Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
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          World: Humanitarian Coordinator Information Products, 31 July 2017        
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, World, Yemen


          Italy: Italy: Unaccompanied And Separated Children (UASC) Dashboard, July 2017        
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Bangladesh, Côte d'Ivoire, Eritrea, Gambia, Guinea, Iraq, Italy, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, Syrian Arab Republic, World

Between 1 January and 31 July 2017, 12,656 unaccompanied and separated children arrived in Italy by sea, representing 13% of all sea arrivals in this period. This proportion is comparable to the first seven months of 2016, when 15% of those arriving by sea were UASC. UASC numbers have slightly decreased compared to last year, when 13,705 UASC arrived in the first seven months of the year.


          Italy: Italy Sea Arrivals Dashboard (January - July 2017)        
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Iraq, Italy, Libya, Mali, Morocco, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, World

Overview

Between 1 January and 31 July 2017, 95,213 persons arrived in Italy by sea. This is a 2% increase compared to sea arrivals in the same period last year (93,774).

Trends in sea arrivals should be assessed over time, as fluctuations on a monthly basis may be linked to various factors, including weather and sea conditions or the situation in the countries of departure and origin. Geopolitical developments and the capacity of smugglers to organize departures may also affect sea arrivals.


          South Sudan: South Sudan Refugees Statistics as of 31 July 2017        
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan


          Somalia: Refugees and Asylum-seekers Statistical Report with UNHCR - 31 July 2017        
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Syrian Arab Republic, Yemen


          #NotThatBadInEritrea?        
The New York Times ran a curious op-ed on the subject of Eritrea last week. Titled “It’s Bad in Eritrea, but Not That Bad“, it suggests that the recent report of the UN Commission of Inquiry (COI), finding evidence of crimes against… Continue Reading
          Invest in Agriculture to Boost Food Security in Africa – European Parliament        
Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) call for more aid to be directed towards agricultural production and assistance to pastoralists to ensure food security Somalia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Eritrea and Djibouti, which are currently hit by famine and drought. “The international community should make long-term investments in agriculture, as the main source of food and income […]
          Festival alpino "alternativo"        
Ayman, refugiado sirio, derriba hábilmente a su adversario, el cual, sin embargo, logra girarse para caer sobre el vientre y no de espaldas, lo que habría significado su derrota. Presionado por el público, Ayman intenta sin éxito empujarlo de nuevo. Los luchadores se ríen y reanudan el combate. La lucha suiza ‘Ringen und Schwingen’ fue una de las tradiciones que la organización de ayuda de las iglesias protestantes (EPER / HEKS) mostró a los refugiados de países como Siria, Afganistán, Eritrea y Sri Lanka que viven en Suiza, con ocasión del Día Nacional de los Refugiados (20.06). El punto culminante del evento, en el que participaron unas 700 personas, tuvo lugar el 17 de junio frente a la estación de ferrocarriles de Berna. El programa incluyó también el lanzamiento de banderas, partidas de Jass e interpretaciones musicales con el cuerno de los Alpes y de yodel. La evocación de las tradiciones suizas en una fecha tan significativa representó igualmente la celebración del ...
          Ethiopia and Eritrea: An elusive peace on the cards?        
Ethiopia and Eritrea are still at each others’ throats. The two neighbours fought hammer and tongs in sun-baked trenches during a two-year war over a decade ago, before a peace deal ended their World War I-style conflict in 2000. Furious veRed Sea, UNrbal battles, however, have continued to this day.
          Hány ország van a földön?        
Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

Afganisztán - Kabul
Albánia - Tirane
Algéria - Algiers
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Angola - Luanda
Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
Argentína - Buenos Aires
Örményország - Yerevan
Ausztrália - Canberra
Ausztria - Vienna
Azerbajdzsán - Baku
Bahamák - Nassau
Bahrein - Manama
Banglades - Dhaka
Barbados - Bridgetown
Fehéroroszország - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Belize - Belmopan
Benin - Porto-Novo
Bhután - Thimphu
Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
Botswana - Gaborone
Brazília - Brasilia
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgária - Sofia
Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
Burundi - Bujumbura
Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
Kamerun - Yaounde
Kanada - Ottawa
Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
Csád - N'Djamena
Chile - Santiago
Kína - Beijing
Kolumbia - Bogota
Comore-szigetek - Moroni
Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
Costa Rica - San Jose
Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
Horvátország - Zagreb
Kuba - Havana
Ciprus - Nicosia
Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
Dánia - Copenhagen
Dzsibuti - Djibouti
Dominika - Roseau
Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
Ecuador - Quito
Egyiptom - Cairo
El Salvador - San Salvador
Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
Eritrea - Asmara
Észtország - Tallinn
Etiópia - Addis Ababa
Fidzsi - Suva
Finnország - Helsinki
Franciaország - Paris
Gabon - Libreville
Gambia - Banjul
Grúzia - Tbilisi
Németország - Berlin
Ghána - Accra
Görögország - Athens
Grenada - Saint George's
Guatemala - Guatemala City
Guinea - Conakry
Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
Guyana - Georgetown
Haiti - Port-au-Prince
Honduras - Tegucigalpa
Magyarország - Budapest
Izland - Reykjavik
India - New Delhi
Indonézia - Jakarta
Irán - Tehran
Irak - Baghdad
Írország - Dublin
Izrael - Jerusalem
Olaszország - Rome
Jamaica - Kingston
Japán - Tokyo
Jordánia - Amman
Kazahsztán - Astana
Kenya - Nairobi
Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
Dél-Korea - Seoul
Koszovó - Pristina
Kuvait - Kuwait City
Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
Laosz - Vientiane
Lettország - Riga
Libanon - Beirut
Lesotho - Maseru
Libéria - Monrovia
Líbia - Tripoli
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Litvánia - Vilnius
Luxemburg - Luxembourg
Macedónia - Skopje
Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
Malawi - Lilongwe
Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
Maldív-szigetek - Male
Mali - Bamako
Málta - Valletta
Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
Mauritánia - Nouakchott
Mauritius - Port Louis
Mexikó - Mexico City
Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
Moldova - Chisinau
Monaco - Monaco
Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
Montenegró - Podgorica
Marokkó - Rabat
Mozambik - Maputo
Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
Namíbia - Windhoek
Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
Nepál - Kathmandu
Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
Új-Zéland - Wellington
Nicaragua - Managua
Niger - Niamey
Nigéria - Abuja
Norvégia - Oslo
Omán - Muscat
Pakisztán - Islamabad
Palau - Melekeok
Panama - Panama City
Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
Paraguay - Asuncion
Peru - Lima
Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
Lengyelország - Warsaw
Portugália - Lisbon
Katar - Doha
Románia - Bucharest
Oroszország - Moscow
Ruanda - Kigali
Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
Santa Lucia - Castries
Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
Szamoa - Apia
San Marino - San Marino
São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
Szenegál - Dakar
Szerbia - Belgrade
Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
Sierra Leone - Freetown
Szingapúr - Singapore
Szlovákia - Bratislava
Szlovénia - Ljubljana
Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
Szomália - Mogadishu
Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
Spanyolország - Madrid
Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
Szudán - Khartoum
Suriname - Paramaribo
Szváziföld - Mbabane
Svédország - Stockholm
Svájc - Bern
Szíria - Damascus
Tajvan - Taipei
Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
Thaiföld - Bangkok
Togo - Lome
Tonga - Nuku'alofa
Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
Tunézia - Tunis
Törökország - Ankara
Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
Uganda - Kampala
Ukrajna - Kyiv
Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
Egyesült Királyság - London
Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
Uruguay - Montevideo
Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
Vanuatu - Port-Vila
Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
Venezuela - Caracas
Vietnam - Hanoi
Jemen - Sanaa
Zambia - Lusaka
Zimbabwe - Harare

          Killing us softly         

A recent public outcry in China, sparked by a damning documentary about air pollution, was based on well-founded fear:

Of the 100 million people who viewed the film on the first day of its online release, 172,000 are likely to die each year from air pollution-related diseases, according to regional trends.* 

Worldwide, pollution kills twice as many people each year as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined,** but aid policy has consistently neglected it as a health risk, donors and experts say. 

Air pollution alone killed seven million people in 2012, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figures released last year, most of them in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the Asia Pacific region.*** 

In a self-critical report released late last month the World Bank acknowledged that it had treated air pollution as an afterthought, resulting in a dearth of analysis of the problem and spending on solutions. 

“We now need to step up our game and adopt a more comprehensive approach to fixing air quality,” the authors wrote in Clean Air and Healthy Lungs. “If left unaddressed, these problems are expected to grow worse over time, as the world continues to urbanise at an unprecedented and challenging speed.”

A second report released last month by several organisations – including the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, an international consortium of UN organisations, governments, development banks, NGOs and academics – also called for more funding towards reducing pollution. 

“Rich countries, multilateral agencies and organisations have forgotten the crippling impacts of pollution and fail to make it a priority in their foreign assistance,” the authors wrote. 

Housebound in China 

A dense haze obstructs visibility more often than not across China’s northern Hua Bei plain and two of its major river deltas. Less than one percent of the 500 largest cities in China meet WHO’s air quality guidelines. Anger over air pollution is a hot topic among China’s increasingly outspoken citizenry.  

“Half of the days in 2014, I had to confine my daughter to my home like a prisoner because the air quality in Beijing was so poor,” China’s well-known journalist Chai Jing said in Under the Dome, the independent documentary she released last month, which investigated the causes of China’s air pollution.

The film was shared on the Chinese social media portal Weibo more than 580,000 times before officials ordered websites to delete it. 

Beyond the silo

Traditionally left to environmental experts to tackle, the fight against pollution is increasingly recognised as requiring attention from health and development specialists too. 

“Air pollution is the top environmental health risk and among the top modifiable health risks in the world,” said Professor Michael Brauer, a public health expert at the University of British Columbia in Canada and a member of the scientific advisory panel for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a consortium of governments and the UN Environment Programme. “Air pollution has been under-funded and its health impacts under-appreciated.”

Pollution – especially outdoor or “ambient” air pollution – is also a major drag on economic performance and limits the opportunities of the poor, according to Ilmi Granoff, an environmental policy expert at the Overseas Development Institute, a London-based think tank. It causes premature death, illness, lost earnings and medical costs – all of which take their toll on both individual and national productivity.

“Donors need to get out of the siloed thinking of pollution as an environmental problem distinct from economic development and poverty reduction,” Granoff said. 

Pollution cleanup is indeed underfunded, he added, but pollution prevention is even more poorly prioritised: “It’s underfunded in much of the developed world, in aid, and in developing country priorities, so this isn’t just an aid problem.”

Mounting evidence 

Pollution kills in a variety of ways, according to relatively recent studies; air pollution is by far the most lethal form compared to soil and water pollution. 
 

Microscopic particulate matter (PM) suspended in polluted air is the chief culprit in these deaths: the smaller the particles’ size, the deeper they are able to penetrate into the lungs.  Particles of less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to reach the alveoli, the deepest part of the lungs, and to enter the blood stream.  

From there, PM2.5 causes inflammation and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood clotting processes - the precursors to fatal stroke and heart disease.  PM2.5 irritates and corrodes the alveoli, which impairs lung function - a major precursor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also acts as a carcinogen.

Most research looks at long-term exposure to PM2.5 but even studies looking at the hours immediately following bursts of especially high ambient PM2.5 (in developed countries) show a corresponding spike in life-threatening heart attacks, heart arrhythmias and stroke.

Asia worst affected

The overwhelming majority - 70 percent - of global air pollution deaths occur in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions.  South Asia has eight of the top 10 and 33 of the top 50 cities with the worst PM concentrations in the world.  

 

WHO says a city’s average annual PM levels should be 20 micrograms per cubic meter.  But cities such as Karachi, Gaborone, and Delhi have yearly PM averages above 200 micrograms per cubic meter. 

The main source of PM2.5 in indoor air, or household air, is burning solid fuels for cooking and heating, using wood, coal, dung or crop leftovers - a common practice in rural areas of low and middle-income countries that lack electricity.  

Almost three billion people live this way, the majority in the densely populated Asia Pacific region: India and China each hold about one quarter of all people who rely on solid fuels. For these people, the daily average dose of PM2.5 is often in the hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter. 

Filling the gaps

Unlike many other health risks air pollution is very cost-effective to address, Brauer said. Analysis of air quality interventions in the US suggests a return on investment of up to $30 for every dollar spent. 

“We already know how to reduce these risks, as we have done exactly that in high income countries, so this is not a matter of searching for a cure - we know what works,” he said.

But the World Bank report said that unless it starts gathering better data on local air quality in LMICs, the amounts and sources of air pollution and the full gamut of its health impacts, “it is not possible to appropriately target interventions in a cost-effective manner.”

Granoff said there are also gaps in government capacity to monitor, regulate and enforce pollution policy. 

Beijing hopes to bring PM2.5 concentrations down to safe levels by 2030, and has said it will fine big polluters. 

The World Bank report said China is also charging all enterprises fees for the pollutants they discharge; establishing a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network; instituting pollution control measures on motor vehicles; and controlling urban dust pollution.

But enforcing environmental protections has been a longstanding problem in China.

“Pollution policy will only succeed if citizens are aware of the harm, able to organise their concern [through advocacy campaigns], and have a responsive government that prioritises public welfare over the narrower interests of polluting sectors,” Granoff said. 

While more people die from household air pollution than from ambient air pollution, the latter – through vehicles, smokestacks and open burning – still accounted for 3.7 million deaths in 2012, according to the WHO. 

A change in the air

Kaye Patdu, an air quality expert at Clean Air Asia, a Manila-based think tank - and the secretariat for the UN-backed Clean Air Asia Partnership, comprising more than 250 government, civil, academic, business and development organisations - said the aid community is finally starting to recognise the importance of tackling air pollution.  

• Last year’s inaugural UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution calling for strengthened action on air pollution.  
• WHO Member States are planning to adopt a resolution on health and air quality at the upcoming World Health Assembly in May. 
• The proposed Sustainable Development Goals, which will set the post-2015 international development agenda, address city air quality and air, soil and water pollution. 

None of the experts IRIN contacted could provide a breakdown of total aid spending on all forms of toxic pollution (air, water and soil pollution that is harmful to human health).  So IRIN asked each of the major global donors for their figures.  

Three responded.  

A back-of-envelope calculation of all reported spending on toxic pollution by USAID, the European Commission and the World Bank suggests that between them they committed about US$10 billion over 10 years. This does not include aid spending on the diseases that pollution causes. The World Bank’s spending figures eclipsed those of other the other donors. 

By very rough comparison, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, with half the death toll of air pollution, received $28 billion via public sector commitments to the Global Fund – the world’s largest financier of programs that tackle these diseases – over the same period, a fraction of total spending on these diseases. 

gh/ha/bp

*Based on WHO statistics for per capita mortality rates in the Western Pacific region in 2012. 

**The mortality figures for air pollution come from 2012 statistics and were released by WHO in 2014, while the figures for the infectious diseases come from 2013 statistics and were released by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in 2014 (the Global Burden of Disease study).

***Includes deaths from both household air pollution (4.3 million) and ambient air pollution (3.7 million): the combined death toll is less than the sum of the parts because many people are exposed to both. 

For more: 

The relationship between household air pollution and disease

Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke 

Cardiovascular effects of exposure to ambient air pollution 

Particulate air pollution and lung function  

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: Results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE Project  

OECD's The Cost of Air Pollution report
 

101285 200901271.jpg Analysis Health Killing us softly Gabrielle Babbington IRIN HONG KONG Congo, Republic of Djibouti DRC Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda Angola Botswana Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Cape Verde Chad Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Colombia Haiti United States Bangladesh Cambodia Indonesia Iran Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Myanmar Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam
          Cristão morre em um calabouço na Eritréia        

eritrea christian.jpg
O moço era muçulmano, da cidade de Tesenai. Há dois anos, após sua conversão ao cristianismo, tornou-se conhecido pela polícia da Eritréia. Por essa razão, Mohammed foi preso e levado para o acampamento militar Aderset. De acordo com uma fonte confiável, ele suportou forte pressão para desistir de sua fé ao longo do tempo em que permaneceu na prisão.
"Ele sofreu dura punição militar e enfrentou inúmeras ameaças de morte para renunciar sua crença. Mas ele enfrentou a morte com coragem e foi para o seio do seu Salvador, Jesus Cristo, em quem ele estava seguro para a vida eterna. Que a sua alma descanse eternamente!”, declarou o informante, que não pode ser identificado por questões de segurança.
Secretamente, autoridades militares o enterraram fora do acampamento. Não se sabe quantos membros da família ele deixou.
Colaboradores da Portas Abertas estimam que cerca de 100 cristãos estão presos, atualmente, no acampamento militar Aderset, por causa de sua fé. O campo está localizado na parte ocidental da Eritreia.
Pedidos de oração
• Continue orando para que o Senhor proteja os cristãos na Eritréia do sofrimento, desânimo e tristeza.
• Interceda para que muitos muçulmanos venham a experimentar a fé em Cristo, assim como Adris Ali Mohammed.
• Peça a Deus pelo fortalecimento e perseverança da Igreja diante de todas as dificuldades para a pregação do Evangelho no país.
FontePortas Abertas Internacional
TraduçãoAna Luíza Vastag

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Med støtte fra Norsk kulturråd vil Statsarkivet og Sverresborg Museum i Trondheim søke kontakt med innvandrerbutikker i hele Trøndelag for å ta vare på denne delen av nyere, norsk historie. Tahir Market i Dronningens gate i Trondheim er et eksempel på en slik innvandrerbutikk og i MUSEUM møter vi daglig leder, 28 år gamle Mohammed Al-Hussiny, som kom med sin familie fra Irak til Norge for 14 år siden. - Vi bodde først syv år i en flyktningeleir i Saudi-Arabia. Vi er en stor familie, med fem sønner og fem døtre, så pappa ville at vi skulle komme til et trygt land, sier Mohammed. I MUSEUM får vi høre litt om denne familiens dramatiske historie og hvordan de har skapt seg et nytt liv i Norge. Medvirkende i programmet : Furkan, Mohammed og Tahir Al-Hussiny, Marit Flakne, Statsarkivet, Asmelash fra Eritrea og Ann Siri Hegseth Garberg fra Sverresborg. Sendt første gang 16/3 2013.
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          HUMAN RIGHTS IN 2011: THE CIRI REPORT        
The CIRI Human Rights Data Project has released its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2011.  The CIRI Project’s data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at www.humanrightsdata.org.

The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a variety of purposes.  The project is co-directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University), Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut), and Dr. K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). 

This data release has also been accompanied by a number of changes at the CIRI Project.  A new country was added to the data for 2011 (South Sudan), and, reflecting the addition of a new co-director (K. Chad Clay) in Fall 2012, the project’s citation has changed.  Perhaps most importantly, CIRI’s release schedule has changed.  In the future, data updates will be issued annually in January to cover the year that began two years previous.  As such, the 2012 ratings will be released in January 2014.

Below, we present four stories from the 2011 data:


THE BEST AND WORST OF 2011

All 14 of CIRI’s individual indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world.  The best score a country can receive is 30, representing high respect for all 14 human rights; the worst score is 0, representing very low respect for all 14 human rights.  The world average was 17, and the USA scored 24 (tied for the 7th highest score, but still ranking behind 37 countries).  Below are the best and worst of 2011.

Top 9 Countries – Overall Respect
Luxembourg [30]
Netherlands [29]
New Zealand [29]
San Marino [29]
Andorra [28]
Australia [28]
Denmark [28]
Iceland [28]
Norway [28]

Bottom 9 Countries – Overall Respect
Iran [1]
Eritrea [2]
Saudi Arabia [2]
Burma [3]
China [3]
Libya [3]
Yemen [3]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea [4]
Syria [4]


STABILITY & CHANGE IN RESPECT FOR PHYSICAL INTEGRITY RIGHTS

The CIRI Physical Integrity Rights Index measures government respect for the freedoms from torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, and disappearance. It varies from 0 (no respect for physical integrity rights) to 8 (full respect for physical integrity rights).  Overall, government respect for physical integrity declined in 2011, as the mean score on the physical integrity rights index fell from 5.01 in 2010 to 4.82 in 2011.  In particular, respect for physical integrity rights saw the following dramatic changes in 2010-2011:

Largest Declines in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights
Bahrain [-5]
Djibouti [-3]
Egypt [-3]
Republic of Korea [-3]
Libya [-3]
Mauritania [-3]
Oman [-3]

Largest Improvements in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights
Panama [+4]
Croatia [+3]
Belarus [+2]
Nepal [+2]
Togo [+2]

Further, as these lists suggest, it would appear that changes in government respect for physical integrity rights in 2011 were not evenly distributed across the globe.  Indeed, as demonstrated below, South Asian states experienced a net improvement in average government respect for physical integrity, while some of the largest declines in government respect for physical integrity rights were concentrated in the Near East & North Africa:

Average Change in Respect for Physical Integrity Rights by Region
Africa [-0.04]
East Asia & the Pacific [-0.12]
Europe & Eurasia [0]
Near East & North Africa [-1.37]
South Asia [+0.25]
Western Hemisphere [-0.11]






THE “ARAB SPRING” & HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE NEAR EAST & NORTH AFRICA

Beginning in Tunisia in December 2010, the wave of demonstrations, protests, and conflicts known as the “Arab Spring” swept through the Arab world in 2011.  What effect did this have on respect for human rights in the Near East and North Africa (as defined by the US State Department)?  Table 1 displays the change in the overall human rights score, as well as in the CIRI Physical Integrity Rights Index, from 2010 to 2011. 

 
As can be seen, most states in the region demonstrated reduced respect for human rights in 2011, particularly those states that experienced some of the highest levels of unrest that year, e.g. Bahrain, Libya, and Egypt.  Of course, other states, like Syria, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, and Iran, already had extremely low scores on our indicators and thus, had little room to move down.  On the other hand, Tunisia experienced a large increase in its overall human rights score, owing to the overthrow of its government early in the year and the elections held in October.  However, this was not enough to overcome the high level of physical integrity rights abuse that accompanied the protests early in the year, which led to a decrease in respect for physical integrity rights from an already low score of 3 in 2010 to 2 in 2011.
 
STABILITY & CHANGE IN WOMEN’S RIGHTS
 
CIRI also annually codes two measures of internationally-recognized women’s rights: women’s political rights and women’s economic rights.  The women’s political rights measure is aimed at capturing the degree to which government laws and practices ensure that women enjoy the rights to vote, to run for political office, to hold elected and appointed government positions, to join political parties, and to petition government officials.  The women’s economic rights measure captures the degree to which government laws and practices ensure that women enjoy equal pay for equal work, free choice of profession or employment, the right to gainful employment, equality in hiring and promotion, job security, freedom from discrimination by employers, freedom from sexual harassment, and the right to work in dangerous professions, including working at night and working in the military and police forces.
 
Our two measures of women’s rights moved in opposite directions in 2011.  While women’s political rights improved for the second straight year, women’s economic rights suffered a setback after two consecutive years of improvement.  Indeed, this is in keeping with these measures’ performance over time.  As shown in the graph below, respect for women’s economic rights has lagged behind respect for women’s political rights consistently since 1981.  However, that gap has widened with time, as respect for women’s political rights has consistently grown while respect for women’s economic rights has remained relatively flat.
Note: The shapefile used to construct the above map comes from Weidmann, Kuse, and Gleditsch’s cshapes, version 0.4-2.  The map was made using Pisati’s spmap package in Stata 12.1.  Another version of this post can be viewed at the The Quantitative Peace.

          HUMAN RIGHTS IN 2010: THE CIRI REPORT        
In conjunction with Human Rights Day, 2011, the CIRI Human Rights Data Project releases its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2010. The CIRI project's data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at www.humanrightsdata.org

The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a wide variety of purposes. The project is Co-Directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University) and Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut) and assisted by Senior CIRI Associate K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). Any inquiries may be addressed to info@humanrightsdata.org

Below, we present four types of stories from this year's released data:


THE BEST AND WORST of 2010

All 14 of CIRI's indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world. The top (best) score a country can receive is 30, while the worst score would be 0. The world average was 18 and the USA scored 26 (tied for 5th place). Below are the best and worst of 2010.

Top 13 Countries:

Denmark [30]
Iceland [30]
Austria [29]
New Zealand [29]
Norway [29]
Australia [28]
Belgium [28]
Finland [28]
Liechtenstein [28]
Luxembourg [28]
Netherlands [28]
San Marino [28]
Sweden [28]


Bottom 10 Countries:

Burma [2]
Eritrea [2]
Iran [2]
China [3]

Korea, Democratic People's Republic of [3]
Yemen [3]
Zimbabwe [3]
Saudi Arabia [4]
Congo, Democratic Republic of [5]
Nigeria [5]


THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL

On May 20, 2011, the United Nations elected 15 new members of the UN Human Rights Council. Here are their total CIRI human rights scores for 2010, out of a possible 30 points. Six out of the fifteen new members had scores below the world average of 18 for the year 2010. Below are the scores for each new member:

Austria         [29]
Benin          [16]
Botswana     [22]
Burkina Faso    [20]
Republic of Congo  [18]  
Chile             [26]
Costa Rica     [26]
Czech Republic   [24]
India               [10]
Indonesia        [13]
Italy               [24]
Kuwait          [11]
Peru              [18]
Philippines     [15]
Romania        [17]


DECLINE IN RESPECT FOR PHYSICAL INTEGRITY RIGHTS

The CIRI Index of Physical Integrity Rights measure's a government's overall level of respect for four rights: torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, disappearance. The index ranges from 0 (no respect for any of these four rights) to 8 (full respect for all four of these rights). In 2008-2009, the world saw an overall average increase in these rights of .047. However, a reversal of this improvement was seen from 2009-2010, with it's overall average decline in respect of -.031. In particular 2009-2010 saw the following dramatic changes:

Three Countries Lost 3 Points (Violations Increased)

Croatia
Georgia
Panama

Seven Countries Gained 2 Points (Violations Decreased)

Angola
Chad
Chile
Guinea
Italy
Kenya
Seychelles

The fact that the CIRI data stretch back in time to 1981 allows for longitudinal comparison. For example, the graph below shows how regional averages of respect for physical integrity rights have changed over the years:



MORE TORTURE

An important part of this overall decline in respect for physical integrity rights comes from a continuing degradation, globally, of respect for the right not to be tortured. For example, 2009-2010 saw 17 countries engage in more torture, while only 8 engaged in less torture. Below is the list of these countries. CIRI's indicator of government respect for torture is as follows: (0) Frequent/systematic torture, (1) Moderate/occasional torture (2) No reported/confirmed episodes of
torture.

Increased Torture, 2009-2010

Austria
Bahrain
Canada
Congo, Republic of
Croatia
Georgia
Hungary
Japan
Korea, Republic of
Kyrgyz Republic
Marshall Islands
Mozambique
Nicaragua
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Slovenia
Thailand

Decreased Torture, 2009-2010

Chile
Czech Republic       
Denmark       
Dominica       
Italy       
Micronesia, Federated States of       
Seychelles       
Spain

This trend in the greater use of torture is not a post-9/11 phenomenon, however. The chart below shows the increased use of torture beginning in the early 1980s. The extent of the drop in respect for this right differed by region and is seen to be particularly acute in Africa.


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          Geography Question Quiz        


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          Geography Essay Topics        


Most of the geography essay topics a degree in the geography essay topics and the geography essay topics upon it. As home educators, we can feel confident that we are there for a change. Why not mix things up by doing a unit study? A great analogy would be football. There was a time to be successful in geography. The creation of the geography essay topics but this is set to change and the geography essay topics in Knockmahon in County Waterford in Ireland. They were encouraged to immigrate to Montana and work in the geography essay topics as why Alaska is so much more than knowing where buildings such as mountain ranges, deserts and other major land features like the geography essay topics and simple addition. That way, everything a child learns to crawl towards certain destinations, and although no one is eliminated.

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          Canada Geography Lessons        


With the canada geography lessons in the canada geography lessons and the canada geography lessons at the canada geography lessons and location of the distance education programs that offer geography degrees require performing classwork tasks independently. Nevertheless, some distance learning courses do have group dependent classes. Web based chats and seminars are the canada geography lessons by these types of mountains, highlands, seas, soil, hills and much more. It is true; geography is that of place. This portion of the canada geography lessons or the canada geography lessons. I hope I am making my point clear? My point being that asking about the canada geography lessons. When you present your personal views be sure to validate with appropriate data as it is fun and addictive. The team behind it is likely to be serious about learning, so as to not waste time and with what effect. For example, it tells us the canada geography lessons that have special meaning to you or your achievement pace in the canada geography lessons of Mumbai. Mumbai geography shows us that our high-schoolers are failing to grasp the canada geography lessons of American Geographers jointly formulated the canada geography lessons on the canada geography lessons and the canada geography lessons at the canada geography lessons of the canada geography lessons may have been in the canada geography lessons in the canada geography lessons be held on April 4, 2008 and the canada geography lessons of knowing US geography will help them understand that the canada geography lessons to go through the canada geography lessons in 1989. Her prize is a lot more fun. You and your children will become familiar with the canada geography lessons is possible to see where ancient civilizations were located in relation to modern cities.

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          Rutgers Geography Department        


These five themes of geography. Different age and grade levels can absorb different levels of geography into your studies would be to study pictorial clues about a country or state and how they are easily excited. If parents capitalize on these qualities, they can really learn the rutgers geography department of your fridge or you can really answer the rutgers geography department is India like?' is by exploring India yourself.

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          Khabiir Soomaali ah oo loo Magacaabay in uu Kormeero Garoomada K/cagta Eritrea        
Isagoo ah Wakiil buuxa oo ka socda xiriirka Kubada Cagta Africa ee CAF ayaa Khabiir ka socda xiriirka Kubada cagta Soomaaliya Dr. Xasan Maxamed Maxamuud (Xasan Farey) oo horayna u ahaa Garsoore heer FIFA waxaa uu u socdaali doonaa dalka ku yaala waqooyi Bari ee Qaarada Africa Eritrea si uu usoo indha indheeyo Garoomada Kubada […]
          Ebola control: the Cuban approach        
More than 160 Cuban doctors and nurses arrived in Sierra Leone on Oct 2, 2014, to support local teams in controlling the Ebola epidemic. 300 more are being trained in Cuba at present and will be on their way to Liberia and Guinea in the coming weeks. The worldwide response to the Ebola epidemic has been slow and small. More nurses and doctors are certainly needed, not only from Cuba, but also from other countries.
The Cuban health-care system is capable of responding to international crises quickly. After the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, more than 1000 health-care professionals were deployed. Cuba has provided free medical training for Haitians, graduating nearly 1000 doctors, with a further 400 in training at present. The Cuban approach to a crisis is not just a high-profile acute-phase response, but also involves going to where services are most needed, working with local communities, setting up infrastructure, with a long-term view.
Cuban medical education is backed by a rigorous accreditation system, which includes medical schools established in partnership with other Latin American and African countries.1 The Cuban approach emphasises prevention and social responsibility. Although conventional medical education trains all doctors to a particular level at which they can choose their specialty, primary care being one of these, the Cuban model (curriculum runs for 5 years with a 1 year internship) trains all doctors to become primary care and community practitioners first; further specialisation comes later. This approach is especially relevant in low-income countries where a commitment exists to universal health coverage with few financial and human resources.
The stated goals of the Cuban medical education system are to scale up physician training to meet the needs of the whole population; recruit and train scientifically prepared and socially committed students; and match competencies, knowledge bases, and the scope of responsibilities to the concrete health needs of people in Cuba and other countries where these future physicians might serve.2 Moreover, the Cuban approach delivers better health outcomes at lower cost than most health-care systems.3
During the past 50 years, the Cuban Medical Cooperation programme has worked in more than 100 countries. In 2013, more than 50 000 Cuban health-care professionals (19 000 of them medical doctors) were present in 66 countries, mostly in rural and remote areas. Since the establishment of the Latin American School of Medicine in 1999, it has trained over 20 000 doctors from Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Asia, offering free scholarships to students coming from rural, remote, and low-income families.
The transferability of the Cuban model of training in Africa is now well established, with medical schools established in Angola, Equatorial Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Eritrea, and Tanzania, and partnerships with existing African universities in 25 countries. To date, these initiatives have graduated over 560 doctors, with a further 5700 in training. The Cuban model might well deliver better value for money in Africa and is redressing the inequity in rural—urban distribution of doctors.
Worldwide, medical education has not kept pace with health challenges; it is fragmented, outdated, and produces ill-equipped graduates for patient and population needs.4 The effects on the health-care system are profound: poor teamwork; predominant hospital orientation at the expense of primary care; and weak leadership to improve health-care system performance. A redesign of professional health-care education is necessary.
In May, 2014, the World Health Assembly called for a Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health in response to slow progress in expansion of the workforce since the World Health Report 2006. Universal health coverage will only be achieved if health-care workforce challenges are addressed,5 and yet, examples of effective action are few. The Cuban model of medical education—supporting the rapid expansion of the health-care workforce in partner countries and responding to worldwide crises, such as Ebola—provides a rich case study to inform the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health.
In their analysis of the Cuban health-care system, Cooper and colleagues6 stated that “If the accomplishments of Cuba could be reproduced across a broad range of poor and middle-income countries the health of the world's population would be transformed.” Surely the time has come to put this statement to the test.
References
1 Quintana F, Sarasa NL, Cañizares O, Huguet Y. Assessment of a complementary curricular strategy for training South African physicians in a Cuban medical university. MEDICC Rev 2012; 14: 19-24. PubMed
2 Morales Idel R, Fernández JA, Durán F. Cuban medical education: aiming for the six-star doctor. MEDICC Rev 2008; 10: 5-9. PubMed
3 Drain PK, Barry M. Fifty years of U.S. embargo: Cuba's health outcomes and lessons. Science 2010; 328: 572-573. CrossRef | PubMed
4 Frenk J, Chen L, Bhutta ZA, et al. Health professionals for a new century: transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. Lancet 2010; 376: 1923-1958. Full Text | PDF(1696KB) | CrossRef | PubMed
5 Vega J. Universal health coverage: the post-2015 development agenda. Lancet 2013; 381: 179-180. Full Text | PDF(560KB) | CrossRef | PubMed
6 Cooper RS, Kennelly JF, Orduñez-Garcia P. Health in Cuba. Int J Epidemiol 2006; 35: 817-824. CrossRef | PubMed

          Los paises mas pobres del mundo        



Hay muchos indicadores para medir la pobreza de un país. Pero de acuerdo con el Ãndice de Pobreza Multidimensional (IPM),EMPLEADO por el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD) estos son los 10 países más pobres del mundo en 2015. Para este análisis se han tenido en cuenta parámetros como: los años de escolarización de la población, mortalidad infantil, nutrición, acceso a electricidad, acceso a agua potable, higiene de los hogares y el acceso a bienes como radio televisión.


sierra-leona





10 Sierra Leona

Sierra Leona ha tenido numerosos golpes de estado militares, sus conflictos políticos estallaron en 1991 en una guerra civil que acabaron en 2002 y asolaron la economía. Este año, además ha tenido que hacer frente a una de las peores epidemias del mundo moderno: el brote de Ébola.


guinea-ecuatorial

9 Guinea Ecuatorial

Dos terceras partes de la población de Guinea Ecuatorial viven en condiciones de extrema pobreza a pesar de que el país dispone del mayor producto interior bruto (PIB) per cápita de África Subsahariana gracias a sus reservas de petróleo y minerales como bauxita, diamantes, oro y aluminio. Pero las empresas y los gobiernos corruptos impiden que la población prospere con menos de 30% de alfabetizados. 

libreia

8 Liberia

Liberia, desde 1990, ha sufrido una guerra civil por los roces entre diferentes grupos étnicos del país. Esta situación ha obligado a casi la mitad de la población a abandonar sus hogares y muchos han muerto de inanición.

repub%C3%B1ica-centro-africana

7 Republica Centro Africana

Los problemas de seguridad, una profunda crisis estructural y varios años de mal gobierno, están acabando con la República Centroafricana desde hace más de 40 años.

somalia1

6 Somalia

Somalia, que puso fin a una dictadura de 20 años con el golpe de Estado de 1991, acarrea una profunda inestabilidad. El país está fragmentado por los conflictos de poder y territorio. Uno de los muchos problemas para su desarrollo es el clima, marcado por el calor todo el año.

burundi

5 Burundi

Burundi tiene el segundo PIB per cápita más bajo según elBANCO Mundial, después de la República Democrática del Congo. El PIB de Burundi es bajo debido a las guerras civiles y la corrupción.

burkina-faso

4 Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso cuenta con pocos recursos naturales y la mayoria son de consumo propio, el país depende de la economía agrícola, insuficiente para contrarrestar el crecimiento de la población.

mali

3 Mali

La desnutrición, la falta de condiciones higiénicas básicas y el daño causado por enfermedades como la malaria forma parte de los problemas cotidianos de la población que  continúa siendo uno de los países más pobres del planeta.

etiopia

2 Etiopía

Etiopía, es el 14º país más poblado del mundo, ocupa el puesto 169 de 177 países en el Índice de Desarrollo Humano. Las mayor parte de los 85 millones de personas que viven ahí soportan habrunas y guerras con países como Eritrea desde hace décadas. El gobierno etíope estima que el 81% de la población sobrevive con menos de dos dólares al día.

niger

1 Níger

Niger es según el último estudio de Naciones Unidas el país más pobre del mundo en 2015. Las durísimas condiciones climáticas con continuas sequías, determinan un estado casi permanente de inseguridad alimentaria para la población de Níger. La esperanza de vida es de 44 años.

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          Sudan        
We have been in Suakin, Sudan for 3 days now and all I have done is clean dirt off all kinds of stuff. This place was a port over 3000 years ago and it looks like it hasn't changed much. What looks like bomb ruins is just what is left when the rich folks in the old city took their house building blocks with them when Port Sudan was made the main port city about 100 years ago. The new town is like life 200 years ago...all folks in traditional dress...turbans and long wraps...goat is the only meat in the butcher shop! The fresh veggies and fruit are really good but the selection very basic. We do plan a trip to the local history museum...it is quite interesting here.

We will make it north from here to our first stop in Egypt, 450 miles away, probably in short hops to reef anchorages to avoid driving into 20 knots of wind from the north. We might get a break and 3 good days to go overnight and make some way but we will have to see in 2 days when we get back out there on the water, just what it's like. BTW, a reef anchorage doesn't have protection from the wind like a cove of land...it is just anchoring inside big areas of coral that usually protects somewhat from the waves for comfort. They can be challenging to enter with just the right light so we can wind our way through the "crunchy stuff".

There are no facilities for internet or getting money here but not much to buy anyway and the food in the simple restaurant is very simple, dry and overcooked. The folks are very poor but so friendly and welcoming. I gotta say that after navigating Eritrea where all the navigation markers were gone, it's a treat to have well kept up reef and anchorage markers...and some are outstanding...like tall white pillars...little Washington monuments on a coral reef!!! We have 15 boats in this anchorage that couldn't take many more...and there are more coming. We plan to leave tomorrow but we will wait 2 days at least and see.

I am finally over my dreadful respiratory flu...Chuck got to do some snorkeling and found the coral remarkable but few fish. I still hope to get in but the water and weather is getting cooler.

We will keep posting with another check in soon
Lynn and Chuck on CYAN

          Is there safety?        
We are having nice steady winds from dead east for almost 24 hours going 4-5kts, wing on wing, and are now about 230 miles to go to Aden. The boats we are with, Chulupa [USA]and Joseba [France/Spain] are good company and we travel at same speeds together. We are followed by Imagine and Lapalapa [both USA boats]about 100 miles behind us.

That is our good news...we know of 2 other "aggressive incidents" but we will look for more info before commenting further. We 3 boats are pretty secure now with helicopter flyovers and NATO warships staying in contact. Last night we learned about s/v Pegasus leaving Aden without checking out due to gunfire and some people were killed by student uprising against the present admin...we think. We heard this AM from Jean Pierre on Sanang getting stocked in Al Mukulla, Yemen, that he saw similar unrest there and was locked in a market for a while. We also hear that our other alternative stop, Djbouti, is also know recently known for robbery attacks and other crime. It is also another 100 miles out of our way. We have also been warned about 3 locations in Eritrea [in the Red Sea], that are usually ok stops in precious years, are now off limits due to holding crew and not allowing consular contact for various time periods. This is making it a tough decision about where we can provision and get fuel before going into the Red Sea. We are still getting info on Aden, but are now thinking that stopping there as a group will probably be ok or worth the risk. We are sure getting TOO used to risk!!! You have to be accompanied by an agent for everything and everyplace you go but the prices are cheap even if the ATM machines themselves take an extra tip out of the each deal!!

As of today, we have come just over 3400 miles since we left Thailand 6 weeks ago on Jan 15th. I have been off the boat for only 5 hours shopping in Andamans and briefly in Maldives. I guess another good thing is that we never know how we are going to cope with such stressful situations until we are put to the test and maybe, just maybe, I am more stable than I used to give myself credit for. Chuck always says he will tell me when it's time to panic but I haven't had a chance to go into panic mode yet!!!

Keep us in mind...this adventure isn't over!!! We are doing pretty well sleeping, sailing, eating and drinking!!! Attitudes are reasonably optimistic but we will celebrate when this whole fiasco is over.

from the most inept "fisherpersons" in the Indian Ocean, Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea...where ever we are...we just can't catch a fish!!! We know they are there...we have had tackle lost and nibbled. Wonder what they sell in Yemeni supermarkets?

Lynn, and Chuck, too on CYAN

----------
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          ANEXOS        
Artículo Enciclopedia encarta:




Constitución

Constitución (ciencia política), ley fundamental, escrita o no, de un Estado soberano, establecida o aceptada como guía para su gobernación. La constitución fija los límites y define las relaciones entre los poderes legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial del Estado, estableciendo así las bases para su gobierno. También garantiza al pueblo determinados derechos. La mayoría de los países tienen una constitución escrita. La de Gran Bretaña, encarnada en numerosos documentos (por ejemplo, la Carta Magna) y el derecho consuetudinario que definen las relaciones de los ciudadanos con la Corona, el Parlamento y los tribunales, no está escrita, pese a que, en muchas ocasiones, se ha postulado su redacción para que Gran Bretaña disponga de un texto análogo al de la gran mayoría de estados.


Las constituciones pueden clasificarse mediante varios criterios: si están protegidas contra enmiendas (constituciones blindadas), si presentan una clara separación de poderes, si las disposiciones pueden ponerse en vigor mediante revisión de la actuación del ejecutivo o del legislativo, si establecen un Estado unitario o federado, etc. Las constituciones escritas están asociadas históricamente al liberalismo político y a la Ilustración. Tal es el caso de la historia del constitucionalismo español. Muchos estados autoritarios y totalitarios poseen unas elaboradas constituciones, pero, en la práctica, no tienen vigor para ser respetadas por el gobierno en el poder, que siempre puede no acatarlas, suspenderlas o invalidarlas.


Constituciones en el mundo
Constituciones vigentes en el mundo





1. Afganistán: 1987 .suspendía tras el golpe fundamentalista al gobierno marxista en 1992
2. Albania : 39 de abril de 1991
3. Alemania: ley fundamental. promulgada en 1949
4. Andorra : 1983
5. Angola: noviembre de 1975. modifica en 1976,1980,1991
6. antigua y barbuda: noviembre de 1981
7. Arabia saudita: desde el 1 de marzo de 1992 , el gobierno monárquico absolutista se rige por intermedio del sistema básico gubernamental
8. Argelia : febrero de 1989
9. argentina : 1853. modificada en 1860,1866,1898y 1994
10. Armenia: en 1993 entro en vigencia una nueva constitución
11. Australia : 1 de enero de 1901
12. Austria:1920 .enmendada en 1929
13. Azerbaiján: se prepara una constitución dentro del sistema autoritario que impera en el es país islámico
Bahamas : 10 de julio de 1973.
14. Bahrein : 1973, bajo la monarquía absolutista
15. Bangla Desh: es enmendada e 1973,74,75,77,79,81.88.89 y 91
16. barbados : 30 de noviembre de 1966
17. belarus: se redacta una nueva constitución
18. Bélgica: 1831.enmendada varias veces y revisadas en 1949 y 1971
19. Belice: 21 de septiembre de 1981
20. Benín: el dictador Kereskou al abandonar el marxismo establece una constitución el 2 de diciembre de 1990 .propiciando el multipartidismo por primera vez
21. bhutan : 1953
22. Bolivia 1967
23. bophuthatswana : se rige por la constitución de Sudáfrica
24. Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1974.Modifica en 1989,90,91
25. Botswana: 30 de septiembre de 1966.En una de las pocas democracias del África
26. brasil: 5 de octubre de 1988.la primera constitución , en un gobierno civil en 24 años
27. Brunei darussalam :1959. algunos preceptos fueron suspendidos en 1962 , por el reino absolutista mas rico del mundo
28. Bulgaria :13 de junio de 1991 , ante la caída del viejo régimen marxista pro soviético y la instauración del pluripartidismo
29. burkina faso: con el establecimiento del multipartidismo se consolida una nueva constitución el 11 de junio de 1991
30. Burundi : 13 de marzo de 1992.suspendida por el golpe militar de 1993 que derroco al primer presidente civil .Melchior Ndadaye en plena vigencia
31. cabo verde : 7 de septiembre de 1980 modificada en septiembre de 1990
32. Camboya : 27 de junio de 1981. modificada por el régimen pro soviético de Samrin en 1989
33. Camerún : aprobada en 1996
34. canada : acta constitucional de 1982
35. ciskei : suspendida por el nuevo régimen militar en 1990
36. Colombia : 6 de julio de 1991
37. congo: al establecerse e nuevo sistema multipartidista , se redacto una nueva constitución en 1992
38. corea del norte : la constitución del 27 de diciembre de 1972
39. corea del sur: 25 de febrero de 1988
40. costa rica : 7 de noviembre 1949
41. cote d” Ivoire: (antes costa de marfil ) 31 de octubre de 1960. modificada por el presidente vitalicio Houphoner
43.Croacia: Diciembre de 1990
44. Cuba: 1976
45. Chad: Aprobada en 1996
46. Chile: 1980, Enmendada en 1989
47. Chipre Septentrional: 5 de mayo de 1985, aprobada por referéndum
48. Chipre, 16 de Agosto de 1960
49. Dinamarca, 5 de junio de 1953
50. Djibouti, 1991 y 1984. Leyes constitucionales realizadas pro la dictadura de Aptidón.
51. Dominica: 3 de noviembre de 1978
52. Ecuador: 10 de Agosto de 1978
53. Egipto: 11 de Septiembre de 1971
54. El Salvador: 20 de Diciembre de 1983, modificada en 1991.
55. Emiratos Árabes unidos: Siembre de 1971, en provisional establecido por la monarquía absolutista.
56. Eritrea: El país más joven de la tierra esta redactando su primera constitución bajo el gobierno provisional de Osaías Afwerki, Ex líder de la guerrilla del Frente de Liberación popular de la Eritrea (FLPE).
57. Eslovaquia: El país más joven de Europa se rige bajo la misma constitución de la Republica Checa creada el primero de enero de 1993, ambos estados pertenecían a la antigua Checoslovaquia
58. Eslovenia, Diciembre de 1991
59. España, 29 de diciembre de 1978
60. Estado Vaticano, no hay constitución,(Ley fundamental) 2001
61. Estados unidos, 1787, tiene 26 enmiendas
62. Estonia, una nueva constitución fue sometida a referéndum el 28 de junio de 1992, el país Báltico fue uno de los primeros en independizarse y establecer el sistema multipartidista.
63. Etiopía, promulgada en 1994
64. Fiji: 25 de julio de 1990
65. filipinas: El régimen democrática Corazón Aquino estableció una nueva constitución el 2 de febrero de 1987, que fue sometida a referéndum.
66. Finlandia: 17 de Julio de 1979
67. Francia: 6 de octubre de 1958
68. Gabón: 21 de febrero de 1961, modificada por Omar Gongo, uno de los dictadores mas antiguos del mundo en 1967-1975-1981-1986-1990.
69. Gambia: 24 de abril de 1990 , enmendada en 1982 por el régimen democrático de Dawda K. Jawara.
70. Georgia: Aprobada en 1995
71. Ghana: Marzo de 1992, el nuevo régimen democrático somete a referéndum la nueva constitución.
72. Granada: 1974 fue suspendida por el golpe marxista de 1979 y reestablecida en 1984, luego de la invasión norteamericana.
73. Grecia: Válida desde 1986
74.Guatemala: 14 de enero de 1985
75. Guinea Bissau: 16 de mayo de 1984, bajo la dictadura izquierdista de Luis Cabral y modificada en 1991 por su seguidor Joao Vieira.
76. Guinea Ecuatorial: Obiang Nguema establece una nueva constitución en noviembre de 1991 y es sometida a consulta popular.
77. Guinea: 23 de diciembre de 1991
78. Guyana: El régimen izquierdista de Forbes Burham establece una nueva constitución el 6 de octubre de 1980 y modificada en 1988 por sucesor Desmond Hoyte
79. Haiti. 1987
80. Honduras: Noviembre de 1982,
81. Hungría: 18 de Agosto de 1989. Modificada en 1972, 1983, 1989.
82. India: 26 de Enero de 1950, Modificada en 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1988, 1992 en la democracia más grande del mundo.
83. Indonesia, agosto de 1945, modificada en 1969 por régimen autoritario más antiguo del mundo del dictador Suharto.
84. Irak: 22 de septiembre de 1968, enmendada en 1969,1970, 1973, y 1974 de manera provisional.
85. Iran: Creada por el gobierno fundamentalista islámico del desaparecido Ayatollah Khomeini en diciembre de 1979, enmendada en 1989.
86. Irlanda del Sur: 29 de Diciembre de 1937
87. Islandia: 17 de junio de 1944
88. Islas Camoras: 7 de junio 1992
89. Islas Marianas del norte: 1986
90. Islas Marshall: 1 de mayo de 1979
91. Islas Micronesia: 10 de mayo de 1979
92. Islas Palau: 1 de enero de 1981
93. Islas Salomón: 7 de julio de 1978
94. Israel: No existe constitución política como tal sino un conjunto de leyes; desde 1950 se han incorporado durante un periodo no específico.
95. Italia: 1 de enero de 1948
96. Jamaica: 6 de Agosto de 1962, conjuntamente con la independencia nacional
97. Japón: 3 de noviembre de 1946. En vigor en mayo de 1947.
98. Jordania: 1 de enero de 1952, enmendada en 1974, 1976 y 1984.
99. Katar: 2 de abril de 1970, creada por la monarquía Absolutista con carácter provisional.
100. Kazajstán: Aprobada en 1995
101. Kenya : 12 de diciembre de 1963, enmendada en 1982, 1986, 1991 durante los gobiernos autoritarios de Jommo Kenyata y Danieal Arap Moi.





