to connect to copmuters wirelessly        
hi !
i am a first year b.tech IT student and have no back ground of electronic field. I am doing a small programe that is connecting to computers wirelessly. so plz can any one give me some idea of what type of componentes are required .
and also related topics.
thanks.


          Harsh World, This World        
The diverse relationships between slaves and masters were governed by kindness, betrayal, trust, and cruelty. A new Electronic Field Trip, "Harsh World, This World" examines the complex familiarity of slavery.
          Emissaries of Peace        
Adept negotiators in pursuit of peace, the Cherokee tribe endures through centuries of change. Colonial Williamsburg director and producer Linda Randulfe talks about the November 8 Electronic Field Trip, "Emissaries of Peace."
          6157 DA-150M Medium Aluminum 1-Stage Tripod        
6157 DA-150M Medium Aluminum 1-Stage Tripod

6157 DA-150M Medium Aluminum 1-Stage Tripod

Sachtler (6157, 615 7, 615-7) 1-stage, 150 mm bowl, aluminium The DA-150 M one stage dural aluminum EFP tripod, features a 150mm / 6" bowl, tube diameter of 22mm (0.87") and is fitted with the Sachtler rotary clamping system. With a load capacity of 110 lb, it's especially suited for electronic field production.  


          6186 DA-150EFP 2D Aluminum 2-Stage Tripod        
6186 DA-150EFP 2D Aluminum 2-Stage Tripod

6186 DA-150EFP 2D Aluminum 2-Stage Tripod

Sachtler (6186, 618 6, 618-6) 2-stage, 150 mm bowl, aluminium The DA-150 EFP 2D two stage, dural aluminum EFP tripod, features a 150mm / 6" bowl, tube diameter of 22mm (0.87"), and is fitted with the Sachtler quick clamping system. The DA-150 EFP 2D is extremely stable because it uses twin tubes which stretch from the top right down to the bottom. The EFP series, as evident from its name, is especially suited to electronic field production.  


          Communicating Complicated Concepts        
Communicating Complicated ConceptsRats on a ship smuggle a story of transatlantic trade and a colonial global economy. It’s a big idea, but the concept is made simple by the team of writers, researchers and producers who create Colonial Williamsburg’s Emmy-winning Electronic Field Trip series.
          Balance of Power        
Balance of PowerWhat are the three branches of government? Only 38% of Americans can answer that question correctly. A playful Electronic Field Trip premiering October 2013 lays out the separation of powers using a baseball metaphor that keeps a dense subject lighthearted. Learn more about the new show with our guest Cash Arehart.
          Harsh World, This World        
Harsh World, This WorldThe diverse relationships between slaves and masters were governed by kindness, betrayal, trust, and cruelty. A new Electronic Field Trip, “Harsh World, This World” examines the complex familiarity of slavery.
          403660 M 58 Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional        
403660 M 58 Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional

403660 M 58 Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional

Beyerdynamic 403660 M 58 (M58, M-58, M/58, m 58) Dynamic ENG/EFP mic, omnidirectional, 3 pin XLR Dynamic ENG/EFP microphone (omnidirectional) The M 58 has been specifically designed to satisfy the demands of Electric News Gathering (ENG) and Electronic Field Production (EFP) applications. Its sophisticated internal shockmount dramatically reduces handling noise, while the microphone´s frequency response has been tailored to provide broadcasters with a very accurate and intelligible sound. The M 58´s weight-balanced design provides journalists with a high degree of comfort during lengthy interviews. Its rugged construction enables the microphone to withstand physical and environmental punishment typically encountered during field production operations. The M 58´s slim profile and non-glare finish result in a low profile on camera. Features Moving coil transducer Internal shockmount reduces handling noise Extended frequency response with rising high-end for maximum intelligibility Rugged construcion Non-reflective finish   Weight-balanced, slim-profile design


          DMX-P01 Digital Portable Audio Mixer - 4 Channel        
DMX-P01 Digital Portable Audio Mixer - 4 Channel

DMX-P01 Digital Portable Audio Mixer - 4 Channel

Sony DMX-P01 (DMXP01, DMX P01, DMX/P01) Digital Portable Audio Mixer - 4 Channel Electronic News Gathering (ENG) and Electronic Field Production (EFP) applications deserve outstanding audio to complement the great-looking pictures obtainable with today's digital video cameras. With full 24-bit processing and 48/96kHz selectable sampling, the new DMX-P01 Portable Digital Mixer delivers studio-quality mixing of up to four microphone or line sources in an incredibly compact, go-anywhere package. Brilliantly engineered with an intuitive control panel for fast, easy, accurate adjustment, the DMX-P01 packs a host of features for in-the-field use. On-board digital limiter/compressors assure stable levels when contending with real-life sound sources. Up to ten "scene memories" recall mixer settings for instant re-configuration in multiple shooting scenarios, and control settings can be locked against inadvertent adjustment. Sound recordists and camera crews will also appreciate the convenience of video-friendly features like flexible meter scaling and simple matching of mixer output and camera audio return levels. The DMX-P01 has been designed with the user in mind. The controls and functions are all logically placed so as to make the operation as easy as possible.  The DMX-P01 has all the benefits of an analogue mixer with the added advantage of digital processing and digital output. This provides excellent sound quality coupled with varied connectivity to other digital equipment that is becoming the requirement in this digital age. The DMX-P01 has its own memory for the user to store and recall settings. Several users can store their own preferences according to the type of work being carried out. This is a huge benefit to production and hire companies alike. The user is provided with six types of metering scale. These can be recalled whenever required.  FEATURES: High sound quality with digital technology - In order to provide high sound quality for ENG and EFP applications, the DMX-P01 offers full digital audio processing - 24-bit A/D and D/A converters, 32-bit internal digital processing for maximum throughput and selectable sampling rate of either 48kHz or 96kHz High quality digital limiter/compressor - By using the digital limiters and compressors, the DMX-P01 can provide high quality sound from a small package. A sound engineer can select suitable parameters easily on the LCD/Menu display. Full parameter controls on front panel - All of the controls are cleanly organized and logically placed on the front panel. Parameters that are used less frequently are stored internally and accessed only when needed. Using the front-panel controls and easy-to-read LCD allows full control of every parameter without the need to remove the unit from its carrying case. Backlight for low-light conditions, LCD Heating for low-temperature conditions. Panel-Lock and Parameter-Lock Features - Safeguards against inadvertent operation. The Panel-lock feature, which can be applied to all of the controls, will not allow settings to be changed. In addition, the Parameter-Lock feature also avoids accidental parameter changes. Flexible Meter Scales - Because the DMX-P01 is a digital mixer, the meter calibration can be easily changed without replacing the entire meter display. Six easy-to-change meter scale sheets are supplied, VU, PPM1 (BBC-type), PPM2 (DIN-type), PPM3 (NORDIC-type), PPM4 (IEC-type1), and dBFS. Simply insert the desired scale sheet and select the appropriate meter type from the setup menu. The DMX-P01 displays audio levels according to the scale selected. Camera-Audio Return-Level Check - The DMX-P01 enables the sound engineer to visually verify that mixer's audio levels match levels recorded to a camcorder tape, by using a camera return-level mode in the setup menu. The P01 simply sends a reference sine signal to the camcorder, and the level difference between the mixer output and camcorder return signal is displayed with a marker. Then, a quick adjustment to the L/R master of the P01 or REC level of the camcorder to place the marker beneath a CENTER MARKER indicated on the LCD, and the level adjustment is completed. Memory Function - Users can store and recall parameters from the setup menu. There are two memory functions: "Power-On Memory Recall", and "Scene Memory Recall" and "Power-On Memory Recal". Scene Memory Recall - This feature allows users to recall up to ten user-defined parameter settings or the factory default settings. This is useful in situations where a single unit is required to serve multiple users or multiple shooting scenarios. Digital cascade - For applications requiring additional inputs, the DMX-P01 can be cascaded using a digital connection between mixers and sound quality is not degraded. Digital Output- The DMX-P01 is equipped with digital outputs, which are used to send audio signal to digital equipment, such as DAT recorders. AES/EBU and S/PDIF coaxial interfaces are available.  


          DPA EMK4071 ENG/EFP Microphone Kit        
DPA EMK4071 ENG/EFP Microphone Kit

DPA EMK4071 ENG/EFP Microphone Kit

DPA EMK4071 (DPAEmk4071 DPA-Emk-4071 DPA/Emk/4071) ENG/EFP Microphone Kit IN THE BOX: 1 x 4071 Omnidirectional Mic, Presence Boost 1 x DAD6024 Adapter 1 x DMM0002-B Miniature Holder, Double Pin 1 x DMM0006 Miniature Holder, Single Pin 1 x DMM0017-B Miniature Mic Holder 1 x DUA0570 Foam Windscreens, Color Mix 1 x DUA0571 Windjammer for 4071, Grey Fur 1 x DUA0572 Miniature Mesh for 4071 This ENG microphone kit is configured to include the mic and accessories necessary for electronic news gathering and electronic field production. The ENG/EFP kit contains a 4071 miniature microphone (pre-equalized for speech clarity) and various accessories. Included is also an XLR adaptor with midrange attenuation (DAD6024), which is the final tonal adjustment needed for going directly on air or to tape without editing. A combination of 4071 and DAD6024 makes voices more distinguishable and improves speech intelligibility and definition. The ENG mic kit is delivered in a sturdy, hard case with a transparent lid. Applications Typical applications are ENG/EFP use on the reporter in studio or in the field, or film production use, with hidden microphone placements on the actors. Wireless ENG microphone A wide range of connection adapters makes it possible to use DPA miniature microphones with all professional UHF, VHF or digital wireless system available plus 48 V Phantom. DPA has specific adapters for AKG, Audio Ltd., Audio-Technica, Beyerdynamic, Electro-Voice, Lectrosonics, Micron, Mipro, Pastega, Telex ProStar, Ramsa, Samson, Sennheiser, Shure, Sony, Toa, Vega and other systems. Each adapter for your cordless microphone is guaranteed to perfectly mate to your system of choice. Specifications The 4071 features a specially designed, fixed microphone grid with a soft presence boost of typically 5 dB at 4 to 6 kHz. Speech intelligibility, clarity and definition of voices and instruments lie within the area that the 4071 grid boosts. For full technical specs, please click the Specifications tab above.


          URX-P03D/K21 Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D Systems        
URX-P03D/K21 Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D Systems

URX-P03D/K21 Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D Systems

Sony URX-P03D/K21 (URXP03D/K21, URX/P03D/K21, urx-p03d/k21) Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D SystemsGiving you the ability to simultaneously receive audio from 2 compatible UWP-D series transmitters as well as a third wired microphone, the URX-P03D from Sony is a portable digital audio receiver that offers wide frequency coverage with up to 72 MHz bandwidth across a broad range of channels. Its integrated 3-channel mixer allows you to control your levels as well as assign outputs freely. The URX-P03D receiver can be mounted directly (without cables) onto many Sony cameras that have an MI (Multi-Interface) Shoe by using the optional SMAD-P3D two-channel shoe adapter. It can be used with any size camcorder or DSLR camera, when paired with a transmitter and microphone (sold separately), to capture audio for ENG (Electronic NewsGathering), EFP (Electronic Field Production), and other sound applications for video.It features automatic channel settings, headphone output, a USB connection for power supply, and line input availability.The UWP-D Series system provides a superb transient response performance for all ENG/EFP production applications and more. This unit transmits on the 470 to 542 MHz frequency.Digital Audio ProcessingThe UWP-D Series wireless microphone system uses Sony Digital Audio Processing to improve sound quality and transient response performance, compared to conventional analog wireless systemsExternal Mic InputThe URX-P03D two-channel portable receiver has an external mic input connector for additional wired microphones. Sony microphones with BMP plug or plug-in power microphones (stereo/mono) are applicable by menu setting. It also has a three-channel mixer function for the two wireless microphones and one wired microphone. It can assign output 1 and/or 2 freelyLarge DisplayIt is designed to fit even small camcorders or DSLR cameras, with dimensions of 2.5 x 3.2 x 1.1" (W x H x D) and a weight of approx. 7.4 oz (including batteries). The receiver also feature a bright 0.5 in x 1.1" display, significantly larger than previous UWP models, making them easily readable in all situationsEasy Channel ScanWith its Clear Channel Scan, Active Channel Scan function, and IR Sync features, the system detects unoccupied channels and selects the most appropriate channel automatically for fast- and-easy system setupAutomatic Channel Setting ModeThe Auto Set channel mode allows the user to find and set available frequencies to use within the operating frequencies of the system. The receiver will automatically set the transmitter channel using the IR Sync featureWide Frequency CoverageThe extra-wide switching bandwidth covers a large area, with a wide choice of channels available across multiple modelsTrue Diversity ReceptionThe UWP-D system achieves an exceptionally stable audio signal being delivered from two independent receiver sections within the unit. Optimum signal quality is delivered by the two receivers sections, and a comparison circuit constantly pulls the one with the best signal to give dropout-free transmissionCompatible with Sony 800 and UWP Series Analog ReceiversThe UWP-D Series transmitters and receivers are compatible with Sony's WL-800 Series, UWP Series, and Freedom Series, allowing users to switch between different companding modesHeadphone Output for MonitoringThe UWP-D system provides its own headphone output socket, which is particularly useful when working with a camera that does not have a headphone outputUSB External PowerThe URX-P03 portable receiver has a Micro-USB terminal for connection to USB external portable power sources, allowing the unit to be powered by the camcorder during use and resulting in hassle-free power. You can also load NiMh batteries into the receiver to be charged through the Micro-USBRobust Metal BodyThe URX-P03 portable receiver is made of strong, durable metal construction that supports reliable use in rough operating conditionsVariable Output Level on Portable ReceiverThe system provides variable output level control of ±12 dB, for use with the various input levels of camcorders and DSLR cameras


          URX-P03D/K33 Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D Systems        
URX-P03D/K33 Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D Systems

URX-P03D/K33 Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D Systems

Sony URX-P03D/K33 (URXP03D/K33, URX/P03D/K33, urx-p03d/k33) Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D SystemsGiving you the ability to simultaneously receive audio from 2 compatible UWP-D series transmitters as well as a third wired microphone, the URX-P03D from Sony is a portable digital audio receiver that offers wide frequency coverage with up to 72 MHz bandwidth across a broad range of channels. Its integrated 3-channel mixer allows you to control your levels as well as assign outputs freely. The URX-P03D receiver can be mounted directly (without cables) onto many Sony cameras that have an MI (Multi-Interface) Shoe by using the optional SMAD-P3D two-channel shoe adapter. It can be used with any size camcorder or DSLR camera, when paired with a transmitter and microphone (sold separately), to capture audio for ENG (Electronic NewsGathering), EFP (Electronic Field Production), and other sound applications for video.It features automatic channel settings, headphone output, a USB connection for power supply, and line input availability.The UWP-D Series system provides a superb transient response performance for all ENG/EFP production applications and more. This unit transmits on the 470 to 542 MHz frequency.Digital Audio ProcessingThe UWP-D Series wireless microphone system uses Sony Digital Audio Processing to improve sound quality and transient response performance, compared to conventional analog wireless systemsExternal Mic InputThe URX-P03D two-channel portable receiver has an external mic input connector for additional wired microphones. Sony microphones with BMP plug or plug-in power microphones (stereo/mono) are applicable by menu setting. It also has a three-channel mixer function for the two wireless microphones and one wired microphone. It can assign output 1 and/or 2 freelyLarge DisplayIt is designed to fit even small camcorders or DSLR cameras, with dimensions of 2.5 x 3.2 x 1.1" (W x H x D) and a weight of approx. 7.4 oz (including batteries). The receiver also feature a bright 0.5 in x 1.1" display, significantly larger than previous UWP models, making them easily readable in all situationsEasy Channel ScanWith its Clear Channel Scan, Active Channel Scan function, and IR Sync features, the system detects unoccupied channels and selects the most appropriate channel automatically for fast- and-easy system setupAutomatic Channel Setting ModeThe Auto Set channel mode allows the user to find and set available frequencies to use within the operating frequencies of the system. The receiver will automatically set the transmitter channel using the IR Sync featureWide Frequency CoverageThe extra-wide switching bandwidth covers a large area, with a wide choice of channels available across multiple modelsTrue Diversity ReceptionThe UWP-D system achieves an exceptionally stable audio signal being delivered from two independent receiver sections within the unit. Optimum signal quality is delivered by the two receivers sections, and a comparison circuit constantly pulls the one with the best signal to give dropout-free transmissionCompatible with Sony 800 and UWP Series Analog ReceiversThe UWP-D Series transmitters and receivers are compatible with Sony's WL-800 Series, UWP Series, and Freedom Series, allowing users to switch between different companding modesHeadphone Output for MonitoringThe UWP-D system provides its own headphone output socket, which is particularly useful when working with a camera that does not have a headphone outputUSB External PowerThe URX-P03 portable receiver has a Micro-USB terminal for connection to USB external portable power sources, allowing the unit to be powered by the camcorder during use and resulting in hassle-free power. You can also load NiMh batteries into the receiver to be charged through the Micro-USBRobust Metal BodyThe URX-P03 portable receiver is made of strong, durable metal construction that supports reliable use in rough operating conditionsVariable Output Level on Portable ReceiverThe system provides variable output level control of ±12 dB, for use with the various input levels of camcorders and DSLR cameras


