By: Anon2        
While incentives are nice, pay usually comes down to market forces. For those of you on the clinical side you will see medical doctors make a ton of money, but not really contribute very much of anything, beyond adding their credential to a protocol. They mostly regurgitate what they can from MSLs. Then the present clinical data to basic scientists and basic science data to clinical folks (so to each party this MD is looked up to as someone who is filling a knowledge gap). The best incentives for early development folks would be a priority class of stock options/shares. However the VCs usually prevent that from happening.
                  

 Descarga toda la discografia de mana gratis [completo]

Amar es combatir:
01. Manda una señal
02. Labios compartidos
03. Ojalá pudiera borrarte
04. Arrancame el corazón
05. Tengo muchas alas
06. Dime luna
07. Bendita tu luz (con Juan Luis Guerra)
08. Tú me salvaste
09. Combatiente
10. El viaje
11. El rey tiburón
12. Somos mar y arena
13. Relax


Revolucion de amor:
01. Justicia, Tierra Y Libertad
02. Ay, Doctor
03. Fe
04. Sábanas Frías
05. Pobre Juan
06. ¿Por Qué Te Vas?
07. Mariposa Traicionera
08. Sin Tu Cariño
09. Eres Mi Religión
10. No Voy A Ser Tu Esclavo
11. Ángel De Amor
12. Nada Que Perder


Grandes exitos mana:
01. Perdido en un barco
02. Rayando el Sol
03. Vivir sin aire
04. Oye mi amor
05. Te lloré un río
06. Cómo te deseo
07. De pies a cabeza



dijo:
[/quote]
          Una pagina che Thomas Mann non ha mai scritto        
"Gli occidentali hanno forma, ma non hanno profondità", sentenziò Deutschlin. "I russi hanno profondità, ma non hanno forma. L'una e l'altra le abbiamo soltanto noi tedeschi".

"Bella frase, Deutschlin", disse Adrian. "Dovresti ripeterla domattina durante la lezione di ginnastica: il professore ne sarà contentissimo".

Deutschlin rise nervosamente. Era sempre difficile capire se Adrian parlasse sul serio o celiasse e, nel secondo caso, se avesse o meno l'intenzione di burlarsi del suo interlocutore.

Adrian proseguì: "E cosa mi diresti di un popolo allo stesso tempo caotico e superficiale? Un popolo presso cui non esistono ruoli, né regole definite e stabili. Dove il linguaggio stesso non conosce significati precisi e sempre uguali, e dove non ci si può intendere, né si può fare affidamento sulla parola di chicchessia, né è possibile l'arte, se questa presuppone un codice di comunicazione fra gli artisti e il pubblico. Dove tutto ciò che si dice, o si fa, rimane senza conseguenze. Dove si può essere indifferentemente il peggiore dei mascalzoni o la persona più santa, senza che ciò influisca affatto sulla reputazione e sulla carriera. Dove la politica non è altro che una farsa senza fine in cui il governo finge di governare, l'opposizione finge di opporsi, e ognuno si fa gli affari suoi..."

"Leverkühn!" - lo interruppi. "E' orribile! Forse ho capito a quale popolo ti riferisci. Ma sei molto ingiusto. In nessun luogo si potrebbe vivere così. Stai descrivendo l'Inferno in terra".

"Credi, Zeitblom?" rispose Adrian lentamente. "Ma questo è ciò che pare a te, da bravo studente prussiano quale tu sei. Invece, a quanto ne so, quello che ti ho appena descritto è uno dei popoli più felici. O almeno, è il popolo che sembra il meno disposto a cambiare la propria situazione. Se li vedessi, come ridono e scherzano tutto il giorno..."

"Ah, basta così" intervenne ancora Deutschlin. "Finitela con le vostre chiacchiere cupe e confuse! Io so soltanto che il secolo ventesimo, iniziato or ora, sarà un'epoca di progresso e di pace, e che noi tedeschi saremo chiamati a guidare l'Europa verso un avvenire luminoso. Gli altri popoli dovranno solo riconoscere la nostra indubbia superiorità morale, e lo faranno certamente. In un modo o nell'altro".

Adrian non lo ascoltò nemmeno. Sdraiato sulla paglia come noialtri, sembrava assorto in una sua visione, le mani dietro la nuca e lo sguardo fisso in un punto sul soffitto del fienile. "L'inferno, hai detto? Interessante..."

Mentre rientravamo verso la città, lo presi da parte e gli posi una domanda. "Dimmi, Leverkühn" gli chiesi, "ma tu cosa vorresti fare dopo il diploma?"

"Non te l'ho mai detto, Serenus?" Per la prima volta mi aveva chiamato per nome. "Farò il musicista".

Pubblicato il 3 ottobre 2011 su Evulon.

          Unlocking G Suite for Nonprofits: Improve internal workflow and communication        

Whether you have a team of five or 500 a seamless, collaborative workflow is critical in the digital age. Our goal is to make sure that your nonprofit is able to focus on changing the world by using technology to save time -- not waste it. In the digital age though, information sharing can often be complex; your team might not work in the same office, or even the same timezone. Some team members might be in an office with computer access, while others are in the field on mobile devices. Who from your team should be able to access confidential documents?

This brings us to a key question: How do you empower team members to work together towards a common goal, and use technology to enable it?

Great question. We’d like to introduce you to G Suite - (formerly  Google Apps for Work ). G Suite aims to help teams work together in real-time -- no matter where they are in the world.

Today, we’re spotlighting a few nonprofits to share how their teams  are using Google tools and apps to improve workflow and internal communication.

Mercy Beyond Borders - Internal Communication with Sheets & Sites

Mercy Beyond Borders (MBB) is a U.S. nonprofit that aims to forge opportunities for women and girls in extreme poverty to learn, connect, and lead. Utilizing a small office in the U.S. as home base, MBB targets rural areas in Haiti and South Sudan. In both of these areas, cultural norms and poverty prohibit full participation of women. In fact, these areas offer minimal education and opportunities for employment, which often  impedes the development of leadership skills or positions. Mercy Beyond Borders focuses its programs on providing trainings, scholarships, leadership camps, and business loans for women.

To achieve their mission, Mercy Beyond Borders faces the challenge of balancing US-based operations with field work in remote areas like South Sudan and Haiti. Their nonprofit partners range from large organizations to local schools to individuals. So how does Mercy Beyond Borders ensure that all staff, vendors, and partners stay connected and working together in sync?
MBB-trained nurse in South-Sudan village
MBB-trained nurse in South Sudan village. Photo credit: Mercy Beyond Borders

Mercy Beyond Border began using G Suite to streamline its workflow, connecting their team across the globe. Using G Suite, MBB’s team is able to access, share, and collaborate together in real-time. Take a glimpse into how they do it:

  • Track Finances: MBB manages their overseas program budget expenditures in Google Sheets. Using this tool, the domestic office tracks monthly vendor payments in Haiti. This enables the staff to wire more money as needed in order to ensure program success. Additionally, using Sheets enables the team to provide transparency in the organization, clarifying spending and creating a simple overview of total annual expenses. This standardized and collaborative approach to data enables better efficiency and communication between domestic and international offices.

  • Store images: Mercy Beyond Borders regularly takes photos in the field to keep the domestic office up to date on progress and communicate stories to their donors. The team overseas is able to upload the pictures to Google Drive, which allows them to share or retrieve the images at any time.

  • Share Information: It’s imperative that MBB shares frequent updates with the Board of Directors, highlighting current developments, areas for growth, and new opportunities. To keep the Board of Directors apprised of progress, the team created a MBB Board website with Google Sites as a way to provide updates outside of meetings. The site functions as a central hub, where the Board can find all relevant information and resources at their discretion. The website is organized in subsections including internal updates from the Executive Director, background articles on country conditions and descriptions of new partnerships. To take it one step further, MBB also added a comment section for board members to engage in open communication.

“It [G Suite] helps to better connect, engage, and keep Board members up-to-date in between meetings, or  if they are unable to make a meeting (in which case they can view the Meeting Archives page),” said Adrienne Perez.


MyFace - Increasing productivity and improving internal workflow by remote access

Established in 1951, MyFace was founded to address the medical, surgical and psychological needs of those living with facial deformities. The organization offers access to care and treatments --- regardless of the severity of the anomaly, the length of treatment, or the family’s ability to afford care. In America alone, 1 in 650 children is born with an facial cleft. Every year, MyFace helps more than 1,000 patients seek treatment. Of this population, 85% are children, 70% live in poverty, and 95% require long-term care. The costs involved in this are high and verges on insurmountable for low income families. With this in mind, MyFace ensures that all children receive highest quality interdisciplinary and comprehensive reconstructive care by doctors who provide their services pro bono.

As a small nonprofit (their staff of eight including their therapy dog, Bentley), employees are required to perform a variety of different tasks. On any given day, team members might be responsible for website design, grant proposal writing, and marketing strategy. And oftentimes, what one employee starts today is  picked up by another employee tomorrow. Because it’s often all-hands-on-deck, collaboration is particularly key for MyFace.

Our mission of changing faces and transforming lives can be fulfilled with the help of technology from G4NP Carolyn Spector Executive Director MyFace

To address their challenge, MyFace began using Google Drive to centrally store, access, and share information from anywhere at anytime. Drive helped decrease the amount of time that MyFace spends on administrative tasks, like sending documents back and forth or working with out-of-date data or information. Drive’s tools like Docs and Sheets enable the team to collaborate both in and out of office.

MyFace also deals with an overwhelming amount of data and information. The team needs this data to not only be easy to store, retrieve, and share — it needs to be secure, since it contains confidential and personal patient information. G Suite offers that as well, ensuring that all information is kept private and secure. (Want to know more about G Suite security and how safe they really are? Read more about it here).

“Our mission of changing faces and transforming lives can be fulfilled with the help of technology from G4NP because it offers invaluable resources to nonprofits of any size at no cost,” stated Carolyn Spector, Executive Director of MyFace.

MyFace Staff photo
MyFace team. Photo credit: MyFace

Having global teams of different sizes with varying access to technology can make timely communication difficult, if not impossible. While nonprofits like Mercy Beyond Borders and myFace strive to accomplish unique missions, both organizations are passionate about changing the world. And about using the right technology to help. Utilizing tools like G Suite has been key for nonprofits like these in order to improve internal workflow and communications. For Mercy and my Face, making information shared, up-to-date, and secure has been crucial for navigating the Technology Age.

Interested in learning more about the tools available to your nonprofit? Check out our website to see how G4NP can help your nonprofit with real-time, up-to-date communication and data sharing.

//

To see if your nonprofit is eligible to participate, review the Google for Nonprofits eligibility guidelines. Google for Nonprofits offers organizations like yours free access to Google tools like Gmail, Google Calendar, Google Drive, Google Ad Grants, YouTube for Nonprofits and more. These tools can help you reach new donors and volunteers, work more efficiently, and tell your nonprofit’s story. Learn more and enroll here.

Footnote:  Statements are provided by Nonprofits that received free products as part of the Google for Nonprofits program, which offers free products to qualified nonprofits.


