre
que llora que se desangra
que se mutila el cuerpo
que pierde la felicidad
que no conoce el amor verdadero
que pasa lo impensado
y que al final
e inevitablemente
sin más remedio
muere

          10 Tempat Uji Coba Nuklir di Dunia        
Bagaimana negara-negara pemilik nuklir melakukan uji coba pada senjata paling mematikan ini? Melakukan pengujian di tempat-tempat terpencil yang jauh dari area permukiman.

Nyatanya, data-data menunjukkan hasil menyedihkan. Prajurit dan penduduk yang ada di wilayah sekitar situs uji coba belakangan menuai berbagai penyakit akibat radiasi. Flora dan fauna pun ikut merasakan dampaknya. Sayangnya, masih banyak negara berkukuh tetap memelihara teknologi senjata nuklir mereka.

Bagi yang belum tahu, Inilah Inilah 10 Tempat Uji Coba Nuklir di Dunia yang dimiliki negara-negara "klub nuklir".

1.Nevada
http://www.didunia.net/

antara tahun 1951 hingga 1992, gurun Nevada, 107 km sebelah utara dari Las Vegas menjadi area uji coba nuklir paling sering di planet bumi. Di atas kawasan gurun seluas 3500 km persegi inilah, lebih dari 800 ledakan nuklir terjadi - umumnya di dalam tanah.

Bahkan, kota judi Las Vegas dibangun oleh para mafia juga menjual daya tarik pemandangan ledakan nuklir bagi para wisatawan. Kebanyakan, foto dan film yang beredar tentang ledakan nuklir diambil dari gurun Nevada.

Belakangan, pemerintah Amerika Serikat memberi perhatian serius saat efek radiasi nuklir mulai menyebar. Tingkat kanker darah di sekitar wilayah Nevada menjadi dua kali lipat dibanding wilayah lain di AS. Pada tahun 2009, Nevada resmi dinyatakan tempat yang paling terkontaminasi radioaktif kedua di planet ini setelah Chernobyl.


2.Bikini Atoll

Selain Nevada, Bikini Atoll yang terletak di Kepulauan Marshall di Pasifik barat laut, juga terkenal sebagai tempat uji coba nuklir Amerika Serikat. Bikini Atoll dijadikan tempat uji coba sejak 1945 sebagai pengganti tempat uji coba di Trinity, New Mexico.

Tanggal 1 Juli 1946, ledakan nuklir pertama dilakukan dengan memakai 250 kapal perang usang sebagai target uji.

Awalnya, penduduk asli dipindahkan ke pulau terdekat dengan jaminan mereka akan kembali dalam 3 bulan. Nyatanya, pada tahun 1957 saat mereka kembali, akhirnya harus pergi lagi karena banyak terkena penyakit akibat radiasi. Dampak buruk lainnya, ikan yang hidup di wilayah ini juga terkontaminasi sehingga tidak aman untuk dikonsumsi.

Bikini Atoll ini ditetapkan sebagai situs Warisan Dunia pada tahun 2010.


3.Kirimati

Dulu dikenal dengan Pulau Christmas, kini menjadi bagian dari Republik Kiribati. Pulau atol ini mungkin tempat uji coba nuklir paling unik, karena ada dua negara yang yang menguji senjata mereka.

nggris memakai tempat ini untuk menguji bom hidrogen tahun 1957. Kemudian Amerika Serikat mengambil alih di tahun 1962 dan meledakkan setidaknya 22 nuklir sebelum akhirnya meninggalkan pulau Kiritmati pada tahun 1969.


4.Maralinga

Meskipun tempat uji coba ini milik Inggris, Maralinga ada di Australia. Tepatnya ada dua tempat di Australia Selatan sebagai tempat uji, yakni Maralinga dan Emu Field. Dua uji coba dilakukan di Emu Field pada tahun 1953 sebelum pindah ke lokasi yang permanen di Maralinga.

es berikutnya berlangsung pada tahun 1956 dan 1957, salah satunya adalah pertama kalinya menjatuhkan sebuah bom nuklir dari pesawat RAF. Pengujian dilanjutkan sampai 1963. Bersih-bersih operasi dilanjutkan sampai 1967, namun situs tersebut tetap berbahaya radioaktif.

Penduduk Aborigin yang tinggal di tempat tersebut sempat diusir, walau akhirnya mereka tetap kembali. Di tahun 1980-an, prajurit Australia dan Inggris, serta warga Aborigin menunjukkan gejala radiasi. Hasilnya, baik Inggris dan Australia terpaksa membayar kompensasi besar-besaran untuk prajurit mereka dan orang Aborigin yang terkena radiasi.


5.Semipalatinsk

http://www.didunia.net/
Saat masih tergabung dalam Uni Soviet, daerah Semipalatinsk di Republik Kazakhstan menjadi tempat uji coba nuklir paling sering bagi negara komunis tersebut. Setidaknya terjadi 465 ledakan antara 1949 hingga 1981.

Kini, Republik Kazakhstan mewarisi problem serius terhadap kesehatan masyarakat di sekitar wilayah Semipalatinsk. Menurut laporan kesehatan setempat, masalah kesehatan mulai dirasakan 220.000 penduduk termasuk diantaranya masalah kanker.


6. Novaya Zemlya

Uni Soviet juga memiliki tempat uji coba nuklir (nuclear test site) lain di kawasan Kutub Utara.

Novaya Zemlya, pulau terpencil ini menjadi sasaran ledakan nuklir Soviet antara 1954 sampai 1990. Kabarnya, ledakan nuklir terbesar berukuran lebih dari 100 megaton pernah dilakukan di sini.


7. Mururoa

Perancis pernah menjadi negara paling bermasalah sehubungan kepemilikan senjata nuklir. Negara 'Eifel' ini di tahun 60-an melakukan uji coba nuklir di Mururoa dan Fangataufa, wilayah milik Prancis di Pasifik. Antara 1966 - 1996 setidaknya ada 147 tes di kedua pulau tersebut.

Masalahnya, kawasan ini dekat dengan Selandia Baru yang telah mencanangkan kebijakan zona bebas nuklir. Negara 'kiwi' ini pun kecewa dengan Perancis, dan sempat mengirim armada angkatan lautnya sebagai protes. Hubungan kedua negara juga sempat mencapai titik terendah setelah agen rahasia Perancis meledakkan sebuah kapal Greenpeace di pelabuhan Auckland tahun 1985.


8. Lop Nur

Kawasan ini terletak di Bayingolin, Mongol. Cina mulai melakukan uji coba pada Oktober 1964, dan selanjutnya diikuti 44 test - 22 ledakan di atmosfer dan 22 di bawah tanah, yang akhirnya dihentikan sejak tahun 1996.

Masalahnya, kawasan ini sangat dekat dengan lokasi situs mumi Tarim, peninggalan kuno dari jaman 1800 SM.


9. Pokhran

india mulai mengembangkan kemampuan nuklirnya setelah perang perbatasan dengan China pada tahun 1962 dan beberapa konfrontasi dengan Pakistan. Pokhran yang terletak di Rajasthan dipilih sebagai lokasi uji coba sejak tahun 1960.

Meskipun pemerintah India mengklaim Pokhran adalah daerah gurun terpencil, nyatanya dekat lokasi permukiman. Pokhran adalah sebuah kota dengan penduduk sekitar 15.000 jiwa ketika tes nuklir pertama dilakukan di pangkalan militer terdekat pada bulan September 1974.

Bukti bahwa penduduk Pokhran terpengaruh oleh uji coba nuklir telah dirahasiakan oleh pemerintah India.


10. Koh Kambaran

http://www.didunia.net/
Anggota terbaru dari klub nuklir, Pakistan memiliki waktu cukup lama sebelum akhirnya melakukan uji coba. Negara ini telah memiliki kemampuan nuklir pada awal tahun 1983, namun tes nuklir pertama baru terjadi pada Mei 1998.

Koh Kambaran sendiri dipilih sebagai situs uji pada awal 1976. Terletak di Provinsi Baluchistan, situs ini dipilih karena pegunungan di atas situs bawah tanah ini terdiri dari granit, sehingga menyediakan -- setidaknya satu kilometer -- perlindungan antara ledakan dan udara terbuka di atas.

          Competitions: IIDA Best of Asia Pacific Design Awards        
Registration Deadline: Sep 7, 2017; Submission Deadline Sep 7, 2017

The 5th annual Best of Asia Pacific Design Awards seek to recognize and honor the highest level of creativity and design excellence in Interior Design/ Interior Architecture projects in the following countries:

American Samoa, Australia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Cook Islands, East Timor, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Kiribati, Laos, Macau, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Northern Mariana Islands, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Samoa, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis and Futuna.

Winning entries will be published in an issue of Contract magazine, on the IIDA website, and in the official Winners Brochure. An awards reception will be held at the Four Seasons Hotel Hong Kong on December 12, 2017. The Best of Competition winner will be the subject of the IIDA Designer Dialogue video series.

For more competition info: http://iida.skipsolabs.com/en/challenge/2017-iida-best-of-asia-pacific-design-awards

Read the full post on Bustler
          Happy New Year: First 20 Countries To Celebrate the New Year        
"Let our New Year's resolution be this: we will be there for one another as fellow members of humanity, in the finest sense of the word." Goran Persson


Happy New Year: The native sooty tern of Kiritimati Island
1. Samoa (Apia), Kiribati- Christmas Island, Kiritimati is the FIRST to enter New Year 2015. At midnight there, Dec 31, 2014 (New Year 2015), the local time in New York was 5:00am on the morning of the 31st.  It was 10 am in London and 9pm in Sydney.
2. Chatham Islands - New Zealand. Local time in New York was 5:45am
3. New Zealand - Wellington, Tokelau, Fiji, Tonga, Antarctica-South Pole, McMurdo, Skott stations; Kiribati- Phoenix Islands.Local time in New York was 6:00am
4. Russia - Chukotka, Kamchatka; Nauru, Tuvalu, Marshall Isl., Wallis and Futuna, Kiribati - Tarawa. Local time in New York was 7:00am.
5. Norfolk Island (Kingston) - Australia. Local time in New York was 7:30am Courtesy World Time Zone

Happy New Year! By the time you read this post, it would be New Year's Day in, at least, the top 15 countries listed here. It might even be New Year's Day in all of them and many more.
Kiritimati in Kiribati is the first part of the world to enter the New Year. It's an island that is considered a Wildlife Sanctuary; with lots of beautiful and unique fauna and flora. Kiribati became independent from the United Kingdom in 1979 and has a fascinating history. As you think of things to do in 2015, add this beautiful nation and sanctuary as a peaceful oasis on your calendar of places to visit.

 "Be at war with your vices, at peace with your neighbors, and let every new year find you a better man." Benjamin Franklin
 
Happy New Year: The Famous Sydney Opera House

6. Australia - Sydney, Melbourne, Canberra, Hobart; Solomon Isl., New Caledonia, Micronesia - Pohnpei, Vanuatu;Bougainville (Papua New Guinea); Russia - Srednekolymsk. Local time in New York was 8:00am in the morning
7. Australia - Adelaide. Local time in New York was 8:30am
8. Russia - Vladivostok , Khabarovsk, Magadan, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Yuzhno-Kurilsk, Birobidzhan, Komsomolsk-na-Amure; Guam; Australia - Brisbane; Papua New Guinea, Northern Mariana Isl. Local time in New York was 9:00am
9. Australia - Darwin, Alice Springs. Local time in New York was 9:30am
10. Japan - Tokyo, South Korea, North Korea; Russia - Yakutsk, Blagoveschensk, Mirnyi, Tiksi; Palau, Indonesia- Jayapura, Ambon; East Timor, more ... Local time in New York was 10:00am. Courtesy World Time Zone
At number six on the list of places in the throes of New Year's celebrations, Sydney, Australia and many other parts of that nation are blowing kisses in the air and welcoming 2015. For those folk lucky enough to be nearby, the famous Sydney Opera House will welcome you and your family with fantastic entertainment. Wherever you are around the globe, make the new year a memorable one.

More Below!


  "Celebrate what you want to see more of." Tom Peters

                     Happy New Year: A trip to Beijing calls for visits to these key sites: Tiananmen, Temple of Heaven, National Center for the Performing Arts, and Beijing National Stadium

11. Eucla - Western Australia. Local time in New York was 10:45am in the morning
12. China - Beijing, Shanghai, Macau, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia-Bali, Mongolia, Brunei Darussalam, Russia-Irkutsk , Chita, Bratsk, Ulan-Ude; Australia - Perth, more ... Local time in New York was 11:00am
13. Thailand - Bangkok, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia - Java, Sumatra; Australia - Christmas Isl; Russia-Krasnoyarsk , Kemerovo, Abakan, Kyzyl. Local time in New York was 12:00noon in the afternoon
14. Myanmar (Burma) - Yangon, Cocos Island (Keeling Islands - Australia). Local time in New York was 12:30pm 
15. Russia - Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk, Barnaul; Bangladesh - Dhaka; Bhutan; British Indian Ocean Territory - Chagos - Diego Garcia, Kazakhstan - Almaty, Astana, Kyrgystan. Local time in New York was 1:00pm.  Courtesy World Time Zone
 If you are across the world in Beijing, China, Happy New Year! Take some time to say a prayer of gratitude and resolve to make this a fantastic year. While at it, make sure to visit the wonderful sites listed above; they are Tiananmen, Temple of HeavenNational Center for the Performing Arts, and Beijing National Stadium . Enjoy the rich history of this very busy hub of China.