          URX-P03D/K42 Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D Systems        
URX-P03D/K42 Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D Systems

URX-P03D/K42 Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D Systems

Sony URX-P03D/K42 (URXP03D/K42, URX/P03D/K42, urx-p03d/k42) Two-Channel Portable Receiver for UWP-D SystemsGiving you the ability to simultaneously receive audio from 2 compatible UWP-D series transmitters as well as a third wired microphone, the URX-P03D from Sony is a portable digital audio receiver that offers wide frequency coverage with up to 72 MHz bandwidth across a broad range of channels. Its integrated 3-channel mixer allows you to control your levels as well as assign outputs freely. The URX-P03D receiver can be mounted directly (without cables) onto many Sony cameras that have an MI (Multi-Interface) Shoe by using the optional SMAD-P3D two-channel shoe adapter. It can be used with any size camcorder or DSLR camera, when paired with a transmitter and microphone (sold separately), to capture audio for ENG (Electronic NewsGathering), EFP (Electronic Field Production), and other sound applications for video.It features automatic channel settings, headphone output, a USB connection for power supply, and line input availability.The UWP-D Series system provides a superb transient response performance for all ENG/EFP production applications and more. This unit transmits on the 470 to 542 MHz frequency.Digital Audio ProcessingThe UWP-D Series wireless microphone system uses Sony Digital Audio Processing to improve sound quality and transient response performance, compared to conventional analog wireless systemsExternal Mic InputThe URX-P03D two-channel portable receiver has an external mic input connector for additional wired microphones. Sony microphones with BMP plug or plug-in power microphones (stereo/mono) are applicable by menu setting. It also has a three-channel mixer function for the two wireless microphones and one wired microphone. It can assign output 1 and/or 2 freelyLarge DisplayIt is designed to fit even small camcorders or DSLR cameras, with dimensions of 2.5 x 3.2 x 1.1" (W x H x D) and a weight of approx. 7.4 oz (including batteries). The receiver also feature a bright 0.5 in x 1.1" display, significantly larger than previous UWP models, making them easily readable in all situationsEasy Channel ScanWith its Clear Channel Scan, Active Channel Scan function, and IR Sync features, the system detects unoccupied channels and selects the most appropriate channel automatically for fast- and-easy system setupAutomatic Channel Setting ModeThe Auto Set channel mode allows the user to find and set available frequencies to use within the operating frequencies of the system. The receiver will automatically set the transmitter channel using the IR Sync featureWide Frequency CoverageThe extra-wide switching bandwidth covers a large area, with a wide choice of channels available across multiple modelsTrue Diversity ReceptionThe UWP-D system achieves an exceptionally stable audio signal being delivered from two independent receiver sections within the unit. Optimum signal quality is delivered by the two receivers sections, and a comparison circuit constantly pulls the one with the best signal to give dropout-free transmissionCompatible with Sony 800 and UWP Series Analog ReceiversThe UWP-D Series transmitters and receivers are compatible with Sony's WL-800 Series, UWP Series, and Freedom Series, allowing users to switch between different companding modesHeadphone Output for MonitoringThe UWP-D system provides its own headphone output socket, which is particularly useful when working with a camera that does not have a headphone outputUSB External PowerThe URX-P03 portable receiver has a Micro-USB terminal for connection to USB external portable power sources, allowing the unit to be powered by the camcorder during use and resulting in hassle-free power. You can also load NiMh batteries into the receiver to be charged through the Micro-USBRobust Metal BodyThe URX-P03 portable receiver is made of strong, durable metal construction that supports reliable use in rough operating conditionsVariable Output Level on Portable ReceiverThe system provides variable output level control of ±12 dB, for use with the various input levels of camcorders and DSLR cameras


          VIT-FST2001 Media Recorder Portable Field Deck        
VIT-FST2001 Media Recorder Portable Field Deck

VIT-FST2001 Media Recorder Portable Field Deck

Vitec VIT-FST2001 (VITFST2001, VIT FST2001, VIT/FST2001, vit-fst2001) 50Mb/s XDCAM Portable Field Deck - SxS Recorder with 250GB Hard Disk The next generation Focus FS-T2001 professional media recorder and portable field deck is ideal for both Electronic News Gathering (ENG) and Electronic Field Production (EFP). Designed to meet the needs of broadcasters as well as producers, Focus FS-T2001 makes managing video content and distributing it via networks or physical media a snap. Focus FS-T2001 supports Sony 50mbps MPEG HD422 as well as XDCAM HD/EX professional recording formats.   The flexible, feature-rich Focus FS-T2001 provides 250GB of internal storage capacity for recording/playback and media management. An intuitive thumbnail clip menu makes it easy to find recorded video clips and play them back on the Focus FS-T2001 LCD screen or an external SDI or HDMI monitor.   Integrated SxS slots make it easy to transfer content to removable professional media such as SxS Pro+, SxS Pro, SxS-1 and SDHC adapters. Clips may be quickly copied between cards or from cards to the integrated hard drive.  They may also be transferred to a computer via cable or shared over the network using CIFS or FTP via an ultrafast 1Gbps Ethernet connection. Full interoperability with Sony camera and ingest tools / NLEs Record/play in XDCAM HD422 50Mbit/s (MXF) or XDCAM HD/EX (MXF/MP4) file formats Manage and transfer clips over USB or Gigabit Ethernet connection Live monitoring / playback on LCD color display, SDI, HDMI, composite video, analogue audio and mobile devices Downscaling capabilities for SD transmission over SDI Compatible with any HD-SDI and SD-SDI camera


          Canon HJ11ex4.7B IASE Lens, Used        
Canon HJ11ex4.7B IASE Lens, Used

Canon HJ11ex4.7B IASE Lens, Used

Canon HJ11ex4.7B IASE Lens, Used Comes with 3 months warranty Good condition Canon HJ11ex4.7B-IASE is an 11x super-wide-angle 2/3" lens built to offer high performance in HDTV news gathering. The lens is lightweight and can be relied upon under harsh conditions. Additionally, it's equipped with features such as internal focus and shuttle-shot programmable positioning. The focal-length range is 4.7-52mm with a minimum object distance of 2' (0.6 m). This lens has a 2x extender for doubling focal length. High Definition Ready Many high definition cameras are hamstrung by insufficient optics. Electronic Field Production (EFP) lenses traditionally have been built to accommodate standard definition. This lens is designed specifically with high definition in mind. The optics increase fidelity, making sure HD footage is crystal clear. Improved Image Quality The lens element design greatly reduces aberrations and image distortions. These advances contribute to more balanced imaging from center to edge throughout the aperture range. Shuttle-Shot Technology The lens has added capability when zooming, using the shuttle-shot switch. At the touch of a button the lens can move to a pre-programmed point, going back and forth. This can also be used creatively while providing a no hassle way of verifying focus. Integral 2x Extender   For instant close-up images the lens has a switch that inserts an element that doubles the focal length at any point in the zoom range. Instead of using the zoom function the extender gives immediate close up images.


          Rolf Tarrach Prize 2017 for research on multifunctional materials        

The award for the best doctoral thesis in Luxembourg comes with a prize money of 10,000 euros and is bestowed by the Amis de l'Université. Mads Weber received the prize at a ceremony chaired by Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, president of the Amis, on 11 July 2017 at the Chamber of Commerce of Luxembourg.

From left: Rolf Tarrach, Mads Christof Weber and Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, © Michel Brumat / University of Luxembourg, 2017

Application-oriented research

Mads Weber worked on his PhD entitled Electronic and structural properties of bismuth and rare-earth ferrites from 2013 to 2016 at the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) and the Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication of the University of Luxembourg. His research focuses on functional properties of a number of materials that can be used in technical applications. Examples for such properties are light-induced effects, magnetism or ferroelectricity, which means that materials are magnetic or have an electric polarisation that can be reversed by a magnetic or electronic field, respectively.

For his PhD, supervised by Prof. Jens Kreisel of the LIST, Mads Weber concentrated on so-called multifunctional materials, which have several such properties at once that are often coupled. “Multifunctional materials have many potential applications in areas such as microelectronics, sensor technology, and medical technology. They could be used to engineer components that can perform several tasks in parallel, such as a single computer chip that at the same time stores and processes data,” the researcher explains. In order to better understand the physical causes behind these phenomena, he applied a new method to study interactions between light and matter and the influence of magnetism on the atomic structure.

Now a postdoc in Switzerland

The 31-year-old Weber who in March 2017 started to work as postdoctoral researcher at the ETH Zürich in Switzerland is very pleased with receiving the award. “I feel deeply honored to receive the Rolf Tarrach Prize. The prize is the highest possible recognition of the value of scientific outcome of my thesis and my competences as researcher. Having moved from Luxembourg, the prize affirms my feeling as a representative of the young researcher generation of Luxembourg, who got their formation in Luxembourg,” he said.

By awarding the best doctoral award each year, the Amis de l'Université aim to reward excellence in the field of research and to promote the international reputation of the University of Luxembourg.

Other nominees for the 2017 awards were:

  • Stanisław Tosza from the Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance (FDEF) who addressed the legal question of criminal liability of managers for excessive risk-taking; and,
  • Susanne Backes of the Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education with her research on heterogeneity in Luxembourg’s education system.
Square photo: Mads Christof Weber, © Michel Brumat / University of Luxembourg, 2017

          Sachtler 6157 DA-150M Medium Aluminum 1-Stage Tripod        
Sachtler 6157 DA-150M Medium Aluminum 1-Stage Tripod

Sachtler 6157 DA-150M Medium Aluminum 1-Stage Tripod

Sachtler (6157, 615 7, 615-7) 1-stage, 150 mm bowl, aluminium The DA-150 M one stage dural aluminum EFP tripod, features a 150mm / 6" bowl, tube diameter of 22mm (0.87") and is fitted with the Sachtler rotary clamping system. With a load capacity of 110 lb, it's especially suited for electronic field production.  


          Sachtler 6186 DA-150EFP 2D Aluminum 2-Stage Tripod        
Sachtler 6186 DA-150EFP 2D Aluminum 2-Stage Tripod

Sachtler 6186 DA-150EFP 2D Aluminum 2-Stage Tripod

Sachtler (6186, 618 6, 618-6) 2-stage, 150 mm bowl, aluminium The DA-150 EFP 2D two stage, dural aluminum EFP tripod, features a 150mm / 6" bowl, tube diameter of 22mm (0.87"), and is fitted with the Sachtler quick clamping system. The DA-150 EFP 2D is extremely stable because it uses twin tubes which stretch from the top right down to the bottom. The EFP series, as evident from its name, is especially suited to electronic field production.  


          SHopping For a Metal Detector, Know Where to Get Em!        
Metal detectors use electric fields to see the presence of metallic objects. They exist in a selection of walk-through, hand held, and vehicle-mounted models and are used to search staff for concealed metallic objects at entrances to airfields, public schools, courthouses, and other guarded spaces ; to seek for landmines, archaeological artifacts, and varied property ; and for the detection of concealed or undesired metallic objects in industry and construction. Metal detectors notice metallic objects, but don't image them. An xray baggage scanner, for instance, is not classed as a metal detector as it photographs metallic objects instead of simply detecting their presence.

Metal detectors use electromagnetism in 2 basically other ways, active and passive. ( one ) Active detection methods illuminate some detection space-the opening of a walk-through portal, for instance, or the space right in front of a hand-held unit-with a time-varying electronic field. Energy reflected from or passing thru the detection space is influenced by the presence of conductive material in that space ; the detector uncovers metal by measuring these effects. ( 2 ) Passive detection techniques do not illuminate the detection space, but milk the undeniable fact that each unshielded detection space is already permeated by the Earth's natural magnetic field. Ferromagnetic objects moving thru the detection space cause temporary, but discoverable changes in this natural field. ( Ferromagnetic objects are made of metals, for example iron, that are capable of being magnetized ; many metals, for example aluminum, are conducting but not ferromagnetic, and can't be uncovered by passive means. )

Walk-through metal detectors. Walk-through or portal detectors are common in airfields, public buildings, and army installations. Their portals are bracketed with two enormous coils or loop-type antennae, one a source and the other a detector. Electromagnetic waves ( in this situation, low-frequency radio waves ) are emitted by the source coil into the detection space. When the electro-magnetic field of the broadcast wave impinges on a conducting object, it prompts transient currents on the surface of the object ; these currents, in turn, radiate electronic waves. These secondary waves are sensed by the detector coil.

Hand-carried metal detectors. Metal detectors tiny enough to be hand-held are typically used at security checkpoints to localize metal objects whose presence has been detected by a walk-through system. Some units are designed to be carried by a pedestrian scanning for metal objects in the ground ( e.g, nails, loose change, landmines ). All such devices operate on modifications of the same physical principle as the walk-through metal detector, that is, they emit time-varying electronic fields and listen for waves coming back from conducting objects. Some ground-search models further research the returned fields to distinguish various common metals from each other. Hand-carried metal detectors have long been used to go looking for landmines ; however [*COMMA] modern land mines are often made largely of plastic to avoid this cheap and obvious counter-measure.

Magnetic imaging portals. The magnetic imaging portal is a relatively state-of-the-art technology. Like traditional walk-through metal detectors, it illuminates its detection space with radio-frequency electromagnetic waves ; [**] it does so using a number of little antennas organized ringlike around its portal, pointing inward. Each of these antennas broadcasts to the antennas on the far side of the array ; each antenna acts as a receiver whenever it is not transmitting. A complete scan of the detection space can happen in the time it takes an individual to walk thru the portal.

Gradiometer metal detectors. Gradiometer metal detectors are passive systems that exploit the effect of moving ferromagnetic objects on the earth's magnetic field. A gradiometer is an instrument that measures a gradient-the difference in magnitude between two points-in a magnetic field. When a ferromagnetic object moves thru a gradiometer metal detector's detection space, it causes a brief disturbance in the earth's magnetic field, and this disturbance ( if enormous enough ) is noted. Gradiometer metal detectors are sometimes walk-through devices, but can also be mounted on a vehicle like a police car, with the intention of detecting ferromagnetic weapons ( e.g, guns ) borne by persons approaching the car.


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          Farmobile Launches EFR Dashboard to Help Farmers Validate Hunches and Optimize Profitability        

Powered by Electronic Field Records, new real-time dashboard gives farmers the ability to touch their agronomic data for the first time

(PRWeb November 17, 2016)

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          Stellar Evolution        

Variable stars highlight an important fact about the heavens above us: the universe is always changing.  The universe is very large, stars and galaxies are very far away, and many changes occur on timescales far longer than we can see.  Most things in the sky -- stars, nebulae, and galaxies -- don't appear to change at all during the course of a human lifetime.  But variable stars do change on timescales that we can observe.  We have now discovered stars that vary on timescales from milliseconds to centuries.  Each one can tell us something about itself through its variability, and information that variable stars have provided has given us a better understanding of the larger picture.

One of the key concepts in astronomy is that stars change over time -- they're born from clouds of interstellar gas and dust, they shine by their own light created through nuclear fusion of hydrogen in their cores, and eventually they run out of fuel and die, returning some of their mass back to interstellar space.  Their remains can then be taken up into new generations of stars, starting the process over again.  The process of change that a star undergoes during its lifetime is called stellar evolution.  But this process can take millions or billions of years for a star, much longer than we can hope to observe directly.  Since we can't observe stellar evolution over long timescales, how do we know it occurs?