          â€œEl principal problema que afecta a la infancia es la pobreza y la injusticia social”        
Médico de reconocida trayectoria, ex ministro de Salud y miembro del Grupo Impulsor Inversión en la Infancia, el doctor Uriel García analiza en la siguiente entrevista la política de salud y de combate contra la desnutrición y la anemia infantil del gobierno de Ollanta Humala que finaliza su gestión, y habla sobre los principales retos que en estos temas tendrá el nuevo gobierno de Pedro Pablo Kuczynski. También comenta sobre las razones de la muerte de decenas de niños a causa del frío.
          â€œAcortar las brechas de desigualdad es el reto central del próximo gobierno”        
Psicólogo social y doctor en educación, investigador principal y director general del Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (IEP), Ricardo Cuenca analiza las políticas públicas para la primera infancia, sus resultados y sus principales problemas. También comenta sobre la presencia de los temas de primera infancia en los planes de gobierno de los candidatos a la presidencia y se refiere a los principales retos que tendrá el próximo gobierno.
          â€œLos pediatras tienen que ser los profesionales abanderados para que la anemia llegue a cero”         
La presidenta de la Sociedad Peruana de Pediatría y miembro del Grupo Impulsor Inversión en la Infancia, doctora Sarah Vega, analiza el rol de los pediatras en la salud de los niños, especialmente en el combate contra la anemia y la desnutrición infantil. Este tema fue abordado en el XVII Congreso Latinoamericano de Pediatría y III Congreso Extraordinario Peruano de Pediatría, organizado por la Asociación Latinoamericana de Pediatría y la Sociedad Peruana de Pediatría.
          â€œEl plan del gobierno contra las heladas y el friaje es un desastre”        
Ex ministro de Salud y miembro del Grupo Impulsor Inversión en la Infancia, el doctor Uriel García habla en la siguiente entrevista sobre el friaje y las heladas y las muertes de niños por esta razón, que este año se han incrementado respecto al anterior. Cuestiona severamente la respuesta del gobierno a este problema. Pone énfasis en que el origen de la alta mortalidad infantil por el frío y problemas como la anemia y la desnutrición tienen su raíz en la pobreza y la inequidad social.
          Guys get this disease, too -- but they may not know it        
When a 77-year-old tennis player fell during a match and fractured his hip while on vacation in Key Largo, Fla., he became part of a little known, serious and growing problem among older men.  Male osteoporosis has been a silent problem for decades but is becoming more prevalent as Baby Boomers age, doctors say
          New method allows better prostate cancer tests        
Researchers are reporting a new method that could put an end to painful prostate biopsies that miss the tumor. They’ve combined magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, with ultrasound in a way that can guide a skilled doctor right to a prostate tumor.
          Too tough to get sick: Why men won't see the doc        

James Chisum, 28, doesn’t drink, doesn’t smoke and doesn’t believe men his age should have yearly medical check-ups. Turns out, he's not the only guy who feels that way. Many American men, such as 28-year-old James Chisum, simply refuse to go to the doctor, ever, either out of male pride, out of white-coat fear or simply out of lifestyle habit.  That mindset could be genetic, experts suggest.



          Double arm transplant patient feels new hands        

Gabriel Granados Vergara, 52, received a double arm transplant at the National Institute of Medical Science and Nutrition (INCMN) in Mexico City.A Mexican man whose arms were severely burned by electricity became the first patient in Latin America to receive a double arm transplant, doctors said Thursday.



          Resdung again!        

Assalamualaikum.. at this moment im writing, my breathing is not so good. That tells you why I decided to share about my resdung. Hmm, sbenarnye dh lame kena resdung ni. Dari darjah 5 lgi. Hampir2 kene asma sbb resdung trlalu kuat. Well, i heard that rmai jgk yg ade resdung tapi tk perlu berpantang mkn seafood. But not me! arghh.... Doktor said i cant eat CERTAIN prawns, CERTAIN squids. So to make it easy, i just boicottttt je smue SOTONG dn UDANG. Tapi stiap kali mkn tom yam, or mkn besar ngn family, i'll just sapuuuu je smue makanan2 tu, mkn je..TAPI,for sure ah after mkn tu, terus sesak nafas...sesak sikit je :p hehe.

Org resdung ni kan, tk leh main habuk taw. Tk de lah bermain ngn habuk...maksudnye menyapu lantai ke, lap brg berhabuk ke, sbenarnye tk boleh. Lagi2 nia.. Slalu lepas mengemas, 24 jam after dat la kot, dlm hidung akn bengkak.. Luaran tk nmpk, tp klau suluh kt dlm, agak2 dh tk de ruang dh utk bernafas. Pintu dlm hidung tertutup. Ahh tidak! hmm....sabar je lah,sbb tu mama suruh pkai mask time berkemas. Tapi lemas la...haih.


Haa, ini dia ubat kesayangan nia.


Take this away from me, and i will slowly die in 10 days. haha

Ni outlook spray yg nia guna utk resdung. Name die NASONEX spray. Sblum ni tk guna spray yg ni, sblum ni gune BUDESONIDE. Tapi doktor Mizwa kate tk bagus, sbb ubt sblum ni murah, lagipun dari India. (eh ade kaitan ke) haha. Klau kt klinik kt seremban, harga die Rm 55. Klau kt kelate harga die RM 70. Believe it or not, i have to purchase ubat yg bertahan selama lebih kurang sebulan lebih je nie.. Ubat ni, kpd sape2 yg bakal guna, hee, kene spray dlm hidung sekali sehari je. But according to Doctor Mizwa again, nia kene spray 2x sehari sbb resdung dh teruk gile. Oh god, help me...smpai bile nk bergantung kt ubat nie... :(


ADVICE FOR TODAY : Kpd sesape yg ade resdung tu, jgn amik remeh benda ni. Ada people out there yg tercabut hidung taw sbb resdung dh melarat2..


          Support your local library        



Special thanks to Sprague (CT) Public Library Director Chris Kolar, staffers and volunteers, who hosted a lively discussion on judicial and political corruption Sept. 22 ...

Here is a 2014 interview with Kolar regarding her service and the library's renovation, via The Norwich Bulletin:






  • Kolar Q & A







  • Kolar said more than 80 library patrons and guests participated in the Sept. 22 event, which focused on patterns of suspects having their hooks into cops, judges and prosecutors.



    Cases cited via the books more COOL JUSTICE and
    Law and Justice in Everyday life included the hit-run death of Kevin Showalter in New London and the disappearance / homicide of Mary Badaracco in the northwest Connecticut town of Sherman. The group also discussed police and prosecutorial misconduct, the Bonnie Foreshaw case and the use of teams of private detectives to dig up dirt on cops, doctors, a prosecutor and children in the Woody Allen sex assault case.


    Best Intro Ever by a Librarian

    Kolar opened the evening with a few short videos:








  • Foreshaw case in 50 seconds
























  • What is more COOL JUSTICE?

















  • Also, the beginning of this video via Huffington Post:








  • Yale's Bogus Woody Allen report









  • Then, Kolar said, "Our guest speaker wandered in off the street tonight and needed someone to talk to ... "


  • Showalter case background



  • Badaracco case background


  • As I visit various libraries around the state, my appreciation grows for the service and capabilities of our hard-working librarians.

    -- AT






  • more COOL JUSTICE








  •           Selecting Nutritional Supplements        
    Nutritional supplements can help compliment a diet that could be missing some necessary nutrients. But Nutritional supplements are only as good as the ones you select, and how you combine your Nutritional supplements with healthy food so that none of the nutrients are cancelled out.
    An estimated 50 percent of American adults use Nutritional supplements regularly. But some doctors suggest that half of these adults aren't using these Nutritional supplements correctly.
    So, how exactly is it possible to use Nutritional supplements incorrectly? Well, incorrect nutritional supplement use starts with a lack of understanding of these types of supplements. Too many people make the mistake of looking for bargain prices when they look for Nutritional supplements. The cheapest is rarely the best when it comes to Nutritional supplements.
    People looking to add Nutritional supplements to their already fairly healthy diets should take the time and do some background research. Don't buy low-quality Nutritional supplements with little or no research behind them. And, unfortunately, a large percentage of the useless Nutritional supplements are those that put all their money into advertising instead of quality ingredients. These are the types of Nutritional supplements that are promoted as "popular" and often seem to be forever on sale.
    When choosing a nutritional supplement, it's always better to choose a caplet over a tablet. The simple reason for this is that your body usually can't effectively dissolve a tablet nutritional supplement. And if your body can't dissolve this type of nutritional supplement, then it won't be able to breakdown the ingredients and feed the nutrients to different parts of your body. Plus, the super low-quality Nutritional supplements rarely dissolve at all. Studies of these types of Nutritional supplements show that the entire whole form of the tablet can sit in your stomach like a tiny stone for many, many hours. So always select a capsule nutritional supplement. It's much nicer to your digestive system and much better for you body.
    Avoid single-nutrient Nutritional supplements. Single-nutrient foods don't exist, so why would you feed your body single-nutrient Nutritional supplements? Eating these types of Nutritional supplements will only succeed in ruining the balance of your body's chemicals.
    And don't try a "piecemeal" approach to nutritional supplement use. A piecemeal approach is when you select a variety of single- or multiple-nutrient Nutritional supplements, and mix-and-match them to try and make up for where you think your diet lacks. Few people have the skills to do this type of nutritional supplement maneuvering.
    When selecting Nutritional supplements look for ones that say they are "laboratory tested." Laboratory tested Nutritional supplements means that they've been created by responsible manufacturers who choose to follow the FDA regulations, even though they're not required to do so.
    Pick Nutritional supplements that are "quality guaranteed." Quality guaranteed Nutritional supplements are ones that use pharmaceutical-grade products.
    Be wary of Nutritional supplements that claim to be 100 percent natural. A 100 percent natural nutritional supplement, just like 100 percent cobra venom, is probably not good for you. And always make sure every nutritional supplement container you buy has an expiry date. Nothing stays good forever, not even Nutritional supplements.

    Looking for the Lactose Free Whey Protein?
    Click here for the Best Lactose Free Whey Protein!!!
    For more Defense Nutrition Products click HERE.


              Supplements And Nutrition        
    A well-balanced diet and affinity for all food groups ensure right amounts of much-needed nutrients. However, not all people are blessed with a liking for vegetables or tolerance for milk. There are also people with allergies to nuts and poultry which are excellent sources of protein and good fat. What if you are one of them? How can you be sure that you get proper nutrition without force-feeding yourself brocollis? This is why Supplements and Nutrition should work together.
    Before taking supplements, it would be wise to seek your doctor's advice. After all, you want to be sure to have the proper Supplements and Nutrition. The wide variety of supplements include multivitamins, protein supplements, minerals, and specialized supplements. Multivitamins are the most prescribed supplements. Regulated and concentrated amounts of essential vitamins are packed in a tablet or gels. Protein supplements are commonly used by people who want to build more muscle such as athletes. Mineral supplements include calcium for bone growth. Dietary supplements and memory enhancers are commonly classified as specialized supplements.
    Supplements and Nutrition must be complementary. For example, a person who consumes large amounts of carrots and squash need not take a supplement of Vitamin A. This is because too much of Vitamin A can cause a yellow or orange tinge to the skin. Other overdoses on minerals and vitamins can even disrupt normal hormonal function. After all, even too much of a good thing can be hazardous to health.
    Hence, a proper Supplements and Nutrition scheme must be discussed with the doctor in order to prevent overdoses or taking unnecessary supplements. The US FDA in recognition of the growing market and need for supplements has taken steps to regulate the production, dosage, and sanitation of supplements. This was done to ensure good-quality products. This move is also partly due to rising number of unprescribed supplement use among consumers. The agency also stressed the importance of informed use among supplement users. It is not enough to know the name of your supplements. You should know what deficiency it corrects and how it works. Studies show that many use different supplements whereas tests done to them indicate only a minimal lack which can be corrected by a single kind. Also, despite the supplement rage, doctors and health experts still stand by natural correction of deficiencies by means of a proper diet. They suggest eating alternative sources of nutrients found in allergy-inducing foods. Hey, real food tastes better than capsules anyway.

    Looking for the Lactose Free Whey Protein?
    Click here for the Best Lactose Free Whey Protein!!!
    For more Defense Nutrition Products click HERE.