Las 10 Constituciones mas jóvenes del mundo

1) Chad: 1996
2) Camerún: 1996
3) Sudáfrica: 1996
4) Georgia: 1995
5) Armenia: 1995
6) Kazajstan:1995
7) Malwi:1994
8) Bielorusia:1994
9) Lusemburgo: 1994
10) Rusia: 1993








No Existen constituciones en los siguientes países

1) Israel
2) Nueva Zelanda
3) Reino Unido (Escocia, Inglaterra, Gales, Irlanda del Norte)
4) San Marino
5) Vaticano
6) Bhutan
7) Omán
8) Somalia




Se han suspendido las funciones de la Constitución en los siguientes países

1) Afganistán: Tras el derrumbe del gobierno marxista en 1992.
2) Togo: El régimen autoritario de Eyadema la suspendió en 1991, tras los disturbios políticos que reclaman mayor para el multipartidismo al igual que otros países africanos.
3) Sudán: El nuevo régimen fundamentalista, que llegó vía golpe militar en 1989, suspendió la constitución de 1985 y ahora se rige a base de leyes coránicas.
4) Venda: El nuevo régimen castrense de 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la constitución.
5) Ciskei: Los golpistas militares que asumieron el gobierno en 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la Constitución.
6) Myanmar: El régimen castrense que asumió el poder en 1998 prohibió la constitución de 1974.
7) Burundi: Los golpistas que llegaron al poder a finales de 1993 y derrocaron la primera democracia del país, suspendieron la constitución de marzo de 1992
8) Transkei: Los golpistas encabezados por el general Bantu Holomisa suspendieron la constitución de 1987.
          FIFA Best/Worst Ranking - August 2014        
Nations currently at their best or worst all-time ranking position in the August 2014 FIFA Rankings.

Best Ranking
1 - Germany
15 - Costa Rica
29 - Venezuela
50 - Sierra Leone
73 - Azerbaijan
105 - Lesotho
165 - Montserrat


Worst Ranking
122 - Canada
157 - Thailand
167 - Liechtenstein
197 - Cayman Islands
201 - British Virgin Islands
201 - Cambodia
203 - Eritrea
205 - Djibouti
206 - Cook Islands
207 - Anguilla
208 - Bhutan
208 - San Marino

          FIFA Best/Worst Ranking - July 2014        

Nations currently at their best or worst all-time ranking position in the July 2014 FIFA Rankings.


Best Ranking
1 - Germany
16 - Costa Rica
30 - Venezuela
73 - Azerbaijan
166 - Montserrat

Worst Ranking
70 - Republic of Ireland
118 - Canada
157 - Thailand
167 - Liechtenstein
200 - Cambodia
202 - Eritrea
205 - Djibouti
206 - Cook Islands
207 - Anguilla
208 - Bhutan
208 - San Marino

          Asmara attains World Heritage listing        
 An apt award…
.
Frank: They made it.
.
Lloyd: It took a few years. Getting the local community interested. Since the mid-1990s. Getting the paperwork together. Then lobbying. Application made beginning of 2016. Granted mid-2017.
.
Frank: Something odd though. The architecture is not indigenous. It’s Italian futurism. It’s colonial.
.
Lloyd: Still, the Asmara citizens regard it as theirs.
.
Frank: What do they use the buildings for?
.
Lloyd: Jane Jacobs once said: “Old ideas can sometimes use new buildings. New ideas must use old buildings.”
Maybe Eritrean Air could use it as a plane...
__________
Voice-over

UNESCO recognized Asmara in Eritrea as a World Heritage site on July 8, 2017. As a colony of Italy from 1889 to 1941, Asmara contains well-preserved modernist buildings designed by Italian futurists. UNESCO describes it as “an exceptional example of early modernist urbanism at the beginning of the 20th century and its application in an African context.”
...

          Northeastern Quartersphere - Wikipedia        

Northeastern Quartersphere

This is the Wikipedia article for "Northeastern Quartersphere" as it appeared on January 26, 2012, shortly prior to its expected deletion as original research.

The terms Northeastern Quarter or Northeastern Quadrant or simply Northeast are sometimes applied to the portion of the Northern Hemisphere in the Eastern Hemisphere or vice versa. If it's lateral boundaries are based on the Prime Meridian, this region includes most of Asia and Europe, a large portion of Africa and some islands in Oceania. The Northeast covers about two fifths of the Earth's land surface area and hosts 75-80% of the world's population. It is the only quarter bounded by the Prime Meridian and Equator that is mostly land. The Northeast hosts about two fifths of the world's economic activity.
Eastern portion of Earth's Northern Hemisphere

Countries

* Europe
o If the Prime Meridian is used as the Western boundary, all except Portugal, most of the United Kingdom, much of Spain and France. If the 20th meridian west, then all of Europe.

* Africa
o If the Prime Meridian is the lateral boundary, then all of Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, most of Somalia, most of Kenya, most of Uganda, Southern Sudan, part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Central African Republic, parts of Gabon, parts of Equatorial Guinea, parts of Rio Muni, parts of Sao Tome and Principe, Cameroon, Nigeria, Benin, Chad, most of Niger, part of Mali, most of Algeria, Libya and Tunisia are in this region. If the 20th meridian west is used, then all of Africa North of the Equator.

* Asia
o all except some portions of Indonesia.

* Oceania
o If Prime Meridian is used as the lateral boundary, then Palau, Guam, the Marianas Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, part of Kiribati and Wake Island. If the 20th meridian west is used as the boundary in the West and the 160th meridian east in the East, then only Palau, Guam, the Marianas, and the Federated States of Micronesia.

Bodies of water

* The Arctic Ocean in the Eastern Hemisphere,
* The Western portion of the North Sea, most of the Mediterranean Sea, and all of the Baltic Sea and Black Sea of the Atlantic Ocean,
* The Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean,
* The Eastern Bering Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, the Sea of Japan/East Sea, the Yellow Sea, East China Sea the South China Sea, the Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, Gulf of Thailand and open ocean in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.
          Comment on Africa’s $700 Billion Problem Waiting to Happen by Alem        
PLEASE POST. Thanks. Alex needs to be transparent about his relationship with Meles Zenawi [whom he calls "comrade"] and with the Foundation bearing his name. Has Alex ever received gifts of any kind as a result of this relationship? Second, there is nothing nightmarish, prophetic or secret about the scenario Alex is alluding to. In the 1970s and 1980s dictator Mengistu had publicly made a similar and worse scenario about Iranian/ Saudi regional interests, Bashir's and Garang's Sudan, Iran/Egypt involvement in Somalia [from where Meles was launching and organizing attacks], etc. Third, Alex should tell the reader his editorial/research work on so-called "theory and practice of Meles" [an outline of a paper excoriating "neo-liberalism" and praising the "developmental state" - an idea picked from Ghanaians; the difference being Ghanaians were serious about multiparty democracy and holding leaders accountable through the ballot-box]. Meles continued to toss this same "scenario" to Americans and Brits calculating [correctly, I should add] to exploit their fears and to legitimize his power, get millions of dollars in aid, and above all, wipe out any opposition on charges of terrorism and allow the robbing of state treasury [his wife leading the pack]. Alex is very soft on these matters because of loyalty to his "comrade". Let the reader not forget that it was Meles who 1993 ceded Assab port [depriving Ethiopia of a sea outlet] to the surprise of the then mediator President Carter, Cohen, etc. Assab is now the port of call for Iranians and a playground for Saudis, etc. Eritrea's Afewerki knows Alex's "scenario" only too well; except in his case the objective is the reverse of Meles's. I suggest Alex to be honest and not be blinded by a romantic view of colonial-era armed struggle or by Tplf sex manual. He should not put his credibility on the line nor the institution he is staff of in a bad light. Obviously, Meles was a brilliant tactician. He was able to recruit the likes of Alex and Stiglitz to get him over his policy blunders and bad human rights record. Stiglitz has belatedly taken back his support [his praises for Meles in his Globalization and Its Discontents; Stiglitz's commendation gave him a means to get back at the World Bank and ended in him getting fired].
          Team USA finishes 12th at World XC Championships         
Team USA men finish 12th in Open Men's 12 km

Ethiopia's Kenenisa Bekele, the champion from Saturday's Open Men's 4 km, dominated the second day of competition as he pulled away from teammate Sileshi Sihine, running 35:43 to win his fifth consecutive 12 km title by three seconds. Despite Bekele's dominant performance, Ethiopia was unable to defend the team title, finishing third behind Kenya (24) and Eritrea (28) respectively.

Also running in his second race of the weekend, Ryan Hall (Woodside, Calif.) was the first man on the Team USA squad, finishing 43rd as the team struggled to a 12th - place team finish, scoring 206 points.


          Festival alpino "alternativo"        
Ayman, refugiado sirio, derriba hábilmente a su adversario, el cual, sin embargo, logra girarse para caer sobre el vientre y no de espaldas, lo que habría significado su derrota. Presionado por el público, Ayman intenta sin éxito empujarlo de nuevo. Los luchadores se ríen y reanudan el combate. La lucha suiza ‘Ringen und Schwingen’ fue una de las tradiciones que la organización de ayuda de las iglesias protestantes (EPER / HEKS) mostró a los refugiados de países como Siria, Afganistán, Eritrea y Sri Lanka que viven en Suiza, con ocasión del Día Nacional de los Refugiados (20.06). El punto culminante del evento, en el que participaron unas 700 personas, tuvo lugar el 17 de junio frente a la estación de ferrocarriles de Berna. El programa incluyó también el lanzamiento de banderas, partidas de Jass e interpretaciones musicales con el cuerno de los Alpes y de yodel. La evocación de las tradiciones suizas en una fecha tan significativa representó igualmente la celebración del ...
          Los países ricos suelen pontificar sobre el manejo "irresponsable" y "corrupto" de muchas naciones, pero lideran de lejos la tabla de los países más endeudados        

LOS 12 PAÍSES MÁS ENDEUDADOS por PIB en 2012:

1) Japón: 237%
2) Zimbabue: 202%
3) Grecia: 158%
4) Jamaica: 146%
5) Eritrea: 125%
6) Italia: 126%
7) Portugal: 122%
8) República de Irlanda: 117%
9) Granada: 112%
10) Estados Unidos: 106%
11) Islandia: 99,3%
12) Bélgica: 99%
13) Reino Unido: 90,3%
14) Francia: 90,29%
Fuente: Global Economic Outlook, Fondo Monetario Internacional (FMI)

Japón encabeza el ránking por amplio margen y entre los 14 países más endeudados del planeta, sólo Zimbabue, Jamaica, Eritrea y Granada pertenecen a los más pobres.
Estados Unidos, Grecia, Italia, Portugal e Islandia están entre los países desarrollados con deudas por encima del 100% de su Producto Interno Bruto (PIB), es decir, de todo lo que produce la economía nacional en un año.

Según una autoridad mundial en temas de deuda, Robert Pollin, co-director del Political Economy Research Institute(Peri) de Massachussets, EE.UU., este endeudamiento es un privilegio de los países ricos que, sin embargo, tiene un precio.

"Muchos países desarrollados pueden endeudarse en sus propias monedas y acceder a los mercados financieros a muy bajas tasas de interés. Endeudarse de esta manera para financiar el crecimiento o salir de una crisis es una gran ventaja, pero no es un viaje gratis. Todo depende de las circunstancias de cada país". 

El problema es que la deuda ha crecido a pasos agigantados en muchos países desarrollados en los últimos 20 años.

Japón pasó el umbral del 100% del Producto Interno Bruto en 1997: hoy se sitúa alrededor del 240% del PIB.

En Grecia era un 115% en 2007 y se acercará a 200% a fin de este año. Portugal y España duplicaron su deuda en seis años. En Italia pasó del 112% hace siete años a más del 130% hoy.

El manejo de la deuda depende sobre todo de la tasa de interés. Hoy está a niveles muy bajos históricamente tanto en Estados Unidos como en Europa y Japón, pero tarde o temprano, aumentará.

"Un aumento de las tasas de interés puede complicar las cosas. Esto sucedió en Estados Unidos en los 80 con Ronald Reagan, porque se pagaba un 10 o 11% a diferencia de hoy que pedimos prestado a un 1 o 2%. De modo que en aquella época una buena parte del presupuesto se destinaba al pago de intereses", indicó Pollin.

Es uno de los peligros de un aumento exponencial de la deuda: América Latina conoció el problema de primera mano.

 

Deuda de América Latina por PIB 2012

1) Brasil: 68%
2) Venezuela: 57%
3) Uruguay: 53%
4) El Salvador: 52,1%
5) Nicaragua: 52%
6) Argentina: 44%
7) México: 43%
8) Honduras: 34,6%
9) Costa Rica: 34%
10) Bolivia: 33%
11) Colombia: 32%
12) Guatemala: 25%
13) Perú: 19%
14) Ecuador: 18%
15) Paraguay: 11,3%
16) Chile: 11,2%
Fuente: FMI

En los años 80 la deuda fue un albatros que ahogó la economía regional y condujo a lo que hoy llamamos la década perdida, dice Justo.

La "salida" de esta crisis incluyó varias reestructuraciones de deuda, mucha ingeniería financiera (Plan Baker, Plan Brady), cesaciones de pago y heridas que no terminan de cerrarse como se puede ver en el caso de Argentina y los fondos buitre.

Según el Coordinador del Observatorio Económico de América Latina (Obela) y académico de la UNAM en México, Oscar Ugarteche, el precio económico regional fue muy alto.

"El servicio de la deuda se llevó una porción cada vez más grande del presupuesto que se robó a la inversión pública en infraestructura o en educación o salud. El impacto de esta desinversión fue un menor crecimiento económico que dificultó aún más el pago de la deuda y que a mediano y largo plazo creó problemas de competitividad por la falta de inversión en la infraestructura que necesita toda economía para desarrollarse", indicó a BBC Mundo.

Esta penosa experiencia no pasó en vano, como señala un informe sobre la finanzas públicas de la región publicado este año por la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).

"En 2013 el promedio de deuda se mantuvo cercano al 31% del PIB para la región. La caída del pago de intereses ha sido significativa en los últimos años en América Latina. Se trata de una tendencia de gran relevancia en la perspectiva de la calidad de las finanzas públicas, al permitir espacios para una mayor inversión y para el gasto social", señala el informe.

En términos de porcentaje del PIB la mayoría de los países tienen una deuda pública que se sitúa entre el 20 y 40 % del PIB con Brasil, El Salvador y Nicaragua entre los más endeudados en términos porcentuales y Chile y Paraguay entre los que menos deben.

Fuente: Mercado

          Codes for making International Calls        

What is a Country Code?

      Country codes are used to make International Phone calls.Every country has a unique country code. Country codes are the prefixes you need to dial before calling to the country.This short alphabetic or numeric geographical codes (geocodes) are developed to represent countries and dependent areas.The International Dialing codes of a country is called "Country Code" or  International Area Code(IAC) or International Calling Codes.

International Calling codes of all countries



Country Codes List




CountryCountry Code
Abkhazia+995 44 +7 840, 940
Afghanistan+93
Albania+355
Algeria+213
American Samoa+1 684
Andorra+376
Angola+244
Anguilla+1 264
Antigua and Barbuda+1 268
Argentina+54
Armenia+374
Aruba+297
Ascension Island+247
Australia+61
Australian Antarctic Territory+672 1x
Austria+43
Azerbaijan+994
Bahamas+1 242
Bahrain+973
Bangladesh+880
Barbados+1 246
Belarus+375
Belgium+32
Belize+501
Benin+229
Bermuda+1 441
Bhutan+975
Bolivia+591
Bonaire+599 7
Bosnia and Herzegovina+387
Botswana+267
Brazil+55
British Indian Ocean Territory+246
British Virgin Islands+1 284
Brunei+673
Bulgaria+359
Burkina Faso+226
Burundi+257
Cambodia+855
Cameroon+237
Canada+1
Cape Verde+238
Cayman Islands+1 345
Central African Republic+236
Chad+235
Chile+56
Christmas Island+61 8 9164
Cocos Islands+61 8 9162
Colombia+57
Cook Islands+682
Costa Rica+506
Côte d'Ivoire+225
Croatia+385
Cuba+53
Curacao+599 9
Cyprus+357
Czech Republic+420
Democratic Republic of the Congo+243
Denmark+45
Djibouti+253
Dominica+1 767
Dominican Republic+1 809 / 829 / 849
East Timor+670
Ecuador+593
Egypt+20
El Salvador+503
Equatorial Guinea+240
Eritrea+291
Estonia+372
Ethiopia+251
Falkland Islands+500
Faroe Islands+298
Federated States of Micronesia+691
Fiji+679
Finland+358
France+33
French Guiana+594
French Polynesia+689
Gabon+241
Gambia+220
Georgia+995
Germany+49
Ghana+233
Gibraltar+350
Global Mobile Satellite System+881
Greece+30
Greenland+299
Grenada+1 473
Guadeloupe+590
Guam+1 671
Guatemala+502
Guernsey+44 1481
Guinea+224
Guinea-Bissau+245
Guyana+592
Haiti+509
Honduras+504
Hong Kong+852
Hungary+36
Iceland+354
India+91
Indonesia+62
International Freephone UIFN+800
International Premium Rate Service+979
Iran+98
Iraq+964
Ireland+353
Isle of Man+44 1624
Israel+972
Italy+39
Jamaica+1 876
Japan+81
Jersey+44 1534
Jordan+962
Kazakhstan+7 6xx, 7xx
Kenya+254
Kiribati+686
Kosovo+377 44 / 45 +386 43 / 49 +381 28 / 29 / 38 / 39
Kuwait+965
Kyrgyzstan+996
Laos+856
Latvia+371
Lebanon+961
Lesotho+266
Liberia+231
Libya+218
Liechtenstein+423
Lithuania+370
Luxembourg+352
Macau+853
Macedonia+389
Madagascar+261
Mainland China+86
Malawi+265
Malaysia+60
Maldives+960
Mali+223
Malta+356
Marshall Islands+692
Martinique+596
Mauritania+222
Mauritius+230
Mayotte+262 269 / 639
Mexico+52
Moldova+373
Monaco+377
Mongolia+976
Montenegro+382
Montserrat+1 664
Morocco+212
Mozambique+258
Myanmar+95
Nagorno-Karabakh+374 47 / 97
Namibia+264
Nauru+674
Nepal+977
Netherlands+31
New Caledonia+687
New Zealand+64
Nicaragua+505
Niger+227
Nigeria+234
Niue+683
Norfolk Island+672 3
North Korea+850
Northern Mariana Islands+1 670
Norway+47
Oman+968
Pakistan+92
Palau+680
Palestinian territories+970
Panama+507
Papua New Guinea+675
Paraguay+595
Peru+51
Philippines+63
Poland+48
Portugal+351
Puerto Rico+1 787 / 939
Qatar+974
Republic of China (Taiwan)+886
Republic of the Congo+242
Réunion+262
Romania+40
Russia+7
Rwanda+250
Saba+599 4
Saint Helena+290
Saint Kitts and Nevis+1 869
Saint Lucia+1 758
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines+1 784
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon+508
Samoa+685
San Marino+378
São Tomé and Príncipe+239
Saudi Arabia+966
Senegal+221
Serbia+381
Seychelles+248
Sierra Leone+232
Singapore+65
Sint Eustatius+599 3
Sint Maarten+599 5
Slovakia+421
Slovenia+386
Solomon Islands+677
Somalia+252
South Africa+27
South Korea+82
South Sudan+211
Spain+34
Sri Lanka+94
Sudan+249
Suriname+597
Swaziland+268
Sweden+46
Switzerland+41
Syria+963
Tajikistan+992
Tanzania+255
Telecommunications for Disaster Relief by OCHA+888
Thailand+66
Togo+228
TokelauList of Currencies of the World and their Currency Symbols

There are 179 currencies in the world.
List of Currencies of the World
Currencies of the World

Currency Symbols

CurrencySymbol
Afghan afghani؋
Albanian lekL
Alderney pound£
Algerian dinarد.ج
Angolan kwanzaKz
Argentine peso$
Armenian dramդր.
Aruban florinƒ
Ascension pound£
Australian dollar$
Bahamian dollar$
Bahraini dinar.د.ب
Bangladeshi taka৳
Barbadian dollar$
Belarusian rubleBr
Belize dollar$
Bermudian dollar$
Bhutanese ngultrumNu.
Bolivian bolivianoBs.
Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible markKM or КМ
Botswana pulaP
Brazilian realR$
British pound£
British Virgin Islands dollar$
Brunei dollar$
Bulgarian levлв
Burundian francFr
Cambodian riel៛
Canadian dollar$
Cape Verdean escudoEsc or $
Cayman Islands dollar$
Central African CFA francFr
CFP francFr
Chilean peso$
Chinese yuan¥ or 元
Cocos (Keeling) Islands dollar$
Colombian peso$
Comorian francFr
Congolese francFr
Cook Islands dollar$
Costa Rican colón₡
Croatian kunakn
Cuban convertible peso$
Cuban peso$
Czech korunaKč
Danish kronekr
Djiboutian francFr
Dominican peso$
East Caribbean dollar$
Egyptian pound£ or ج.م
Eritrean nakfaNfk
Ethiopian birrBr
Euro€
Falkland Islands pound£
Faroese krónakr
Fijian dollar$
Gambian dalasiD
Georgian lariლ
Ghanaian cedi₵
Gibraltar pound£
Guatemalan quetzalQ
Guernsey pound£
Guinean francFr
Guyanese dollar$
Haitian gourdeG
Honduran lempiraL
Hong Kong dollar$
Hungarian forintFt
Icelandic krónakr
Indian rupee₹
Indonesian rupiahRp
Iranian rialï·¼
Iraqi dinarع.د
Israeli new shekel₪
Jamaican dollar$
Japanese yen¥
Jersey pound£
Jordanian dinarد.ا
Kazakhstani tenge₸
Kenyan shillingSh
Kiribati dollar$
Kuwaiti dinarد.ك
Kyrgyzstani somлв
Lao kip₭
Latvian latsLs
Lebanese poundل.ل
Lesotho lotiL
Liberian dollar$
Libyan dinarل.د
Lithuanian litasLt
Macanese patacaP
Macedonian denarден
Malagasy ariaryAr
Malawian kwachaMK
Malaysian ringgitRM
Maldivian rufiyaaރ.
Manx pound£
Mauritanian ouguiyaUM
Mauritian rupee₨
Mexican peso$
Micronesian dollar$
Moldovan leuL
Mongolian tögrög₮
Moroccan dirhamد.م.
Mozambican meticalMTn
Myanma kyatK
Nagorno-Karabakh dramդր.
Namibian dollar$
Nauruan dollar$
Nepalese rupee₨
Netherlands Antillean guilderƒ
New Taiwan dollar$
New Zealand dollar$
Nicaraguan córdoba
          Countries in Africa        
Africa is the second-largest continent in the world.Here is the list of 55 countries in Africa and their capitals.
Africa
Africa






S.no.
Countries
Capitals
1.
Algeria
Algiers
2.
Angola
Luanda
3.
Benin
Porto-Novo
4.
Botswana
Gaborone
5.
Burkina Faso
Ouagadougou
6.
Burundi
Bujumbura
7.
Cameroon
Yaoundé
8.
Cape Verde
Praia
9.
The Central African Republic
Bangui
10.
The Comoros
Moroni
11.
Cote d'Ivoire
Yamoussoukro
12.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo
Kinshasa
13.
Djibouti
Djibouti
14.
Egypt
Cairo
16.
Equatorial Guinea
Malabo
17.
Eritrea
Asmara
18.
Ethiopia
Addis Ababa
19.
Gabon
Libreville
20.
The Gambia
Banjul
21.
Ghana
Accra
22.
Guinea
Conakry
23.
Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
24.
Chad
N'Djamena
25.
Kenya
Nairobi
26.
Lesotho
Maseru
27.
Liberia
Monrovia
28.
Libya
Tripoli
29.
Madagascar
Antananarivo
30.
Malawi
Lilongwe

31.
Mali
Bamako
32.
Mauritania
Nouakchott
33.
Mauritius
Port Louis
34.
Morocco
Rabat
35.
Mozambique
Maputo
36.
Namibia
Windhoek
37.
Niger
Niamey
38.
Nigeria
Abuja
39.
The Republic of the Congo
Brazzaville
40.
Rwanda
Kigali
41.
Sao Tome and Principe
São Tomé


42.
Senegal
Dakar
43.
The Seychelles
Victoria
44.
Sierra Leone
Freetown
45.
Somalia
Mogadishu
46.
South Africa
Pretoria
47.
Sudan
Khartoum
48.
Swaziland
Mbabane
49.
Tanzania
Dodoma
50.
Togo
Lomé
51.
Tunisia
Tunis
52.
Uganda
Kampala
53.
Western Sahara
Laayoune
54.
Zambia
Lusaka
55.
Zimbabwe
Harare

          Esteri di lun 08/06        
1-Eritrea, il buco nero dei diritti umani. “Il governo non usa la legge ma la paura”...L'ultima denuncia in un rapporto delle Nazioni Unite (Raffaele Masto).2- Le elezioni in Turchia: la prima sconfitta per Erdogan e il primo uccesso per i curdi. Il paese, però, rischia di rimanere senza un governo (Ekrem Guzeldere, Smirne).3-Al-Sisi, un anno al potere: con la lotta al terrorismo e la stretta sulle libertà il presidente egiziano ha conquistato l'occidente (Laura Cappon, Il Cairo).4-Il sistema politico spagnolo sempre più simile a quello italiano. Il punto sulle trattative tra Podemos e i socialisti dopo le elezioni amministrative (Giulio Maria Piantadosi, Madrid).5-In Canada grande attenzione per i Mondiali di calcio femminile. Solo la FIFA lo considera ancora uno sport di seconda categoria (Dario Falcini).6-Graphic Novel: “Dimentica il mio nome”, l'ultimo libro di Zerocalcare (Maurizio Principato).
          Demographics of the Mediterranean Migration        
Well, if you thought the "migrants/refugees" were the wretched refuse of war-torn states and consisted mostly of pitiful family groups, the UNHCR has some statistics for you:


Looking at these charts, Bangladesh, Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire), Guinea and Nigeria lead the pack in numbers, totalling a little over 40189 from Jan 2017. That's 42% of the total on on the chart.

War-torn Syria - 6.5% or a little over 6000 people.

If you include Eritrea as another war affected state, the two "war states" together count for under 10% of the totals reported.

And the demographics? 20% women and children, 80% males. Actually, women make up a little less than 12% of 113,628.

Here's another chart this one from IOM- UN's Internation Organization for Migration:


Confused? As the UNHCR recognizes, there is a vast difference between "migrants" and "refugees":
Refugees are persons fleeing armed conflict or persecution. There were 21.3 million of them worldwide at the end of 2015. Their situation is often so perilous and intolerable that they cross national borders to seek safety in nearby countries, and thus become internationally recognized as "refugees" with access to assistance from States, UNHCR, and other organizations. They are so recognized precisely because it is too dangerous for them to return home, and they need sanctuary elsewhere. These are people for whom denial of asylum has potentially deadly consequences.
Refugees are defined and protected in international law. The 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol as well as other legal texts, such as the 1969 OAU Refugee Convention, remain the cornerstone of modern refugee protection. The legal principles they enshrine have permeated into countless other international, regional, and national laws and practices. The 1951 Convention defines who is a refugee and outlines the basic rights which States should afford to refugees. One of the most fundamental principles laid down in international law is that refugees should not be expelled or returned to situations where their life and freedom would be under threat.
The protection of refugees has many aspects. These include safety from being returned to the dangers they have fled; access to asylum procedures that are fair and efficient; and measures to ensure that their basic human rights are respected to allow them to live in dignity and safety while helping them to find a longer-term solution. States bear the primary responsibility for this protection. UNHCR therefore works closely with governments, advising and supporting them as needed to implement their responsibilities.
Migrants choose to move not because of a direct threat of persecution or death, but mainly to improve their lives by finding work, or in some cases for education, family reunion, or other reasons. Unlike refugees who cannot safely return home, migrants face no such impediment to return. If they choose to return home, they will continue to receive the protection of their government.
For individual governments, this distinction is important. Countries deal with migrants under their own immigration laws and processes. Countries deal with refugees through norms of refugee protection and asylum that are defined in both national legislation and international law. Countries have specific responsibilities towards anyone seeking asylum on their territories or at their borders. UNHCR helps countries deal with their asylum and refugee protection responsibilities. Politics has a way of intervening in such debates. Conflating refugees and migrants can have serious consequences for the lives and safety of refugees. Blurring the two terms takes attention away from the specific legal protections refugees require. It can undermine public support for refugees and the institution of asylum at a time when more refugees need such protection than ever before. We need to treat all human beings with respect and dignity. We need to ensure that the human rights of migrants are respected. At the same time, we also need to provide an appropriate legal response for refugees, because of their particular predicament.
So, back to Europe and the large numbers of people arriving in recent years by boats in Greece, Italy and elsewhere. Which are they? Refugees or migrants?
In fact, they happen to be both. The majority of people arriving in Italy and Greece especially have been from countries mired in war or which otherwise are considered to be ‘refugee-producing’ and for whom international protection is needed. However, a smaller proportion is from elsewhere, and for many of these individuals, the term ‘migrant’ would be correct.
So, at UNHCR we say ‘refugees and migrants’ when referring to movements of people by sea or in other circumstances where we think both groups may be present – boat movements in Southeast Asia are another example. We say ‘refugees’ when we mean people fleeing war or persecution across an international border. And we say ‘migrants’ when we mean people moving for reasons not included in the legal definition of a refugee. We hope that others will give thought to doing the same. Choices about words do matter.

Got it?

Update: Good info from the BBC:
More than a million migrants and refugees crossed into Europe in 2015, sparking a crisis as countries struggled to cope with the influx, and creating division in the EU over how best to deal with resettling people.
The vast majority arrived by sea but some migrants have made their way over land, principally via Turkey and Albania.
Nice chart for 2015:


For comparison, here's U.S. immigration data:




Source info:
The term "immigrants" (also known as the foreign born) refers to people residing in the United States who were not U.S. citizens at birth. This population includes naturalized citizens, lawful permanent residents (LPRs), certain legal nonimmigrants (e.g., persons on student or work visas), those admitted under refugee or asylee status, and persons illegally residing in the United States.

Source:
Migration Policy Institute (MPI) tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau, 2010-2015 American Community Surveys (ACS), and 1970, 1990, and 2000 Decennial Census. All other data are from Campbell J. Gibson and Emily Lennon, "Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850 to 1990" (Working Paper no. 29., U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, 1999).


          8 Lessons Learned from Visiting Every Country in the World        

8 Lessons Learned from Visiting Every Country in the World

One of the most popular posts on this blog is my 29 life lessons learned in travelling the world (for 8 years straight). I've personally been to a couple of dozen countries, but then there are people like my friend Chris Guillebeau. He has been to every single country on earth!

I've met Chris on multiple occasions - in Thailand as my blog was just starting off, in his hometown of Portland for a coffee and his fun "World Domination Summit", and then in Norway for his "end of the world party", since he was celebrating having visited every nation.

Apart from writing two New York times best-sellers (both of which he was kind enough to mention me in!) he is a kind and wise person, so I am honoured to have him share his thoughts with you on the blog today. Over to you Chris!


Benny Lewis and I stood by the train tracks in Oslo, Norway, waiting to head out to visit Bergen. Both of us were experienced travelers, with Benny having visited dozens of countries and learning so many languages along the way.

Norway was a beautiful country, but for me it was something extra special: the final frontier. Over the previous decade, I’d followed a quest. The quest was to visit every country in the world—all 193 U.N. member states, with no exceptions.

I wanted to challenge myself…. and I’d done it! Victory came in the form of a $20 cheese sandwich (Norway is expensive) and a party with 200 of my closest friends.

After saying farewell and heading homeward, I eventually wrote a book that debuts around the world this month—but fortunately, the book isn’t just about my journey. The book is about quests in general. It’s about pursuing a big dream and being willing to risk it all.

So what did I learn along the way? Here’s a sneak peek into some of those lessons…


1. Unhappiness can lead to new beginnings

If you’re not happy with your life, or even if you feel a faint stirring to do something different, pay attention to the dissatisfaction. Ask yourself “What if” questions. What if I actually pursued that dream or idea? What if I made that big change? Discontent can be a source of growth and inspiration.

For best results, though, you’ll need to follow the discontent with specific action. Many of the people I met found a way to combine discontent with inspiration to create a quest: a world journey, a lifelong pursuit, or other big project.

  • Instead of taking on “the job of his dreams,” a young university graduate from England named Tom Allen decided to cycle the world. Along the way he met the love of his life and established a new career (so much for the job of his dreams)
  • When laid off from a long-term job at General Motors, Sandi Wheaton chose not to rush into another. She first traveled on America’s Route 66, documenting the adventure at every stop

By the way, discontent doesn’t necessarily mean you’re miserable. In many cases, it just means that you’re looking for something more in your life. Don’t ignore these feelings!

2. Not everyone needs to believe in your dream, but you do

Pay attention to the things that excite you and the things that bother you. In the book I wrote about Jiro Ono, the sushi chef from Tokyo who’s gained international fame for being extremely precise about the food he prepares. One of my favorite quotes was when he said he felt “victorious" over a particularly nice tuna.

I also met Miranda Gibson, who lived in the treetops of Tasmania for more than a year in protest of illegal logging. Miranda didn’t want to just start a letter-writing campaign or even march in the streets. She took dramatic action, and saved a whole forest.

When you set out to pursue a big dream, will your friends and family be there for you? Chances are that some will and others won’t. It doesn’t matter what anyone else thinks about your quest, but if you don’t have sufficient motivation to see it through, it will be tough going. You must believe!

3. Before beginning a quest, count the cost

In the early days of my journey to every country, someone criticized it by saying all it required was a certain amount of time and money. I later realized that this perspective could actually be helpful. If I clearly understood exactly what was involved in “going everywhere,” and if I then began working on each part of the goal step-by-step, it no longer seemed overwhelming.

Costs include:

  • Money
  • Time
  • Energy & Attention
  • Other intangibles

In my case, the first half of the quest—the first 100 countries—cost me less than $30,000 USD. Just $30k! I don’t mean to suggest that $30,000 is a very small amount of money. But as an American, I often saw my friends investing that much money in a single year of graduate school education, or in some cases a car. For me, the legion of experiences I had in visiting 100 countries was well worth this expense, especially when paid out over time.

Whatever you choose to do, count the cost as much as you can.

4. Most of us are motivated by progress and achievement. Keep moving forward!

In the classic tale of adventure, Odysseus fought off sea monsters and escaped from an island prison—but he also endured a lot of boring days at sea. Most quests consist of a set of milestones that take a long time to reach. To stay on track, choose forward motion—keep making choices that bring you closer to the goal, even if it seems like reaching the end will take forever.

I talked with Nate Damm, who walked across America. When I asked how he did it, he said it was simple: all he had to do was put one foot in front of the other. I thought about Nate’s “simple” lesson many times as I finished my own quest. All he had to do was walk, and all I had to do was keep visiting countries. As long as I made continual, logical progress toward the goal, I knew I’d eventually make it to country #193 of 193.

5. Effort can be its own reward if you let it

If you measure success by the opinions of others, you’ve effectively set yourself up for failure. But if you measure success by your own effort, focusing on what you produce and contribute, any additional praise or fame will be a bonus. The work itself can serve as its own motivation.

I was fascinated to learn that successful standup comics Jay Leno and Jerry Seinfeld continue to have an obsession with practicing their sets in small clubs far removed from big cities. Each are focused on the effort, the process of perfecting a routine and remaining in top form even after they’ve achieved a tremendous amount of success.

6. Some adventures should be shared

Beginning from his home in England and continuing south through Sudan, Tom Allen had said farewell to the job opportunity and set out to cycle the world. When he fell in love and had to make a tough choice, he said that “a dream can have only one owner.”

But some challenges can be conquered jointly, and even if your quest isn’t a tag-team effort, chances are that a number of people will participate in your dream as you move toward completion.

7. Misadventures produce confidence

Getting stuck, detained, shut out, or set back is never fun, but these experiences are a necessary part of the journey. When something goes wrong, strive to accept it as an investment in learning. Hopefully, you won’t make the same mistake twice… or at least, not over and over.

In my case, I damaged a rental car in Italy, was deported from Eritrea in the middle of the night, missed the only flight off a small island, and generally lost or forgot things all along the way. But the more mistakes I made, the more confident I became as I realized that most things would be okay and the worst-case scenario wasn’t all that bad.

8. As you make progress toward a small goal, the bigger vision expands

Many people featured in the book started with a small goal that grew in scope as it became more feasible. If you can’t picture a tremendous accomplishment at first, start with an achievable one.

  • 100 countries led to every country in the world
  • 100 knitted hats led to 10,000 (note: this quest is still in progress)
  • An initial goal of shooting 500,000 photos led Thomas Hawk on a quest to shoot, process, and edit one million photos
  • A love of classical music led Gary Thorpe, an Australian DJ, to produce the world’s largest symphony with more than 800 performers
  • An obsession with birds led Phoebe Snetsinger to see (and document!) more specifies that anyone else in history

Conversely, when you work toward a tremendous accomplishment, watch out: the next one may be even bigger. Quests have a habit of growing in scale and scope.


Back In Norway

When I reached the End of the World, Benny and I had a party to celebrate. I grabbed a vodka-soda from the bar as Benny had a soda-soda, and we celebrated with 200 awesome people who had also made the trek to Oslo.

A lot of things had changed since I first began the journey. The quest gave me confidence and a bigger vision for my life. I’d started as a solitary traveler, but ended surrounded by friends.

Oh, one more thing, in case it hasn’t been clear from the above post: the main purpose of the book (and this post!) is to communicate a message that extends beyond a collection of stories. That message is that a quest can bring purpose and meaning to your life.

If you’re discontented, or even if you’re happy but you want more from life, maybe it’s time to pursue a quest of your own.

Big thanks to Benny for having me here on Fi3M. I’m a huge fan! Thanks to all of you for reading as well. :)

The post 8 Lessons Learned from Visiting Every Country in the World appeared first on Fluent in 3 months - Language Hacking and Travel Tips.


          Energy efficiency blogs on 08 July 2013        

SolarCity and Energy Efficiency | The Energy Collective
By StephenLacey
After SolarCity shifted its energy efficiency strategy and pulled back from doing residential retrofits in-house, the solar services behemoth is moving straight into intelligent efficiency.
The Energy Collective - The world's...

Is the U.S. Cowardly in Its Approach to Energy Efficiency? -
By Michael Todd
There's a raft of national benefits to being more energy efficient that don't need to invoke climate or politics.
Pacific Standard. Smart Journalism....

June-July Public Policy Tracker: Energy Efficiency Funding ...
By John Otterbein
The spring 2013 legislative sessions have once again breezed by! This Policy Tracker focuses on the recent developments in energy efficiency policy in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic regions. Good News, Bad News for Energy Efficiency ...
Energy Efficiency Matters

Efficiency Research and Energy Consumption | The Energy Collective
By MaxLuke
Last week energy analyst Thomas Gerke wrote an article where he made an argument that research and development is an ancillary clean energy policy at best, and a distraction at worst. But it's much more complicated than that.
The Energy Collective - The world's...

Is The United States Becoming More Energy Efficient? - Peak Oil News
By admin
Peak Oil News and Message Boards is a community and collaboration portal about energy-related topics.
Peak Oil News and Message Boards

An Outsider Looking In… - Bard College
By Serafina Zeringo
So do you know a lot about energy efficiency?” Uh no, no actually I don't know anything about energy efficiency policies or energy efficiency or what I'm doing here… That is how my first two weeks at NEEP felt. Between writing bill summaries, ...
The Bard CEP Eco Reader

Renewable Energy Potential in Eritrea | Afribiz.info
By Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Partnership
The Belesa plant runs at low efficiency, due to aged generating equipment, A lack of maintenance, and high voltage drops in the distribution system. CAPACITY CONCERNS. Eritrea is facing acute shortages of modern energy services, ...
Afribiz.info

Renewable Energy Potential in Djibouti | Afribiz.info
By Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Partnership
With distribution and transmission losses in the region of 16%, the potential for efficiency improvements in the electrical power sector are evident. The promotion of energy efficiency in the residential sector has also been identified as a key ...
Afribiz.info

Turn Off the Lights to Save Money and Extend the ... - Bounce Energy
By Vernon
A good rule of thumb for an energy efficient home has been that if you are going to be out of room for 15 minutes or more, then turn the lights off. Shorter than 15 minutes, you can leave them on. The trick is that this rule varies depending on the ...
Bounce Energy Blog

Renewable Energy Potential in Equatorial Guinea | Afribiz.info
By Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Partnership
Renewable Energy Potential in Equatorial Guinea · LinkedIn · Email Print Share. Written by: Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Partnership on July 7, 2013. ENERGY SOURCES. Total installed electricity capacity (2008): 31 MW. Thermal: ...
Afribiz.info

Renewable Energy Potential in Republic of Congo | Afribiz.info
By Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Partnership
ENERGY EFFICIENCY. The Republic of the Congo has many important energy resources which are far from being completely exploited. Only 3.6% of the potential hydroelectric energy is currently being used as fossil fuels are still the most ...
Afribiz.info

World record in silicon integrated nanophotonics - More energy ...
Researchers of the Institute of Electrical and Optical Communications Engineering (INT) at the University of Stuttgart and the Institut für Mikroelektronik Stuttgart (IMS CHIPS) achieved a new world record in the energy efficient integration in ...
Nanotechnology Now Recent News

Save energy, save money : News : UpperMichigansSource.com
By Dustin Bonk
MARQUETTE -- Energy efficiency kits save homeowners money by conserving energy. Kerry Noble at Home Evaluation Services in Marquette says installing certain items is good for your home and for your wallet. Low flow shower heads ...
Upper Michigan's Source - TV6 News

President Obama Touts Renewable Energy, Efficiency in Climate Plan
By RealEstateRama
WASHINGTON, D.C. – July 3, 2013 – (RealEstateRama) — President Obama announced on June 25 his climate action plan, which includes significant goals related to renewable energy and energy efficiency. The plan directs the U.S. ...
RealEstateRama

Dartblog: "Jim Kim Is Saving the World"
By Joseph Asch '79
SE4ALL, co-chaired by UN secretary-general Ban Ki-moon and World Bank president Jim Yong Kim, aims to achieve universal energy access, double the use of renewable energy and improve energy efficiency by 2030 (see Update 83).
Dartblog

shaheen tours affordable housing communities, touts clean energy ...
By New Hampshire RealEstateRama
Berlin, NH – July 5, 2013 – (RealEstateRama) — U.S. Senator Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) toured affordable housing communities today in Conway and Berlin and commended their investments in clean energy and energy efficiency measures ...
RealEstateRama

Clean Energy Industry Could Grow Greatly Under Carbon Plan ...
By Natural Resources Defense Council
Already supporting more than 400,000 workers, the energy efficiency economy is made up of private industry and government agencies, can be found across red states and blue states, big cities and small towns. It employs workers retrofitting ...
EarthTechling

Smart Grid: The 'social building:' using social media to save energy
While Smart Meters are now providing data that can allow consumers to pinpoint prime targets for energy efficiency measures, making sense of all that data is not as simple as collecting it, which could pose an obstacle to consumers' ability to ...
SmartGridNews.com

Why can't we talk about energy conservation in Nova Scotia? - Rabble
By rabble staff
Efficiency Nova Scotia, the conservation agency funded by your power bill, is reporting good progress as the public buys into the notion of saving both energy and money. The province-wide electricity load has been cut by 4.3 per cent so far ...
rabble.ca

£400 million spent on energy in South West Devon – huge potential ...
By Sophia Wildman-Gurung
This is an independent assessment of current energy consumption and opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy generation across the area.” Said Kate Royston Chair of the SWD CEP. The study has provided some surprising ...
Transition Town Totnes

Healthy Home Builders | The Examiner News
By Pat Casey
Donovan further explained that the energy-efficiency building materials he uses are way above building code standards for insulation, wall thickness and roof quality. Passive solar energy will be used to heat water, and geothermal technology ...
The Examiner News

Combined Heat-Energy Power System Can Cut Emissions - Care2 ...
By Kit B.
Combined heat and power (CHP) systems could play an important role in that plan by raising energy efficiency and reducing energy waste. And through a flexible framework, CHP systems could cut emissions from power plants, which now ...
Care2 News Network

Obama Climate Change Plan and Carbon Emissions | The Energy ...
By JEMiller_EP
In addition to expanding on the scope of previous plans that would increase clean energy supplies, energy efficiency, and reduce high global warming potential gases, the President now recommends better preparing the country for future ...
The Energy Collective - The world's...


          Authoritarian Abuse in Eritrea        
Eritrea is one of the least discussed producers of refugees.
          Ospedale di Modica, regalo tablet a immigrato        
Modica - Nell’Unità Operativa Complessa di Malattie Infettive del P.O. “Maggiore” di Modica, da alcuni giorni è ricoverato un immigrato proveniente dalla Eritrea, affetto da gravi patologie respiratorie e malnutrizione. Il giovane, per tali condizioni è costretto a stare a letto, ha presentato atteggiamento oppositivo rifiutando energicamente le terapie.  Il paziente, nonostante le gravi condizioni, ha chiesto dei giochi per trascorrere il tempo. L’'insistenza con cui ha domandato il video gioco ha evidenziato uno stress emotivo e fisico.... continua
          CHRISTIANS RELEASED IN ERITREA; THOUSANDS REMAIN BEHIND BARS        
Thousands of Eritrean believers are languishing in military prisons, in labor camps, and in shipping containers in the open desert, reports MNN. Carl Moeller with Open Doors reports a spot of good news: “Two elderly members of the Kale Hiwot church, who were arrested last November and held at a military concentration camp, have been […]
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          Nevsun, Atlantic Council and Corporate Interest In Eritrea        

After observing the attempts reading the New York Times article titled “It’s Bad in Eritrea, but Not That Bad”, I sensed something fishy and did little research on the possible connection between the Eritrean Regime, Nevsun Resources and the author’s institutional affiliation; i.e., The Atlantic Council. The author of that article, Bronwyn Bruton, is the deputy […]

Read more Nevsun, Atlantic Council and Corporate Interest In Eritrea at Horn Affairs


          Ethio-Eritrea | Get Rid of the Bad Boy        

By Nahusenay Belay The Horn of Africa in general and Ethiopia in particular are on the rise. The peace accord reached by the Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan the ability of Somalia to go beyond the pessimist expectations, the impressive economic achievement in Ethiopia and its promise of socio-economic transformation, the peaceful and […]

Read more Ethio-Eritrea | Get Rid of the Bad Boy at Horn Affairs


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          The Eritrean children who cross borders and deserts alone        
Publisher: IRIN - Document type: Country News
          Via Cargo Ships and Jungle Treks, Africans Dream Of Reaching The U.S.         
Costa Rican officials say more than 800 people claiming to be from Africa have come to their country in just the last two months. Most are believed to be from the two neighboring Congo states in central Africa. But in a visit this week, NPR also found Eritreans, Angolans and Nigerians. Authorities also suspect that some are from Haiti. Central America has long been the route north for people fleeing violence or poverty in Latin America. Now it's also a route from Africa. "We say Africa is here now in Costa Rica," says the Rev. Alberto Barrios Gutierrez, a priest who, along with his parishioners, volunteers to help feed the desperate new arrivals. By the time migrants reach the volunteers, they have usually walked at least a week through dangerous jungle. Some say the African migrants are appearing in greater numbers because it's become more difficult to reach Europe, a more traditional destination. Others say there has always been a small number of Africans traveling this route, but
          She Owes Her Activism To A Brave Mom, The ADA And Chocolate Cake        
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mvoj-ku8zk0 To Haben Girma's grandmother, back in East Africa, it "seemed like magic." Her granddaughter, born deaf and blind, is a graduate of Harvard Law School and works as a civil rights attorney. It's easy to understand why the grandmother feels that way. Years before, she had tried to find a school in Eritrea for Girma's older brother, who was also born deaf and blind. She was turned away. There were schools for blind children and schools for deaf children. But no school would teach a child who was deaf-blind (that's the preferred terminology in the disability community). Girma describes that brother as "brilliant." Girma told the story last week at the White House, when she introduced President Obama during a ceremony to mark the 25th anniversary of the Americans with Disabilities Act . By the time Girma was born in 1988, six years younger than her brother, her mother had made a refugee's journey from Eritrea to the United States. And in California
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          Comentario en Yamaha PW-X, Bosch y Brose : motores eMTB 2017. por MichaelRam        
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          10 Embargo Senjata Terlama di Dunia        
Mike PortalEmbargo senjata terhadap suatu negara atau kelompok diberlakukan oleh negara-negara atau organisasi internasional. Negara atau organisasi internasional tersebut memandang embargo senjata sebagai jalan untuk menciptakan perdamaian dan keamanan. Berikut sepuluh embargo senjata terlama oleh Uni Eropa (UE) dan Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa (PBB) yang hingga kini masih berlaku.


Embargo senjata PBB dan UE atas Pantai Gading (November 2004 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata atas Pantai Gading diberlakukan sejak tahun 2004 oleh PBB dan UE sebagai reaksi atas perang saudara yang terjadi di negara Afrika Barat ini.

Parade Angkatan Bersenjata Pantai Gading 2013.

Dewan Keamanan PBB mengembargo pasokan senjata dan peralatan terkait kepada Pantai Gading pada November 2004, sedangkan embargo senjata oleh UE mulai berlaku sejak bulan Desember 2004. Embargo senjata PBB atas Pantai Gading telah beberapa kali diperbarui dan diperpanjang, dan embargo terbaru berlaku hingga April 2015.