There are many pieces of evidence that point toward our current understanding of stellar evolution.  One was the understanding of the nuclear physics responsible for why stars shine, and the subsequent realization that stars have a large but finite source of fuel to create heat.  Another piece of evidence was the observational study of star clusters -- groups of stars all born at the same time and place -- and the eventual realization that the properties of star clusters differ depending upon how old they are.  Evidence about the physical properties of stars has also come from the study of variable stars.  In fact, variable stars often provide the best means of studying the physical properties of individual stars -- their variations turn them into "experimental laboratories" for stellar physics, and have given us many important clues as to what stars are and why they behave the way that they do.

Every time someone observes a variable star, they're collecting evidence of how the star is behaving.  We can build hypotheses of why stars vary, and we can then test these hypotheses with all of the data that has been collected.  Each piece of evidence provides a different test, and each test allows us to refine our hypotheses, and make a more accurate description of why stars vary.  If we can learn enough about individual stars, we can then begin to learn about classes of variable stars.  Eventually we can learn about all stars, variable or not, by putting together all of our models and descriptions of different kinds of stars, and then building a better understanding of what stars are and how they evolve in general.

So what do we know about stellar evolution, and how have variable stars contributed to that?  Let's explore!

Jump to: Preliminaries: The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Jump to: Star Birth
Jump to: The Main Sequence
Jump to: Leaving The Main Sequence
Jump to: Old Age
Jump to: Binary Stars
Jump to: Star Death

The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

When we classify stars, we try to use quantitative measurements of their properties, so that we can better understand how stars differ from one another, and why those differences occur.  There are a number of physical characteristics of stars that provide important information on the lives of stars.  Two quantities, mass and age, are probably most fundamental.  The progress of a star's life is predestined by its mass, because ultimately the mass determines how much energy the star can produce and how quickly it will do so.  The age of a star tells you how far along it is in its evolution.  However, both of these quantities are hard to measure directly.  You can sometimes measure the mass if the star is in a binary system, using the straightforward physics of Newton's laws of motion.  But there's no scale that you can rest a star on and measure its mass.  Likewise you can't tell a star's age directly just by looking at it.  Again, you need some roundabout way of finding this out. Two other parameters are a star's luminosity and temperature, and both of these are related to mass and age in a way that we now understand, but like mass and age, deriving these physical parameters requires some extra work to derive.  What would be ideal is to find a way to classify stars based upon a simple observation.

Two astronomers of the early 20th Century, Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell, discovered an important observational means of comparing different stars with one another.  They found that when you plot the brightnesses of individual stars versus their spectral type or color on a graph, the stars lie within well-defined areas within the graph.  A star of a given brightness could only lie within a certain range of colors, and a star with a given color could only lie within a certain range of brightnesses.  More observational and theoretical research showed that the color-magnitude diagram or Hertzsprung-Russell diagram was a snapshot of the evolutionary states of the stars plotted within the diagram.  Stars would be found in different parts of the diagram depending upon their masses and their ages.  Furthermore, as a star gets older, it changes in brightness and color in a very predictable way, and that stars of different masses change in very different ways.

Why is this concept important for variable stars?  Individual stars have different physical properties and lie at different positions within the H-R diagram, and if a star happens to be variable, the physical information we can gain about the star by studying its variability can tell us about what stars at that position in the H-R diagram are like in general.  And because there are different classes of variable stars found throughout the H-R diagram, we've learned a lot about stellar evolution by studying variable stars, even though it may take millions or billions of years for a given star to evolve.

When we talk about stars, we often refer to them based upon their position in the H-R diagram.  For example, we call stars that are still burning hydrogen in their cores main sequence stars, and will often refer to stars younger and older than main sequence stars as pre- and post-main sequence stars.  Stars that have evolved well beyond the main sequence are often on the red giant branch of the H-R diagram, or might be asymptotic giant branch stars.  We might talk about RR Lyrae variables being on the horizontal branch, or beta Cephei stars being on the upper main sequence.  All of these are stages of stars' lives, and the classifications help us to put them in context within the broader picture of stellar evolution.  In the following sections, we will mention some of these stages of evolution and explain what studying variable stars can tell us about them.

Star Birth

When you look up at the night sky in the early months of the year, you can see two great constellations high in the sky: Taurus and Orion.  These constellations are home to what we now know are star forming regions -- concentrations of gas and dust within our Galaxy, collapsing under their own gravity to form new stars.  Every star that you see in the sky was once formed inside a star forming region, millions or billions of years ago.  These regions in Orion and Taurus are home to some of the youngest stars we can see in the sky, and they're home to some important variable stars as well -- variables that have helped tell the story of how stars are born. You may be very familiar with one of these already: the Great Nebula in Orion, known as the Orion Nebula or Messier 42 (M 42).  The Orion Nebula is home to an enormous number of young stars, and it is the light of the most massive of these stars that causes the nebula itself to glow.

Young variable stars were first called Orion variables or nebular variables, recognizing the fact that they occur in large numbers within the Orion or other similar gaseous nebulae.  These are general names for a broad class of stars known as pre-main sequence or PMS stars.  The most famous class of these nebular variables are the T Tauri stars, named for the prototype, T Tauri.  These stars appear to be similar to "normal" stars except for a few important differences: they're highly variable, they're less bright than we would expect a star of their size and color to be, they often lie near gaseous nebulae, and they show emission lines -- the light emitted by highly excited atoms of a thin gas.  The T Tauri stars were recognized as a distinct group in the 1940s, but it wasn't until the early 1960s that the T Tauri stars were finally understood to be newborn stars, still weakly accreting dust and gas from the nebulae from which they formed.  Their variability can be caused by a number of things but much of it is related to accretion. When any mass falls within a gravitational field, some of its gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.  If you hold a ball at eye level and drop it, it will accelerate toward the ground, gaining a kinetic energy equal to the amount of potential energy it lost falling from eye level to the ground.  The same thing happens to gas and dust accreting onto a protostar: the gas is falling down the gravitational potential well of the star and accelerating.  In this case, the gas gains some kinetic energy but also heats up.  The infalling gas has some viscosity (or friction) and as it falls toward the protostar, viscosity within the gas causes it to heat up.  As it gets hotter, it gives off more and more light until it impacts the surface, where it gives off even more light.

Some young variables are extreme in their variability.  Two variables in the Orion constellation give variable star classes their names: the FU Orionis stars (or FUORs) and UX Orionis stars (UXORs), both closely related in age but different in variability.  The FUORs are believed to undergo very large and very long-term brightness variations, sometimes brightening by more than a factor of 100, and then fading again over a course of years or decades.  The origins of these outbursts is believed to be rapid accretion of circumstellar material onto the young protostar for a period of a few years.  All protostars are now or have recently finished accreting material around them, but FUORs seem to be (temporarily at least) doing it at a more rapid rate.  This rapid accretion results in a larger release of energy as light and heat. 

The UXORs are almost the opposite.  UXORs are stars that vary on very short timescales, getting dimmer rather than brighter.  UXORs are believed to be stars with circumstellar disks (as all protostars are at one point) where the disk is clumpy rather than uniform.  Some of these clumps are large enough to partially obscure the protostar as they orbit around it, causing the star to dim before our eyes.  Essentially, the clumps eclipse their parent star relative to our line of sight. 

How do we know all of this? When T Tauri, and FU and UX Ori were discovered, we didn't know they were protostars still in the process of forming.  We learned this gradually over time, by making observations, and testing various theories of why they look the way they do.  The very first observation astronomers made was simply that "they're variable".  That in itself is interesting since most stars are not obviously variable.  Astronomers began tracking their brightness over time.  Then they discovered other stars whose behavior was similar.  The realization that such stars often reside in or near gaseous nebulae, and that nebulae were places where stars were being born eventually led us to conclude that these stars are young, still in the process of forming.  More observations in optical light and at other wavelengths showed that their variability originates from some of the same processes by which they form.  Stars can brighten when matter accretes onto the star, or when changes occur in the disk of material surrounding them.  They can fade as clouds of dust form around the star, or when these clouds orbit around and temporarily obscure them.  

We now have a good understanding of how stars form (from collapsing clouds of gas and dust) and how long it takes (a few million years).  We know that the process is gradual, and that it continues for a little while even after the protostar begins to shine like star.  And we know this accretion process itself leads to variability.  New observations still lead to refinements in our understanding, and we continue to study young stars today.  These observations extend across the electromagnetic spectrum too, and we observe them with radio telescopes, infrared observatories in space, and even X-ray telescopes in space.  Since all stars go through this formation process, the more we know about it the more we can understand the subsequent stages of stellar evolution.

The Main Sequence

Once a young protostar has accreted all of the gas and dust that it can from the cloud from which it was born, it may be massive enough to burn hydrogen in its core and shine as a star.  If and when this happens, it becomes a zero-age main sequence star.  The main sequence is defined as the part of a star's lifetime spent burning hydrogen at its core; the start of its main-sequence lifetime is the point at which hydrogen burning first begins, and the end is defined by the point at which it runs out of hydrogen in its core.  The amount of time spent on the main sequence can vary from star to star too; the main sequence lifetime is mainly a function of a star's mass.  Our Sun will spend between 9 and 10 billion years on the main sequence; a much lower mass star might spend 100 billion years on the main sequence, while a much higher mass star might only spend a few million years. 

Stars on the main sequence change very little over this span of their lives, although lots of important changes are happening.  The core is slowly converting hydrogen atoms to helium atoms and releasing energy in the process.  The changes in composition introduce subtle changes in the structure over time, which also change the temperature of the star and the amount of light it gives off (its "luminosity").  But we have two big problems trying to study and understand these changes: they can take millions or billions of years to become apparent, and they happen deep inside the star where we can't actually see them take place!  We understand some of the basic things about stars just by applying the laws of physics as we knew them, and inferring what the inside of the star must be like to explain everything we see on the outside.  For example, once physicists in the early 20th century understood that atoms could fuse together to make other atoms and release energy in the process, that knowledge was then applied to stars to explain why they shine and for how long they live.

But there are lots of complex things happening inside stars, and we could learn a lot about them if only we could somehow go inside them and "look around" a little.  As it turns out, we can do that, and we do it in exactly the same way that geologists can study the deep interior of the Earth -- by recording its vibrations.  We study the conditions deep inside the Earth by watching how sound waves -- especially those created by earthquakes -- propagate around the Earth.  If we measure the slight vibrations at the surface of the Earth, we can make a very good measurement of the conditions deep inside the Earth.  This is because the sound waves generated at one place on the earth have to travel through the interior to reach other locations.  The study of the interior of the Earth using its vibrations is called seismology. 

We do something very similar to study the interiors of stars, and we call this asteroseismology.  In stars, sound and gravity waves can propagate through the interior in a similar way that the vibrations of an earthquake travel through the Earth.  For some stars, we can measure these vibrations by seeing how the brightness of different parts of the star's surface change over time.  The vibrations of the star's surface are called pulsations, and we can measure the properties of these pulsations to say something about the conditions inside the star.  In many stars -- including our own Sun -- there are many different vibrations happening at the same time; each vibration frequency is called a pulsation mode.  (You can think of a "mode" like a note on a piano keyboard.  Different notes are different modes.)  If we can combine information about each of these different modes into a single model that can explain them all, then this model can tell us a great deal about the inside of the star.

The Sun is perhaps the most important pulsating variable there is, and the study of its pulsations is called helioseismology.  The Sun's pulsations are too faint to be seen with the naked eye, but careful study has revealed that there are thousands of pulsation modes present inside the Sun at any given time.  Because there are so many modes visible in the Sun, helioseismologists have to fine-tune their models very, very precisely in order to make models match the observed pulsations.  Because of that we know to great precision many important things about the inside of the Sun, including: the temperature and density at its center and the way that temperature and density decrease from the center to the surface; the composition of the interior of the Sun, both in its core where hydrogen is being converted to helium, and farther outside the core; and finer details about its structure, such as whether it rotates at a different rate deep inside than it does at the surface.

Much of what we know about the lives of stars has come directly from the study of the variability of the Sun.  But it can't tell us everything about all stars because it's just one star, with one mass and one age.  If we want to learn about other stars in this way, we have to look for pulsations in other stars.  We can do just that for a number of other pulsating stars.  One classic example of this is the study of delta Scuti stars.  These are stars that can have dozens (rather than thousands) of pulsation modes, but where the modes have large light amplitudes that are easier to detect.  Delta Scuti stars on the main sequence are about 1.5 to 3 times as massive as the Sun; we can build models of these stars just as we do for the Sun, and so we can also try to "look inside" these stars as well.  In recent years, we've also started to do precise photometry of other "solar-like" stars in hopes of learning more about stars similar to the Sun, but at different stages of their lives.  Using small telescopes in space (like WIRE, MOST, and COROT) we can try to detect solar-like oscillations in these other stars, and compare them to what we detect in the Sun.  Each star having a different mass, different age, and different chemical composition helps to refine and improve our picture of the structure and evolution of stars.

There's another type of variability that can occur in main-sequence stars, one that we also see on our Sun.  If you've ever looked at a picture of the Sun, or looked at it through a solar filter, you might have noticed a number of dark spots on its surface.  These spots -- sunspots -- are caused by strong magnetic fields on the Sun that interfere with heat transfer from the Sun's interior to the surface.  Magnetic fields can block the movement of gas ("convection") which means that energy inside the Sun can't get out as easily.  When this happens, the patch of the Sun's surface above where the gas motion is blocked begins to cool down, and thus appears darker to our eyes -- we see a sunspot.

We now know that this process can happen on any star we see, and on some stars -- particularly very young stars -- the appearance and disappearance of "starspots" results in a large change in brightness.  These changes can even be periodic if the star is rotating and the spot survives for several rotation periods of the star.  We can see variability due to star spots in RS Canum Venaticorum (or RS CVn) and BY Draconis stars.  There's an associated kind of variability that we also see in the Sun: flares.  On the Sun, flares are also associated with magnetic fields around sunspots, and are caused by these magnetic fields acting like giant particle accelerators, squeezing the gas in the solar atmosphere and accelerating it to great speed.  We see these flares as bright flashes near the surface of the Sun lasting a few minutes.  Similar flares probably happen on all stars with magnetic fields but one class of star -- the UV Ceti variables -- have very strong magnetic fields.  Their strong magnetic fields, combined with the fact that their surfaces are cooler and dimmer than the Sun, mean that their flares are large and easily measurable.  The study of magnetic activity in stars has been an important topic in stellar astrophysics.  Our understanding of it is very incomplete, even for our own Sun.  We know, for example, that the Sun has a 22-year cycle -- the Solar Cycle -- where sunspot activity waxes and wanes, changing magnetic polarity once per 11 years.  But we don't fully understand why this is so.  The more we observe this kind of variability in the Sun and other stars, the more we'll know and the better our understanding may become.

Leaving the Main Sequence

The end of the main sequence is defined as the point at which all of the hydrogen in a star's core has been converted into helium, and the nuclear reactions in the core of the star temporarily cease.  Since these nuclear reactions provide the heat and pressure that hold up the outer layers of the star against the force of gravity, the star must readjust itself to compensate.  The processes that occur during this readjustment cause a number of complex physical changes both inside and outside the star, and the star will change dramatically in appearance during this time.  The most notable change is that the star will become a red giant, expanding in diameter, increasing in luminosity, and cooling in temperature. These changes take millions of years, so they're not obvious to our eyes.  But as stars undergo these changes they may become true variable stars, or if they are currently variable, that variability may change or even cease altogether.  So what are some types of variable star of the post main-sequence?

There are parts of the H-R diagram where we find lots of variable stars.  One of these is called the instability strip, which runs from upper right (luminous and cool) to lower left (faint and hot) in the H-R diagram.  When a star lies within the instability strip, it may begin to pulsate.  In all stars, certain layers within the star can become more opaque to radiation if they become hotter or cooler.  When this happens, energy from inside the star can become trapped in that layer, increasing its temperature and pressure.  If this layer is located at just the right depth within a star, the layer can act like a piston that drives the outer layers of the star up and down in a periodic fashion, making the star pulsate.  We now know that only stars within the instability strip have this layer at just the right depth.  We also know based on stellar modeling that stars can lie within this strip at certain parts of their lives depending upon how massive they are.  Stars more than a few times the mass of the Sun cross the instability strip after the main sequence.  These are the Cepheid variables, named after the class prototype delta Cephei.  One of the very important things about Cepheids is that the time it takes them to complete one pulsation cycle (the period) is proportional to the luminosity or absolute brightness of the star.  If we can measure the period of the star, then we know its luminosity.  This is known as the period-luminosity or P-L relation, and also by the name Leavitt Law, after its discoverer Henrietta Swan Leavitt.  