              Cabut Gigi Bongsu di Hospital Putrajaya - Final        
    Salam korang... 


    Rajin ni nak update blog, sebab tengah bersiaran langsung dari office terchenta! Esok nak raya, harini keja lagi. Ghajen tak ambo? Hahahahah~ ok, nak cerita final part dah pasal ko gigi bongsu. Seksa nawww! Uhuuu~


    2 hari selepas surgery which is Khamis, Wanie rasa berdenyut kat tempat gigi bongsu yang dicabut yang dekat dengan saraf tu. Wanie cuba bertahan. Esoknya, makin kuat rasa denyut tu. Sampai sakit kepala sebelah dan rasa denyutan tu sampai dalam telinga. Wanie call pihak hospital dan minta disambungkan ke bahagian Dental. Mula-mula, diorang kata memang akan sakit sebab baru lagi lepas surgery. Tapi diorang kata, kalau nak minta diorang check kan pun boleh, datang je ke hospital. 


    NOTE : Layanan macam ni yang wanie maksudkan, sebab sebelum ni ada orang yang bash kan, sebab wanie marah sikit layanan yang wanie dapat dari dari petugas kesihatan kat klinik kerajaan di Precint 9. That was a long time story and perhaps it was my unfortunate day! Tengok petugas kesihatan di Hospital Putrajaya especially bahagian Dental, ya Rabbi! TERBAIK WEHHHH!!!~ dengan lemah lembutnya, sopan santun, dari nurse hingga ke doctor yang melayan sepanjang wanie mendapatkan rawatan di sana, WORLD CLASS!! Cuma, biasalah... kalau appointment dengan hospital, standard la masa menunggu tu kadang tu sampai sebulan lebih, BUT I DONT CARE BECAUSE OF THEIR GOOD SERVICE~ gigi dah lah tengah sakit, mood swing tu paham paham lah macam mana, dapat service terbaik macam ni, memang kurang sikit rasa sakit tu! Sejuk je hati! Kita bukan minta dilayan macam VVVVVVIP, tapi lemah lembut bila berbahasa macam ni yang kita nak...

    OK, yang terasa dengan post wanie yang lepas-lepas tu, wanie minta maaf ok. Nak raya neh.. hahahahaha.. lagipun benda tu dah lama. Mesti dah ada penambahbaikan service diorang, cuma, wanie masih trauma nak dapatkan rawatan pergigian di situ. Dahlah kita ni takut jumpa dentist... terkena macam tu, memang trauma sikit lah... hahaha..



    Ok, back to the story. Lepas ucap terima kasih bercakap dengan petugas kesihatan, Wanie macam ok takpe... mungkin normal kot lepas surgery sakit macam tu. So, wanie makan painkiller and tido je seharian.... esoknya tu, Sabtu... dah tak terkata dah sakitnya!! Tapi hospital tak bukak weekend kan... memang dah tak boleh fikir apa dah. Awal-awal pagi tu dalam 9.30 pagi camtu, terus ajak husband ke Klinik Pergigian Dr. K kat Precint Diplomatik. Time tu, nak bukak mulut pun seksa... lepas doktor check, haaa kau! Nasik seketul dia jumpa... patut lah sakit. Lepas tu, doktor kata macam dry socket sikit je... doktor cucuk ubat kebas, lepas tu cuci dalam gigi tu untuk elakkan jangkitan. Tak lawak weh... time doktor nak cuci dengan nak ambik sisa-sisa makanan, serious sakit sampai nak meleleh air mata.. dah tak malu dah terjerit-jerit time tu... Hambik kauuu... ikut nafsu sangat, slumber badak je ko makan nasik, orang lain lepas surgery makan soft food je je.. hahahaha, rasakannn lahh hazabbb nye.. Lepas tu, doktor masukkan ubat dalam lubang gigi tu, dan jahit sikit. Haaaa~~ part jahit ni pun sama, rasa macam kena jahit hidup hidup sebab ubat bius doktor dah cucuk banyak kali, still boleh rasa sakit tu. Sabar je weh... time tu, terus tobat tak kan makan nasik ketul ketul... nasi pun blend sama cair macam nak bagi baby makan, punya laaa insappp. Hahahahaha~ lepas dah cuci semua ni, baru rasa indah dunia. Sakit masih sakit, tapi tak seteruk awal tu la...


    Isnin lepas, wanie call hospital untuk reschedule tarikh untuk bukak jahitan sebab gaps nak bukak jahitan tu dekat sangat. So, doktor schedule ke hari Khamis. Pagi Khamis tu, wanie pun ke hospital untuk bukak jahitan. Tak sakit sangat... cuma pedih sikittt je dan sedikit ngilu. Doktor yang bukak jahitan tu adalah the same doctor yang surgery kan wanie. Dia cerita, memang agak susah waktu dorang nak surgery tu sebab size gigi wanie besar-besar dan diorang terpaksa potong kawasan tu besar sikit untuk keluarkan gigi wanie. Terima kasih banyak lah doktor.... dah hilang azab sakit gigi saya tanggung on off selama ni, besar ganjaran pahala doktor dapat! Lega rasanya lepas doktor check balik, doktor kata semua ok. Yang wanie still sakit, gigi bongsu yang bermasalah tu lah, yang nasik terlekat lah, yang dekat dengan saraf la... masalah betul gigi tu. Hahahah~ doktor kata yang tu pun nampak macam tengah recover. Doktor flush sikit dalam gigi tu untuk bersihkan, dan lepas jahitan dah bukak ni, doktor nasihatkan kena selalu gargle untuk keluarkan sisa-sisa makanan kalau termasuk dalam lubang gigi, dan bila gargle dengan Listerine tu, doktor pesan kuat sikit. Mungkin sebab gigi wanie tu bawah sangat kot... 


    Dan sampai sekarang, rasa sakit tu berdenyut jugak, cuma sikit-sikit je.. takpe, itu normal doktor kata sebab dia tengah healing. Gigi-gigi lain yang dicabut, takde masalah dan dah tak rasa apa-apa. Still control food yang dimakan, lembut lembut je.. cuma kadang-kadang lepas gian gak, makan pasta dan laksa. Chew slowly, lepas makan terus gargle. Dah tak payah depend dengan painkiller dah. Sakit tu ringan je, boleh ignore macam tu je.. 


    Sakit kan penghapus dosa. Alhamdulillah, banyak dosa terhapus. Cuma, lepas ni nak ganti puasa, boleh tahan jugak lah... campur dengan hari tak boleh puasa cuti perempuan. Heheheh~ 


    Lepas dah fully recover, hujung tahun ni plan nya nak pasang braces di Klinik Pergigian Dr. K tu.... Gigi tak berapa teratur, so doktor check takut karies rosakkan gigi. Doktor suggest untuk pasang Damon Braces - the latest braces yang less painful katanya. Takpe... tunggu gigi baik dulu, lepas tu baru jumpa balik doktor untuk have a little talk pasal ni. Paling best, husband nak sponsor... kihkihkihkih~~


    Oklah... terima kasih readers yang mengikuti kisah gigi bongsu ni dari Part 1, Part 2 dan yang ini, Final. 


    Selamat Hari Raya korang!!! Minta maaf ye kalau tersalah silap terkasar tutur bicara.



              Buy Michael Joseph Jackson        

    Buy Michael Joseph Jackson Michael Jackson doctor describes frantic last efforts to save singer

    Tags:


              Buy Michael Joseph Jackson        

    Michael Jackson Michael Jackson doctor describes frantic last efforts to save singer

    Tags:


              ECO-IMPERIALISMO, HIDROELÉCTRICAS, MENTIRAS Y VERDADES        
    Esta mañana me encontré este artículo en el muro de un amigo http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/2705631/el_quimbo_colombia_enelendesas_low_carbon_hydroelectric_racket.html. El artículo por un imperialismo ecológico critica el imperialismo económico, pero su crítica, aunque razonable en algunos puntos, no deja de tener el trasfondo errado de muchos ecologistas: ¡imponer condiciones a los países subdesarrollados para que los ecologistas de los desarrollados sigan contaminando en paz! Pero lo irónico es que The ecologist critica una de las fuentes de generación de energía renovable más bonitas, eficientes y que puede darle a la gente que vive en ese territorio que llaman Colombia fuentes de riqueza. Además, la crítica se hace de manera ligera pasando por alto las consideraciones del International Panel on Climate Change acerca de sus ventajas.  En el punto que acierta es precisamente en los abusos del estado sobre las comunidades, donde vale la pena resaltar que el aprovechamiento del potencial hidroeléctrico no da derecho a expropiar, en favor del que sea. 

    Este escrito consta de varias partes. El primero es que hay una confusión entre inversión extranjera y concesión de monopolios extranjeros, donde los ecologistas aciertan. Y para la aclaración cito a un a un profesor de la Universidad de New York, a Murray Rothbard. Luego, muestro que tras el ecologismo hay también imperialismo, pero uno que suele gustarle a ciertas izquierdas, uno que impone condiciones insoportables a los países pobres, para que los ecologistas nórdicos no tengan cargos de conciencia por prender la calefacción, dado que en las zonas tropicales hay selvas que se beneficiarán de su cariño al planeta. En ella explico que hay una falacia en cuanto a la consideración que hace el artículo de las hidroeléctricas, incluso basándome en el IPCC. Posteriormente, se muestra que las hidroeléctricas además de ser tecnologías que producen energía eficiente sin emisiones de CO2 (no se discute acá el tema de si el cambio climático es originado o no por el hombre) es una oportunidad de ofrecer energía barata. El precio de la energía se relaciona con el crecimiento económico, inclusive una disminución de la demanda de energía puede ser un indicio previo a una crisis económica. La energía eléctrica es clave en la industria y una energía más barata puede disminuir costos. Finalmente, ante un planteamiento del artículo que menciona las pérdidas de energía en transmisión y distribución (o sea los cables que llevan la energía de la planta a su casa) que denuncian a que se deben ¿a las leyes de la física? ¿a viabilidad técnica pero no económica? ¿a ineficiencia? Esto porque consideraban que era más importante disminuir las pérdidas que construir hidroeléctricas. Hasta cierto punto, por física, las pérdidas en transmisión son inevitables, no sé cuál sea el punto. Pero eso no es una excusa para no mejorar la oferta. 

    IMPERIALISMO ECONÓMICO Y MONOPOLIO ESTATAL
    El imperialismo ecológico es una realidad. Sin embargo, muchos partidos de izquierda al ser ecologistas están convencidos de que no es imperialismo. Ya Hayek denunciaba que existía una imposición de países ricos y contaminados que obligaban a países pobres y selváticos a generar amplias áreas protegidas. Esto genera como dice don Alpiniano en El Tomismo Desdeñado unos beneficios a unas personas que no les corresponden, imponiendo cargas a otros que no las merecen. Sin embargo, luego de que en estos países -como Colombia- nadie puede hacer nada, ni tiene cómo adquirir recursos para explotar sus ventajas ahí sí llegan empresas extranjeras que, haciendo convenios con el gobierno, adquieren los beneficios que los nacionales no han tenido. 