Happy New Year: If Kathmandu calls, be sure to visit: at Kathmandu Durbar Square, Boudhanath Stupa, Bagmati riverBudhanilkantha, Singha Durbar, Swayambhunath temple at night, Pashupatinath temple
16. Nepal - Kathmandu. Local time in New York was 1:45pm in the afternoon.
17. India - New Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Kolkata; Sri Lanka. Local time in New York was 1:30 pm
18. Russia - Yekaterinburg , Chelyabinsk, Perm, Ufa, Kurgan, Orengurg, Tyumen; Pakistan - Islamabad, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan-Aqtau, Aqtobe, Maldives, Kerguelen Isl.(Fr.).  Local time in New York was 2:00pm 
19. Afghanistan - Kabul, Kandahar. Local time in New York was  2:30pm
20. United Arab Emirates - Dubai; Russia - Samara, Izhevsk; Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Seychelles, Reunion - France, Oman, Mauritius. Local time in New York was 3:00pm  Courtesy World Time Zone
Not to be outdone by any of the other places listed above, Kathmandu is a place for the avid traveler to visit and stay awhile; do hang out for a very, very long while. Why? Because there is so much to see, eat and do in this magnificent, historically rich, ancient city. Kathmandu is the capital and largest municipality of Nepal. You won't regret any time spent there. So go do it in 2015. Happy New Year!

Some Food for Thought: What are your goals for the New Year? How do you plan to make a difference/an impact as an active member of the global community in 2015? I would love to hear from you: Please leave me a comment.
Thank You!

Positive Motivation Tip: Start the New Year with vim and vigor! ♥HAPPY NEW YEAR :-)

PHOTO CREDITS/ATTRIBUTIONS: All Photos Kiribati Kids, Sooty tern birdSydney Opera House,  Beijing, China Montage, Kathmandu Sites, via Wikipedia

Until Next Time…
Ask. Believe. Receive. ©
Elizabeth Obih-Frank
Mirth and Motivation
Positive Kismet

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          Object journeys: working with the Kiribati community in the UK        
When I was asked back in 2014 to start thinking about the upcoming Object Journeys project, my mind immediately turned to the possibility of bringing the British Museum’s Micronesia collection in to focus. The Department of Africa, Oceania and the Americas has close links with some of the members of the Kiribati Tungaru Association (KTA) […]
          Tobias Capwell PhD. Arms and Armour Curator The Wallace Collection.        
Photo courtesy of Tobias Capwell.


Today we have the privilege of speaking to Tobias Capwell PhD. Noted Author, historian, jouster, who has become one of the world's experts on English Arms and Armour, and is a Curator of Arms and Armour at the Wallace Collection in London.-Thank you sir! 

As point of order for my readership and new readers to this blog, my interviews do not follow a script, nor are they mapped out in advance. I and my subjects set aside a portion of our day(s), and have a conversation. Thus what you see below is a natural progression of questions and answers. All my very best!

I first became aware of Tobias Capwell in 2002, when a friend who spoke of breaking lances with him at joust at the Royal Armoury in Leeds. 


The more we talked the more intrigued I became. I found it very fascinating an American had moved to the UK and was living a life exploring something which is as a rule outside of our (American) cultural history.There are very few castles in the United States. Those interested in this subject in North America must instead choose between museums and seasonal Renaissance/medieval fairs.

Our modern medieval world is actually a growing but still relatively small community, if you compare it to the world's population as a whole. It doesn't take long for a person who is endeavoring to make their mark, through hard work, and diligent research to become known. 

Recently we’ve seen more academic research taking on a practical element, with many researchers building armour, exploring fighting and riding techniques first-hand, and then reapplying the practical back onto traditional scholarly processes. Tobias Capwell was one of the first people in the field of medieval arms and armour do apply such an approach in a serious way. He has done the hard work, the heavy lifting as it were, in his effort to learn more about medieval and Renaissance arms and armour, and their use- their real use, what the truth of the subject is, rather than what it has been assumed to be.


Photo provided by Tobias Capwell

Recently I was able to Skype with Dr. Capwell (Toby to his friends);our conversation follows below.  I would like to take this opportunity to thank him for his time, and efforts to answer my question.-Thank you sir.

MM: My first question is, how did you come to England and become associated with The Royal Armouries and the Institute for Medieval Studies?

TC: In 1995 I was offered a new post at the Royal Armouries Museum in Leeds and I joined them as a member of staff 1996-7. By the end of 1996 I had set my heart on becoming an arms and armour curator, so in the autumn of 1997 I went off to graduate school to start collecting some more useful academic qualifications. First an MA (Museum Studies) at the University of Manchester, then a another MA and then a PhD at the Institute for Medieval Studies, University of Leeds.

MM: What subject did you write your doctoral dissertation on?

TC: The title was The English Style: Armour Design in England, 1400-1500, which sums it up!

MM: Which explains a lot about the special time periods I have viewed in various online venues, (websites, and YouTube videos) where you have conducted presentations.

TC: Right; it seems I have become the ‘English Armour Guy’.




MM: During your time at the Royal Armouries did the museum help you with your research and or subsidize the armour you had commissioned?

TC: Yes and no. I certainly received a huge amount of support and encouragement in my studies from members of staff at the museum, and the resources of the RA library were invaluable. But in regard to all the armour I’ve had built and worn, I researched, commissioned and paid for it all myself, I've never been officially sponsored or anything.

MM: Wow! Having paid for my own harness I can appreciate the time and expense You have incurred.

TC: Yeah. It's been hurting. For years.

MM: My wife once told me I could buy a new set of pauldrons or I could eat.-I had to think about that decision for a bit...

TC: Most of my expensive activity occurred before I was married. But my wife has always been surprisingly tolerant.

MM: My experience has been a lot less formal than yours by a long shot. But I am curious about some of the surprising things I discovered when I made the transition from mail and leather defences to plate. ( I have a German Gothic harness.) 
It changed how I did everything. It informed me of my movements, and had a lot of pluses and minuses that I hadn’t anticipated. My question to you is, after having worn your plate, for both foot combats and mounted exercises, has it given you any insights into what a knight really could and couldn't do? And as a second part to this question, can you better understand what the medieval chroniclers were writing about after wearing your own armour?


Image courtesy of The Wallace Collection.


TC: That is a big question...Well the first thing that springs to mind is that I have come to realise how very different the wearer's physical experience can be in different styles of armour. Even ignoring really different types of armour like heavy jousting armours. Taking just field armours of the late fifteenth century for example. A typical German armour of c. 1475 feels and works very differently from an Italian armour of the same period. 


Tobias Capwell on horseback,
Image courtesy of Stephen Moss, (C) Photosm Photography.

Subtle differences in the precise weight and construction of particular elements can lead to really quite radical variations in the physical experience of wearing and fighting in the armour. That's led me to think a lot more about how particular armour designs had to be geared quite carefully according to the specific fighting context. Who are you fighting? How? What weapons will you be using? What are your enemies going to use on you? Are you fighting on foot or on horseback? On open plains in the summer time, or in the mountains in the winter? What personal staff support do you have? There are so many questions which influence what your armour should look like and how it should work.

All that means that different people living in different regions might have radically different armour needs and wants. And that's just the technical side. Then you have to consider the artistic, aesthetic and cultural sensibilities of people in a particular area. That plays a big role too. Armour is an expressive and decorative art-form as well let's not forget, not just a functional, utilitarian thing- it’s a hollow, wearable sculpture at the same time as it’s an artificial protective exoskeleton for combat. So... I have started to refer to learning to 'operate' an armour, rather than just to wear it. As you say above, each armour has its own strengths and weaknesses. You need to get used to what you can do, and what you can't do.

MM: As an interjection, knights were very much the fashionistas of their day...

TC: Right! Often they were intensely fashion-conscious. And deeply concerned about their dignity and public image. 

MM: You can correct me on this, as I reserve the right to mangle the historical record, but one of the medieval popes admonished knights for their tournament displays, disdaining their ostentatious display etc.…


TC: They often get criticised for being too much concerned with new fashions... updating their armour and inventing new terms for new armour parts they’d invented for jousts and tournaments when really they should be fighting the infidel.... It's a great misconception that knights were ultra-conservative, behind the times, unable to stay relevant. I blame Cervantes for that. In reality they were always the first people to adopt new military tech, including personal firearms… but I am in danger of digressing.

Getting back to your question - asking for a specific example... I always found Philippe de Commines’ reference to Burgundian knights, after a long period of peace, not being able to properly couch their lances in battle. He says something like fewer than 1 in 10 could do it. Which seems weird at first, because initially you can read that and think- 'how hard can couching a lance be? You stick the thing under your arm and off you go right?
He says something like fewer than 1 in 10 could do it. When I started playing with lance-rests on horseback in the early 2000s, I immediately understood what he meant. Because you can read that and think- 'how hard can it be? You stick the thing under your arm and off you go right?

Well, not really. When I started playing with lance-rests on horseback in the early 2000s, I immediately felt I better understood what he meant. What I think Commines means by the proper couching of the lance is the correct and effective use of the lance-rest quite specifically. A lance-rest allows you to hit your opponent A LOT harder. You can transfer 300-400 joules on impact with your target as opposed to the 80-150 your opponent gets if you don’t have a rest. But a lance-rest is hard to use. You need to train with it, and get good at it. I can see that if the Burgundians hadn't been practising constantly, they wouldn't be good at it any more.



MM: Sounds like a definitive example of 'The harder you train in peacetime the less you bleed in combat.'

TC: Right.


Tobias Capwell-Harewood House-2012
(c) Stephen Moss Photosm.

MM: In regard to your research on English funeral effigies, which one is your favorite? ( As a side note: mine is Sir William Phelip, Lord Bardolf, of Dennington, Suffolk.)

TC: Wow yeah that's a hard question to answer... there are so many.

MM:Which is why I asked. The large number of surviving effigies testifies to the huge size of the knightly class which once existed in England and I know you have done a lot of research on this subject.

TC: Bardolf is my local effigy, ten minutes drive from my house. So I suppose I have a special fondness for that one too. But right now, working on my next book Armour of the English Knight 1450 - 1500, there are some great ones there too. They'll be a lot easier to look up when I publish the dratted book!

MM: When do you think you will have your manuscript ready for publication?

TC: I submit the manuscript in January, proofing and design runs through May, and the book comes out in the autumn of 2017. And I have to stick to that, because I have to deliver a major exhibition on costume armour of the German Renaissance in 2018, so there is no wiggle room in the schedule.


Photo courtesy of Stephen Moss (c) Photosm

MM: There often comes a time when a researcher comes across an interesting fact or rediscovers something which has sort of slipped through the cracks of history. What has been the one thing which has surprised you the most?

TC: Hmm... 

MM: Was it that the arms and armour represented on the funeral effigies you have studied could readily be reproduced as real, functional equipment?

TC: There were really no major surprises when it came to the effigies. I always sort of had an intuitive sense that they were lifelike, highly realistic, and therefore reliable. But I've grown to appreciate them in ways I might never could have expected. The more I learn about them the more extraordinary they show themselves to be, as an art-form and as a sort of spiritual tool...

Most recently it has been the actual surviving pieces of armour that have been surprising me. In the second book a bigger role is played by extant pieces of armour, mostly helmets preserved as funerary achievements in churches.

I found one the other day which is fitted with special 'anti-smash' studs or stops, mounted on the sides of the skull over temples, which prevent the visor from being knocked down too far by a powerful blow. That was a surprise. It’s the sort of thing you sit at home and think- 'now that would be a good idea', but you know of no evidence for it historically. And then pow, there it is.

MM:I think this is a good point to bring up an event in which you played an important part. You were one of the 'knights' who escorted King Richard III's remains to his reinterment in Leicester Cathedral. I would personally like to thank you and your fellow rider, Dominic Sewell, for your efforts. You brought a real sense of history and solemnity to the occasion. Were there any surreal moments for you during the ride?

TC: Yeah, the whole thing from beginning to end! And it was more than a little nerve-wracking. But I think we pulled it off. Nobody died.
.
MM: LoL-No one died. But what about any sense of weirdness or some hair-raising sense of history? Something like that must have passed through you at some point?


TC: Most the time I was too focused on what I was doing and what was going on immediately around me… I didn’t really have much of a chance to sit back and think about it... But there were a couple moments. When we stopped at Dadlington along the way we had a bit of time where we had to just stop and wait for a while, and in that break I realised what was going on. That was the shiver moment- I realised I'd been interested in this stuff and the fifteenth century and the Wars of the Roses since I was a little kid and now I'm doing this?! It was bonkers, the whole thing. And utterly awesome at the same time.

MM: Besides the Wars of the Roses, one of the subjects you are passionate about is Henry V and his campaigns in France. One of the interesting points you have raised relates to the English archers at the Battle of Agincourt, and how precisely they and their famous longbows were used on the battlefield. In several video presentations you have shown they used their weapons as a point offensive weapon- similar to a rifle, than say an area denial weapon- where a massive arrow storm just saturated large areas of the field. If it is possible, what do you think was the biggest contributing factor to the French defeat?


Tournament of the Phoenix, Tobias Capwell receiving a blow
from Dmitry Savchenko
Photo courtesy (c) J Camacho Photography.