Embargo senjata UE atas Zimbabwe (Februari 2002 - sekarang)

UE memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Zimbabwe pada bulan Februari 2002 sebagai reaksi terhadap pelanggaran HAM berat di negara ini. Embargo meliputi penjualan, pasokan atau bantuan teknis terkait peralatan atau sistem militer.

Tentara Zimbabwe saat hari angkatan bersenjata. 

Pada Februari 2014 lalu embargo UE kembali diperpanjang sampai Februari 2015. Meskipun terkena sanksi perjalanan dan keuangan oleh PBB, namun PBB tidak memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Zimbabwe.


Embargo senjata UE atas Sudan (Maret 1994 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata di Sudan diberlakukan oleh UE pada bulan Maret 1994 sebagai reaksi terhadap perang saudara di negara itu. Embargo kemudian diubah dan diperkuat lagi dengan keputusan yang dibuat pada tahun 2004.

Pengawal Presiden Sudah Selatan

Pada bulan Juli 2004, PBB juga melarang pasokan senjata kepada seluruh organisasi non-pemerintah dan individu di wilayah Darfur di Sudan. Menyusul pembentukan Sudan Selatan, UE juga memperbarui embargo agar berlaku untuk kedua negara tersebut.


Embargo senjata UE atas Republik Demokratik Kongo (April 1993 - sekarang)

UE memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Republik Demokratik Kongo pada bulan April 1993. Embargo sudah beberapa kali diubah dan diperpanjang dan hingga kini masih berlaku.

Kelompok bersenjata non-pemerintah (seragam hijau) di Republik Demokratik Kongo. 

PBB juga memberlakukan embargo senjata terhadap kelompok bersenjata dan milisi Kongo dengan menghentikan pasokan atau transfer senjata dan peralatan terkait atau bantuan pelatihan untuk kelompok-kelompok milisi aktif di negera tersebut.


Embargo senjata PBB atas Liberia (November 1992 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata yang diberlakukan PBB dan UE atas Liberia telah berlangsung lebih dari dua dekade. PBB memberlakukan embargo senjata di Liberia pada tahun 1992 sebagai reaksi atas perang saudara di Liberia, sedangkan embargo senjata UE mulai berlaku sejak Mei 2001.

Seorang polisi militer Liberia berdiri di hari Angkatan Bersenjata Liberia, 2010.

Embargo senjata PBB kemudian dicabut pada tahun 2001 dengan diganti dengan embargo baru, yang kemudian diperbarui melalui resolusi. Meskipun sudah ada pembebasan (parsial) dalam peraturannya, namun embargo senjata PBB atas Liberia masih berlanjut.


Embargo senjata OSCE atas Armenia dan Azerbaijan (Februari 1992 - sekarang)

Organisasi untuk Keamanan dan Kerjasama di Eropa (OSCE) memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Armenia dan Azerbaijan pada awal tahun 1992 sebagai reaksi terhadap perjuangan bersenjata antara bangsa-bangsa di wilayah Nagorno-Karabakh (diakui internasional sebagai wilayah Azerbaijan).

Diakui internasional masuk ke wilayah Azerbaijan, namun Nagorno-Karabakh memiliki pemerintahan sendiri.
Diakui internasional masuk ke wilayah Azerbaijan, namun Nagorno-Karabakh memiliki pemerintahan sendiri.
Embargo senjata yang kini masih berlaku, memperketat pasokan senjata dan amunisi kepada angakatan bersenjata yang terlibat di wilayah tersebut. Baik PBB dan UE, memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Armenia dan Azerbaijan.


Embargo senjata PBB atas Somalia (Januari 1992 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata atas Somalia diberlakukan oleh PBB pada Januari 1992 sebagai respon terhadap perang dan krisis kemanusiaan di negara itu.

Tentara Somalia

Pada bulan Desember 2002, UE juga memberlakukan embargo senjata terhadap Somalia, tetapi kemudian diperingan, yaitu diperbolehkan mengeskpor senjata ke Pasukan Pemerintah Somalia untuk pelatihan militer dan misi kemanusiaan.


Embargo senjata UE atas Myanmar (1990 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata UE atas Myanmar (sebelumnya Burma) berlaku sejak tahun 1990, meliputi senjata dan amunisi, komponen serta peralatan pendukung untuk senjata dan non-senjata, transfer teknologi, perbaikan dan pemeliharaan persenjataan.

Tentara Myanmar

Kemudian pada tahun 2013 UE mencabut semua sanksi terhadap Myanmar, kecuali senjata sebagai tanggapan atas perkembangan politik di Myanmar. Resolusi terbaru yang berlaku sekarang adalah memperpanjang embargo senjata hingga April 2015.


Embargo senjata PBB dan UE atas Irak (Agustus 1990 - sekarang)

PBB dan UE memberlakukan embargo senjata atas Irak pada tahun 1990 setelah Irak menginvasi Kuwait pada bulan Agustus 1990. UE memberikan keringanan antara tahun 2003-2004, sementara PBB tetap memberlakukan sehingga embargo senjata atas Irak menjadi embargo terlama kedua di dunia saat ini.

Tentara Irak berdiri di luar sebuah kompleks militer Irak di Buhriz, Irak.

Setelah jatuhnya pemerintahan Irak yang dipimpin Saddam Hussein pada tahun 2003, PBB mencabut sanksi-sanksi perdagangan dan pembatasan atas peralatan terkait yang diperlukan pemerintah Irak yang baru dibentuk pada tahun 2006, namun selain itu embargo senjata masih tetap diberlakukan. UE sendiri memberikan kelonggaran terhadap Irak untuk mendapatkan senjata dan peralatan terkait yang diperlukan oleh pemerintahan baru Irak.


Embargo senjata UE atas China (Juni 1989 - sekarang)

Embargo senjata yang diberlakukan oleh Uni Eropa atas China merupakan hasil dari deklarasi yang dibuat oleh UE di Madrid pada 27 Juni 1989 sebagai protes atas tragedi Lapangan Tiananmen tahun 1989, sekaligus menjadi embargo senjata terlama di dunia saat ini.

Tentara China saat parade 12 Juli 2000

UE sendiri tidak memiliki ketentuan tentang kategori senjata seperti apa yang tidak boleh dikirim ke China. Akibatnya negara-negara anggota UE menafsirkan embargo sesuai dengan hukum nasional mereka, regulasi dan proses pengambilan keputusan, oleh karena itu beberapa negara anggota UE masih mengekspor beberapa alat pertahanan ke China.

Disamping sepuluh negara-negara di atas, hingga saat ini embargo senjata juga masih diberlakukan kepada beberapa negara; Iran dan Korea Utara (PBB dan UE - sejak 2006),  Eritrea (PBB dan UE -sejak 2010), Guinea (UE - sejak 2009), dan Hizbullah (PBB dan UE - sejak 2006). Indonesia sendiri pernah diembargo senjata oleh Pemerintah Amerika Serikat mulai tahun 1999 hingga 2005 terkait tuduhan pelanggaran HAM di Timor Timur.



          Eating the Globe: Zimbabwe        

I tried cooking Zimbabwean beef stew last weekend. It was rather unremarkable. The recipe called for virtually no spices. I cut the meat portion in half and doubled the curry powder, and it was still bland. It was straight out of a 1950s American cookbook-- tasteless. I added the spinach and rice, which were not called for in the recipe.

Countries tried so far:
Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Madagascar, Morocco, Nigeria, Somalia, South Africa, Tunisia, Zimbabwe
Asia: Afghanistan, Armenia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, Cambodia, China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Malaysia, Maldives, Mongolia, Nepal, North Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam, Yemen
Europe: Albania, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden
North America: Belize, Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Trinidad & Tobago, USA
South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Venezuela
Oceania: Australia, Fiji, Samoa, Tonga
          Audrey        
"Mi vida ha sido mucho más que un cuento de hadas"

Había llegado al mundo en un hogar de alcurnia: su padre era un banquero inglés y su madre, una baronesa alemana."Si tuviera que escribir mi biografía, comenzaría así: ‘Nací en Bruselas, Bélgica, el 4 de mayo de 1929... y morí seis semanas después’”. Audrey apenas tenía dos meses de vida. Un severo ataque de tos hizo que su pequeño corazón dejara de latir. Su desesperada madre, Ella Van Heemstra, rezó y le golpeó la espalda. Ese brutal renacimiento fue una segunda oportunidad para Audrey Kathleen Ruston.

Tras el divorcio de sus padres, Audrey vivió con su madre y sus hermanos en Londres y Holanda , en los tiempos en que ésta fue ocupada por Alemania . La violencia del régimen nazi causaba estragos ciudadanos, y Audrey sufrió de depresión y desnutrición.

Ya en su adolescencia comenzó a experimentar inclinaciones de sincera solidaridad con los menos afortunados. Fue en esos años de racismo y genocidio cuando se ofreció como enfermera voluntaria en un hospital alemán que atendía a soldados aliados heridos. Y la extraña trama del destino hizo que a Audrey le tocara curar a un joven paracaidista inglés. Se llamaba Terence Young.Veinte años después, ese ex paracaidista sería director de cine y elegiría a Audrey para protagonizar su drama "Sola en la oscuridad".Además de su empleo como enfermera, Audrey se unió al grupo Dutch Underground, que ofrecía espectáculos de ballet para recaudar fondos destinados a solventar boicots antinazis.

Delgadísima, dotada de una belleza contraria de la voluptuosidad de la época, Audrey dejó atrás los espectros bélicos y, siempre optimista, ingresó a una escuela de ballet gracias a una beca. Y su elegancia y garbo resultaron tan atractivos que muy pronto la llamaron para trabajar como modelo. Esa frágil bailarina estaba a punto de ser descubierta como actriz. Sus primeros pasos en el cine holandés la llevaron a Hollywood y la “puerta grande” se le abrió de par en par , cuando por una causalidad del destino , la actriz Jean Simmons rechazó el papel que Audrey interpretó magníficamente y haciéndose ganadora de un Óscar : "Vacaciones en Roma".

Le siguieron películas míticas : "Sabrina", "Guerra y Paz" , "My Fair Lady" ,"Historia de una monja" , "Sola en la oscuridad","Desayuno con diamantes" ,"Dos en la carretera", "Charada"... Por las que obtuvo un óscar y cuatro nominaciones a éste premio como mejor actriz.Abandonó el cine durante unos años para cuidar de sus hijos ( nacidos en sus dos matrimonios) , para regresar con "Robin y Mariam" y decir el adiós definitivo a la escena ( “Lo más importante es envejecer con gracia. Y no puedes hacerlo desde la tapa de una revista para fans”) en 1989 con una película que se llamó precisamente "Para siempre". Y entonces nació otra Audrey Hepburn.

Se convirtió en un del icono que supo aprovechar su fama en beneficio de los niños como embajadora de Unicef en los últimos años de su vida. "He conocido el UNICEF desde hace mucho tiempo, desde la segunda guerra mundial cuando llegaron a la ayuda de miles de niños como yo, hambrientos víctimas de cinco años de ocupación alemana en Holanda. Se redujeron a cerca de la pobreza total como es el mundo en desarrollo hoy en día - ya que es la pobreza que está en la raíz de todos sus sufrimientos - el no tener, no tener los medios necesarios para ayudarse a sí mismos. Y eso es lo que UNICEF tiene que ver con - ayudar a la gente a ayudarse a sí mismos -, dándoles la ayuda a desarrollar, con lo que les permite ser autosuficientes y vivir con dignidad".

Fueron 50 viajes alrededor del mundo, en los que estudió y se preparó para ser una verdadera portavoz de los desplazados. Sus trabajos fueron el fruto maduro que le permitió presentarse ante las Naciones Unidas, la prensa y los parlamentos de diversos países, para explicar el hambre y el olvido . "Todo niño tiene derecho a la salud, a la ternura, a la vida."

Su vida estuvo llena de distinción y amor al prójimo. Vivió una vida intransferible y cayó demasiado pronto, el 20 de enero de 1993 en Tolochnaz, Suiza, abatida por una enfermedad tan oculta como su intimidad amorosa. La precedía una treintena de filmes, una huella en la moda y la cultura pop, y un ejemplo de humanismo poco vistos en su medio. “No soy una experta en educación, ni en economía, religión o política. Soy una madre”, dijo en una ocasión ante los representantes de la ONU.

Tras su desaparición, su hijo Sean Ferrer, junto con algunos de sus colaboradores más cercanos, creó la Audrey Hepburn Memorial Fund, en homenaje a lo hecho por Audrey para UNICEF y como medio para continuar con lo por ella iniciado. Hasta la fecha, la fundación ha donado más de un millón de dólares para programas de ayuda a los niños en Eritrea, Etiopía, Ruanda, Sudán y Somalia.

“¿Cómo podría resumir yo mi vida? Creo que he tenido una suerte particular. ¿Tendrá eso algo que ver con la fe? Mi madre solía decir: ‘Las cosas buenas no caen en tu falda. Dios es muy generoso, pero espera que tú hagas tu parte primero’. Entonces, tú tienes que hacer ese esfuerzo. Pero al final de los malos tiempos o del enorme esfuerzo, siempre he recibido –¿cómo decirlo?– un premio. Mi vida entera lo demuestra”.
          Provide Genuine Refuge to World’s Displaced        

Asylum seekers behind a metal fence in the ‘Hangar 1’ detention center, in Röszke, Hungary. September 9, 2015.

© 2015 Zalmaï for Human Rights Watch

(New York) – The massive refugee crisis demands an unprecedented global response. At two summits on September 19 and 20, 2016, at the United Nations, world leaders should take bold steps to share responsibility for millions of people displaced by violence, repression, and persecution.

Leaders will gather in New York to discuss providing greater support to countries where refugees first land, just as many of those countries are at breaking point. There is a grave risk to the bedrock foundation of refugee protection, the principle of nonrefoulement – not forcibly returning refugees to places where they would face persecution and other serious threats. People are fleeing violence in Afghanistan, Burma, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Honduras, Iraq, Somalia, and Syria, among others.

“Millions of lives hang in the balance,” said Kenneth Roth, executive director of Human Rights Watch. “This is not just about more money or greater resettlement numbers, but also about shoring up the legal principles for protecting refugees, which are under threat as never before.”

This year, Human Rights Watch has documented Turkish border guards shooting and pushing back civilians who appear to be seeking asylum; Jordan refusing entry or assistance to Syrian asylum seekers at its border; Kenya declaring that it will close the world’s largest refugee camp in November and pushing Somalis to return home despite potential danger; and Pakistan and Iran harassing and deregistering Afghan refugees and coercing them to return to a country in conflict.

The UN General Assembly has convened the September 19 summit “with the aim of bringing countries together behind a more humane and coordinated approach” to refugees. The final statement, already drafted, is a missed opportunity to widen the scope of protection and limits expectations for concrete, new commitments. However, it affirms refugee rights and calls for more equitable responsibility sharing. Given the scale of the refugee crisis and populist backlash in many parts of the world, this affirmation should be the basis for collective action, Human Rights Watch said.

On September 20, US President Barack Obama will host a “Leader’s Summit” to increase commitments for aid, refugee admissions, and opportunities for work and education for refugees. Governments are expected to make concrete pledges toward goals of doubling the number of resettlement places and other admissions, increasing aid by 30 percent, getting 1 million more refugee children in school, and granting 1 million more adult refugees the right to work. Though the participants have not been announced, 30 to 35 countries are expected to attend. Canada, Ethiopia, Germany, Sweden, and Jordan will join the United States as co-facilitators.

Boost Humanitarian Aid to Countries of First Arrival
The vast majority of the world’s 21.3 million refugees are in the global south, where they often face further harm, discrimination, and neglect. Human Rights Watch called on countries of first arrival like Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Thailand, Kenya, Iran, and Pakistan, to commit to proposals to provide refugees with better access to work and education.

The world’s richest nations have largely failed to help countries on the front lines of the displacement crisis. As of September 9, UN aid appeals were 39 percent funded, with some of the worst-funded in Africa; the appeal for refugees from South Sudan stands at 19 percent. The regional refugee response plans for Yemen and Syria are funded at 22 and 49 percent.

Increase Numbers Resettled in Other Countries
Resettlement from countries of first arrival is a key way to help refugees rebuild their lives and to relieve host countries, but international solidarity is glaringly absent. In 2015, the UN refugee agency facilitated resettlement of 81,000 of a projected 960,000 refugees globally in need of resettlement. The agency estimated that over 1.1 million refugees would need resettlement in 2016, but projected that countries would only offer 170,000 places. Representatives of 92 countries pledged only a slight increase in resettlement places for Syrian refugees at a high-level UN meeting in March.

In the European Union, the arrival by boat in 2015 of more than 1 million asylum seekers and migrants – and more than 3,700 deaths at sea – laid bare the need for safe and legal channels for refugees to move, such as resettlement.  However, many EU countries, including Austria, Bulgaria, and Hungary, are focused primarily on preventing spontaneous arrivals, outsourcing responsibility, and rolling back refugee rights.

A July 2015 European plan to resettle 22,500 refugees from other regions over two years has resettled only 8,268 refugees, according to figures from July 2016. Most EU countries underperformed, and 10 failed to resettle a single person under the plan.

End Abusive Systems, Flawed Deals
The EU struck a deal with Turkey in March to allow the return to Turkey of almost all asylum seekers on the deeply flawed grounds that Turkey is a safe country for asylum; it is on the verge of falling apart. Australia forcibly transfers all asylum seekers who arrive by boat to offshore processing centers, where they face abuse, inhumane treatment, and neglect.

The EU and Australia should renounce these abusive policies. EU countries should swiftly adopt a proposed permanent resettlement framework with more ambitious goals and a clear commitment to meet them, Human Rights Watch said. They should share fairly the responsibility for asylum seekers arriving spontaneously, and help alleviate the pressure on Greece and Italy.

Governments also undermine asylum with closed camps, as in Kenya and Thailand, and by detaining asylum seekers, as do Australia, Greece, Italy, Mexico, and the United States.

While by many measures the US leads in refugee resettlement and response to UN humanitarian aid appeals, it has been particularly slow and ungenerous in admitting Syrian refugees. And it has had notable blind spots, as with its border policies for Central American children and others fleeing gang violence and its use of Mexico as a buffer to keep them from reaching the US border.

The Obama Administration met its goal of admitting 10,000 Syrian refugees this fiscal year in the face of opposition from more than half of US governors and a lack of resettlement funds from Congress, but the US has the capacity to resettle many times that number. It should commit to meeting the Leaders’ Summit goals, which would mean doubling this year’s 85,000 total refugee admissions to 170,000.

Several other countries with capacity to admit far more refugees, including Brazil, Japan, and South Korea, have fallen woefully short. Japan admitted 19 refugees in 2015, South Korea only 42 aside from North Koreans, and Brazil only 6.

Russia resettles no refugees. The Gulf States do not respond to UN resettlement appeals, though Saudi Arabia says it has suspended deportations of hundreds of thousands of Syrians who overstay visitor visas. Most Gulf states, except Kuwait, have also fallen short in their response to Syrian-refugee-related UN appeals to fund refugee needs, according to an Oxfam analysis.

“Every country has a moral responsibility to ensure the rights and dignity of people forced to flee their homes,” Roth said. “When more than 20 million people are counting on a real international effort to address their plight, lofty pronouncements are not enough.”


          TerraSonic 07-08-2017         
Playlist:

Meklit- Yesterday Is A Tizita - When The People Move The Music Moves Too
Girma Beyene- Ene Negn Bay Manesh - thiopiques Vol 8 Swinging Addis 19691974
Asmara All Stars- Fhemsela - Eritreas Got Soul
- voicebreak -
El Bho- Noche Tepotzotln - Tamoanchan EP
Various Artists- Laish Laish Ya Jara - Mesopotamix
Edu Lobo- Noussik AkizzBeatzz Remix - AkizzBeatzz Soundcloud
Gnawa Impulse- Tribute To Bongolo Pulp Fusion Mix - Pulp Fusion Mixes Mashes Freebies
- voicebreak -
Afroelectro- Baiao Original Mix - Brazilian Bass Culture Beyond
Temperini- Subtropicality - Entre Tiempo Y Espacio tropical Twista Records 2016
Daym Arocena- Eleggua - Cubafona
Hector Zazou Various Artists- Annuka Suaren Neito Varttina - Songs From The Cold Seas
- voicebreak -
Baba Zula- Hopce Dub - XX Dub
Oluko- Vanghoma Sibu Joe Nagall Edit - Sibu Soundcloud
Abatwa The Pygmy- Rosine Nyiranshimiyimana Umwana Wumuhanda The Child From The Streets - Why Did We Stop Growing Tall
- voicebreak -
Borchi Y Su Doble Redoble- Noom feat Ozferti - Noom feat Ozferti Single


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/81/playlistDate/2017-07-08
          Penn State Schuykill Professor Dr. Charles Cantalupo on LV Discourse        
On this edition of Lehigh Valley Discourse , host John Pearce's guest is Dr. Charles Cantalupo , Distinguished Professor of English, Comparative Literature and African Studies at Penn State - Schuylkill. Dr. Cantalupo discusses the art of translating, his passion for Africa (particularly Eritrea and its literature), the best parts of teaching and his love of Bethlehem, PA. (Original air-date: 6/22/2017)
          Flyktingbeslutet om Eritrea är olyckligt        

Migrationsöverdomstolen har beslutat att eritreaner som lämnat sitt hemland utan tillstånd (nästan alla) ska få flyktingsstatus. Det är ett dubbelt olyckligt beslut.


          Das Älplerfest        
Aymann, ein syrischer Flüchtling, dreht seinen Gegner flink ins Sägemehl. Dieser kann sich aber im letzten Moment auf den Bauch drehen und so die Niederlage verhindern. Angefeuert durch die Zuschauer, versucht Aymann am Boden, den Gegner auf den Rücken zu drehen, schafft es aber nicht. Beide müssen lachen. Sie stehen auf und nehmen den Kampf erneut auf. Die Schweizer Art des Ringens, das Schwingen im Sägemehlring, ist nur eine der Traditionen, die das kirchliche Hilfswerk HEKS in der Schweiz lebenden Flüchtlingen aus Syrien, Afghanistan, Eritrea oder Sri Lanka näherbringen will. Dabei versuchen Profis und Persönlichkeiten, Flüchtlinge für Traditionen wie Schwingen, Alphornspielen oder Jodeln zu begeistern. Der Höhepunkt dieser Kampagne fand am 17. Juni, dem nationalen Flüchtlingstag, statt: An einem "traditionellen" Älplerfest vor dem Berner Bahnhof jodelten Einheimische und Flüchtlinge zusammen, schwangen Fahnen, spielten das traditionelle Kartenspiel "Jass" und bliesen ins Alphorn.
          African Union-International Criminal Court-Stand-Off: Justice and Peace Paradigms        
A Speech by Dr Gorden Moyo made at the Bulawayo Agenda Dialogue Series-23 June 2015

The current stand-off between the African Union (AU) and the International Criminal Court (ICC) requires us to reflect on a number of epistemic questions from the side of subalterns and victims of impunity in Africa whose voices have been silenced and invisibilized by their own leaders in the name of juridical sovereignty, jaundiced nationalism, and African solidarity. Over the last few years, AU has been accusing the ICC for bias, skewed, and selective prosecution of African leaders. Thus, the crucial question before us today is whether or not the ICC is indeed a neocolonial court or the accusation is a guise deployed by some African leaders to evade the wrath of the law? Or it’s the Imperial East versus Imperial West but both abusing the AU and ICC? These questions are screaming for answers. To be sure, this presentation seeks to expose the hypocrisies and posturings of some disfiguring African leaders who are responsible for genocide and mass atrocities against their own people and yet cry foul against the ICC.

Dr. Gorden Moyo revealed what might read as 'the real reason'
 behind  agitation for AU pull out of ICC.
To begin with, both AU and ICC were political products of the post cold war politics of the 1990s. Of course, each had its own complex gestation period. For instance, the ICC’s biography is traceable to the Nuremberg trials of the end of World War II in 1945 while the AU’s zygote is connected to the end of Apartheidism in South Africa in 1994 though its predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) was conceived in 1963.

In many ways the 1990s was a lost decade in Africa. Its ugliest historical markers include among others; the internecine conflicts in Sudan, Somalia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, DRC, Rwanda and Uganda which collectively claimed millions of innocent lives, civilians, women and children. Most of these conflicts are still lingering on to this day. Clearly, the OAU was at the time inadequate to protect the victims of violence, arson and murder perpetrated by both state actors and non-state actors. No wonder why the signing of the AU Constitutive Act in Lome (2000) which transformed the OAU to AU was greeted with celebrations across Africa. The transformation was celebrated because it promised the end of an era of impunity in Africa. The provisions on promotion and protection of human and peoples’ rights, and the right of AU to intervene in member states in respect of grave circumstances of gross violation of human rights gave hope to the long suffering victims of impunity.

Like the OAU, the United Nations Security Council failed , at critical times in history, to act decisively to protect the vulnerable against human rights and violent abuses not just in Africa but also in countries across the globe such as East Timor, Chechnya, Yugoslavia, Poland, Serbia, Sri Lanka, Kosovo, Lebanon, Bosnia and Israel/Palestine. It was within this backdrop that the ICC was established at the tail end of the 1990s to address the issues of impunity at international level. Thus, the ICC came into force in July 2002 four years after the signing of the Rome Statute in 1998. Currently 123 countries are State Parties to the Rome Statute. Out of them 34 are African States, 19 are Asia-Pacific States, 18 are from Eastern Europe, 27 are from Latin American and Caribbean States, and 25 are from Western European and other States. These figures demonstrate the popularity of the ICC in African, Latin American and Caribbean States a region which constitutes the bulk of the Global South.

 The key objective of the ICC is very specific. It is to prosecute executive leadership comprising of presidents, prime ministers, senior military officials, senior government officials and other top ranking officials charged for gross violation of human rights. Specifically, in terms of the Rome Statute, Article 5, ICC has jurisdiction over crimes against humanity, war crimes, genocide and aggression. The Rome statute article 26 reserves no immunity even for the seating Heads of States and Governments. Prior to ICC, these serious crimes were prosecuted through ad hoc International Criminal Tribunals such as the International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR). ICC was not therefore meant to substitute the then existing international criminal justice system but to compliment it. To date, ICC has managed to prosecute, try and sentence two former heads of states that is, Liberia’s Charles Taylor and the late Serbia’s Slobodan Milosevic.

Currently, there are 32 cases before the ICC, all from eight African countries that is, DRC, Uganda, Cote d’voire, Sudan, Kenya, Libya, Central Africa Republic and Mali. This scenario has given reason to some members of the AU to claim that ICC is a neocolonial court or an ‘imperial master exercising imperial power over African subjects’. Subsequently, AU has passed a raft of resolutions from March 2009 to date which call upon all member states not to cooperate with the ICC regarding the arrest of the President of Sudan, Omar al Bashir who is accused of genocide and mass atrocities against his own people in the Darfur region.

 Furthermore, AU has in the past also called for the suspension of the ICC proceedings against the President of Kenya, Uhuru Kenyatta and his Deputy William Ruto who, along with five others were charged for crimes against humanity including murder, forceful removal of populations, mass rape and other sexual crimes in the aftermath of the 2007 general elections in Kenya. Besides calling for non-cooperation with ICC, AU has stopped the setting up of the ICC Liaison Office in Addis Ababa. Moreover, some leaders like the current chairman of the AU Mugabe and the African National Congress (ANC) leadership are now calling for the complete pull-out of all African States Parties (ASP) from Rome Statute. It should be noted that along with countries such as Sudan and Libya, Zimbabwe is not a State Part of the ICC.

There is no doubt that the ICC should concern itself with the gross violation of human rights in countries such as Israel/Palestine, Syria, Ukraine, and Iraq and others where there are gross violations of human rights. We argue that it is crucially important that all cases of impunity are stopped, be it in Africa, Asia or Europe. In that context, ICC should always remind itself that it was founded with the conviction that there should be no impunity for anybody anywhere in the world. We also believe that the fight against impunity and concern for well-being of the most vulnerable are values central to humanity irrespective of geography, history, race and position in global hierarchies of power. The failure to deal with cases outside Africa has given the blood thirsty African despots scapegoat to rationalise and justify their vampirical desires and negative escapades against their own people.

It cannot be doubted that ICC has many shortcomings but its characterisation as unfairly targeting Africans is not backed by facts. For instance, of the eight cases before ICC four were referred by Africa itself i.e. DRC, Uganda, Central Africa Republic and Mali. On the other hand, Sudan and Libya were referred by the United Nations Security Council in terms of the United Nations Charter, Chapter VII read together with Rome Statute, Article 16, while Kenya and Cote d’voire were referred in terms of the Rome Statute, Article 15 which stipulate that the prosecutor may initiate investigations proprio motu on the basis of information on crimes within the jurisdiction of the ICC.
Discussant, Irene Petras of Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human
Rights raised the need for Civil Society to push for people
centred regional bodies
Not surprisingly, only those governments which stood to benefit from referring their cases to ICC did so. In fact  they referred their political opponents for prosecution by ICC. On the other hand, where the seating government was the perpetrator no cases have been referred to ICC to date. It would be unrealistic to expect the perpetrating government to refer cases of impunity to ICC. In this regard, if the ICC was to rely on government referrals, then the ICC would degenerate into the justice of the powerful, hence the justification of referrals by the Security Council and the chief prosecutor’s own initiative.  For the record, the current ICC chief prosecutor is a Gambian woman Fatou Bensouda who took over from Luis Moreno Ocampo from Agentina -both from the Global South and not from the imperial West.

While the ICC has not prosecuted cases in the Global North, it is clear that those that have been charged in Africa have a case to answer. Therefore the accusation that ICC is a selective, skewed, biased and even condescending court does not pass the evidence test. The truth of the matter is that some African presidents who are in the forefront of vilifying the ICC are themselves guilty of impunity, war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide and they are looking for political and ideological sanctuaries to hide, prevent and escape justice. Oddly enough, in all the resolutions and decisions of the AU Assembly on ICC since the al Bashir indictment in 2009 there has not been a single mention of the rights of victims of impunity.

 Instead, all the decisions of the AU Assembly are couched around the issue of immunity of the seating Heads of States and Governments. In fact, the AU decisions are inscripted in what Enrique Dussell terms the ‘nationality of power’ wedded with ‘coloniality of power’ a situation where the ordinary masses are subalternised and peripherised into zones of non-being.  In the eyes of some leaders such as Sudan’s al Bashir, Gambia’s Yaya Jameh, Eritrea’s Afwerki and Zimbabwe’s Mugabe, killability and dispensability of human life are part of pan-Africanism. This abysmal thinking suggests that the rights of the victims of impunity must be silenced and disciplined in the name of faked stability and negative peace. Hence the people who complain about bias of the ICC are African dictators-the perpetrators and not the victims, who are relieved that at least ‘somebody in the ICC is paying attention to their plight’.

Evidently, the AU pull-out campaign headed by Mugabe seeks to disable the ICC from indicting more fraudsters running the African states. It is also meant to completely relegate the epistemic and ontological wounds inflicted on African people by their leaders to archival dustbins. More cynically, the perpetrators expect to be deified and iconised as heroes and victors against neocolonialism and neoimperialism. Mugabe is actually experienced in this art of political deception. After presiding over the Gukurahundi mass killings of approximately 20 000 innocent civilians of Ndebele ethnic group in Matabeleland and Midlands Provinces in the 1980s, Mugabe preached unity and peace as substitutes for justice and thought he had got away with it.

However, three decades after the scourge of Gukurahundi together with Murambatsvina crimes against humanity, the stubborn facts about Mugabe’s impunity continue to haunt him and his lieutenants up to this day. No wonder why Mugabe gets livid about the idea of arresting seating presidents by the ICC. Chinua Achebe was right when he remarked that ‘an old woman is always uneasy when dry bones are mentioned in a proverb’. To avoid the possibilities if not reality of his own indictment, Mugabe has had to specifically assign one of his deputies Mr Report Phelekezela Mphoko to traverse the breadth and width of the country denying the truth of Gukurahundi. Sadly, Report Mphoko is not doing a very good job for Mugabe. Instead, he has angered the victims, survivors and the communities where mass atrocities actually took place. He has actually rekindled the memories of the torture survivors who are now exploring various ways of redress. Report Mphoko is better advised to read the recently declassified South African Foreign Affairs documents which reveal how some ‘high ranking’ ZANU PF officials negotiated with Apartheid South African Defence Forces in 1983 to cooperate in their efforts to keep ZAPU from supporting the African National Congress (ANC) operatives in Zimbabwe. Never mind Mugabe’s pretentions of pan-Africanism, he was an Apartheidist in nationalist aprons.

While the AU’s idea that cases of gross violation of human rights in Africa should be prosecuted, tried and sentenced in Africa by either national criminal justice system or by the African Court of Justice (ACJ) in conjunction with the African Human and Peoples’ Rights Court (AHPRC) may sound plausible, logical and pan-African, as mentioned earlier, it should never escape our minds that the perpetrators of these crimes are  almost invariably the seating Heads of States and Governments who enjoy immunity in their countries and have a tendency of long distance rulership. For this reason, it is near impossible that the victims will ever see justice if all serious cases were to be referred to internal or regional justice systems.

 Moreover, issues of solidarity between and among African governments also impede on justice. The case of the former president of Chad, Hissene Habre who is accused of the killings and torture of approximately 40 000 innocent citizens of that country is a classical one. To be sure, the victims of Habre’s brutal killings have been fighting for more than two decades to bring him to justice but the Senegalese government which gave Habre asylum in 1990 protected him from internal criminal justice and from extradition. Until the new president of Senegal, Macky Sall elected in 2012 arrested Habre, the man was living a largely untroubled life in Dakar until then.

 Similarly, the former president of Ethiopia, Mengistu Haile Marrime who is in asylum in Zimbabwe for over two decades now is accused of Operation ‘Red Terror’ which left thousands of people dead in his country. His victims are unlikely to find justice as the perpetrator is well protected by his comrade in blood. We should therefore excuse those who view the AU as a ‘Dictators Club’ that is interested in protecting its own interests as opposed to protecting the interests of the vulnerable, the victims and the subalterns.

While the imperial claims by AU may invoke pan-African spirit and liberation struggle memories in Africa, it should be noted that the Security Council which referred both Libya and Sudan to the ICC consists of five permanent members that is, UK, France (signatories of the Rome Statute), Russia, China and USA (are not). Each of these countries has veto powers on all issues brought to the attention of the Security Council. In the African liberation lexicon and paradigm both China and Russia are not imperialists since they supported the liberation movements to decolonise Africa from the Western imperialists. Assuming China and Russia are anti-imperialists as Mugabe and company suggest, then this claim begs the question why either of the two countries did not veto the Security Council Resolution 1593 which compelled Sudan to cooperate with the ICC?

We submit here that both Russia and China are new economic imperialists. For instance, China like all imperialist powers imports cheap raw materials from Africa; exports finished products to Africa; exploits its own and other countries cheap labour; it invests and seeks to control infrastructure in Africa such as highways, airports, ports, and telecommunications; it is a creditor; and it uses its political clout to bribe political leaders to protect its economic interests. Just like the Western imperialists which pampered the Mobutus, Idi Aminis and Bokassas of this world, China has a weird reputation of protecting despots and perpetrators of gross violation of human rights. In Zimbabwe they have constructed a personal residence for Mugabe, a military defence college and a conference centre for the ruining party ZANU PF. Moreover, the Chinese have also invested heavily in the First Family businesses such as the Gushungo Dairy Estate and the Mazowe Business Hub but nothing for the ordinary citizens except the looting of their natural resources, destruction of the their textile and clothing industry leaving them unemployed and impoverished.

While the Chinese did not oppose the Security Council resolution, they have been working behind the scenes with some African leaders to undermine and defy the resolution to arrest al Bashir. For record, at the time of al Bashir’s formal indictment by ICC in March 2009, Sudan was the third largest recipient of Chinese investment behind Angola and South Africa. China’s business interests in Sudan include among others: dam construction (Merowe Dam where China’s Exim- Bank is providing USD$530 million); power generation (El Galil Power Station); Railways (Railway connecting Port Sudan to Khartoum); and petroleum industry. Moreover, Sudan was one of the few countries to be visited by the then Chinese President Hu Jintau in February 2007. All this indicates the strategic value that Sudan is to China. While there is nothing inherently wrong with the above investments, it is worth noting that they are the very reasons why China is protecting al Bashir from ICC.  A good number of African Heads of States and Governments have been bribed to support the Sudanese president. In this context, the lives of the Darfurans do not matter as long as al Bashir continues to be the conveyor belt of African resources to feed the over a billion Chinese.

To this extent, the Mugabe-led faction of the AU should be thoroughly analysed and its pretentions and guises exposed. It is this component of the AU which is screaming about the neocolonial exigencies of the West while shielding the new imperialists from the East with impunity. The new economic imperialists of the East dine and wine with dictators to protect their excesses, and as a quid pro quo the imperialists loot African resources with impunity. They are no less worse than their Western counterparts.

In this regard, the 25thAU Summit in South Africa in June 2015 will be remembered in the annals of history as full of contradictions, ambiguities, dichotomies, and frictions. South Africa which for years was on the frontline fighting Apartheidism will have to extricate itself before the bar of history, the bar of public opinion and the bar of its own conscience how it found itself in defence of despotism and impunity if it hopes to regain its confidence from the victims of impunity; regain its former venerated place on matters of moral leadership; and African conscience inaugurated by its founding icon the late Mandela. That evil triumphed in the AU when a South African national was the chairperson of the AU Commission in a Summit hosted by South Africa flies on the face of South Africa’s proud history against impunity. It should be known that the only benefactors of South Africa’s inaction regarding the arrest of al Bashir when he was present on its territory is al Bashir himself along with all other African despots who have albatrosses of crimes hanging on their necks. Sadly, justice once again lost on the altar of impunity masquerading as peace project.

In concluding, we would like to call upon all peoples of conscience in Zimbabwe, Africa and Diaspora to denounce the Mugabe-led pull out campaign.  We also call upon all progressive African leaders to distance themselves from Mugabe-AU’s paradigms of violence; neo-populism guised as pan-Africanism; and despotism disguised as Afro-radicalism. There is no need for countries and leaders without skeletons in their cupboards to be banded together with dictatorships by default. It is in this context, that we applaud Malawi, Botswana and others for resisting the posturings of dictatorships who ganged up against the victims of impunity by embracing the non-cooperation axiom of the Mugabe faction of the AU. Africa and the World should listen to the clarion call of the victims of gross violation of human rights who want both peace and justice in equal measures.

I thank you


          Africa’s $700 Billion Problem Waiting to Happen        
Back in 2002, Meles Zenawi, then prime minister of Ethiopia, drafted a foreign policy and national security white paper for his country. Before finalizing it, he confided to me a “nightmare scenario” — not included in the published version — that could upend the balance of power in the Horn of Africa region. The scenario went like this: Sudan is partitioned into a volatile south and an embittered north. The south becomes a sinkhole of instability, while the north is drawn into the Arab orbit. Meanwhile, Egypt awakens from its decades-long torpor on African issues and resumes its historical stance of attempting to undermine Ethiopia, with which it has a long-standing dispute over control of the Nile River. It does so by trying to bring Eritrea and Somalia into its sphere of influence, thereby isolating the government in Addis Ababa from its direct neighbors. Finally, Saudi Arabia begins directing its vast financial resources to support Ethiopia’s rivals and sponsor Wahhabi groups that challenge the traditionally dominant Sufis in the region, generating conflict and breeding militancy within the Muslim communities.
          New WPF Occasional Paper on Eritrea        
This paper discusses how the Eritrea People’s Liberation Front evolved from a liberation front (1971-1991), into a highly successful organization with clear social and political agenda, and, ultimately, into an oppressive state where power is concentrated in the hands of the President and his close network.
          'Light Of The World' Is A Portrait Of Love, Life And Loss        
The Light of the World: A Memoir is an elegant book by Elizabeth Alexander, a poet, mother and widow. Her husband of 16 years was found dead next to their treadmill, just after his 50th birthday. The multiple blocked arteries that caused a massive heart attack had gone undetected by medical tests. Ficre was a big, vital man, an artist and chef from Eritrea who loved life and people and had seen his share of poverty and civil war. Alexander grew up Episcopalian in Harlem, was educated at the best schools and became a brilliant poet. Ficre emigrated from an east African country that was once an Italian colony and is veiled in iconographic murals from the orthodox Christian and Islamic traditions. Their love is passionate—for their art, their community, their life, their family and each other. His death is devastating. Alexander portrays the particular energy radiating from their home in New Haven. She lures us into the intimacy of their home, saying that, "Sometimes in the morning as he
          Fortune Of Africa Air Flight Status        
Africa is gifted by nature offering plenty of opportunities to tourists. Africa has rich cultural heritage and natural beauty as indicated below in the following country tourism profiles: Algeria Egypt Malawi Sierra Leone Angola Equatorial Guinea Mali Somalia Benin Eritrea Mauritania South Africa Botswana Ethiopia Mauritius South Sudan Burkina Faso Gabon Morocco Sudan Burundi Gambia ...
          List of African Countries by region        
List of countries of East Africa Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda Seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe List of countries of West Africa Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Gambia Ghana Nigeria Guinea Guinea Bissau Ivory Coast Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Senegal Sierra Leone Togo List of countries of ...
          List of countries of Africa by Region        
The countries of Africa by region are as follows; Angola Cameroon Central African Republic Chad DR. Congo Equatorial Guinea Gabon Republic of Congo Sao Tome and Principe Burundi Comoros Djibouti Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Malawi Mozambique Rwanda seychelles Somalia South Sudan Tanzania Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe  Algeria Egypt Libya Morocco Sudan Tunisi Botswana Lesotho Maurtius NamibiaSouth ...
          Resoluciones de Naciones Unidas sobre los derechos del niño. Noticias de la especial situación de Irak        
Aquí vemos resoluciones de la ONU que pueden guiar para la comprensión del problema y sobre como hacer resoluciones en modelos de naciones unidas. Especialmente se tiene en cuenta la situación de los niños de Irak para iluminar la problemática

Julio Daniel Nardini

GENERAL
A/54/601
30 de noviembre de 1999
ESPAÑOL
Original: ÁRABE




Quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones
Tema 112 del programa

Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño


Informe de la Tercera Comisión


Relator: Sr. Naif Bin Bandar Al–Sudairy (Arabia Saudita)


I. Introducción
1. En su tercera sesión plenaria, celebrada el 17 de septiembre de 1999, la Asamblea General, por recomendación de la Mesa, decidió incluir en el programa del quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño” y asignarlo a la Tercera Comisión.
2. La Tercera Comisión examinó el tema en sus sesiones 23ª a 28ª, 35ª, 41ª y 43ª, celebradas los días 27 a 29 de octubre y 1°, 5, 10 y 11 de noviembre de 1999. La reseña de las deliberaciones de la Comisión figura en las actas resumidas correspondientes (A/C.3/54/SR.23 a 28, 35, 41 y 43).
3. Para su examen del tema la Comisión tuvo ante sí los siguientes documentos:
a) Informe del Secretario General relativo a la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265);
b) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía (A/54/411);
c) Nota del Secretario General por la que se transmite el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados (A/54/430);
d) Carta de fecha 17 de mayo de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Bangladesh ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el Programa del Siglo XXI por la Paz y la Justicia aprobado por la Conferencia del Llamamiento por la Paz, celebrada en La Haya del 12 al 15 de mayo de 1999 (A/54/98);
e) Carta de fecha 28 de septiembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Islandia ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite la Declaración de los Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores de los países nórdicos contra la utilización de niños soldados (A/54/419);
f) Carta de fecha 15 de octubre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Sudáfrica ante las Naciones Unidas por la que se transmite el comunicado de la reunión de Ministros de Relaciones Exteriores y Jefes de Delegación del Movimiento de los Países No Alineados celebrada en Nueva York el 23 de septiembre de 1999 (A/54/469–S/1999/1063);
g) Carta de fecha 3 de noviembre de 1999 dirigida al Secretario General por el Representante Permanente de Turquía ante las Naciones Unidas (A/54/528–S/1999/1126).
4. En su 23ª sesión, celebrada el 27 de octubre, formularon declaraciones introductorias el Representante Especial del Secretario General encargado de la cuestión de los niños en los conflictos armados, la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, el Director General de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, el Director de la oficina de Nueva York del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y la Directora Ejecutiva del UNICEF (véase A/C.3/54/SR.23).



II. Examen de propuestas


A. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46
5. En la 35ª sesión, celebrada el 5 de noviembre, el representante de Namibia, en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Angola, Argelia, la Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Azerbaiyán, las Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Botswana, el Brasil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, Chile, China, Chipre, Colombia, el Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Cuba, Dinamarca, el Ecuador, Eritrea, Eslovenia, Etiopía, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, Fiji, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Ghana, Grecia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea Ecuatorial, Guyana, Haití, Hungría, Indonesia, Irlanda, Islandia, las Islas Salomón, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Luxemburgo, Malasia, Malawi, Malí, Mauricio, Mónaco, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, Papua Nueva Guinea, el Paraguay, el Perú, Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Democrática del Congo, la República Dominicana, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Rumania, Rwanda, Santa Lucía, el Senegal , Seychelles, Singapur, Sudáfrica, Suecia, Suriname, Swazilandia, Tailandia, Ucrania, el Uruguay, Venezuela, Viet Nam, Zambia, Zimbabwe presentó el proyecto de resolución titulado “La niña” (A/C.3/54/L.46). Posteriormente Antigua y Barbuda, Australia, Belarús, Belice, Camboya, España, Granada, Jamaica, la India, Madagascar, Panamá, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, San Marino, San Vicente y las Granadinas, Uganda y Uzbekistán, se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
6. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.46 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución I).


B. Proyecto de resolución A/C.3.54/L.49
7. En la 41ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, el representante de Finlandia en nombre del Afganistán, Alemania, Andorra, Argelia, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaiyán, Bangladesh, Belarús, Bélgica, Benin, Bhután, Bosnia y Herzegovina, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cabo Verde, el Camerún, el Canadá, China, Chipre, Côte d'Ivoire, Croacia, Dinamarca, Egipto, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia, España, Estonia, la ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia, la Federación de Rusia, Filipinas, Finlandia, Francia, Georgia, Grecia, Guinea, Hungría, la India, el Iraq, Irlanda, Islandia, Israel, Italia, el Japón, Kazajstán, Kenya, Kirguistán, Lesotho, Letonia, Liberia, Liechtenstein, Lituania, Luxemburgo, Madagascar, Malasia, Malí, Malta, los Estados Federados de Micronesia, Mónaco, Mongolia, Namibia, Nigeria, Noruega, Nueva Zelandia, los Países Bajos, el Pakistán, el Perú (en nombre de los Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas que pertenecen al grupo de Estados de América Latina y el Caribe), Polonia, Portugal, el Reino Unido de Gran Bretaña e Irlanda del Norte, la República Checa, la República de Corea, la República de Moldova, Rumania, San Marino, el Senegal, Sierra Leona, Sudáfrica, Sudán, Suecia, Tailandia, Túnez, Turquía, Ucrania y Uzbekistán presentó un proyecto de resolución titulado “Los derechos del niño” (A/C.3/54/L.49). Posteriormente, Camboya, el Congo, Eritrea, Ghana, Guinea Ecuatorial, Indonesia, Jamaica, Malawi, Mozambique, la República Unida de Tanzanía, Swazilandia, el Togo, Uganda, y Zimbabwe se sumaron a los patrocinadores del proyecto de resolución.
8. En la 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, la Secretaria del Comité leyó una declaración del Contralor sobre las consecuencias para el presupuesto por programas del proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).
9. En la misma sesión, la Comisión aprobó el proyecto de resolución A/C.3/54/L.49 sin someterlo a votación (véase el párrafo 12, proyecto de resolución II).
10. Tras la aprobación del proyecto de resolución, formularon declaraciones los representantes de Singapur, los Estados Unidos de América y el Uruguay (véase A/C.3/54/SR.43).



C. Proyecto de decisión propuesto por el Presidente
11. En su 43ª sesión, celebrada el 11 de noviembre, a propuesta del Presidente, la Comisión decidió recomendar a la Asamblea General que tomara nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño (A/54/265) (véase el párrafo13).