    Hace Murray Rothbard, citado por el instituto Mises Hispano una distinción importante entre la sana inversión extranjera y la alianza de empresas ricas con gobiernos ineptos pobres:

    "Los conservadores norteamericanos insisten en particular en resaltar ante los países retrasados las grandes posibilidades y la importancia de las inversiones privadas procedentes de los países avanzados, y les incitan a crear un clima favorable a las mismas, de modo que no se vean sujetas al instigamiento de los gobernantes. Todo ello es muy cierto, pero, una vez más, a menudo es irreal, dada la situación de estos países. Estos conservadores caen persistentemente en el error de no saber distinguir entre las inversiones exteriores legítimas del mercado libre y las basadas en concesiones monopolistas y en donaciones de vastas extensiones de tierras otorgadas por los Estados subdesarrollados. En la medida en que las inversiones exteriores se basan en monopolios y en agresiones contra el campesinado, en esa misma medida adquiere el capitalismo extranjero las características de los señores feudales y debe ser combatido con los mismos medios"

    En este sentido, estoy de acuerdo con el artículo -y en contra del imperialismo económico- en que el estado confunde inversión extranjera con monopolio extranjero. Y el monopolio es desagradable venga de donde venga, sea el monopolio estatal tan "nacional", como cualquier otro. Por eso, cuando Robledo, senador del Polo, defendía a los arroceros por la imposición ridícula de tener que comprar nuevas semillas estaba promoviendo algo anarcocapitalista y liberal, aunque con argumentos de izquierda. 

    Lo mismo pasa en este caso, si se trata de una inversión privada ¿por qué el estado entra y desaloja campesinos? ¿Por qué expropia? Y por más que la ley diga que la expropiación requiere una indemnización al precio del avalúo comercial, ¿es el avalúo comercial el precio de venta? Hombre, no estoy en momento de calcular las rentas campesinas vs las rentas hidroeléctricas, pero sospecho que las rentas hidroeléctricas son más altas. Ahora, si el campesino no quiere vender al precio que dice el avaluador ¿por qué le quita el estado su tierra bajo la excusa del "bien común" para las rentas particulares? No creo que si la transacción se diera en condiciones de libre mercado los campesinos salieran a protestar. Hay alrededor de un millón de kilómetros de líneas de transmisión eléctrica, y si uno viaja por carretera suele ver vacas o sembrados alrededor. ¿Por qué esos campesinos no protestan? Porque 1. esos terrenos no son expropiados sino que cuentan con servidumbres de paso, 2. Se suelen hacer arreglos de mercado. Hombre, hay casos de casos, pero en general no se ve un descontento generalizado. 

    Pero, no, la herramienta de la expropiación es el arma para el bien común, como en Venezuela que hay mucho "bien común", siendo tan paradisiado que prefieren venirse para Colombia. La expropiación existe pero tiene sus límites. En todo caso, sin estado Â¿quién expropiaría para que se hicieran las vías? 

    IMPERIALISMO ECOLÓGICO

    Sin embargo, las razones ecológicas que plantean para oponerse a las hidroeléctricas son más bien pobres. En primer lugar, las consideran también causa del calentamiento global. ¿Cómo? No quiero citar el artículo porque me da pereza pero la idea se resume en 1. cortan bosques tropicales que recogen el CO2, 2. son fuentes de Metano. Hombre ¿cómo un artículo que cita el Panel Intergubernamental sobre el Cambio Climático para defender a los campesinos y el agro sale a decir que son más contaminantes? En primer lugar, si uno revisa lo que dice el IPCC en materia de energía hidoeléctrica (sacaron un documento sobre energías alternativas) su resumen -de la IPCC- arranca así: "Hydropower offers significant potential for carbon emissions reductions" http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srren/Chapter%205%20Hydropower.pdf. Creo que en ese punto "The ecologist" se equivoca. 

    Por otro lado argumenta que las represas (reservoirs) son fuentes de Metano. La verdad, lo que dicen los científicos climáticos es que si bien el metano CH4 es un gas efecto invernadero, su absorción es más rápida que el CO2, una diferencia que va desde unas décadas en el metano, hasta miles de años para el dióxido de carbono. Además, de acuerdo con la siguiente imagen que proviene del último reporte del IPCC parte del CO2 proviene del uso de la tierra http://www.slideshare.net/fullscreen/IPCCGeneva/fifth-assessment-report-synthesis-report/11:
    Francamente, si queremos disminuir TODAS las emisiones humanas de CO2 hay que empezar por dejar de respirar. ¿Y todas las artificiales? Dudo que la energía que utiliza "The ecologist" sea propiamente energía que no emita CO2 -bueno, puede ser nuclear que no les gusta tampoco- pero no es de las "terribles" hidroeléctricas. 

    ¿Qué otra razón puede tener "The ecologist"? ¿Proteger los bosques de los países subdesarrollados? ¿Para qué? ¿Para que haya bosques que puedan chuparse el CO2 que producen sus plantas a carbón, gas, petróleo, etc. a costa de energía más costosa, menor productividad, entre otras, en nuestros países? ¿Para que ellos puedan seguir subsidiando sus industrias a cambio de que las nuestras no puedan competir en sus mercados por el costo de la energía?

    DEFENDIENDO LAS HIDROELÉCTRICAS

    LAGO CALIMA
    Lago Calima.
    Uno de los embalses en Colombia.
    En un apartado anterior cuestioné el manejo del monopolio estatal con la empresa. El estado es una asociación de políticos corruptos con empresarios ineficientes. Pero tanto la oportunidad a nivel de recursos hídricos que hay en Colombia, la eficiencia energética de las hidroeléctricas, su costo en comparación con las térmicas a base de carbón, gas, gasolina, su posibilidad de cambiar potencia (a diferencia de otras renovables de potencia inestable) y almacenar la energía, entre muchas otras, me hacen tenerle cariño a esta tecnología. Creo que en el punto anterior quedó desvirtuado que las hidroeléctricas tengan impactos a nivel global vía CO2 (lo que hacen es quitar el calmadero de conciencia de los ecologistas ricos que les permite seguir emitiendo CO2 bajo la tranquilidad que los bosques tropicales los recogerán). El metano no me preocupa realmente y creo que es una afirmación que no estaba fundamentada, al fin y al cabo, los embalses no son aguas estancadas. 

    El potencial hidroeléctrico de ese territorio que llaman Colombia es una maravilla. Eso sin contar con el potencial energético de otras tecnologías renovables como las fotovoltaicas por su ubicación terrestre, las mareomotrices, entre otras. Que cualquiera venga y lo explote es necesario, aunque en condiciones de mercado, no monopólicas ni imperialistas. Adicionalmente, la energía hidroeléctrica es más barata. En el siguiente gráfico hay un promedio de los precios mensuales en comparación al porcentaje de generación térmica en Colombia:

    Por puro azar puede observarse con claridad la correlación entre el porcentaje de generación térmica en Colombia y el precio constante (deflactado con IPC) de la energía. Como la gráfica de generación térmica de alguna manera encaja con la hidráulica (la cogeneración y la eólica representan porcentajes insignificantes) podría afirmarse que a mayor generación hidráulica en general menos precio. ¿Por qué se presentan esos baches en la generación? La razón es muy simple, el agua es renovable pero no predecible. Si uno mira las correlaciones de series de ingresos los caudales en dos o tres días tienen altas correlaciones, pero alrededor de dos meses -algo que corroboré con un ex empleado de ISA e ISAGEN- las correlaciones son nulas. 

    Hay incertidumbre en el ingreso del agua. Adicionalmente, en unas ocasiones por década se presenta el fenómeno del niño. El fenómeno del niño genera lluvias en Perú -un país desértico- y trae sequía a un país lluvioso como Colombia. Como el agua escasea hay que producir la energía con un sustituto: las termoeléctricas. El costo de la energía se dispara. En este momento parece que están las condiciones para que se dé el fenómeno del Niño si es que no estamos ya en él. De ese fenómeno se ha venido especulando desde que empecé a investigar este tema en Junio del año pasado (o sea el 2014). Esa especulación posiblemente también influye en los precios, el aumento de la producción térmica y la disminución de la hidroeléctrica porque ante el riesgo de escasez se empieza a guardar el agua. El profesor John Jairo García y otros de EAFIT en un paper al respecto proponía medir las expectativas de aportes al sistema en relación con el precio: 

    "Una variable importante sobre la determinación del precio en el mercado no regulado que debiera incluirse en estudios futuros son las expectativas climatológicas; en la medida en que se espere una disminución del recurso hídrico, generará expectativas de aumentos en el precio.". http://revistas.upb.edu.co/index.php/cienciasestrategicas/article/view/1093/1313

    La intuición tras el análisis es muy buena, pero dudo que pueda encontrarse una variable de expectativas climatológicas. Aunque si algo me soprendió de John Jairo era esa capacidad de creatividad econométrica. El caso es que la ventaja de tener un sistema donde el "combustible"que es el agua es variable, permite inferir que, al menos en las condiciones geográficas de los Andes Colombianas, es más barato que el uso de otros combustibles.

    Es así como la construcción de hidroeléctricas -aunque respetando los derechos de propiedad privada- es una necesidad para mantener bajos los precios de la energía. Hay muchos trabajos que buscan predecir el precio de la energía y lo hacen en función de variables hídricas. Pero nada mejor que leer los errores de las predicciones pasadas de los economistas. En este artículo participó mi amigo y profesor de econometría Mauricio Lopera y dice lo siguiente:

    " La coherencia del resultado se corrobora en el mes de enero de 2014, donde se aprecia una caída grande en el precio producto de la entrada en operación de El Quimbo y Sogamoso, las cuales en conjunto aumentan la oferta de electricidad en 1220 MW" http://www.redalyc.org/pdf/1552/155226077004.pdf
    Mauricio nos insistía mucho que verificáramos que el resultado econométrico coincidiera con la "intuición" económica.  El problema es que las predicciones se equivocan y fuertemente. En el artículo citado, se muestra que los precios caerían en enero de 2014, la razón sería lógica la entrada de hidrosogamoso y quimbo (que es la que menciona The ecologist). Los precios en 2014 en bolsa fueron altísimos, y apenas hoy 16/01/2015 leí que estaban inaugurando la planta de hidrosogamoso. Lo que es cierto es que esas plantas deberían influir en la disminución del precio por el aumento de la oferta, además, de un insumo mucho más barato como "combustible" que el carbón. En eso acertó el trabajo de Mauricio y otros. Pero el cómo o cuánto bajarán los precios no podemos calcularlo con exactitud. 

    DEFICIENCIAS DEL SISTEMA
    Los cables suelen dañar las fotos de paisajes.
    Pero ¿no puede haber buenas fotos de cables de alta tensión?

    El sistema de energía que nace con las leyes 142 y en concreto 143 de 1994 tiene muchas deficiencias. Aunque la L143/94 trataba de dar paso a un modelo más parecido al de un mercado, esa distinción del mercado regulado del consumidor de energía hace que nos saquen un ojo de la cara porque sus precios están muy por encima de los de bolsa; aunque relativamente influidos por ellos como lo mostraba el profesor John Jairo García. El modelo aunque avanza hacia tratar de liberar lo que considera de mercado y regular lo que considera "monopolio natural" se queda corto. Pero realmente si hay algo aburrido es la regulación del sistema de energía, como todas las regulaciones. Hablemos más bien de leyes bonitas, las del "fatum" o de la naturaleza... las humanas dan asco. 

    Quiero enfocarme más en los problemas que mencionaba "The ecologist" y es las "pérdidas" de energía del sistema de transmisión y distribución. Una de las leyes de la física es la ley de la entropía. Básicamente consiste en que aunque la energía no se destruye, solamente se transforma, se degrada a formas de energía más "desordenadas". Básicamente la energía se transforma en "calor", o que es lo mismo que movimiento y vibración molecular. Utilizaremos el término "pérdida" de energía en un sentido amplio, o económico, pero entendiendo que solamente es una transformación no utilizable.  Esta es la razón por la cual no existe una máquina perfecta, sin desgaste y de movimiento absoluto. Por esta razón los relojes de péndulo necesitaban que les dieran "cuerda". 