Why is the P-L relation important?  There is also a simple relation between the apparent brightness of a star, its distance, and its absolute brightness.  If we can measure the apparent brightness of a Cepheid, and then determine its absolute brightness by measuring the period, we will then know the distance to the Cepheid.  This is incredibly useful because distances are very hard to measure beyond the solar neighborhood.  We've used Cepheid variables to measure distances to star clusters within the Milky Way, and even to measure the distances to other Galaxies.  The study of Cepheid variables is a major research effort within astronomy because it provides us one of the best ways to calibrate our measurements of the size of the universe.  Other kinds of pulsating stars can be used the same way; both the delta Scuti and RR Lyrae stars pulsate for exactly the same physical reason as the Cepheids, and both have their P-L relations.  Delta Scuti stars can be used to measure distances within the Milky Way, and RR Lyrae stars are useful for measuring distances to globular clusters.  Of the three, the Cepheids are the most luminous, and so we can see them at greater distances, often in galaxies millions of light years away.

Many types of stars can pulsate, but not all are regular pulsators with a well-defined period, and most stars outside the instability strip are not strong and regular pulsators.  Some red giant stars are pulsating variables, but don't have very strict periods, and don't have large amplitudes.  In fact, you can hardly detect variability in red giants at all with the eye, and you often need more sensitive equipment to measure their pulsations.  Other stars pulsate because they give off so much light that they're close to blowing themselves apart.  The most massive stars, those with more than 20-30 times the mass of our Sun, race through their supplies of nuclear fuel so quickly that they'll only live for a few million years.  Because they burn their nuclear fuel so quickly, sometimes it has a difficult time escaping from the inside of the star, and this too can make a star "pulsate" in a way.  The massive S Doradus stars sometimes have enormous outbursts capable of blowing off their own outer layers into space.  The stars Eta Carinae in the southern hemisphere and P Cygni in the northern hemisphere are examples of two of these.  Both of these stars show evidence for low-amplitude pulsations, and can occasionally undergo enormous eruptions, once every few centuries.  It is likely that one day (perhaps soon) that eta Carinae and P Cygni will both end their lives as the ultimate variable stars -- supernovae.  (More on those later!)

Old Age

All stars will eventually run out of fuel given enough time.  The great majority of stars in the universe will pass through a phase of their lives where they swell up to enormous size -- larger than the orbits of Earth and Mars -- and become the most luminous stars in their neighborhood.  These stars -- the asymptotic giant branch (or AGB) stars -- can be considered the last stage of stellar evolution when a star is truly a "star", an object that shines due to energy created by thermonuclear reactions deep inside.  After a star has passed through the red giant branch and landed on the red clump (Population I stars) or the horizontal branch (Population II), it has a core made mostly of carbon or oxygen surrounded by layers of helium and hydrogen.  These layers of helium and hydrogen are themselves layered according to whether the material is undergoing nuclear fusion or not; burning helium slowly settles onto the carbon core, while burning hydrogen slowly settles onto the helium shell.  These burning shells are the main reason why AGB stars are so luminous; because the shell is closer to the surface, the outer layers become much hotter and so the star puffs up to enormous size.  But because the star has such a large surface area, the amount of energy escaping from any one part of the surface is much lower than for a main sequence star, and so is much, much cooler.  That's why AGB stars are red -- most have temperatures no more than 3000 to 3500 K. 

What's most interesting is the short length of time stars spend on the AGB.  A star may spend less than a million years evolving from the end of the red giant branch to the end of the AGB.  That is a long time on human timescales, but very, very short in the life of a star!  Further, some changes that occur on the AGB happen not on million-year timescales, but over a few centuries or a few decades!  AGB stars undergo occasional events called thermal pulses, where the layer of helium surrounding the core suddenly undergoes thermonuclear burning, causing large changes to the star's structure, its luminosity, and its temperature.  These events are called thermal pulses, and they're predicted to occur in all AGB stars by theoretical models of stellar evolution.  If they occur, they happen very fast compared to other timescales in stellar evolution, and it's possible (though not proven) that we've seen some of these changes happen in a very few stars while we've watched over the past few hundred years.

The AGB is the locus of one of the most famous and earliest-known classes of variable star, and one near and dear to variable star observers: the Mira variables.  Miras, named for the class prototype Mira (aka Mira Ceti, omicron Ceti, or omi Cet) are giant, pulsating variable stars so large that it takes them a hundred days or more to complete one pulsation cycle.  They have large light amplitudes of at least 2.5 magnitudes, and some stars vary by ten magnitudes -- a factor of 10,000 in brightness!  And they're huge, sometimes larger than the orbit of Mars.

Everything about the Mira variables is large, including and especially their importance in astrophysics.  Like the Cepheids and other pulsators, the Mira variables have a Period-Luminosity relationship, and so can be used as distance indicators under some circumstances.  Mira variables also have very high mass loss rates, and so they are the origin of a large fraction of processed interstellar material in galaxies; most (if not all) of the matter that makes up the world around us -- including ourselves -- came from inside an AGB star.  And some Mira variables have observational records longer than a century, some much, much longer; these long observational records allow researchers to study evolutionary changes in Mira stars, one of the few instances where this is possible.  The period of a Mira is dependent upon its size, and so if the average diameter of the star expands or contracts over time, its period will increase or decrease by a proportional amount.  A very small number of known Mira variables have shown large changes in period that suggest long-term changes are occurring inside the star, and although it isn't proven that these changes are caused by thermal pulses, the possibility exists.  Mira itself was first discovered in the year 1596, and a few other Mira variables were discovered in the 17th century.  By the end of the 19th century, many more Mira variables were known, and today there are many dozens of Mira variables with light curves spanning a century or more.  Such light curves are an incredible resource for stellar astrophysicists, and are one of the main reasons why organizations like the AAVSO encourage observations of variable stars.  It may be that an astrophysicist in the future may use your observations of a Mira variable today to make an important discovery about the lives of AGB stars!

After the AGB, a star's lifetime is nearly over.  The last stage of a star's life as a self-contained star may be the RV Tauri stage, characterized by pulsations with periods between 30 and 150 days.  Some RV Tauri stars are known to have dust shells around them, and it's possible they've already passed through the AGB and Mira phases and are headed toward becoming planetary nebulae and white dwarfs.  Their pulsations aren't regular, but instead seem to be weakly chaotic:  while they may have cycles of maxima and minima that are fairly regular, their lightcurves often don't repeat from one cycle to the next, and often get out of sync over many cycles.  While their behavior is sometimes similar to the Cepheid-like W Virginis stars, the RV Tauri stars seem to have gone slightly "over the edge" -- they're so luminous relative to their masses that they can no longer maintain regular pulsations.  These stars are subdivided further into types "RVa" and "RVb", with the former maintaining a nearly constant mean magnitude and the latter having long secondary periods on the order of 1000 days or more where the star gets substantially fainter before returning to its former brightness.  The reasons why there are two types isn't yet proven, but it may be due to the lack or presence of circumstellar material that periodically obscures the central star.

It's important to note one thing about the structure of stars at this point.  Interiors of all stars become hotter and denser as you go deeper and deeper inside, for the same reason that the pressure in the ocean gets larger and larger the deeper you go.  The weight of the mass above you increases the deeper you go in the star, until the pressures become very, very great.  When a star is on the main sequence, these pressures are high by human standards, but atoms still behave like (mostly) normal matter, and the gas inside a star obeys physical rules -- called an equation of state -- similar to what we might observe here on earth. (The ideal gas law you might have learned in chemistry of physical science classes is an example of an equation of state.)  But as stars age and more of the core is converted to heavier and heavier elements like helium, carbon, and oxygen, something happens.  The gas becomes so dense and the atoms so highly compressed that they stop acting like normal matter -- the material becomes degenerate, meaning that the electronic fields of individual atoms can no longer keep them separated as they normally do.  When this happens, the behavior of the gas fundamentally changes, and follows a degenerate equation of state.  The gas no longer responds as quickly to heating by expanding or increasing in pressure as an ideal gas might, and so one of the key things that allows a star to keep its thermonuclear fires burning stops working.

A star whose core is in such a state is destined to die very, very soon in cosmic terms, and this core -- which is very dense, very small, and very hot -- is called a white dwarf.  If a star has a core in this state, it will very soon begin blowing away material from its outer layers, until eventually the white dwarf core is exposed, and is all that remains of the star that was.  The process by which this happens is very spectacular for anyone who happens to catch a star in the middle of this process.  As the material flows away from the star into space, it becomes more diffuse and nebular in nature, while remaining lit by the hot stellar remnant within, forming what we see as a planetary nebula.

One of the key things that we learn from variable stars near the ends of their lives is how stars begin to return some of their mass back to space around them, and it is this cast-off stellar material that will later compose the clouds of gas and dust within galaxies that make up new generations of stars.  Some of the material that is shed by older stars will be recycled into new generations of stars, and so learning about the evolution of stars also tells us how galaxies themselves evolve over time.


Binary Systems

Before we discuss the last stage of a star's life, let's take a moment to discuss another class of stars that can span all stages of stellar evolution -- the binary stars.  Many stars are members of binary or multiple systems, and understanding how these systems form and evolve over time is an important part of stellar astronomy. Binary stars are particularly interesting because they give us more opportunities to determine the physical characteristics of these systems.

How?  The light that stars give off contains a lot of information about them, and by applying all of the different measurement tools that we have at our disposal, astronomers can learn a lot about stars.  First, the stars are moving relative to one another, and their motions cause their light to be doppler shifted back and forth in wavelength every time the stars complete an orbit.  Measurement of these shifts can tell us how fast the stars are moving relative to their center of motion, and we can then make inferences about their masses and the sizes of their orbits.  Second, eclipses mean that one star periodically obscures the other.  Since one star obscures the other, we can try to map the shape and size of the stars based upon the eclipse light curves.  Individual stars within the system might be distorted in shape if the stars are close to one another in their orbits.  Stars also don't appear uniformly bright, but instead are dimmer toward their edges relative to our line of sight.  (You can see this in photographs of the Sun -- it looks brighter at the center than toward the edges.)  If you can measure this during eclipses, you can learn something about the temperature structure of the star's atmosphere.  Third, when we follow binary stars over long periods of time, we may find that the orbital period changes in ways that can only be caused by specific things, such as precession or the presence of a third body in the system.

So assuming we can measure the properties of binary stars so that we know what they look like right now, what does that mean for our understanding of stellar evolution?  Pairs of widely separated stars can evolve normally, as single stars do. However, if the stars are in close proximity to each other, or evolve to become closer to each other, they may dramatically influence the other star, forever changing its evolutionary course.  The most dramatic way in which one star can influence the evolution of the other is through mass transfer.  Each star has its own gravitational field, and during most of a star's life, the majority of a star's mass will reside well within the confines of its own gravitational well.  But when two stars are close together, the shape of the gravitational field gets complicated.  If you envision the strength of a gravitational field around a star like a topographic map, then there is a contour line separating the two stars, where the gravitational pull of each star balances out the other.  Any mass that rests on that equipotential surface -- called the Roche limit -- is pulled equally by the two stars; if it crosses that line, then it will be pulled toward the other star.  This is how mass transfer works.  If a star grows in size -- which stars do as they get older -- then it may grow to the point where it is larger than the Roche limit.  When it does, matter will start to spill over from one star and fall onto the other.  When this happens, things can get very interesting!  This mass transfer, also called accretion, is responsible for a number of different kinds of stellar variability, many of them being very dramatic indeed.  In fact, mass accretion is responsible for some of the most energetic events in the universe.  (More on those in a moment.) 

The Algol variables are examples of mass-transferring main-sequence stars.  Algols are binary star systems made of two relatively normal stars where one is transferring matter onto its companion.  The variability we see is caused primarily by eclipses, but we also see variability due to this mass transfer.  The most prominent of these stars is Algol itself, also known as beta Persei, the second brightest star in the constellation Perseus.  Algol is known to be bright in X-rays and has strong stellar flares like solar flares on the Sun. This high energy variability originates from the interactions of magnetic fields on the individual stars with the mass transfer stream from one star to the other.


In the long term, mass transfer fundamentally changes the way stars evolve.  As we mentioned earlier, the evolutionary path of a star is defined almost entirely by one parameter: its mass.  If you know a star's mass, then you can predict a star's evolutionary path with great precision.  However, what happens if you change the star's mass mid-way through its lifetime?  Changing a star's mass fundamentally changes how the star evolves over time.  If you increase a star's mass, you will increase the speed at which it burns its nuclear fuel and shorten its lifetime.  You might substantially change the interior structure of the star.  You might even change a star's ultimate fate; the way stars end their lives is also very strongly dependent upon its initial mass, and so adding to a star's mass might make the difference between it ending its life as a non-descript white dwarf or catastrophically as a supernova.

 

Stellar Death: white dwarfs and supernovae

Once a star passes through the asymptotic giant branch, what's left for it to do?  The answer to that question varies widely depending upon a star's past history and present circumstances.  There are two very important parameters for a star that determine its eventual fate: how massive is the star at the end of its life, and is it a single star or a binary?  We'll first discuss what part the star's mass plays in how it ends its life.

White dwarfs

First, if a star reaches the end of the AGB with less than about 1.4 times the mass of the Sun, it will end its life as a white dwarf; if more than that, it will collapse into a neutron star ending its life as a supernova explosion.  This mass limit, known as the Chandrasekhar limit, is the limit above which white dwarfs will collapse under their own weight -- the inward force of gravity becomes stronger than the outward force of electron degeneracy pressure, and the white dwarf implodes.  The differences between those two fates could not be more different.  Most stars will end their lives as white dwarfs, since most stars are relatively low mass.  A star born with less than about eight times the mass of the Sun can probably lose enough mass during its lifetime to wind up below the Chandrasekhar limit by the time it dies, and well over 99 percent of all stars in the universe today are below that mass.

Stars that die as white dwarfs typically pass through one last phase of substantial mass loss, called the post-asymptotic giant branch (pAGB), and are often variable during this phase since they're in such an unstable state.  The great temperature and pressure of the core serves to blow off most of the outer layers of the star, and in the process, stars can undergo any number of changes.  One of these is pulsation (similar to RV Tauri pulsation), and pulsations are observed in many pAGB stars.  Three other changes are directly related to the evolutionary changes happening deep inside the star: end-of-life evolutionary changes, very brief outbursts known as thermal pulses, and dust obscuration.  The nuclear reactions that power stars run faster at higher temperatures and pressures, and so late in a star's life, it is racing through its supply of fuel very quickly.  Evolutionary changes happen on timescales of decades and centuries, and to some extent, these subtle changes in luminosity and temperature may be visible if we look long and carefully enough.  Sometimes the changes are much faster than that, and more drastic too.  Thermal pulses are rapid thermonuclear burning events deep within the star where a thin layer of accumulated material becomes hot and dense enough to undergo nuclear fusion.  When this happens it happens very quickly, generating even more heat and pressure that change the surface temperature, size, and luminosity of the star.  Finally, the evolutionary changes and thermal pulses will drive mass loss from the surface of the star, and the mass loss rate at this stage of evolution is very large.  Stars can lose nearly a tenth of a percent of their mass in just one year, which sounds like a small amount except that it adds up quickly in the space of a thousand years!  This lost mass can generate dust around the star, which can obscure the star itself over time.

There are two types of variables that exemplify these behaviors.  One are the R Coronae Borealis stars, named for the class prototype R CrB.  At most times, R CrB hovers near naked-eye visibility at 6th magnitude, but seemingly at random it undergoes dramatic fades of several magnitudes in as little as two weeks.  These events are almost certainly caused by dust obscuration, but whether each dip is a separate dust-forming event around the entire star, or simply an obscuration of the star on our line of sight by an orbiting dust cloud isn't entirely clear.  There are about two dozen R CrB stars known today.  This is a very small number, due to the fact that this is a very short stage of a star's life.  In the several billion years that a star might live, it might spend only a few thousand years in the R CrB stage, so we'll only see a handful at a given time.