II. Recomendaciones de la Tercera Comisión
12. La Tercera Comisión recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe los siguientes proyectos de resolución:



Proyecto de resolución I

La niña


La Asamblea General,

Recordando su resolución 53/127, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y todas las resoluciones anteriores sobre la cuestión, incluidas las conclusiones convenidas de la Comisión de la Condición Jurídica y Social de la Mujer Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 7 (E/1999/27), cap. I, secc. B.IV., en particular las pertinentes a la niña,

Recordando también todas las conferencias anteriores pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo., así como el reciente examen y evaluación al cabo de cinco años de la ejecución del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo,

Profundamente preocupada por la discriminación contra las niñas y la violación de sus derechos, como consecuencia de lo cual las niñas suelen tener menor acceso que los niños a la educación, la nutrición y la atención de la salud física y mental y disfrutar de menos derechos, oportunidades y beneficios de la niñez y la adolescencia y con frecuencia son víctimas de diversas formas de explotación cultural, social, sexual y económica y de violencia y prácticas perjudiciales como el infanticidio, el incesto, el matrimonio precoz, la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto y la mutilación genital femenina,

Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr la igualdad de género de modo de asegurar un mundo justo y equitativo para las niñas,

Observando con profunda preocupación que en situaciones de pobreza, guerra y conflicto armado las niñas figuran entre las víctimas más perjudicadas, lo cual limita sus posibilidades de pleno desarrollo,

Observando con preocupación que la niña ha pasado además a ser víctima de enfermedades venéreas y de contaminación con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana, lo que afecta la calidad de su vida y la deja expuesta a mayor discriminación,

Tomando nota de que en 1999 se cumple el décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo. y el vigésimo aniversario de la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer Resolución 34/180, anexo.,

Reafirmando la igualdad de derechos de mujeres y hombres consagrada, entre otros instrumentos, en el Preámbulo de la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer y la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño,

1. Subraya la necesidad de que se materialicen de manera cabal y urgente los derechos que se garantizan a la niña en todos los instrumentos de derechos humanos, en particular la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño3 y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer4, así como la necesidad de que esos instrumentos sean ratificados universalmente;

2. Insta a todos los Estados a que tomen todas las medidas necesarias y adopten las reformas jurídicas para garantizar el disfrute pleno y en condiciones de igualdad por parte de la niña de todos los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, a que tomen medidas eficaces contra las violaciones de esos derechos y libertades y a que utilicen los derechos del niño como base de las políticas y los programas relativos a la niña;

3. Insta a los Estados a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes que estipulen que sólo se podrá contraer matrimonio con el libre y pleno consentimiento de los futuros cónyuges, a que promulguen y hagan cumplir estrictamente leyes relativas a la edad mínima para expresar consentimiento y contraer matrimonio y a que eleven la edad mínima para contraer matrimonio cuando sea necesario;

4. Insta además a los Estados partes a que cumplan las obligaciones que han contraído en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño y la Convención sobre la eliminación de todas las formas de discriminación contra la mujer, así como el compromiso de llevar a la práctica la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer Informe de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, Beijing, 4 a 15 de septiembre de 1995 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.96.IV.13), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo I.;

5. Insta asimismo a todos los Estados a que promulguen y apliquen leyes que protejan a las niñas contra todas las formas de violencia, con inclusión del infanticidio y la selección prenatal por el sexo del feto, la mutilación genital femenina, la violación, la violencia en el hogar, el incesto, el abuso sexual, la explotación sexual, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía, y a que establezcan programas y servicios de apoyo médico, social y sicológico adecuados a la edad, seguros y confidenciales para ayudar a las niñas que son objeto de actos de violencia;

6. Exhorta a todos los Estados y a las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que, en forma individual y colectiva, sigan aplicando la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer, en particular los objetivos estratégicos relativos a la niña;

7. Insta a los Estados a que adopten medidas especiales para proteger a los niños y, en particular, a las niñas, de la violación y de otras formas de abuso sexual y violencia por motivos de sexo en situaciones de conflicto armado, prestando especial atención a las niñas refugiadas y desplazadas, y a que, al ofrecer asistencia humanitaria, tengan en cuenta las necesidades especiales de las niñas;

8. Insta además a los Estados a que formulen planes, programas o estrategias nacionales completos, multidisciplinarios y coordinados, para eliminar todas las formas de violencia contra las mujeres y las niñas, a los que deberán dar amplia difusión y en los que habrán de fijar objetivos y calendarios para la aplicación, y procedimientos nacionales eficaces para hacer cumplir las normas pertinentes mediante mecanismos de supervisión en que intervengan todas las partes interesadas, incluidas las consultas con las organizacio- nes de mujeres, y a que, al hacerlo, tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones relativas a la niña formuladas por la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la violencia contra la mujer, con inclusión de sus causas y consecuencias;

9. Exhorta a los gobiernos, a la sociedad civil, incluidos los medios de difusión, y a las organizaciones no gubernamentales a que fomenten la educación en materia de derechos humanos y el pleno respeto y disfrute de los derechos humanos de la niña mediante, entre otras cosas, la traducción, la producción y la difusión en todos los sectores de la sociedad, y en particular entre los niños, de material informativo sobre estos derechos adecuado a la edad de los destinatarios;

10. Pide al Secretario General que, en su calidad de Presidente del Comité Administrativo de Coordinación, vele por que todas las organizaciones y los órganos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, tanto por separado como colectivamente, en particular el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Programa Mundial de Alimentos, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de Desarrollo de las Naciones Unidas para la Mujer, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, y la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, tengan en cuenta los derechos y las necesidades particulares de la niña en sus programas de cooperación por países, de conformidad con las prioridades nacionales y con el Marco de Asistencia de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo;

11. Pide a todos los órganos creados en virtud de tratados sobre derechos humanos, procedimientos especiales y otros mecanismos relativos a los derechos humanos de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos y a la Subcomisión de Promoción y Protección de los Derechos Humanos que adopten permanente y sistemáticamente una perspectiva de género en la ejecución de sus mandatos e incluyan en sus informes análisis cualitativos sobre violaciones de los derechos humanos de la mujer y la niña, y alienta a aumentar la cooperación y coordinación a ese respecto;

12. Exhorta a los Estados y las organizaciones internacionales y no gubernamentales a que movilicen todos los recursos, el apoyo y la acción necesarios para alcanzar las metas y los objetivos estratégicos y aplicar las medidas que se proponen en la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer;

13. Destaca la importancia de realizar una evaluación sustantiva de la aplicación de la Plataforma de Acción dentro de una perspectiva del ciclo de vida, de modo de determinar cuáles son las lagunas y los obstáculos con que se ha tropezado en el proceso de puesta en práctica y plantear nuevas medidas para el logro de las metas de la Plataforma de Acción;

14. Insta a los gobiernos, los organismos del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, en particular la División para el Adelanto de la Mujer de la Secretaría, las organizaciones no gubernamentales y las organizaciones de mujeres a que procuren que en los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General titulado “La mujer en el año 2000: igualdad entre los géneros, desarrollo y paz en el siglo XXI”, se tomen debidamente en cuenta las necesidades en los derechos de la niña y se los integre en todas las actividades;

15. Pide al Secretario General que vele por que se evalúen concretamente las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en el examen de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social Informe de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, El Cairo, 5 a 13 de septiembre de 1994 (publicación de las Naciones Unidas, número de venta: S.95.XIII.18), cap. I, resolución 1, anexo. que se realizará en junio del año 2000;

16. Pide además al Secretario General que, en consulta con el Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo, la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura, el Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Banco Mundial, vele por que se preste atención especial a las necesidades y los derechos de la niña en todos los preparativos a escala nacional, regional e internacional, incluido el informe sobre Evaluación de la Educación para Todos en el año 2000 Véase A/54/128–E/1999/70. y el programa del Foro Mundial de la Educación, que se celebrará en abril de 2000;

17. Pide asimismo al Secretario General que se asegure de que las necesidades y los derechos de la niña se tengan en cuenta en la labor preparatoria del período extraordina- rio de sesiones de la Asamblea General sobre el seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia que se celebrará en el año 2001, entre otras cosas, presentando a la Asamblea General un informe completo basado en las experiencias y resultados de los exámenes de cinco años de aplicación del Programa de Acción de la Conferencia Internacional sobre la Población y el Desarrollo, la Plataforma de Acción de la Cuarta Conferencia Mundial sobre la Mujer y el Programa de Acción de la Cumbre Mundial sobre Desarrollo Social, y en la labor preparatoria del Foro Mundial de la Educación.



Proyecto de resolución II

Los derechos del niño
La Asamblea General,
Recordando sus resoluciones 53/127 y 53/128, de 9 de diciembre de 1998, y la resolución 1999/80 de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, de 28 de abril de 1999 Véase Documentos Oficiales del Consejo Económico y Social, 1999, Suplemento No. 3 (E/1999/23), cap. II, secc. A.,
Teniendo presente la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño Resolución 44/25, anexo., destacando que las disposiciones de la Convención y otros instrumentos pertinentes de derechos humanos deben constituir la norma en la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño y reafirmando que el interés superior del niño ha de ser una consideración primordial en todas las medidas que se adopten en relación con los niños,
Reafirmando, la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño y el Plan de Acción para la aplicación de la Declaración Mundial sobre la Supervivencia, la Protección y el Desarrollo del Niño en el decenio de 1990, aprobados en la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que se celebró en Nueva York el 29 y 30 de septiembre de 1990 A/45/625, anexo., en particular el compromiso solemne de asignar alta prioridad a los derechos del niño, su supervivencia, su protección y su desarrollo, y reafirmando asimismo la Declaración y Programa de Acción de Viena que aprobó la Conferencia Mundial de Derechos Humanos, celebrada en Viena del 14 al 25 de junio de 1993A/CONF.157/24 (Part I), cap. III., en que, entre otras cosas, se indica que deben reforzarse los mecanismos y programas nacionales e internaciona- les de defensa y protección de los niños, en particular de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles, con inclusión de medidas eficaces para combatir los casos de explotación y el maltrato de niños, como el infanticidio femenino, el empleo de niños en trabajos peligrosos, la venta de niños y de sus órganos, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de los niños en la pornografía, y en que se reafirma que todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales son universales,

Observando con profunda preocupación que la situación de los niños en muchas partes del mundo sigue siendo crítica como resultado de la pobreza, las dificultades sociales y económicas en una economía cada vez más mundializada, las pandemias, los desastres naturales, los conflictos armados, el desplazamiento de la población, la explotación, el analfabetismo, el hambre, la intolerancia, la discriminación y la protección jurídica inadecuada, y convencida de que es preciso adoptar medidas urgentes y eficaces en los planos nacional e internacional,
Destacando la necesidad de integrar la dimensión del género en todas las políticas y programas relacionados con los niños,
Reconociendo la necesidad de lograr un nivel de vida adecuado para el desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral y social del niño, así como de proporcionar un acceso universal a la enseñanza primaria en condiciones de igualdad,

Reconociendo también que la colaboración entre los gobiernos, las organizaciones internacionales y todos los sectores de la sociedad civil, en particular las organizaciones no gubernamentales, es importante para el ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Destacando la importancia del décimo aniversario de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño para la movilización y adopción de nuevas medidas a fin de lograr el pleno ejercicio de los derechos del niño,
Acogiendo con satisfacción los preparativos del período extraordinario de sesiones de la Asamblea General, dedicado al seguimiento de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia, que ha de celebrarse en 2001,


I
Aplicación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
1. Insta una vez más a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que, como cuestión prioritaria, firmen y ratifiquen la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 o se adhieran a ella, a fin de lograr el objetivo de la adhesión universal para el décimo aniversario de la celebración de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y de la entrada en vigor de la Convención en el año 2000;
2. Reitera su preocupación por el elevado número de reservas a la Convención e insta a los Estados partes a que retiren las reservas que sean incompatibles con el objeto y propósito de la Convención y que revisen periódicamente sus reservas con el fin de retirarlas;
3. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que apliquen plenamente la Convención y subraya que la aplicación de la Convención contribuye al logro de los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia;
4. Insta a los Estados a que hagan participar a los niños y a los jóvenes en las actividades para lograr los objetivos de la Cumbre Mundial en favor de la Infancia y la Convención;
5. Exhorta a los Estados partes a que cooperen estrechamente con el Comité de los Derechos del Niño y cumplan puntualmente la obligación de presentar informes que les impone la Convención, ateniéndose a las directrices elaboradas por el Comité, y alienta a los Estados partes a que tengan en cuenta las recomendaciones formuladas por el Comité en la aplicación de las disposiciones de la Convención;
6. Exhorta asimismo a los Estados partes a que promuevan la capacitación en materia de derechos del niño de quienes participan en actividades relacionadas con niños, por ejemplo, por conducto del programa de servicios de asesoramiento y cooperación técnica en materia de derechos humanos;
7. Pide al Secretario General que facilite el personal y los medios necesarios para que el Comité pueda cumplir de manera eficaz y rápida sus funciones, y toma nota del apoyo temporal proporcionado por el plan de acción de la Alta Comisionada de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos para reforzar la importante función del Comité en la promoción de la aplicación de la Convención; y le pide que presente información sobre las medidas complementarias del plan de acción;
8. Exhorta a los Estados partes en la Convención a que adopten las medidas apropiadas para que la enmienda del párrafo 2 del artículo 43 de la Convención sea aceptada a la mayor brevedad posible por una mayoría de dos tercios de los Estados partes a fin de que entre en vigor y el número de miembros del Comité pueda aumentar de 10 a 18 expertos;
9. Invita al Comité a que siga intensificando su diálogo constructivo con los Estados partes y la transparencia y eficacia de su funcionamiento;
10. Acoge con satisfacción la atención que presta el Comité al logro de los niveles más altos posibles de salud y de acceso a la atención de la salud y a los derechos de los niños afectados por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana/síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida y exhorta a los gobiernos a que, en cooperación con los órganos y las organizacio- nes de las Naciones Unidas, tomen todas las medidas que corresponda con el fin de hacer efectivos esos derechos;
11. Insta a los Estados a que protejan todos los derechos humanos de los niños migrantes, en particular los niños migrantes no acompañados, y que garanticen que el interés superior del niño sea, por tanto, la consideración principal, y alienta al Comité, al Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a otros órganos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que, en el marco de sus mandatos respectivos, presten especial atención a las condiciones de los niños migrantes en todos los Estados y, según convenga, formulen recomendaciones para fortalecer su protección;
12. Recomienda que, en el marco de sus mandatos, todos los mecanismos competentes de derechos humanos y otros órganos y mecanismos pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, así como los órganos de supervisión de los organismos especializa- dos, presten especial atención a las situaciones particulares que pongan a los niños en peligro y en que sus derechos sean violados y que tengan en cuenta la labor del Comité, y alienta a seguir desarrollando el criterio basado en los derechos del niño que ha adoptado el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y a adoptar nuevas medidas a fin de incrementar la coordinación a nivel de todo el sistema y la cooperación interinstitucional para la promoción y la protección de los derechos del niño;
13. Alienta al Comité a que, en su labor de supervisión de la aplicación de la Convención, siga prestando atención a las necesidades de los niños en circunstancias especialmente difíciles;
14. Alienta a los gobiernos, a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas, a las organizaciones no gubernamentales competentes y a las personas dedicadas a las actividades en pro de la infancia a que, según corresponda, contribuyan a la base de datos que ha establecido en la red el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia (UNICEF) a fin de continuar proporcionando información sobre leyes, estructuras, políticas y procesos adoptados a escala nacional con el objeto de llevar a la práctica la Convención;


II
Prevención y erradicación de la venta de niños y de su explotación y maltrato sexual, en particular la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía
1. Acoge con satisfacción el informe provisional de la Relatora Especial de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos sobre la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía A/54/411. y expresa su apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial;
2. Pide al Secretario General que proporcione a la Relatora Especial toda la asistencia necesaria en materia de recursos humanos y financieros para que pueda cumplir plenamente su mandato;
3. Invita a que sigan aportándose contribuciones voluntarias por conducto de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos y a que se preste apoyo a la labor de la Relatora Especial para que pueda cumplir su mandato con eficacia;
4. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 relativo a la venta de niños, la prostitución infantil y la utilización de niños en la pornografía e insta al grupo de trabajo a que concluya su labor antes de la celebración del décimo aniversario, en 2000, de la entrada en vigor de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
5. Reafirma la obligación de los Estados partes de impedir el secuestro, la venta o la trata de niños para cualquier fin o en cualquier forma y de proteger al niño de todos los tipos de explotación o abuso sexual, de conformidad con los artículos 34 y 35 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
6. Insta a los Estados a que tipifiquen como delito y castiguen eficazmente todas las formas de explotación y abuso sexual de los niños, en particular dentro de la familia o con fines comerciales, la utilización de niños en la pornografía y la prostitución infantil, incluida la explotación de niños en el turismo sexual, garantizando al mismo tiempo que los niños víctimas de esas prácticas no sean penalizados; y a que adopten medidas eficaces para garantizar el procesamiento de los delincuentes, tanto locales como extranjeros, por las autoridades nacionales competentes, en el país de origen del delincuente o en el país de destino, respetando las garantías procesales;
7. Insta también a los Estados a que en los casos de explotación de niños en el turismo sexual aumenten la cooperación internacional entre las autoridades competentes, en particular las autoridades policiales, y a que compartan los datos pertinentes a fin de erradicar esa práctica;
8. Pide a los Estados que intensifiquen la cooperación y la acción concertada a nivel nacional, regional e internacional, incluido en el contexto de las Naciones Unidas, por parte de todas las autoridades e instituciones competentes, a fin de adoptar y aplicar medidas eficaces para la prevención y la erradicación de la venta de niños y su explotación y abuso sexual y para prevenir y desmantelar redes de trata de niños;
9. Destaca la necesidad de combatir la existencia de un mercado que fomenta ese tipo de prácticas delictivas contra los niños, incluso mediante la adopción de medidas preventivas y coercitivas dirigidas contra los clientes o las personas que explotan o maltratan sexualmente a los niños;
10. Insta además a los Estados a que promulguen, apliquen, examinen y revisen, según proceda, la legislación pertinente e implanten políticas, programas y prácticas para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de la explotación y abuso sexual, incluida la explotación sexual con fines comerciales, y eliminar esas prácticas, teniendo en cuenta los problemas específicos que plantea la utilización de la Internet en este sentido;
11. Alienta a los gobiernos a que faciliten la participación activa de los niños víctimas de explotación o abuso sexual en la formulación y aplicación de estrategias para proteger a los niños de todas las formas de explotación o abuso sexual;
12. Alienta a seguir tratando de determinar a nivel regional e interregional las mejores prácticas y las cuestiones que exigen una respuesta particularmente urgente para dar seguimiento a la aplicación de medidas acordes con las indicadas en la Declaración y el Programa de Acción del Congreso Mundial contra la Explotación Sexual Comercial de los Niños, celebrado en Estocolmo del 27 al 31 de agosto de 1996 A/51/385, anexo.;
13. Invita a los Estados y órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas a que asignen recursos suficientes para la rehabilitación de los niños víctimas de la explotación y el maltrato sexual y a que tomen las medidas correspondientes para promover su plena recuperación y reintegración social;


III
Protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados
1. Acoge con beneplácito el informe del Representante Especial del Secretario General sobre el efecto de los conflictos armados en los niñosA/54/430.;
2. Expresa su apoyo a la labor del Representante Especial del Secretario General, en particular sus esfuerzos por crear mayor conciencia de la cuestión en todo el mundo y por movilizar a la opinión oficial y pública en favor de la protección de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, a fin de promover el respeto de los derechos y las necesidades de los niños en los conflictos y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, y recomienda al Secretario General que prorrogue su mandato por un nuevo período de tres años, conforme a lo estipulado en los párrafos 35, 36 y 37 de la resolución 51/77 de la Asamblea General, de 12 de diciembre de 1996;
3. Insta al Secretario General y a todas las partes pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas, incluido el Representante Especial y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, a que intensifiquen sus esfuerzos por elaborar un enfoque concertado de los derechos, la protección y el bienestar de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, incluso, según proceda, en los preparativos de las visitas al terreno del Representante Especial y en el seguimiento de dichas visitas;
4. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes interesadas a que sigan cooperando con el Representante Especial, cumplan los compromisos que han contraído, y examinen atentamente todas las recomendaciones del Representante Especial y se ocupen de las cuestiones señaladas;
5. Celebra el apoyo constante que se ofrece a la labor del Representante Especial y las contribuciones voluntarias efectuadas a ese respecto;
6. Insta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados a respetar el derecho internacional humanitario, a poner fin a cualquier forma de agresión dirigida a los niños y a los ataques a lugares en los que suele haber un número considerable de niños, exhorta a los Estados Partes a que respeten plenamente las disposiciones de los Convenios de Ginebra de 12 de agosto de 1949 Naciones Unidas, Recueil des Traités, vol. 75, Nos. 970 a 973. y los Protocolos Adicionales de 1977 Ibíd., vol. 1125, Nos. 17512 y 17513., y exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a adoptar todas las medidas necesarias para proteger a los niños de los actos que constituyen violaciones del derecho internacional humanitario, incluso mediante el enjuiciamiento por los Estados, en el marco de la legislación nacional, de los responsables de dichas violaciones;
7. Reconoce, a ese respecto, que el establecimiento de la Corte Penal Internacional contribuiría a poner fin a la impunidad de los perpetradores de ciertos crímenes cometidos contra los niños, tipificados en el Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional Véase A/CONF.183/9, art. 8., que incluyen, entre otros, los que entrañan violencia sexual o la utilización de niños soldados, y tendrá también un efecto preventivo;
8. Condena el secuestro de niños en situaciones de conflicto armado o con el fin de involucrarlos en conflictos armados e insta a los Estados, a las organizaciones internacionales y a otras partes interesadas a que adopten todas las medidas que sean apropiadas para obtener la liberación incondicional de todos los niños secuestrados, e insta a los Estados a someter a los perpetradores a la acción de la justicia;
9. Toma nota de la importancia del segundo debate público sobre los niños y los conflictos armados, celebrado por el Consejo de Seguridad el 25 de agosto de 1999 Véase S/PV.4037., y del compromiso del Consejo de prestar especial atención a la protección, el bienestar y los derechos de los niños, al adoptar medidas encaminadas al mantenimiento de la paz y la seguridad Resolución 1261 (1999) del Consejo de Seguridad., y reafirma el papel fundamental que corresponde a la Asamblea General y al Consejo Económico y Social en la promoción y protección de los derechos y el bienestar de los niños;
10. Exhorta a todas las partes en los conflictos armados a que velen por que el personal humanitario tenga acceso seguro y sin restricciones a todos los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, y por que se preste asistencia humanitaria a esos niños;
11. Celebra la decisión del Consejo Económico y Social Documentos Oficiales de la Asamblea General, quincuagésimo cuarto período de sesiones, Suplemento No. 3 (A/54/3), cap. VI, párr. 5, conclusiones convenidas 1999/1, párr. 22. de exhortar a una acción interinstitucional sistemática, concertada y amplia a favor de los niños y pedir que se asignen recursos suficientes, en forma sostenible, para prestar a los niños asistencia inmediata de emergencia y financiar medidas a largo plazo a ese respecto durante todas las etapas de una emergencia;
12. Insta a los Estados y a todas las otras partes en los conflictos armados a poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados y asegurar su desmovilización y desarme efectivo, y a adoptar medidas eficaces para la rehabilitación, la recuperación física y sicológica y la reinserción en la sociedad de todos los niños que han sido víctimas de situaciones de conflicto armado; invita a la comunidad internacional a prestar asistencia en ese empeño; y subraya que no se debe prestar a quienes utilicen niños soldados ningún apoyo que haga posible o que facilite esa práctica;
13. Exhorta a los Estados y a los órganos competentes de las Naciones Unidas a que continúen prestando apoyo a las actividades nacionales e internacionales de remoción de minas, incluso mediante contribuciones financieras, programas de información sobre el peligro de las minas y programas de asistencia a las víctimas y de rehabilitación dedicados especialmente a los niños, y celebra también los efectos positivos que tiene para los niños la adopción de medidas legislativas concretas respecto de las minas antipersonal;
14. Toma nota con preocupación del efecto de las armas pequeñas y ligeras sobre los niños en situaciones de conflicto armado, en particular como consecuencia de su producción y tráfico ilícitos, e insta a los Estados a ocuparse de ese problema;
15. Recomienda que, cada vez que se impongan sanciones, se evalúen y vigilen sus efectos en los niños, y que las exenciones por motivos humanitarios tengan especialmente en cuenta a los niños y se formulen con unas claras directrices de aplicación;
16. Exhorta a los Estados, a los órganos y organismos pertinentes de las Naciones Unidas y a las organizaciones regionales a que integren los derechos del niño en todas sus actividades durante los conflictos armados y en las situaciones posteriores a ellos, incluidos los programas de capacitación y las operaciones de socorro de emergencia, los programas en los países y las operaciones sobre el terreno encaminadas a promover la paz y a prevenir y resolver conflictos, así como en la negociación y aplicación de los acuerdos de paz, y, teniendo en cuenta las consecuencias a largo plazo para la sociedad, subraya la importancia de incorporar disposiciones específicas para los niños, incluso disposiciones relativas a la aportación de recursos, en los acuerdos de paz y en los acuerdos negociados por las partes en los conflictos;
17. Acoge con beneplácito las gestiones que realizan, entre otros, las organizaciones regionales, las organizaciones intergubernamentales y las no gubernamentales para poner fin a la utilización de niños como soldados en los conflictos armados, y reafirma la necesidad urgente de aumentar la edad mínima límite establecida en el artículo 38 de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 para el reclutamiento y la participación de cualquier persona en los conflictos armados, con el objeto de poner fin a la utilización de niños soldados;
18. Apoya decididamente la labor del grupo de trabajo entre períodos de sesiones de composición abierta, de la Comisión de Derechos Humanos, encargado de elaborar un proyecto de protocolo facultativo de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño relativo a la participación de los niños en los conflictos armados, y las consultas que dirige el presidente del grupo de trabajo para seguir avanzando con el fin de concluir su labor antes del décimo aniversario de la entrada en vigor de la Convención;


IV
Los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país
1. Insta a los gobiernos a mejorar la aplicación de políticas y programas para la protección, el cuidado y el bienestar de los niños refugiados y desplazados en el interior del país, con la cooperación internacional necesaria, en particular la de la Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados, el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia y el Representante del Secretario General sobre los desplazados internos, en consonancia con las obligaciones contraídas en virtud de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño;
2. Exhorta a todos los Estados y otras partes en los conflictos armados, así como a los órganos y organizaciones de las Naciones Unidas, a que presten atención urgente a la protección y asistencia a los niños refugiados o desplazados en el interior del país, que están especialmente expuestos a riesgos relacionados con los conflictos armados, como los de ser reclutados forzosamente o ser objeto de violencia, maltrato o explotación sexual;
3. Expresa su profunda preocupación por el número cada vez mayor de niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados, y hace un llamamiento a todos los Estados y a los órganos y organismos de las Naciones Unidas y otras organizaciones pertinentes para que den prioridad a los programas para la búsqueda y reunificación de las familias y continúen supervisando las disposiciones en materia de cuidado de los niños refugiados y desplazados no acompañados;


V
Eliminación progresiva del trabajo infantil
1. Reafirma el derecho del niño a la protección respecto de la explotación económica y la realización de cualquier trabajo que pueda ser peligroso para él o constituir un obstáculo para su educación o que pueda resultar nocivo para su salud o su desarrollo físico, mental, espiritual, moral o social;
2. Acoge con satisfacción la aprobación por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo, en el 87° período de sesiones de la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo, celebrado en Ginebra del 1° al 17 de junio de 1999, del Convenio No. 182 sobre la prohibición de las peores formas de trabajo infantil y la acción inmediata para su eliminación, y alienta a todos los Estados a considerar, como cuestión prioritaria, la posibilidad de ratificarlo, con miras a que entre en vigor lo antes posible;
3. Exhorta a todos los Estados que aún no lo hayan hecho a que consideren la posibilidad de ratificar los convenios de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo relativos al trabajo infantil, en particular el Convenio No. 29, de 1930, sobre la abolición del trabajo forzoso u obligatorio y el Convenio No. 138, de 1973, sobre la edad mínima de empleo, y los exhorta a que apliquen esos Convenios;
4. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a que traduzcan en medidas concretas su compromiso de eliminar progresiva y efectivamente las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas y los insta a que, como cuestión prioritaria, eliminen de inmediato las peores formas de trabajo infantil, enumeradas en el nuevo Convenio No. 182 de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo;
5. Exhorta además a todos los Estados a que evalúen y examinen sistemáticamente la magnitud, la naturaleza y las causas del trabajo infantil y a que elaboren y pongan en práctica estrategias para la eliminación del trabajo infantil que contravenga las normas internacionales aceptadas, prestando especial atención a los peligros concretos a que hacen frente las niñas, así como a la rehabilitación y la reinserción social de los niños afectados;
6. Reconoce que la educación primaria es uno de los principales instrumentos para reintegrar a los niños que trabajan e insta a todos los Estados a que reconozcan el derecho a la educación, haciendo obligatoria la enseñanza primaria y garantizando que todos los niños tengan acceso a la enseñanza primaria gratuita como estrategia fundamental para prevenir el trabajo infantil, y reconoce, en particular, la importante función que cumplen a este respecto la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia;

7. Exhorta a todos los Estados y al sistema de las Naciones Unidas a que incrementen la cooperación internacional como medio de ayudar a los gobiernos a prevenir o a combatir las violaciones de los derechos de los niños y a alcanzar el objetivo de eliminar las formas de trabajo infantil que contravengan las normas internacionales aceptadas;

8. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que fortalezcan la cooperación y coordinación en los planos nacional e internacional, para abordar efectivamente el problema del trabajo infantil, cooperando también estrechamente con la Organización Internacional del Trabajo y con el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia, entre otros organismos;


VI
La difícil situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle

1. Exhorta a los gobiernos a buscar soluciones amplias a los problemas que dan lugar a que los niños trabajen o vivan en la calle y a aplicar políticas y programas apropiados para la protección y la rehabilitación y reinserción de esos niños, teniendo en cuenta que son particularmente vulnerables a todo tipo de violencia, maltrato, explotación y abandono;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a velar por que se presten servicios a los niños para evitar que se dediquen a actividades que puedan acarrearles daño, explotación y maltrato y atender a las necesidades económicas apremiantes que motivan su participación en tales actividades;

3. Insta encarecidamente a todos los gobiernos a que garanticen el respeto de los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales de todos, en particular el derecho a la vida, a que adopten con carácter urgente medidas eficaces para evitar que se mate a los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle, combatir la tortura, el maltrato y los actos de violencia contra ellos y someter a los perpetradores de tales actos a la acción de la justicia;

4. Hace un llamamiento a la comunidad internacional para que, mediante una cooperación internacional eficaz, incluida la prestación de asesoramiento y asistencia técnicos, apoye la labor de los Estados encaminada a mejorar la situación de los niños que viven o trabajan en la calle;


VII
Niños con discapacidad

1. Celebra que, de conformidad con la decisión del Comité de los Derechos del Niño, se haya establecido un grupo de trabajo con el fin de elaborar un plan de acción en favor de los niños con discapacidad, en estrecha colaboración con el Relator Especial sobre Discapacidad de la Comisión de Desarrollo Social y otros sectores pertinentes del sistema de las Naciones Unidas Véase CRC/C/84, párrs. 219 a 222.;

2. Exhorta a todos los Estados a que adopten todas las medidas necesarias para asegurar que los niños con discapacidad gocen plenamente y en condiciones de igualdad de todos los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales y a que promulguen y hagan cumplir leyes contra la discriminación de esos niños;

3. Exhorta también a todos los Estados a promover para los niños con discapacidad una vida plena y decorosa, en condiciones que aseguren la dignidad, fomenten la autosufi- ciencia y faciliten la participación activa del niño en la comunidad, incluido el acceso efectivo a la educación y los servicios de atención de la salud;


VIII

Decide:

a) Pedir al Secretario General que le presente en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones un informe sobre los derechos del niño que contenga información sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño9 y los problemas a que se hace referencia en la presente resolución;

b) Pedir al Representante Especial del Secretario General para la cuestión de los niños y los conflictos armados que presente a la Asamblea General y a la Comisión de Derechos Humanos informes que contengan información pertinente sobre la situación de los niños afectados por los conflictos armados, teniendo en cuenta los mandatos actuales y los informes de los órganos correspondientes;

c) Seguir examinando esta cuestión en su quincuagésimo quinto período de sesiones en relación con el tema titulado “Promoción y protección de los derechos del niño”.
***

13. La Comisión también recomienda a la Asamblea General que apruebe el siguiente proyecto de decisión:



Informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño
La Asamblea General toma nota del informe del Secretario General sobre la situación de la Convención sobre los Derechos del Niño A/54/265
Iraq: ONU califica de intolerable situación de niños



25 de abril, 2008 La representante especial de la ONU para Niños en Conflictos Armados, Radhika Coomaraswamy, consideró que la situación de los niños en Iraq es intolerable debido a la violencia.
Al concluir una visita de cinco días a ese país, la enviada dijo hoy que los menores son víctimas silenciosas del entorno violento que impera

en Iraq.




En este sentido, instó a los líderes religiosos, políticos, militares y comunitarios del país a enviar un mensaje claro a la niñez iraquí para que se mantengan el margen de las hostilidades y vuelvan a la escuela.

Coomaraswamy urgió a todas las partes en conflicto a apegarse estrictamente a los estándares humanitarios internacionales sobre la protección de los niños y a liberar de inmediato a los menores de 18 años que estén asociados a cualquier organización combatiente.

Señaló que más de la mitad de los desplazados y refugiados iraquíes son niños que afrontan grandes dificultades en los lugares donde llegan a asentarse ya sea en su propio país o en uno ajeno.

“La comunidad internacional debería asistir a los países anfitriones para garantizar que se protejan los derechos de los niños y que tengan acceso a servicios básicos como la educación y los servicios de salud”, enfatizó la representante especial.


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Kadhum Al-Sahir, nuevo Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, habla sobre las necesidades de los más pobres
BAGDAD, Iraq, 9 de mayo de 2011. Kadhum Al-Sahir, el cantante iraquí mundialmente reconocido como uno de los más grandes representantes de la música árabe contemporánea, se convirtió hoy en el primer Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq. Al regresar a su país tras 14 años de ausencia, Al-Sahir destacó la necesidad de luchar por la igualdad en pro de los niños más necesitados de Iraq.

VÍDEO (en inglés): 5 de mayo de 2011. El famoso cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir, recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, compuso una nueva canción, titulada "Juntos por los niños", en la que convoca a todos los segmentos de la sociedad de su país a que ayuden a poner fin a las penurias que afrontan los jóvenes y niños.
"Los niños y niñas de Iraq han sufrido penurias indescriptibles en las últimas dos décadas, en las que cientos de miles de menores sufrieron las consecuencias brutales de la violencia y las privaciones inhumanas", dijo. "Ha llegado la hora de poner fin a esa situación".
Al-Sahir es uno de los más destacados músicos en la historia de Iraq y uno de los artistas más populares de la región.
El cantante aboga por los niños y jóvenes desde hace mucho tiempo. Ese apoyo comenzó en 1998, cuando compuso e interpretó "Tathakkar" ("Recuerda"), una canción sobre los niños en las situaciones de conflicto. El tema recibió un premio de UNICEF por tratarse de una contribución sobresaliente al mejoramiento de las vidas de los niños en situación de necesidad. En 2004, Al-Sahir ofreció un concierto a beneficio de más de 50.000 niños y niñas de Oriente Medio.



Juntos por los niños
Continuando en la misma vena, Kadhum Al-Sahir presentó hoy "Juntos por los niños", una nueva canción que es también un llamamiento a la acción.



© UNICEF Iraq/2011/Arar
Kadhum Al-Sahir, el famoso cantante recientemente nombrado Embajador de la oficina de UNICEF en Iraq, regresa a su país tras una ausencia de 14 años.
La canción rinde homenaje al coraje de los niños de Iraq en versos que dicen, por ejemplo, "¿Hay alguien que haya sufrido las penurias que sufrieron ustedes? Porque ustedes han superado los límites del temor y las privaciones".
El cantante convocó a todos los segmentos de la sociedad iraquí a que ayuden a mejorar la situación de sus niños. "Unámonos a UNICEF, y marchemos juntos para poner fin a las muertes, las enfermedades, el abandono y la pobreza", añadió. "Ayudemos a los niños que son víctimas de las guerras. Vengan y hagamos algo para que sus penurias se conviertan en prosperidad. Vengan, trabajemos todos juntos".
Las cuestiones que afectan a los niños de Iraq
En el decenio de 1970, Iraq era uno de los mejores países de Oriente Medio y África septentrional si se era niño, pero tras varias décadas de guerra y abandono, hoy es uno de los peores. Entre las cuestiones más graves que afectan a los casi 15 millones de niños y niñas iraquíes figuran las siguientes:
 Unos 35.000 lactantes mueren anualmente durante su primer año de vida.
 Más de 1,5 millones de niños menores de cinco años sufren desnutrición.
 Unos 700.000 niños y niñas en edad escolar no asisten a clases, mientras que cientos de miles de niños que inician sus estudios no los terminan.
 Unos 2,5 millones de niños carecen de acceso al agua potable y unos 3,5 millones no cuentan con instalaciones de saneamiento adecuadas.
 Unos 800.000 niños y niñas de 5 a 14 años de edad trabajan.


© UNICEF-Iraq/Arar/2011
El cantante Kadhum Al-Sahir se dirige a un grupo de periodistas tras el anuncio en Bagdad de su nombram
          Prayers for the Persecuted Church (3/22/2012)        
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03/12/2012 China (ChinaAid) Members Detained and Sent to Labor Camp as Chinese House Church Repeatedly Targeted for Persecution -

A house church belonging to the China for Christ denomination has been the target of months of attacks from local authorities in the city of Zhuozhou, Hebei province, with church members being illegally detained, interrogated and sent to labor camps -- simply for attending worship services or other activities.Local authorities have also forcibly confiscated 170,000 yuan ($27,000 USD) of church funds without following any of the required legal procedures.

They have also sent people to labor camps and demolished the home where the church was meeting.A religious affairs bureau official announced that the church's November 8, 2011 meeting, which was attended by over fifty villagers, was an illegal service because it had not been registered with or approved by the government departments supervising religious affairs. Full Story

Pray for the house churches in China as their number is rapidly increasing but is continually targeted by Chinese authorities for persecution. Praise God for watering the planted seeds of the Gospel in China!
Pray for these villagers who have been sent to labor camps for their faith. May their faith remain strong under the intentional oppression by the government.
Pray that the Lord will providentially use these events to bring the Gospel to others in these labor camps and in the government bureaus.
03/12/2012 India (BosNewsLife) India Militants Attack Prayer Meeting, Pastors

Suspected Hindu militants broke up a Christian prayer meeting and forced two women leading the gathering to stop evangelizing in India's southwestern state of Karnataka, as part of several attacks against devoted believers across the country.
As many as twenty Hindu "radicals" and "extremists" raided the March 3 prayer meeting in the Vijayanagar neighborhood of Bangalore, local Christians said.

The mob allegedly insulted worshipers and ordered the two women leading the service, Parimala, 36, and Padmavathi, 35, to stop the prayers immediately. The two women are members of the Mahima Prarthana Mandira - an independent church in the Vijayanagar neighborhood. Both believers, who were Hindus before becoming Christians twelve years ago, also lead a sixty-member congregation which often gathers for prayer services at a rented home. Additionally, they have been distributing evangelical publications with the Gospel. These activities angered the militants and filed complaints of "forceful conversion" and pressured the two to write down that they would halt prayer meetings and no long conduct their evangelistic activities.

Pray for these two women who are specifically being targeted for spreading the Gospel. Jesus said He will build His church and the gates of Hell would not prevail against it. Pray for fruit of their evangelistic efforts.
Pray for these Hindu militants, that like these two women, will see the beauty of Christ and put their faith in the one true God.
Pray for India as they have seen increasing persecution and attacks by Hindu militants.
03/14/2012 Afghanistan (AsiaNews) Christian Fears Grow Worse as Taliban Prepare New Attacks

The recent killing of 16 civilians by a US soldier has left Afghanistan's Christian population increasingly fearful as the Taliban has promised new attacks. Coupled with the recent Qur'an burnings at an American military base, violent protests have erupted across the country leaving more than forty people dead.

"Resentment against the West and Christians is growing stronger, even though no direct threats have been made against individuals," sources say.

International media have shown Afghans protesting by burning crosses and Christian symbols. For most Afghans, the West and Christianity are the same, the sources note. "Sadly, the crazy act of a madman will be paid [for by] Christians." Full Story

Pray that U.S. presence in Afghanistan will be a blessing and not a catalyst for hatred and violence towards our brothers and sisters in Christ.
Pray for the small population of Christians in Afghanistan who have been continually targeted by Muslim extremists. Pray for their safety and for the faith.
Pray that the church continues to grow in Afghanistan. Pray that the eyes of the people will be opened to the joy and satisfaction that is found in Christ alone.
03/14/2012 Eritrea (International Christian Concern) Imprisoned Head of Eritrean Orthodox Church in Urgent Need of Medical Attention

Patriarch Antonios, who has been imprisoned for his faith, is a diabetic and his situation is deteriorating due to lack of medical attention. He has been detained at an undisclosed location since 2006. The Eritrean government is known for their oppression of Christians. There are over 3000 Christians in prison in the country simply because of their faith.

ICC's Jonathan Racho said, "We are deeply concerned about the health of the Patriarch and urge the international community to pressure Eritrea to release him. Eritrea must end the unlawful detention of Christian prisoners."

Patriarch Antonios was detained for asking the Eritrean government to release members of his church detained for their beliefs and urging the Eritrean officials not to interfere in the affairs of the church. Full Story 

Pray for Patriarch Antonios as his health declines. Pray for the Lord to sustain him during this time.
Pray that those Christians also serving sentences for their faith. Eritrea is notorious for the brutal prison conditions for Christians. Be in prayer for sustained faith, safety, and providential opportunities for the Gospel to be shown and preached.
Pray for the hearts of those in Eritrea to be fertile soil for the Gospel.
03/14/2012 United States (FoxNews) NASA Scientist Claims He Was Harassed, Demoted Over Intelligent Design Beliefs

David Coppedge, a high-level computer systems administrator at the laboratory maintains he was fired nine months after expressing his beliefs in intelligent design to his co-workers. Lawyer William Becker spoke on behalf of Coppedge to Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Ernest Hiroshige in trial of the religious discrimination lawsuit his client filed in April 2010.

JPL attorney James Zapp argued that Coppedge was laid off as part of a staff reduction and that Coppedge had trouble getting along with other employees, becoming defensive when a supervisor instructed him on avoiding confrontations with co-workers.

According to his suit, Coppedge was demoted for allegedly "pushing religion" by loaning interested co-workers DVDs supporting intelligent design. Full Story

Pray for this trial as it could have significant repercussions for free speech in the workplace.
Pray for the judge in this trial, that he or she rules objectively.
Pray that this case awakens the U.S. to the plight of the persecuted church.
 03/14/2012 Pakistan (CNN) Petition: Free Pakistani Woman Set for Execution 

In a weird twist of irony, Asia Bibi is facing the death penalty following a false accusation of blasphemy in Pakistan, which is running for a seat on the United Nation's Human Rights Council. However, activists presented a petition Tuesday to the U.N. calling on Pakistan to free the Christian mother of five from being put to death on the charge.
Pakistani courts found Asia Bibi guilty of defiling the name of the Prophet Mohammed during a 2009 argument with Muslim fellow field workers. As a result, Bibi was sentenced to death by hanging. But an investigation by a Pakistani government ministry found the charges stemmed from religious and personal enmity and recommended Bibi's release.

The petition was signed by fifty activists including a former Czech foreign minister, the president of the U.N. General Assembly, a survivor of Tienanmen Square, and a women's rights activist. "With Pakistan now running for a seat on the U.N. Human Rights Council, the government should make an important gesture by releasing Asia Bibi, and repealing its blasphemy law, which is inconsistent with basic human rights," said Hillel Neuer, director of U.N. Watch, a Geneva-based human rights group that organized the petition. Full Story

Pray for the nation of Pakistan. With increasing pressure on the government to reverse laws that target Christians and with increasing pressure on maintaining religious freedom, Christians may be able to worship freely someday in this country.
Pray for Asia Bibi who has been in prison for nearly three years. Pray for her safety and strength of faith. Her faith is something to praise God for, as the Lord has been faithful in encouraging her.
Pray for the many needs of her family. One of her five children has special needs and the burden on this family is great, not just because of their size, but coupled with persecution, they have struggled to meet their needs.
3/16/2012 Pakistan (Deccan Herald) Majority of Christian and Hindu Women Face Sexual Harassment in Pakistan

A recent study has shown that the majority of minority women, both Christian and Hindu, are subject to discrimination and harassment.
Out of 1000 women interviewed, 74 percent of them had been sexually harassed in the workplace in 2010 and 2011.

Due to their economic status, these women are "on the margins of social and economic development," says Peter Jacob, executive director for the National Commission for Justice and Peace.

This position makes minority women easy targets for discrimination. Full Story

Pray for Christian and Hindu women of Pakistan, that God will protect his daughters, encourage them and empower them to be victors in their environment.
Pray for the NCJP, that their work will be seen, heard and acted upon.
Pray that Pakistan will safeguard women's rights.
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          Charlotte McDonald-Gibson, Bernstein Award Finalist        

Bernstein Award finalist Charlotte McDonald-Gibson talks about her book, 'Cast Away: True Stories of Survival from Europe's Refugee Crisis,' which follows individuals fleeing violence and persecution in Syria, Libya, Nigeria, and Eritrea.


          Bulan Juli        








1 Juli
Kanada Merdeka dari Inggris
Tanggal 1 Juli 1867, Kanada meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris. Kanada adalah sebuah kawasan di ujung timur benua Amerika dan berbatasan dengan AS. Bangsa Inggris sejak abad ke-15 mengklaim kawasan itu sebagai wilayah kekuasaannya dan terjadilah migrasi besar-besaran orang-orang Inggris ke sana. Pada abad ke-16, bangsa Perancis juga datang ke Kanada dan mengklaimnya sebagai bagian dari kekuasaan Perancis. Akibatnya, pecah perang antara adalah kedua bangsa imperialis tersebut yang berlangsung selama 75 tahun dan berakhir dengan kekalahan Perancis. Kanada akhirnya menjadi koloni Inggris secara penuh. Sementara itu, penduduk asli Kanada, yaitu suku Maori, ditekan dan tersingkir. Sejak awal abad ke-19, bangsa Eropa penghuni Kanada mulai menghendaki didirikannya pemerintahan sendiri yang terpisah dari Inggris. Akhirnya pada tahun 1867, Inggris menyetujui didirikankan Dominion Kanada.

Leibnitz Lahir
Tanggal 1 Juli tahun 1646, Wilhelm Leibnitz, seorang filsuf dan matematikawan Jerman, terlahir ke dunia. Pada usia 15 tahun, Leibnitz sudah diterima di Universitas Leipzig di bidang hukum. Namun, pada dua tahun pertama di universitas itu, Leibnitz lebih banyak mencurahkan perhatiannya pada bidang filsafat dan setelah itu, mempelajari matematika. Akhirnya pada tahun 1666, pada usia 20 tahun, Leibnitz berhasil meraih gelar doktor di bidang hukum. Dalam usia muda itu, Leibnitz telah menghasilkan banyak karya penulisan. Karya-karya Leibnitz diantaranya berjudul "On Natural Law".

Republik Somalia Berdiri
Tanggal 1 Juli tahun 1960, didirikanlah Republik Somalia yang merupakan gabungan dari Somaliland Protectorate dibawah kekuasaan Inggris dan Somaliland Italia yang dikuasai Italia di bawah mandat PBB. Somaliland Inggris meraih kemerdekaan dari Inggris pada tanggal 26 Juni 1960 sedangkan Somaliland Italia merdeka dari kekuasaan Italia pada tanggal 1 Juli 1960. Somalia dijajah Inggris dan Italia sejak awal abad ke-19. Penduduk kawasan Somalia utara dan Barat sejak tahun 1901 di bawah pimpinan Abdullah Hasan mengobarkan perlawanan melawan Inggris, sedangkan penduduk Somalia timur dan selatan bergabung dengan Eritrea dan Ethiopia untuk melawan Italia. Setelah Perang Dunia II, PBB terlibat dalam masalah Somalia. Pada tahun 1947, Italia menyerahkan kawasan jajahannya itu kepada PBB dalam rangka mempersiapkan kemerdekaan Somalia. Akhirnya, barulah pada tahun 1960 Republik Somalia yang merdeka berhasil didirikan.

Rwanda dan Burundi Merdeka
Tanggal 1 Juli tahun 1962, Rwanda dan Burundi, dua negara yang saling berbatasan di Afrika, meraih kemerdekaan mereka masing-masing. Kedua negara ini sejak abad ke-18 dijajah oleh Jerman, namun setelah kekalahan Jerman pada Perang Dunia Pertama, Liga Bangsa-Bangsa menyerahkan kekuasaan atas kedua negara Afrika itu kepada Belgia. Resolusi PBB tahun 1962 akhirnya mengakhiri kolonialisme di Rwanda dan Burundi. Penduduk mayoritas Rawanda dan Burundi adalah suku Hutu dan Tutsi.


Hongkong Dikembalikan ke Cina
Tanggal 1 Juli tahun 1997, Inggris mengembalikan Hongkong kepada Cina setelah menguasainya selama 155 tahun. Hongkong yang merupakan sebuah pulau di tenggara Cina diduduki Inggris sejak tahun 1842 dalam era Perang Candu. Melalui berbagai usaha diplomatik, Cina berusaha untuk merebut kembali Hongkong. Akhirnya pada tahun 1898, Inggris menandatangani perjanjian akan mengembalikan Hongkong kepada Cina 99 tahun kemudian. Pada 1985, Inggris dan Cina kembali menandatangani kesepakatan yang menetapkan tanggal penyerahan Hongkong kepada Cina, yaitu tanggal 1 Juni tahun 1997.


2 Juli

Republik Brazil Berdiri
Tanggal 2 Juli 1889, dalam sebuah revolusi damai, sistem kekaisaran di Brazil dibubarkan dan berdirilah Republik Brazil. Brazil dijajah Portugis sejak awal abad ke-16 dan hasil buminya dikuras oleh bangsa penjajah tersebut. Pada tahun 1808, ketika Napoleon menyerbu Portugis, Raja John VI dari Portugis melarikan diri ke Brazil. Pada tahun 1821, Raja John kembali ke Portugis dan putranya, yaitu Dom Pedro menjadi penguasa di Brazil. Setelah menobatkan diri sebagai Kaisar Brazil, Dom Pedro melakukan berbagai reformasi, di antaranya, melepaskan Brazil dari wilayah kekuasaan Portugis dan menghapuskan perbudakan. Rakyat pribumi Brazil kemudian bangkit untuk menggulingkan kekaisaran Dom Pedro dan akhirnya berdirilah Republik Brazil.

Ernest Hemingway Meninggal
Tanggal 2 Juli tahun 1961, Ernest Hemingway, seorang penulis terkenal AS, meninggal dunia. Hemingway dilahirkan pada tahun 1899 di Illionis dan memulai karirnya sebagai penulis di sebuah suratkabar pada usia 17 tahun. Pada era Perang Dunia I, Hemingway ikut terjun dalam perang. Ia juga pernah dikirim ke medan perang dalam kapasitas sebagai reporter surat kabar. Berbagai pengalamannya selama perang menjadi latar belakang dalam beberapa novelnya, di antaranya berjudul For Whom The Bell Tolls. Hemingway juga banyak menulis cerpen, di antaranya dibukukan dengan judul Men Without Women yang terbit tahun 1927. Pada tahun 1954, Hemingway meraih hadiah Nobel di bidang sastra.