    De esta manera, por cada 1 KWh (3.600.000 Joules) que produce uno recibe una cantidad menor de energía porque esta se ha "pérdido" transformándose en calor. Esto se debe a que los transformadores -que no entiendo cómo funcionan pero cambian el voltaje- generan pérdidas, la transmisión de energía puede generar calor, en la costa el desgaste de los cables genera pérdidas. Todo esto, como me decía un ex trabajador del sector eso es parte del costo de la energía. Dice textualmente "The ecologist" que se pierde alrededor del 16% de la energía generada:

    "Yet the Government is neglecting simple options to raise power supply - like reducing the high level of losses in transmission and distribution, which run at about 16% of power generation and amount to some 10,000 GWh per year - more than four times the energy production of El Quimbo."
    Pero es que por las leyes de la física: ¡tiene que "perderse" parte de la energía generada! De la energía potencial del agua embalsada el 80%-90% se transmite por medio de la electricidad y el 10%-20% se "pierde" o sea se transforma en "calor". ¡Y es de las más bajas! Las térmicas pierden el 59% de la energía contenida en el combustible, las nucleares el 70%  (CARTA GONZÁLEZ, CALERO PÉREZ, COLMENAR SANTOS, CASTRO GIL, & COLLADO FERNÁNDEZ, 2013, pp. 113-114). Puede que pueda perderse menos bajo un mantenimiento mucho más costoso, o puede que efectivamente pueda perderse menos. El caso es que siempre se va a "perder" algo de la energía. 

    Puede que The Ecologist tenga razón en que se aumente la eficiencia energética. Algo que puede ser inviable o física o económicamente. Pero eso no es razón para impedir que se produzcan plantas de producción de energía eléctrica, es bueno aumentar la oferta por todos los medios. 

    Lo que no puede el gobierno es ordenar que se cree energía, ni que no se degrade una parte en otras formas. Gracias a Dios las leyes de la física son inderogables, imprescriptibles, inembargables, anteriores al ser humano mismo. ¿Puede imaginarse una ley que cree energía? El Congreso de Colombia Decreta "Créase energía a partir de la nada...". Gracias a Dios eso no es posible, no soy capaz de imaginarme la inflación energética lo que produciría, al menos la moneda de la naturaleza es absolutamente neutral. O una ley que diga "Derógase la gravedad", el totazo que se pegarían de cuenta de creer en su validez sería de lo lindo...

    IN CONCLUSIÓN
    En primer lugar pido perdón al lector por tratar la energía de una forma tan política. Es decir, es demasiado pobre, aunque no más pobre que el Ministro de Minas que confundió potencia con energía, pero ¿quién es uno para cuestionar a los "doctores" Ministros? ¡De pronto ignoro una ley que asimila energía con potencia! En segundo lugar, no es esta, ni más faltaba una defensa al régimen de energía eléctrica Colombiana, tan no lo es, que arranco dándole la razón a los ecologistas en que muchas de esas empresas grandes y concesionadas arrasan con las comunidades. El problema de esas empresas grandes, no es la falta de estado, por el contrario, su exceso, lo que falta es libertad. 

    Lo que sí creo es que en sanas condiciones de mercado y con precios justos a los dueños de las tierras, la construcción de hidroeléctricas es una de las ventajas que tiene este territorio geográficamente llamado Colombia. Es vital empezar a utilizar en este territorio las ventajas que ofrece el desarrollo de miles de tecnologías de energía renovable, como la solar, la mareomotriz, la eólica y la más fuerte la hidroeléctrica. En esta región se podría utilizar un potencial enorme para producir energía barata, renovable y libre de elementos contaminantes. Esta energía se podría exportar. ¿Por qué no hay líneas de transmisión a Panamá y Centro América? ¿Por qué no hay líneas de transmisión al Perú? ¿Imposibilidad logística? ¿No serán más bien los elevados costos regulatorios -que agudizan las barreras de entrada- sumado al monopolio estatal? ¿O el monopolio de la transmisión es "natural"? 

     BIBLIOGRAFÍA
    Casi todas las citas salen de internet así que si no refiero la fuente, está el link. Las formalidades APA o lo que sea me parecen demasiado engorrosas para escribir informalmente. Con el internet debería bastar con el link. El único libro que cito, con todas las normas mamonas para probar su existencia, es:

    CARTA GONZÁLEZ, J. A., CALERO PÉREZ, R., COLMENAR SANTOS, A., CASTRO GIL, A., & COLLADO FERNÁNDEZ, E. (2013). Centrales de energías renovables. Generación eléctrica con energías renovables. (P. E. S.A. Ed. SEGUNDA ed.). Madrid, España.




              BREVES COMENTARIOS SOBRE LA REFORMA TRIBUTARIA        
    Para vergüenza mía tengo que confesar que he perdido el tiempo leyendo la reforma tributaria. Bueno, es algo "ñoño", aparte que no he entendido ni la mitad de sus consecuencias. Sin embargo, quisiera compartir mis apreciaciones dado que el gobierno se ha desgastado (y comprado con sus recursos) una serie de propagandas para insistir en la reforma tributaria. Una de esas es que no afecta a la clase media.

    Lo primero que hay que decir es que la reforma tributaria cuenta con una redacción en extremo confusa. Los políticos no tienen incentivos para clarificar sus reformas tributarias porque quieren que nadie sepa para quien es el totazo. Y es verdad que de acuerdo con su publicidad una lectura rápida no muestra que se esté gravando a la clase media. Eso hay que estudiarlo a profundidad. 

    JUGANDO AL IMPUESTO TEMPORAL
    Pienso de lo que entendí y lo que pude leer entre líneas es que los impuestos que se crean son temporales. Una creación de impuestos temporales es entre señal de debilidad del estado y un peligro inmenso porque nada más permanente que un impuesto temporal. El mejor ejemplo es el 4 X 1000 que nació por decreto inconstitucionalmente para salvar a los bancos en el gobierno de Pastrana, pero luego se saneó la inconstitucionalidad. Este impuesto lo están desmontando desde que tengo uso de razón tributaria. La anterior reforma tributaria, no hace menos de 2 años, había ordenado su desmonte. Ésta ¡hace lo mismo, pero deroga el desmonte anterior! ¿Qué qué? ¡Más 4 X 1000 por ahora! Una reforma tributaria no puede venir sin beneficios. Así que también hay una prórroga de beneficios temporales de leyes anteriores.

    EL DISCURSO DE LA CLASE MEDIA
    Como la ley 1607 de 2014 gravó onerosamente con el Impuesto Mínimo Alternativo Nacional a la renta donde claramente los ingresos eran de personas de clase media, esto fue muy criticado. La opinión pública y el análisis fueron claros al insistir lo intenso del gravamen. Como el gobierno quiere la paz, digo estar en paz, tiene que mostrar un discurso que no grave a la clase media. ¿Qué hacer entonces?

    Una vieja estrategia que se remonta hasta Marx es generar en el colectivo la imagen del "capitalista" rico. "El rico es malo y no hay legitimidad en la forma de generarla". Por eso se crea el "impuesto a la riqueza". Que además es "transitorio". Dice el presidente:

    "Por supuesto, esta reforma supone un esfuerzo para las empresas más grandes del país –unas 32 mil que tienen patrimonio superior a los mil millones de pesos– y para los colombianos más ricos –unos 50 mil que tienen también un patrimonio por encima de esa suma–.
    Pero no afecta a la clase media del país, ni a las pequeñas y medianas empresas –las pymes–.
    Además, como ya dije, esta reforma se hizo escuchando las inquietudes y sugerencias de los empresarios, motivo por el cual el impuesto a la riqueza –yo prefiero decirle impuesto contra la pobreza– desaparece en 2018.". http://wp.presidencia.gov.co/Noticias/2014/Diciembre/Paginas/20141223_03-Palabras-Presidente-Santos-sobre-la-sanciom-Ley-Reforma-Tributaria.aspx

    Palabras más palabras menos hay que quitarle a los más ricos para darle a los más pobres. Pero, ¿Tiene el impuesto a la riqueza una destinación específica?  Â¡No! O sea que lo que paguen por concepto de impuesto a la riqueza va a cualquier gasto del estado. No está ni dedicándose a los programas de primera infancia, educación, lucha contra la pobreza, etc. Así que Robin Hood no le está quitando a los ricos para darle a los pobres, sino quitándole a los ricos para darle al más rico e inútil: ¡el estado! Tan no es así que otro de los novedosos inventos es la "sobretasa al CREE" pero, a diferencia del CREE que sí tiene una destinación social específica:

    ARTÍCULO 22°. No destinación específica. La sobretasa al impuesto sobre la renta para la equidad – CREE no tiene destinación específica. Los recursos que se recauden por este tributo no estarán sometidos al régimen previsto en los artículos 24 y 28 de la Ley 1607 de 2012, no formarán parte del Fondo Especial sin personería Fondo CREE, y harán unidad de caja con los demás ingresos corrientes de la Nación, de acuerdo con las normas previstas en el Estatuto Orgánico del Presupuesto. http://www.comunidadcontable.com/BancoMedios/Documentos%20PDF/105%20-%2014%20s%20-%20134%20-%2014%20c%20reforma%20tributaria.pdf

    Sin embargo, en este impuesto hay una gran confusión entre riqueza y su medida. Los tan expertos en análisis económico y tributario parecen no comprender un balance. Un balance cuenta con activos líquidos y activos ilíquidos o fijos. Una empresa puede estar llena de activos fijos pero padecer iliquidez. 

    ¿Qué de la reforma toca a la clase media? Aunque cabe reconocer que de manera rápida no encuentro un empeoramiento a las condiciones de la "clase media" en materia tarifaria. Lo único es que el gobierno aumentó a las sociedades sujeto del "CREE" del 8% al 9%. Además de novedosos enredos en este impuesto.

    ¿Y es que el gobierno no beneficia a los ricos? Recordemos que el mencionado 4 X 1000 nació como el 2 X 1000 precisamente con la intención de salvar a los Bancos. Vea este video de Rudolf Homes cuando en aquella época http://youtu.be/bRgATyQm54A. Los comentarios agudos de Jaime Garzón son muy buenos ¿es que por encima de las leyes sociales están los bancos? ¿Es que los bancos cuando ganan no reparten y cuando pierden sí reparten? El estado es un aliado de los bancos, para eso puede leer a Mises que lo explica muy bien en el libro Human Action. Lo irónico del 4 X 1000 es que ¡terminó afectando a los bancos! ¿No ha oído a nadie decir "págueme en efectivo para que no me cobren el 4 X 1000"?

    ¿POR QUÉ HACERLO FÁCIL SI PODEMOS HACERLO DIFÍCIL?


    Esta imagen de www.actualicese.com da en el punto de los enredos de la reforma tributaria. Ponga la primera parte del índice tapando el meñique y abrazando el anular, que a su vez atrapa el intermedio que abraza el meñique aunque sobresale. Finalmente deje el pulgar afuera. ¡La esencia es el pulgar afuera y los demás enrollados! Podemos hacerlo fácil como a la derecha, o difícil como a la izquierda ¡El efecto es el mismo!

    Esa imagen, sin proponérselo, logra ser una descripción virtual del siguiente artículo: 

    ARTÍCULO 16°. Modifíquese el artículo 23 de la Ley 1607 de 2012 el cual quedará así:

    “Artículo 23. La tarifa del impuesto sobre la renta para la equidad - CREE a que se refiere el artículo 20 de la presente ley, será del ocho por ciento (8%). 
    Parágrafo. A partir del período gravable 2016, la tarifa será del nueve por ciento (9%).Parágrafo transitorio. Para los años 2013, 2014 y 2015 la tarifa del CREE será del nueve (9%). Este punto adicional se aplicará de acuerdo con la distribución que se hará en el parágrafo transitorio del siguiente artículo.” http://www.comunidadcontable.com/BancoMedios/Documentos%20PDF/105%20-%2014%20s%20-%20134%20-%2014%20c%20reforma%20tributaria.pdf

    ¿Qué? Lo que dice el artículo 23 se resume en "La tarifa del CREE será del 9%. Esta tarifa tiene efectos para los años 2013 y 2014 inclusive". Pero primero decir que es el 8%, luego que es el 9% desde el 2013. Incluyo la segunda frase simplemente porque la ley tiene efectos a futuro a menos que se especifique otra vigencia. Pero ¿para qué hacerlo en una frase si podíamos hacerla confusa?