TC:How to be brief on that one... Basically, Henry V had very strong force cohesion, motivation, high morale, and a very clear command structure. The French had none of those things, except perhaps the motivation. Henry V made the French fight on his terms, and the French allowed themselves to be pushed into fighting on their enemy's terms. That's a Sun Tzu 101 fail right there.

Then of course Henry made sure the field conditions and circumstances of the field of battle favoured him, and placed the French at a terrible disadvantage, working against them and nullifying their numerical superiority. Henry also had force diversity (lots of archers plus a good number of men-at-arms), so the different elements of his army could complement each other, benefitting from each other's strengths and compensating for each other's weaknesses.

The French, or at least the ones who did the fighting, were all men-at-arms. Some good advantages there, but no way to balance the weaknesses. And ultimately Henry had a good plan, and implemented it to the letter. He'd worked out the odds, and they were all in his favour. All that stuff about him being ‘up against the odds’ is just not true. The French had a plan, but Henry captured it days before and knew what they were up to. And the French were not able to implement their plan in any case. They tried, and echoes of the original French plan can be found in what actually happened on the day, but ultimately it didn't work out very well for them.

MM:I think that is one of the better assessments of what happened I have been privileged to hear in a long while, thank you for your answer. What does the future hold for Tobias Capwell? I have heard rumours you are working on the Funerary Achievement of Henry V… Or better put: What is it about his equipment or the collection of equipment purported to be his that you find fascinating?

TC: Well it’s a hugely important group of objects, and yet almost nothing has ever been written about them. Certainly nothing recent, and nothing that works out what they really are. I'm working as part of a research team on that, and I'm responsible for the helm and the saddle. The work will be published next year.


Tournament of the Phoenix
Photograph courtesy of  (c) J. Camacho Photography.

MM: I have read that The Wallace Collection will be putting together an exhibition and display of Asian arms and armour. Will this display showcase the major cultures of Asia, such as the Indian/Moghul period? Persian? Korean, Japanese and Chinese examples? Will there also be the odd piece from the Pacific Island groups? I am thinking of some of the examples I have seen of shark tooth- edged weapons.

TC: Well, yes and no. Yes, we have been working hard on the catalogue of Ottoman, Middle Eastern and Asian Arms and Armour since 2005. I’ve been in charge of the project since 2012. Along with the catalogue project we are planning major new print and online publications, and a complete refurbishment and redisplay of the Oriental Armoury at the Wallace Collection. This is a diverse collection, with its own particular strengths and weaknesses. We don’t have any Korean objects, sorry. Also there are very few Japanese and Chinese things. This collection is for the most part Indo-Persian, with a good amount of Balkan and otherwise Ottoman pieces. There are smaller groups of weapons made in Sri-Lanka, Bhutan, and Indonesia. But we don’t have any of those shark-tooth swords from Kiribati, apologies! 
.
MM: So there will be a tighter more narrower focus? 

TC: The focus is always led by the collection and its strengths. And those don’t change, since we are a closed collection- no acquisitions, no loans, no disposals allowed.

MM: I am also interested to know if the museum owns any examples of what I have heard described as "wootz" or "crucible steel?" Will the importance of this type of high-quality steel be touched upon?

TC: Yes, we have a large number of swords, daggers and even armour made out of ‘watered’ wootz, that is, crucible steel of the type which gives you a wavy pattern when you polish and lightly etch it with a mild acid. Many of our blades have been over-cleaned over the years, so it can be very hard to see the pattern on some of them, but others are still quite clear. We’ve done a lot of research on crucible steel and its use on weapons in India and Persia, and I’m sure that subject will play a role in just about anything we do with this part of the collection.




MM: Will you and the museum produce a video or digital offering of your upcoming display? I think this is an important strategy. You and I both know one of the most restricting issue museums face, is the lack of space. Large collections such as the Wallace must have warehouses full of amazing pieces they have no room to display.

TC: Certainly, we are steadily developing our digital elements at the museum. But the Wallace doesn’t really have a very large collection of arms and armour, at least not in comparison to the other great world collections. We’re actually quite small- around 3000 objects, as opposed to tens if not hundreds of thousands. So we have almost everything on display. 

MM: The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York is making so many of their pieces available on their websites, and on their Facebook page. That has been a real boon to those with financial restrictions and/or a lack of free time. I have heard that they are going to publish their photographic records. That would have a really positive effect on both the dissemination of knowledge and as a way of promoting the museum. Has there been a positive reaction to what the Met is doing? I know the Wallace has begun the process themselves. Will they continue to do so?

TC: We offer more and more of the collection online all the time. It just takes a lot of work and time. But it’s happening.

MM: Lastly what do you want your legacy as a historian to be?

TC: That’s not really up to me, and I don’t really think about it. I just try to work and to publish as thoroughly, consistently, quickly, and with as much attention to detail and quality as I can. Thanks for your interest in my work!

MM: I would like to again express my thanks to Dr. Tobias Capwell and the generous gift of his time today, and his willingness to answer a great number of questions which meandered all over the historical map. Thank you sir.


TC: It’s my pleasure!

(c) Richard Pearn.

Here are a selection of video links to Dr. Capwell's efforts:

Matt Easton from Scholagladatoria's YouTube channel-

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hf-_FrB0YhQ

From the Wallace Collection-'Agincourt: Myths and Misconceptions'-

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5uxHYQW2Nio

The BBC documentary on the Greenwich Armoury-

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FYd9_vUn7-E


A link to Tobias Capwell's published work 'Armour of the English Knight 1400 to 1450'-

http://www.thomasdelmar.com/books/englishknight/index.html

Tobias Capwell on Olympic Jousting-

http://www.apollo-magazine.com/jousting-is-closer-to-performance-art-than-an-olympic-sport/

Video Link, with Dominic Sewell and Tobias Capwell concerning the viability of Richard III's martial ability-

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fDHDvnnK4nI


          Pacific states urge shipping industry to reduce emissions        

A coalition of Pacific Island ministers has launched a joint call for the global shipping industry to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Photo: RNZ / Claire Eastham-Farrelly Ministers from the Marshall Islands, Tuvalu and Kiribati were joined by envoys from Fiji, Vanuatu and Palau in urging member states of the International Maritime Organisation to try and limit […]

The post Pacific states urge shipping industry to reduce emissions appeared first on Cubic Transport Services.


          IKLIM DAN SUMBER DAYA AIR        
A. Pengertian
Iklim: Rata-rata cuaca selama 30 tahun pada suatu negara / ruang lingkup yang luas
Sumber Daya Air: Sumber daya berupa air yang berguna atau potensial bagi manusia. Kegunaan air meliputi penggunaan di bidang pertanian, industri, rumah tangga, rekreasi, dan aktivitas lingkungan

B. Siklus Hidrologi
Air adalah sesuatu yang sangat dibutuhkan oleh makhluk hidup di bumi. Secara umum banyaknya air yang ada di planet ini adalah sama walaupun manusia, binatang dan tumbuhan banyak menggunakan air untuk kebutuhan hidupnya. Jumlah air bersih sepertinya tidak terbatas, namun sebenarnya air mengalami siklus hidrologi di mana air yang kotor dan bercampur dengan banyak zat dibersihkan kembali melalui proses alam.
Proses siklus hidrologi berlangsung terus-menerus yang membuat air menjadi sumber daya alam yang terbaharui. Jumlah air di bumi sangat banyak baik dalam bentuk cairan, gas / uap, maupun padat / es. Jumlah air seakan terlihat semakin banyak karena es di kutub utara dan kutub selatan mengalami pencairan terus-meners akibat pemanasan global bumi sehingga mengancam kelangsungan hidup manusia di bumi.
Macam-Macam dan Tahapan Proses Siklus Hidrologi :
A. Siklus Pendek / Siklus Kecil
1. Air laut menguap menjadi uap gas karena panas matahari
2. Terjadi kondensasi dan pembentukan awan
3. Turun hujan di permukaan laut
B. Siklus Sedang
1. Air laut menguap menjadi uap gas karena panas matahari
2. Terjadi kondensasi
3. Uap bergerak oleh tiupan angin ke darat
4. Pembentukan awan
5. Turun hujan di permukaan daratan
6. Air mengalir di sungai menuju laut kembali
C. Siklus Panjang / Siklus Besar
1. Air laut menguap menjadi uap gas karena panas matahari
2. Uap air mengalami sublimasi
3. Pembentukan awan yang mengandung kristal es
4. Awan bergerak oleh tiupan angin ke darat
5. Pembentukan awan
6. Turun salju
7. Pembentukan gletser
8. Gletser mencair membentuk aliran sungai
9. Air mengalir di sungai menuju darat dan kemudian ke laut

C. Dampak Perubahan Iklim Terhadap Air
Perubahan iklim dapat memberikan efek yang signifikan terhadap sumber daya air di seluruh dunia karena hubungan yang erat antara iklim dan daur hidrologi. Peningkatan temperatur akan meningkatkan penguapan dan memicu peningkatan presipitasi. Secara keseluruhan akan terjadi peningkatan suplai air tawar dunia. Banjir dan kekeringan akan terjadi lebih sering di beberapa wilayah dalam waktu yang berbeda-beda, akan terjadi perubahan yang drastis pada hujan salju dan proses pelelehan salju di pegunungan akan meningkat. Temperatur yang meningkat juga akan mempengaruhi kualitas air, namun belum dipahami dengan baik
Kenaikan suhu hingga 1ºC akan mengurangi persediaan air dan meningkatkan kekeringan di beberapa wilayah ekuator. Kenaikan suhu di atas 1ºC akan menimbulkan banjir, kekeringan, erosi, dan kualitas air yang semakin menurun. Naiknya air laut akan memperluas pengasinan air tanah sehingga menurunkan persediaan air tawar bagi daerah-daerah di pesisir pantai. Ratusan juta orang akan menghadapi kekurangan air.

D. Naiknya Permukaan Air Laut
Kenaikan permukaan laut adalah fenomena naiknya permukaan laut yang disebabkan oleh banyak faktor yang kompleks. Permukaan laut telah mengalami kenaikan setinggi 120 meter sejak puncak zaman es 18.000 tahun yang lalu. Kenaikan tertinggi muka air laut terjadi sebelum 6.000 tahun yang lalu. Sejak 3.000 tahun yang lalu hingga awal abad ke-19, muka air laut hampir tetap hanya bertambah 0,1 hingga 0,2 mm/tahun; sejak tahun 1900, permukaan laut naik 1 hingga 3 mm/tahun; sejak tahun 1992 satelit altimetri TOPEX/Poseidon mengindikasikan laju kenaikan muka laut sebesar 3 mm/tahun. Perubahan ini bisa jadi merupakan pertanda awal dari efek pemanasan global terhadap kenaikan muka air laut. Pemanasan global diperkirakan memberikan pengaruh yang signifikan pada kenaikan muka air laut di abad ke-20 ini.
Menurut riset yang ada, pemanasan global dari efek rumah kaca yang menyebabkan perubahan iklim dapat menaikan permukaan air laut hingga 5–200 cm untuk abad selanjutnya. Ketinggian air laut memang selalu berfluktuasi dengan perubahan dari temperatur global. Ketika zaman es dimana temperatur global sebesar 5 derajat Celsius lebih rendah dari sekarang, kebanyakan dari air laut terikat dalam gletser dan ketinggian permukaan air lautnya sekitar 100 meter lebih rendah dari sekarang. Tetapi, saat periode terakhir “interglacial” (100,000 tahun yang lalu), permukaan air laut lebih tinggi 6 meter dari sekarang dan temperaturnya berkisar 1 derajat Celsius lebih hangat dari sekarang. Tren permukaan air laut global telah diestimasi dengan cara mengkombinasikan tren–tren dari “tidal stations” di seluruh dunia. Rekor-rekor ini memperlihatkan bahwa selama abad terakhir ini, permukaan air laut di seluruh dunia telah naik hingga 10–25 cm yang sebagian besar diakibatkan oleh pemanasan global dari abad terakhir.
Kenaikan permukaan air laut akan membanjiri rawa-rawa dan dataran rendah, mempercepat erosi dan memperburuk banjir di pesisir pantai, mengancam bangunan–bangunan di daerah pesisir, kehilangan kawasan wisata pantai yang indah dan juga meningkatkan salinitas (pencemaran kadar garam) di daerah sungai, teluk, dan air di dalam tanah (aquifers).