Another, still rarer class of variables doesn't even have a definitive name yet, although its properties are exemplified by the strange variable FG Sagittae.  Like the R CrB stars, FG Sge is a pAGB star nearing the end of its life, but is likely to be very far along in this process.  Tellingly, FG Sge is surrounded by a spherical shell, clearly reminiscent of planetary nebulae, and it has likely been shedding mass at a prodigious rate for thousands of years.  FG Sge was discovered in the 1940s as a variable with irregular variability on timescales of a few days, and by the early 1960s it was clear that it was also slowly brightening by a few percent per year since the late 19th century.  By the late 1960s it leveled of at around 9th magnitude, but in the early 1990's it underwent a precipitous decline, and it has varied irregularly by several magnitudes since then.  It isn't known exactly what's happening, but the suspicion is that the long-term brightening was a rapid evolutionary change or the end of a thermal pulse, the result of which was greatly enhanced mass loss.  This lost mass is now starting to condense into dust which obscures the star.  The proto-planetary nebula that we see today is probably the result of previous episodes just like this one in which the star episodically lost mass in the recent past, and at some point, FG Sge will undergo one last event like this before shedding the last of its outer layers and leaving behind a planetary nebula and a white dwarf.  Two other stars, V605 Aquilae and V4334 Sagittarius (Sakurai's Object), may have already reached this point and are well on their way to becoming white dwarfs.

After all the envelope has been lost and all of the nuclear burning and evolutionary changes have ceased, we're left with the final remains of a star's innermost core: a white dwarf.  White dwarfs are the white hot remains of stars, mostly made of carbon and oxygen, and just a few thousand kilometers in size.  They no longer shine by burning nuclear fuel, but by shedding the leftover heat from their past lives.  Even though they're no longer living stars as we consider them, white dwarfs can still be variables!  In particular, white dwarfs can pulsate, and the physics behind these pulsations is similar to those in normal stars.  The only difference is the pulsation period; instead of taking months, weeks, days, or hours to undergo one pulsation cycle, it may only take them just a few minutes!  White dwarfs are small, dense stars -- no more than a few thousand kilometers across -- and since the pulsation period is related to how long it takes a perturbation to travel through the star the variability make take just a few hundred seconds.  We study pulsations in white dwarfs just as we do for the Sun and delta Scuti stars, for the purpose of asteroseismology. Just as in those main sequence stars, the pulsations of white dwarfs can tell us a great deal about their interiors, and we've learned a great deal about the properties of matter at very high densities and temperatures by studying them.  We can even study how white dwarf pulsations change slowly over time as the star cools; the hottest white dwarfs cool fastest, and so it's possible to track their changes over many years and decades and deduce how quickly the star is cooling.  This measurement is an important one for cosmology, since the coolest white dwarfs in the sky put a lower limit on the age of the universe.

Neutron stars, black holes, and supernovae

So what if a star is above the Chandrasekhar limit when it reaches the end of it's life?  Lower mass stars typically stop their nuclear burning when the core is converted entirely to carbon and oxygen.  It takes a great deal of temperature and pressure to reach the energy levels required to begin the thermonuclear burning of these elements.  You can reach these levels in more massive stars, and in principle you can extract energy from all thermonuclear reactions up to a hard limit, that of thermonuclear burning of iron.  All thermonuclear burning reactions are exothermic to that point, and so nuclear reactions will help to increase the temperature and pressure inside a star.  If there's enough energy and pressure to star the reaction, you can start burning oxygen, neon, magnesium, silicon, and so on, all the way up to iron.  If the core of the star is converted entirely to iron and then reaches the limit where it can start to burn, it will start to draw energy from its surroundings -- the reaction is endothermic.  This is a catastrophe, because it is this very same energy that holds up the outer layers of the star against collapse, and so the star implodes violently.  The result of this implosion is a supernova, one of the most energetic events in the universe.  In a flash, the pent up gravitational potential energy is released, unleashing runaway nuclear reactions that create every element in the periodic table along with a storm of subatomic particles that blast away the outer layers of the star at close to the speed of light.  For a few months, the amount of energy released by a supernova can equal the combined light of every other star in a galaxy -- the light of a hundred billion stars or more.

What's left over from this titanic explosion is again dependent upon the mass of the star.  If the collapsed core is less than about three solar masses, the result will be an ultradense object called a neutron star -- an object ten kilometers across with three times the mass of the Sun, where all of its matter has been crushed so tightly that it composed of little more than atomic nuclei.  Such objects are the most extreme form of visible matter in the universe and bear little resemblance to anything else in human experience.  Their behavior can be just as bizarre, making them one of the most extreme kinds of variables known.  The first variable neutron star was discovered in 1967, before it was even known such objects could even exist.  A graduate student studying the universe at radio wavelengths discovered a repeating signal so regular that it was first assumed to originate from an alien intelligence.  It was later found to be an ultradense object spinning on its axis many times per second, and the variability came from radiation from it's magnetic poles rotating in and out of view.  These objects are now known as pulsars, and some pulsars have been found that spin as quickly as a thousand times a second.  An even more extreme variable neutron star is a magnetar -- a neutron star with a powerful magnetic field that undergoes enormous outbursts at high energies.  Magnetars can emit huge amounts of high energy radiation detectable from across the entire Milky Way.  These outbursts can be so strong that the radiation can affect the Earth's atmosphere, increasing its temperature and causing it to expand, endangering satellites in low Earth orbit.

Even these aren't the most extreme fate of massive stars.  If a star is above the three solar mass limit, not even the atomic forces that keep nuclei apart can keep the star from collapsing under the force of its own gravity.  This creates one of the strangest objects in the universe: a black hole.  These objects have such strong gravitational fields that their escape velocites are larger than the speed of light; anything that comes within a few kilometers -- a point called the event horizon -- is trapped forever, since there's no way it can travel faster than light to escape.  What happens then?  No one knows -- our understanding of the laws of physics breaks down at such extreme limits.  Theorists predict that black holes might emit a kind of radiation, but nothing like that has ever been observed, and it is impossible to study a black hole directly.  But black holes themselves have been observed indirectly, and this is a good point to begin our final discussion of variables: how they behave as members of binary stars.

White dwarf, neutron star, and black hole binary stars

Earlier, we mentioned binaries in which one star transferred matter to the other star, in a process called accretion.  In systems where one member of the binary pair is a compact object, the accretion process can release an enormous amount of energy.  The energy generated by accretion comes from gravitational potential energy, and material falling onto a compact object like a white dwarf, neutron star, or back hole falls into a very deep potential well.  Depending upon how the accretion process occurs, it can release hundreds or thousands of times the luminous output of the Sun.  Such objects are given a universal name of cataclysmic variables, although their properties vary wildly from one star to another, and are broken down into a number of different subclassifications.

White dwarf binaries are the most common form of accreting binary system, and they share a number of similar properties.  The dwarf novae are binaries composed of a white dwarf primary and a Sun-like, main-sequence star in orbit around one another.  Material is pulled off of the main-sequence star, and spirals around and down onto the white dwarf through an accretion disk.  Depending upon the rate of mass transfer (how much mass flows off of the donor star onto the white dwarf), these stars can exhibit a number of different kinds of variability.  All of them will show some low-amplitude, irregular variability caused by the material impacting the surface of the white dwarf.  But in many of these stars the accretion rate is high enough that the accretion disk itself can go into outburst, brightening by a factor of 100 or more.

The stars SS Cygni and U Geminorum, both discovered in the mid-19th century, are prime examples of this.  SS Cygni goes into outburst roughly once every 80 days, and U Geminorum about once every 200 days.  The outbursts of dwarf novae become more frequent as the mass accretion rate increases, so stars with higher mass accretion rates outburst more often.  Z Camelopardalis is an example of such a star.  It rarely goes out of its outburst state for more than a few days.  The Z Cam stars also exhibit another peculiarity in that the accretion disk can sometimes get stuck in a bright or "high" state, in an event known as a standstill.  Such stars may show vigorous outbursts once every few days for months or years, and then suddenly enter this bright standstill for months or years more.  At the highest mass accretion rates, the accretion disk never goes out of its outburst state since matter keeps piling onto the disk so quickly.  Such stars are called novalike variables for reasons that will be made clear in a moment.  A good example of such a star is V Sagittae, whose wildly irregular light curve shows little coherence over time.  Another example is TT Arietis, a star discovered in the late 1960s, that for most of its life remains locked in a permanently bright, flat state around magnitude 10, with very rare extended dips of several magnitudes or more when the mass accretion inexplicably turns off for weeks or months at a time.

What happens to all the matter that piles up on the white dwarf?  Over time, the white dwarf's mass will grow.  Since the accreted material is coming from the outer layers of a normal star, it is mostly hydrogen and helium.  Sometimes, if enough mass builds up on the white dwarf's surface, the temperature and pressure of the accreted material can rise high enough that it undergoes thermonuclear fusion, just as it would in the star's core.  When this happens, the system becomes a classical nova, brightening not by a factor of 100, but a factor of 10000 or more for a short time.  The word "nova" is the latin word for "new", and that's exactly what novae appear to be: new stars.  They suddenly appear in familiar constellations, where they remain for a few days or weeks, until fading from view again.  There have been a great many famous novae throughout the past century.  Perhaps one of the most famous was Nova Persei 1901, a star now known as GK Persei.  Nova Per 1901 brightened from an obscure magnitude around 10 or so all the way to magnitude 1, clearly visible among the bright stars of the sky.  Over days and weeks if faded from easy view until dropping from naked eye visibility entirely, becoming a target for the larger telescopes of that era.  More recent famous novae include Nova Delphinium 1967 (HR Del) and Nova Cygni 1992 (V1974 Cyg).

Most novae probably recur on very long timescales, perhaps many centuries or millenia, since it takes them that long to build up enough mass to trigger a thermonuclear explosion.  But in a very few cases, the rate of mass transfer is high enough and the mass of the white dwarf is high enough that they recur on observable timescales of years or decades.  These are known as recurrent novae.  One such nova, U Scorpii, was recently in the news as its early 2010 outburst was predicted in advance and widely followed by astronomers around the world.  RS Ophiuchi and T Coronae Borealis are two more examples of such novae.  These stars are particularly interesting because it is believed that their white dwarf stars are near the maximum masses for white dwarf stars, around 1.4 solar masses.  Because of this, any mass that accretes onto them will slowly push the star closer to the Chandrasekhar limit.  When this happens, the gravitational collapse of the white dwarf results not in a classical novae, but in something far larger -- a type Ia supernovae, briefly becoming not 10000 times brighter but billions of times brighter.  No one has yet seen a classical or recurrent nova become a supernova, but it's likely that in the not too distant future, some of the recurrent novae we know today will end their lives as supernovae.

There are other kinds of accreting white dwarf systems that don't fall into these neat categories.  A very similar type of system involves a normal star and a white dwarf, but the white

          Î•Î“ΧΕΙΡΙΔΙΟ ΚΑΙ ΟΔΗΓΙΕΣ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΚΑΤΑΣΤΡΟΦΗ ΕΘΝΩΝ        
Πως να καταστρέψετε ένα έθνος, έναν λαό, και την κρατική του υπόσταση. 
Ενας πλήρης οδηγός στρατηγικής και διαδικασιών εθνομηδενισμού που πολλά του στοιχεία χρησιμοποιήθηκαν πρόδηλα (και) στην περίπτωση της Ελλάδας. 
Ιδιαίτερα στην τελευταία υπερσαραντακοετή "μεταπολιτευτική" περίοδο που η χώρα και ο λαός της εξανδραποδίστηκαν συστηματικά σαν επιλεγμένος στόχος και "πειραματόζωο" της Καμπάλα των παγκόσμιων νεοταξιτών σε αγαστή συνεργασία με το ντόπιο υπηρετικό πολιτικό προσωπικό τους. 
Ο "ήσυχος πόλεμος", χωρίς φανερούς και ένστολους εχθρούς, χωρίς άρματα μάχης, ένας αφανής και ύπουλος ολοκληρωτικός πόλεμος που όμως μαίνεται στο "παρασκήνιο".
Το πολιτικό μέλλον και σύστημα της χώρας είναι πλέον άδηλο. 
Η "Αριστερά", που στην ουσία συνεχίζει να πορεύεται με την ταπεινωτική υπογραφή του Μνημονίου ΙΙΙ στον μονόδρομο προς την εθνική καταστροφή και την ελεύθερη πτώση όλων των κοινωνικών δεικτών, δεν θα μπορέσει να κρατηθεί στην εξουσία μόλις το μεγάλο τμήμα του πληθυσμού τελικά χωνέψει πως εξαπατήθηκε απο ακόμα μιά αριστερή "μεταλλαγμένη" μορφή των προκάτοχων τους. Το άμεσο μέλλον θα περιλαμβάνει μιά μαζική ιδεολογική στροφή και μιά πορεία εθνικής αναγέννησης και κοινωνικής ανασυγκρότησης που όμως δεν μπορέσουν να εξυπηρετήσουν οι υπάρχοντες προκατασκευασμένοι κομματικοί μηχανισμοί. Μηχανισμοί, κόμματα-κομμάτια του υπάρχοντος πολιτικού κώματος, τηλεπερσόνες  Ï€Î¿Ï… συνειδητά έπαιξαν καθοριστικό ρόλο στην παράδοση της εθνικής ανεξαρτησίας και κυριαρχίας με τις πράξεις, τα έργα τους, και την συμμετοχή τους στα πολιτικά δρώμενα. 
Το Μέλλον ανήκει στους πραγματικούς δημιουργούς του.
Χρειάζεται όπως σε κάθε τραγωδία και πριν από κάθε πραγματική επανάσταση να συμβούν τα χειρότερα των χειροτέρων. Η Αριστερά μας οδηγεί ακριβώς εκεί, καταστρέφει ότι είχε απομείνει απο τους Δημοκρατικούς και κοινωνικούς θεσμούς "νομιμοποιώντας" μέσω της "Βουλής" Δρακόντια και καταστροφικά διατάγματα και εφαρμοστικούς νόμους στραγγαλίζοντας τον λαό και κονιορτοποιώντας ότι έχει απομείνει όρθιο στην Οικονομία. 
Αυτή θα είναι και η αιτία αυτοκαταστροφής της. 
Το παράσιτο πάντα πεθαίνει χωρίς τον ξενιστή του.





και η αναδημοσίευση από /reposted from here

Table of Contents


The following document, dated May 1979, was found on July 7, 1986, in an IBM copier that had been purchased at a surplus sale.

TOP SECRET
Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars

Operations Research Technical Manual TM-SW7905.1

Welcome Aboard. This publication marks the 25th anniversary of the Third World War, called the "Quiet War", being conducted using subjective biological warfare, fought with "silent weapons."
This book contains an introductory description of this war, its strategies, and its weaponry.
May 1979 #74-1120



Security

It is patently impossible to discuss social engineering or the automation of a society, i.e., the engineering of social automation systems (silent weapons) on a national or worldwide scale without implying extensive objectives of social control and destruction of human life, i.e., slavery and genocide.This manual is in itself an analog declaration of intent. Such a writing must be secured from public scrutiny. Otherwise, it might be recognized as a technically formal declaration of domestic war. Furthermore, whenever any person or group of persons in a position of great power and without full knowledge and consent of the public, uses such knowledge and methodologies for economic conquest - it must be understood that a state of domestic warfare exists between said person or group of persons and the public.
The solution of today's problems requires an approach which is ruthlessly candid, with no agonizing over religious, moral or cultural values.
You have qualified for this project because of your ability to look at human society with cold objectivity, and yet analyze and discuss your observations and conclusions with others of similar intellectual capacity without the loss of discretion or humility. Such virtues are exercised in your own best interest. Do not deviate from them.