    ¿IMPORTAN LOS ENREDOS EN LA ECONOMÍA?

    A finales de la década de los 30 Ronald Coase planteaba la teoría de la firma donde incluía su exitosa creación del concepto de "costo de transacción". Los costos de transacción son lo que cuesta realizar un intercambio. Por ejemplo, salir a comprar ropa implica no solamente pagar el precio, sino también una tarde perdida en un centro comercial, unas medidas incómodas, caminar, gasolina, etc. Todo para comprar unos benditos zapatos. ¿Cuál es el costo de transacción de pagar impuestos? Lo primero es entender qué toca pagar, luego cuándo y luego cómo. 

    Uno de los casos más comunes del pago de impuestos es la retención en la fuente. El que es agente retenedor tiene que aplicar unos enredos a la hora de pagarle a los "empleados". Pero un empleado tributario, además del empleado del Código Sustantivo de Trabajo, también lo es el independiente. Vea los artículos 383 y 384 del Estatuto Tributario sobre cómo se retiene el la fuente. Eso sin contar que tiene que pedirle el comprobante de pago de la seguridad social al independiente. Este costo de transacción de ignorarse puede generarse sanciones y de asumirse genera más trabajo al que lo hace. 

    Si una reforma tributaria es confusa para un abogado, estudiante de maestría en economía con experiencia en el día a día tributario-contable. Es confusa, también, para expertos consultores en materia de impuestos y planeación tributaria ¿Va a ser fácil de entender para el trabajador del común? Hice el experimento con estudiantes de último semestre de una carrera donde tienen contabilidad, costos, impuestos, etc. en su pénsum y escasamente pudieron comprender el ejemplo anterior. 

    En la medida en que los impuestos se hacen más confusos, es más difícil pagarlos. Esto implica una elección "no pagarlos y arriesgarse", "pagarlos y perder valiosas horas de productividad". Tampoco creo que ayude al recaudo, en la medida que la administración de impuestos estará muy ocupada entendiendo, aclarando, recibiendo interpretaciones diferentes. En Estados Unidos, y no es mi paradigma tributario, un doctor en ingeniería me decía que allá hacía fácilmente la declaración, acá le toca contratar un contador. Si un experto consultor se demoró un mes en entender el "Impuesto Mínimo Alternativo Nacional" ¿Va a ser fácil para las personas del común manejar estos costos? Y si los maneja ¡está dejando de pensar en cosas que sí le aportarían a su productividad! ¡Está dejando de producir y de trabajar por pagar impuestos! 

    No faltará el que salga con que eso genera empleo para los contadores. La verdad no creo que un contador realmente gane con la reforma tributaria. Realmente una reforma confusa no aumenta la productividad del contador, realmente la disminuye, lo obliga a vivir de capacitación en capacitación y le dificulta llevar el trabajo que ya tiene. Es posible que pueda cobrar más, pero porque la demanda aumenta y la oferta disminuye. Puede que el contador cobre más pero ¿a qué costo? Al costo de una labor más compleja. Es como decir que el médico ganaría más con la enfermedad, pues sí, pero hasta el punto que le den sus fuerzas: ¡Bendita sea la enfermedad que da trabajo a los médicos!

    ¿INEVITABLE?
    Puede que usted sea un creyente ferviente de esa ideología llamada Constitución de 1991. Que ame el estado social de derecho, como si por ponerle "social" capitán Constitución resolviera la pobreza, que crea que pagar impuestos es bueno. Crea usted que el  estado es un generoso Robin Hood que le quita a los "ricos tacaños" y que por ende, es inevitable resolver el déficit fiscal. Sepa varias cosas:

    A) La reforma tributaria trae más confusión, una mayor confusión tributaria es un virus que eleva los costos de producción de todas las empresas. Eso ya de por sí es una pérdida.

    B) Tenga en cuenta que hay muchas labores del estado que no tienen sentido. Por ejemplo, piense en el cargo de procurador judicial que todos sabemos que son una traba en procesos, especialmente los penales donde se juega con la libertad de las personas. Y ¿cuánto ganan? Piense en los carruseles de pensiones de las altas cortes mientras el juez promedio no tiene ni lapiceros. Tenga en cuenta la desigualdad de muchos funcionarios donde los altos tienen salario en especie con vehículos, escolta, entre otras. ¡Sí, la burocracia es más desigual todavía que las empresas privadas! 

    C) Tenga en cuenta que las reformas tributarias son confusas porque se quiere ocultar su verdadero sentido. Por eso incluyen exenciones con nuevos gravámenes lo que las hace más confusas todavía. Las exenciones se dan a costa de los gravámenes favoreciendo grupos económicos concretos. Lea algunas de las exenciones o descuentos y verá cómo los "ricos" pero "especiales" también ganan. Además si la intención es cubrir el "hueco fiscal" ¿cree que va a haber más descuentos que beneficios? Los beneficios son el "premio de consolación", ¿no cree que su intención es más psicológica?

    D) Finalmente, si quiere que el estado cubra el déficit funcionaría mejor si pensara en disminuir el gasto y priorizar. No se tiene que hacer una reforma tributaria si la intención es favorecer a los más pobres. Lo que se tiene que hacer es darle prioridad a los más pobres sacrificando el valioso "servicio" del procurador judicial, las pensiones presidenciales, el número de Congresistas, el carrusel de pensiones. ¿Cuánto no es el gasto de los órganos de control? 


    CONCLUSIÓN
    Concluir sobre 52 páginas y 72 artículos que remiten a otros artículos no termina aquí. La reforma tributaria no se acabó ¡apenas empieza! Pronto va a haber decretos, resoluciones, conceptos de la DIAN, seminarios, cursos, actualizaciones (en menos de dos años), sentencias, líos, enredos... Va a haber líos para resolver los líos, enredos para aclarar los enredos. Así si razona ad infinitum los enredos que trae la reforma son infinitos. Si quiere profundice en http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2157804, un análisis especial de las leyes tributarias gringas, que al lado de las colombianas son ¡fáciles! Así que esto es cuestión de tiempo que se difundan los daños que hace la reforma, por más buenas intenciones que tengan quienes la promovieron...



              Â¿QUÉ PASA SI HACEMOS BILLETES?        
    En el artículo  Â¿LA POBREZA PROVIENE DE LA FALTA DE DINERO? sembramos la inquietud de cómo el dinero no implica pobreza ni riqueza sino su medida. Sin embargo, explicamos qué pasa si hacemos billetes. El niño propuso como solución hacer billetes y... Keynes le hizo caso. Quizás me digan que degrado a Keynes considerándolo que promovía la misma solución del niño, la verdad es que no, promovía el control de la "oferta monetaria" para influir en la "demanda agregada"... no promovía hacer billetes, promovía un sinónimo. 

    Pero ¿cuáles son las consecuencias de hacer billetes? Prendamos la maquinita y experimentemos. Las consecuencias anticipo son dos, la primera se llama inflación, la segunda se llama hurto mediante la mutación de la moneda.

    INFLACIÓN
    La inflación es la pérdida del poder adquisitivo del dinero por el aumento de los precios. Es que el valor del dinero también está sometido a las reglas de exceso y la escasez, escaso vale más por lo que los precios bajan, si vale menos por tanto los precios suben. Ya esto lo había descubierto Domingo de Soto como nos lo cita José Alpiniano García en su tesis doctoral:

    "La falta de dinero en un lugar determinado hace que el precio de los demás bienes descienda, y la abundancia de dinero hace que el precio suba. Cuanto menor es la cantidad de dinero en un sitio, más aumenta su valor y, por tanto, ‘caeteris paribus’, con la misma cantidad de dinero se pueden comprar más cosas”.  (DE SOTO, 1968, pág. 543).
    Es que como decíamos en Â¿POR QUÉ SURGE EL DINERO? el dinero vale en la medida en que  puede cambiarse por otra cosa, además que la compra es el fin de la venta como veíamos en Domingo de Soto citado por García Muñoz. El ejemplo de una persona en una isla con un millón de dólares desierta que no puede cambiar por nada muestran como ese dinero no vale nada. ¿Un millón de dólares no valen nada? Sí, en una isla desierta sin poderlos cambiar por nada. 

    Eso pasa si hacemos billetes. La cantidad de bienes producidos será exactamente la misma, pero con más billetes éstas valdrán mucho más. Es sencillo, si tenemos 100 unidades de productos por 100 unidades monetarias, esos 100 productos pueden cambiarse por las 100 unidades monetarias. Pero si por esa misma cantidad de unidades tenemos 200 unidades monetarias, todas esas 100 unidades valdrán el doble. 

    EL ROBO CAMUFLADO.
    Una de las formas que utilizan los estados para reducir sus déficit fiscales de todas las absurdas promesas que hacen los políticos, es prendiendo la maquinita. Es en últimas si no hay plata ¡hagamos billetes! Aparte que esa situación aumenta el precio que tienen que pagar las personas por las cosas, genera que el porcentaje de poder adquisitivo que tienen los particulares sobre los bienes se reduzca y el de los estados:

    Si hay 100 unidades de cambio por 100 bienes y servicio y el estado produce 60 para "aumentar la demanda agregada" ahora por cada unidad de bienes ya no habrá 1 unidad de cambio, sino que se requerirá 1,6 unidades de cambio para adquirir un bien. Pero que implica eso, que si las unidades de cambio pertenecían al 100% antes de la emisión de dinero, ahora tenemos que el estado será dueño del 37,5% de las unidades de cambio y los particulares del 62,5%. Lo que palabras más palabras menos significa un robo muy sofisticado...: la mutación de la moneda. (TORO RESTREPO, 2010)

    Sin embargo, una mejor explicación al respecto puede encontrarse en (GARCÍA-MUÑOZ, 2001, pág. 151 a 155). Además, las denuncias sobre estos temas ya se hicieron por los escolásticos españoles, en especial Juan de Mariana en su libro sobre la mutación de la moneda que he buscado pero no lo encuentro. En todo caso sí encuentro la descripción del libro en uno de los artículos del excelente Instituto español que lleva su nombre. Este libro: 



    "comienza en sus dos primeros capítulos explicando con firmeza que “el Rey no es dueño de los bienes particulares de sus vasallos”, por lo que, lógicamente, conforme a derecho y justicia, debe “tomar el beneplácito del pueblo para imponer en el reino nuevos tributos y pechos”. En seguida derivará su argumento hacia lo que constituyó el objetivo de ese librito: criticar la alteración monetaria que practicaba el gobierno de Felipe III por ser causa directa de subida de los precios; juzgando inmediatamente (con enorme perspicacia) que tal inflación era injusta por ser un impuesto oculto, no votado en las Cortes." (GÓMEZ RIVILLAS, 2010)
    ¿Por qué es robar? Es simple, si una persona me quita mi dinero me está quitando mi poder adquisitivo, pero pueden quitarme mi poder adquisitivo dejándome mi dinero. En últimas no se roba dinero, porque como hemos visto el dinero vale es en su capacidad de cambio por otra cosa, por eso se hurta poder adquisitivo. En el ejemplo citado vemos cómo el estado, mediante la impresión de moneda, redujo el poder adquisitivo de las personas en un 62.5%, si una persona se los hubiera quitado habría generado el mismo perjuicio y el mismo enriquecimiento injusto.