E. Dampak Negatif Kenaikan Muka Air Laut
Dampak paling serius dari naiknya tinggi muka air laut ini adalah hilangnya pulau-pulau kecil. Diperkirakan dari 44 anggota SIDS, 14 negara kecil di antaranya terancam hilang akibat naiknya permukaan laut, antara lain beberapa negara pulau di Samudra Pasifik, yaitu Sychelles, Tuvalu, Kiribati, dan Palau, serta Maladewa di Samudra Hindia. Akibat pemanasan global, minimal 18 pulau di muka bumi ini telah tenggelam, antara lain tujuh pulau di Manus, sebuah provinsi di Papua Niugini. Kiribati, negara pulau yang berpenduduk 107.800 orang, sekitar 30 pulaunya saat ini sedang tenggelam, sedangkan tiga pulau karangnya telah tenggelam. Maladewa yang berpenduduk 369.000 jiwa, presidennya telah menyatakan akan merelokasikan seluruh negeri itu. Sementara itu, Vanuatu yang didiami 212.000 penduduk, sebagian telah diungsikan dan desa-desa di pesisir direlokasikan karena ancaman nyata itu, delegasi dari negara kepulauan tersebut serta Aljazair dan Tanzania sangat mendukung WOC dan akan hadir di Manado, mengingat negara tersebut terancam hilang dari muka bumi ini akibat perubahan iklim.
Di antara negara kepulauan di dunia, agaknya kerugian terbesar bakal dihadapi Indonesia, sebagai negara yang memiliki jumlah pulau terbanyak. Pada tahun 2030 potensi kehilangan pulaunya sudah mencapai sekitar 2.000 bila tidak ada program mitigasi dan adaptasi perubahan iklim, urai Indroyono, Sekretaris Menko Kesra yang juga mantan Kepala Badan Riset Kelautan dan Perikanan DKP. Saat ini belum diketahui berapa sesungguhnya jumlah pulau di Nusantara ini yang telah hilang karena dampak kenaikan permukaan laut. Namun, pengamatan Badan Koordinasi Survei dan Pemetaan Nasional (Bakosurtanal) menunjukkan penciutan daerah pantai sudah terlihat di pulau-pulau yang berada di Paparan Sunda dan Paparan Sahul, ungkap Aris Poniman, Deputi Sumber Dasar Sumber Daya Alam Bakosurtanal. Paparan Sunda meliputi pantai timur Pulau Sumatera, Kalimantan Barat, dan Kalimantan Selatan serta pantai utara Pulau Jawa. Adapun Paparan Sahul berada di sekitar wilayah Papua. Penjelasan Aris didasari pada pemantauan pasang surut yang dilakukan Bakosurtanal di berbagai wilayah pantai Nusantara sejak 30 tahun terakhir.
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          Indicação de Livros e Filmes relacionados à PNL        
FILMES:

O agente da estação
Título Original: The Station Agent
Gênero: Drama
Tempo de Duração: 90 minutos
Ano de Lançamento (EUA): 2003
Site Oficial: www.miramax.com/the_station_agent

O Agente da Estação, um título aparentemente normal esconde uma bela história de amizade e compaixão com o próximo. Finbar McBride (Peter Dinklage) anseia por uma vida tranqüila e reservada. Trabalhava em uma loja construindo miniaturas de vagões de trem e quando seu sócio falece, ele herda um pequeno terreno em uma estação abandonada. Medindo um pouco mais de um metro, fica praticamente impossível para ele se misturar na multidão, constantemente ouvia insultos e preconceitos por medir pouco mais de um metro de altura.

Nascido com nanismo, Finbar escolhe então uma rotina de reclusão para fugir da atenção demasiada que a sua pequena estatura provoca. Ele passa a morar na estação de trem abandonada cuidando de sua maior paixão: os trens. Logo nos primeiros dias quando almejava por paz e tranqüilidade, conhece Joe (Bobby Cannavale), um vendedor de cachorro-quente extremamente feliz e amigável e uma artista (Patricia Clarkson) que recentemente havia passado por um momento muito delicado relacionado a perda de seu filho.

O filme tem uma profunda relação de amizade, e até nos momentos mais difíceis os três se uniram para ajudar Olívia que sofria de uma terrível depressão pela perda do seu filho. Findar encontra verdadeiros amigos, e cada um tinha seus próprios problemas: Joe com o pai doente, Olívia com depressão pela perda do filho e o anão pelo preconceito que sofria e, no entanto ocorre uma ajuda mútua possibilitando maior desenvolvimento e aumentando o laço social dos personagens.

Após darem sentido às suas vidas, eles transcenderam a mera existência e descobriram que verdadeiros amigos são a maior riqueza que podemos ter. As cenas de PNL foram muitas no filme, vale a pena assistir.

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A corrente do bem
Título Original: Pay It Forward
Gênero: Drama
Tempo de Duração: 115 minutos
Ano de Lançamento (EUA): 2000
Site Oficial: www.payitforward.com 

É possível uma idéia mudar o mundo? Como seria fazer um favor e não pedir nada em troca, apenas que seja passado a frente para mais três pessoas?

Em sua primeira aula o novo professor de Estudos Sociais Eugene Simonet (Kevin Spacey), pergunta aos seus alunos da sétima série o que o mundo significa para eles e afirma que se eles não gostarem do que vão encontrar basta modificar. O professor passa um trabalho aos seus alunos e pede para criarem algo que possa modificar o mundo. Um de seus alunos, Trevor McKinney (Haley Joel Osment), com o incentivo do professor cria o “Passe para Frente”.

O seu trabalho consiste, começando por ele, Trevor, ajudar três pessoas e não pedir nada em troca, apenas que essas pessoas ajudadas ajudem mais três pessoas e assim por diante. A sua idéia exige bondade e fé, e as três pessoas que ele escolhe ajudar não são fáceis: um é usuário de drogas, sua mãe alcóolatra e seu colega de sala que num primeiro momento faltou-lhe coragem.

O filme é surpreendente pela força de vontade e persistência do garoto em ajudar as pessoas, ajudar sem querer nada em troca. Possui uma mensagem muito positiva e realmente queremos, depois de assistir o filme, ajudar as pessoas em nossa volta. E quando alguém acha difícil mudar, todos saem perdendo, se uma pessoa não cumpre o seu dever, outras não poderão ser alcançadas, talvez por isso o filme não tenha um final que todos esperam.

É uma caminhada para a sensibilidade, o progresso cabe a todas as pessoas, mas muitas delas se sentem à vontade com o estado atual e não sentem necessidade de um desenvolvimento adicional. Mudança e desenvolvimento, porém, são passos essenciais ao processo vital. Por isso comece hoje mesmo ajudar quem precisa, não diga que não pode, e sim que você é capaz de ajudar e de levar alegria as pessoas. Basta querer.

Cenas de PNL detectadas no filme:

Confiança na competência dos alunos pelo professor quando dizem que o trabalho é difícil e não vão conseguir fazer. O professor afirma que eles têm todos os recursos que precisam para fazer;

Rapport do primeiro encontro do professor com a Arlene (Helen Hunt), mãe de Trevor;

Leitura de mente de Arlene, na cena do jantar em que o professor pergunta quantas horas ela passa com o garoto.


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Mentes Perigosas
Título Original: Dangerous Minds
Gênero: Drama
Tempo de Duração: 99 minutos
Ano de Lançamento (EUA): 1995

O filme conta a história de uma ex-oficial da marinha que passa a lecionar em uma escola de subúrbio nos Estados Unidos onde alunos americanos e mexicanos convivem juntos. O filme se baseia em uma professora em seu primeiro trabalho, tendo que enfrentar uma sala de alunos rebeldes, cheio de problemas sociais envolvendo família, drogas e preconceito.

No começo a professora LouAnne Johnson (Michelle Pfeiffer) sente-se desafiada e pensa por alguns instantes que não é capaz de dar aulas para aquela turma e um outro professor lhe diz em uma conversa, que ela precisa de algo para prender-lhes a atenção. A professora coloca a responsabilidade para os alunos dá a todos nota A, afirmando manter essa nota alta e mais difícil que tirá-la uma vez só.

Em uma das cenas do filme, em que é ensinado uma série de verbos, uma das alunas diz que o verbo mais importante falado foi o verbo “escolher”, isso demonstra que aqueles alunos queriam escolhas, e estavam ali por não tê-las. Um dos pressupostos da PNL é: fazemos a melhor escolha que temos disponível no momento e Michelle nesse instante convence os alunos que escolheram estar ali ao invés de estar na rua roubando, escolheram se formar para ter um futuro melhor e escolheram pegar o ônibus para ir a escola a consumir drogas.

Cenas de PNL detectadas:

- Rapport da professora com os alunos nas aulas.

- Metamodelo de linguagem na cena em que conversa com uns dos alunos que brigaram.

- Uso do pressuposto da PNL: fazemos a melhor escolha que temos disponível no momento

- Confiança na competência do aluno na cena do jantar, em que ela o ensina a pedir a comida.

- Não existem fracassos, apenas resultados na premiação do concurso Dylan-Dylan, em que todos ganham.

O filme permite aos alunos novas perspectivas e diz que a mente é um músculo que precisa ser constantemente exercitado e quando mais preparados eles estiverem, menos chances de serem derrotados eles terão.

A professora passa a ser então fonte de referência para os alunos e mesmo com as adversidades consegue fazer a diferença na vida deles ensinando poesia e a ver as coisas de uma outra forma.


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Peixe Grande e suas histórias maravilhosas
Título Original: Big Fish
Gênero: Comédia
Tempo de Duração: 125 minutos
Ano de Lançamento (EUA): 2003


Realidade e fantasia caminham juntas neste intrigante filme. Fatos corriqueiros de nosso dia a dia são transformados em fantasias, misturando o real ao imaginário. O diretor Tim Burton consegue nos passar uma bela mensagem através desse filme: que a nossa realidade nós a fabricamos, ela se torna o que queremos que ela seja.

A principio, as estórias que eram contadas pelo seu pai Albert Finney (Ed Bloom), ao filho eram fantasiosas e este procurava sempre encontrar as verdades. Questionava ao pai o que havia acontecido realmente e nunca obtivera a realidade que queria, escolhia sempre duvidar do pai ocasionando diversas brigas na família.

O filme é recheado de metáforas. O filme é uma metáfora que transforma a vida de um homem em uma grande história (a história de sua vida). Ed sabia até a forma como iria morrer, pois, tinha visto no olho de uma bruxa quando criança e por isso se arriscava em missões difíceis correndo muitos riscos. Em uma de suas fábulas, coloca que a melhor maneira de se fisgar uma mulher é oferecendo-lhe uma aliança.

Big Fish (título em inglês) é um filme surpreendente, esperamos sempre a próxima cena para ver o que vai acontecer e com certeza é não é o que esperamos. Um filme que mexe com nossos sonhos, nos remete a nossa infância e desafia a nossa imaginação a inventar estórias tão belas quanto aquelas onde encontramos um gigante que não e mal e uma cidade que não está no mapa.

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Meu nome é rádio
Título Original: Radio
Gênero: Drama
Tempo de Duração: 109 minutos
Ano de Lançamento (EUA): 2003
Solidariedade, sentimento ensinado por este lindo filme. Meu Nome é Rádio, um roteiro baseado em pessoas e como podem ajudar-se mutuamente. Todos têm algo a aprender uma com as outras. O diretor Michael Tollin conta a história verídica de um treinador de um time de futebol que passa a ser o tutor de um jovem negro e com deficiência mental fazendo este se tornar um homem corajoso e o ensina a nunca desistir de seus sonhos.O filme acontece na década de 70, no interior dos Estados Unidos, o treinador Harold Jones (Ed Harris) após flagrar seus jogadores maltratando Rádio (Cuba Gooding Jr.) resolve trazê-lo para acompanhar os treinos e a participar do dia a dia da escola T. L. Hanna High School.

O treinador supera vários obstáculos no filme para que Rádio não fique desamparado. Vai contra a diretora da escola e o ministério público por ser tratar de um colégio estadual e um dos pais dos jogadores pede o afastamento do jovem negro, pois supõe ser ele o causador dos problemas. No entanto o treinador se mantém firme e determinado a ajudar Rádio. Ensina-o a ler, escrever, a se comunicar, a rotina dos treinos e ele se torna o monitor das turmas o 3º ano anunciando as merendas no microfone. Harold Jones revela a sua filha em dado momento do filme que durante dois anos entregava jornais e teve a oportunidade de ajudar um garoto, mas não o fez e justifica a filha o porquê de estar ajudando agora. No natal Rádio ganha vários presentes, e passa a ser admirado por todos na cidade, exceto o pai de um dos jogadores que pede a saída de Rádio do time. Uma das cenas mais emocionantes ocorre quando Ed entra na barbearia e diz por mais que ame o Futebol, deixaria de ser treinador para continuar a educar o jovem.

Rádio se forma junto com o 3º ano, e é o orgulho do treinador, um homem que emociona a todos por ter provado que as melhores vitórias do mundo acontecem na vida real. Precisou abrir mão de algo que amava para ser solidário a uma pessoa que nem conhecia. Hoje, Rádio e o atual treinador do Time de Hanna.

  Cenas de PNL detectadas:

O filme transmite uma lição de humanidade, de reconhecimento pelo próximo e a diferença que isso faz.

O pequeno gesto do treinador em ajudar o rapaz, o reconhecimento, o espelhamento foi trazendo tanta diferença na vida dos dois que essa mudança atingiu todo colégio e, por fim, toda cidade.

Um rapaz que quase não era percebido e pouco conhecido se torna popular e respeitado...

Ponte ao futuro feita no vestiário. O treinador pede aos jogadores que visualizem a vitória.

O bem que se faz ao próximo é percebido por todo o sistema em que está inserido.

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O amor é cego

Título Original: Shallow Hal
Gênero: Comédia
Tempo de Duração: 
Ano de Lançamento (EUA): 2001
Depois do sucesso inicial do Grupo de Estudos com Filmes, o filme apresentado esta semana foi O Amor é Cego, uma comédia romântica muito original e uma apologia à beleza interior. Hal (Jack Black) só observa a beleza exterior das mulheres e não se interessa pela personalidade, certo dia fica preso no elevador com Anthony Robbins, um guru que em uma rápida seção o hipnotiza e a partir disso Hal não liga mais para o superficial, agora liga somente para a beleza interior.