Historical Introduction

Silent weapon technology has evolved from Operations Research (O.R.), a strategic and tactical methodology developed under the Military Management in England during World War II. The original purpose of Operations Research was to study the strategic and tactical problems of air and land defense with the objective of effective use of limited military resources against foreign enemies (i.e., logistics).It was soon recognized by those in positions of power that the same methods might be useful for totally controlling a society. But better tools were necessary.
Social engineering (the analysis and automation of a society) requires the correlation of great amounts of constantly changing economic information (data), so a high-speed computerized data-processing system was necessary which could race ahead of the society and predict when society would arrive for capitulation.
Relay computers were to slow, but the electronic computer, invented in 1946 by J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly, filled the bill.
The next breakthrough was the development of the simplex method of linear programming in 1947 by the mathematician George B. Dantzig.
Then in 1948, the transistor, invented by J. Bardeen, W.H. Brattain, and W. Shockley, promised great expansion of the computer field by reducing space and power requirements.
With these three inventions under their direction, those in positions of power strongly suspected that it was possible for them to control the whole world with the push of a button.
Immediately, the Rockefeller Foundation got in on the ground floor by making a four-year grant to Harvard College, funding the Harvard Economic Research Project for the study of the structure of the American Economy. One year later, in 1949, The United States Air Force joined in.
In 1952 the grant period terminated, and a high-level meeting of the Elite was held to determine the next phase of social operations research. The Harvard project had been very fruitful, as is borne out by the publication of some of its results in 1953 suggesting the feasibility of economic (social) engineering. (Studies in the Structure of the American Economy - copyright 1953 by Wassily Leontief, International Science Press Inc., White Plains, New York).
Engineered in the last half of the decade of the 1940's, the new Quiet War machine stood, so to speak, in sparkling gold-plated hardware on the showroom floor by 1954.
With the creation of the maser in 1954, the promise of unlocking unlimited sources of fusion atomic energy from the heavy hydrogen in sea water and the consequent availability of unlimited social power was a possibility only decades away.
The combination was irresistible.
The Quiet War was quietly declared by the International Elite at a meeting held in 1954.
Although the silent weapons system was nearly exposed 13 years later, the evolution of the new weapon-system has never suffered any major setbacks.
This volume marks the 25th anniversary of the beginning of the Quiet War. Already this domestic war has had many victories on many fronts throughout the world.

Political Introduction

In 1954 it was well recognized by those in positions of authority that it was only a matter of time, only a few decades, before the general public would be able to grasp and upset the cradle of power, for the very elements of the new silent-weapon technology were as accessible for a public utopia as they were for providing a private utopia.The issue of primary concern, that of dominance, revolved around the subject of the energy sciences.

Energy

Energy is recognized as the key to all activity on earth. Natural science is the study of the sources and control of natural energy, and social science, theoretically expressed as economics, is the study of the sources and control of social energy. Both are bookkeeping systems: mathematics. Therefore, mathematics is the primary energy science. And the bookkeeper can be king if the public can be kept ignorant of the methodology of the bookkeeping.All science is merely a means to an end. The means is knowledge. The end is control. Beyond this remains only one issue: Who will be the beneficiary?
In 1954 this was the issue of primary concern. Although the so-called "moral issues" were raised, in view of the law of natural selection it was agreed that a nation or world of people who will not use their intelligence are no better than animals who do not have intelligence. Such people are beasts of burden and steaks on the table by choice and consent.
Consequently, in the interest of future world order, peace, and tranquillity, it was decided to privately wage a quiet war against the American public with an ultimate objective of permanently shifting the natural and social energy (wealth) of the undisciplined and irresponsible many into the hands of the self-disciplined, responsible, and worthy few.
In order to implement this objective, it was necessary to create, secure, and apply new weapons which, as it turned out, were a class of weapons so subtle and sophisticated in their principle of operation and public appearance as to earn for themselves the name "silent weapons."
In conclusion, the objective of economic research, as conducted by the magnates of capital (banking) and the industries of commodities (goods) and services, is the establishment of an economy which is totally predictable and manipulatable.
In order to achieve a totally predictable economy, the low-class elements of society must be brought under total control, i.e., must be housebroken, trained, and assigned a yoke and long-term social duties from a very early age, before they have an opportunity to question the propriety of the matter. In order to achieve such conformity, the lower-class family unit must be disintegrated by a process of increasing preoccupation of the parents and the establishment of government-operated day-care centers for the occupationally orphaned children.
The quality of education given to the lower class must be of the poorest sort, so that the moat of ignorance isolating the inferior class from the superior class is and remains incomprehensible to the inferior class. With such an initial handicap, even bright lower class individuals have little if any hope of extricating themselves from their assigned lot in life. This form of slavery is essential to maintain some measure of social order, peace, and tranquillity for the ruling upper class.

Descriptive Introduction of the Silent Weapon

Everything that is expected from an ordinary weapon is expected from a silent weapon by its creators, but only in its own manner of functioning.It shoots situations, instead of bullets; propelled by data processing, instead of chemical reaction (explosion); originating from bits of data, instead of grains of gunpowder; from a computer, instead of a gun; operated by a computer programmer, instead of a marksman; under the orders of a banking magnate, instead of a military general.
It makes no obvious explosive noises, causes no obvious physical or mental injuries, and does not obviously interfere with anyone's daily social life.
Yet it makes an unmistakable "noise," causes unmistakable physical and mental damage, and unmistakably interferes with the daily social life, i.e., unmistakable to a trained observer, one who knows what to look for.
The public cannot comprehend this weapon, and therefore cannot believe that they are being attacked and subdued by a weapon.
The public might instinctively feel that something is wrong, but that is because of the technical nature of the silent weapon, they cannot express their feeling in a rational way, or handle the problem with intelligence. Therefore, they do not know how to cry for help, and do not know how to associate with others to defend themselves against it.
When a silent weapon is applied gradually, the public adjusts/adapts to its presence and learns to tolerate its encroachment on their lives until the pressure (psychological via economic) becomes too great and they crack up.
Therefore, the silent weapon is a type of biological warfare. It attacks the vitality, options, and mobility of the individuals of a society by knowing, understanding, manipulating, and attacking their sources of natural and social energy, and their physical, mental, and emotional strengths and weaknesses.

Theoretical Introduction

Give me control over a nation's currency, and I care not who makes its laws.-- Mayer Amschel Rothschild, 1743 - 1812)
Today's silent weapons technology is an outgrowth of a simple idea discovered, succinctly expressed, and effectively applied by the quoted Mr. Mayer Amschel Rothschild. Mr. Rothschild discovered the missing passive component of economic theory known as economic inductance. He, of course, did not think of his discovery in these 20th-century terms, and, to be sure, mathematical analysis had to wait for the Second Industrial Revolution, the rise of the theory of mechanics and electronics, and finally, the invention of the electronic computer before it could be effectively applied in the control of the world economy.



General Energy Concepts

In the study of energy systems, there always appears three elementary concepts. These are potential energy, kinetic energy, and energy dissipation. And corresponding to these concepts, there are three idealized, essentially pure physical counterparts called passive components.
  1. In the science of physical mechanics, the phenomenon of potential energy is associated with a physical property called elasticity or stiffness, and can be represented by a stretched spring.In electronic science, potential energy is stored in a capacitor instead of a spring. This property is called capacitance instead of elasticity or stiffness.
  2. In the science of physical mechanics, the phenomenon of kinetic energy is associated with a physical property called inertia or mass, and can be represented by a mass or a flywheel in motion.In electronic science, kinetic energy is stored in an inductor (in a magnetic field) instead of a mass. This property is called inductance instead of inertia.
  3. In the science of physical mechanics, the phenomenon of energy dissipation is associated with a physical property called friction or resistance, and can be represented by a dashpot or other device which converts energy into heat.In electronic science, dissipation of energy is performed by an element called either a resistor or a conductor, the term "resistor" being the one generally used to describe a more ideal device (e.g., wire) employed to convey electronic energy efficiently from one location to another. The property of a resistance or conductor is measured as either resistance or conductance reciprocals.
In economics these three energy concepts are associated with:
  1. Economic Capacitance - Capital (money, stock/inventory, investments in buildings and durables, etc.)
  2. Economic Conductance - Goods (production flow coefficients)
  3. Economic Inductance - Services (the influence of the population of industry on output)
All of the mathematical theory developed in the study of one energy system (e.g., mechanics, electronics, etc.) can be immediately applied in the study of any other energy system (e.g., economics).

Mr. Rothchild's Energy Discovery

What Mr. Rothschild had discovered was the basic principle of power, influence, and control over people as applied to economics. That principle is "when you assume the appearance of power, people soon give it to you."Mr. Rothschild had discovered that currency or deposit loan accounts had the required appearance of power that could be used to induce people (inductance, with people corresponding to a magnetic field) into surrendering their real wealth in exchange for a promise of greater wealth (instead of real compensation). They would put up real collateral in exchange for a loan of promissory notes. Mr. Rothschild found that he could issue more notes than he had backing for, so long as he had someone's stock of gold as a persuader to show his customers.
Mr. Rothschild loaned his promissory notes to individual and to governments. These would create overconfidence. Then he would make money scarce, tighten control of the system, and collect the collateral through the obligation of contracts. The cycle was then repeated. These pressures could be used to ignite a war. Then he would control the availability of currency to determine who would win the war. That government which agreed to give him control of its economic system got his support.
Collection of debts was guaranteed by economic aid to the enemy of the debtor. The profit derived from this economic methodology mad Mr. Rothschild all the more able to expand his wealth. He found that the public greed would allow currency to be printed by government order beyond the limits (inflation) of backing in precious metal or the production of goods and services.

Apparent Capital as "Paper" Inductor

In this structure, credit, presented as a pure element called "currency," has the appearance of capital, but is in effect negative capital. Hence, it has the appearance of service, but is in fact, indebtedness or debt. It is therefore an economic inductance instead of an economic capacitance, and if balanced in no other way, will be balanced by the negation of population (war, genocide). The total goods and services represent real capital called the gross national product, and currency may be printed up to this level and still represent economic capacitance; but currency printed beyond this level is subtractive, represents the introduction of economic inductance, and constitutes notes of indebtedness.War is therefore the balancing of the system by killing the true creditors (the public which we have taught to exchange true value for inflated currency) and falling back on whatever is left of the resources of nature and regeneration of those resources.
Mr. Rothschild had discovered that currency gave him the power to rearrange the economic structure to his own advantage, to shift economic inductance to those economic positions which would encourage the greatest economic instability and oscillation.
The final key to economic control had to wait until there was sufficient data and high-speed computing equipment to keep close watch on the economic oscillations created by price shocking and excess paper energy credits - paper inductance/inflation.

Breakthrough

The aviation field provided the greatest evolution in economic engineering by way of the mathematical theory of shock testing. In this process, a projectile is fired from an airframe on the ground and the impulse of the recoil is monitored by vibration transducers connected to the airframe and wired to chart recorders.By studying the echoes or reflections of the recoil impulse in the airframe, it is possible to discover critical vibrations in the structure of the airframe which either vibrations of the engine or aeolian vibrations of the wings, or a combination of the two, might reinforce resulting in a resonant self-destruction of the airframe in flight as an aircraft. From the standpoint of engineering, this means that the strengths and weaknesses of the structure of the airframe in terms of vibrational energy can be discovered and manipulated.

Application in Economics

To use this method of airframe shock testing in economic engineering, the prices of commodities are shocked, and the public consumer reaction is monitored. The resulting echoes of the economic shock are interpreted theoretically by computers and the psycho-economic structure of the economy is thus discovered. It is by this process that partial differential and difference matrices are discovered that define the family household and make possible its evaluation as an economic industry (dissipative consumer structure).Then the response of the household to future shocks can be predicted and manipulated, and society becomes a well-regulated animal with its reins under the control of a sophisticated computer-regulated social energy bookkeeping system.
Eventually every individual element of the structure comes under computer control through a knowledge of personal preferences, such knowledge guaranteed by computer association of consumer preferences (universal product code, UPC; zebra-striped pricing codes on packages) with identified consumers (identified via association with the use of a credit card and later a permanent "tattooed" body number invisible under normal ambient illumination).

Summary

Economics is only a social extension of a natural energy system. It, also, has its three passive components. Because of the distribution of wealth and the lack of communication and lack of data, this field has been the last energy field for which a knowledge of these three passive components has been developed.Since energy is the key to all activity on the face of the earth, it follows that in order to attain a monopoly of energy, raw materials, goods, and services and to establixh a world system of slave labor, it is necessary to have a first strike capability in the field of economics. In order to maintain our position, it is necessary that we have absolute first knowledge of the science of control over all economic factors and the first experience at engineering the world economy.
In order to achieve such sovereignty, we must at least achieve this one end: that the public will not make either the logical or mathematical connection between economics and the other energy sciences or learn to apply such knowledge.
This is becoming increasingly difficult to control because more and more businesses are making demands upon their computer programmers to create and apply mathematical models for the management of those businesses.
It is only a matter of time before the new breed of private programmer/economists will catch on to the far reaching implications of the work begun at Harvard in 1948. The speed with which they can communicate their warning to the public will largely depend upon how effective we have been at controlling the media, subverting education, and keeping the public distracted with matters of no real importance.

The Economic Model

Economics, as a social energy science has as a first objective the description of the complex way in which any given unit of resources is used to satisfy some economic want. (Leontief Matrix). This first objective, when it is extended to get the most product from the least or limited resources, comprises that objective of general military and industrial logistics known as Operations Research. (See simplex method of linear programming.)The Harvard Economic Research Project (1948-) was an extension of World War II Operations Research. Its purpose was to discover the science of controlling an economy: at first the American economy, and then the world economy. It was felt that with sufficient mathematical foundation and data, it would be nearly as easy to predict and control the trend of an economy as to predict and control the trajectory of a projectile. Such has proven to be the case. Moreover, the economy has been transformed into a guided missile on target.
The immediate aim of the Harvard project was to discover the economic structure, what forces change that structure, how the behavior of the structure can be predicted, and how it can be manipulated. What was needed was a well-organized knowledge of the mathematical structures and interrelationships of investment, production, distribution, and consumption.
To make a short story of it all, it was discovered that an economy obeyed the same laws as electricity and that all of the mathematical theory and practical and computer know-how developed for the electronic field could be directly applied in the study of economics. This discovery was not openly declared, and its more subtle implications were and are kept a closely guarded secret, for example that in an economic model, human life is measured in dollars, and that the electric spark generated when opening a switch connected to an active inductor is mathematically analogous to the initiation of war.
The greatest hurdle which theoretical economists faced was the accurate description of the household as an industry. This is a challenge because consumer purchases are a matter of choice which in turn is influenced by income, price, and other economic factors.
This hurdle was cleared in an indirect and statistically approximate way by an application of shock testing to determine the current characteristics, called current technical coefficients, of a household industry
Finally, because problems in theoretical electronics can be translated very easily into problems of theoretical electronics, and the solution translated back again, it follows that only a book of language translation and concept definition needed to be written for economics. The remainder could be gotten from standard works on mathematics and electronics. This makes the publication of books on advanced economics unnecessary, and greatly simplifies project security.

Industrial Diagrams

An ideal industry is defined as a device which receives value from other industries in several forms and converts them into one specific product for sales and distribution to other industries. It has several inputs and one output. What the public normally thinks of as one industry is really an industrial complex, where several industries under one roof produce one or more products.A pure (single output) industry can be represented oversimply by a circuit block as follows:
Industry 'K'
The flow of product from industry #1 (supply) to industry #2 (demand) is denoted by 112. The total flow out of industry "K" is denoted by Ik (sales, etc.).
A three industry network can be diagrammed as follows:
3 Industry Network
A node is a symbol of collection and distribution of flow. Node #3 receives from industry #3 and distributes to industries #1 and #3. If industry #3 manufactures chairs, then a flow from industry #3 back to industry #3 simply indicates that industry #3 is using part of its own output product, for example, as office furniture. Therefore the flow may be summarized by the equations:
equations


Three Industrial Classes

Industries fall into three categories or classes by type of output:
  1. Class #1 - Capital (resources)
  2. Class #2 - Goods (commodities or use - dissipative)
  3. Class #3 - Services (action of population)
  • Class #1 industries exist at three levels:
    1. Nature - sources of energy and raw materials.
    2. Government - printing of currency equal to the gross national product (GNP), and extension of currency in excess of GNP.
    3. Banking - loaning of money for interest, and extension (inflation/counterfeiting) of economic value through the deposit loan accounts.
  • Class #2 industries exist as producers of tangible or consumer (dissipated) products. This sort of activity is usually recognized and labeled by the public as "industry."
  • Class #3 industries are those which have service rather than a tangible product as their output. These industries are called (1) households, and (2) governments. Their output is human activity of a mechanical sort, and their basis is population.