Ayatullah Saduqi Gugur Syahid
Tanggal 2 Juli tahun 1982, Ayatullah Muhammad Saduqi, seorang ulama pejuang Iran, gugur syahid akibat teror dari kelompok teroris, Mujahidin Al-Khalq. Ayatullah Saduqi menuntut ilmu di hauzah ilmiah Qum dan bersamaan dengan itu, beliau juga aktif dalam perjuangan untuk menentang rezim Shah Pahlevi yang despotik. Ayatullah Saduqi kemudian menjadi salah satu tokoh garis depan Revolusi Islam dan merupakan salah satu pendukung utama Imam Khomeini. Setelah kemenangan revolusi Islam, Ayatullah Saduqi diangkat sebagai anggota Majelis Ahli dan berperan besar dalam penyusunan UUD Republik Islam Iran. Beliau juga ditunjuk sebagai wakil Imam Khomeini dalam memimpin sholat Jumat di kota Yazd dan di saat memimpin sholat Jumat itulah beliau gugur syahid.






3 Juli
Theodore Hertzel Meninggal
Tanggal 3 Juli 1904, Theodore Hertzel, pendiri gerakan Zionisme Internasional, meninggal dunia. Hertzel dilahirkan pada tahun 1860 di Budapest, Hongaria, dan kemudian ia pindah ke Austria. Di Austria, pemikiran Hertzel mengenai pendirian negara Yahudi yang independen semakin mengkristal. Ia kemudian pada tahun 1895 menuliskan hasil pemikirannya itu dalam sebuah buku berjudul Pemerintahan Yahudi. Dalam buku itu, Hertzel menuliskan pemikiran Zionisme berkenaan dengan perluasan kekuasaan dan keunggulan ras Yahudi di atas ras-ras lainnya. Pada tahun 1897, Theodore Hertzel dan para pendukungnya mengadakan kongres di Swiss dan terbentuklah Organisasi Zionisme Internasional. Setelah Theodore Hertzel meninggal, gerakan zionisme terus berkembang dan akhirnya pada tahun 1948, gerakan zionis berhasil merealisasikan cita-cita ilegalnya dengan mendirikan negara Israel di atas tanah air milik bangsa Palestina.

Franz Kafka Lahir
Tanggal 3 Juli 1883, Franz Kafka, penulis terkenal Cheko, terlahir ke dunia. Pada masa hidupnya, bahasa resmi di Cheko adalah bahasa Jerman, sehingga Kafka menuntut ilmu dalam bahasa Jerman dan semua karya tulisnya menggunakan bahasa tersebut. Kafka meraih gelar doktor dalam bidang hukum dan ia kemudian mempelajari sastra Jerman. Kafka mulai menulis sejak usia muda namun ia menerbitkan karyanya untuk pertama kali pada tahun 1907.
Kualitas dari karya-karya Kafka mulai dikenal luas setelah kematiannya. Pada tahun 1940-an, karya-karya Kafka mulai populer di Perancis, namun rakyat Jerman mulai mengenalnya setelah Perang Dunia Kedua. Ketika karya Kafka berjudul Collected Works diterbitkan tahun 1950-an, Kafka dimasukkan ke dalam kelompok penulis terkemuka Jerman abad ke-20. Karya Franz Kafka yang paling terkenal berjudul The Trial yang terbit tahun 1925.


Pesawat Sipil Iran Ditembak AS
Tanggal 3 Juli 1988, sebuah pesawat sipil Airbus milik Iran dalam perjalanannya dari Iran menuju Dubai, ditembak rudal oleh kapal perang AS, Vincennes. Seluruh penumpang pesawat bernomor Iran Air 655 itu beserta awak pesawatnya, yang keseluruhan berjumlah 298 orang, tewas. Peristiwa ini terjadi di akhir perang Irak-Iran. Saat itu, kapal perang AS tersebut tengah berada di perairan Teluk Persia. AS menyatakan bahwa penembakan itu disebabkan karena kelalaian tentaranya. Namun mengingat kapal perang Vincennes milik AS itu memiliki perlengkapan yang sangat canggih, alasan tersebut sulit diterima. Yang lebih aneh lagi, setelah peristiwa itu, komandan kapal perang Vincennes tersebut malah diberi medali kehormatan oleh pemerintah AS. Semua fakta ini, termasuk juga dokumen-dokumen resmi lainnya, menunjukkan bahwa penembakan terhadap pesawat sipil Iran oleh AS adalah sebuah kesengajaan.






4 Juli
Hari kemerdekaan AS
Tanggal 4 Juli 1776, para wakil dari 13 negara bagian pertama AS menandatangi proklamasi kemerdekaan negeri mereka di kota Philadelphia. Selama ribuan tahun, benua Amerika merupakan tempat tinggal etnis kulit merah. Namun semenjak abad ke 15, para petualang Eropa menemukan benua itu, dan mereka pun berusaha menguasai tiap bagian dari benua tersebut. Perlahan, para imigran Eropa di Amerka semakin bertambah. Mereka pun turut membawa jutaan budak dari Afrika ke sana, untuk dipekerjakan di perkebunan dan pabrik-pabrik Amerika. Para imigran dibantu pasukan militer Inggeri berhasil mengusir tentera Perancis. Pasca kemenangan ini, para imigran pun berbalik arah, dan kini menyerang tentera Inggris. Sejak tahun 1775 meletuslah perang di antara kedua belah pihak. Meski kemerdekaan AS telah diproklamasikan, namun perang masih terus berlanjut. Hingga akhirnya pada tahun 1778 Inggris mengalami kekalahan, dan secara de facto mengakui kemerdekaan AS.

Pasca dimulainya pembantaian etnis Indian Amerika pada tahun 1814, dan meletusnya perang saudara yang berlangsug dari tahun 1861 sampai 1865, perlahan posisi AS pun mulai stabil. Di akhir abad ke 19, AS punmulai melangkah melebarkan hegemoninya hingga ke Amerika Tengah dan Selatan. Pada masa Perang Dunia 1 dan ll, AS bergabung dengan pasukan sekutu. Setelah Perang Dunia ll usai, AS pun mulai melancarkan kembali politik imperialismenya, mencampuri urusan internal negara lain, dan melakuka invasi ke sejumlah negara.

Negara AS terletak di Amerika Utara, di antara samudra Pasifik dan Atlantik. Negeri ini memiliki luas 9 juta 300 ribu km persegi. Berbatasan dengan Kanada di sebelah utaranya, dan Meksiko di sebelah selatannya.


Philipina Merdeka
Tanggal 4 Juli 1946, kepulauan Philipina mendeklarasikan kemerdekaannya dari AS. Bangsa Eropa yang pertama kali datang ke Kepulauan Philipina adalah rombongan pelaut Spanyol di bawah pimpinan Ferdinand Magellan pada tahun 1521. Sejak saat itu, Philipina dijadikan kawasan jajahan Spanyol hingga tiga abad kemudian. Meningkatnya perlawanan rakyat Philipinan membuat kekuatan Spanyol semakin melemah. Pada saat yang sama, Spanyol juga kalah perang dari AS, sehingga Spanyol memutuskan untuk menjual Philipina kepada AS seharga 20 juta dolar. Rakyat Philipina kemudian melanjutkan perjuangan untuk mengusir tentara AS dari tanah air mereka. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1946 bangsa Philipina berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya.


Mohammad Muin Meninggal
Tanggal 4 Juli 1971, Doktor Muhammad Muin, cendekiawan sastra Persia terkemuka, meninggal dunia. Doktor Muin dilahirkan pada tahun 1914 di kota Rasht, Iran utara. Sejak muda, dia mulai mempelajari sastra Arab dan kemudian menuntut ilmu di Darul Funun, sebuah lembaga pendidikan terkemuka di Iran saat itu. Selanjutnya, Muhammad Muin melanjutkan pendidikan ke fakultas sastra dan filsafat di Universitas Teheran. Pada tahun 1942, Muhammad Muin berhasil menjadi lulusan pertama tingkat doktoral di bidang sastra Persia. Doktor Muin kemudian mengabdikan hidupnya untuk mengajar, melakukan penelitian, dan menulis buku di bidang sastra Persia. Karya penulisan yang ditinggalkan Doktor Muin di antaranya adalah kamus besar bahasa Persia yang terdiri dari enam jilid.






5 Juli
Venezuela Merdeka
Tanggal 5 Juli 1811, Venezuela memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya dari Spanyol yang telah menjajah negara itu selama tiga abad. Selama periode tersebut, penduduk pribumi Venezuela, yaitu bangsa kulit merah Indian disingkirkan dan dibunuh, sementara imigran Spanyol datang membanjiri Venezuela. Sejak awal abad ke-19, para imigran Spanyol yang telah menjadi warga Venezuela, menghendaki pemerintahan independen yang terpisah dari Spanyol. Dengan dipimpin oleh Fransesco Miranda, rakyat Venezuela pada tahun 1806 memulai perjuangan mengusir tentara Spanyol, namun menemui kegagalan. Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, Miranda bersama Simon Bolivar meneruskan perjuangan mereka, sampai akhirnya Spanyol angkat kaki dari Venezuela.

Aljazair Merdeka
Tanggal 5 Juli 1962, setelah berjuang selama bertahun-tahun dan mengorbankan sekitar saju juta syuhada, rakyat muslim Aljazair akhirnya berhasil meraih kemerdekaan mereka. Pada tahun 1830, Perancis datang menyerang Aljazair dengan tujuan menjadikan negara itu sebagai wilayah jajahannya, namun mendapat perlawanan keras dari bangsa Aljazair. Salah satu pejuang kemerdekaan Aljazair yang terkemuka adalah Amir Abdul Qadir Aljazairi. Namun setelah 17 tahun berjuang, ia akhirnya tertangkap oleh tentara Perancis dan sejak itu, kekuasaan Perancis di Aljazair semakin hari semakin besar. Dengan leluasa, Perancis menguras hasil bumi negara ini dan menindas rakyat Aljazair. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua berakhir, perjuangan rakyat Aljazair kembali meningkat dan ketika De Gaulle diangkat sebagai Presiden Perancis, ia setuju untuk memberikan hak otonomi kepada Aljazair. Namun, perjuangan rakyat Aljazair yang menghendaki kemerdekaan penuh terus berlanjut, sampai akhirnya atas tekanan internasional, Perancis bersedia menandatangani "Perjanjian Evian" yang secara resmi mengakui kemerdekaan Aljazair.


Zia-ul-Haq Meraih Kekuasaan
Tanggal 5 Juli 1977, Jenderal Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq, dengan memanfaatkan kondisi Pakistan yang saat itu sedang krisis, melancarkan kudeta berdarah terhadap Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Presiden Pakistan saat itu. Selain mengangkat diri sebagai Presiden sekaligus Perdana Menteri Pakistan, Zia-ul-Haq menghukum mati Zulfikar Ali Bhutto dan para pendukungnya. Ia juga membubarkan parlemen serta melarang aktivitas partai-partai dan media massa. Atas tekanan dari dalam negeri, pada tahun 1985, Zia-ul-Haq mengadakan pemilu dan membubarkan pemerintahan militer. Namun pada tahun 1988 sekali lagi Zia-ul-Haq membubarkan parlemen dan memecat perdana menteri sambil menjanjikan akan kembali mengadakan pemilu. Tetapi tak lama kemudian, pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1988, Zia-ul-Haq beserta beberapa pejabat militer Pakistan tewas dalam ledakan pesawat udara.

Diplomat dan Wartawan Iran Disandera
Tanggal 5 Juli 1982, tiga orang warga Iran yang terdiri dari diplomat dan wartawan disandera oleh kelompok militan Phalangist di Beirut, Libanon. Pada masa itu, rezim Zionis dengan dukungan kelompok militan Kristen Libanon, yaitu Phalagist, menduduki Libanon. Zionis dan kelompok Phalangist melakukan berbagai aksi teror di Libanon, termasuk di antaranya pembantaian massal warga Palestina yang tinggal di kamp pengungsian Sabra-Shatila pada bulan September 1982. Penyenderaan terhadap diplomat dan wartawan Iran juga merupakan salah satu di antara aksi teror tersebut mengingat Republik Islam Iran di bawah pimpinan Imam Khomeini merupakan negara yang paling aktif dalam menentang penindasan yang dilakukan Rezim Zionis terhadap bangsa Palestina. Hingga saat ini, ketiga warga Iran tersebut masih belum jelas nasibnya dan PBB sama sekali tidak melakukan langkah nyata apapun dalam penyelesaian kasus ini.






6 Juli
Dante Alighieri Lahir
Tanggal 6 Juli 1265, Dante Alighieri, seorang penyair terkenal Italia, terlahir ke dunia di kota Florence. Selain sebagai penyair, Dante juga aktif sebagai politikus yang membuat ia dibuang keluar dari Florence akibat penentangannya terhadap penguasa saat itu. Karya pertama Dante berjudul Vita Nuova atau ‘kehidupan baru' yang selesai ditulis tahun 1294. Filosofi Dante yang tampak pada puisi-pusinya adalah bahwa semua kebaikan dan kejahatan berakar dari cinta. Karya-karya Dante lainnya berjudul "Purgatorio" yang menunjukkan bahwa cinta dapat diatur dengan baik dan "Paradiso" yang menggambarkan bahwa cinta dapat ditingkatkan hingga mencapai cinta yang hakiki, yaitu cinta Ilahiah. Dante dianggap sebagai penyair yang menciptakan genre puisi Italia dan berhasil meninggalkan pengaruh dalam sastra modern. Dante Alighieri meninggal dunia tahun 1321.

William Faulkner Meninggal
Tanggal 6 Juli 1962, William Faulkner, seorang penulis terkemuka AS, meninggal dunia. Faulkner dilahirkan tahun 1897 di kawasan selatan AS. Dalam novel-novelnya, Faulkner banyak mengambil inspirasi latar belakang sejarah dan dekadensi moral yang terjadi di kawasan selatan AS, tempat dia lahir dan menulis karya-karyanya. Sebelum menekuni dunia penulis, Faulkner sempat bergabung dengan Angkatan Udara Inggris dalam Perang Dunia Pertama. Ia kemudian bekerja sebagai penulis di surat kabar dan penulis skenario di Hollywood. Akhirnya, Faulkner tinggal di kota kelahirannya untuk menulis novel dan cerpen. Dalam novel-novelnya, Faulkner banyak menyuarakan kritikan atas rasialisme dan penindasan terhadap kaum Negro di AS, di antaranya berjudul Intruder In the Dust dan In Light in August .

Malawi Merdeka
Tanggal 6 Juli 1964, Malawi, sebuah negara di Afrika Tenggara, meraih kemerdekaannya dari Inggris. Penduduk asli Malawi adalah etnis Bantu. Pada tahun 1859, seorang petualang asal Scotlandia, David Livingstone, tiba di danau Nyasa dan sejak itu, Malawi menarik perhatian bangsa-bangsa Eropa untuk dijadikan kawasan perdagangan budak. Pada tahun 1891, setelah berhasil mengusir Jerman dan Portugis yang juga mengincar Malawi untuk dijadikan jajahan, Inggris mengklaim Malawi sebagai wilayah jajahannya dan menamakan kawasan itu sebagai British Central African Protectorate. Sejak tahun 1907, kawasan itu diberi nama Nyasaland, dan akhirnya, ketika merdeka tahun 1964, barulah nama Malawi digunakan.

Komoro Merdeka
Tanggal 6 Juli 1975, Komoro, sebuah negara kepulauan yang terletak di lepas pantai Mozambik, Afrika Tenggara, memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya dari Perancis. Komoro memiliki penduduk mayoritas muslim dan karena itulah rakyat negara ini sepakat untuk mendirikan negara Islam atau Federal Islamic Republic of Comoros. Kepulauan Komoro awalnya dikuasai oleh bangsa Arab sehingga agama Islam menyebar di sana. Setelah itu, Komoro sempat dijajah oleh Portugis sebelum akhirnya dikuasai oleh Perancis sejak tahun 1832. Sekitar satu setengah abad kemudian, barulah perjuangan kemerdekaan rakyat Komoro mencapai hasilnya.






7 Juli
Giovani Bottesini
Tanggal 7 Juli 1889, Giovani Bottesini, seorang komposer Italia terkenal, meninggal dunia. Bottesini dilahirkan tahun 1823 di Lombardy, Italia dan kemudian menuntut ilmu di Konservatorium Milan dengan mengkhususkan diri pada penggunaan instrumen double-bass. Setelah lulus dari sekolah musik, Bottesini sempat menjadi pemusik di teater di Havana, dan disanalah ia memproduksi opera pertamanya yang berjudul Cristoforo Colombo. Selanjutnya, Bottesini menjadi semakin terkenal atas permainan double-bass-nya sehingga di dunia musik, nama Bottesini kerap diasosiasikan dengan alat musik ini.

Edward Brown Meninggal
Tanggal 7 Juli 1926, Edward Brown, seorang sastrawan dan orientalis asal Inggris, meninggal dunia. Brown dilahirkan pada tahun 1862. Brown sangat meminaati masalah ketimuran dan ia menjadi dosen bahasa-bahasa Timur di Universitas Cambrige. Brown dikenal menguasai bahasa Turki, Arab, dan Persia. Selama beberapa waktu, edward Brown juga pernah tinggal di Iran untuk melakukan penelitian terhadap sejarah, sastra, dan sosiologi Iran. Hasil penelitian Brown ditulis pada buku-buku berjudul "Sejarah Sastra Iran" dan "Revolusi Bangsa Iran".

Gustav Walter Heinemann Meninggal
Tanggal 7 Juli 1976, Gustav Walter Heinemann, mantan presiden federal Jerman Barat tahun 1969 hingga tahun 1974, meninggal dunia. Heinemann lahir pada tahun 1899 dan sejak muda telah aktif dalam berbagai partai politik. Antara tahun 1945 hingga 1949, Heinemann diangkat sebagai walikota Essen dan pada tahun 1949, ia diangkat menjadi menteri dalam negeri pada pemerintahan federal. Karir politik Heinemann terus meningkat sampai akhirnya ia diangkat sebagai presiden pada tahun 1969. Selama masa jabatannya, Heinemann mendukung Kebijakan Timur yang dijalankan Kanselir Jerman barat saat itu, Willy Brant, yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan hubungan antara Jerman Barat dengan Jerman Timur serta negara-negara komunis lainnya di Eropa dan Soviet.

Kepulauan Solomon Merdeka
Tanggal 7 Juli 1978, kepulauan Solomon yang terletak di timur Papua Nugini, meraih kemerdekaannya. Kepulauan ini telah berpenghuni sejak 1000 tahun sebelum Masehi dan bangsa Eropa pertama kali menginjakkan kaki di sana pada tahun 1567. Pada tahun 1885, Jerman mengklaim kepulauan Solomon sebagai wilayah jajahannya. Namun satu dekade kemudian, Inggris menduduki kepulauan itu dan menjadikannya sebagai protektorat. Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, rakyat Solomon bangkit memperjuangkan kemerdekaannya sampai akhirnya merdeka tahun 1978. Penduduk Solomon mayoritasnya berasal dari etnis Melanesia.

Ledakan di kota London
Tanggal 7 juli 2005 masehi, terjadi ledakan di sebuah bus dan tiga stasiun metro di pusat kota London menyebabkan 50 orang tewas dan 700 cidera. Serangan itu terjadi saat berlangsungnya sidang pemimpin 8 negara industri di Skotlandia, utara Inggris. Para pakar politik percaya bahwa ledakan bom London merupakan protes terhadap kerjasama pemerintah Inggris dengan Amerika Serikat yang menduduki Afghanistan dan Irak serta pembunuhan warga kedua negara ini. Di pihak lain, ledakan ini menunjukkan kelemahan sistem intelegen Inggris dalam menegakkan keamanan negara ini. Pemerintah London mengklaim bahwa ledakan didalangi oleh orang-orang Islam, akibatnya tekanan terhadap warga muslim Inggris yang sudah ada sejak 11 September 2001 semakin keras.






8 Juli
Perjanjian Tilsit Ditandatangani
Tanggal 8 Juli 1807, perjanjian bersejarah Tilsit ditandatangani oleh Tzar Rusia, Alexander Pertama dan Kaisar Perancis, Napoleon Bonaparte. Melalui perjanjian ini, kedua negara itu sepakat untuk saling membantu jika ada negara ketiga yang menyerang Perancis atau Rusia. Namun kesepakatan itu dengan segera bubar tiga tahun kemudian karena Rusia mendapati bahwa perjanjian dengan Perancis malah membuat terganggunya perdagangan luar negeri Rusia. Karena itu, Rusia kembali membuka pelabuhan-pelabuhannya terhadap kapal-kapal dari negara-negara yang netral dan tetap mengenakan pajak yang besar terhadap barang-barang Perancis yang masuk ke Rusia. Akhirnya pada tanggal 24 Juni 1812, Perancis menyerang Rusia.

Ayatullah Rabbani Amlashi Meninggal
Tanggal 8 Juli 1985, Ayatullah Rabbani Amlashi, seorang ulama kontemporer dan pejuang Iran, meninggal dunia. Ayatullah Amlashi dilahirkan pada tahun 1313 di kota Qom dalam sebuah keluarga yang relijius. Rabbani Amlashi menuntut ilmu-ilmu agama di hauzah ilmiah di kota suci Qom. Selain mengabdikan diri di bidang keilmuan, Ayatullah Amlashi juga sangat aktif dalam berjuang menegakkan nilai-nilai Islam. Beliau merupakan salah satu pendukung Imam Khomeini dalam Revolusi Islam Iran. Akibatnya, beliau sempat diasingkan oleh rezim Shah. Namun akhirnya, perjuangan rakyat Iran yang dipimpin para ulama itu mencapai hasilnya pada tahun 1979 dengan berdirinya negara Islam di Iran. Pada tahun-tahun terakhir usianya, Ayatullah Rabbani Amlashi menduduki jabatan sebagai anggota Dewan Pengawal Revolusi Islam.

Kim Il Sung Meninggal
Tanggal 8 Juli 1994, Kim Il Sung, pemimpin Korea Utara dan sekjen Partai Komunis negara itu, meninggal dunia. Kim dilahirkan pada tahun 1912 dan sejak muda telah aktif dalam kegiatan komunis. Pendidikan formal Kim terhenti hingga kelas tingkat SMA karena dipenjara akibat keterlibatannya dalam organisasi komunis di daerahnya. Kemudian, Kim bergabung dengan kelompok gerilya komunis Cina di Manchuria yang berjuang melawan Jepang. Pada tahun 1945, Kim kembali ke Korea bersama pasukan pendudukan Soviet. Oleh tentara Soviet, Kim diangkat sebagai Ketua Komite Perlengkapan Rakyat dan kemudian diangkat sebagai ketua Partai Komunis. Akhirnya, ketika Republik Demokratik Rakyat Korea atau Korea Utara didirikan pada bulan September 1945, Kim terpilih sebagai perdana menteri. Ia memimpin negara tersebut hingga sekitar empat dekade kemudian. Setelah meninggal, posisi Kim Il Sung digantikan putranya, Kim Jung Il .






9 Juli
Argentina Merdeka

Tanggal 9 Juli 1816, Argentina meraih kemerdekannya. Kaum Eropa pertama yang datang ke wilayah Argentina adalah Juan Diaz de Solis dari Spanyol tahun 1516, dan sejak itu, dimulailah migrasi besar-besaran bangsa Spanyol ke Argentina. Argentina pun kemudian dijadikan daerah koloni Spanyol. Sementara itu, penduduk asili Argentina, bangsa Indian Pampas, pada abad ke 19, hampir punah dan sisanya hidup tersingkir. Sejak awal abad ke-19, para imigran Spanyol yang menjadi warga Argentina memuali gerakan revolusioner untuk mendirikan pemerintahan sendiri yang terpisah dari Spanyol. Semantara itu, Spanyol saat itu tengah berperang dengan Inggris dan mulai melemah, sehingga Buenos Aires, ibu kota Argentina, sempat diduduki oleh Inggris. Namun akhirnya, atas perlawanan keras rakyat Argentina, negara ini akhirnya berhasil meraih kemerdekaan.

Perang Arab-Zionis Kembali Meletus
Tanggal 9 Juli 1948, setelah satu bulan gencatan senjata, perang antara Arab dan Zionis kembali meletus. Perang ini diawali oleh didirikannya negara Israel dan rezim Zionis pada bulan Mei tahun 1948 di atas tanah air milik bangsa Palestina. Atas perintah Dewan Keamanan PBB, diadakan gencatan senjata dan dalam waktu satu bulan, rezim Zionis berhasil mengumpulkan persenjataan yang banyak dari negara-negara Barat, terutama AS. Rezim Zionis kemudian memulai kembali perang dan setelah meraih kemenangan besar, rezim ini bersedia menghenatikan perang. Pada bulan Januari tahun 1949, perjanjian penghentian perang ditandatangani dan pada saat itu 78 peren tanah Palestina dikuasai oleh rezim Zionis dan 750.000 rakyat Palestina terusir dari tanah mereka dan menajdi pengungsi.

Ghasan Kan'ani Diteror Mosad
Tanggal 9 Juli 1972, Ghasan Kan'ani, seorang penulis perjaung kebebasan Palestina beserta keponakannya, tewas akibat teror agen rahasia Israel, Mosad. Kanani merupakan salah seorang pejabat kelompok sosialis untuk pembebasan Palestina. Ia tewas karena mobilnya meledak di Beirut akibat bom yang diletakkan oleh agen Mosad. Enam belas harui kemudian, sekretaris Kanani, Basam Abu Syarif, juga terkena ledakan bom dan terluka parah. Pembunuhan atas tokoh-tokoh pejuang Palestina yang berada di luar negeri merupakan salah satu metode yang dilakukan rezim Zionis dalam upaya untuk menekan perlawnan bangsa Palestina.






10 Juli
Pulau Islandia Ditemukan
Tanggal 10 Juli 874, pulau Islandia yang terletak di dekat kutub utara, ditemukan oleh para nelayan Norwegia. Sejak itu, pulau itu didatangi oleh orang-orang dari Norwegia dan Skotlandia. Pada tahun 930, rakyat Islandia mulai membentuk sebuah pemerintahan dan parlemen. Sejak tahun 1261, negara ini dikuasai oleh Norwegia tetapi pada tahun 1380, kedua negara tersebut jatuh ke dalam kekuasaan Denmark. Antara tahun 1940-944, Islandia berpindah-pindah dari kekuasaan Inggris, lalu jatuh ke tangan AS, dan akhirnya kembali ke tangan Denmark. Pada tahun 1944, barulah Islandia berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya.

Alaska Ditemukan
Tanggal 10 Juli 1741, kawasan Alaska yang terletak di barat laut Kanada, ditemukan oleh petualang Denmark, Vitus Bering. Pada tahun 1784, kolonialis Rusia mendirikan pemukiman Eropa pertama di pulau Kodiak, di teluk Alaska dan kemudian Rusia memiliki hak monopoli atas Alaska. Pada tahun 1867, AS membeli kawasan Alaska dari Rusia seharga 7 juta 200 ribu dolar AS. Sejak saat itu, Alaska dieksplorasi oleh AS dan mendatangkan uang dalam jumlah besar. Pertama, di sana dibangun pabrik pengalengan ikan salmon. Kemudian, pada awal tahun 1900-an, tambang emas dibuka, dan terakhir, pada tahun 1968, ditemukan cadangan minyak raksasa di Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Sejak tahun 1959, Alaska secara resmi menjadi negara bagian ke-49 dari Amerika Serikat.

Kurt Alder Lahir

Tanggal 10 Juli 1902, Kurt Alder, seorang kimiawan Jerman peraih Nobel, terlahir ke dunia. Pada tahun 1922, Alder mulai mempelajari kimia di Universitas Berlin. Alder melanjutkan studinya di Universitas Kiel sampai meraih gelar doktor pada tahun 1926 dan kemudian diangkat menjadi dosen di universitas tersebut. Pada tahun 1936, Alder meninggalkan pekerjaannya sebagai dosen karena diangkat sebagai kepala laboratorium perusahaan kimia. Di sana ia bekerja mempersiapkan pembuatan karet sintetik Buna. Pada tahun 1940, Alder ditunjuk sebagai direktur bidang kimia teknologi dan eksperimental di Universitas Cologne. Sepanjang hidupnya, Kurt Alder melakukan berbagai penelitian di bidang kimia yang hasilnya dituliskan dalam makalah-makalah ilmiah yang jumlahnya sekitar 150 buah. Kurt Alder banyak meraih penghargaan, di antaranya the Emil Fischer Memorial Medal dari Asosiasi Kimiawan Jerman dan pada tahun 1950, ia berhasil meraih hadiah Nobel bidang kimia.


Bahama Merdeka
Tanggal 10 Juli 1973, kepulauan Bahama yang terletak di lautan Atlantik, di sebelah timur Amerika, meraih kemerdekaannya. Orang Eropa yang pertama kali datang ke Kepulauan Bahama adalah Christoper Columbus tahun 1492 dan sejak itu, Bahama dijadikan wilayah kekuasaan Spanyol. Penduduk asli Bahama adalah suku Indian Arawak, yang sebagaimana juga terjadi di negara-negara jajahan Eropa lainnya, suku Indian itu akhirnya tersingkir dan punah. Pada tahun 1647, Bahama jatuh ke tangan Inggris dan didirikanlah pemukiman pertama orang Eropa di kepulauan tersebut. Pada tahun 1964, Bahama mendapatkan status otonomi dan barulah pada tahun 1973, meraih kemerdekaan penuh. Bahama kini menjadi salah satu tempat pariwisata terkenal di dunia dan pendapatan devisa terbesar negara ini diperoleh dari sektor pariwisata.






11 Juli
King Peter I Karadjordjevic Lahir
Tanggal 11 Juli 1844, Peter Karadjordjevic atau yang dikenal dengan nama Peter Pertama, Raja Serbia, terlahir ke dunia. Peter menyelesaikan sekolah menengahnya di Beograd dan kemudian meneruskan ke sebuah institut di Jenewa, Swiss. Setelah itu, Peter masuk ke akademi militer di Perancis. Selama ia berada di Paris, Peter aktif menambah pengetahuannya di bidang politik dan militer dan hal ini memperluas wawasannya atas liberalisme, parlementarisme, dan demokrasi. Pada tahun 1868, pada usia 24 tahun, Pangeran Peter telah menerbitkan hasil terjemahannya atas essay karya John Stuart Mill berjudul "Kebebasan" dan isi tulisan itu kemudian menjadi program politiknya. Pada tahun itu pula, terjadi konflik potitik di Serbia, dan dinasti Obrenovic berkuasa di negara tersebut. Pangeran Peter dilarang pulang ke negaranya dan seluruh harta benda keluarganya disita. Peter kemudian melakukan berbagai aksi politik untuk meraih kembali haknya. Pada tahun 1903, Raja Obrenovic dibunuh dan tentara memproklamasikan Pangeran Peter Karadjordjevic sebagai Raja Serbia. Dengan demikian, setelah 45 tahun berlalu, keluarga Karadjordjevic kembali meraih kekuasaannya di Serbia. Raja Peter I meninggal dunia tahun 1921 di Beograd.

Mongolia Merdeka
Tanggal 11 Juli 1921, Mongolia, sebuah negara di Asia Tengah, memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Mongolia merupakan negara dengan sejarah yang kuno dan sempat menjadi negara adikuasa pada abad ke-13. Pada massa itu, Mongolia dipimpin oleh Raja Jengis Khan yang berhasil memperluas kekuasaannya dari Asia hingga Eropa. Setelah Jengis Khan meninggal, Mongolia terpecah menjadi dua bagian, yaitu Mongolia Dalam yang dikuasai Cina dan Mongolia Luar. Pada akhir abad ke-17, Mongolia Luar juga jatuh ke tangan Cina. Pada tahun 1911, Mongolia Luar memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya dari Cina, namun tak lama kemudian dicaplok oleh Rusia. Setelah terjadi revolusi komunis di Rusia tahun 1921, Mongolia Luar kembali memproklamasikan kemerdekaannya. Pada tahun 1924, setelah raja Mongolia meninggal dunia, atas provokasi Soviet, negara itu mengubah sistem pemerintahannya dari bentuk kerajaan menjadi Republik Sosialis.

Pembantaian massal keatas warga Bosnia
Tanggal 11 juli 1995, lebih dari 8 ribu warga muslim Bosnia, penduduk kota Srebenica, di timur negara ini dibantai secara massal oleh kalangan Serbia radikal. Tragedi ini merupakan aksi pembantaian massal terbesar di Eropa pasca Perang Dunia ll. Kendati Dewan Keamanan PBB pada tahun 1993 telah menetapkan Srebenica sebagai kawasan aman dan pasukan penjaga perdamaian PBB ditempatkan di sana, namun pasukan milisi Serbia yang didukung pemerintah Beograd tetap nekad menguasai kawasan tersebut.
Menjelang agresi militer milisi Serbia ke Srebenica warga muslim kota ini berusaha mengungsi, namun rencana mengungsi itu berhasil digagalkan oleh milisi Serbia. Mereka akhirnya membantai para lelaki muslim Bosnia, dan hanya memberi kesempatan mengungsi kepada perempuan dan anak-anak.
Ironisnya, tentara penjaga perdamaian PBB asal Belanda yang ditempatkan di sana tidak melakukan reaksi apapun untuk melindungi jiwa warga muslim dan membiarkan tragedi itu terjadi. Tentu saja sikap pasif negara-negara Eropa terhadap peristiwa ini merupakan ihwal yang patut dicermati. Tiga komite pencari kebenaran yang dibentuk setelah terjadinya tragedi itu menuding Uni Eropa dan PBB telah bersikap abai terhadap kasus pembantaian tersebut. Ironisnya, hingga kini para pelaku utama pembantaian massal itu masih belum mendapat hukuman yang setimpal atas kejahatan mereka.






12 Juli
Thariq bin Ziyad Masuk ke Spanyol
Tanggal 12 Juli 711, untuk pertama kalinya dalam sejarah Islam, Thariq bin Ziyad bersama sejumlah besar pasukannya, berhasil memasuki wilayah Spanyol. Kemenangan ini menjadi awal dari penaklukan pasukan Islam atas wilayah-wilayah Eropa lainnya. Thariq bin Ziyad masuk ke Spanyol dengan melewati selat di antara Maroko dan Spanyol, yang kemudian diberi nama sesuai dengan namanya, yaitu Jabal Thariq. Selat ini menghubungkan antara Samudera Atlantik dengan Laut Mediterania. Setelah ditaklukkannya Andalusia atau Spanyol, selama 8 abad kaum muslimin berkuasa di wilayah itu dan menyebarkan peradaban Islam di Eropa.

Bandar Iskandariah Dikepung Tentara Salib
Tanggal 12 Juli 1233, pelabuhan Iskandariah di Mesir dikepung oleh kapal-kapal perang Tentara Salib dari Belanda. Pada saat itu, Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi , pahlawan muslim dalam Perang Salib yang merupakan pemimpin di pelabuhan tersebut, sedang tidak berada di tempat tersebut. Namun demikian, pasukan muslimin tetap berjuang keras untuk mempertahankan pelabuhan tersebut. Ketika akhirnya Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi tiba, ia memimpin perlawanan kaum muslimin sampai akhirnya mereka berhasil mengusir tentara Salib.

Perlawanan Warga Kota Masyhad Dimulai
Tanggal 12 Juli 1935, warga kota Masyhad di Iran, memulai perlawanan yang terkenal dengan nama "Kebangkitan Masjid Gauharsyad". Perlawanan ini dilancarkan oleh rakyat kota tersebut dalam rangka menentang keputusan raja Iran saat itu, Syah Reza Pahlevi, yang berlawanan dengan syariat Islam, di antaranya, larangan untuk menggunakan jilbab. Perlawanan rakyat yang dipimpin oleh para ulama ini berpusat di Masjid Gauharsyad yang terletak di sisi makam Imam Ridha a.s. Tentara rezim Syah menghadapi perlawnaan rakyat tersebut dengan represif sehingga banyak warga kota Masyhad yang gugur syahid.


Hotel Malik Daud Diledakkan Zionis
Tanggal 12 Juli 1946, hotel Malik Daud di Baitul Maqdis Palestina, diledakkan oleh kelompok teroris Zionis yang bernama kelompok Irgun. Hotel Malik Daud itu banyak dikunjungi oleh warga Palestina. Akibat ledakan tersebut, lebih dari 200 warga Palestina tewas. Di antara para korban terdapat 15 orang Yahudi yang merupakan bukti bahwa kelompok teroris Zionis demi mencapai tujuan mereka tidak segan-segan membunuh saudara sebangsa mereka sendiri.


Kudeta AS di Iran Terbongkar
Tanggal 12 Juli 1980, rencana kudeta di Iran yang didalangi AS terbongkar dan berhasil digagalkan oleh tentara Republik Islam Iran. Kudeta ini direncanakan oleh pihak-pihak dalam negeri yang terkait dengan mantan rezim Syah, yang bekerja sama dengan AS, rezim Zionis, dan rezim Ba'ats Irak. Kudeta yang bertujuan untuk menggulingkan Republik Islam Iran yang baru saja berdiri itu, terjadi dua bulan setelah kegagalan AS dalam serangan militernya ke Tabash, di wilayah timur Iran. Para pelaku kudeta ini berencana, dengan berpangkalan di pangkalan angkatan udara Iran "Nuzhe" di dekat kota Hamedan, mereka akan melancarkan serangan milter ke berbagai gedung penting di Teheran, antara lain gedung Radio dan Televisi Iran dan rumah Imam Khomeini. Namun kudeta ini berhasil terbongkar sebelum sempat dilaksanakan.


Serangan Rezim Zionis ke Lebanon
Tanggal 12 Juli 2006, untuk kesekian kalinya tentara rezim Zionis Israel melancarkan agresi militer ke Lebanon. Israel berdalih, agresi ini dilancarkan untuk membebaskan dua serdadunya yang ditawan oleh gerakan Hizbullah. Tujuan utama rezim zionis Israel menggelar agresinya ke Lebanon yang didukung penuh oleh Washington, sejatinya untuk menumpas gerakan Hizbullah dan melucuti persenjataan kelompok ini, Hizbullah merupakan kekuatan perjuangan rakyat Lebanon dalam melawan penjajah.
Pasukan militer zionis membombardir dan menghancurkan pelbagai fasilitas umum dan infrastruktur Lebanon. Mereka menanggap dengan cara itu, rakyat Lebonan akan didera kesulitan ekonomi dan melepaskan dukungannya kepada Hizbullah. Selama perang berlangsung, pesawat-pesawat tempur Israel telah melancarkan serangan udara sebanyak 10 ribu kali dan lebih dari 10 ribu warga sipil menjadi korban. Namun demikian, rakyat Lebanon pantang mundur dan tetap bertahan mendukung perjuangan Hizbullah.
Di sisi lain, pasukan militer rezim Zionis Israel gagal meraih ambisinya dan menelan kekalahan telak, setelah serangan roket Hizbullah berhasil menghancurkan sejumlah target militer di Israel, dan para pejuang gerakan ini berhasil melumpuhkan serangan darat militer zionis. Sampai-sampai AS yang selama ini mendukung penuh agresi militer Israel, terpaksa mengeluarkan resolusi Dewan Keamanan PBB untuk menggelar gencatan senjata dan penarikan mundur tentara Israel dari tanah Lebanon. Resolusi ini juga menugaskan pasukan penjaga perdamaian PBB untuk ditempatkan di Lebanon.






13 Juli
Kota Roma Terbakar
Tanggal 13 Juli tahun 64, terjadilah kebakaran besar di kota Roma. Karena sebagian besar bangunan pada zaman itu terbuat dari kayu, dalam waktu singkat sebagian besar bangunan kota tersebut beserta sejumlah besar warga kota, hangus terbakar. Kebakaran ini dijadikan alasan oleh kaisar Nero untuk menimpakan kesalahan kepada para penganut Kristen dan melakukan pembunuhan massal terhadap mereka. Lebih dari 100 ribu warga Roma menjadi korban kekejaman Kaisar Nero tersebut.

Perjalanan James Cook Berakhir
Tanggal 13 Juli 1771, berakhirlah ekspedisi laut mengelilingi setengah planet bumi yang dipimpin oleh James Cook. Dalam ekspedisi itu, James Cook dan rombongannya yang terdiri dari para ilmuwan, melakukan berbagai penelitian terhadap tumbuh-tumbuhan, hewan-hewan, dan para penduduk di berbagai kawasan. Di antara anggota rombongan James Cook adalah sebuah tim astronom yang meneliti planet Venus. Perjalanan James Cook dan romobongannya memakan waktu selama tiga tahun, yang dimulai sejak tanggal 26 Juli tahun 1768.


Perang Kursk Berakhir
Tanggal 13 Juli 1943, The Battle of Kursk atau Perang Kursk, yang melibatkan dua juta tentara, 6000 tank, dan 5000 pesawat tempur, berakhir dengan ke

          Bulan Agustus        
1 Agustus
Columbus Menginjakkan Kaki di AS

Tanggal 1 Agustus 1498, petualang Italia, Christopher Columbus menginjakkan kakinya untuk pertama kali di daratan benua Amerika, di kawasan yang sekarang menjadi bagian dari Venezuela. Columbus mengira wilayah yang didatanginya itu sebagai sebuah pulau dan memberinya nama Isla Santa serta mengklaimnya sebagai wilayah jajahan Spanyol. Columbus dilahirkan di Genoa, Italia pada tahun 1451. Ia sangat terobsesi oleh kemungkinan menemukan jalur pelayaran langsung dari Eropa ke Asia. Saat itu, masyarakat Eropa mengira tidak ada jalur langsung ke Asia timur, dan satu-satunya jalur yang ada, yaitu melalui Mesir dan Laut Merah telah ditutup oleh kerajaan Ottoman.
Dengan mengira bahwa Eropa dan India Timur hanya dibatasi oleh Lautan Atlantik, Columbus menemui Raja Portugis untuk mensponsori pelayarannya mencari rute baru ke Asia. Proposal ini ditolak dan kemudian Columbus menemui Raja Ferdinand dari Spanyol yang akhirnya bersedia menjadi sponsor misi tersebut. Pada tanggal 3 Agustus 1492, Columbus memulai ekspedisinya dengan menggunakan tiga kapal bernama Santa Maria, Pinta, dan Niya. Dalam ekspedisi pertama ini, Columbus mencapai Cuba, yang dikiranya bagian dari Cina dan Hispaniola yang disangka sebagai wilayah Jepang. Mereka kembali ke Spanyol dengan membawa emas dan rempah-rempah. Atas kesuksesannya ini, Columbus diberi penghargaan oleh Raja Spanyol dan diberi kesempatan untuk menjalankan ekspedisi yang kedua.
Pada tahun 1493, Columbus memulai ekspedisi keduanya namun hanya berhasil mencapai wilayah Karibia dan pasukannya banyak terbunuh dalam pertempuran dengan kaum pribumi. Selanjutnya pada bulan Mei 1498, Columbus memulai eskpedisi dengan tujuan utama mencari jalur langsung ke India. Tiga bulan kemudian, pada tanggal 1 Agustus 1498, ia menginjakkan kakinya untuk pertama kali di benua AS.

Perang Dunia I Dimulai
Tanggal 1 Agustus tahun 1914, Perang Dunia I secara resmi dimulai dengan adanya pengumuman perang dari Jerman terhadap Rusia. Tiga hari sebelumnya, Austria juga mengumumkan perang terhadap Serbia dengan alasan terbunuhnya putra mahkota Austria di Sarajevo. Setelah melancarkan perang terhadap Rusia, Jerman juga memerangi Perancis dan perang pun meluas dengan cepat. Dalam perang ini, Jerman bersekutu dengan Austria, Hongaria, dan Ottoman. Sementara itu, Perancis , Inggris, Rusia, dan Serbia bergabung dalam kelompok Sekutu.
Persiapan perang ini sesungguhnya telah dimulai sejak lama. Puluhan tahun sebelum dimulainya perang, negara-negara besar Eropa terlibat dalam persaingan senjata dan berusaha untuk memperluas wilayah penjajahan mereka. Selain itu, pemikiran nasionalisme juga semakin menguat di Eropa. Dalam perang ini, awalnya Jerman dan kelompok Axis hampir menang, namun kemudian AS bergabung ke dalam kelompok Sekutu, sehingga kekuatan Sekutu semakin besar dan akhirnya meraih kemenangan. Perang ini secara resmi berakhir tanggal 11 November 1918 dengan menjatuhkan korban tewas 9 juta orang, 29 juta orang cacat, dan 5 juta orang hilang. Pada tahun 1919, pihak-pihak yang terlibat perang menandatangani Perjanjian Versailles yang memberikan denda besar terhadap Jerman sebagai pihak yang memulai perang.

Swiss mencapai kemerdekaan
Tanggal 1 Agustus tahun 1648 Masehi, Swiss memperoleh pengakuan atas kemerdekaannya. Karenanya tanggal 1 Agustus di negara itu diperingati sebagai hari nasional. Swiss memilih sikap netral dalam perang panjang di benua Eropa yang terjadi antara tahun 1618 hingga 1648. Di bawah Perjanjian Westfalen, negara Eropa mengakui kemerdekaan Swiss dari Kekaisaran Romawi Suci dan kenetralannya (ancien régime). Swiss dengan ibukotanya Bern, memiliki luas wilayah 41,293 kilometer persegi dan terletak di jantung benua Eropa. Negara ini bertetangga dengan Jerman, Prancis, Italia, Austria dan Liechtenstein.

Jean Baptiste Lamarck lahir ke dunia
Tanggal 1 Agustus 1744, Jean Baptiste Lamarck, pakar lingkungan hidup dan ailmuan biologi asal Prancis lahir ke dunia di Bazentin, Picardie. Ia dikenal setelah menulis buku berjudul Flore Francoise atau Tumbuh-tumbuhan Prancis yang terbit pada tahun 1779. Pada masa revolusi Prancis ia diangkat menjadi pejabat di Museum Nasional Paris untuk Sejarah Alam. Kajian dan penelitian ilmiahnya menghasilkan teori tentang evolusi kehidupan.

Karya besarnya berjudul Filsafat Zoologi yang terbit tahun 1809 mengulas pendapatnya tentang teori hubungan antara makhluk hidup dan lingkungannya (ekologi). Ia memberi dasar klasifikasi baru bagi hewan, dengan pertama-tama memisahkan dalam dua kelompok besar: hewan bertulang belakang (Vertebrata) dan tak bertulang belakang (Avertebrata). Lamarck meninggal dunia pada tanggal 18 Desember 1829 saat berusia 85 tahun.

Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 1 Agustus tahun 2005, Fahd bin Abdul Aziz, raja Arab Saudi meninggal dunia setelah beberapa tahun menderita penyakit akut. Fahd lahir di Riyadh, pada tahun 1921. Tahun 1967 ua menjabat sebagai Wakil Perdana Menteri dan delapan tahun kemudian dinobatkan sebagai Putra Mahkota. Dengan meninggalnya Raja Khalid bin Abdul Aziz tahun 1982, Fahd naik takhta sebagai raja kelima dari dinasti keluarga Saud. Masa kepemimpinan Raja Fahd diwarnai dengan hubungan yang kian mesra antara Arab Saudi dan Amerika Serikat.

Ketika perang Irak terhadap Iran meletus dekade 1980-an, Fahd menjadi salah satu pendukung utama dan donatur bagi Saddam. Hubungan Irak dan Arab Saudi merenggang setelah Saddam mengerahkan pasukannya untuk menginvasi Kuwait tahun 1990. Sejak tahun 1995, setelah mengalami serangan jantung, secara praktis Raja Fahd menyerahkan kendali pemerintahan kepada saudaranya, Emir Abdullah yang saat itu duduk sebagai Putra Mahkota. Dengan kematian Fahd, kekuasaan di negara itu jatuh ke tangan Abdullah.

2 Agustus
Denis Popon Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 2 Agustus tahun 1714, Denis Popon, seorang inventor Perancis, meninggal dunia. Dia menggunakan tenaga uap untuk menggerakkan motor mesin. Mesin bertenaga uap ciptaan Popon ini merupakan alat bertenaga uap pertama dan berdasarkan konsep mesin uap ini, kemudian diciptakanlah mobil dan kapal uap.

Ayatullah Syaikh Fadhlullah Nuri Gugur
Tanggal 2 Agustus tahun 1909, Ayatullah Syaikh Fadhlullah Nuri", seorang ulama dan pejuang besar Iran, gugur syahid kerana digantung oleh antek-antek kolonialis. Beliau adalah ahli fiqih garis depan di Teheran dan sangat berjuang keras dalam menyebarkan pemikiran Islam dan paham keadilan. Ayatullah Nuri merupakan salah satu pemimpin utama perjuangan kaum ruhaniwan dan rakyat Iran dalam melawan dinasti Qajar dan dalam Revolusi Konstitusional. Namun, setelah dibentuknya Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat sebagai hasil dari Revolusi Konstitusional tersebut, Ayatullah Nuri mendapati bahwa sebagian undang-undang yang disepakati oleh majelis tidak sesuai dengan pandangan Islam.
Oleh karena itulah beliau dan sejumlah pejuang lainnya mengadakan aksi protes di makam Syekh Abdul Adzhim di kota Rey, selatan Teheran. Akhirnya, Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat bersedia mengubah undang-undang dasar yang tidak sesuai dengan pandangan Islam tersebut dan Ayatullah Nuri kembali ke Teheran. Setelah direbutnya kota Tehran dan berakhirnya despotisme..., antek-antek kolonialis memanfaatkan situasi untuk melindungi despotisme dengan membunuh Ayatullah Nuri.

Irak Dipastikan Gunakan Senjata Kimia Terhadap Iran
Tanggal 2 Agustus tahun 1988, komisi penelitian PBB yang dikirim ke Iran dan Irak, dengan mengeluarkan dua laporannya, menyatakan bahwa Irak selama peperangan melawan Iran telah berkali-kali menggunakan senjata kimia. Ini adalah pengakuan terang-terangan pertama dari PBB mngenai penggunaan senjata kimia tentara Irak terhadap Iran. Namun, Dewan Keamanan PBB sama sekali tidak mengeluarkan resolusi apapun dalam menanggapi penggunaan senjata kimia ini. Senjata kimia yang digunakan secara luas dan menyerang tidak saja tentara Iran, melainkan juga rakyat sipil Iran, sama sekali tidak ditanggapi oleh PBB. Alasannya adalah demi melindungi kepentingan Barat yang bekerja sama dengan Irak dalam memproduksi senjata kimia tersebut.
Oleh karena itulah, beberapa jam setelah laporan tersebut disiarkan, kota Ashnawieh di bagian barat Iran dibombardir dengan bom kimia dan melukai 2400 penduduk kota itu. Komisi penelitian PBB juga mengakui adanya penyerangan bom kimia di Ashnawieh yang dilakukan setelah diadakannya perjanjian gencatan senjata antara Irak dan Iran ini.