No mesmo dia Hal vai a uma danceteria e consegue dançar com três garotas, no dia seguinte faz sucesso com uma garota em um táxi, porém se apaixona por Rosemary Shanahan (Gwyneth Paltrow), uma garota de aproximadamente 250kg que Hal a vê com uns 52kg. Logo descobre que ela é filha de seu chefe e quando ela é apresentada ao seu melhor amigo, Mauricio (Jason Alexander), esse fica interessado em saber o porquê da mudança radical de sua personalidade.

Com a hipnose desfeita, porém com o sentimento instalado, Hal se sentia alegre e feliz ao lado de Rosie e mesmo percebendo a realidade, resolve procurá-la. No final do filme felizmente a encontra em sua festa de despedida para Kiribati e abre seu coração na frente de todos. O filme nos passa uma bela lição de moral de que precisamos mudar nosso foco e enxergar a verdadeira beleza por trás das aparências.

Os temas de PNL detectados foram os seguintes:

instalação de crenças ainda na infância,pelo pai(cena do hospital);

rapport entre Anthony Robbins e Hal;Tony identifica a crença de Hal e sugere uma mudança;o guru acessa estado ,quebra estado e usa linguagem hipnótica para mudar o padrão(cena do elevador);

o amigo de Hal mantendo o foco no "defeito" da namorada(cena do parque);

Hal,com um novo padrão de pensamento,vê nas crianças do hospital apenas lindas crianças,sendo que todos estavam em tratamento,feridas(cena do hospital);

frase de Robbins "os olhos vêm o que o coração quer sentir" (cena em frente do prédio),quando ele diz que Hal estava hipnotizado antes de encontra-lo;mudança de percepção, isso que fez Robbins com Hal;


Como seria superar suas limitações? O que mais você poderia fazer se mudasse o foco de sua atenção e canalizasse sua energia no que tem de melhor? O que isso poderia alterar em sua vida? Nada? Quem sabe toda sua história!!!

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Don Juan de Marco
Título Original: Don Juan DeMarco
Gênero: Romance
Tempo de Duração: 97 minutos
Ano de Lançamento (EUA): 1995
O filme parte de um silogismo romântico na qual é indagada a questão: a realidade é aquilo que vemos objetivamente ou ela é, na verdade aquilo que sentimos? O filme basicamente retrata um jovem que se dizia ser o próprio Don Juan, e que perdendo aquela que seria seu grande amor, resolve cometer suicídio. O psiquiatra Jack Mickler (Marlon Brando) é chamado para convencer o jovem a descer e principalmente a compreender sua mudança de identidade. Neste caso o terapeuta teve que fazer algo que fosse diferente e esta diferença, para que seja útil, não se pode afastar-se demasiado da realidade do paciente, pois seria totalmente rejeitada e como podemos constatar ao longo do filme , uma boa terapia modifica o paciente e também o terapeuta, sendo uma construção conjunta acrescentando novas descobertas e emergindo sentimentos já adormecidos em nós. Diz-se que o amor nunca morre em nós, apenas adormece para que acorde cada vez mais forte, não é mesmo?

Os temas de PNL detectados foram os seguintes:

Primeiro acompanhar... depois conduzir – Primeiro princípio da PNL e fundamental no filme para que ocorressem as mudanças desejadas.

A comparação de tocar a mulher a tocar um instrumento raro – Metáfora utilizada por Don Juan no início do filme em sua última conquista.

Utilização do meta-modelo de linguagem para convencer o suicida a descer do outdoor – estratégia utilizada na negociação, pelo terapeuta, para convencer Don Juan a não se jogar.

Metáfora isomórfica de um caso similar ao de Don Juan – metáfora construída especificamente para elucidar os sintomas da personagem.

Representação interna dos amores de Don Juan – a personagem descreve não só suas amantes, mas os locais com uma bela riqueza de detalhes.

Resignificação do hospital – Don Juan interpreta o hospital como sendo a mansão do psiquiatra e ele seu hóspede.

Rapport e espelhamento – Quando Don Juan aprender a lutar com espadas e no hospital com os enfermeiros.

Pistas oculares – Bem identificadas no diálogo que a personagem tem com o juiz para ser liberado do hospital. Don Juan recorda-se o tempo inteiro da metáfora que ouvira do terapeuta.


A verdade que Don Juan sofria de um romantismo incontrolável, e o pior, contagioso. Até seu terapeuta ao final do filme se tornou um romântico de primeira linha. Uma mensagem fica para todos nós, quando a mãe de Don Juan (Dona Inez) vai visitar o médico e conversando sobre o passado do filho e principalmente quando perguntada sobre a verdade ela responde sem tremular: “A verdade está dentro de você”




LIVROS:


DESPERTE O GIGANTE INTERIOR 
  Autor: Anthony Robbins 
  Editora: Record
  ISBN: 8501040223
  Neste livro o autor explana a teoria da  
  Programação Neuro-Linguistica, através da qual nós
  podemos explorar os limites extremos de nossa   
  mente, que está acessivel a todos e qualquer um. 
  Segundo o autor, precisamos nos conhecer e ter a 
  coragem de mudar nossos paradigmas, não permitindo que emoções negativas dirijam nosso ser.



PODER SEM LIMITES 
  Autor: Anthony Robbins 
  Editora: Best Seller
  ISBN: 8585091282
  Técnicas de Programação Neurolingüística para o  
  sucesso pessoal e profissional. Grande sucesso 
  editorial (mais de 100 mil exemplares vendidos na 
  primeira edição), este livro mostra como conquistar
  todos os objetivos por meio de estratégias 
  científicas. Você aprenderá a reprogramar e controlar seu cérebro, livrar-se das limitações, enfrentar resistências e resolver problemas.




 INTRODUÇÃO À PROGRAMAÇÃO     
  NEUROLINGUÍSTICA 
  Autor: John Seymour, Joseph O´Connor 
  Editora: Summus
  ISBN: 8532304710
  A programação neurolingüistica procura entender 
  por que determinadas pessoas aparentemente 
  demonstram maior capacidade do que outras, 
  descrevendo seus mecanismos de modo que outros possam utilizá-los. Este livro mostra técnicas essenciais para o desenvolvimento pessoal e a boa qualidade no campo do aconselhamento, educação e negócios. 


  SAPOS EM PRÍNCIPES 
  Autor: Richard Bandler, John Grinder 
  Editora: Summus
  ISBN: 8532301452
  Os autores expõem e desenvolvem um novo 
  modelo de comunicação humana e comportamento,
  iniciado por Virginia Satir e outros. É uma técnica    
  que torna possíveis mundanças muito rápidas e  
  suaves de comportamento e sentimentos, em diferentes contextos. Este tipo de intervenção resulta em mudanças geradoras, com as quais as pessoas aprendem a criar novos talentos e comportamentos para si mesmas e para outras. A programação neurolingüística nos traz de novo a habilidade de analisar sistematicamente pessoas e experiências excepcionais, de modo que o êxito delas possa se tornar disponível a todos.


  USANDO SUA MENTE 
  Autor:  Richard Bandler 
  Editora: Summus
  ISBN: 8532303099
  Num texto claro Richard Bandler vai demonstrando 
  as diversas maneiras que usamos para pensar   
  sobre nossos problemas cotidianos e resolvê-los. 
  Dependo do tamanho, luminosidade, distância das  
  nossas imagens internas, reagimos de maneira bastante diferentes aos mesmo pensamentos. À medida que compreendemos esses princípios podemos mudar nossas experiências para reagirmos de um modo mais adequado. 


  ATRAVESSANDO - PASSAGENS EM       
  PSICOTERAPIA 
  Autor: Richard Bandler, John Grinder 
  Editora: Summus
  ISBN: 8532301797
  Este livro estabelece a correlação entre a  
  programação neurolingüística e a estrutura da 
  hipinóse, tranformando a "magia" dos estados 
  alterados num grande número de princípios e técnicas específicas visando modificação de comportamento. Os autores mostram assim como utilizar tais estados na busca de uma mudança pessoal, profunda, produtividade e evolucionária.


  RESIGNIFICANDO 
  Autor: Richard Bandler, John Grinder 
  Editora: Summus
  ISBN: 8532302335
  O significado de qualquer evento depende da 
  "moldura" em que o percebemos. Se mudamos a 
  "moldura", mudamos o significado. Mudando o 
  significado, mudam também as respostas e o 
  comportamento da pessoa. Este livro completa a proposta dos autores da programação neurolingüística iniciada com Sapos em Príncipes e Atravessando. 


  APRENDA A LIDERAR COM A PROGRAMAÇÃO 
  NEUROLINGUÍSTICA 
  Autor: Pierre Longin 
  Editora: Qualitymark
  ISBN: 8573030801 
  Esta obra relaciona as técnicas mais adequadas 
  para o uso de gerentes e administradores. São 
  métodos para desenvolver a eficácia pessoal, 
  melhorar os relacionamentos, aumentar a empatia, aprimorar a capacidade de comunicação e de animação de equipes. 
De maneira didática e através de muitos exercícios práticos, o autor ensina técnicas que permitem um melhor autoconhecimento, aprimoram a eficácia pessoal e facilitam negociações e liderança de equipes. 



  O PODER DA PNL 
  Autor: Martin Claret 
  Editora: Martin Claret
  ISBN: 8572320474
  É um recurso prático para criar os resultados que 
  queremos obter. Por outro lado, apresenta uma   
  série de técnicas extremamente eficazes que  
  podem ser usadas no campo da educação, da 
  terapia, e no mundo profissional. Os textos deste livro-clipping são a essência do que melhor se publicou sobre a PNL, no Brasil.



  PNL SUCESSO E ÊXITO PESSOAL: INTRODUÇÃO 
  A PNL 
  Autor: Luis Jorge Gonzales
  Editora: Paulus
  ISBN: 8534919992
  Sem excluir o sucesso econômico, a PNL enfatiza os
  aspectos mais vitais e essenciais do sucesso
  pessoal e grupal. De modo concreto, mostra-nos 
  alternativas práticas para que consigamos o sucesso em termos de: Saber Viver, conservando-nos vivos, saudáveis e felizes. Saber Concluir com excelência as obras que empreendemos. Saber Transformar-Nos Em Pessoas para chegar a ser o que podemos ser. Saber Sentir-nos Bem-Sucedidos criando-nos regras múltiplas e sucintas para atingir o sentimento de sucesso. Saber Comprometer-Nos com nossos semelhantes mediante uma comunicação cordial e excelente. Saber Abrir-Nos Ao Nível Espiritual mediante a autotranscendência e a abertura aos valores e ao Valor eterno. 



  QUALIDADE COMEÇA EM MIM 
  Autor: Tom Chung 
  Editora: Novo Século
  ISBN: 8588916088 
  Este livro procura contribuir com alguns conceitos
  práticos para o seu auto-conhecimento e técnicas 
  de como você pode superar seus bloqueios e 
  dominar melhor a dinâmica mental e as habilidades
  interaticas. Enriquecido com passagens e conhecimentos da sabedoria oriental e metáforas ilustrativas, este livro foi escrito com linguagem simples e acessível a todos os leitores e contém dicas práticas de como motivar e ajudar outras pessoas, na busca por resultados mutuamente benéficos. 



  NEUROLINGUÍSTICA - PRÁTICA PARA O DIA A
  DIA 
  Autor: Bernard Morat 
  Editora: Nobel
  ISBN: 8521309260 
  Livro com técnicas e exercícios práticos aos 
  interessados em aprender a Programação 
  Neurolíngüística (PNL), técnica criada na década de 
  70 a partir da observação de atitudes positivas. O livro ensina, em lições que duram 80 dias, como mudar o comportamento e ser bem-sucedido na vida. 



  A ESTRUTURA DA MAGIA 
  Autor: Richard Bandler, John Grinder 
  Editora: LTC
  ISBN: 8521612540
  Este livro foi projetado para oferecer ao leitor um 
  instrumental explícito que irá ajudá-lo a tornar-se 
  um terapeuta mais eficiente. O capítulo 1 mostra 
  que nós não operamos diretamente no mundo em 
  que vivemos, mas, ao contrário, criamos modelos ou mapas do mundo e utilizamos estes mapas para guiar nosso comportamento. Afirma ainda que a terapia efetiva implica alguma alteração no modo como um paciente representa sua experiência 



  ENGENHARIA DA PERSUASÃO 
  Autor: Richard Bandler, John LA VALLE 
  Editora: Rocco
  ISBN: 8532508634
  O livro é a transcrição de um seminário realizado 
  pelos autores. Partindo da análise de histórias dos
  melhores casos de sucesso, cobre todo o universo 
  que envolve um processo de venda, do primeiro
  contato até o fechamento do negócio. Richard Bandler revela suas descobertas no campo do desenvolvimento humano: a compreensão de como o cérebro humano funciona e como usamos nossos processos comunicacionais para gerar comportamentos inconscientes. Isso tudo temperado com a habilidade de John La Valle em apresentar assuntos aparentemente complexos de forma simples. 



  MANUAL DE PROGRAMAÇÃO  
  NEUROLINGUÍSTICA - PNL 
  Autor: Joseph O´Connor 
  Editora: Qualitymark
  ISBN: 8573034092
  Joseph O’Connor apresenta, com estilo direto, a 
  PNL de uma forma compreensível e aplicável à vida
  pessoal e Profissional. Para auxiliar os leitores, o   
  livro apresenta uma série de exercícios e práticas para serem usados no dia-a-dia. Entre os tópicos discutidos em detalhes, estão - rapport e confiança, mudança de estados emocionais, como viasualizar, habilidades de negociação, ensaios mentais, a linguagem do consciente e do inconsciente e 'coaching'. 