    LA FORMA QUE UTILIZAN LOS PARTICULARES PARA "HACER BILLETES".
    Sin perjuicio de la falsificación de la moneda, que también es un hurto similar a producir más dinero, los particulares también tienen sus formas de hacer dinero. Obviamente no somos el Banco de la República o Banco Central para hacer billetes, algo que sería tentador, pero sí tenemos el acceso al crédito que no podemos pagar. El crédito no es malo en sí mismo, muy por el contrario es una forma de garantizar la liquidez de las empresas, pero el crédito de consumo (que no genera riqueza) puede utilizarse como una forma de autoengañarse gastándose los recursos que no se tienen.

    A mi modo de ver, un crédito válido y viable es aquel que puede garantizarse con otra cosa que es el objeto del crédito. Es decir, un crédito debe garantizarse o apalancarse con aquello objeto del crédito. De esa forma, mediante el apalancamiento el balance permanece intacto pero se aumenta la liquidez, a futuro generará pérdida si no se paga, pero si se paga puede ser una forma de mejorar el balance. Pero cuando se accede a un crédito de consumo el balance no queda igual, sino que, como se trata de bienes de consumo, el balance queda en negativos. 

    En Colombia el crédito de consumo es mayor inclusive que el de vehículos (que es una forma de crédito de consumo), vivienda o educación. Al respecto veamos lo que dicen los expertos de Investigaciones Económicas de Bancolombia en uno de sus editoriales:


    La cartera del sector financiero llegó a 177 billones de pesos en junio de 2011, habiendo crecido 11.5% frente a diciembre de 2010. En ese mismo periodo la cartera de consumo creció 14.7% y alcanzó los 52.2 billones de pesos, un 29.5% de la cartera total (un año atrás representaba el 28.7%). En todo 2010 el monto de deuda en consumo aumentó 6.4 billones, y en los primeros seis meses de 2011 aumentó en 6.7 billones de pesos. Los datos mencionados contrastan con el hecho de que la cartera de vivienda a junio de 2011 creció 11% desde diciembre de 2010, con lo que representa el 11.3%de la cartera total (similar a los últimos tres años), y el monto de deuda en vivienda aumentó 2 billones de pesos en el primer semestre del presente año. 
    Existen varias alertas por el endeudamiento de los hogares. Una de ellas hace mención a cuánto más pueden endeudarse los colombianos sin comprometer su capacidad de pago.  (BANCOLOMBIA INVESTIGACIONES ECONÓMICAS, 2011) 
    ¿Hasta cuándo podremos endeudarnos? El crédito de consumo implica, en muchos casos, hacer lo mismo que hace el estado utilizar un dinero que no representa, ni representará riqueza. De esa manera, la herida en el patrimonio de las personas y de la economía en general genera una inflación. No se trata de unos recursos que adquirí con el sudor ni podré adquirir con todo el sudor a futuro. En otras palabras el mal uso del crédito de consumo me desincentiva de producir y trabajar, que es lo que verdaderamente genera riqueza. De esa forma se disminuye el valor del dinero porque no requiere bienes, servicios o trabajo para producirse. 

    Si somos realistas la cartera de consumo de 52.2 billones de pesos es un indicador que mide los recursos que no tenemos pero que tarde que temprano tendremos que generar. Eso sin contar con los intereses que generan y van a generar. Se preguntan ¿qué genera el ciclo económico y las crisis? ¡Demandar más de lo que podemos dar a cambio por ello!

    INCONCLUYENDO.
    La confusión que la riqueza proviene del dinero nos genera tanto el robo estatal como el deseo desenfrenado de consumir más de lo que podemos ofrecer. El dinero no es la felicidad, la compra hecha dice una frase, pero tampoco será felicidad si ese dinero no lo hemos conseguido a cambio de algo, a futuro será infelicidad. La falsedad de la idea de que el dinero es la riqueza radica en la confusión -originada en Adam Smith- que considera que el origen de los intercambios proviene de la demanda y no de la oferta (GARCÍA MUÑOZ, Derecho y Economía según Tomás de Aquino, Tesis Doctoral, 2011, pág. 34). Y es que, claramente, el dinero está del lado de la demanda, no de la oferta. ¿Será entonces que tenemos que mirar la oferta? ¿Será que es en la oferta donde podremos conocer la naturaleza del dinero? ¿Será que la riqueza proviene de la oferta?

    OTROS ARTÍCULOS

    OTROS ARTÍCULOS

    BIBLIOGRAFÍA


    DE SOTO, D. (1968). De Iustitia et iure (Vol. III). Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Políticos.

    GARCÍA MUÑOZ, J. A. (2011). Derecho y Economía según Tomás de Aquino, Tesis Doctoral. Pamplona, España: Universidad de Navarra. Facultad de Filosofía .

    GARCÍA-MUÑOZ, J. A. (2001). Derecho Económico de los Contratos. Bogotá: Ediciones Librería del Profesional.

    GÓMEZ RIVILLAS, L. (28 de Mayo de 2010). MARIANA Y LOS IMPUESTOS. Recuperado el 28 de Enero de 2012, de INSTITUTO JUAN DE MARIANA: http://www.juandemariana.org/comentario/4625/mariana/impuestos/

    Niño Tarazona, D. I. (11 de Noviembre de 2011). BANCOLOMBIA INVESTIGACIONES ECONÓMICAS. EDITORIAL SEMANAL: EL GASTO Y EL ENDEUDAMIENTO EN LOS HOGARES COLOMBIANOS . Colombia: Investigaciones Económicas Bancolombia.

    TORO RESTREPO, D. (29 de Marzo de 2010). EL MITO DE LA SOBREPOBLACIÓN Y LAS VERDADERAS CAUSAS DE LA POBREZA. Recuperado el 28 de Enero de 2012, de EL ALISPRUZ: http://elalispruz.blogspot.com/2010/03/el-mito-de-la-sobrepoblacion-y-las.html



    PUBLICIDAD EXTERNA



              Â¿LA POBREZA PROVIENE DE LA FALTA DE DINERO?        
    Para un niño es es fácil de creer que la pobreza proviene de la falta de dinero. Si a uno le dicen, "los ricos tienen mucha plata, los pobres poca plata" pues la inferencia lógica sería "pues la pobreza proviene de la falta de dinero". Adicionalmente si uno medio piensa el asunto, podría fácilmente concluir, que el problema se resolvería haciendo billetes para los pobres. Podríamos citar el intento de chiste "había una persona tan pobre, tan pobre que solo tenía plata" para explicar la falsedad de esta situación. Eso sin perjuicio que si el estado produce dinero, prende la maquinita de billetes, lo que está haciendo es una forma muy sutil de robo, como ya lo denunciaba Juan de Mariana en su libro sobre la mutación de la moneda. Una persona con dinero en una isla desierta cabría en el ejemplo del intento de chiste. Efectivamente ¿de qué me sirve tener un millón de dólares si no lo puedo cambiar por comida, bebida, refugio?

    Es así como para responder a la pregunta, la respuesta tajante es NO. La pobreza es la insatisfacción de ciertas necesidades, diferentes para cada persona, en cada situación, contexto. El dinero, en un contexto social, puede cambiarse por cosas que satisfagan necesidades pero no puede hacer que se produzcan esas cosas. Ni la expansión de la oferta monetaria, ni los créditos bancarios, ni nada puede hacerse si nadie produce. Muy por el contrario, si se descubre una forma de vivir -y las personas la acogen- que facilite el intercambio sin dinero y producen mucho, no necesitarán dinero para satisfacer sus necesidades. El dinero es un excelente invento para agilizar los intercambios, pero bien pueden existir otros medios para agilizarlo. Sin embargo, las tesis económicas actuales que se centran en un monetarismo y la centralización de la producción de dinero en los estados convierten al dinero en fin y no en medio. Efectivamente mi querido Keynes, haciendo billetes no vas a calmar el hambre de los pobres, pero sí la perversa avaricia de los gobernantes. 

    ¿ESCLAVOS DEL DINERO?
    La economía actual pretende someter y alienar mediante un exagerado culto al dinero. Es que la ciencia económica actual produce la alienación de la persona humana (Véase GARCÍA MUÑOZ, 2011). La visión económica actual parte de la idea que el ser humano es netamente un número que consumo y que la producción está fatalmente determinada (Véase GARCÍA MUÑOZ, 2011). Adicionalmente, al ser el dinero el medio por el cual se mueve el mercado, pues controlar el dinero en el mercado es una alternativa para que ese personaje adicto al consumo (la persona en su reducida visión) no dañe a los otros consumidores... más bien no deslegitime el poder del estado. Es así como la tesis de derecho y economía del santo de hoy 28 de Enero del profesor José Alpiniano nos centra en un punto esencial: "Esta visión aliena la personalidad humana en tanto que somete al hombre al imperio fatal de algo creado por él mismo: el mercado." (GARCÍA MUÑOZ, Derecho y Economía según Tomás de Aquino, Tesis Doctoral, 2011, pág. 131). Y si el mercado surge de intercambios con dinero, en la actualidad nuestra personalidad humana se encuentra alienada al dinero. 

    Así ve la economía actual
    al ser humano.

    Mediante la oferta dineraria, la producción de billetes, intervenciones macroeconómicas en las tasas de interés, control del aumento de los salarios, el incentivo o desincentivo de créditos para consumo, etc., no vamos a lograr satisfacer nuestras necesidades. De hecho, yo he vivenciado eso en términos prácticos. Una situación económica compleja no se resuelve por más sumas, restas, multiplicaciones o divisiones que se realicen con el dinero que se tiene. Es volver al problema que hablábamos en SOBRE EL DINERO un millón de dólares en una isla desierta no sirven para nada.

    La alienación económica, es decir, la confusión del dinero con la riqueza, se refleja también en el management o administración. Que el dinero al ser medio de cambio de todas las mercancías mida la riqueza no significa que sea la riqueza en sí. Es como decir que un edificio de 30 metros son 30 metros, no es un edificio. Sería como decir que el avalúo de ese edificio, sea ese edificio. Veamos cómo se ve esta problemática en el management.

     De acuerdo con Hamel y Prahalad (Prahalad QEPD es, entre otras, el creador de la idea "mercadeo en la base de la pirámide" que es aplicada, entre otros, por el profesor César Betancourt de la Universidad de la Sabana en el área de mercadeo) el rendimiento de una inversión se explica de la siguiente manera: "Ahora bien, el rendimiento de la inversión (o rendimiento de los activos netos, o rendimiento del capital empleado) tiene dos componentes: un numerador, que es la renta neta, y un denominador, que es la inversión, los activos netos o el capital empleado." (HAMEL & PRAHALAD, 1999, pág. 44). La estrategia común en la mayoría de los directivos es la reestructuración empresarial, ¿en qué consiste? En disminuir el nivel de gastos, costos y generalmente, la primera idea que se le viene a la cabeza a cualquiera -por más socialista que hubiese sido en su juventud- son los recortes de personal. ¿Por qué esta estrategia? Precisamente por un auto-engaño matemático, si recorto lo que pago en salarios podré, en mi división, ver cómo aumentan los rendimientos y en últimas auto-engañarme creyendo que por esto soy más rico. 