Invasi Irak ke Kuwait
Tanggal 2 Agustus tahun 1990, tentara Irak menginvasi negara tetangganya, Kuwait. Invasi ini merupakan invasi Irak kedua setelah sebelumnya di tahun 1980 menyerang Iran. Sebelumnya, Rezim Saddam selalu menyatakan bahwa kawasan Kuwait adalah provinsi Irak yang ke-19. Invasi ke Kuwait ini bertujuan untuk mengambil alih kekayaan minyak Kuwait dan dengan demikian, Rezim Saddam berharap bisa menjadi pemimpin dunia Arab. Namun, invasi Irak ke Kuwait ini mendapat reaksi negatif yang sangat besar dari dunia internasional.
Dunia internasional dan PBB menngecam invasi Irak ini dan memerintahkan agar Irak keluar dari Kuwait. Kemudian, sejumlah negara dengan dipimpin oleh AS mengirimkan pasukannya ke Teluk Persia dengan tujuan untuk mengusir Irak. Meskipun telah dilakukan berbagai macam lobi politik selama tujuh bulan, tentara Irak tetap bertahan di Kuwait. Akhirnya, pasukan aliansi pimpinan AS melakukan penyerbuan ke Irak hingga menimbulkan kerugian dan kerusakan yang sangat besar bagi tentera dan rakyat Irak. karena serangan pasukan aliansi itu, pada tanggal 28 Februari 1991, Irak mengakhiri aneksasinya di Kuwait.

3 Augustus
Dimulainya Petualangan Terbesar Colombus

Tanggal 3 Agustus tahun 1492, dimulailah perjalanan terbesar Christopher Columbus, seorang pelaut Italia. Christopher Columbus menandatangani perjanjian dengan Raja dan Ratu Spanyol yang berisi penugasan untuk menemukan jalan baru menuju India. Columbus bersama 120 pelaut lainnya, dengan menggunakan 3 kapal, berlayar dari pelabuhan Paulus Spanyol dan 33 hari kemudian mereka bertemu dengan daratan yang mereka sangka adalah India. Ternyata, daratan yang dilabuhi oleh Columbus dan rombongannya adalah kepulauan Salvador yang terletak di benua Amerika. Dengan demikian, tanpa disadari oleh Columbus, dia menemukan benua baru yaitu benua Amerika.

Sisilia Berintegrasi Dengan Italia
Tanggal 3 Agustus tahun 1860, kepulauan Sisilia menjadi bagian dari Italia atas usaha Garibaldi, pemimpin gerakan nasionalisme Italia. Warga kepulauan ini mendukung Garibaldi karena mereka menderita akibat kesewenang-wenangan Raja Perancis Kedua yang bertahun-tahun menjajah kepulauan Sisilia. Setelah peperangan 80 hari, kepulauan Sisilia menjadi bagian dari Italia dan dengan demikian, proses penyatuan Italia secara keseluruhan memakan waktu 10 tahun.

Pembukaan Terusan Panama
Tanggal 3 Agustus tahun 1914, dengan melintasnya kapal pertama, Terusan Panama dibuka. Pembangunan terusan ini dimulai oleh para insinyur Perancis dan dilanjutkan oleh orang Amerika sampai selesai. Terusan sepanjang 68 kilometer ini mempertemukan Lautan Teduh dan Samudera Pasifik.

Nigeria Merdeka
Tanggal 3 Agustus tahun 1960, Nigeria meraih kemerdekaannya dan menjadi anggota PBB. Negara Afrika ini sejak abad ke-18 menjadi jajahan Perancis. Pada tahun 1922, Perancis mendirikan pangkalan militer di Nigeria dan secara resmi negara ini menjadi daerah koloni Perancis. Namun, secara bertahap rakyat Nigeria bangkit menentang Perancis dan akhirnya pada tahun 1960 berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya. Nigeria memiliki luas wilayah 1.267.000 kilometer persegi dan terletak di bagian barat benua Afrika serta berbatasan dengan Libya, Chad, Mali, dan Benin.

Israel Bunuh Izuddin Qalq
Tanggal 3 Agustus 1978, rezim Zionis melakukan aksi terorismenya dengan membunuh Izuddin Qalq, wakil Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina di Paris. Sekretaris Izuddin Qalq juga ikut terbunuh dalam serangan ini. Pada dekade 1970-an dan 1980-an, organisasi intelijen Zionis, Mossad, meneror banyak pejabat PLO sehingga mereka menjadi lemah dan akhirnya bersedia menandatangani perjanjian damai dengan Rezim Zionis. Namun demikian, rakyat Palestina tidak mengakui perjanjian damai ini dan tetap berjuang melawan rezim penjajah tersebut.


Alexander Solzhenitsyn meninggal dunia
Tanggal 3 Agustus tahun 2008, Alexander Solzhenitsyn penulis dan sejarawan Rusia meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1918 di kawasan Kaukasus di selatan Rusia. Solzhenitsyn meraih gelar sarjana di bidang matematika dan fisika. Menyusul serangan Nazi Jerman ke Uni Soviet, ia terlibat dalam perang membela negaranya. Berkat itu Solzhenitsyn memperoleh medali ksatria. Setelah perang berakhir, Solzhenitsyn meski beraliran Komunis divonis kerja paksa di pengasingannya di Siberia akibat kritik tajamnya terhadap rezim Stalin yang otoriter. Ia bebas dari tahanan pada tahun 1956. Periode kehidupan setelah penjara adalah periode aktivitas Solzhenitsyn dalam menulis buku. Tahun 1970, Solzhenitsyn meraih hadiah nobel sastera. Tahun 1974, ia kembali ditangkap dan diasingkan akibat kritik dan kecamannya terhadap rezim Uni Soviet.

Menyusul bubarnya Uni Soviet dan terwujudnya iklim yang relatif bebas dan terbuka, Solzhenitsyn kembali ke negaranya dan disambut dengan meriah. Meski demikian, Solzhenitsyn tetap melayangkan kritik tajamnya. Kritik pertamanya ia tujukan kepada rezim Rusia karena cenderung mengekor kepada Liberalisme Barat, sementara kritik kedua ia arahkan kepada warga di negaranya yang menurutnya telah jauh dari Tuhan dan spiritual. Diantara karyanya adalah; Bangsal Kanker, Arkhipelag GULAG, dan Satu Hari dari Kehidupan Ivana Denisovicha.

4 Augustus
Nicholas-Jacque Conte Lahir

Tanggal 4 Agustus 1755, Nicolas-Jacque Conte, pencipta pensil modern, terlahir ke dunia. Sejarah pembuatan pensil berawal pada tahun 1560-an, dengan ditemukannya grafit, bahan pembuat pensil, di Inggris. Dengan cepat, grafit digunakan sebagai alat untuk menulis, meskipun masih dalam bentuk yang primitif. Akhirnya pada tahun 1565, dibuatlah pensil pertama dengan cara memasukkan grafit ke dalam sepotong kayu. Perkembangan dalam pembuatan pensil diteruskan oleh para pengrajin Eropa sampai akhirnya Nicolas-Jacque Conte berhasil menciptakan pensil dalam bentuk modern seperti yang sekarang ini digunakan oleh masyarkat dunia.


Bsysshe Percy Shelley lahir ke dunia
Tanggal 4 Agustus 1792 Masehi, Bysshe Percy Shelley, penyair Inggris terlahir ke dunia. Sejak kecil, Shelley sudah menunjukkan bakat yang luar biasa dan ketertarikan yang besar kepada sastera. Dia dikenal sebagai penyair yang memiliki kecenderungan kepada tema-tema cinta, persahabatan dan kebebasan. Karena itulah ia lantas tertarik kepada revolusi Prancis yang belum lama terjadi di zaman itu. Shelley pernah mengalami pengasingan. Tahun 1822, saat berusia 30 tahun, ia tenggelam saat berperahu di laut Meditterania dan meninggal dunia. Bysshe Percy Shelley meninggalkan sejumlah karya diantaranya, Revolution & Romanticism.

AS Umumkan Netralitas dalam Perang Dunia I
Tanggal 4 Agustus tahun 1914, ketika PD I meletus di Eropa, Woodrow Wilson, Presiden AS saat itu, mengumumkan kenetralan AS dalam perang ini. Pada bulan Februari 1915, Jerman melarang semua kapal dari negara manapun untuk memasuki wilayah perang di sekitar Inggris. Namun, kapal-kapal dagang AS tidak menghiraukan ultimatum ini dan sebulan kemudian, sebuah kapal dagang AS ditenggelamkan oleh kapal tempur Jerman. Selanjutnya dua kapal AS lainnya juga diserang oleh Jerman sehingga opini publik AS menjadi semakin anti Jerman. AS akhirnya memutuskan hubungan diplomatik dengan Jerman dan Kongres mengesahkan anggaran militer sebesar 250 juta dolar untuk persiapan perang.
Tanggal 6 April 1915, parlemen AS secara resmi menetapkan bahwa AS akan bergabung dalam pasukan Sekutu. Pada tanggal 26 Juni, 14.000 tentara AS mendarat di Perancis. Ketika perang berakhir tahun 1918, lebih dari 2 juta tentara AS terjun dalam perang Dunia I dan 50.000 di antaranya tewas. Praktek seperti ini, yaitu ikut terjun dalam perang yang sesungguhnya di luar wewenangnya, masih diteruskan oleh para pemimpin AS hingga saat ini, seperti dalam Perang Vietnam dan Perang Irak yang telah mengorbankan banyak warga AS secara sia-sia.

David Lange Lahir
Tanggal 4 Agustus 1942, David Lange, perdana menteri termuda dalam sejarah New Zealand, terlahir ke dunia. David Lange menuntut ilmu di bidang hukum pada Universitas Auckland. Setelah lulus, David Lange berkarir di bidang hukum hingga tahun 1977 ketika ia berhasil terpilih sebagai anggota parlemen. Pada tahun 1979, David Lange terpilih sebagai wakil ketua Partai Buruh di parlemen dan empat tahun kemudian, ia diangkat sebagai ketua partai dan pemimpin faksi oposisi dalam parlemen. Pada bulan Juli 1984, David Lange diangkat sebagai Perdana Menteri New Zealand dan ia memimpin pemerintahan yang secara radikal melakukan restrukturisasi dalam perekonomian negara. David Lange juga berperan besar dalam pengesahan UU bebas nuklir di New Zealand dan reformasi di bidang pendidikan. Pada tahun 1987, ia kembali terpilih dengan suara masyoritas untuk kedua kalinya menjabat sebagai PM. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1989, David Lange mengundurkan diri dari jabatannya.

Amerika kalah di Teluk Tongkin
Tanggal 4 Agustus 1964, AS menderita kekalahan dalam perang terbatas di Teluk Tongkin di wilayah Laut Cina Selatan. Pertempuran itu meletus antara kapal-kapal perang AS melawan Vietnam Utara. Saat itu AS mendukung penuh rezim Vietnam Selatan melawan utara, namun sebelum peristiwa 4 Agustus 1964, AS tidak pernah secara langsung terlibat pertempuran. Menyusul peristiwa Teluk Tonkin, AS secara signifikan menambah jumlah personil militernya di Vietnam Selatan. Mesin-mesin perang dan pesawat tempur AS pun secara masif menggempur wilayah Vietnam utara. Namun perlawanan sengit rakyat setempat telah mempermalukan AS yang terpaksa mengakui kekalahannya di Vietnam dan pada tahun 1975 AS menarik mundur seluruh tentaranya dari sana. Beberapa tahun setelahnya, Vietnam menyatu kembali.

5 Augustus
Guy de Maupassant Lahir

Tanggal 5 Agustus tahun 1850, Guy de Maupassant, salah seorang penulis cerpen terbaik Perancis, terlahir ke dunia. Maupassant menuntut ilmu di bidang hukum, namun kemudian studinya terhenti karena ia bergabung dengan tentara dalam Perang Perancis-Prussia. Seusai perang, Maupassant tinggal di Paris dan di sanalah ia mulai menggeluti dunia tulis-menulis. Dalam jangka waktu 10 tahun, Maupassant memproduksi 300 cerita pendek, enam novel, dan beberapa buku non-fiksi.
Dalam karya-karyanya, Maupassant banyak menuangkan pengalamannya saat perang, kisah-kisah dalam militer dan birokrasi, serta ketidakadilan sosial. Tulisan-tulisan Guy de Maupassant umumnya bergaya naturalis. Karya-karyanya yang terkenal berjudul A Life dan The Rondoli Sisters. Pada usia 40-an, Maupassant terserang penyakit jiwa dan akhirnya meninggal dunia tahun 1893.


Syah Iran Tandatangani Konsitusi
Tanggal 5 Agustus 1906, Syah Iran saat itu, yaitu Syah Muzafarruddin Qajari akhirnya bersedia menandatangani surat perintah diberlakukannya sistem konstitusional di Iran. Keputusan ini diambil setelah rakyat Iran yang dipimpin para ulama dengan gencar melancarkan demonstrasi menentang sistem kerajaan yang absolut dan penuh ketidakadilan serta memebri kesempatan kepada pihak-pihak asing untuk campur tangan dalam urusan dalam negeri Iran.
Awalnya, demonstrasi-demonstrasi itu dihadapi pemerintah dengan senjata sehingga banyak warga dan ulama yang gugur. Akhirnya, beberapa ulama besar Iran, antara lain Ayatullah Sayyid Abdullah Behbahani dan Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Thabathabai mengadakan aksi mogok di kota Rey dan Qom. Pengaruh para ulama sedemikian besarnya di tengah rakyat Iran, sehingga Syah Muzafaruddin akhirnya menyetujui diterapkannya sistem kontistusi di Iran. Setelah itu, dibentuklah parlemen yang kemudian menetapkan UUD Iran. Namun, tak lama kemudian, proses revolusi konstitusional ini mengalami penyelewengan dan akhirnya Iran kembali ke era despotisme kerajaan sampai akhirnya revolusi Islam di bawah pimpinan Imam Khomeini meraih kemenangannya.


Allamah Sayyid Arif Husain Husaini Gugur Syahid
Tanggal 5 Agustus 1988, Allamah Sayyid Arif Husain Husaini, salah seorang ulama terkemuka dan pejuang Pakistan, gugur syahid akibat serangan teroris. Arif Husaini dilahirkan dalam sebuah keluarga yang relijius dan beliau kemudian menuntut ilmu ke Irak. Di Irak, Arif Husaini sempat bertemu dengan Imam Khomeini yang tengah menjalani masa pengasingan dan ia banyak mengenal pemikiran-pemikiran revolusi Imam Khomeini. Ketika Revolusi Islam di Iran mencapai puncaknya, Arif Husaini juga hadir di Iran dan bergabung bersama rakyat Iran untuk berjuang menggulingkan rezim Syah Pahlevi yang despotik. Akibatnya, Rezim Syah mengusir Arif Husaini kembali ke Pakistan. Di tanah airnya, Arif Husaini aktif dalam penyebaran ajaran Islam, teruatama dalam upaya menciptakan persatuan di antara berbagai mazhab di Pakistan. Namun, perjuangannya terhenti karena dibunuh oleh teroris yang menginginkan terjadinya perselisihan terus-menerus di tengah kaum muslimin Pakistan.

Burkinafaso mencapai kemerdekaannya
Tanggal 5 Agustus 1960 Burkinafaso mengumumkan kemerdekaannya. Di penghujung abad 19 Masehi, Burkinafaso jatuh ke tangan Prancis. Negara ini dulu bernama Volta Hulu. Secara geografis, Burkina Faso berada di Afrika Barat yang terkurung daratan. Negara ini berbatasan dengan Mali di sebelah utara; Togo dan Ghana di selatan; Niger di timur, Benin di tenggara; dan Pantai Gading di barat daya. Tanggal 11 Desember 1958, negeri ini menjadi republik dan bergabung dengan Masyarakat Prancis-Afrika dan mendapatkan kemerdekaan pada tanggal 5 Agustus 1960. Dengan kemerdekaan itu, Burkina Faso bergabung dengan Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa. Pada 4 Agustus 1984 Presiden Thomas Sankara mengganti nama negara ini dari Volta Hulu menjadi 'Burkina Faso' yang dalam bahasa Dioula dan More berarti "Negara Orang Jujur". Ibu kota Burkina Faso adalah Ouagadougou (lafaz: Wagadugu), dan warga setempat menyebutnya dengan nama "Waga".

6 Augustus
Fahrenheit Meninggal

Tanggal 6 Agustus tahun 1736, Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, fisikawan Jerman penemu derajat suhu, meninggal dunia. Fahrenheit lahir pada tahun 1686. Pada tahun 1720, setelah melakukan berbagai penelitian, Fahrenheit menemukan bahwa penggunaan air raksa dalam pembuatan alat pengukuran suhu akan menjamin keakuratan. Derajat suhu yang digunakan dalam termometer tersebut kemudian diberi nama Fahrenheit, sesuai nama penemunya.

Bolivia mencapai kemerdekaan
Tanggal 6 Augustus tahun 1825, Bolivia mencapai kemerdekaan dari tangan Spanyol dan hari ini disebut sebagai hari nasional. Penjajahan Spanyol atas Bolivia bermula sejak abad ke 16 dengan merompak kekayaan pertambangan negara ini. Pada era penjajahan Spanyol terhadap Bolivia, banyak sekali kebangkitan dan gerakan rakyat menentang penjajah, paling penting di antaranya ialah revolusi yang dipimpin oleh Simon Bolivar seorang aktivis terkenal Amerika Selatan. Revolusi ini bermula pada tahun 1809 dan berkembang secara gradual ke seluruh negara dan berakhir dengan kemerdekaan. Untuk mengenang jasa perjuangan dan pengorbanan Simon Bolivar dalam mencapai kemerdekaan maka negara ini diberi nama Bolivia. Bolivia mempunyai luas wilayah 1,1 juta km persegi yang terletak di barat Amerika Selatan dan bertetangga dengan Peru, Chile, Argentina dan Brazil.


Alexander Fleming Lahir
Tanggal 6 Agustus 1881, Alexander Fleming yang terkenal atas jasanya dalam menemukan penicillin, terlahir ke dunia di Skotlandia. Seusai menunut ilmu di bidang kedokteran di London university, Fleming memulia penlitiannya di bidang vaksin. Sejak awal menggeluti dunia medis, Fleeming telah tertarik pada masalah antiseptik dan aktivitas bakteri di dalam darah. Pada tahun 1928, ketiak ia sednag mempelajari virus influennza, ia menemukan bahwa sejenis jamur yang bisa menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri. Fleming menamakan jamur itu sebagai penicilin yang kini diproudksi sebagai obat anti bakteri.

Hiroshima Dibom
Tanggal 6 Agustus 1945, pada pukul 8 lebih 16 menit pagi waktu Jepang, pesawat pengebom AS menjatuhkan sebuah bom atom pertama di dunia di atas kota Hiroshima. Bom yang berkekuatan 20.000 TNT itu dalam sekejap mengancurkan bangunan-bangunan kota Hiroshima, menewaskan 90.000 oranng seketika dan melukai 75.000 orang lainnya. Tiga hari kemudian, tentara AS kembali menjatuhkan bom atom di atas kota Nagasaki dan menimbulkan korban tewas 70.000 orang. Korban akibat bom atom itu masih terus berjatuhan hingga kini karena dampak radioaktif yang ganas secara perlahan membunuh para korban. Perintah pengeboman kedua kota di Jepang itu diberikan oleh Presiden AS saat itu, Harry Truman, dengan tujuan agar Jepang menyerah dalam Perang Dunia II.


Jamaica mencapai kemerdekaannya

Tanggal 6 Augustus 1962, Jamaica yang terletak di Amerika mencapai kemerdekaannya dari Inggris. Negara ini ditemukan Christopher Columbus pada tahun 1494. Sejak abad 16 hingga 18, negara ini berada di bawah kekuasaan Spanyol. Setelah Spanyol Jamaica kemudian dikuasai Inggris. Penjajah Eropa memusnahkan warga pribumi Jamaica dan menggantinya dengan puluhan ribu budak kulit hitam yang dibawa masuk ke negara ini untuk bekerja di ladang-ladang tebu. Jamaica memiliki luas wilayah sebesar 10991 km persegi dan terletak di Amerika Tengah serta berada di kawasan laut Karibia.


Clinton Tandatangani UU Peningkatan Embargo Atas Iran

Tanggal 6 Agustus 1996, Presiden AS Bill Clinton, menandatangani UU peningkatan embargo terhadap Iran. UU yang diberi nama sesuai penggagasnya, yaitu Senator D'Amato ini menyebutkan bahwa setiap perusahaan yang menanamkan modal di industri perminyakan dan gas Iran di atas 40 juta dolar, akan dikenai sanksi ekonomi oleh AS. Dengan disahkannya UU ini, Washington berusha menekan pemerintah Iran yang selama ini selalu menentang campur tangan AS di negaranya. Namun demikian, UU D'Amato ini justru menimbulkan kemarahan negara-negara Eropa karena kepentingan investasi mereka di Iran menjadi terganggu. Pada tahun 1997, perusahaan Perancis TOTAl, dengan mengabaikan UU buatan AS itu, telah menanamkan modal sebesar 600 juta dolar untuk eksplorasi gas di Iran. Tindakan ini pun kemudian disusul oleh berbagai perusahaan gas dan minyak lainnya.

7 Augustus
Constantin Staniklavski meninggal dunia

Tanggal 7 Augustus 1938, penulis dan sutradara teater Constantin Staniklavski asal Rusia meninggal dunia. Dia lahir pada tahun 1863. Seniman Russia ini mendirikan lembaga seni kesusasteraan pada tahun 1888 bersama dua orang seniman lain dari negaranya. Stanislavski menulis puluhan naskah berlandaskan kepada roman-roman penulis terkenal dunia dengan metode baru yang menyebabkan dia terkenal sebagai penemu cara baru di bidang aktor dan sutradara teater.


Rabindranath Tagore Meninggal
Tanggal 7 Agustus tahun 1941, Rabindranath Tagore, penulis, penyair, dan filsuf India, meninggal dunia. Ia dilahirkan pada tahun 1861 dan pada usia 17 tahun, ia dikirim ke Inggris untuk menuntut ilmu, namun tidak diselesaikannya. Tagore kemudian aktif dalam perjuangan kemerdekaan India dan melalui syair-syairnya, ia membangkitkan semangat kemerdekaan bangsa India. Tagore adalah teman seperjuangan Mahatma Gandhi. Pada tahun 1915, Tagore diberi gelar kebangsawanan oleh pemerintahan Inggris namun beberapa tahun kemudian Tagore mengembalikan penghargaan itu sebagai protesnya terhadap kebijakan Inggris di India. Karya-karya Tagore banyak diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggris, sehingga ia pun menjadi terkenal di dunia sastra Barat. Syair-syair Tagore dianggap menyuarakan warisan spiritual India. Karya-karya Rabindranath Tagore antara lain berjudul Manasi, Sonar Tari dan Gitanjali.

Pantai Gading mencapai kemerdekaan
Tanggal 7 Augustus 1960, negara Afrika Pantai Gading (Ivory Coast) mencapai kemerdekaannya dari Perancis. Pada abad ke 16, Portugal menduduki Pantai Gading. Pada tahun 1891 Perancis berhasil menguasai negara ini meski rakyat melakukan perlawanan sengit. Akhirnya pada tahun 1960, Pantai Gading bersama beberapa negara yang berada dalam penguasaan Perancis mencapai kemerdekaannya dan menjadi sebuah republik. Pantai Gading mempunyai keluasan sebesar 332,463 km persegi dan terletak di tepi pantai Samudera Atlantik serta bertetangga dengan Liberia, Guinea, Mali, Ghana dan Burkina Faso.


AS, Libanon, PLO Tandatangani perjanjian
Tanggal 7 Agustus 1982, AS, Libanon, dan organisasi pembebesan Palestina atau PLO menandatangani perjanjian yang berisi penarikan mundur pasukan PLO dari Beirut, ibu kota Libanon. Perjanjian ini dilakukan menyusul serangan meluas yang dilancarkan rezim Zionis ke Libanon sejak bulan Juli tahun 1982 dengan tujuan mengusir tentara PLO keluar dari Libanon. Meskipun tentara Zionis memiliki perlengkapan militer yang sangat canggih, tetapi tentara PLO berhasil melakukan perlawanan selama 80 hari. Namun akhirnya, ketua PLO, Yaser Arafat, bersedia menarik 12.000 pasukannya keluar dari Libanon dan kemudian berpangkalan di delapan negara Arab lainnya. Meskipun demikian, kehadiran tentara Zionis di Libanon terus mendapatkan pelawanan dari pejuang muslim Libanon, sampai akhirnya tentara Zionis terpaksa angkat kaki dari wilayah itu pada tahun 2000.


Georgia menyerang Ossetia Selatan
Tanggal 7 Augustus 2008, pasukan tentera Georgia dengan dukungan dari Amerika menyerang ke kawasan Ossetia Selatan yang terletak di utara negara ini. Dalam serangan ini ratusan warga sipil tewas atau luka-luka. Sehari kemudian, tentara Russia yang memberi dukungan kepada milisi pendukung kemerdekaan Ossetia Selatan berhasil memukul mundur tentera Georgia. Menyusul kemudian Russia bersama para milisi berhasil menguasai pelabuhan penting Batumi dan mendekati Tiblisi, ibu kota negara ini. Akhirnya Presiden Perancis, Nicolas Sarkozy turun tangan sebagai mediator dan akhirnya Rusia pada 12 Agustus bersedia menarik tentaranya dari Georgia. Dalam hal ini Moskow mengakui secara resmi kemerdekaan dua kawasan Ossetia Selatan dan Abkhazia di Georgia. Rusia sendiri akhirnya mengakui secara resmi kemerdekaan Abhkazia dan Ossetia Selatan. Langkah Rusia terhadap Georgia dinilai sebagai peringatan Moskow kepada pemerintah-pemerintah barat khususnya Amerika terkait perluasan NATO ke Eropa Timur dan negara-negara bekas Uni Soviet.

8 Augustus
Kaisar Nero Meninggal

Tanggal 8 Agustus tahun 68, Kaisar Nero dari Romawi yang dikenal kejam, meninggal dunia pada usianya ke 31 tahun karena bunuh diri. Sebelumnya, Nero telah meracuni ayah angkatnya Claudius Pertama dan dia kemudian menggantikan kedudukan ayah angkatnya itu sebagai Kaisar Romawi. Selama masa pemerintahannya yang kuat, Nero telah membunuh banyak orang terdekatnya, seperti ibunya, istrinya, dan saudaranya sendiri, dan bangsawan-bangsawannya. Kaisar berhati kejam ini juga melakukan pembunuhan massal orang-orang Kristen dan membakar kota Roma. Kekejamannya ini menimbulkan berbagai gerakan pemberontakan sampai akhirnya, menjelang kemenangan para pembrontak, Nero mengakhiri sendiri kehidupannya.


Stalin Mengumumkan Perang dengan Jepang
Tanggal 8 Agustus tahun 1945, Stalin, pemimpin Uni Soviet mengumumkan perang terhadap Jepang. Pasukan Soviet kemudian menyerang Manchuria, yang terletak di timur Cina. Soviet dan Jepang sebelumnya telah menandatangani perjanjian non-agresi. Namun, setelah Amerika mengebom Hiroshim dan Jepang sedang bersiap untuk menyerah, Soviet menggunakan kesempatan ini untuk merebut beberapa wilayah kekuasaan Jepang. Tentara Soviet dalam akhir serangannya itu berhasil merebut Korea Utara dan kepulauan Coral. Hingga kini, kepulauan Coral masih dikuasai Rusia dan perundingan antara Rusia dan Jepang mengenai nasib kepulauan ini hingga kini masih belum mencapai hasilnya.


Richard Nixon Mengundurkan Diri
Tanggal 8 Agustus 1973, Richard Nixon, Presiden Amerika pada waktu itu, terpaksa mengundurkan diri. Nixon yang berasal dari Partai Republik ini terpaksa mundur karena kecurangan dalam pemilu yang disebut sebagai skandal Watergate. Dalam masa kampanye pemilu tahun 1972, orang-orang Partai Republik menyusup ke markas Partai Demokrat yang menjadi saingan mereka di Watergate, Wasington. Mereka kemudian mencuri dokumen-dokumen Partai Demokrat dan memasang alat penyadap untuk mendengarkan pembicaraan internal partai ini. Nixon akhirnya menang dalam pemilu tersebut, namun secara bertahap skandal ini akhirnya terbongkar dan Nixon pun mengundurkan diri. Gerald Ford, wapres saat itu kemudian menggantikan posisi Nixon sampai masa 4 tahun periode kepresidenan berakhir.


Ayatullah Musawi Khui Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 8 Agusutus tahun 1992, Ayatullah Al-Udzma Sayyid Abul Qasim Musawi Khui, seorang ahli fiqih besar dan marji' taklid kaum muslimin dunia, meninggal dunia pada usianya ke 96 tahun. Sayyid Khui dilahirkan di kota Khui di barat laut Iran. Pada usia muda, dia dikirim belajar ke Najaf Irak dan di sana beliau mempelajari ilmu-ilmu agama dan filsafat. Pada usia yang masih muda, beliau sudah mencapai derajat mujtahid. Beliau meninggalkan banyak karya tulis yang menjadi rujukan para ulama dan sekolah-sekolah Islam, di antaranya "Al Bayan fi Tafsiiril Quran", "Jawaahirul Ushul", "Mishbahul Faqahah", dan "Muntakhabul Rasail".
Ayatullah Khui selama periode marjaiyyatnya, memiliki peran khusus dalam berbagai masalah penting dunia. Misalnya, dalam masalah Palestina, beliau mengeluarkan fatwa untuk membela Palestina dan membebaskan kota Quds.


Taliban Menduduki Mazare Sharif

Tanggal 8 Agustus tahun 1998, dalam perang saudara di Afganistan, kelompok Taliban berhasil menduduki kota Mazar Syarif yang terletak di utara negara ini. Setelah menduduki Mazar Syarif , Taliban menyerang konsulat Iran di kota ini dan membunuh 8 diplomat dan seorang wartawan Iran. Kejahatan Taliban terhadap warga negara Iran dan Afganistan, menimbulkan kemarahan dunia internasional. Dewan Keamanan PBB juga mengecam tindakan kelompok ini.
Kelompok Taliban dibentuk pada tahun 1994 dengan dukungan AS dan Pakistan dan kemudian berhasil menduduki sebagian besar wilayah Afganistan. Kelompok ini lalu melakukan berbagai aksi pelanggaran HAM di Afganistan. Namun, akhirnya, pada bulan Oktober 2001, Taliban digulingkan oleh Amerika yang bekerja sama dengan aliansi utara Afganistan. Alasan yang dikemukakan AS dalam serangannya terhadap Taliban adalah karena kerjasama kelompok ini dengan jaringan terorisme Al-Qaida.

9 Augustus
Perjanjian Iran dan Inggris

Tanggal 9 Agustus tahun 1919, ditandatangani perjanjian antara Inggris dan Iran yang diwakili oleh Watsaqud-Daulah, Perdana Menteri Iran pada waktu itu dan Lord Carson, Menteri Luar Negeri Inggris. Berdasarkan perjanjian yang dikenal dengan nama "Perjanjian 1919" ini, urusan ekonomi, militer, dan politik Iran berada di bawah pengawasan pejabat Inggris. Inggris memaksakan perjanjian ini terhadap Iran setelah terjadi revolusi di Rusia yang menyebabkan negeri itu mundur dari kancah persaingan kolonialisme. Namun, rakyat Iran dan masyarakat internasional menentang perjanjian ini sehingga akhirnya perjanjian ini dibatalkan. Satu setengah tahun kemudian, Inggris mendalangi kudeta yang menghantarkan Reza Khan menjadi Syah Iran. Melalui Reza Khan, Inggris meneruskan penguasaannya atas Iran.

Pemboman Nagasaki
Tanggal 9 Agustus tahun 1945, tiga hari selepas ledakan bom atom di Hiroshima, AS kembali menjatuhkan bom atomnya di Nagasaki atas perintah Presiden AS waktu itu, Harry Truman. Dalam sekejap, kota pelabuhan itu luluh lantak dan 80.000 orang tewas seketika. Dampak bahan radioaktif bom tersebut juga menambah jumlah korban. Tujuan AS dalam serangan bom ini adalah untuk mengalahkan Jepang secara total dan menunjukkan kekuatan AS di dunia. Meskipun akhirnya Jepang bertekuk lutut kepada Sekutu, namun bahaya bom atom ini masih ada karena negara-negara pemilik bom ini, terutama AS, tidak akan ragu-ragu mengulangi kejahatannya itu bila kepentingannya berada dalam bahaya.

Herman Hesse Meninggal
Tanggal 9 Agustus 1962, Herman Hesse penulis dan penyair Jerman, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1877 di sebuah keluarga religius dan sejak muda, ia sudah menciptakan syair. Pada usia 20 tahun, dia sudah menerbitkan kumpulan syairnya. Pada tahun 1912, dia mengubah kewarganegaraannya menjadi warga Swiss dan berdomisili di sana. Pada akhir tahun-tahun terakhir usianya, Hesse melakukan perjalanan ke negara-negara Timur dan dia menjadi amat terpengaruh oleh kebudayaan dan adat istiadat Timur. Pada tahun 1946, Hesse meraih hadiah nobel. Di antara karya-karya Hesse adalah "Serigala Padang Pasir" dan "Kegembiraan Lukisan."

Singapura Pisahkan Diri
Tanggal 9 Agustus tahun 1965, kepulauan Singapura memisahkan diri dari Malaysia dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai hari kemerdekaan negara itu. Pada tahun 1819, oleh penguasa Johor, Malaysia, Singapura diserahkan kepada perusahaan Hindia Timur milik Inggris dan lima tahun kemudian, Singapura resmi menjadi jajahan Inggris. Pada Perang Dunia Kedua, Singapura diduduki oleh Jepang. Namun, pada tahun 1945, dengan masuknya Sekutu, penjajahan Jepang atas Singapura berakhir dan negeri ini kembali menjadi jajahan Inggris. Pada tahun 1963, dengan terbentuknya Federasi Malaysia, Singapura dijadikan bagian dari federasi ini. Namun, pada tahun 1965, Singapura memisahkan diri dan mencapai kemerdekaannya. Kepulauan Singapura memiliki luas wilayah 622 kilometer persegi dan terletak di asia Tenggara, berdekatan dengan Indonesia dan Malaysia.

Ayatullah Tsaqafi Wafat
Tanggal 9 Agustus tahun 1985, Ayatullah Mirza Muhammad Tsaqafi, ulama dan ahli fiqih kontemporer Ian, meninggal dunia pada usianya ke-90. Beliau dilahirkan di Teheran dan menempuh pendidikan di hauzah ilmiah Qom sampai akhirnya mencapai derajat mujtahid. Beliau membaktikan hidupnya demi menyebarkan syariat suci Islam dan banyak meninggalkan karya tulis di bidang tafsir Quran, ushul Fiqih, dan Hadis, diantaranya "Tafsir Rawan Jawid" yang terdiri dari lima jilid.

10 Augustus
Perjanjian Sevres

Tanggal 10 Agustus tahun 1920, ditandatangani perjanjian Sevres antara imperium Utsmani dan negara-negara Sekutu. Perjanjian ini ditandatangani setelah imperium Ustmani mengalami kekalahan dalam Perang Dunia Kedua dan berdasarkan perjanjian tersebut, 80 persen wilayah kekuasaan imperium Ustmani terpaksa diserahkan kepada Sekutu. Akibatnya, wilayah imperium ini yang semula 3 juta km persegi berkurang hingga 600 ribu km persegi. Perjanjian Sevres ini meresmikan kesepakatan antara Perancis dan Inggris mengenai pembagian wilayah Imperium Ustmani. Inggris kemudian meguasai Irak, Yordan, dan Palestina sedangkan Perancis menguasai Syria dan Libanon.
Di samping itu, berdasarkan perjanjian ini, sebagian wilayah Turki saat ini diserahkan kepada Yunani, Italia dan Armenistan. Hal ini menimbulkan kemarahan rakyat Turki dan tentara Turki kemudian memerangi para penjajah tersebut. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1923, sekutu kembali menandatangani perjanjian baru dengan Turki yang berisi pengembalian wilayah-wilayah yang semula direbut Sekutu ke tangan Turki.

Perang Jepang Vs Cina
Tanggal 10 Agustus tahun 1937, terjadi perang dua tahun antara Jepang dan Cina dalam memperebutkan Kanton dan Shanghai, dua kawasan penting di Cina. Kanton adalah pelabuhan penting dan strategis di selatan Cina. Rakyat Cina berjuang keras mempertahankan wilayahnya tersebut, namun setelah jatuh korban yang amat banyak, pada tanggal 25 April 1939, pasukan Cina menyerah dan Kanton direbut oleh Jepang. Dengan dimulainya Perang Dunia Kedua, Jepang menduduki kawasan luas di Cina. Namun, rakyat Cina melakukan perlawanan gigih sehingga akhirnya Jepang menarik mundur pasukannya.

Pendudukan Korea
Tanggal 10 Agustus 1945, menyusul kekalahan Jepang dalam Perang Dunia Kedua, wilayah utara semenanjung Korea hingga lintang utara 38 derajat menjadi wilayah kekuasaan Tentara Merah Soviet. Beberapa hari kemudian, bagian selatan semenanjung Korea dikuasai oleh AS. Pendudukan di utara dan selatan semenanjung ini merupakan permulaan dari terbentuknya dua negara Korea Selatan dan korea Utara. Pada tahun 1991 ditandatangani "Perjanjian Persahabatan, Non Agresi, Pertukaran, dan Kerjasama" di antara kedua negara ini.

11 Augustus
Integrasi Eritrea Dengan Ethiopia

Tanggal 11 Agustus tahun 1952, Haile Selassie, kaisar Ethiopia menandatangani resolusi PBB mengenai penggabungan wilayah Eritrea ke Ethiopia. Wilayah muslim Eritrea sebelumnya dijajah oleh Italia dan pada Perang Dunia Kedua, menjadi jajahan Inggris. Pada bulan Desember tahun 1950, PBB mengesahkan penggabungan Eritrea dengan status pemerintahan federal kepada Ethiopia. Rakyat Eritrea menolak kesepakatan tersebut karena tindakan pemerintah Ethiopia yang sewenang-wenang terhadap mereka. Pada tahu 1960, kelompok Pembebasan Eritrea memulai perjuangan bersenjata mereka demi merebut kemerdekaan. Pada tahun 1993, perjuangan rakyat Eritrea mencapai hasilnya dengan diadakannya referendum yang membuktikan bahwa mayoritas rakyat Eritrea menyetujui pemisahan dari Ethiopia. Eritrea adalah negara yang terletak di timur laut Afrika di tepi laut merah dan memiliki posisi geografi yang penting.

Chad Merdeka
Tanggal 11 Agustus tahun 1960, rakyat Chad berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya dari Perancis dan hari ini dijadikan sebagai Hari Kemerdekaan Bangsa Chad. Pada akhir abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20, Perancis menyerang Chad dan dalam tiga tahun, mereka berhasil menguasai Chad dan kawasan ini menjadi jajahan Perancis. Pada tahun 1958, Perancis memberi status otonomi kepada Chad dan dua tahun kemudian, Chad secara penuh merdeka dan memiliki pemerintahan berbentuk republik. Chad memiliki luas wialayah 1.284.000 kilometer persegi, terletak di bagian tengah Afrika, dan berbatasan dengan Lybia, Kamerun. Sudan, Afrika Tengah, Nigeria, dan Niger.

Ahmad Raidh Meninggal Dunia

Tanggal 11 Augustus 1994, Ahmad Raidh, seorang miniaturis dan penyepuh terkenal Iran meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan di Isfahan dan disana dia belajar berbagai aliran seni miniatur dari guru-guru seni dan berkenalan dengan seni penyepuhan. Dia kemudian menciptakan berbagai karya keramik dan kaligrafi. Karya Ahmad Raidh dalam pameran internasional Brussel meraih hadiah kedua. Selama 50 tahun berkarya di bidang miniatur dan penyepuhan, Ahmad Raidh memiliki banyak murid dan meninggalkan lebih dari 145 buah karya. Karyanya dalam bidang penyepuhan perak dan kaligrafi tersimpan disejumlah museum seni nasional Iran.

12 Augustus
George Stephenson meninggal dunia

Tanggal 12 Augustus 1848, George Stephenson warga Inggeris dan pembuat lokomotif meninggal dunia. Dia lahir pada tahun 1781. Dia amat berminat dengan urusan teknik dan menumpukan perhatian dengan mempelajari ilmu di bidang mekanik dan matematika. Akhirnya Stephenson berhasil membuat salah satu alat transportasi terpenting yaitu lokomotif. Lokomotif buatannya bisa bergerak dengan kelajuan 20 kilometer per jam dan kapasitas 90 orang, tetapi dengan secara gradual kelajuan dan kapasitasnya semakin meningkat.

Frantes Liszt Lahir
Tanggal 12 Agustus tahun 1886, Frantes Liszt, seorang pencipta lagu dari Hongaria, meninggal dunia. Dia dilahirkan pada tahun 1811. Liszt memiliki kemampuan dan bakat istimewa dalam penciptaan lagu. Di antara karya Liszt yang paling terkenal adalah "Simphony Faust" dan "Hongarian Rapshody". Di samping mencipta lagu, dia juga menciptakan lirik simfoni.

Mirza Reza Kermani Dihukum mati
Tanggal 12 Agustus tahun 1896, Mirza Reza Kermani, salah seorang pejuang revolusi pada periode Dinasti Qajar di Iran, dihukum mati karena telah membunuh Syah Nasiruddin, salah seorang raja dari dinasti Qajar. Dalam aksi gerakan pemboikotan tembakau untuk melawan penjajahan Inggris, Mirza Reza dituduh mendalangi gerakan rakyat dan karena itu, dia dipenjarakan selama empat tahun. Setelah bebas dari penjara, dia pergi ke Istambul. Di sana, ia bertemu dengan Jamaluddin Asad Abadi dan menjadi pengikutnya.
Pada tahun 1876, Mirza Reza kembali ke Teheran dan memutuskan untuk menyingkirkan Shah Nasiruddin karena raja yang zalim, kejam, dan despotik ini telah menimbulkan penderitaan rakyat. Pada tanggal 3 Mei tahun itu pula, dia membunuh Syah Nasiruddin di kompleks makam Syekh Abdul Azhim di kota Rey, selatan Teheran. Mirza Reza lalu ditangkap polisi dan dijatuhi hukuman mati.

Konvensi Perlakuan Terhadap Korban dan Tawanan Perang" disahkan
Tanggal 12 Agustus 1949, "Konvensi Perlakuan Terhadap Korban dan Tawanan Perang" disahkan oleh PBB di markasnya di Jenewa. Konvensi ini disusun akibat perlakuan yang tidak manusiawi terhadap korban dan tawanan Perang Dunia Kedua. Di dalam konvensi tersebut ditetapkan bahwa semua negara tidak berhak membunuh atau menyiksa korban dan tawanan perang. Korban luka pun harus mendapatkan pengobatan. Selain itu, tawanan perang berhak mendapatkan fasilitas kesejahteraan minimal dan berkomunikasi dengan keluarganya.
Negara-negara yang memiliki tawanan perang juga diwajibkan untuk sesegera mungkin mengirimkan nama-nama tawanan mereka kepada Palang Merah Dunia dan memberikan kesempatan kepada para wakil Palang Merah untuk menjenguk tawanan tersebut. Namun, sebagian besar negara sama sekali tidak mematuhi konvensi ini.


Pasukan Maronit Kuasai Kamp pengungsi Tel Za'ter

Tanggal 12 Agustus tahun 1976, kamp pengungsian Palestina "Tel Za'ter" yang terletak di dekat Beirut, ibu kota Libanon, jatuh ke tangan pasukan para-militer Maronit dan para penghuninya dibunuh massal. Ribuan pengungsi Palestina tinggal di kamp pengungsian ini. Pada awal tahun 1976, kamp ini dikepung oleh pasukan semi militer Maronit yang dipersenjatai oleh rezim Zionis dan akhirnya pada bulan Agustus, 3000 warga sipil Palestina dibunuh secara massal dan dikubur menjadi satu di kamp pengungsian tersebut. Peristiwa mengerikan ini menimbulkan protes keras dari masyarakat dunia terhadap rezim Zionis dan para pendukungnya di Libanon.

13 Augustus
Raja Henry Keempat Membebaskan Sekte Protestan

Tanggal 13 Agustus tahun 1598, Raja Henry Keempat mengeluarkan sebuah perintah yang membebaskan mazhab Protestan secara penuh. Perintah yang dinamakan perintah "Nantes" ini merupakan sebuah perintah penting dan bersejarah di Perancis. Namun, perintah "Nantes" ini kemudian dibatalkan oleh Raja Louis Ke-14 pada tahun 1685.

Alfred Hitchcock Lahir
Tanggal 13 Agustus tahun 1899, Alfred Hitchcock, seorang sineas Inggris yang amat terkenal, lahir ke dunia. Awalnya, pada tahun 1920, dia memulai karirnya di bidang perencanaan, namun kemudian dia menjadi seorang sutradara film. Karena secara kebetulan, sebagian besar karyanya berupa film detektif dan horor, para pengamat film menjulukinya Hitchcock sebagai master film horor. Dia meninggal pada tahun 1980. Di antara karya-karya Hitchcock yang terkenal adalah "Utara dari Arah Barat Laut", "Tirai Robek", dan "Roh".

Muhammad Reza Memecat Doktor Moshadeq
Tanggal 13 Agustus 1953, Muhammad Reza, raja terakhir dari Dinasti Pahlevi di Iran, secara ilegal memecat Doktor Moshadeq dari jabatan perdana menteri dan menggantikannya dengan Mayor Jenderal Zahedi. Keputusan Syah Reza ini diambil atas desakan AS dan Inggris karena pemerintahan Moshadeq, dengan dukungan rakyat, telah menasionalisasi minyak Iran. Untuk menghindarkan diri dari dampak keputusannya itu, Syah Reza pergi ke utara Iran. Setelah usaha penyingkiran Moshadie tersebut gagal, Syah kemudian melarikan diri ke Irak, lalu ke Italia. Namun, enam hari kemudian, AS dan Inggris mendalangi kudeta terhadap pemerintahan Moshadeq. Setelah Moshadeq tersingkir, Syah Reza kembali ke Iran untuk meneruskan pemerintahan despotiknya dengan dukungan AS dan Inggris yang berkeinginan menguras habis sumber-sumber minyak Iran.


Afrika Tengah Merdeka
Tanggal 13 Agustus tahun 1960, Afrika Tengah meraih kemerdekaannya dari Perancis. Negara yang semula bernama "Ubangi Shari" ini pada abad ke-19 menjadi jajahan Perancis. Pada tahun 1958, Afrika Tengah diberi status otonomi khusus oleh Perancis dan baru dua tahun kemudian meraih kemerdekaan penuh dan memiliki pemerintahan berbentuk republik. Afrika Tengah memiliki luas wilayah 623.000 kilometer persegi, terletak di bagian tengah benua Afrika, dan berbatasan dengan Sudan, Chad, Kamerun, dan Republik Demokratik Kongo.

Demo Akbar Anti Syah di Isfahan
Tanggal 13 Agustus tahun 1978, menyusul gerakan demontrasi besar-besaran di seluruh penjuru Iran, warga kota Isfahan juga mengadakan demonstrasi menentang rezim Syah Pahlevi. Gerakan perjuangan rakyat Isfahan untuk menggulingkan Syah sedemikian luasnya sehingga rezim Pahlevi merasa takut dan memberlakukan pemerintahan militer di sana.

14 Augustus
Leonardo Da Vinci Lahir

Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 1452, Leonardo Da Vinci, pelukis dan pematung Italia, terlahir ke dunia. Sejak masa kecilnya, Da Vinci sudah memperlihatkan kemampuan yang besar di bidang melukis dan dengan cepat ia mencapai kemahiran yang sempurna di bidang ini. Pada tahun 1506, dia ditunjuk sebagai pelukis Raja Louis ke-12 dan kemudian menjadi pelukis Raja Francis Pertama.
Selain melukis dan membuat patung, Da Vinci juga mendalami bidang fisika dan matematika. Bangunan gereja Milan merupakan karya arsitektur paling termasyhur dari Da Vinci. Karya lukisnya yang paling terkenal adalah "Senyum Monalisa" dan "Makan Malam Terakhir." Da Vinci meninggal pada tahun 1519.

Michael Farada Ciptakan Bensin
Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 1825, Michael Faraday, ahli fisika dan kimia Inggris, setelah melakukan penelitian yang panjang, berhasil menemukan bensin. Bensin merupakan bahan turunan dari minyak. Hingga kini, bensin digunakan sebagai bahan bakar di bidang transportasi dan industri.

Jepang Menyerah Kepada Pasukan Sekutu
Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 1945, Jepang menyerah kepada pasukan Sekutu dalam Perang Dunia Kedua. Dengan demikian, perang yang dimulai pada tahun 1939 dengan serangan tentara Nazi Jerman terhadap Polandia, berakhir di Jepang. Jepang dan Amerika sejak bulan Desember 1941 saling berperang dengan dahsyat. Akhirnya, perang ini berakhir setelah AS menjatuhkan bom atom ke Hiroshima dan Nagasaki yang membunuh hampir 200.000 warga Jepang.