  TRANSFORMANDO-SE: MAIS COISAS QUE VOCÊ
  NÃO SABE QUE NÃO SABE 
  Autor: Connirae Andreas, Steve Andreas 
  Editora: Summus
  ISBN: 8532300693
  Neste livro, continuação de Usando Sua Mente, de 
  Richard Bandler, os autores aprofundam e ampliam 
  a compreensão de como, através da linguagem, 
  podemos ter acesso às experiências passadas e apresentam novas combinações, seqüências e caminhos para utilizá-las. São explorados os padrões mentais que nos fazem ser como somos e oferecidos os meios para rapidamente mudarmos nosso comportamento. 



  A ESSÊNCIA DA MENTE 
  Autor: Connirae Andreas, Steve Andreas 
  Editora: Summus
  ISBN: 8532304176
  Abordagem ao mesmo tempo poderosa e suave no 
  campo da programação neurolingüística, que 
  permite superar os problemas da vida cotidiana. A 
  descoberta de caminhos para melhorar a auto-
  estima e os relacionamentos, e criar motivações positivas. Relatos de experiências de pessoas que tiveram suas vidas alteradas ao entrar em contato com seu poder interior de transformação. 



  PNL - PROGRAMAÇÃO NEUROLINGUÍSTICA - A 
  NOVA TECNOLOGIA DO SUCESSO 
  Autor: Steve Andreas 
  Editora: Campus
  ISBN: 8570019955
  Aprenda e ser Mais Confiante, Superar Medos, 
  Tornar seu Relacionamento Mais Ricos Usando 
  Todos os Recursos da Neurolinguistica. Inclui um 
  Programa de 21 Dias Para Dominar as Estrategias de Sucesso da Programacao Neurolinguistica. 



  A TERAPIA DA LINHA DO TEMPO 
  Autor: Tad James, Wyatt Woodsmall 
  Editora: Eko
  ISBN: 8585415509
  Um estudo dos elementos mais importantes na 
  caracterização do nucleo da personalidade de uma 
  pessoa. O que inclui a terapia da linha do tempo. 



  MODERNAS TÉCNICAS DE PERSUASÃO 
  Autor: John H. Herd, Donald J. Moine 
  Editora: Summus
  ISBN: 8532303242
  O processo de vendas é muito mais do que um 
  processo racional, já que o emocional é básico para
  uma boa venda. O treino especial, ou a verdadeira 
  "mágica de vendas" descrito neste livro, 
  possibilitará ao vendedor uma maior interação com o cliente e, como resultado, um grande sucesso de vendas. 


          Popular Battle Helmets in History        

Popular Battle Helmets in History

Since the dawn of warfare, warriors have tried to protect themselves. The most vital and obvious target is the head, and thus helmets, along with shields, are the earliest forms of body armor.

The original form was a basic cap made of reinforced leather or metal with or without face and neck protection. The leading civilizations improved upon this. Perhaps the most elegant ancient helmets came from Corinth. An example in the British Museum dating to 460 BC is beaten out of a single piece of bronze and covered the head, upper neck, cheeks, and nose. It was as much a work of art as it was protection. Some Greek helmets went further and covered the entire face, having only eyeholes. Roman soldiers used the galea, which had moveable cheek pieces and added protection for the neck. Some gladiators used a variation that had facial covering.

The Middle Ages saw a high point in helmet production. Knights encased themselves in steel plate and helmets came in a bewildering variety of shapes. The Normans used a simple conical helmet with a nose guard in the 11th century. In the 12th century, helmets began to cover the entire face, like the great helm, with a cylindrical shape, eye slits, and air holes. This innovation remained for many later helmet styles. Other shapes came later, such as the bascinet with its pointed snout, better able to deflect blows. A major innovation in the 14th century was a moveable visor. The knight could then breathe feely until just before going into combat. Commoners had less expensive helmets like the pot helm, which was a simple cap with a broad rim to help deflect blows from horsemen striking from above.

With the invention of black powder firearms, helmets slowly fell into disuse and, by the 18th century, had been all but abandoned. They once again proved useful during World War One. Soldiers fought from trenches against accurate and long-range rifle fire in fights where only their head and shoulders were visible. Many died from head wounds. No side at the beginning of the war was prepared for this, assuming this war, like those previous, would be a war of movement through open terrain. The men saw the need for helmets long before their governments and began to fashion their own from whatever scrap metal was at hand. They could also buy helmets from shops at home, although these were of high cost and dubious efficacy.

The French were the first power to issue helmets to their troops in 1915 with the ridged Adrian design. The British followed up early the next year with the Brodie helmet, as did the Germans, who issued them first to their special raiding battalions, the precursors to the famous Stormtroopers.

The Germans made the most enduring design. Called the Stahlhelm, it was used by German troops in the Second World War as well. The designers studied head wounds from German soldiers to come up with the most protective design, and took some elements from the 15th century sallet. The Stahlhelm was later adopted by United States in the 1980s. There was some controversy in the press given its associations with Nazi Germany, and newspapers published photos of American GIs alongside old photos of Hitler’s soldiers. Practicality won out over history, however, and the helmet was retained owing to its superior design.

Some strange designs have made their way onto the battlefield over the centuries. The Mycenaeans used helmets made of boars’ tusks. Odysseus wore one in his fight against the Trojans. In the Iliad, Homer writes that the hero had, “a cleverly made leather helmet on his head. On the inside there was a strong lining on interwoven straps, onto which a felt cap had been sewn in. The outside was cleverly adorned all around with rows of white tusks from a shiny-toothed boar, the tusks running in alternate directions in each row.” These were luxury items. Archaeologists estimate that up to 50 boars would have to be killed to make a single helmet. Most men had to content themselves with a helmet of bronze or padding.

Another odd helmet was made of an inflated puffer fish. These curios come from the group of Pacific atolls that now make up the nation of Kiribati. Warriors would gut a puffer fish, stretch out the skin, and let it dry to make a globular helmet covered in spikes. They would reinforce the inside with coconut shell to strengthen the otherwise brittle hide. It’s unclear how much protection it offered, but it certainly made the warrior look dangerous and could be used as a weapon if the warrior got close enough to head butt someone!

Sean McLachlan has written numerous books on military history and is the author of the Trench Raiders series of World War One action novels.


          Week 32: August 7 to 13, 2017        
This news feed of worldwide public holidays for week 32 comes from the Q++ Worldwide Public Holidays Database, the professional source of worldwide public holidays. To see the public holidays names, place your mouse over the name of a country.
 

Monday

August 7

AndorraAnguilla  Antigua and Barbuda  AustraliaAustraliaBahamas  Barbados  Bolivia  British Virgin Islands  Canada  Colombia  Côte d'Ivoire  Dominica  Grenada  Guernsey and AlderneyIceland  IndiaIndiaIreland  Jamaica  Kiribati  Montserrat  Saint Kitts and Nevis  Scotland  Sri Lanka  Tuvalu  United KingdomZambia   

 

Tuesday

August 8

Antigua and Barbuda  British Virgin Islands  Kenya  NepalSaint Kitts and Nevis  Tanzania 

 

Wednesday

August 9

British Virgin Islands  Singapore  South Africa  Suriname 

 

Thursday

August 10

Anguilla  Nicaragua

 

Friday

August 11

Anguilla  Chad  Ecuador  Japan 

 

Saturday

August 12

Chad  Thailand 

 

Sunday

August 13

Central African Republic  Tunisia 


To stay current with last-minute public holiday changes, visit our news and updates pages, or subscribe to one of our free newsletters.


          Strengthening Communities in Kiribati        
Nanikaai, Kiribati | Monday, 07 August 2017 |

A group of residents with various disabilities who call themselves Te Toa Matoa, have chosen to settle in the community of Nanikaai in the Republic of Kiribati.


          Raising Chickens, Self-Reliance and Nutrition in Kiribati        
Tarawa, Kiribati | Wednesday, 02 August 2017 |

To improve nutrition on the atoll of North Tarawa, in the Republic of Kiribati, David and Jody Reese (humanitarian missionaries serving a full-time mission with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) presented an idea to a community leader that could improve the nutrition of local people, especially children.


          10 Bahasa Terpopuler di Dunia        
Bahasa bisa dibilang merupakan salah satu anugerah terindah yang diberikan Tuhan kepada manusia. Bayangkan jika di dunia ini tidak ada bahasa atau hanya ada 1 bahasa saja, apakah mungkin para ilmuwan bisa menciptakan penemuan-penemuan penting? Lalu, ada berapa sebenarnya jumlah bahasa di dunia? Menurut Ethnologue, saat ini ada sekitar 6.912 bahasa yang dituturkan orang di seluruh dunia. Jumlah ini tentu saja masih diragukan keakuratannya karena tiap hari ada bahasa baru yang mungkin muncul, sebaliknya ada pula bahasa yang punah. Kita sebagai orang Indonesia bolehlah sedikit berbangga karena ternyata bahasa Indonesia masuk dalam 10 besar bahasa yang memiliki jumlah penutur terbanyak di dunia. Hmmm....jadi ada berapa banyak jumlah penutur bahasa Indonesia? Jawabannya, silahkan ikuti daftar 10 besar bahasa yang paling populer di dunia yang dimulai dari urutan:



10. Bahasa Perancis

Bahasa yang sering disebut-sebut sebagai bahasa paling romantis di dunia ini selain digunakan di Perancis juga menjadi bahasa resmi di beberapa negara yang pernah dijajahnya. Bahasa Perancis juga adalah salah satu bahasa resmi di Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa (PBB) selain bahasa Inggris, Mandarin, Rusia, Spanyol dan Arab.

Jumlah penutur: sekitar 200 juta jiwa
Jenis Aksara: Latin
Negara Penutur: Perancis, Monaco, Kanada, Swiss, Belgia, Luxemburg,

Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Kamerun, Afrika Tengah, Chad, Komoro, Kongo/Zaire, Pantai Gading, Djibouti, Guinea, Guinea Katulistiwa, Gabon, Guernsey, Madagaskar, Mali, Mauritius, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Togo, Haiti, Lebanon, Kaledonia Baru, Vanuatu. Polynesia, Martinique, Guadalupe. Bahasa resmi PBB.

Untuk menyapa dalam bahasa Perancis, ucapkan: "Bonjour" (bone-JOOR).

9. Bahasa Bengali

Bangladesh adalah sebuah negara dengan wilayah geografis yang kecil, tapi jumlah penduduknya mencapai 162 juta orang. Bahasa resmi Bangladesh adalah Bahasa Bengali. Karena wilayah Bangladesh hampir seluruhnya berbatasan dengan India maka jumlah penutur bahasa Bengali meluas hingga ke beberapa wilayah India.

Jumlah penutur: Sekitar 230 juta jiwa
Jenis Aksara: Bengali
Negara Penutur: Bangladesh, India
Untuk menyapa dalam bahasa Bengali, katakan “Ei Je” (EYE-jay).

8. Bahasa Portugis

Portugal memang hanyalah sebuah negara yang kecil dan bisa dikatakan salah satu negara miskin di Eropa. Namun pada abad ke 15, Portugal merupakan bangsa yang besar karena merekalah yang pertama-tama melakukan penjelajahan maritim ke berbagai penjuru dunia. Berkat jasa para penjelajah seperti Vasco da Gama, Henry the Navigator, Afonso de Albuquerque dan Pedro Álvares Cabral, Portugal menguasai wilayah-wilayah penting di Asia, Afrika dan Amerika Selatan dan kemudian menanamkan pengaruh kebudayaannya di sana.

Jumlah penutur: sekitar 240 juta jiwa
Jenis Aksara: Latin
Negara Penutur: Portugal, Brazil, Angola, Cape Verde, Timor Timur, Guinea-Bissau, Makau, Mozambique, São Tomé e Príncipe.
Untuk menyapa dalam bahasa Portugis, ucapkan: “Bom dia” (Bohn DEE-ah).

7. Bahasa Melayu (termasuk Bahasa Indonesia)

Nah, ini dia yang ditunggu-tunggu... Bahasa Indonesia yang termasuk dalam rumpun bahasa Melayu ternyata berada pada urutan ke 7 dengan jumlah penutur sekitar 259 juta orang. Hitungan kasar ini didapatkan dari perkiraan jumlah penduduk Indonesia tahun 2009 yang mencapai 230 juta jiwa ditambah penduduk Malaysia 28 juta, penduduk Brunei 388 ribu serta sebagian kecil penduduk Thailand, Singapura dan Timor Timur. Jumlah ini mungkin bisa bertambah karena sejak tahun 2007 Bahasa Indonesia telah ditetapkan sebagai bahasa resmi kedua di Vietnam.

Fakta menarik tentang bahasa Indonesia:
-Bahasa Indonesia menduduki peringkat 3 di Asia dan peringkat ke 26 di dunia dalam hal Tata bahasa terumit di dunia.
-Bahasa Indonesia juga mendunia di dunia maya, buktinya wikipedia
-berbahasa Indonesia telah menduduki peringkat 26 dari 250 wikipedia berbahasa asing di dunia dan peringkat 3 di Asia setelah bahasa Jepang dan Mandarin, selain itu bahasa Indonesia menjadi bahasa ke 3 yang paling banyak digunakan dalam postingan blog di wordpress.