Aggregation

The whole economic system can be represented by a three-industry model if one allows the names of the outputs to be (1) capital, (2) goods, and (3) services. The problem with this representation is that it would not show the influence, say, the textile industry on the ferrous metal industry. This is because both the textile industry and the ferrous metal industry would be contained within a single classification called the "goods industry" and by this process of combining or aggregating these two industries under one system block they would lose their economic individuality.

The E-Model

A national economy consists of simultaneous flows of production, distribution, consumption, and investment. If all of these elements including labor and human functions are assigned a numerical value in like units of measure, say, 1939 dollars, then this flow can be further represented by a current flow in an electronic circuit, and its behavior can be predicted and manipulated with useful precision.The three ideal passive energy components of electronics, the capacitor, the resistor, and the inductor correspond to the three ideal passive energy components of economics called the pure industries of capital, goods, and services, respectively.


  • Economic capacitance represents the storage of capital in one form or another.
  • Economic conductance represents the level of conductance of materials for the production of goods.
  • Economic inductance represents the inertia of economic value in motion. This is a population phenomenon known as services.


Economic Inductance

An electrical inductor (e.g., a coil or wire) has an electric current as its primary phenomenon and a magnetic field as its secondary phenomenon (inertia). Corresponding to this, an economic inductor has a flow of economic value as its primary phenomenon and a population field as its secondary field phenomenon of inertia. When the flow of economic value (e.g., money) diminishes, the human population field collapses in order to keep the economic value (money) flowing (extreme case - war).This public inertia is a result of consumer buying habits, expected standard of living, etc., and is generally a phenomenon of self-preservation.

Inductive Factors to Consider

  1. Population
  2. Magnitude of the economic activities of the government
  3. The method of financing these government activities (See Peter-Paul Principle - inflation of the currency.)


Translation

(a few examples will be given.)
  • Charge: coulombs; dollars (1939).
  • Flow/Current: amperes (coulombs per second); dollars of flow per year.
  • Motivating Force: volts; dollars (output) demand.
  • Conductance: amperes per volt; dollars of flow per year per dollar demand.
  • Capacitance: coulombs per volt; dollars of production inventory/stock per dollar demand.


Time Flow Relationships and Self-Destructive Oscillations

An ideal industry may be symbolized electronically in various ways. The simplest way is to represent a demand by a voltage and a supply by a current. When this is done, the relationship between the two becomes what is called an admittance, which can result from three economic factors: (1) foresight flow, (2) present flow, and (3) hindsight flow.
  1. Foresight flow is the result of that property of living entities to cause energy (food) to be stored for a period of low energy (e.g., a winter season). It consists of demands made upon an economic system for that period of low energy (winter season).In a production industry it takes several forms, one of which is known as production stock or inventory. In electronic symbology this specific industry demand (a pure capital industry) is represented by capacitance and the stock or resource is represented by a stored charge. Satisfaction of an industry demand suffers a lag because of the loading effect of inventory priorities.
  2. Present flow ideally involves no delays. It is, so to speak, input today for output today, a "hand to mouth" flow. In electronic symbology, this specific industry demand (a pure us industry) is represented by a conductance which is then a simple economic valve (a dissipative element).
  3. Hindsight flow is known as habit or inertia. In electronics this phenomenon is the characteristic of an inductor (economic analog = a pure service industry) in which a current flow (economic analog = flow of money) creates a magnetic field (economic analog = active human population) which, if the current (money flow) begins to diminish, collapse (war) to maintain the current (flow of money - energy).Other large alternatives to war as economic inductors or economic flywheels are an open-ended social welfare program, or an enormous (but fruitful) open-ended space program.
    The problem with stabilizing the economic system is that there is too much demand on account of (1) too much greed and (2) too much population.
    This creates excessive economic inductan
          Peak training for Molokai        
My training for my upcoming Molokai swim in May is going very well.   I'm swimming a minimum of five days a week, weight training three days per week, and cross training four days per week.  I am very fortunate to have an experienced crew...David and Jeannie Gallant, and Bill and Jean Gallant.   We will review all logistics of my swim including the use of a Shark Shield.   It will be the very first time that I will have a Shark Shield attached to a kayak  during an Oceans Seven swim.   Due to aggressive sharks in Hawaii,  my boat pilot requires his swimmers to have two Shark Shields.   This device will emit a harmless electronic field that will be sensitive to shark receptors.   Because the battery life lasts only 5-6 hours, I will have a spare Shark Shield charging on the boat.  I expect my swim to take 18+ hours to complete.   After five hours, a recharged Shark Shield will be exchanged on the kayak.  It will be my crew's responsibility to make sure that the battery has been turned on and working properly.  My boat pilot will be navigating a couple of hundred feet ahead of the kayak.   I will swim along side the kayak to stay within the range of the electronic field.  My swim will start late in the day from Molokai Island and I will swim into the night.  My boat pilot wants a daytime finish on Oahu due to safety reasons (boat has to navigate near rocks).    If we encounter an aggressive shark,  my swim will stop and I will be removed from the water.   Safety is always the number one priority.   At this point,  my biggest concern is motion sickness during my Molokai swim.   I have chronic issues with nausea and vomiting during marathon swims.   I will be wearing a scopolomine patch to help reduce seasickness.  Also, I will be taking an anti-nausea pill every six hours to help settle my stomach.  I am looking forward to this 28 mile swim.......it will be another wonderful adventure.
          Molokai Channel Swim         

My next marathon swim will be in May 2017  between Molokai and Oahu islands in Hawaii.     This will be my sixth swim of the Ocean's Seven challenge.   Molokai channel located in the Pacific Ocean is known for its abundant marine life,  strong currents, mighty wind,  and steep waves.  Because of the degree of difficulty of this 28 mile marathon swim, I have  hired experts from Hawaii.    Steve Haumschild of Kaiwi Channel Swim Association  will coordinate many of the logistics.   He has hired two experienced paddlers to take turns kayaking near me.    The 32 foot lead boat will be piloted by Mike Twigg-Smith.  Due to aggressive marine life in the area, Mike has required (mandatory) two Shark Shields  (purchased by swimmer) for the swim to take place.   The Shark Shield emits a harmless electronic impulse to deter sharks.  The Shark Shield will be applied to the kayak and I will swim near the kayak to stay in the electronic field.    My biggest concern is surprisingly not the sharks, but the potential of getting motion sickness due to sea conditions.   I will be wearing a scopolamine patch and take a prescription anti-nausea medication.   Ever since childhood, it doesn't take much for me to experience motion sickness.  Hopefully the medications will significantly help.   Another concern is the possibility of getting stung by box jellyfish.  These invertebrates are known for giving very painful stings worse than Portuguese man-of-war.  Their tentacles can produce toxins that can be darn right painful and cause severe reactions. They are known to come to the surface of the water at night to spawn.   I've been stung by several other types of jellyfish but never by box jellyfish.  I can tolerate a lot of pain but a toxic reaction is a potential risk.  Crew will be well prepared and trained in the treatment of box jellyfish stings. 
    My crew will consist of  David and Jeannie Gallant and Bill and Jean Gallant.  Jeannie will be on land during my swim to help relay messages from crew to family and friends back home.    On the day of my swim, my crew and I will fly to Molokai Island from Oahu.   Once we land at the airport, we will take a taxi to the beach.    During that time my boat pilot will be navigating his way from Oahu to Molokai a three hour boat trip.  The reason my boat crew and I will not travel by boat to the start of my swim is that historically many swimmers and crew became seasick before the swim started.   When my boat pilot arrives in Molokai, there are no boat docks.  My crew will need to swim a short distance out to his boat.  My swim will commence at that time.   The boat pilot prefers that all swimmers start their swim late in the day, swim into the night at the beginning of the swim and hopefully land at Sand Beach in Oahu during daylight hours the following day.    (All swim and crew supplies will be give to boat pilot twenty-four hours prior to the start of swim.).  He recommends landing on Oahu in daylight due to rough terrain.  If currents push me beyond Sand Beach, it will be easier for pilot to find a safe finish line during daytime hours.   My training is going well and I am looking forward to my next swim adventure.   Aloha!
          Annotations of Fromage        
Hannibal Annotations – Fromage



Time Index
Event
Notes


00:35

Will repairing a motorboat engine


From Red Dragon Chapter 36
“Graham had been a poor child, following his father from the boatyards in Biloxi and Greenville to the lake boats on Erie.”



00:45-01:40

Will experiencing audio hallucinations


O.K., things are getting very serious now, Will isn’t just a troubled detective, and there is something very seriously wrong with him. He needs help other than Hannibal, hopefully Alana will intervene.



05:30-05:45

Franklin: “I... Googled "psychopaths", went down the checklist, and I was a little surprised to see how many boxes I had checked.”


The checklist may have been Hervey M. Cleckley’s 16 factor checklist of psychopathy symptoms. Cleckley suggested that a psychopath can wear a "mask of sanity" to conceal their disorder, which we are seeing a lot in this episode.

The list may also have been one of Robert D. Hare’s checklists (which build on Cleckley’s work), such as the Hare Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R), or the the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), or the P-Scan.



07:00-07:10

Jack: “The victim is Douglas Wilson, a member of the Baltimore Metropolitan
Orchestra's brass section”


Bryan Fuller tweets: “DOUGLAS WILSON are the first and middle names of a childhood friend who played the trombone. #DISTURBINGSHOUTOUTS”

“Douglas” and “Wilson” are also the surnames of two experts on serial killings; American FBI criminal profiler John Douglas and British criminologist David Wilson.



13:00-13:50

Hannibal: “Among the first musical instruments were flutes carved from human bone.”


The oldest known flute bone is the Divje Babe Flute which is about 43,000 years old and made from a cave bear femur. The Hohle Fels Flute is 35,000 years old and is made from a vulture's wing bone.

Writer Wilson Harris in his preface to “The Guyana Quartet” states that the Carib people, after whom the Caribbean was named, made flutes from their enemies’ bones in times of war from about the thirteenth to the sixteenth century.



16:30-17:10

Hannibal: “You can't impose traditional composition on an instrument that's inherently free form.”
Tobias: “What instrument would that be?”
Hannibal: “The Theremin.”
:
Hannibal: “My harpsichord needs new strings.”

From Hannibal Chapter 54
“At Sotheby's in New York, he purchased two excellent musical instruments, rare finds both of them. The first was a late eighteenth-century Flemish harpsichord nearly identical to the Smithsonian's 1745 Dulkin, with an upper manual to accommodate Bach - the instrument was a worthy successor to the gravicembalo he had in Florence. His other purchase was an early electronic instrument, a theremin, built in the 1930s by Professor Theremin himself. The theremin had long fascinated Dr. Lecter. He had built one as a child. It is played with gestures of the empty hands in an electronic field. By gesture you evoke its voice.”



19:00-19:05

Will: “You avoided being in a room alone with me essentially since I met you. You were smooth about it.”


From Red Dragon Chapter 17 “One thing I’ve noticed – I’m curious about this: you’re never alone in a room with Graham, are you? You’re smooth about it, but you’re never one-on-one with him. Why’s that? Do you think he’s psychic, is that it?”




26:30

Hannibal makes dessert for Will


Bryan Fuller tweeted that the topping was "PEOPLE SAUCE!" -- gulp!



36:20

Tobias spinning his catgut wire at Hannibal


Bryan Fuller tweeted: “We talked a lot about John Lithgow and #BLOWOUT when referring to #TOBIASBUDGE's weapon of choice.”

Blow Out is a 1981 Brian De Palma thriller film, starring John Travolta, Nancy Allen and John Lithgow. Lithgow uses wire garrotte to kill people in it.



38:30-39:00

Hannibal plays Bach on his harpsichord


From The Silence of the Lambs Chapter 36: “Dr. Lecter toyed with his food while he wrote and drew and doodled on his pad with a felt-tipped pen. He flipped over the cassette in the tape player chained to the table leg and punched the play button. Glenn Gould playing Bach's Goldberg Variations on the piano. The music, beautiful beyond plight and time, filled the bright cage and the room where the warders sat.”



          (USA-ME-Augusta) Field Engineer Apprentice        
**About Us:** What do you envision for your future? At GE Healthcare, we strive to see life more clearly. Our "healthymagination" vision for the future invites the world to join us on our journey as we continuously develop innovations focused on reducing healthcare costs, increasing access and improving quality and efficiency around the world. We are a $17 billion unit of General Electric Company (NYSE: GE), employing more than 46,000 people worldwide and serving healthcare professionals in more than 100 countries. We believe in our strategy - and we'd like you to be a part of it. As a global leader, GE can bring together the best in science, technology, business and people to help solve one of the world's toughest challenges and shape a new age of healthcare. Something remarkable happens when you bring together people who are committed to making a difference - they do! For more information about GE Healthcare join our LinkedIn Group: GE Healthcare Global Community, http://linkd.in/p3Dqyk GE offers a great work environment, professional development, challenging careers, and competitive compensation. GE is an Equal Opportunity Employer at http://www.ge.com/sites/default/files/15-000845%20EEO%20combined.pdf . Employment decisions are made without regard to race, color, religion, national or ethnic origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, disability, protected veteran status or other characteristics protected by law. **Role Summary:** In this role, the Field Engineer Apprentice will observe and perform various equipment service processes and procedures to drive customer satisfaction and ensure proper functionality of less complex customer diagnostic imaging equipment. **Essential Responsibilities:** Supervised responsibilities may include: • Work within hospital radiology environment to evaluate and troubleshoot imaging equipment issues and implement appropriate repairs. • Complete Preventative Maintenance on designated equipment. • Perform safety and environmental inspections ensuring compliance to Health and Human Services and Environmental Health and Safety guidelines. • Complete necessary service and repair documentation following hospital protocol and GE policies & procedures. • Maintain daily communications with customers to ensure resolution and proper follow-up, leading to customer satisfaction. • Learn and ensure proper care of tools and test equipment and ensure calibration. Enhance and maintain technical knowledge of current standards, codes and procedures regarding safe and effective use of medical equipment. • Mentor with and assist more experienced technicians on progressive repairs and resolution, and will work as a member of the local team to provide efficient service delivery to all accounts within his/her assigned area **Qualifications/Requirements:** • Current student or recent graduate of no more than 12 months from an A.S., B.S. or M.S. Electronics, Biomedical Engineering, Medical Imaging Technology or Mechanical Principles degree program or equivalent DOD military education. • Must maintain a cumulative GPA of a 3.0 or higher based on a 4.0 scale • Previous experience and/or course work in which you have successfully interpreted schematic diagrams and performed troubleshooting and planned maintenance on basic diagnostic imaging or electronic equipment following current standards, code, and procedures to ensure safe and effective operation of those devices. • Must be able to develop and maintain good customer relationships. • Must have reliable transportation and a valid driver's license. • Must be willing to take a drug test as part of the selection process. • Must be willing to submit to a background investigation, including for example, verification of your past employment, criminal history, and educational background. **Desired Characteristics:** • Previous experience interpreting schematic diagrams and perform effective repair and planned maintenance on basic biomedical or electronic equipment. • Analytical and communication skills with the ability to communicate technical issues to the customer in an easy to understand manner. • Ability to develop and maintain good customer relations. • Experience interfacing with both apprenticeal team members and external customers as part of a solution based service process. • Experience diagnosing and repairing mechanical, electromechanical, and/or electronic equipment in the electronic field - resulting in knowledge of electronic digital circuitry and understanding of electronic and electro-mechanical devices. • Change agent and process oriented. • Local candidates strongly preferred. **Locations:** United States; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming GE offers a great work environment, professional development, challenging careers, and competitive compensation. GE is an Equal Opportunity Employer at http://www1.eeoc.gov/employers/upload/eeoc_self_print_poster.pdf . Employment decisions are made without regard to race, color, religion, national or ethnic origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, disability, protected veteran status or other characteristics protected by law. GE will only employ those who are legally authorized to work in the United States for this opening. Any offer of employment is conditional upon the successful completion​ of a background investigation and drug screen.
          (USA-ME-Augusta) Biomedical Engineer Apprentice        
**About Us:** What do you envision for your future? At GE Healthcare, we strive to see life more clearly. Our "healthymagination" vision for the future invites the world to join us on our journey as we continuously develop innovations focused on reducing healthcare costs, increasing access and improving quality and efficiency around the world. We are a $17 billion unit of General Electric Company (NYSE: GE), employing more than 46,000 people worldwide and serving healthcare professionals in more than 100 countries. We believe in our strategy - and we'd like you to be a part of it. As a global leader, GE can bring together the best in science, technology, business and people to help solve one of the world's toughest challenges and shape a new age of healthcare. Something remarkable happens when you bring together people who are committed to making a difference - they do! For more information about GE Healthcare join our LinkedIn Group: GE Healthcare Global Community, http://linkd.in/p3Dqyk GE offers a great work environment, professional development, challenging careers, and competitive compensation. GE is an Equal Opportunity Employer at http://www.ge.com/sites/default/files/15-000845%20EEO%20combined.pdf . Employment decisions are made without regard to race, color, religion, national or ethnic origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, disability, protected veteran status or other characteristics protected by law. **Role Summary:** In this role, the Biomedical Technician Apprentice will respond to service calls to evaluate, diagnose, perform repair and planned maintenance (PM) on basic biomedical equipment and drive customer satisfaction through Service Excellence. **Essential Responsibilities:** • Under supervision, evaluate basic customer biomedical equipment issues, implement appropriate repairs; as assigned, perform planned maintenance (PM), safety, environmental inspections and maintain effective customer relations. Follow appropriate GE policies, procedures, hospital protocol and complete necessary documentation, as guided. • Maintain daily communications with customers as directed, to ensure resolution and proper follow-up, leading to customer satisfaction. As instructed, implement GE/customer facility contract, supporting business goals and objectives. • May assist more experienced technicians on progressive repairs and resolution. Work as a member of local team to provide efficient service delivery to all accounts within assigned area. • Document all repair actions and submit reports/summaries according to schedule. Maintain approved parts inventory. Manage vendor's service delivery processes in compliance with GE policies, as instructed. • Ensure proper care of spares, tools and test equipment and ensure calibration. Enhance and maintain technical knowledge of current standards, codes and procedures regarding safe and effective use of medical equipment formal instruction. • Meet Health and Human Services, as well as Environment Health and Safety requirements **Qualifications/Requirements:** • Current student or recent graduate of no more than 6 months from an A.S., B.S. or M.S. Electronics, Biomedical Engineering, Medical Imaging Technology or Mechanical Principles degree program or equivalent DOD military education. • Must maintain a cumulative GPA of a 3.0 or higher based on a 4.0 scale • Previous exposure to troubleshooting equipment and planned maintenance on basic biomedical or electronic equipment following current standards, code and procedures to ensure safe and effective operation of those devices. • Must be willing to submit to a background investigation, including verification of past employment, criminal history and education. • Willing to take a drug test. **Desired Characteristics:** • Previous experience interpreting schematic diagrams and perform effective repair and planned maintenance on basic biomedical or electronic equipment. • Ability to develop and maintain good customer relations. • Analytical and communication skills with the ability to communicate technical issues to the customer in an easy to understand manner. • Experience interfacing with both apprenticeal team members and external customers as part of a solution based service process. • Experience diagnosing and repairing mechanical, electromechanical, and/or electronic equipment in the electronic field - resulting in knowledge of electronic digital circuitry and understanding of electronic and electro-mechanical devices. • Change agent and process oriented. • Local candidates strongly preferred. **Locations:** United States; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming GE offers a great work environment, professional development, challenging careers, and competitive compensation. GE is an Equal Opportunity Employer at http://www1.eeoc.gov/employers/upload/eeoc_self_print_poster.pdf . Employment decisions are made without regard to race, color, religion, national or ethnic origin, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or expression, age, disability, protected veteran status or other characteristics protected by law. GE will only employ those who are legally authorized to work in the United States for this opening. Any offer of employment is conditional upon the successful completion​ of a background investigation and drug screen.
          Communicating Complicated Concepts        
Communicating Complicated ConceptsRats on a ship smuggle a story of transatlantic trade and a colonial global economy. It’s a big idea, but the concept is made simple by the team of writers, researchers and producers who create Colonial Williamsburg’s Emmy-winning Electronic Field Trip series.
          Balance of Power        
Balance of PowerWhat are the three branches of government? Only 38% of Americans can answer that question correctly. A playful Electronic Field Trip premiering October 2013 lays out the separation of powers using a baseball metaphor that keeps a dense subject lighthearted. Learn more about the new show with our guest Cash Arehart.
          Harsh World, This World        
Harsh World, This WorldThe diverse relationships between slaves and masters were governed by kindness, betrayal, trust, and cruelty. A new Electronic Field Trip, “Harsh World, This World” examines the complex familiarity of slavery.
          DECADES LONG QUESTION OF WITNESS CREDIBILITY OVER UFOS        
An enduring controversy supported by evidence and denial.