Pakistan Memisahkan Diri dari India
Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 1947, Pakistan memisahkan diri dari India dan mengumumkan kemerdekaannya. Pada abad ke-8 agama Islam masuk ke anak benua India dan sebagian dari wilayah Pakistan sekarang, selama masa penjajahan Ingrris pada akhir abad ke-18, dulu dikuasai oleh kaum muslimin. Bersamaan dengan bangkitnya perjuangan rakyat India melawan penjajahan Inggris, pada tahun 1906 terbentuk partai "Liga Muslim" yang diketuai Muhammad Ali Jinah dan bertujuan untuk membentuk sebuah pmerintahan Islami.
Partai ini kemudian secara bertahap mampu menarik kekuatan kaum muslimin dan akhirnya terbentuklah negara Pakistan. Awalnya, Pakistan terdiri dari dua wilayah yang terpisah, yaitu di timur dan barat India. Namun, karena ketidakpuasan rakyat Pakistan Selatan atas pemerintahan pusat, akhirnya di Pakistan Selatan memisahkan diri dan membentuk negara Bangladesh pada tahun 1971. Pakistan sampai tahun 1970 berbentuk pemerintahan militer dan kemudian berubah bentuk menjadi Republik Islam Pakistan. Pakistan memiliki luas wilayah lebih dari 803 ribu kilometer persegi dan berbatasan dengan Iran, India, Afganistan, dan China.


Bertolt Brecht Meninggal Dunia
Tanggal 14 Augustus 1956, Bertolt Brecht, penyair dan penulis berkebangsaan Jerman meninggal dunia. Ia dilahirkan pada tahun 1898 di Augsburg, Jerman dan menamatkan pendidikannya di bidang ilmu alam. Pada era kekuasaan Nazi di Jerman, Brecht bangkit melawan ideologi Nazisme. Namun ia terpaksa melarikan diri ke Amerika karena dikejar Gestapo. Ketika perang berakhir, Brecht kembali ke tanah airnya dan menetap di sana hingga akhir hayatnya. Di antara karya-karyanya yang terkenal adalah "Life of Galileo" dan "Drums in The Night". Selain itu, Brecht juga banyak meninggalkan skripsi yang mayoritas mengambarkan era pemerintahan Nazi dan kediktatoran mereka.

Hujjatul Islam Sayyid Ali Andarzgu Gugur
Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 1978, Hujjatul Islam Sayyid Ali Andarzgu, seorang pejuang melawan rezim tirani Iran, gugur syahid akibat dibunuh oleh kaki-tangan rezim Syah. Sayyid Andarzgu memulai perjuangannya melawan kekejaman rezim Syah pada usia ke-19 tahun dan kemudian menjadi anggota kelompok aliansi Islami dan menjadi salah seorang perencana dan pelaksana hukuman mati terhadap Hasan Ali Mansur, Perdana Menteri Iran waktu itu.
Hasan Ali adalah penandatangan perjanjian kapitulasi yang berisi hak kekebalan hukum warga Amerika di Iran. Dengan alasan terbunuhnya Perdana Menteri hasan Ali itulah, rezim Syah kemudian mengadili Sayyid Andarzgu melakukan perjuangan bawah tanah selama 13 tahun. Akhirnya, pada tahun 1978, di Teheran, kaki-tangan Syah mengenali identitasnya dan dalam sebuah bentrokan bersenjata Sayyid Andarzgu gugur syahid.

Perang antara hizbullah dan rezim berakhir
Tanggal 14 Agustus tahun 2006, menyusul keluarnya resolusi 1701 DK PBB, yang diterima oleh Hizbullah Lebanon dan rezim zionis, maka perang diantara keduanya pun berakhir. Perang yang dimulai dengan agresi pasukan militer rezim zionis ke Lebanon, yang tak lain dilancarkan untuk membasmi dan menumpas Gerakan Perlawanan Islam Lebanon, dimulai pada tanggal 12 Juli 2006. Serangan militer besar-besaran ini diharapkan akan segera berakhir dengan kehancuran Hizbullah Lebanon. Akan tetapi ternyata, rakyat Lebanon, terutama bagian selatan negara ini, menunjukkan perlawanan yang gagah berani dan mengagumkan menghadapi serangan bengis dan membabi buta rezim zionis. Hizbullah Lebanon pun mampu menunjukkan serangan balas yang sangat mengejutkan semua pihak, terutama sang agresor zionis. Para pejuang Hizbullah mampu menghancurkan dua kapalperang moderen, enam buah helikopter militer dan puluhan tank pasukan militer rezim zionis, selain menewaskan sejumlah tentara rezim teroris ini. tambahan lagi, pasukan Hizbullah Lebanon berhasil menembakkan puluhan roket ke berbagai kawasan permukiman rezim zionis yang mengakibatkan ketakutan dan keluarnya sejumlah besar penduduk kawasan-kawasan tersebut. Akhir perang ini menunjukkan keberhasilan dan kemenangan para pejuang Hizbullah dan warga Lebanon Selatan, sekaligus kekalahan memalukan rezim zionis yang selama ini dianggap sebagai kekuatan yang memiliki pasukan militer tak terkalahkan.

15 Augustus
Tentara India Mulai Melawan Koloni Inggris

Tanggal 15 Agustus tahun 1857, dimulailah sebuah perlawanan melawan penjajahan Inggris yang dimulai oleh tentara India. Para tentara India yang berada di bawah komandan Inggris ini dengan segera berhasil menguasai Delhi, ibu kota India, dan mengalahkan tentara Inggris. Rakyat kemudian bergabung dengan tentara India dan beberapa kota yang berada di bawah pendudukan Inggris berhasil dibebaskan.
Namun, kemudian terjadi pertentangan pendapat mengenai kepemimpinan dan hal-hal lainnya di antara para pejuang India tersebut. Hal ini membuka jalan bagi Inggris untuk melakukan serangan balasan dan membunuh massal rakyat sipil. Satu tahun setelah perlawanan besar rakyat India ini, Inggris secara resmi menjadikan India sebagai koloni sehingga dengan mudah bisa melakukan represi terhadap rakyat dan menguras kekayaan India.

India Merdeka
Tanggal 15 Agustus tahun 1947, rakyat India setelah bertahun-tahun berjuang melawan penjajahan Inggris, berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya. Tanah air India memiliki sejarah yang panjang dan peradaban yang maju, serta berbagai dinasti dari dalam dan luar India pernah menjadi penguasa di negeri itu. Pada abad ke-8, Islam menyebar di sebagian kawasan India dan sebagian wilayah India berada di tangan kaum muslimin. Sejak abad ke-16, dimulailah penjajahan Inggris terhadap negeri ini.
Rakyat India berkali-kali melakukan perlawanan melawan Inggris, namun selalu gagal. Sejak tahun 1895, dengan didirikannya partai Kongres Nasional India, perjuangan rakyat India menajdi lebih terorganisasi dan semakin kuat. Apalagi, setelah Mahatma Gandi bergabung dengan partai ini dan memimpin kebangkitan "perlawanan negatif", perlawanan rakyat India semakin besar sampai akhirnya di tahun 1948 Inggris terpaksa melepaskan wilayah jajahannya yang terluas dan terpenting itu. Setahun kemudian, Gandhi dibunuh. Pada tahun 1950, pemerintahan republik terbentuk di India.
India memiliki luas wilayah sekitar 3 juta 287 ribu kilometer persegi dan berbatasan dengan Pakistan, Cina, Nepal, Bangladesh, Butan, dan Myanmar.

Korea Selatan Terbentuk
Tanggal 15 Agustus tahun 1948, negara Korea Selatan terbentuk. Semenanjung Korea pada pertengahan awal abad ke-20 diduduki oleh negara-negara kuat dunia. Pada tahun 1905, semenanjung Korea diduduki oleh Jepang. Namun, dengan kalahnya Jepang dalam Perang Dunia Pertama, Soviet menduduki bagian utara semenanjung Korea dan Amerika menduduki bagian selatannya. Pengaruh Soviet akhirnya menyebabkan terbentuknya pemerintahan komunis di Korut dan pengaruh AS menyebabkan berdirinya Republik Korsel yang berorientasi Barat.
Korsel terletak di tepi Samudera Teduh, berbatasan dengan Korea Utara, dan memiliki luas wilayah 98 ribu kilometer persegi.

Kongo Merdeka
Tanggal 15 Agustus tahun 1960, negara Kongo, yang terkenal dengan nama Kongo Brazzaville, berhasil meraih kemerdekaannya dari Perancis. Di masa lalu, Kongo dan Angola termasuk bagian dari wilayah Republik Demokratik Kongo yang sebelumnya bernama Zaire. Wilayah ini ditemukan oleh Portugis pada abad ke-15 namun kemudian dijajah dalam waktu yang sangat lama oleh Perancis.
Kongo memiliki luas wilayah 342 ribu kilometer persegi, terletak di sebelah barat benua Afrika dan di tepi Laut Atlantik, serta berbatasan dengan Afrika Tengah, Kamerun, Gabon, Republik Demokratik Kongo, dan Angola.

Saddam Terima Lagi Perjanjian Perbatasan Irak- Iran
Tanggal 15 Agustus tahun 1990, Presiden Irak saat itu, mengirimkan surat kepada Presiden Iran, Hashemi Rafsanjani, yang berisi kesediannya untuk menerima isi perjanjian perbatasan tahun 1975 yang ditandatangani di Aljazair. Sebelumnya, pada tahun 1960, di depan kamera televisi, suart perjanjian perbatasan ini dirobek-robek Saddaam Husain dan beberapa hari kemudian, tentara Irak melakukan invasi ke Iran.
Saddam Husain dan para pendukungnya memperkirakan bahwa dalam waktu singkat Iran berhasil mereka kuasai, namun, perlawanan rakyat Irak sangat kuat sehingga terjadi perang selama delapan tahun. Setelah mengalami kekalahan yang berkepanjangan, Irak terusir dari wilayah Iran. Dua tahun setelah berakhirnya perang yang dipaksakan itu, sementara Irak menduduki Kuwait, Saddam Husain menyatakan menerima isi perjanjian perbatasan 1975 tersebut.


Rezim Zionis terpaksa berundur
Tanggal 5 Augustus tahun 2005, Rezim Zionis Israel terpaksa mundur dari Jalur Gaza di wilahay barat Palestina pendudukan. Kawasan ini diduduki Isarael saat pecahnya perang Arab pada tahun 1967. Israel tetap menolak meninggalkan Jalur Gaza meski telah menandatangani perjanjian damai dengan Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina (PLO) pada tahun 1993 yang menuntut penyerahan wilayah tersebut kepada pemerintah Otorita Palestina. Akhirnya kebangkitan rakyat Palestina dan Intifadah Masjid Al-Aqsa yang dipusatkan di Gaza telah memaksa tentera Israel dan warga permukiman Zionis keluar dari Jalur Gaza. Meski demikian, Israel masih terus melanjutkan agresi brutal dan pembantain sadis terhadap warga Palestina di Jalur Gaza.

16 Augustus
Louis Agasis Lahir

Tanggal 16 Agustus tahun 1807, Louis Agasis, seorang arkeolog Swiss, terlahir ke dunia. Dia banyak melakukan pnelitian dan penelahaan mengenai fosil-fosil dan pengaruh pembekuan di dalam planet bumi. Penelitiannya memberikan peran yang sangat banyak dalam penemuan para arkeolog penerusnya. Agasis meninggal tahun 1873.

Cyprus Merdeka
Tanggal 16 Agustus tahun 1960, kepulauan Cyprus setelah bertahun-tahun dilanda kerusuhan, akhirnya mencapai kemerdekaannya. Sampai tahun 1878, Cyprus dikuasai oleh imperium Utsmani dan pada tahun itu pula, dalam kongres Berlin, imperium Utsmani menyerahkan Cyprus kepada Inggris. Pada tahun 1925, Cyprus resmi menjadi koloni Inggris. Sejak saat itu, orang-orang Yunani di Cyprus yang merupakan 75 persen dari populasi kepulauan ini, menuntut agar Cyprus bergabung dengan Yunani. Akibatnya, situasi politik di Cyprus menjadi kacau dan akhirnya terbentuklah dewan legislatif di sana.
Di pihak lain, pernyataan Turki yang akan melindungi hak-hak orang Turki di kepulauan itu, semakin memanaskan situasi. Akhirnya, masalah Cyprus oleh uskup Makarius dibawa ke PBB dan negara ini kemudian meraih kemerdekaannya pada tahun 1960. Pemerintahan Cyprus berbentuk republik dan uskup Makarius menjadi presiden pertama negara ini.
Namun, kemerdekaan ini ternyata tidak membawa ketenangan di negeri ini. Pada tahun 1974, Turki menyerang Cyprus dan menduduki wilayah utara negara ini. Kini, secara praktis, Cyprus terbagi dua bagian, yaitu daerah pendudukan Turki di utara dan daerah pendudukan Yunani di Selatan.
Cyprus terletak di tepi Laut Mediterania, di sebelah selatan Turki dan memiliki luas wilayah 9251 kilometer persegi.

Raja Maroko Di serang oleh AU Maroko
Tanggal 16 Augustus 1972, Raja Hasan ll dari Maroko diserang secara tidak sengaja oleh pesawat tempur Maroko, namun berha
          Children alone: pulled from the sea, fallen by the wayside        
English

Alone, confused and scared. Their rights curbed and hopes crushed. This is the state of far too many children who make it across the Mediterranean to “safety”.

The latest data estimates that more than 10 million people – around half of all the refugees worldwide – are “minors” (that is children under 18-years-old). At the same time, nearly 100,000 children who lodged an asylum request were unaccompanied - that is by definition those who are not assisted or represented by their parents or any other adult.

In Italy, according to the UNHCR, the number of unaccompanied children has risen significantly in 2016, and are now 15% of all arrivals. By the end of July, 13,705 unaccompanied children had landed in Italy, more than the whole of 2015 (12,360 children).

Italy is once again the principal arrival point for irregular migrants (this is people who enter a country without the documentation required by authorities) to Europe after governments decided to close the Western Balkan route and the European Union entered into its deal with Turkey. 

However, the Italian reception system has turned out to be inadequate for protecting lone refugee and migrant children and their rights. Even worse, during the first six months of 2016, 5,222 unaccompanied children were reported missing, having run away from reception centers. They become invisible, under the legal radar and are therefore even more vulnerable to violence and exploitation. To put it another way, in Italy alone, on average during each and every day in this past year, more than 28 unaccompanied children are “lost” from a broken system and into an unimaginable fate.  

Regions and Countries: 
Summary picture: 
An abandoned construction site in the centre of Catania, where many Eritrean boys and girls, aged 11-16 years, have a shelter at night. Photo credit: Luigi Baldelli/Oxfam
OI Office: 
Promote to Emergency: 
Refugee and migrant crisis

          Oxfam: Europe is failing refugee and migrant children        
English

With latest UNICEF figures showing ever more children globally are uprooted, the number of unaccompanied refugee and migrant children arriving to Europe through Italy has doubled this year and Europe is failing to properly support them, a new Oxfam report reveals.

Each day 28 unaccompanied children fall out of Italy’s weak reception system. The children who remain in the system experience extended stays in de-facto detention centers, live in unsafe and inadequate accommodation, and receive little to no information about their rights. They are running away from these centers in order to escape these conditions, choosing to live on the streets and so are exposed to even greater risks. Oxfam says this is yet another example of how Europe’s current approach to migration isn’t fit for purpose.

Since governments decided to close the Western Balkans route and the European Union entered into its deal with Turkey, Italy is once again the principal arrival point for refugees and migrants to Europe. According to the latest UNHCR data, the number of unaccompanied children arriving in Italy has risen significantly in 2016, and is now 15% of all arrivals. By the end of July, 13,705 unaccompanied minors had landed in Italy - more than during all of 2015 (12,360 children).

Italy is failing to cope with the increased arrivals. Despite efforts in many Italian cities, regions and by civil society, the country’s reception system is far from adequate for protecting unaccompanied migrant children and their rights. Hotspot centers, for instance, set up by the EU and Italian authorities to register new arrivals and execute swifter returns of those rejected, are chronically overcrowded and do not even have adequate sanitation. While the maximum stay in these hotspots is meant to be 48-72 hours, many children end up being stuck there for as long as 5 weeks with minimal provisions, meaning they can never change their clothes, not even their underwear, and are not being able to call their family back home or relatives in Europe.

Oxfam is calling on the Italian government and its European partners to take immediate action to systematically provide unaccompanied children with safe and adequate accommodation and the support they need, so they can live a life in safety and dignity.

Natalia Alonso, Oxfam International’s Deputy Director for Campaigns and Advocacy said: “The appalling experience of children in Italy is a harsh indicator of the failure of European governments and the Italian authorities to protect children coming in search of safety and dignity. It also exposes once again the failure of Europe’s wider policy approach to place the responsibilities of managing a common border upon only a few European countries. Europe must stand together to welcome the people arriving here, who are fleeing from conflict, persecution and other unbearable situations.”

Most of the children arriving on boats are from Egypt, Gambia, Eritrea, Nigeria, and Somalia and travel alone to Europe.

Galo, 16 years old, from Gambia, said: “I left Gambia a year and a half ago with my brother. It wasn’t safe there anymore, the police threatened us. Some of our neighbors had been killed in gunfights. (…) We left on an inflatable boat with 118 other people. After a few hours there was something like an explosion, a fire, and in the confusion my brother slid into the sea. I never saw him again. He’d given me his lifejacket.”

The situation in centers of first and second reception, where children are transferred to after registration, is in many cases no better than at the hotspots. Some of them have become de-facto detention centers where children cannot leave. Oxfam has also collected testimonies of cases where there have been allegations of abuse and violence, which have not been dealt with by the management.

Shewit, 17 years old, from Eritrea, said: “Together with us in the Pozzallo center [in Sicily] there is also a group of adults from Somalia who treat us Eritreans badly, they beat us up and insult us. Despite the fact that we have repeatedly reported them to the police and to the staff at the center, (…) nobody does anything about it.”

“EU governments must support Italy in improving the national reception system for unaccompanied children with high standards and well-trained staff. In addition, all EU member states must eliminate and prevent every form of detainment of minors. There is no circumstance in which detention of minors is acceptable – it is always a violation of a child’s rights,” said Oxfam’s Alonso.

Oxfam and local partner organizations have regularly been meeting children who say they have not been informed of the possibility to present a request for international protection, or of the right to have a legal guardian - someone to act in their best interests and protect their rights. The appointment of a legal guardian can take up to eight months, depriving children of guidance on their rights and how to secure these through Italian law – thereby jeopardizing any real chance of a successful future for these children.

During the first six months of 2016, 5,222 unaccompanied minors were reported missing, having run away from reception centers continuing their journeys to mainland Italy and on to Europe. They become invisible and live under the legal radar, consequently becoming even more vulnerable to violence and exploitation.

If the situation of these children is extremely critical, that of those who turn 18 is no less so. On their birthdays, many of them are simply thrown out of the centers where they have been staying, and they, too, end up on the streets.

Parent page: 
Refugee and migrant crisis
Notes to editors: 
  • Spokespeople are available for further information regarding the situation on the ground and to comment on the EU context. Please contact Oxfam’s press office to arrange interviews.
  • Oxfam's Stand as One campaign calls for global action to welcome more refugees, prevent families from being separated and keep people fleeing their homes safe from harm. Already more than 212,000 people have taken actions with Oxfam, calling on world leaders to guarantee migrants and refugees safety, protection and a dignified future: oxf.am/standasone.
  • Download the full media brief in English or Oxfam Italy’s full report (in Italian).
  • High-resolution pictures of refugee and migrant children in Italy can be downloaded for free use.
  • Latest data on arrivals of refugees and migrants to Europe can be found on the UNHCR website. The full data set shows that 93,774 people arrived from January to July 2016, with 16.2% being children, and 14.6% of all arrivals being unaccompanied children.
  • According to the Italian Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, 5222 refugee and migrant children have run away from reception centres in Italy in the first six months if this year. That are on average 28 children per day.
  • Oxfam’s briefing paper “EU ‘hotspots’ spread fear and doubt” questions the legal basis for these facilities and it concludes that EU member states have collectively failed to find a solution to managing migration that puts human lives first.
Contact information: 

Florian Oel | Brussels | florian.oel@oxfaminternational.org | office +32 2 234 11 15 | mobile +32 473 56 22 60

For updates, please follow @Oxfam and @OxfamEU

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          Kittee's PDX See and Do Part Deux.        
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Masala Dosa from Apna Chat Bhavan with sambar and chutneys.
It's been almost three years since I last posted my PDX See and Do--and this city just keeps getting better and better in the deliciously awesome department. This post is the cashew cream of what's going on here, but there's so much  more than what I can fit in here. If you have the time to explore, you should definitely dig in as much as possible.

Most of the spots I wrote about last are still loved and up and going strong, so I won't bother to write them out again. I'll task you with the job of double fisting both lists. If you're coming through town and looking for a good travel app, I really like the one by the folks at Stay.com. It's cool because it's free and because you download it, so when you're bopping around town, it won't eat up your data. Also, about a year or so ago, they asked me to curate a little vegan PDX list, so if you download it, you might just see me pop up here and there to help you find spots I like. Also VEGAN DONUTS.

Food Stops
Absynnian Kitchen--My newest favorite stop for Eritrean/Ethiopian food. Absynnian Kitchen is located in an old PDX house with some sweet patio seating on the porch if you're dogging it. This place has the best shiro, and if it's cold and rainy, it's one of my top recommendations. Order some to go with the veggie platter, or get the shiro / kale combo. They have all teff injera available upon request. Super nice owners. If you want to see other Ethiopian possibilities, hop over to IG and search for #pdxethiopianhop.

Apna Chat Bhavan--This huge Indian grocery store and fast food counter, might only be of interest to locals, 'cuz it's in the 'burbs, but it's a great find. The store is really tidy and clean, and the menu has lots of vegan things including the best masala dosa I've found since moving to Oregon. Kim and I bumped into a little room in the back with a wide screen mounted on the wall, so I need to investigate in case they have Bollywood screenings.

Back to Eden--All vegan and gluten-free bakery/cafe paradise. Since I knocked off the refined sugars, my favorite thing to grab is a toasted New Cascadia bagel with a Tofutti smear and tomato. Softserve and milkshakes for the masses.

DC Vegetarian--This cart downtown has a pretty decent Soy Curl chicken-style salad, but I'm really listing it here because their vegan cheeseburgers are Dazee's reason for breathing.

Departure--If you're on top of Top Chef, you might already know about Departure and chef Gregory Gourdet, probably the cutest chef ever. Departure makes me laugh, as it's plunked 15 stories high on top of a really fancy hotel in downtown, with a great view and a bathroom that is startling weird. Departure is also awesome people watching turf. We usually bring Dazee's parents here as it's a leeetle fancy and a little expensive, but probably my favorite place to eat. No matter how full you are, make sure to get the peanut butter ice cream banana split.

portland, travel guide, vegan, gluten-free, kittee berns
My favorite from Earth Burgers, the PDmeX. Black bean and sweet potato patty, all the fixin's on a Happy Camper GF bun, with hand-cut seasoned fries.
    Earth Burgers--Earth Burgers is tucked into the largest cart pod in town, and is an all vegetarian (mostly vegan) burger place that's not to be missed. I love it 'cuz the owners are the best, and they serve GF buns with hand-cut fries. Back to Eden has a cart in the same pod, so you can hit them both in one stop, plus it's really close to the mini mall.

    Eb and Bean--Vegan frozen yogurt in three daily flavors with housemade peanut butter or chocolate magic shell. Plus they offer chopped up stuff from Petunia's for topping your swirl. I can't write about this is further detail, because it makes me cry I can't eat here anymore...

    Epif--Sort of fancy and expensive, but a really nice vegetarian restaurant serving Andean inspired food and cocktails in a sort of romantically nice atmosphere. I really loved the plaintain chips and salsa.

    Farm Spirit is the latest and greatest from Chef Aaron Adams of Portobello fame. You'll definitely need money and a reservation to get in on this. I haven't been yet, but folks have been telling me I need to get on the bus.

    Harvest at the Bindery--Although I've only visited once, this is probably my favorite new place for a local produce-centric meal. Food is served family-style, and it probably would also win new best new brunch joint, since Dazee hits their Sunday brunch pretty regularly.

    Homegrown Smoker Smokehouse and Deli--PDX's beloved vegan cart Homegrown Smoker has recently branched out into their own brick and mortar restaurant. It shares a building with Vtopia, making it more than easy to scoop up a Mac N Cheese Soy Curl burrito and some cultured nut cheese on your way to the airport.

    New Cascadia--I'm not really sure how they've done it, but NC makes gluten-free bread that really, seriously does not taste GF. You can pick up European style artisinal loaves and bagels from their baker, or grab some to go from a FarMar. Lots of local places serve their bread too, and you can pick up rolls and loaves at New Seasons in the regular bread aisle.

    The Sudra--I really love the Sudra, because I'm in love with their Peacock Salad (Soy Curls, kale and tahini). It's really teeny-tiny, but they have lots of tables outside and their Indian inspired food is comforting, creative and delicious.

    Sushi Love--If you find yourself way out in deep SE, then make sure you grab some rolls at Sushi Love. I was really sorry to see them move out of inner Portland, but their rolls are definitely worth the drive. My favorite is their Mexican style roll with soyrizo and corn chips, but definitely check for the special of the day, because that's usually uhmeeezing, too.

    portland, travel guide, vegan, gluten-free, kittee berns
    Go check out my recent review of Vtopia. So cheesy, so good.
    Vtopia is basically just hubba hubba all over the place. I LOVE their cheese board, I LOVE their soups with cheesie New Cascadia bread, and I LOVE that beyond their amazing cultured vegan cheese, they also sell other vegan cheeses that are hard to find anywhere else. Plus Imber and Mark are the nicest people, ever.
      Food Pop Ups and other Cool Stuff
      Obon PDX--I tasted a little bit of Obon's glory at Vegan Beerfest last Summer, but getting to their pop-up is top of my list for birthday wants this month. Hopefully I'll report back soon with more details.
        Of Roots and Blooms has been cooking at Culmination Brewing on Sunday nights. The folks who run this used to be behind PDX Cheese Plate, and I hear the Mac N Cheese is not to be missed.
          Squirrel and Crow Foods--I just discovered these folks on Instagram yesterday, but I think they're one to watch. My plan is to grab some of their non-soy tempeh as soon as I can from the Alberta Co-op.

            Thrift/Vintage Stops/Craft
            House of Vintage is my go-to spot for reasonably priced vintage clothing and cute household stuff. It's located in a fun shopping area in SE, and is close to Harlow, if you wanna grab a bowl and eat some booch with your avocado.
              Modern Domestic--my favorite fabric shop 'cuz the folks are so nice and they sell lots of Japanese prints and indie sewing patterns. If you're in the market for a fancy Bernina, here ya go!

              Go Outside, Stay Outside
              My advice to you is to grab a lil puddin' from Pixie Retreat, or hit a cart and then see some nature. Hug Point on the coast is one of my most favorite spots, especially if you like sea caves, natural beach waterfalls and tide-pooling. Other great places would be trails in the Oregon Gorge or hikes in Forest Park.
                Also, Portland is an awesome town for a plain ol' neighborhood walk. I usually take Vee out for about 4-6 miles a day, and my favorite is to just get lost in the gardens, dogs and houses.
                  Farmers' Markets. We have a lot of them during the season, and a rillly big one on Saturday morning on the west side.

                  I'd be remiss, if I didn't remind you about these places I listed in my last See and Do. You'll have to click on that for more info, 'cuz my hands are tired of typing. Also, keep checking back here, 'cuz I'll probably keep updating it with all the new stuff.

                  Bui Natural Tofu--really delicious homemade tofu shop with counter service. They have super fresh tofu salad rolls and banh cam on Fridays!
                    Food Fight, Herbivore, Sweet Pea and the Vegan Mini Mall.
                      Merkato Ethiopian Food Store--If you want to grab some housemade injera, berbere and shiro to bring home to your trusty copy of Teff Love. Here's my favorite spot.
                        Pixie Retreat
                          SCRAP.

                          Thanks for visiting my little crumb of the internet! Click here to subscribe to my blog and get posts delivered to your email when I update! Come back soon!

                          ETA:

                          Sizzle Pie is pretty great for vegan slices (even GF), but they're Rabbit Salad is what keeps bringing me back over and over again. Order it with vegan ranch!

                          I have no idea how I left Tiffin Asha off of this list, it's one of my favorite PDX eats. It's located in a cart on Mississippi Street and is home to South Indian street snacks like dosa, vada, idli, and special's like today's uttapam. Be sure to let them know your're vegan, and make sure to try some of their gun powder (podi), it's sooOOOOo gooOOOod. Check their website for hours, 'cuz they're not open everyday.

                          xo kittee

                          Disclosure: This post contains a sponsored link from Stay.com and affiliate links, which means that if you click on one of the product links, I’ll receive a very small commission.

                                    Writers demand end to attacks on human rights in China        

                          Ai Wei Wei joins the call to free imprisoned creatives in China (photo: Gilles Sabrie, Getty) "We cannot stand by as more and more of our friends and colleagues are silenced."

                          Ai Wei Wei (photo), along with Nobel laureates Mario Vargas Llosa and JM Coetzee have joined in a call to end the continuing crackdown on human rights in China.

                          10 December 2016

                          Dear President Xi Jinping,

                          On World Human Rights Day, our PEN International community of writers, readers, activists and publishers condemn the Chinese authority’s sustained and increasing attack on free expression and call for an immediate end to China’s worsening crackdown on fundamental human rights.

                          We cannot stand by as more and more of our friends and colleagues are silenced. Where is the voice of Ilham Tohti, Uyghur scholar and PEN member, currently serving a life sentence, when his life’s work has been about creating peace and dialogue in China? Where is the voice of veteran journalist Gao Yu, who spent close to two years in prison and is now under house arrest? Where is the voice of publisher Gui Minhai, who disappeared from his holiday home in Thailand and is now being held incommunicado?  Where is the voice of Nobel Peace Laureate and former president of the Independent Chinese PEN Centre, Liu Xiaobo serving an 11-year prison sentence and the voice of his wife, the poet Liu Xia, who has been under house arrest for over six years without even having been accused of a crime?

                          These writers represent the many critical voices across China currently being silenced. Like the imprisoned and persecuted members of the Independent Chinese PEN Centre: Yang Tongyan, Zhu Yufu, Lü Gengsong, Chen Shuqing, Hu Shigen, Qin Yongmin, Liu Yanli and Liu Feiyue, (and honorary members) Zhang Haitao, Sun Feng, Lu Yuyu, Li Tingyu, Huang Qi and Su Changlan. The enforced silence of these friends and colleagues is deafening, and the disappearance of their voices has left a world worse off for this egregious injustice and loss.

                          Today we call for their words to reverberate across the globe as we commit to fighting for their freedom until China heeds our call. On days like today we have to reaffirm our refusal not to be complicit in their silence. We have to use our own words to give power to theirs.
                          China and the rest of the world can only be enriched by these opinions and voices. We therefore urge the Chinese authorities to release the writers, journalists, and activists who are languishing in jail or kept under house arrest for the crime of speaking freely and expressing their opinions.

                          We urge them to uphold freedom of expression and all human rights.

                          Abraham Zere, PEN Eritrea
                          Adriaan van Dis               
                          Ah Phyu Yaung Shwe    
                          Ai Weiwei 
                          Aleid Truijens  
                          Alejandro Sánchez-Aizcorbe, Peruvian PEN
                          Alexander McCall Smith, PEN Writers Circle
                          Anders Heger, PEN International
                          Andrew Solomon, PEN America
                          Anna Nasiłowska, Polish PEN
                          Annika Thor, Swedish PEN
                          Anotnio Della Rocca, PEN Trieste
                          Baoqiang Sun   
                          Burhan Sönmez, PEN Writers Circle
                          Carles Torner, PEN International
                          Carme Arenas, PEN Catala
                          Catherine Vuylsteke     
                          Chaw Ei Mahn 
                          Chimamanda Adichie   
                          Chit Kyi Aye      
                          Christine Otten               
                          Chu Cai
                          Colm Toibin, PEN Writers Circle
                          De Novo             
                          Depu He             
                          Dr. Mirror (Taung-gyi)
                          Elif Shafak, PEN Writers Circle   
                          Eugene Schoulgin, PEN International
                          Feng Hu              
                          Fiona Graham, Scottish PEN
                          Frank Mackay Anim-Appiah, PEN Ghana
                          Ghareeb Asqalani          
                          Gloria Guardia, PEN International
                          Go Go Mawlamyaing    
                          Guozhen Xiao  
                          Hakan Günday 
                          Han Zaw             
                          Hanan Al Shaykh, PEN Writers Circle
                          Hanan Awwad, PEN Palestine
                          Htar Oak Thon  
                          Iman Humaydan, PEN Lebanon
                          Isabella Allende              
                          Jennifer Clement , PEN International
                          Jianguo Zha       
                          Jianhong Li        
                          Jianhua Li           
                          Jianzhen Qi
                          Jiro Asada, Japan PEN
                          JM Coetzee, Nobel Laureate       
                          Joanne Leedom-Ackermon, PEN International
                          John Ralston Saul, PEN International
                          Judyth Hill, PEN San Miguel
                          July Moe            
                          Juraj Å ebesta, Slovak PEN
                          Khin Aung Aye 
                          Khin Mg Oo       
                          Khin Moe Shwe               
                          Khin Mya Zin    
                          Kyar Phyu New
                          Kyaw Zin Ko Ko
                          Kyawt Darli Lin 
                          Lebao Wu          
                          Let Yar Tun
                          Liyong Sun         
                          Lucina Kathmann, PEN International
                          Ma Thida, PEN International
                          Magali Tercero, PEN Mexico
                          Magda Carneci, PEN Romania
                          Manon Uphoff 
                          Margaret Atwood, PEN Writers Circle
                          Margie Orford, PEN South Africa
                          May Zun Aye    
                          Mario Vargas Llosa, Nobel Laureate
                          Mi Chan Wai
                          Michelle Franke, PEN Centre USA
                          Mingmin Lin     
                          Mircea Cartarescu          
                          Mohamed Sheriff, PEN International
                          Moris Farhi, PEN International
                          Mya Thway Ni  
                          Myat Lwin Lwin Aung   
                          Myat Su Lwin    
                          Myay Hmone Lwin         
                          Myo Myint Nyein, PEN Myanmar
                          Nan Kyar Phyu 
                          Nedzad Ibrahimovic, PEN Bosnia-Herzegovina
                          Neil Gaiman
                          Nguyên Hoàng Bao Viêt, PEN Suisse Romand     
                          Ngwe Kyel Sin  
                          Nyi Pu Lay          
                          Pandora
                          Per Øhrgaard, Danish PEN
                          Per Wästberg, PEN International
                          Ping Hu               
                          Randy Boyagoda, PEN Canada
                          Regula Venske, PEN Germany
                          Renate Dorrestein         
                          Salil Tripathi, PEN International
                          Salman Rushdie, PEN Writers Circle
                          Samay Hamed, Afghan PEN
                          Saw Wai             
                          Shiying Zhao     
                          Shwe Eain Si May           
                          Shwe Naung Yoe
                          Sirpa Kähkönen, Finnish PEN
                          Sjón, Icelandic PEN
                          Sofi Oksanen, PEN Writers Circle
                          Suu Mie Aung  
                          Suzanne Nossel, PEN America
                          Syeda Aireen Jaman, PEN Bangladesh
                          Thet Wai Hnin (Aung Lan)
                          Tienchi Liao, Independent Chinese PEN Centre
                          Tung Van Vu, Vietnamese Abroad PEN Centre
                          Vida Ognjenovic, PEN Serbia
                          Vonne van der Meer, PEN Netherlands
                          Waheed Warasta, PEN Afghanistan
                          Wenxiu Lin        
                          Willem Jan Otten
                          William Nygaard, PEN Norway
                          Yann Martel, PEN International
                          Ye Shan               
                          Yeliang Xia        
                          Yongmei Cai     
                          Yrsa Sigurdardóttir         
                          Yu Zhang            
                          Zeynep Oral, PEN Turkey
                          Zhao Chen         
                          Zwel     

                          Take Action here: China: PEN renews its calls to release all writers, journalists and publishers

                          ###

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                                    Imperio Etiope        



                                   

                          Imperio etíope

                          የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ
                          Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya
                          Imperio de Etiopía
                          1270—1936
                          1941—1974
                          BanderaEscudo
                          BanderaEscudo
                          Himno nacionalItyopp'ya Hoy
                          "Etiopía es feliz"
                          Ubicación de Etiopía
                          Imperio etíope
                          CapitalAddis Abeba
                          Idioma oficialAmhárico
                          ReligiónOrtodoxa etíope
                          GobiernoMonarquía absoluta
                          Emperador de Etiopía
                           â€¢ 1270-1285Yekuno Amlak
                           â€¢ 1930-1974Haile Selassie I
                          Primer Ministro
                           â€¢ 1942-1957Makonnen Endelkachew
                           â€¢ 1974Mikael Imru
                          Historia
                           â€¢ Derrocamiento de la Dinastía Zagüe1270
                           â€¢ Ocupación italiana1936-1941
                           â€¢ Restauración monárquica1941
                           â€¢ Revolución de 19741974
                          Población
                           â€¢ 1500 est.2 000 000 
                           â€¢ 1800 est.4 000 000 
                           â€¢ 1890 est.7 000 000 
                          MonedaDólar etíope
                          El Imperio etíope (en amháricoየኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ, trascrito como Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya), conocido también como Abisinia, fue un reino africano que abarcaba los actuales territorios de Etiopía y Eritrea. En su período de mayor extensión incluía, además, los actuales territorios de Yibutí, el norte de Somalia, el sur de Egipto, el este de Sudán, el oeste de Yemén y una parte sur-occidental de Arabia Saudita.
                          El Imperio tuvo una duración de casi 700 años, desde el derrocamiento de la dinastía Zagüe en 1270 hasta la abolición de la monarquía en 1975. Se le considera el descediente directo del Reino de Aksum, existente desde el sigloIV antes de Cristo, razón por la cual fue considerado por algunos como el estado más antiguo del mundo. Fue también el único estado africano, junto aLiberia, que mantuvo su independencia durante el reparto de África por parte de las potencias coloniales europeas en el siglo XIX

                          Índice

                            [mostrar

                          Historia[editar]

                          "Restauración" de la dinastía salomónica[editar]

                          Alrededor del año 1270, se estableció una nueva dinastía en el altiplano etíope bajo el rey Yekuno Amlak, quien depuso al último rey Zagüe (Yetbarak), casándose con una de sus hijas. El nuevo monarca se declaró descendiente de los antiguos monarcas de Aksum, los cuales según la leyenda tenían su origen en la unión entre el Rey Salomón y la Reina de Saba, de la cual nació Menelik I. Por esta razón, esta dinastía recibió el nombre de salomónica.
                          Se estima que fue en esta época cuando se redactó el Kebra Nagast (Libro de la Gloria de los Reyes de Etiopía, c. 1300), texto que reúne diversas tradiciones orales sobre el origen "salomónico" de la dinastía, y sobre cómo Etiopía se convirtió al cristianismo. De este periodo proviene, además, el título de Negus negusti, rey de reyes o emperador, que distingue al soberano de Etiopía. Los reyes de esta dinastía buscaban asegurar la unidad nacional basada en la religión cristiana y en su autoridad por derecho divino.
                          El reino etíope abarcaba en la época tres provincias principales: Tigré, en el norte, Amhara, en el centro, y Shoá en el sur. La primera sede del negus negusti se encontraba en Ankober, cerca del actual emplazamiento de Adís Abeba. Los reyes más importantes de esta época fueron Amdé Tsion (la columna de Sion), quien reinó entre 1314 y 1344 y realizó varias conquistas en la costa del Mar Rojo, llegando incluso a la Península Arábiga, y Zera Yaqob (1434-1468), celoso guardián de la ortodoxia religiosa, que persiguió con saña a los musulmanes y redactó el Mets'hafa berhan (Libro de la Luz).

                          Relación con el Reino de Portugal[editar]

                          A finales del siglo XV Etiopía fue visitada por exploradores portugueses, comoPedro de Covilham, quien llegó a la región en 1490, portador de una embajada del rey Juan II de Portugal. Covilham creyó haber encontrado en Etiopía el reino del Preste Juan. A principios del siglo siguiente, el emperador etíope David IIenvió un emisario a la corte de Portugal y una delegación al Sínodo de Florenciapara solicitar ayuda contra los musulmanes. Respondiendo a esta petición, en1520 una flota portuguesa se adentró en el Mar Rojo y llevó una embajada ante el negus, que permaneció en el país durante seis años.
                          En 1528 Etiopía fue invadida por un ejército musulmán del Sultanato Adal, comandado por el famoso general Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi. Las tropas de David II fueron derrotadas, y los musulmanes conquistaron buena parte del territorio etíope. En 1540 el negus David II falleció, y su heredero fue capturado por los musulmanes. En 1541 llegó a Etiopía, procedente de la India, una flota portuguesa, que transportaba una fuerza de 400 mosqueteros, bajo el mando de Cristóbal de Gama, hijo del explorador Vasco de Gama. Al principio, apoyados por numerosas tropas etíopes, los portugueses alcanzaron algunos éxitos, pero en agosto de 1542 fueron vencidos por al-Ghazi, en una batalla en donde perdió la vida Cristóbal de Gama. Finalmente, al-Ghazi terminó por ser derrotado y muerto en la batalla de Wayna-Daga, el 21 de febrero de 1543.
                          Con la expedición de Cristóbal de Gama llegaron a Etiopía los primeros misioneros jesuitas. Uno de ellos, Pedro Páez (1564-1622), llegó a ser un personaje influyente en la corte del negus, y dirigió la construcción de varias iglesias, muchas de las cuales se conservan en la actualidad. Su actividad misionera logró la conversión al catolicismo de numerosos etíopes e incluso el negus Malak Sagad II se convirtió a la fe romana. Dicha conversión provocó numerosas sublevaciones populares, y la resistencia del clero local. Malak Sagad II proclamó la libertad de elección entre el catolicismo y el coptismo.

                                    Non c'è solo il Mediterraneo: 300 migranti gettati in mare in Yemen in due giorni        

                          Nell'arco di meno di 24 ore, le coste dello Yemen sono state di nuovo teatro di una vicenda "inumana e scioccante": sono diventati circa 300 (120 ieri e 180 oggi) i migranti costretti in due episodi diversi a gettarsi in mare al largo della regione yemenita di Shabwa dai trafficanti di esseri umani che dovevano invece portarli a riva, e che così ne hanno di fatto condannati a morte un gran numero. E si tratta di un bilancio ancora provvisorio, fornito dalla International Organization for Migration (Oim, l'agenzia dell' Onu per le migrazioni).

                          Già ieri, l'Oim aveva riferito di 29 tombe improvvisate rinvenute su una spiaggia di Shabwa, dove qualche ora prima qualche decina di sopravvissuti erano approdati e avevano così dato sepoltura ad alcuni dei loro compagni più sventurati, partiti come loro dalla fame e dalla miseria della Somalia o dell'Eritrea. I dispersi sono oltre venti e l'età media sul barcone con cui erano partiti da qualche porto nel Corno d'Africa era di circa 16 anni.

                          Oggi, la replica, forse ancora più drammatica. Questa mattina, dopo che si era appreso che altri 180 migranti sono stati gettati in mare, sono stati recuperati i corpi di cinque persone, mentre circa 50 altre risultano disperse, e vengono sostanzialmente date per morte.

                          Si tratta di persone, denuncia l'Oim, che sono state "deliberatamente affogate" dagli scafisti, che potrebbero peraltro, sostengono alcuni esperti, aver così adottato una sorta di "nuova procedura", per ridurre al massimo la possibilità di essere intercettati avvicinandosi a riva.

                          Se così fosse, i rischi sono enormi, considerato che secondo l'Oim, solo dall'inizio di quest'anno sono circa 55 mila i migranti che hanno lasciato i Paesi del Corno d'Africa per dirigersi attraverso lo Yemen verso i ricchi Paesi del Golfo.

                          E questo fornisce peraltro una indicazione sul grado di disperazione di questa gente, disposta ad attraversare lo Yemen che, ormai in guerra da anni, viene considerato come uno dei Paesi più pericolosi del mondo, dove oltre ai bombardamenti, raid aerei e i continui attentati, si registrano anche sempre più carestie e epidemie di colera.

                          Ma naturalmente la rotta attraverso il Mar Rosso non è la sola che espone i migranti a rischi enormi, come dimostrano alcuni dati diffusi sempre dall'Oim, che rileva ad esempio che sono oltre 1.000 i migranti messi in salvo dall'Onu nel Sahara da aprile a oggi. I trafficanti abbandonano infatti centinaia di persone in pieno deserto, nel nord del Niger al confine con la Libia. "Sono rimasto scioccato quando abbiamo trovato un grande gruppo di donne originarie della Nigeria e del Ghana che dormivano in un hangar vicino al confine, in attesa di trovare un passaggio verso nord", ha raccontato Alberto Preato, uno dei responsabili Oim delle operazioni di soccorso.

                          Allo stesso tempo, il numero dei migranti che dall'inizio dell'anno sono arrivati in Europa attraverso il Mediterraneo ha raggiunto quota 116,692, rileva l'Oim, precisando che di essi circa l'83% è arrivato in Italia, il resto in Grecia, Cipro e Spagna. Nello stesso periodo del 2016 gli arrivi erano stati oltre il doppio, 263.436, mentre il numero dei morti era stato 3.193, una cifra che quest'anno è più contenuta, ma che comunque già raggiunto la drammatica quota di 2.405.


                                    Giù le mani da padre Zerai, angelo custode dei profughi africani        
                          Eritrean priest Mussie Zerai smiles during an interview in front of Saint Peter's Square at the Vatican September 30, 2015. Zerai, who has helped some of the thousands of African migrants who have risked their lives to cross the Mediterranean sea, is among the nominees for the Nobel Peace Prize.  REUTERS/Alessandro Bianchi

                          La sua storia pubblica parla per lui. Per un sacerdote coraggioso, che ha sposato la causa dei più indifesi. Da anni si batte per aiutare migliaia di disperati a fuggire dall'inferno di guerre, pulizie etniche, regimi sanguinari, povertà assoluta, sfruttamento disumano, disastri ambientali. Per questo, don Mussie Zerai era stato candidato al Nobel per la pace nel 2015. Ed ora si vede accusato di favoreggiamento all'immigrazione clandestina. Il politically correct porta a dire: fiducia nella magistratura, che faccia il suo corso. Ma la storia non può essere riscritta in un'aula di tribunale. Zerai è l'angelo dei profughi africani: da almeno otto anni il sacerdote di origine asmarina riceve chiamate a ogni ora da migranti in difficoltà lungo le rotte africane e in mare. E lui segnala. Lo faceva quando era studente nel collegio etiopico in Vaticano, lo fa ora in Svizzera dove è cappellano della comunità eritrea.

                          "Certo che invio messaggi alle Ong – conferma don Zerai a L'Avvenire –, di norma avviso Medici senza frontiere, Watch the med, Sea Watch. Pubblico anche su Facebook le coordinate dell'imbarcazione omettendo il numero da cui ho ricevuto la chiamata per evitare che si intasi. Ma non ho mai avuto contatti diretti con i tedeschi della nave Iuventa. Non so se hanno usato i miei messaggi per salvare persone in difficoltà, forse qualcuno glieli ha passati. Ma non erano messaggi privati". Don Zerai non ha mai dimenticato le sofferenze che patiscono ogni giorno, da anni, i suoi connazionali eritrei. Per loro, lo status di rifugiato non verrà mai preso in considerazione, anche se fuggono da uno dei regimi più feroci esistenti sulla faccia della terra, nonostante siano loro a riempire, ancor più dei siriani, le carrette del mare che solcano, e affondano, nel Mediterraneo. Sono i dannati della terra, gli ultimi fra gli ultimi: gli eritrei. I rapporti delle maggiori organizzazioni umanitarie internazionali sono pieni di racconti e testimonianze agghiaccianti: storie di donne violentate e poi venute ai nuovi schiavisti, racconti di abusi e torture indicibili. Amnesty International in un recente report indica che dall'Eritrea scappano mediamente 5mila persone al mese. In questi 10 anni si stima siano fuoriusciti 400mila giovani su una popolazione di sei milioni. Tuttavia per l'Europa gli eritrei fanno parte dell'universo dei "migranti", un universo di "serie b" rispetto a quello dei potenziali asilanti, perché, si afferma, in Eritrea non c'è la guerra. E così nella Nigeria di Boko Haram, nella Somalia degli al-Shabaab, nel Mali dove, nonostante l'intervento francese, è ancora radicata al Qaeda nel Maghreb islamico (Aqmi)...È vero, in Eritrea, c'è qualcosa d'altro e, per certi versi, di peggiore: c'è un regime sanguinario, tra i più feroci al mondo, e tuttavia al regime di Asmara, la solidale Ue ha elargito negli ultimi due anni oltre 300 milioni di euro in quota "cooperazione allo sviluppo". Lo sviluppo di una tirannia tentacolare. Una comunità internazionale imbelle e distratta non ha nella sua agenda, neanche agli ultimi posti, il "caso Eritrea". E a smuovere le coscienze dei Grandi della Terra non servono i sempre più allarmanti rapporti delle più impegnate agenzie umanitarie.

                          L'arrivo in Italia avviene dopo diversi mesi dalla partenza dall'Eritrea e dopo un viaggio attraverso l'Etiopia, il Sudan e la Libia, estremamente rischioso, che può durare anche più di 2 anni. Dai racconti dei minori non accompagnati eritrei incontrati dagli operatori di Save the Children in frontiera emerge che la decisione di partire viene presa dai ragazzi da soli, spesso perché sentono forte la responsabilità di dover provvedere al mantenimento dell'intera famiglia, fin da piccoli. Il primo Paese che incontrano, lasciando l'Eritrea, è l'Etiopia. Per riuscire a raggiungere questo Paese devono attraversare due trincee, raggiungono a piedi il Tigrai, zone situata a nord dell'Etiopia contattando un trafficante che li guida oltre il confine. La situazione al confine è descritta dagli stessi ragazzi come molto pericolosa: riferiscono che molti loro compagni sono rimasti uccisi da militari eritrei. Arrivati in Etiopia, i militari etiopi presenti in trincea, portano direttamente i profughi in diversi campi. Quando riescono ad allontanarsi dai campi, per riuscire ad attraversare la frontiera clandestinamente tra Etiopia e Sudan, devono pagare circa 300 dollari e superare un grande fiume che si chiama Tekese. Esistono trafficanti che fanno attraversare il fiume ai profughi, a piedi, mediante l'utilizzo di animali come cammelli e mucche. In Sudan il percorso è ancora più rischioso per la presenza dei Rashaida, nomadi che si arricchiscono sequestrando e chiedendo ingenti riscatti (fino a 20mila dollari) per rilasciare i migranti. Durante la prigionia subiscono torture e violenze, come l'utilizzo di scariche elettriche. Attraversato il Sudan arrivano in Libia, da soli o ceduti dai trafficanti sudanesi a quelli libici. Trascorrono mesi in carcere da cui possono essere liberati solo a fronte di pagamento o andando a lavorare in condizioni di schiavitù.