6. Bahasa Rusia

Mikhail Gorbachev, Vladimir Putin, Roman Abramovich, Anna Kournikova, dan si cantik Maria Sharapova adalah para penutur bahasa Rusia yang kita sudah kenal lewat berbagai pemberitaan media. Namun, selain mereka tentu saja ada 270-an juta orang lainnya yang menggunakan bahasa Rusia sebagai bahasa resmi.

Jumlah penutur: sekitar 278 juta jiwa
Jenis aksara: Cyrillic
Negara penutur: Rusia, Belarusia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova. Bahasa resmi PBB
Untuk menyapa dalam bahasa Rusia, ucapkan: “Zdravstvuite” (ZDRAST- vet-yah).

5. Bahasa Arab

Bahasa Arab adalah salah satu bahasa tertua di dunia dan merupakan bahasa yang digunakan dalam Al Qur’an. Bahasa Arab banyak meminjamkan kosa katanya ke sejumlah bahasa di Eropa utamanya bahasa Spanyol, Portugis dan Sisilia. Bahasa Arab, seperti juga bahasa Ibrani dan Persia memakai sistem penulisan aksara dari kanan ke kiri. Sejak tahun 1974, bahasa Arab digunakan sebagai salah satu bahasa resmi di PBB.

Jumlah penutur: sekitar 300 juta orang
Jenis aksara: Arab
Negara penutur: Arab Saudi, Aljazair, Bahrain, Chad, Komoro, Djibouti, Mesir, Eritrea, Irak, Israel, Yordania, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Maroko, Niger, Oman, Palestina, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Uni Emirat Arab, Sahara Barat, Yaman, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali. Bahasa resmi PBB
Untuk menyapa dalam bahasa Arab, ucapkan; Assalammualaikum Wr Wb.

4. Bahasa Spanyol

Setelah Portugal menguasai jalur-jalur maritim di Asia, Afrika dan Amerika pada abad ke 15, gantian Spanyol yang mendominasi wilayah-wilayah tersebut sejak abad ke 16 dan 17. Akibatnya, banyak kebudayaan Spanyol yang tertancap kuat di sana. Saat ini, Bahasa Spanyol banyak dipakai sebagai bahasa resmi negara-negara di Amerika Tengah dan Selatan. Selain itu, bahasa Spanyol juga banyak dituturkan di beberapa negara bagian Amerika Serikat yang berbatasan dengan Meksiko. Bahkan beberapa kosa kata bahasa Inggris dipinjam dari bahasa Spanyol seperti tornado, bonanza, patio, quesadilla, Enchilada, dan taco grande supreme, dll.

Jumlah penutur: sekitar 400 juta
Jenis aksara: Latin
Negara penutur: Spanyol, Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guinea Katulistiwa, Guatemala, Honduras, Kolombia, Kosta Rika, Kuba, Mexico, Nikaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Uruguay, Venezuela
Untuk menyapa dalam bahasa Spanyol, ucapkan: “Hola”.

3. Bahasa Hindi

India memang unik! Bayangkan saja, negara ini punya penduduk terbanyak kedua di dunia, film-film Bollywood, Taj Mahal, Raja Asoka yang Agung, Mahatma Gandhi.... ehh, ternyata India tidak memiliki bahasa nasional resmi. Bahasa Hindi yang dituturkan oleh sebagian besar masyarakat India hanya diakui sebagai bahasa resmi sehari-hari bersama bahasa Inggris dan bukan sebagai bahasa nasional oleh konsitusinya.

Jumlah penutur: sekitar 497 juta
Jenis aksara: Devanagari
Negara penutur: India, AS (100.000 jiwa), Mauritius (685.170 jiwa), Afrika Selatan (890.292), Yaman (232.760 jiwa), Uganda (147.000 jiwa), Singapura (5.000 jiwa), Selandia Baru (20.000 jiwa), Jerman (30.000 jiwa), Fiji, Nepal, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana dan Uni Emirat Arab.
Untuk menyapa dalam bahasa Hindi, ucapkan “Namaste” (Nah-MAH-stay).

2. Bahasa Inggris

Nah, ini dia bahasa paling populer di dunia sekaligus bahasa yang paling banyak diadopsi menjadi bahasa resmi di beberapa negara dan organisasi internasional. Tercatat ada 53 negara dan 10 organisasi internasional yang memakai bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa resmi. Selain itu, hampir semua negara di dunia menerapkan Bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa kedua setelah bahasa nasionalnya masing-masing.

Jumlah penutur: sekitar 500 juta jiwa
Jenis aksara: Latin
Negara penutur: Inggris Raya, AS, Afrika Selatan, Antigua & Barbuda, Australia, Bahama, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei Darussalam, Dominika, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Fiji, Filipina, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, Hong Kong, India, Irlandia, Jamaika, Kamerun, Kanada, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Maladewa, Malta, Marshall Kepulauan, Maritius, Micronesia, Namibia, Nauru, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palau, Papua Nugini, Rwanda, Saint Kitts & Nevs, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent & Grenada, Samoa, Selandia Baru, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapura, Solomon Kepulauan, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad & Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Organisasi Internasional: PBB, Uni Eropa, Persemakmuran, CoE, NATO, NAFTA, OAS, OIC, PIF, UKUSA, dll.

1. Bahasa Mandarin

Tak salah lagi, Bahasa Mandarin adalah bahasa yang paling banyak dituturkan orang di seluruh dunia. Jumlah penduduk di China/Tiongkok saat ini diperkirakan hampir mencapai 1,4 milyar juta jiwa. Dari jumlah ini, semuanya diwajibkan bertutur kata resmi dalam satu bahasa yaitu Bahasa Mandarin. Belum lagi, para imigran Tionghoa di berbagai penjuru dunia yang setia menggunakan bahasa Mandarin sebagai bahasa sehari-harinya.

Asal-usul kata Mandarin
Kata mandarin dalam bahasa Indonesia sendiri sepertinya diserap dari bahasa Inggris yang mendeskripsikan bahasa Cina juga sebagai bahasa Mandarin. Namun sebenarnya, kata Mandarin ini diserap bahasa Inggris dari bahasa Cina sendiri. Mandarin secara harfiah berasal dari sebutan orang asing kepada pembesar-pembesar Dinasti Qing di zaman dulu. Dinasti Qing adalah dinasti yang didirikan oleh suku Manchu, sehingga pembesar-pembesar kekaisaran biasanya disebut sebagai Mandaren (Hanzi: 滿大人) yang berarti Yang Mulia Manchu. Dari sini, bahasa yang digunakan oleh para pejabat Manchu waktu itu juga disebut sebagai bahasa Mandaren. Penulisannya berevolusi menjadi Mandarin di kemudian hari.

Jumlah penutur: sekitar 1,5 milyar jiwa.
Jenis aksara: Karakter Cina
Negara penutur: Cina dan komunitas keturunan Cina lainnya di seluruh dunia. Bahasa resmi PBB.
Untuk menyapa dalam bahasa Mandarin, ucapkan "Ni hao



          Tell Netflix to Nix DRM on original productions        

Through the creation of original work, Netflix can no longer hide behind the excuse that they only use DRM due to requirements from the film and television industries. Netflix needs to work for their subscribers, and their subscribers are mistreated by DRM. Please sign the petition below, insisting that Netflix respect the rights of its subscribers!

If you'd like to read more about the issue first, scroll past the letter.

To: Reed Hastings, Netflix Founder and CEO, and Officers and Directors of the Board

Please Drop DRM on Netflix Originals

Please drop DRM on Netflix Originals.

For years you've said Hollywood production companies and other studios have demanded videos be restricted with DRM before they can be streamed on Netflix. Now that you're producing a large volume of original movies and shows, no one is holding you back from releasing them DRM-free.

You have transformed how people engage with media, but now you need to think bigger. We believe you know that DRM is harmful, that it is simply not right to demand deep control over Netflix watchers' computers just because they might do something wrong.

We're asking you to make Netflix Originals available without DRM. We respect your creative efforts. Respect us by making it possible to enjoy these movies and shows without installing dangerous, restrictive, unethical software. Netflix fancies itself an innovative company. We can't have innovation without freedom, and we can't have freedom with DRM.

Sincerely, the undersigned



TO SIGN

Please create an account below while you sign the petition. If you have an account, please follow this link to log-in and sign. Sorry for the inconvenience.

 Check if you use Netflix
 Check to receive updates on our anti-DRM work



We won't share your information. See our privacy policy.


Why you should sign

DRM is the practice of imposing technological restrictions that control what users can do with digital media. This concentrates control over production and distribution of media, giving DRM peddlers the power to carry out massive digital book (or movie!) burnings and large scale surveillance over people's media viewing habits.

Why does Netflix have Digital Restrictions Management (DRM) on their original productions? In the past, they have excused their use of DRM by claiming that the film and television industries made them do it.

That was an unacceptable excuse to begin with, but now that they make their own movies and shows, it's also a blatant falsehood.

More on Netflix & their relationship to DRM

We have been urging people to cancel their Netflix subscriptions-- and not only because the videos are locked down with DRM.

Netflix was an early supporter of efforts to get DRM (via "Encrypted Media Extensions") into Web standards (along with companies like Microsoft, Google, Comcast, and even the BBC). Netflix's DRM requirements pushed Mozilla to add it Firefox. Subscriber fees have paid for this lobbying and activity.

DRM proponents talk about the security provided by DRM, but while it may "protect" video files by limiting your access to them, it also opens you up to risks. The Electronic Frontier Foundation rightly points out that "DRM creates a massive security hole by requiring users to give up some control of their own computers." This weakness in DRM is one example of the security threat it poses to your devices: by being easy to break, it is easy to break into and use to do things like taking advantage of backdoors DRM programs install in your devices.

Contrary to public statements that restrictive technologies like DRM are a requirement in obtaining a license, artists have asked Netflix to provide their work DRM-free. When cartoonist and animator Nina Paley asked them to stream her film "Sita Sings the Blues"DRM-free, they told her it wasn't possible with their electronic delivery system. They also refused to allow her to add a notice telling viewers where they could find and download the film.

In addition to Paley, Aziz Ansari, Jim Gaffigan, and Louis CK all sell DRM-free videos from their own sites. However, Netflix made their Netflix Specials come with DRM. We've been asking ourselves if they really required Netflix to add it in order to make and stream these videos.

We're always working to keep you informed about DRM. To learn more, read:


          Tell Netflix to Nix DRM on original productions        

Through the creation of original work, Netflix can no longer hide behind the excuse that they only use DRM due to requirements from the film and television industries. Netflix needs to work for their subscribers, and their subscribers are mistreated by DRM. Please sign the petition below, insisting that Netflix respect the rights of its subscribers!

If you'd like to read more about the issue first, scroll past the letter.

To: Reed Hastings, Netflix Founder and CEO, and Officers and Directors of the Board

Please Drop DRM on Netflix Originals

Please drop DRM on Netflix Originals.

For years you've said Hollywood production companies and other studios have demanded videos be restricted with DRM before they can be streamed on Netflix. Now that you're producing a large volume of original movies and shows, no one is holding you back from releasing them DRM-free.

You have transformed how people engage with media, but now you need to think bigger. We believe you know that DRM is harmful, that it is simply not right to demand deep control over Netflix watchers' computers just because they might do something wrong.

We're asking you to make Netflix Originals available without DRM. We respect your creative efforts. Respect us by making it possible to enjoy these movies and shows without installing dangerous, restrictive, unethical software. Netflix fancies itself an innovative company. We can't have innovation without freedom, and we can't have freedom with DRM.

Sincerely, the undersigned



TO SIGN

Please create an account below while you sign the petition. If you have an account, please follow this link to log-in and sign. Sorry for the inconvenience.

 Check if you use Netflix
 Check to receive updates on our anti-DRM work



We won't share your information. See our privacy policy.


Why you should sign

DRM is the practice of imposing technological restrictions that control what users can do with digital media. This concentrates control over production and distribution of media, giving DRM peddlers the power to carry out massive digital book (or movie!) burnings and large scale surveillance over people's media viewing habits.

Why does Netflix have Digital Restrictions Management (DRM) on their original productions? In the past, they have excused their use of DRM by claiming that the film and television industries made them do it.

That was an unacceptable excuse to begin with, but now that they make their own movies and shows, it's also a blatant falsehood.

More on Netflix & their relationship to DRM

We have been urging people to cancel their Netflix subscriptions-- and not only because the videos are locked down with DRM.

Netflix was an early supporter of efforts to get DRM (via "Encrypted Media Extensions") into Web standards (along with companies like Microsoft, Google, Comcast, and even the BBC). Netflix's DRM requirements pushed Mozilla to add it Firefox. Subscriber fees have paid for this lobbying and activity.

DRM proponents talk about the security provided by DRM, but while it may "protect" video files by limiting your access to them, it also opens you up to risks. The Electronic Frontier Foundation rightly points out that "DRM creates a massive security hole by requiring users to give up some control of their own computers." This weakness in DRM is one example of the security threat it poses to your devices: by being easy to break, it is easy to break into and use to do things like taking advantage of backdoors DRM programs install in your devices.

Contrary to public statements that restrictive technologies like DRM are a requirement in obtaining a license, artists have asked Netflix to provide their work DRM-free. When cartoonist and animator Nina Paley asked them to stream her film "Sita Sings the Blues"DRM-free, they told her it wasn't possible with their electronic delivery system. They also refused to allow her to add a notice telling viewers where they could find and download the film.

In addition to Paley, Aziz Ansari, Jim Gaffigan, and Louis CK all sell DRM-free videos from their own sites. However, Netflix made their Netflix Specials come with DRM. We've been asking ourselves if they really required Netflix to add it in order to make and stream these videos.