Ever since the emergence of flying saucers in the 20th Century a heated debate has raged between deniers, military counterintelligence operations, the witnesses themselves, and even the media's role in this phenomenon. Although there has been undeniable evidence and according to physicist Stanton Freidman, in a court of law the mountain of supporting testimony would have long ago made the case, still the controversy continues.

Questionable evidence

There will always be the unscrupulous element that from the 1940's to the 1990's used faked or staged photography often with dramatic effect. By the mid 1990's the application known as photo shop could be used to generate high definition images that are very hard to distinguish from real footage. Many argue that military counter intelligence operations have for decades been staging a surreal and shadowy ultra secret campaign to mislead the public about the supposed authenticity of flying saucers so as to hide the ongoing development of X-platforms and black operations, even cattle mutilations.

Click here to enlarge top photo.

Another lie?

Recently a retired scientist made what would be called a deathbed admission of his knowledge of government involvement with UFO entities as part of a shared technological program that had secretly been underway for decades. Boyd Bushman allowed an extensive interview of his intimate knowledge of such details shortly before his death on August 7th of this year. However, once again the ugly head of counter intelligence reared itself and has cast doubt on Bushman's testimony. During the course of his filmed interview Bushman exhibits a number of glossy photos of UFO's and of a supposed extraterrestrial entity. The entity appears somewhat questionable in appearance almost uncannily resembling the fledgling attempts of 1950's and 60's low budget depictions of sci fi space creatures.

From a toy maker?

In truth, an individual did indeed reveal that the image of an alien from another planet was indeed the photo of a toy space alien made of plastic sold sometime in the late 50's. Why would a distinguished government scientist allow his testimony to be tarnished by such an aberration? Had he become senile and confused, had this evidence been handed to him to present during the course of his interview and he had trustingly accepted it? Or, perhaps this was just part of a counter intelligence ploy to not only discredit Boyd Bushman, but the entire premise of the UFO as being extra solar in origin in the first place? Such confusion and subterfuge has continually fueled the argument on both sides that either the powers that be are really hiding something if they are putting this much effort into baiting the credibility question or that there really is nothing more to UFO's other than misidentification of experimental or conventional aircraft as well as wild, unproven, speculation and conspiracy theories!

The venerable black copter

It has even come to light recently that the US government has indeed created squadron units of black helicopters having no visible identification, possessing myriad running lights to create confusion for ground observers, and to even have sound insulating capacities to muffle propeller and engine noise. Why? For many years odd aerial lights have been seen over cattle mutilation sites in New Mexico and elsewhere leading many to theorize that some genetic cross breeding experiments were being undertaken by aliens using the closely related tissue of cattle reproductive organs to the biology of human cells. Yet, newly released information may suggest that black helicopter operations were used to simulate UFO overflights during the dark hours of the night. Many investigators had often commented that cattle carcasses seem to have been damaged in a way that would have occurred by being dropped onto the ground from certain heights.

Atomic testing?

Such explanations are that nuclear testing and the resultant contamination of the environment had led the government to initiate secret testing using cattle rancher's livestock as markers for levels of radiation and its effects upon organs and tissues. Rather than create a panic among ranchers that radiation may be affecting their pasture lands and the financial liabilities that this could entail much lass having to purchase the cows from their owners, why not simply commence a secret operation that could gather data without incurring the related expense? One ranching family near Dulce, New Mexico reported that they had found bugging devices in their home after suffering costly cattle mutilations that created financial losses that put them out of the cattle business. It would seem that government sanctioned earthly surveillance was being conducted.

Third world war?

By the early 1950's the Pentagon had already voiced concerns about the public's pre-occupation with UFO's as being the possible prelude to the confusion needed by the Soviets to stage a first strike launch of a third world war against the United States. it appears two simultaneous counter intelligence operations were being conducted. One was a debunking campaign that downplayed the significance of UFO sightings while secretly collecting data and sending it to Wright AFB in Dayton, Ohio for serious evaluation. This while civilian UFO investigation groups were being infiltrated by intelligence agents and either intimidated to disband or fed misleading information.

The victims of secrecy

We know that such victims of these infiltration operations were Howard Menger, NICAP, Paul Bennewitz of Thunder Scientific Labs, and witnesses to the crash of an alleged flying disk near Roswell, NM were intimidated or misinformed in such ways that were designed for a predictable outcome on the part of US intelligence operations. According to Donald Keyhoe, a dedicated UFO researcher with ties to the Pentagon, NICAP (National Investigations Committee on Aerial Phenomenon) was complete compromised thanks to CIA subversion from within. This is especially disturbing when considering that Admiral Roscoe Hillenkoeter, former CIA Director was a member of this organization.

Deep Underground Military Bases (DUMBS)

One might venture to ask, on the other hand, why at Archuletta Mesa near Dulce New Mexico an electronic field is being broadcast over the area that will not allow HD camera photographs to acquire resolution so that only an analog camera can work? The same question might be applied to Area 51 in Nevada. Why has the government maintained an underground base and has continually acquired more surrounding real estate to further discourage observers from getting a view of the facility from surrounding vantage points? Secrecy is understandable to a point, but when we have former physicist Bob Lazar who claims to have worked there and violated his security clearance when he all allowed friends to see a supposed back engineered UFO being test flown, why was his complete personal history expunged by the US government? In front of a federal judge he did produce a pay stub from the US Navy for his employment there which impressed the court with the degree of identity confiscation leveled at Lazar.

Unsettling conclusion

The old saying, "where there's smoke there's fire" seems to pertain to the long legacy of the UFO cover-up. It would seem that the US government has gone to great lengths to play a game with the American public and even its former officers in trying to either discredit the evidence or use the possibility of UFO reality to mask the ongoing operations of new high technology developments that will give this nation a decided edge over its enemies for decades to come. This, as well, seems a perfectly reasonable explanation in view of the high stakes involved which would make such intelligence and psychological operations justified in the interests of national security, however just how far should such deception be allowed until it violates the Constitutional rights of the American citizen. Just ask the late Paul Bennewitz.

 

Extra information about the article: 
A huge body of evidence supports both sides of the UFO controversy leading to many possible conclusions.

           Electronic field data collection system for highway inspection maintenance         
Mohd. Ghazalee, Nor Husna (2012) Electronic field data collection system for highway inspection maintenance. Masters thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Civil Engineering.
          beyerdynamic M 58 Dynamic ENG EFP mic omnidirectional 3 pin XLR        
beyerdynamic M 58 Dynamic ENG EFP mic omnidirectional 3 pin XLR

beyerdynamic M 58 Dynamic ENG EFP mic omnidirectional 3 pin XLR

Dynamic ENG/EFP microphone (omnidirectional) The M 58 has been specifically designed to satisfy the demands of Electric News Gathering (ENG) and Electronic Field Production (EFP) applications. Its sophisticated internal shockmount dramatically reduces handling noise, while the microphone´s frequency response has been tailored to provide broadcasters with a very accurate and intelligible sound. The M 58´s weight-balanced design provides journalists with a high degree of comfort during lengthy interviews. Its rugged construction enables the microphone to withstand physical and environmental punishment typically encountered during field production operations. The M 58´s slim profile and non-glare finish result in a low profile on camera.   ref: 403660


          Rolf Tarrach Prize 2017 for research on multifunctional materials        

The award for the best doctoral thesis in Luxembourg comes with a prize money of 10,000 euros and is bestowed by the Amis de l'Université. Mads Weber received the prize at a ceremony chaired by Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, president of the Amis, on 11 July 2017 at the Chamber of Commerce of Luxembourg.

From left: Rolf Tarrach, Mads Christof Weber and Erna Hennicot-Schoepges, © Michel Brumat / University of Luxembourg, 2017

Application-oriented research

Mads Weber worked on his PhD entitled Electronic and structural properties of bismuth and rare-earth ferrites from 2013 to 2016 at the Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology (LIST) and the Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication of the University of Luxembourg. His research focuses on functional properties of a number of materials that can be used in technical applications. Examples for such properties are light-induced effects, magnetism or ferroelectricity, which means that materials are magnetic or have an electric polarisation that can be reversed by a magnetic or electronic field, respectively.

For his PhD, supervised by Prof. Jens Kreisel of the LIST, Mads Weber concentrated on so-called multifunctional materials, which have several such properties at once that are often coupled. “Multifunctional materials have many potential applications in areas such as microelectronics, sensor technology, and medical technology. They could be used to engineer components that can perform several tasks in parallel, such as a single computer chip that at the same time stores and processes data,” the researcher explains. In order to better understand the physical causes behind these phenomena, he applied a new method to study interactions between light and matter and the influence of magnetism on the atomic structure.

Now a postdoc in Switzerland

The 31-year-old Weber who in March 2017 started to work as postdoctoral researcher at the ETH Zürich in Switzerland is very pleased with receiving the award. “I feel deeply honored to receive the Rolf Tarrach Prize. The prize is the highest possible recognition of the value of scientific outcome of my thesis and my competences as researcher. Having moved from Luxembourg, the prize affirms my feeling as a representative of the young researcher generation of Luxembourg, who got their formation in Luxembourg,” he said.

By awarding the best doctoral award each year, the Amis de l'Université aim to reward excellence in the field of research and to promote the international reputation of the University of Luxembourg.

Other nominees for the 2017 awards were:

  • Stanisław Tosza from the Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance (FDEF) who addressed the legal question of criminal liability of managers for excessive risk-taking; and,
  • Susanne Backes of the Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education with her research on heterogeneity in Luxembourg’s education system.
Square photo: Mads Christof Weber, © Michel Brumat / University of Luxembourg, 2017

          Knight Rider’s 15-Second Clip Released        


Finally the long wait is over. NBC network in America has released a 15 second clip of the upcoming remake of the 1980’s iconic television show Knight Rider. The 540 horsepower Ford Mustang Shelby GT500KR is officially the new KITT (Knight Industries Three Thousand) with the artificial intelligence voice provided by Will Arnett. NBC network will air the Knight Rider TV movie at 9pm ET on February 17, 2008 Sunday.

Knight Industries Three Thousand: 2008 Ford Mustang Shelby GT500KR

Vehicle Type: Front engine, on-demand all-wheel drive, two-door coupe
Engine Type: Aluminum block/titanium heads 5.4-liter V8 internal combustion with Whipple supercharger and Knight Industries liquid air cycle auxiliary turbine engine. 540 hp in Hero mode. Power output can’t be measured in Attack mode.
Transmission: Continuously variable transmission with infinite power band
Price New: $45.6 million, as tested
Acceleration: 0 to 60 mph: 1.77 seconds. Standing quarter mile: 3.87 seconds
Braking (300 to 0 mph): 12 ft.
Fuel Economy: Not testable

Special Features as KITT:

Knight Industries 2000 microprocessor: Version 2.3
Auto Cruise
Auto Pursuit
Auto Collision Avoidance
Voice Interaction
Emergency Eject
Audio/Video In-Dash Functions
Radar
Sonar
X-Ray
Autopilot
Voice Analyzer
Infrared Tracking Scope
Range: 20 miles
Pyroclastic Lamination
Blood Analyzer
Microwave Jammer
Interior Oxygenator
Rocket Boosters
Smokescreen
Olfactory Detector
Spectrograph
Electromagnetic Field Generator
Microwave Ignition Sensor
Aquatic Synthesizer
Electronic Field Disrupter
Ultra Magnesium Charges
Ultraphonic Chemical Analyzer
Graphic Translator
Anamorphic Equalizer
DNA Analysis Equipment
Mass Spectrometer
Targeted Electromagnetic Pulse
Military-Grade GPS
Heated Seats
3D Heads-Up Display
Laser Weapons System
Holographic Projection
Keyless Entry and Ignition
Personal Safety System
Nanotech Cloaking
360-Degree Video Surveillance
Laser-Guided Missile Defense
Mini-KITT Reconnaissance Drone
24-Hour Roadside Assistance
1000-Watt Quadraphonic Stereo System
In-Seat Medical Diagnosis
Biometric Analysis