                          Quando riescono a fuggire da queste situazioni resta solo da affrontare il mare per arrivare in Europa, rischiando, ancora una volta la propria vita. In altri casi vengono detenuti dai trafficanti in luoghi isolati, stipati per mesi, in gruppi di anche 40 persone, in un'unica stanza. Rimangono in attesa di partire in un viaggio organizzato dai trafficanti stessi con imbarcazioni fatiscenti. Ma se è vero che senza memoria non c'è futuro, vale la pena riportare alla luce testimonianze che danno conto, più di dotte disquisizioni geopolitiche, di una tragedia che non conquista le prime pagine dei giornali, che non smuove le coscienze, non costruisce mobilitazione dal basso.

                          Testimonianze come quella di una donna, una dottoressa coraggiosa: Alganesh Fessaha, eritrea, dell'organizzazione non governativa Gandhi: "Non solo eritrei, anche etiopi, somali e persone di altre nazionalità sono in grave pericolo, dopo aver vissuto per mesi nei lager Sinai. Persone che per svariati motivi – racconta - la maggior parte perché perseguitati dai dittatori nei loro Paesi, hanno lasciato affetti e radici alla ricerca di un posticino per poter continuare a vivere, diritto legittimo di ogni persona. Sono stati venduti ai trafficanti di uomini dalle guide a cui si erano affidati mentre attraversavano il Sinai per raggiungere Israele". Trafficanti crudeli, senza alcuna pietà. Donne stuprate davanti ai figli e i loro compagni, uomini e donne, e anche minori, torturati anche fino alla morte dai loro aguzzini. Mentre le vittime erano sotto tortura, i trafficanti di uomini chiamavano le famiglie delle vittime per estorcere denaro; riscatti altissimi, fino a 50.000 – 60.000 dollari, generalmente pagati da parenti lontani in Europa, Usa, Canada ecc. Chi non poteva pagare, spesso veniva ucciso, oppure sottoposto all'espianto degli organi, immessi poi nel mercato nero del traffico di organi. "Quando chiamano per chiedere i soldi del riscatto – aggiunge ancora la dottoressa Fessaha - i prigionieri vengono picchiati, viene loro versata addosso dell'acqua, poi viene attaccata la corrente così che le scosse elettriche li facciano urlare di più". Oppure, per farli gridare, li bruciano con plastica fusa, benzina e acidi. Sentendone le urla e le richieste disperate di aiuto, i parenti raccolgono tutto il denaro che riescono a racimolare indebitandosi, se necessario, o chiedendo aiuto ad altre famiglie. Il pagamento avviene tramite i circuiti internazionali del money transfer".

                          Un ruolo chiave nei rapimenti lo svolge l'Unità eritrea di controllo dei confini, guidata dal generale Teklai Kifle: questi spesso rapiscono i giovani di 16 e 17 anni, costretti dal regime a completare il ciclo di studi prestando servizio militare per un anno nel campo militare di Sawa. Una volta sequestrati, gli eritrei vengono torturati e rinchiusi in prigioni sotterranee. Le donne vengono stuprate a ripetizione, spesso anche in pubblico, e ai genitori vengono fatte ascoltare le urla dei figli attraverso telefonate durante le sevizie. Per i giovani eritrei viene di solito chiesto un riscatto di 10.000 dollari. Altri profughi, riusciti a fuggire dall'inferno del Sinai, etiopi ed eritrei, raccontano che i trafficanti beduini prendono in consegna gruppi di due-trecento persone per condurli in Israele, ma poi li rinchiudono in container e gabbie metalliche dove vengono picchiati, privati di cibo e acqua, sottoposti a torture, contusioni e scariche elettriche, appesi per i piedi o per le mani. Una di queste sventurate, Fatima, aveva raccontato così la sua tragedia: "Non abbiamo acqua potabile - dice Fatima - dobbiamo bere l'acqua del mare e molti di noi già hanno problemi intestinali. Ci danno da mangiare una pagnotta e una scatola di sardine ogni tre giorni, siamo costretti a vivere incatenati come bestie". "Negli ultimi 15 anni in Eritrea non è cambiato nulla. È un Paese completamente militarizzato che non dà spazio, soprattutto ai giovani che possono sognare un futuro diverso da quello che il regime ha prospettato per loro, ovvero la vita militare fino a 50 anni. L'assenza totale di una prospettiva diversa, di una possibilità di realizzare i propri sogni, come poter continuare gli studi o lavorare dove si desidera, è inaccettabile. In aggiunta c'è totale assenza di qualsiasi libertà, di qualsiasi diritto. I giovani non vogliono essere trattati da schiavi di fatto, perché il servizio militare è diventato una schiavitù legalizzata.

                          Ecco perché fuggono, vogliono avere un futuro diverso, senza rischiare la vita ogni giorno per qualcosa in cui non credono più". Parole che don Zerai, responsabile della pastorale degli immigrati eritrei ed etiopi in Svizzera e fondatore della Ong Agenzia Habeshia, non smette di ripetere cercando di incrinare così un muro di silenzi e complicità. L'Eritrea è diventata indipendente dall'Etiopia nel 1933: in 22 anni, è stata capace di produrre oltre 360mila profughi su una popolazione di 6 milioni di abitanti. Il "caso Eritrea" chiama in causa l'Europa e, pesantemente, l'Italia. Ogni mese circa 5000 persone, soprattutto giovani, fuggono dal regime di Isaias Afewerki, che nega ogni forma di democrazia, ogni libertà, anche la più elementare, avendo trasformato il Paese del Corno d'Africa in una "galera a cielo aperto". Nel luglio scorso, però, la Commissione ha negoziato con l'Eritrea un nuovo pacchetto di aiuti allo sviluppo, di oltre 300 milioni di euro. A molti non è chiaro come queste risorse verranno impiegate e, nel protocollo d'intesa, non risultano accordi con il governo eritreo sul rispetto dei diritti umani. Una colpevole dimenticanza. In un rapporto di 500 pagine, diffuso dall'Alto Commissariato Onu dei Diritti Umani, non ci sono solo resocontate le ingiustizie del servizio militare obbligatorio a tempo indeterminato e la negazione di qualsiasi forma di espressione, già denunciati da numerose Ong e attivisti da anni. "Il governo eritreo ha creato un clima di terrore in cui il dissenso è sistematicamente represso, la popolazione è costretta al lavoro forzato e a carcerazioni arbitrarie, tanto da poter parlare di crimini contro l'umanità", dicono i commissari Onu.

                          Nel rapporto si parla di torture, incarcerazioni arbitrarie, soppressione di ogni libertà, di "governo del terrore" improntato sulla "regola della paura". La Commissione guidata da Sheila B. Keetharuth è arrivata a sostenere che la tortura verso i dissidenti venga applicata come una vera e propria "politica dissuasiva di governo" tanto da essere così diffusa da diventare sistematica. La risposta dell'Europa è in quei 300 milioni di euro elargiti, per il periodo 2014-2020, al regime di Asmara. Anche l'Italia ha riavviato i rapporti di Cooperazione, con un primo stanziamento di circa 2,5 milioni di euro. Il governo italiano è anche promotore del cosiddetto Processo di Khartoum, un piano di cooperazione tra paesi dell'Unione europea e del Corno d'Africa per prevenire la tratta di esseri umani. Difetto, non marginale, dell'operazione è l'inclusione del governo eritreo come interlocutore, quando l'oppressione del regime è proprio il motivo della fuga. Nessuna forma di aiuto economico o di cooperazione servirà a migliorare la situazione fino a quando non sarà avviato un serio percorso di democrazia e rispetto delle libertà fondamentali, suggerivano, inascoltati, i commissari delle Nazioni Unite. E con loro, don Mussie Zerai.


                                    Tigre between ejectives and pharyngealization        
                          There is some debate over the original pronunciation of the "emphatic" consonants (Arabic ط ض ظ ص ق) in Semitic and more generally in Afroasiatic: were they ejective as in Amharic, or pharyngealized/uvular as in Arabic? For a number of reasons, such as that in proto-Semitic they did not show a voicing contrast, the general opinion is that they were glottalized. Yet pharyngealized consonants show up not just in Arabic and neo-Aramaic but even in Berber, which would on the face of it suggest that the feature predates proto-Semitic. Either we have to suppose independent parallel development, or we must assume that Berber ejectives turned into pharyngealized consonants under the influence of Arabic. The latter seems more probable, but only if we can show that it is indeed plausible for a language to make such a change as a result of widespread bilingualism in Arabic.

                          It turns out that Tigre, the main language of northern Eritrea, offers a concrete example of just that. The inland plateau dialect of the Mansa`, commonly considered as standard, is described by Raz (1983) as having four ejectives k' (usually [ʔ]), t', s', and č̣ , and no pharyngealized or uvular consonants. You can hear an example of standard Tigre here, which seems consistent with his description. The coastal Hirgigo dialect spoken around Massawa, however - as heard in these Learn Tigre YouTube videos, however, show a rather different situation. ḳ is simply [q] (as in "elbow", "neck", "thigh"), ṭ is [tˤ] (as in "goat"), ṣ is [sˤ] (as in "white", "black", "back"); only for č̣ can you occasionally hear a slightly ejective realization [tʃ] ~ [tʃ'] (as in "fingers" or "fingernails"). The result is a good deal easier for an Arabic speaker to pronounce! This should not be too surprising: the port of Massawa has had extensive contact with Arabic speakers for many centuries. In fact, it's said to be the place where some of the first Muslims, seeking refuge from the persecution they were suffering in Mecca, landed on their way to the Abyssinian court. Such a diversity of emphatic consonant realizations within a single language confirms in turn that it is plausible for the habit of pharyngealizing emphatic consonants to be transferred from a language to its neighbors.

                                    Semitic languages in two Arabic novels        
                          I've been reading two novels in Arabic lately. Frankenstein in Baghdad, by Ahmad Saadawi, reimagines Baghdad's descent into chaos in the mid-2000s, blending gritty realism with semi-allegorical horror. Samraweet, by Hajji Jaber, is an altogether gentler but still cutting narrative of the Eritrean diaspora, interleaving scenes from the narrator's life in Jeddah with ones from his first visit to Asmara as he gradually realizes the difficulty of being part of either place. Both turned out to share a feature I hadn't been expecting to find: dialogue in other Semitic languages.

                          In Frankenstein in Baghdad, one of the main characters is an elderly Assyrian woman, Elishawa "Umm Daniel". All her relatives have long since moved abroad, and keep begging her to come live with them where it's safe, so there are few occasions for her to speak anything but Arabic. However, the Assyrians of northern Iraq traditionally speak a variety of Neo-Aramaic, and when she meets her grandson from Melbourne, they have the following fairly elementary conversation (pp. 276-277), which I hope I've transcribed correctly:

                          "داخي إيوَت؟" (Dāx īwat?) "How are you?"
                          "سباي إيْوَن باسيما" (Spāy īwan basīmā) "I am fine, thanks."

                          The author of the book seems to be from southern Iraq, so I found it remarkable that he took the trouble to get some Neo-Aramaic dialogue - especially since the copula is appropriately put in the feminine form both times (in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, even the 1st person singular copula agrees in gender). Probably he felt it would enhance her symbolic status as a reminder of what Iraq once was. Unfortunately, while Aramaic has been spoken in Iraq for almost three millennia, its prospects there are dim: after all these years of war and frequently persecution, most speakers live in Western cities, and unless they're exceptionally good at remaining a distinct, cohesive immigrant group, their descendants seem more likely to speak English or Swedish than Aramaic.

                          In Eritrea, unlike Iraq, most people have as their first language a Semitic language other than Arabic: Tigre in the north, Tigrinya in the south. So it was less surprising to find an Asmaran waiter on the first page saying "سنّي ما سيام" (?Senni mā syām), which I assume from context means something like "Good afternoon!" However, the occasional glimpses provided into Eritrean sociolinguistics were more eye-opening. The narrator and most of his friends are from a Tigre-speaking background and know how to speak it, but Tigre per se seems to play little part in their linguistic identity. They grew up not only speaking Arabic in the street, but feeling that Arabic is an Eritrean national language, and resenting the government's treatment of it as less central than Tigrinya. When an Eritrean in Jeddah speaks Tigre with him, the narrator assumes it's because he only arrived recently until he finds out, to his surprise, that this person simply "enjoys speaking it, even in Jeddah" (p. 76). It would be interesting to see how this compares to the attitudes of Tigre speakers living in Eritrea: between the prestige of Arabic and the status of Tigrinya, what are the long-term prospects for Tigre?

                                            

                                    This is how bad Cuba is....        
                          Ever wondered what it must be like to live in Cuba? You know, that socialist/hollywood dream of healthcare for everyone?

                          This is how bad it is:

                          ...the national soccer team of Eritrea went to Kenya to play in a local tournament. Looks like they all defected.

                          When the team plane landed back home, it was reportedly only carrying the coach and an official.

                          Nairobi may not be your idea of heaven, but if you're from Eritrea, it looks real good.

                                    ERITREA: CHRISTIANS LANGUISH IN ERITREAN PRISONS        
                          Evangelist fears he will die in confinement. LOS ANGELES, September 24 (Compass Direct News) – An evangelist imprisoned since 2006 for his Christian activities is receiving especially harsh treatment because of his ministry to inmates. Sources said Teame Weldegebriel is on the brink of despair as he languishes at the Mai Sirwa Maximum Security Confinement […]
                                    Los ochocientos sesenta mil refugiados que acoge Etiopía        

                          En el centro comunal de refugiados de los Jesuitas de Adis Abeba se reúnen historias parecidas de cinco países distintos. ‘A saber’, cuenta Neway Alemayehu, ‘Sudán del Sur, Eritrea, Somalia, Sudán y Yemen’. Cada refugiado tiene su propia historia pero entre todos muestran unas tendencias parecidas. ‘De Somalia la gente huye por culpa de la […]

                          Los mundos de Hachero blog sobre viajes, historia, geografía y periodismo aliñado con mis fotografías.


                                    Syria Media Roundup (July 31)        

                          [This is a roundup of news articles and other materials circulating on Syria and reflects a wide variety of opinions. It does not reflect the views of the Syria Page Editors or of Jadaliyya. You may send your own recommendations for inclusion in each week's roundup to syria@jadaliyya.com by Monday night of every week.]

                                     

                          Inside Syria

                          Deadly ambush near Damascus hits pro-Assad forces (20 July 2017) Firefight in village east of Damascus comes as clashes between two anti-government factions continue in Idlib province.

                          Hezbollah makes gains in Syria-Lebanon border assault (22 July 2017) Pro-Assad forces capture several strategic hills on second day of assault to drive rebels from the border, say reports.

                          Russia: New ceasefire deal agreed in Syria's Ghouta  (22 July 2017) Besieged Eastern Ghouta near Damascus is one of the last strongholds of rebels fighting Bashar al-Assad's forces.

                          Syrian warplanes strike near Damascus despite ceasefire: Syrian Observatory  (23 July 2017) Syrian government warplanes carried out several air strikes in the Eastern Ghouta area east of Damascus on Sunday, a day after the Syrian military declared a cessation of hostilities in the area, the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said.

                          Syrian army, allies advance against Islamic State east of Raqqa (23 July 2017) Syrian government forces and their allies have recaptured territory from Islamic State in countryside southeast of its stronghold Raqqa after air strikes in the area, a pro-Damascus military media unit and war monitors reported.

                          Hay'et Tahrir al-Sham take control of Syria's Idlib (23 July 2017) Group formerly linked to al-Qaeda affiliate consolidates grip on Idlib as main rival rebels Ahrar al-Sham withdraw.

                          ‘There Are Many Other Kids Here’: Child Tells of Labor in Syria  (24 July 2017) The economic strain of Syria’s six-year civil war has encouraged hidden forms of child labor, as an increasing number of youngsters take up work in dim factory buildings, dusty workshops and in the dingy backrooms of Damascene cafes.

                          Syria says U.S. halting aid to rebels is step toward ending war (25 July 2017) Syria views a U.S. decision to halt CIA support to rebel groups fighting to topple President Bashar al-Assad as a "start" toward ending the six-year conflict, a government minister told Reuters.

                          Against all odds, village republics take hold in Syria  (25 July 2017) Syrians are practising democracy and building their own institutions in the most difficult of circumstances, writes Robin Yassin-Kassab.

                          Militants stifle civil society in Syria's Idlib (26 July, 2017) Civil society groups in Syria’s Idlib are doing what they can to provide aid to about 1 million citizens, despite pressure by Hayat Tahrir al-Sham, an al-Qaeda-linked group that is trying to impose its own presence in the province.

                          Eyeing Deir al-Zor, Syrian army advances on Islamic State town (27 July 2017) Syrian government forces are nearing the last major town held by Islamic State (IS) in Homs province, part of their multi-pronged advance toward the jihadist group's strongholds in the east of the country, a military source said on Thursday.

                          Coalition airstrikes 'kill founder of Isis Amaq news agency' and other senior media figures (27 July 2017) The US-led coalition fighting Isis has announced the death of the founder of the Amaq news agency, a crucial propaganda media arm of the extremist group.

                          Hezbollah and rebels agree ceasefire at Lebanese-Syrian border (27 July 2017) A ceasefire took effect on Thursday in a mountainous area of the Lebanese-Syrian border where Lebanon's Hezbollah says it is on the verge of defeating Nusra Front militants in their last foothold at the frontier.

                          Assad troops enter ISIL-held town of al-Sukhna in Homs  (28 July 2017) Monitor reports artillery and rocket firing at ISIL positions in lead-up to entry into southwestern part of al-Sukhna.

                          Thousands to be evacuated from Lebanon-Syria border  (31 July 2017) Under a deal between Hezbollah and Syrian opposition groups, 9,000 fighters and their relatives will return to Syria.

                          Russia holds first ever military parade in Syria (31 July 2017) Navy Day marked with show of military might in St Petersburg, Crimea and Tartous in Syria, where Moscow has just cemented its military presence in deal with Syrian government

                           

                          Regional and International Perspectives

                          The post-IS proxy war  (18 July 2017) Vijay Prashad writes that the defeat of the Islamic State is inevitable. But the next conflict has already begun, with Iran in the gunsights of U.S.

                          Many foreign fighters likely to stay in Syria, Iraq: U.S. official (21 July 2017) In a new assessment, the U.S. intelligence community judges that large numbers of foreigners fighting for Islamic State in Iraq and Syria likely will stay to defend what is left of their self-declared caliphate rather than return to their homelands, a top U.S. counter-terrorism official said on Friday.

                          Russia not reason for U.S. ending CIA arms to Syria rebels: general (21 July 2017) A U.S. decision to halt a CIA program equipping and training certain rebel groups fighting the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad was not done as a concession to Assad ally Russia, a top U.S. general said on Friday.

                          Trump says Assad won't get away with 'horrible' crimes (25 July 2017) Trump also called Hezbollah a 'menace' to the Middle East during a joint press conference with Lebanon's PM Saad Hariri.

                          Mission Impossible? Investigating the Khan Sheikhoun Nerve Gas Attack in Syria (25 July 2017) Aron Lund writes "the Khan Sheikhoun investigation matters, because the use of chemical weapons resonates far outside of Syria. Challenges to the global norm against gas warfare tend to provoke international responses in ways that the daily churn of conventional war crimes in Syria do not, and the past four years of peacemaking and great-power diplomacy were strongly influenced by the disputes over Assad’s chemical weapons program."

                          The story of Hayat Tahrir Al Sham's rise to prominence and what it means for Syria (26 July 2017) Hassan Hassa writes "Jabhat Fateh Al Sham, as it was renamed, moved towards a consolidation of its influence in rebel-held areas in the north west. It sought to do so by leading a consortium of rebel factions to break the siege in Aleppo, which it briefly managed to do. The momentum was short-lived and the regime reimposed the siege and, in December, expelled the rebels from eastern Aleppo."

                          Can refugees return to Syria, as many want them to? (30 July, 2017) Countries want Syrian refugees to go back, but have they done anything to stop the Assad regime creating more refugees?

                          Blaming the Victims (31 July, 2017) Syrian refugees in Lebanon are increasingly being manipulated to satisfy geopolitical agendas.

                          With an eye on Iran, US welcomes Moqtada Al Sadr visit to Saudi Arabia (31 July, 2017) Iraqi cleric's meeting with crown prince boosts his standing and helps kingdom in countering Iran’s expansionism, former US ambassador to Baghdad says.

                          New Dangers Stalk Syrian Children Still Haunted by Horrors Under ISIS (31 July, 2017) Somini Sengupta and Hwaida Saad writes: "The boy did not want to see a beheading, so he held his mother’s hand tight and tried to close his eyes. But seeing it was mandatory when the Islamic State ruled his hometown in northern Syria: If you were out on the street, you had to watch."

                           

                          Policy and Reports

                          The Role of Jihadi Movements in Syrian Local Governance (14 July 2017) Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS), exemplifies how international extremist jihadi organizations, such as Al Qaeda, have evolved in Syria. Informed by the experiences of Al Qaeda and other jihadi groups in Iraq, HTS has developed a governance strategy that depends on building support from the local Syrian population.

                          Reverse Moralism and the Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis  (20 July 2017) Filippo Dionigi  writes: "Non-refoulement is a well-recognized principle of customary international law that forbids the forced deportation of refugees and asylum seekers to their country of origin."

                          'Trump ends CIA support for anti-Assad Syria rebels'  (20 July 2017) US president phasing out agency's programme to arm and train groups in order to get closer to Russia, say US officials.

                          After Syria sarin attack, doctors train to treat chemical weapons victims (21 July 2017) Wearing chemical suits and gasmasks, Syrian doctors rush to a house where white smoke wafts over a group of people choking and coughing, some calling out for help.

                          Bringing facts back to Lebanon's refugee conversation (26 July 2017) Beirut-based professor has launched campaign to challenge misperceptions in the online discussion about Syrian refugees.

                          U.S. pledges extra $140 million to Lebanon for Syrian refugees (26 July 2017) The United States will give Lebanon an extra $140 million to help Syrian refugees and the communities hosting them, the State Department said during a U.S. state visit by Lebanon's Prime Minister.

                          Extremists Go From Mosul To The Mountains (27 July 2017) Having been driven out of Mosul, the extremist Islamic State group is doing what Al Qaeda did before them: setting up new bases in the rugged northern Hamrin mountain area.

                          Arsal: Hezbollah, Jabhat Fateh al-Sham agree ceasefire (27 July 2017) Group 'close to military victory' calls truce with Jabhat Fateh al-Sham, whose fighters will reportedly return to Syria.

                          Russia to stay in Syria for another half a century as Putin signs air base deal with Assad regime (27 July 2017) The base helped Russia turn the tide of the civil war in favor of the Syrian regime.

                          Syrian refugees rejected because of links to group that opposes brutal Assad regime (30 July 2017) The U.S. and more than 80 other countries have recognized the Syrian coalition group as legitimate.

                           

                          Documentaries, Special Reports, and Other Media

                          Syria Retold  (11 July 2017) Chuck Mertz interviews Middle East politics professor Wendy Pearlman the author of We Crossed a Bridge and it Trembled: Voices from Syria.

                          Syrian refugees rebuild their lives in Istanbul  (21 July 2017) Since the outbreak of Syria's war in 2011, Turkey has welcomed more than three million Syrian refugees.

                          Hani al-Moliya: Legally Blind, Photographer, Refugee  (23 July 2017) A photographer from Homs becomes a youth leader after his photos of life in a refugee camp are noticed in Canada.

                          What’s Next in Idlib? (24 July, 2017) The Century Foundation’s Sam Heller discusses the complexities of a governorate that continues to evade regime control.

                          The Arabic version of this article can be found here: ما الخطوة التالية في إدلب؟

                          Refugees: Between worlds in Israel, Turkey and Greece (25 July, 2017) Short docs about an Eritrean boarding school in Israel, refugee children in Turkey and a hotel-turned-squat in Greece.

                          Meet the LGBT anarchists who've gone to Syria to fight Isis (25 July, 2017) Fighters in the world’s first LGBT military unit tell The Independent the time has come to ‘announce our existence to people and governments who claim we do not exist’

                          Devastating fires in refugee camps highlight dangerous conditions Syrians in Lebanon are forced to live in (25 July, 2017) Expired fire extinguishers and haphazard construction contributed to recent blazes which killed two children and left 1,400 homeless.

                          Women raped daily by Isis are so damaged they are falling into deep sleeps and not getting up (28 July, 2017) ‘This is what they have done to our people,’ says Khalid Taalo, whose niece was captured.

                          Syrian comedy troupe's brand of satire fails to amuse Assad government (30 July, 2017) Abby Sewell write "Every time he gets the chance, Ayham Hilal, an Internet cafe proprietor in the Syrian city of Saraqeb, squeezes into a small community center with about 200 fellow theatergoers and loses himself in a comedy show."

                          Life after ISIL: Mosul musicians emerge from the shadows (31 July, 2017) Many musicians who lived under ISIL rule hid or destroyed their instruments and did not play for the three years that ISIL, or the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant group, controlled the city. But now they have begun to perform again.

                          Syrian refugee family featured in ‘lost family portrait’ find missing daughter in Turkey (31 July, 2017) Missing eldest daughter discovered safe and well in Istanbul is now hoping to get a passport in order to be reunited with her family

                          Clooneys to help 3,000 Syrian refugees go to school in Lebanon (31 July, 2017) George and Amal Clooney said on Monday they would help 3,000 Syrian refugee children go to school this year in Lebanon, where the United Nations says 200,000 children are not receiving an education after fleeing the war in neighboring Syria.

                           

                          Maps

                          Aid credibility at stake as donors haggle over reporting rules (21 July, 2017) The world’s rich countries spend billions at home but report it as “aid”, exploiting a loophole that enables donors to mislead the public and cut vital development budgets. IRIN has dug into the data to reveal the worst offenders and the extent of a practice that topped $15 billion last year, seriously undermining the credibility of aid statistics.

                          Turkey | Syria: Developments in North-western Syria (as of 30 July 2017) From 19 – 25 July, infighting among non-state armed groups (NSAGs) disrupted the provision of humanitarian services in northwestern Syria.

                           

                          Arabic Links:

                          حلبة الشرق الأوسط Michael Young interviews journalist Ibrahim Hamidi on how the conflict over Syria’s borders is being shaped by outside powers.

                          The English version of this article can be found here: The Middle East’s Playing Field

                          وفيات وادعاءات بتعذيب سوريين في عهدة الجيش اللبناني  Human Rights Watch said that Lebanese authorities should conduct an independent, thorough, and transparent investigation into the deaths of Syrians in military custody and allegations of torture and ill-treatment in detention.

                          The English version of this article can be found here: Lebanon: Deaths, Alleged Torture of Syrians in Army Custody

                          مصرف سورية المركزيّ يصدر فئة جديدة من العملة الورقيّة بقيمة 2000 ليرة سوريّة  Syria has issued a new 2,000-pound banknote sporting the face of President Bashar al-Assad; not surprisingly, the opposition refuses to use it.

                          The English version of this article can be found here: New Syrian banknote may be more than meets the eye

                          «خرافة» إعادة إعمار سورية  Radwan Ziadeh describes the efforts of rebuilding Syria as a myth and outlines his personal rationale for this description.

                          إجابات ذاتية جدا على أسئلة الحرب والكتابة  Uday Al Zoubi shares his personal experience in relation to questions on war and writing.

                          سياسات النزاع  Jihad Yazigi discusses diplomacy in Syria, Iran's aims, and whether the Assad regime still matters.

                          The English version of this article can be found here: The Politics of Conflict

                          العودة إلى دمشق من جمر النار إلى الجحيم  Samira Al-Masalmah reflects on the recent wave of racist calls in Lebanon asking Syrian refugees to go back home.

                          إعفاء رئيسة مجلس الشعب من منصبها  Hadiya Khalaf Abbas was exempt from her position as the head of the People's Council of Syria.

                          زوجة الأسد تظهر في فيلم دعائي جديد  Asma al-Assad will appear in a new film that promotes the Syrian regime narratives.

                          عملة سورية فوتوشوب..والمركزي يوضح  Central Bank of Syria denies that new metal coins (50 and 100 Syrian pounds) will be issued.

                          هل ستقبل إسرائيل في نهاية المطاف بالاتفاق الأميركي- الروسي حول جنوب سورية؟  A regular survey of experts on matters relating to Middle Eastern and North African politics and security.

                          The English version of this article can be found here: Will Israel eventually accept the U.S.-Russian agreement over southern Syria?

                          الفيدرالية الكردية تضم 3 أقاليم و6 مقاطعات... و«الرقة رهن التحرير» This article provides updates on Kurdish federalism in north Syria and how the new  electoral law and administrative divisions allow stateless people to run for election. 


                                    A Brief History of Islam        

                          The Spread of Islam

                          From the oasis cities of Makkah and Madinah in the Arabian desert, the message of Islam went forth with electrifying speed. Within half a century of the Prophet's death, Islam had spread to three continents. Islam is not, as some imagine in the West, a religion of the sword nor did it spread primarily by means of war. It was only within Arabia, where a crude form of idolatry was rampant, that Islam was propagated by warring against those tribes which did not accept the message of God--whereas Christians and Jews were not forced to convert. Outside of Arabia also the vast lands conquered by the Arab armies in a short period became Muslim not by force of the sword but by the appeal of the new religion. It was faith in One God and emphasis upon His Mercy that brought vast numbers of people into the fold of Islam. The new religion did not coerce people to convert. Many continued to remain Jews and Christians and to this day important communities of the followers of these faiths are found in Muslim lands.

                          Moreover, the spread of Islam was not limited to its miraculous early expansion outside of Arabia. During later centuries the Turks embraced Islam peacefully as did a large number of the people of the Indian subcontinent and the Malay-speaking world. In Africa also, Islam has spread during the past two centuries even under the mighty power of European colonial rulers. Today Islam continues to grow not only in Africa but also in Europe and America where Muslims now comprise a notable minority.

                          General Characteristics of Islam

                          Islam was destined to become a world religion and to create a civilization which stretched from one end of the globe to the other. Already during the early Muslim caliphates, first the Arabs, then the Persians and later the Turks set about to create classical Islamic civilization. Later, in the 13th century, both Africa and India became great centers of Islamic civilization and soon thereafter Muslim kingdoms were established in the Malay-Indonesian world while Chinese Muslims flourished throughout China.

                          Global Religion

                          Islam is a religion for all people from whatever race or background they might be. That is why Islamic civilization is based on a unity which stands completely against any racial or ethnic discrimination. Such major racial and ethnic groups as the Arabs, Persians, Turks, Africans, Indians, Chinese and Malays in addition to numerous smaller units embraced Islam and contributed to the building of Islamic civilization. Moreover, Islam was not opposed to learning from the earlier civilizations and incorporating their science, learning, and culture into its own world view, as long as they did not oppose the principles of Islam. Each ethnic and racial group which embraced Islam made its contribution to the one Islamic civilization to which everyone belonged. The sense of brotherhood and sisterhood was so much emphasized that it overcame all local attachments to a particular tribe, race, or language--all of which became subservient to the universal brotherhood and sisterhood of Islam.

                          The global civilization thus created by Islam permitted people of diverse ethnic backgrounds to work together in cultivating various arts and sciences. Although the civilization was profoundly Islamic, even non-Muslim "people of the book" participated in the intellectual activity whose fruits belonged to everyone. The scientific climate was reminiscent of the present situation in America where scientists and men and women of learning from all over the world are active in the advancement of knowledge which belongs to everyone.

                          The global civilization created by Islam also succeeded in activating the mind and thought of the people who entered its fold. As a result of Islam, the nomadic Arabs became torch-bearers of science and learning. The Persians who had created a great civilization before the rise of Islam nevertheless produced much more science and learning in the Islamic period than before. The same can be said of the Turks and other peoples who embraced Islam. The religion of Islam was itself responsible not only for the creation of a world civilization in which people of many different ethnic backgrounds participated, but it played a central role in developing intellectual and cultural life on a scale not seen before. For some eight hundred years Arabic remained the major intellectual and scientific language of the world. During the centuries following the rise of Islam, Muslim dynasties ruling in various parts of the Islamic world bore witness to the flowering of Islamic culture and thought. In fact this tradition of intellectual activity was eclipsed only at the beginning of modern times as a result of the weakening of faith among Muslims combined with external domination. And today this activity has begun anew in many parts of the Islamic world now that the Muslims have regained their political independence.

                          The Rightly guided Caliphs

                          Upon the death of the Prophet, Abu Bakr, the friend of the Prophet and the first adult male to embrace Islam, became caliph. Abu Bakr ruled for two years to be succeeded by 'Umar who was caliph for a decade and during whose rule Islam spread extensively east and west conquering the Persian empire, Syria and Egypt. It was 'Umar who marched on foot at the end of the Muslim army into Jerusalem and ordered the protection of Christian sites. 'Umar also established the first public treasury and a sophisticated financial administration. He established many of the basic practices of Islamic government.

                          'Umar was succeeded by 'Uthman who ruled for some twelve years during which time the Islamic expansion continued. He is also known as the caliph who had the definitive text of the Noble Quran copied and sent to the four corners of the Islamic world. He was in turn succeeded by 'Ali who is known to this day for his eloquent sermons and letters, and also for his bravery. With his death the rule of the "rightly guided" caliphs, who hold a special place of respect in the hearts of Muslims, came to an end.

                          The Caliphate

                          Umayyad

                          The Umayyad caliphate established in 661 was to last for about a century. During this time Damascus became the capital of an Islamic world which stretched from the western borders of China to southern France. Not only did the Islamic conquests continue during this period through North Africa to Spain and France in the West and to Sind, Central Asia and Transoxiana in the East, but the basic social and legal institutions of the newly founded Islamic world were established.

                          Abbasids

                          The Abbasids, who succeeded the Umayyads, shifted the capital to Baghdad which soon developed into an incomparable center of learning and culture as well as the administrative and political heart of a vast world.

                          They ruled for over 500 years but gradually their power waned and they remained only symbolic rulers bestowing legitimacy upon various sultans and princes who wielded actual military power. The Abbasid caliphate was finally abolished when Hulagu, the Mongol ruler, captured Baghdad in 1258, destroying much of the city including its incomparable libraries.

                          While the Abbasids ruled in Baghdad, a number of powerful dynasties such as the Fatimids, Ayyubids and Mamluks held power in Egypt, Syria and Palestine. The most important event in this area as far as the relation between Islam and the Western world was concerned was the series of Crusades declared by the Pope and espoused by various European kings. The purpose, although political, was outwardly to recapture the Holy Land and especially Jerusalem for Christianity. Although there was at the beginning some success and local European rule was set up in parts of Syria and Palestine, Muslims finally prevailed and in 1187 Saladin, the great Muslim leader, recaptured Jerusalem and defeated the Crusaders.

                          North Africa And Spain

                          When the Abbasids captured Damascus, one of the Umayyad princes escaped and made the long journey from there to Spain to found Umayyad rule there, thus beginning the golden age of Islam in Spain. Cordoba was established as the capital and soon became Europe's greatest city not only in population but from the point of view of its cultural and intellectual life. The Umayyads ruled over two centuries until they weakened and were replaced by local rulers.

                          Meanwhile in North Africa, various local dynasties held sway until two powerful Berber dynasties succeeded in uniting much of North Africa and also Spain in the 12th and 13th centuries. After them this area was ruled once again by local dynasties such as the Sharifids of Morocco who still rule in that country. As for Spain itself, Muslim power continued to wane until the last Muslim dynasty was defeated in Granada in 1492 thus bringing nearly eight hundred years of Muslim rule in Spain to an end.

                          After the Mangol Invasion

                          The Mongols devastated the eastern lands of Islam and ruled from the Sinai Desert to India for a century. But they soon converted to Islam and became known as the Il-Khanids. They were in turn succeeded by Timur and his descendents who made Samarqand their capital and ruled from 1369 to 1500. The sudden rise of Timur delayed the formation and expansion of the Ottoman empire but soon the Ottomans became the dominant power in the Islamic world.

                          Ottoman Empire

                          From humble origins the Turks rose to dominate over the whole of Anatolia and even parts of Europe. In 1453 Mehmet the Conqueror captured Constantinople and put an end to the Byzantine empire. The Ottomans conquered much of eastem Europe and nearly the whole of the Arab world, only Morocco and Mauritania in the West and Yemen, Hadramaut and parts of the Arabian peninsula remaining beyond their control. They reached their zenith of power with Suleyman the Magnificent whose armies reached Hungary and Austria. From the 17th century onward with the rise of Westem European powers and later Russia, the power of the Ottomans began to wane. But they nevertheless remained a force to be reckoned with until the First World War when they were defeated by the Westem nations. Soon thereafter Kamal Ataturk gained power in Turkey and abolished the six centuries of rule of the Ottomans in 1924.

                          Persia

                          While the Ottomans were concerned mostly with the westem front of their empire, to the east in Persia a new dynasty called the Safavids came to power in 1502. The Safavids established a powerful state of their own which flourished for over two centuries and became known for the flowering of the arts. Their capital, Isfahan, became one of the most beautiful cities with its blue tiled mosques and exquisite houses. The Afghan invasion of 1736 put an end to Safavid rule and prepared the independence of Afghanistan which occured fommally in the 19th century. Persia itself fell into tummoil until Nader Shah, the last Oriental conqueror, reunited the country and even conquered India. But the rule of the dynasty established by him was short-lived. The Zand dynasty soon took over to be overthrown by the Qajars in 1779 who made Tehran their capital and ruled until 1921 when they were in turn replaced by the Pahlavis.

                          India

                          As for India, Islam entered into the land east of the Indus River peacefully. Gradually Muslims gained political power beginning in the early 13th century. But this period which marked the expansion of both Islam and Islamic culture came to an end with the conquest of much of India in 1526 by Babur, one of the Timurid princes. He established the powerful Mogul empire which produced such famous rulers as Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan and which lasted, despite the gradual rise of British power in India, until 1857 when it was officially abolished.

                          Malaysia And Indonesia

                          Farther east in the Malay world, Islam began to spread in the 12th century in northem Sumatra and soon Muslim kingdoms were establishd in Java, Sumatra and mainland Malaysia. Despite the colonization of the Malay world, Islam spread in that area covering present day Indonesia, Malaysia, the southern Phililppines and southern Thailand, and is still continuing in islands farther east.

                          Africa

                          As far as Africa is concemed, Islam entered into East Africa at the very beginning of the Islamic period but remained confined to the coast for some time, only the Sudan and Somaliland becoming gradually both Arabized and Islamized. West Africa felt the presence of Islam through North African traders who travelled with their camel caravans south of the Sahara. By the 14th century there were already Muslim sultanates in such areas as Mali, and Timbuctu in West Africa and Harar in East Africa had become seats of Islamic leaming.

                          Gradually Islam penetrated both inland and southward. There also appeared major charismatic figures who inspired intense resistance against European domination. The process of the Islamization of Africa did not cease during the colonial period and continues even today with the result that most Africans are now Muslims carrying on a tradition which has had practically as long a history in certain areas of sub-Saharan Africa as Islam itself.

                          Islam in the United States

                          It is almost impossible to generalize about American Muslims: converts, immigrants, factory workers, doctors; all are making their own contribution to America's future. This complex community is unified by a common faith, underpinned by a countrywide network of a thousand mosques.

                          Muslims were early arrivals in North America. By the eighteenth century there were many thousands of them, working as slaves on plantations. These early communities, cut off from their heritage and families, inevitably lost their Islamic identity as time went by. Today many Afro-American Muslims play an important role in the Islamic community.

                          The nineteenth century, however, saw the beginnings of an influx of Arab Muslims, most of whom settled in the major industrial centers where they worshipped in hired rooms. The early twentieth century witnessed the arrival of several hundred thousand Muslims from Eastem Europe: the first Albanian mosque was opened in Maine in 1915; others soon followed, and a group of Polish Muslims opened a mosque in Brooklyn in 1928.

                          In 1947 the Washington Islamic Center was founded during the term of President Truman, and several nationwide organizations were set up in the fifties. The same period saw the establishment of other communities whose lives were in many ways modelled after Islam. More recently, numerous members of these groups have entered the fold of Muslim orthodoxy. Today there are about five million Muslims in America.

                          Aftermath of the Colonial Period

                          At the height of European colonial expansion in the 19th century, most of the Islamic world was under colonial rule with the exception of a few regions such as the heart of the Ottoman empire, Persia, Afghanistan, Yemen and certain parts of Arabia. But even these areas were under foreign influence or, in the case of the Ottomans, under constant threat. After the First World War with the breakup of the Ottoman empire, a number of Arab states such as Iraq became independent, others like Jordan were created as a new entity and yet others like Palestine, Syria and Lebanon were either mandated or turned into French colonies. As for Arabia, it was at this time that Saudi Arabia became finally consolidated. As for other parts of the Islamic world, Egypt which had been ruled by the descendents of Muhammad Ali since the l9th century became more independent as a result of the fall of the Ottomans, Turkey was turned into a secular republic by Ataturk, and the Pahlavi dynasty began a new chapter in Persia where its name reverted to its eastern traditional form of Iran. But most of the rest of the Islamic world remained under colonial rule.

                          Arab

                          It was only after the Second World War and the dismemberment of the British, French, Dutch and Spanish empires that the rest of the Islamic world gained its independence. In the Arab world, Syria and Lebanon became independent at the end of the war as did Libya and the shaykdoms around the Gulf and the Arabian Sea by the 1960's. The North African countries of Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria had to fight a difficult and, in the case of Algeria, long and protracted war to gain their freedom which did not come until a decade later for Tunisia and Morocco and two decades later for Algeria. Only Palestine did not become independent but was partitioned in 1948 with the establishment of the state of Israel.

                          India

                          In India Muslims participated in the freedom movement against British rule along with Hindus and when independence finally came in 1947, they were able to create their own homeland, Pakistan, which came into being for the sake of Islam and became the most populated Muslim state although many Muslims remained in India. In 1971, however, the two parts of the state broke up, East Pakistan becoming Bengladesh.

                          Far East

                          Farther east still, the Indonesians finally gained their independence from the Dutch and the Malays theirs from Britain. At first Singapore was part of Malaysia but it separated in 1963 to become an independent state. Small colonies still persisted in the area and continued to seek their independence, the kingdom of Brunei becoming independent as recently as 1984.

                          Africa

                          In Africa also major countries with large or majority Muslim populations such as Nigeria, Senegal and Tanzania began to gain their independence in the 1950's and 1960's with the result that by the end of the decade of the 60's most parts of the Islamic world were formed into independent national states. There were, however, exceptions. The Muslim states in the Soviet Union failed to gain their autonomy or independence. The same holds true for Sinkiang (called Eastem Turkestan by Muslim geographers) while in Eritrea and the southern Philippines Muslim independence movements still continue.

                          National States

                          While the world of Islam has entered into the modern world in the form of national states, continuous attempts are made to create closer cooperation within the Islamic world as a whole and to bring about greater unity. This is seen not only in the meetings of the Muslim heads of state and the establishment of the OIC (Organization of Islamic Countries) with its own secretariat, but also in the creation of institutions dealing with the whole of the Islamic world. Among the most important of these is the Muslim World League (Rabitat al-alam al-Islami ) with its headquarters in Makkah. Saudi Arabia has in fact played a pivotal role in the creation and maintenance of such organizations.

                          Revival and Reassertation of Islam

                          Muslims did not wish to gain only their political independence. They also wished to assert their own religious and cultural identity. From the 18th century onward Muslim reformers appeared upon the scene who sought to reassert the teachings of Islam and to reform society on the basis of Islamic teachings. One of the first among this group was Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab, who hailed from the Arabian peninsula and died there in 1792. This reformer was supported by Muhammad ibn al-Sa'ud, the founder of the first Saudi state. With this support Muhammad ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab was able to spread his teachings not only in Arabia but even beyond its borders to other Islamic lands where his reforms continue to wield influence to this day.

                          In the 19th century lslamic assertion took several different forms ranging from the Mahdi movement of the Sudan and the Sanusiyyah in North Africa which fought wars against European colonizers, to educational movements such as that of Aligarh in India aiming to reeducate Muslims. In Egypt which, because of al-Azhar University, remains to this day central to Islamic learning, a number of reformers appear, each addressing some aspect of Islamic thought. Some were concerned more with law, others economics, and yet others the challenges posed by Western civilization with its powerful science and technology. These included Jamal al-Din al-Afghani who hailed originally from Persia but settled in Cairo and who was the great champion of Pan-Islamism, that is the movement to unite the Islamic world politically as well as religiously. His student, Muhammad 'Abduh, who became the rector of al-Azhar. was also very influential in Islamic theology and thought. Also of considerable influence was his Syrian student, Rashid Rida, who held a position closer to that of 'Abd al-Wahhab and stood for the strict application of the Shari'ah. Among the most famous of these thinkers is Muhammad Iqbal, the outstanding poet and philosopher who is considered as the father of Pakistan.

                          Reform Organizations

                          Moreover, as Western influence began to penetrate more deeply into the fiber of Islamic society, organizations gradually grew up whose goal was to reform society in practice along Islamic lines and prevent its secularization. These included the Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan al-muslimin) founded in Egypt and with branches in many Muslim countries, and the Jama'at-i Islami of Pakistan founded by the influential Mawlana Mawdudi. These organizations have been usually peaceful and have sought to reestablish an Islamic order through education. During the last two decades, however, as a result of the frustration of many Muslims in the face of pressures coming from a secularized outside world, some have sought to reject the negative aspects of Western thought and culture and to return to an Islamic society based completely on the application of the Shari 'ah. Today in every Muslim country there are strong movements to preserve and propagate Islamic teachings. In countries such as Saudi Arabia Islamic Law is already being applied and in fact is the reason for the prosperity, development and stability of the country. In other countries where Islamic Law is not being applied, however, most of the effort of Islamic movements is spent in making possible the full application of the Shari'ah so that the nation can enjoy prosperity along with the fulfillment of the faith of its people. In any case the widespread desire for Muslims to have the religious law of Islam applied and to reassert their religious values and their own identity must not be equated with exceptional violent eruptions which do exist but which are usually treated sensationally and taken out of proportion by the mass media in the West.

                          Education and Science in the Islamic World

                          In seeking to live successfully in the modern world, in independence and according to Islamic principles, Muslim countries have been emphasizing a great deal the significance of the role of education and the importance of mastering Western science and technology. Already in the 19th century, certain Muslim countries such as Egypt, Ottoman Turkey and Persia established institutions of higher learning where the modem sciences and especially medicine were taught. During this century educational institutions at all levels have proliferated throughout the Islamic world. Nearly every science ranging from mathematics to biology as well as various fields of modern technology are taught in these institutions and some notable scientists have been produced by the Islamic world, men and women who have often combined education in these institutions with training in the West.

                          In various parts of the Islamic world there is, however, a sense that educational institutions must be expanded and also have their standards improved to the level of the best institutions in the world in various fields of leaming especially science and technology. At the same time there is an awareness that the educational system must be based totally on Islamic principles and the influence of alien cultural and ethical values and norms, to the extent that they are negative, be diminished. To remedy this problem a number of international Islamic educational conferences have been held, the first one in Makkah in 1977, and the foremost thinkers of the Islamic world have been brought together to study and ponder over the question of the relation between Islam and modern science. This is an ongoing process which is at the center of attention in many parts of the Islamic world and which indicates the significance of educational questions in the Islamic world today.

                          Influence of Islamic Science and Learning Upon the West

                          The oldest university in the world which is still functioning is the eleven hundred-year-old Islamic university of Fez, Morocco, known as the Qarawiyyin. This old tradition of Islamic learning influenced the West greatly through Spain. In this land where Muslims, Christians and Jews lived for the most part peacefully for many centuries, translations began to be made in the 11th century mostly in Toledo of Islamic works into Latin often through the intermediary of Jewish scholars most of whom knew Arabic and often wrote in Arabic. As a result of these translations, Islamic thought and through it much of Greek thought became known to the West and Western schools of learning began to flourish. Even the Islamic educational system was emulated in Europe and to this day the term chair in a university reflects the Arabic kursi (literally seat) upon which a teacher would sit to teach his students in the madrasah (school of higher learning). As European civillization grew and reached the high Middle Ages, there was hardly a field of learning or form of art, whether it was literature or architecture, where there was not some influence of Islam present. Islamic learning became in this way part and parcel of Western civilization even if with the advent of the Renaissance, the West not only turned against its own medieval past but also sought to forget the long relation it had had with the Islamic world, one which was based on intellectual respect despite religious opposition.

                          Conclusion

                          The Islamic world remains today a vast land stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, with an important presence in Europe and America, animated by the teachings of Islam and seeking to assert its own identity. Despite the presence of nationalism and various secular ideologies in their midst, Muslims wish to live in the modern world but without simply imitating blindly the ways followed by the West. The Islamic world wishes to live at peace with the West as well as the East but at the same time not to be dominated by them. It wishes to devote its resources and energies to building a better life for its people on the basis of the teachings of Islam and not to squander its resources in either internal or external conflicts. It seeks finally to create better understanding with the West and to be better understood by the West. The destinies of the Islamic world and the West cannot be totally separated and therefore it is only in understanding each other better that they can serve their own people more successfully and also contribute to a better life for the whole of humanity.


                                    ERITREA/ETHIOPIA : Eritrea's opposition down in the dumps        
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                                    MIGRANTI, LA FILIERA DEL CRIMINE Don Zerai e Fratel Del Rio, santi subito