We're always working to keep you informed about DRM. To learn more, read:


          Daftar Ibu Kota Negara Dunia Diurutkan Berdasarkan Abjad Nama Negara        
 Inilah nama2 ibukota negara dunia.

Afghanistan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kabul Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Afrika Selatan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Pretoria Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Afrika Tengah Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bangui Berada di Wilayah Afrika
AIjazair Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Algier Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Albania Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Tirana Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Amerika Serikat Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Washington Berada di Wilayah Amerika Utara
Andora Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Andora Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Angola Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Luanda Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Antigua Ibukota Negaranya Adalah St. John's Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Argentina Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Buenos Aires Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Australia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Canberra Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Austria Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Wina Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Azerbaizan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Baku Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Bahrain Ibukota Negaranya Adalah AI Manama Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Bangladesh Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Dakka Berada di Wilayah Asia Selatan
Barbados Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bridgetown Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Belanda Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Amsterdam Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Belau Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Koror Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Belgia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Brussel Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Belize Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Belmopan Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Belorusia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Minsk Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Benin Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Porto Novo Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Bhutan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Thimbu Berada di Wilayah Asia Selatan
Bolivia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah La Paz Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Bosnia Herzegovina Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Sarajevo Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Bostwana Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Gabourone Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Brasilia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Brasilia Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Brunei Darussalam Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bandar Seri Begawan Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Bulgaria Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Sofia Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Burkina Faso Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Ouagadoudou Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Burundi Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bujumbura Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Ceko Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Praha Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Chad Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Ndjamena Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Chili Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Santiago Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Costa Rica Ibukota Negaranya Adalah San Yose Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Croatia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Zagrib Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Denmark Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kopenhagen Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Dominika Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Santo Domingo Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
EI Savador Ibukota Negaranya Adalah San Salvador Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Equador Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Quito Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Eritrea Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Asmara Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Estonia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Tallinu Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Ethiopia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Addis Ababa Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Federasi Negara Micronesia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Ponape Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Fiji Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Suva Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Filipina Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Manila Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Finlandia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Helsinki Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Gabon Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Libreville Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Gambia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Banyul Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Georgia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Grozny Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Ghana Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Akra Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Grenada Ibukota Negaranya Adalah St. George's Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Guadeloupe Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Besse Terre Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Guatemala Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Guatemala Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Guienia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Konakri Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Guinea Bissau Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bissau Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Guinea Katulistiwa Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Malabo Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Guyana Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Georgetown Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Guyana (Prancis) Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kayenne Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Haiti Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Port au Prince Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Honduras Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Tegucigalpa Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Hongaria Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Budapest Berada di Wilayah Eropa
India Ibukota Negaranya Adalah New Delhi Berada di Wilayah Asia Selatan
Indonesia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Jakarta Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Inggris Ibukota Negaranya Adalah London Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Irak Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bagdad Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Iran Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Teheran Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Irlandia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Dublin Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Islandia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Reykyavik Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Israel Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Tel Aviv Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Italia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Roma Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Jamaika Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kingstone Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Jepang Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Tokyo Berada di Wilayah Asia Timur
Jerman Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Berlin Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Jibouti Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Jibouti Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Kaledonia Baru Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Normea Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Kamboja Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Phnom Penh Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Kamerun Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Yaonde Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Kanada Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Ottawa Berada di Wilayah Amerika Utara
Kazakhstan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Alma Ata Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Kenya Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Nairobi Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Kirgiz Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Frunze Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Kiribati Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bairiki Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Kolumbia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bogota Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Kongo Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Brazzaville Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Korea Selatan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Seoul Berada di Wilayah Asia Timur
Korea Utara Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Pyongyang Berada di Wilayah Asia Timur
Kuba Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Havana Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Kuwait Ibukota Negaranya Adalah AI Kuwait Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Laos Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Vientiane Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Latvia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Riga Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Lesotho Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Maseru Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Libanon Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Beirut Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Liberia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Monrovia Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Libia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Tripoli Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Lithuania Ibukota Negaranya Adalah ViIna Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Luxemburg Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Luxemburg Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Macedonia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Skopje Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Maladewa Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Male Berada di Wilayah Asia Selatan
Malagasi Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Tananarive Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Malawi Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Lilongwe Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Malaysia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kuala Lumpur Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Mali Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bamako Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Malta Ibukota Negaranya Adalah La Valetta Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Maroko Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Rabat Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Martinique Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Fort De France Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Mauritania Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Nouackohott Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Mauritius Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Port Louis Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Meksiko Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Mexico City Berada di Wilayah Amerika Utara
Mesir Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kairo Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Mo!dovia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kishinev Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Monaco Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Monaco Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Mongolia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Ulanbator Berada di Wilayah Asia Timur
Mozambik Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Maputo Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Myanmar Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Rangoon Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Namibia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Windhoek Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Nepal Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kathmandu Berada di Wilayah Asia Selatan
New Zealand Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Wellington Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Nicaragua Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Managua Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Niger Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Niamey Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Nigeria Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Lagos Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Norwegia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Oslo Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Oatar Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Doha Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Oman Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Muskat Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Pakistan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Islamabad Berada di Wilayah Asia Selatan
Panama Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Panama Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Pantai Gading Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Abijan Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Papua Nugini Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Port Moresby Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Paraguay Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Asuncion Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Peru Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Lima Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Poerto Riko Ibukota Negaranya Adalah San Juan Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Polandia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Warsawa Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Portugal Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Lisabon Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Prancis Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Paris Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Republik Rakyat Cina Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Beijing Berada di Wilayah Asia Timur
Rumania Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bukarest Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Rusia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Moskow Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Rwanda Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kigali Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Sahara Ibukota Negaranya Adalah El Alun Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Salomon Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Honiara Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Samoa Barat Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Apia Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Saudi Arabia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Riyadh Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Senegal Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Dakar Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Serbia Montenegro Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Beograd Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Sierra Leone Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Freetown Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Singapura Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Singapura Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Siprus Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Nikosia Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Slovenia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Ljubljana Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Slowakia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bratislava Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Somalia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Mogadishiu Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Spanyoi Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Madrid Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Srilanka Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kolombo Berada di Wilayah Asia Selatan
Sudan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Khartoum Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Suriah Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Damaskus Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Surinarne Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Paramaribo Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Swazi Land Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Mbabane Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Swedia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Stockholm Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Swiss Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bern Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Tadzhikistan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Dushanbe Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Tahiti Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Pappete Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Taiwan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Taipeh Berada di Wilayah Asia Timur
Tanzania Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Dar`es Salam Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Thailand Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Bangkok Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Timor Leste Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Dili Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Togo Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Lome Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Tonga Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Nukualofa Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Trinidad & Tobago Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Port of Span Berada di Wilayah Amerika Tengah
Tunisia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Tunis Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Turki Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Ankara Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Turkmenistan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Ashakabad Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Tuvalu Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Funafuti Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Uganda Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kampala Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Ukraina Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kiev Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Uni Emirat Arab Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Abu Dhabi Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Uruguay Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Montevideo Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Uzbekistan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Tashkent Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Vanuatu Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Port Vila Berada di Wilayah Australia Oceania
Vatikan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Vatikan Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Venezuela Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Caracas Berada di Wilayah Amerika Selatan
Vietnam Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Hanoi Berada di Wilayah Asia Tenggara
Yaman Selatan Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Aden Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Yaman Utara Ibukota Negaranya Adalah San'a Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Yordania Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Amman Berada di Wilayah Asia Barat
Yunani Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Athena Berada di Wilayah Eropa
Zaire Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Kinshasa Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Zambia Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Lusaka Berada di Wilayah Afrika
Zimbabwe Ibukota Negaranya Adalah Harare Berada di Wilayah Afrika


          Why we’ve ditched the office        

The outside of 8a Legge Lane, Jewellery Quarter, Birmingham

At the start of the Christmas break we closed those black double doors on our office of the last 13 years one last time – as of January 2017 we’ve become a ‘distributed' team. Basically this means that we work together remotely day-to-day (from our respective homes most of the time), meeting in person every week or so.

There wasn't one catalyst for taking this decision – as with most big changes there were lots of reasons – but certainly one of the biggest drivers, and biggest changes for each of us personally, was to get rid of the daily commute.

Ugh, that commute! Despite the team all being based in and around Birmingham, between us we were still managing to rack-up a ridiculous 26 hours a week travelling to and from the office each day.

It's one thing having some time to get into the 'work mindset' every morning but that’s more than 3 working days worth of time sat in cars or on packed commuter trains. That’s how long it’d take to (re)watch a complete season of 24, with several generous tea/loo breaks between episodes. That’s the time it took the entire globe to see-in 2017 – from Kiribati to Baker Island – for goodness sake.

By any measure, this is neither good nor sensible use of time – but particularly in terms of work/life balance. Not to mention the significant environmental impact and monetary cost of all that travelling to-and-fro.

The old office meeting space – sofa and all

And how often were we actually meeting with clients at the office? A handful of times a year at most; which doesn’t really warrant having a permanent dedicated meeting space. And the construction work happening in the street, while not crippling by any means, had been fairly noisy for a good few months and was unlikely to be finished in less than a year. Plus there was the possibility of our building being sold within the next couple of years and, if so, we’d have to find another office anyway – paying a lot more than the current rent for not-as-nice a space. Hmmm. You can see where this was going …

We realised we’d actually been working perfectly well with clients in different locations for years, so … why not each other? We’d done the odd day of home-working anyway, so making that a permanent set-up didn’t seem an impossible leap.

Once the idea was planted it was time to hit Google and research the pros and, particularly, cons of moving away from all working in the same space, from people who’d already done it.

A combination of our hypotheticals, along with the practical experiences of those who’d already taken the no-office plunge, gave us a decent list of pros and cons:

Pros

  • No commute! This is a big one – saving time, money and the environment – so definitely counts as three-pros-in-one
  • No travel disruption (leaves on the line, snow/ice on the roads etc.)
  • Not paying over-the-odds for city centre rent; hell, not paying *any* rent!
  • We could each create our perfect working environment; noisy/quiet, messy/tidy, dressed/pyjamas
  • Forced to be at the cutting-edge of digital technology and communication – as we’d be relying on it
  • We’d have to be more structured with internal meetings – yes, this was a ‘pro’
  • More internet connections = someone’d always be connected
  • No construction noise/disruption from the new flats apartments being built a stone’s throw away
  • We’d be all set-up incase of out-of-hours emergencies
  • Opens the possibility of working in-house with clients, with little disruption/set-up
  • If any Supercoolers move away from Brum, they won’t have to leave their job
  • We could recruit from further afield without the need for someone to relocate or have a huge commute (and, practically at least, setting-up a new home-worker’s easier than adding another body to an office)

Cons

  • Possible barriers to effective communication – both regarding projects day-to-day, and the ‘team spirit’ side of working with others
  • It doesn’t suit everyone
  • More temptation to eat ALL THE BISCUITS IN THE HOUSE

The pros pretty much speak for themselves and are pretty convincing; but obviously the big worries were the cons.

Communication barriers were mentioned in nearly every essay, news item and blog post we read as part of our research into remote working. However, each of these articles also detailed how other companies had overcome potential communication issues; primarily with tools we were already using day-to-day – Slack, Trello, Hangout, Skype etc. We also knew it’d be important to be sure and maintain social/personal communication as well as working together on projects. So, this 'con' was definitely surmountable.

A large part of the reasoning behind ditching the office was to give everyone in the team a better work/life balance, so this change absolutely had to work for everyone. It had to be all or nothing … so, how did we go about planning for, trialling and, clearly, ultimately taking the plunge into ditching the office?

Find out in the next thrilling installment: How to go remote – detailing the myriad considerations and months of planning that go into becoming an office-free business.

(Oh; and as for being tempted by unhealthy snacks, I'm still working on it …)



          Save ARENA and Upcoming Events across Australia        
We are right now seeing dozens of faith communities across Australasia and the Pacific join #Pray For Our Pacific Sabbath, in response to a call to prayer from Christian Pacific Islanders in 350.org Pacific. Thank you to all those who have initiated Pray For Our Pacific in their own faith community or area, and those who promoted the idea. It’s caught on in Fiji, Tonga, Samoa, Kiribati, PNG, Canada, USA, etc, even Germany. See the 350.org video clip featuring Maria and Jill from the Pacific Calling Partnership here.

          ØªØ¹Ø¯Ø§Ø¯ خودرو موجود در هر کشور در ازای هر 1000 نفر        

شاید تا به حال زیاد شنیده ایم که در تهران و یا حتی شهرستانها خودرو خیلی زیاد بوده و همین امر علت اصلی ترافیک خیابانها و جاده ها است.

از شاخص های مهم و واحد مقایسه ای استاندارد جهانی برای این کار تعداد خودروهای موجود در هر کشور به ازای هر هزار نفر است. این واحد برای کشورهای اروپایی بین 500 Ø§Ù„ÛŒ 600، امریکا حدود 800، کره جنوبی 450 , ژاپن 588 است.

برای ایران این شاخص در سال 2012 200 بوده و در حال حاضر حدود 250 می باشد.

در ادامه می توانید این شاخص را برای کشورهای مختلف دنیا مشاهده فرمایید و نتیجه اینکه ایران تا رسیدن به استاندارد جهانی یعنی 500 خیلی فاصله دارد و هنوز خودرو کم داریم و همین شاخص علت اصلی انگیزه  Ø´Ø±Ú©ØªÙ‡Ø§ÛŒ خودرو ساز را برای Ø³Ø±Ù…ایه گذاری ایجاد می کند.

در این شاخص ایران در جهان رتبه 75 را دارد 

ther two-wheelers.

 

RankCountryMotor vehicles per
1000 people
Notes
1  San Marino 1,263 2010[1]
2  Monaco 842 2011[1]
3  Liechtenstein 826 2011[1]
4  United States 809 2011[1][2]
5  Iceland 747 2011[1]
6  Luxembourg 741 2011[1]
7  Australia 731 2015[3]
8  Malta 709 2011[1]
9  New Zealand 708