    ¿Esclavos de la economía?
    Pero ¿Qué consideran los autores Hamel y Prahalad frente a esa táctica de mejorar los rendimientos? Frente a esto plantean los citados autores lo siguiente: "A pesar de que quizás ha sido inevitable y en muchos casos loable, la reestructuración ha destruido vidas, hogares y comunidades en nombre de la eficacia y de la productividad" (HAMEL & PRAHALAD, 1999, pág. 44). Si una reestructuración pretende mostrar un número que dice que el rendimiento aumenta, pero destruye familias, hogares, etc., ¿no es eso muestra de la tesis central de Alpiniano sobre cómo la economía nos aliena? ¿Aumento de acciones a costa de destruir vidas? No es que la reestructuración sea mala en sí, sino que en muchos casos no es justa. Por ejemplo, cuando se despiden a tres empleados que trabajan intensamente y se deja a un cuarto con ese trabajo por el mismo salario ¿podemos decir que se aumentó la productividad? Dicen Hamel y Prahalad "la gestión del denominador [o sea reestructuración y recorte de personal] es un atajo contable para aumentar la productividad de los activos" (HAMEL & PRAHALAD, 1999, pág. 45). 


    A pesar de que en apariencia los rendimientos aumentan, simplemente por un "atajo matemático", esto no es necesariamente un bien para la empresa: "la reestructuración raramente da como resultado una mejora fundamental de la empresa. En el mejor de los casos sirve para ganar tiempo." (HAMEL & PRAHALAD, 1999, pág. 47). Es así como ese autoengaño bien podía producir efectos al corto plazo, pero no a mediano o a largo plazo en la valoración de las acciones:

    "Un estudio realizado entre dieciséis grandes empresas estadounidenses que llevaban, como mínimo, tres años en reestructuración, reveló que, aunque la reconversión normalmente mejoraba el precio de las acciones de la empresa, dicha mejora casi siempre tenía carácter temporal. Tres años después de iniciar la reestructuración, el precio de las acciones de las empresas encuestadas era, en promedio, incluso inferior a la tasa de crecimiento anterior al inicio del procedimiento de reestructuración."  (HAMEL & PRAHALAD, 1999, pág. 47)

    Sin embargo, no se trata de condenar a la reestructuración, que es una alternativa necesaria cuando en la empresa se forman estructuras injustas que limitan su eficiencia. Por ejemplo, que en una empresa de familia el hijo gerente gana lo mismo que su hermano que realiza una gestión operativa es un claro ejemplo de estructura injusta. En ese caso hay un desorden que no da al aporte del trabajo de cada uno su justa retribución. Además, debe ser posible reestructurar esa estructura injusta. A veces, como en el caso de las fusiones empresariales es necesario tolerar -por un tiempo- esa estructura injusta porque de lo contrario se quebraría y sería más injusto aún con todos. 

    CONCLUSIÓN INCONCLUSA.
    Tanto desde tesis doctorales como del management encontramos que se suele alienar al ser humano a costa de los números de la medida. Confundimos la riqueza con una forma de medirla y por eso, manipulamos su medida en aras de ver mejores resultados. La riqueza no es su medida. ¿Qué es entonces la riqueza? ¿Qué es entonces la pobreza? Para ello escribiremos dos cortos escritos uno sobre cómo el exceso de dinero se utiliza como robo y no genera riqueza y dos sobre lo que es la riqueza.

    OTROS ARTÍCULOS
    1. EL ALISPRUZ : ¿POR QUÉ SURGE EL DINERO?
    2. EL ALISPRUZ : SOBRE EL DINERO
    3. EL ALISPRUZ : ¿QUÉ PASA SI HACEMOS BILLETES?

    BIBLIOGRAFÍA


    GARCÍA MUÑOZ, J. A. (2011). Derecho y Economía según Tomás de Aquino, Tesis Doctoral. Pamplona, España: Universidad de Navarra. Facultad de Filosofía .

    HAMEL, G., & PRAHALAD, C. K. (1999). Compitiendo por el Futuro. En H. B. Press, La gestión en la incertidumbre (R. Aparicio Aldazabal, Trad., págs. 37-56). Bilbao, España: Ediciones Deusto S.A.

    PUBLICIDAD EXTERNA



              Â¿POR QUÉ SURGE EL DINERO?        

    ¿Por qué surge el dinero? ¿Para qué sirve? ¿Cuál es entonces su verdadera naturaleza? En  SOBRE EL DINERO iniciamos una serie de inquietudes acerca de la naturaleza del dinero. El dinero es algo bueno, muy bueno porque puede cambiarse por cualquier cosa útil, sin embargo, en la actualidad, desconocer su naturaleza genera muchos problemas, en especial la crisis económica que se cierne como una sombra sobre el mundo.

    EL ORIGEN DEL MERCADO Y EL INTERCAMBIO

    Es complicado cambiar hamburguesas por casas
    o cosas que
     no le interesen a esta mujer.
    El ser humano primero era nómada y hacía de todo menos vivir bueno. Cada persona, o cada familia más bien, debía protegerse, buscar alimento, refugio, sanarse, pasar la enfermedad, entre otras, solo. Esa situación en términos biológicos era una desventaja notoria. Una desventaja que impedía la supervivencia. ¿Entonces Rousseau se equivoca en lo del buen salvaje? ¡Efectivamente! El buen salvaje solo es incapaz de satisfacer por sí mismo todas sus necesidades lo que reduce notablemente su vida.

    Un día, unas personas inteligentes, se dieron cuenta. Él es bueno para cazar, yo para arar la tierra (bueno realmente no existía el arado), aquel para hacer protectores para el frío. De esa manera si uno hacía una cosa más veloz que otro, y el otro a su vez más veloz que aquel, pues, en vez de que cada uno intente hacer todas sus labores al tiempo ¿no es mejor que el que las hace más rápido lo haga por mí y yo haga por él lo que él no es capaz de hacer más rápido que yo? Así si uno recogía 10 frutas por día y hacía 2 empaques para conservarla al día y el otro producía 10 empaques para conservar el alimento y recogía 2 frutas. ¿Por qué no se dedica uno a hacer empaques para conservación y el otro a recoger frutas? ¡Eso fue lo que hicieron! Ese fue el origen de la economía y de la ciudad y ya lo comprendía Sócrates desde tiempos inmemoriales:

    SÓCRATES: Pues bien la ciudad nace, en mi opinión, por darse la circunstancia de que ninguno de nosotros se basta a sí mismo, sino que necesita de muchas cosas. ¿O crees otra la razón por la cual se fundan las ciudades?

    ADIMANTO: Ninguna otra

    SÓCRATES: Así, pues, cada uno va tomando consigo a tal hombre para satisfacer esta necesidad y a tal otro para aquella; de este modo, al necesitar todos de muchas cosas, vamos reuniendo en una sola vivienda a multitud de personas en calidad de asociados y auxiliares y a esta cohabitación le damos el nombre de ciudad. ¿No es así? (Platón, pág. 55: 369 B).
    Sin embargo, surge un problema. Tenemos en la comunidad una persona que hace chorizos y otra que construye casas. Si el que hace chorizos ofrece un chorizo por la casa, quizás el constructor le conteste "para construir una casa necesito más alimento que un simple chorizo", entonces el que hace chorizos le contestará "me importa un chorizo...", bueno, no le contestará eso. El que hace chorizos seguramente le contestaría que podría darle 100, 1000, los que sean, pero mientras tanto el que construye requerirá comida (además de chorizo), vestidos para protegerse del frío, etc., y con chorizos no podrá intercambiar todas sus necesidades. De la misma manera si recibiera muchos chorizos, es probable que el zapatero sea vegetariano que su medio de pago sean casas o chorizos le importe "un chorizo".

    De esa manera, la ciudad, comunidad, foro, plaza, constituye, de forma "consuetudinaria" un medio de cambio. Es así como originarse de una práctica consuetudinaria y ser medio de cambio son las dos características referentes al dinero.

    CARACTERÍSTICAS DEL DINERO
    ¿Qué implica que sea medio de cambio? Esto quiere decir que es el estándar o lo que mide un determinado intercambio. Es decir, el dinero es algo que puede cambiarse por todas las cosas, por todos los bienes o servicios. Es así como uno vende, pero para tener la libertad de intercambiar lo que quiera, no se vende por dinero porque nos pasaría lo de la isla desierta: ¡no serviría para nada! Con acierto sostuvo Domingo de Soto que se vende para recibir dinero y comprar de lo que falta sin compromiso de tener que recibir del comprador aquello que no necesite: “vendido lo que le sobra de una cosa, compra lo que de otra le falta (…) la compra es el fin de la venta”  (DE SOTO, 1968, pág. 593). El profesor José Alpiniano García Muñoz, en una tesis doctoral recientemente defendida en la Universidad de Navarra, nos aclara esta frase en relación al tema del valor del dinero "En consecuencia, quien vende no tiene como fin el dinero, sino la compra o adquisición de otra cosa que le falta." (GARCÍA MUÑOZ, 2011, pág. 28). La razón de ser del dinero no es otra pues que facilitar los intercambios de cosas realmente necesarias para cada persona. En otro libro del mismo autor se explica con más claridad este punto: "Como se dijo antes, el papel moneda sólo tiene razón de ser en la medida en que, por decirlo gráficamente, represente una cantidad o servicios, esto es, su razón de ser es su valor de cambio objetivo; el dinero vale toda la cantidad de bienes o servicios que puede obtenerse a cambio de él." (GARCÍA-MUÑOZ, 2001, pág. 148).

    Bolívar. Moneda Venezolana.
    El gobierno ha intentado avaluarla mediante sellos,
    pero es la mejor muestra que el valor del dinero
    nace de la costumbre.
    Adicionalmente el dinero se caracteriza por ser consuetudinario ¿Por qué consuetudinario? Porque es una costumbre, las personas se acostumbran a que esa cosa sea la medida que utilizan para intercambiar las cosas. Sin embargo, no faltan en la vida ciertos personajes que se dan el lujo de hacer dinero. Antes el oro y la plata eran los medios de cambio, en la actualidad, los estados se inventan el cuento que el dinero vale porque es hecho por ellos. Es así como surge el cuento del curso forzoso. Es así como si uno se encuentra del lado Colombiano de la frontera con Venezuela entre Villa del Rosario (Norte de Santander) y San Antonio del Táchira  y va a comprarle a un Venezolano tendría que hacerlo en pesos. Sin embargo, es precisamente en zona de frontera donde se observa lo ridícula que es su existencia. El Venezolano podría recibirle en pesos si quisiera, o únicamente recibirle en el tan "revaluado" Bolívar (moneda de Venezuela). Es que Chávez tiene el poder de producir un Bolívar "fuerte". En San Antonio del Táchira es usual que se reciban pesos como intercambio y en Cúcuta que se reciba el tan "revaluado" Bolívar. Adicionalmente, nada obstaría para que recibieran pesos, dólares, dólares canadienses, euros, yens, o tres vacas, un kilo de oro o una libra de sal. En todo caso, se acostumbra a recibir en una moneda determinada, en un "país" (en su sentido geográfico) determinado.

    Un ejemplo de que el dinero se utiliza de forma consuetudinaria es el uso del dólar estadounidense en Ecuador. ¿Por qué si es un billete que únicamente tiene cambio  curso forzoso en los EEUU? Pues porque es una costumbre. Citado por el profesor José Alpiniano, Domingo de Soto, hace ya varios siglos nos decía:  “aunque la moneda no estuviera sellada, tendría el mismo valor en el precio de las cosas”. (DE SOTO, 1968, pág. 585). Es así que si un día en Colombia o en el mundo decidiéramos cambiar nuestro "medio de cambio" por cualquier otro medio de referencia, nadie podría impedirlo...

    Es imposible en Colombia que nos inventemos un medio de cambio diferente al peso, dada nuestra mentalidad legalista y con nuestro arraigado culto al estado. Como diría Fernando González estamos sometidos al "espíritu" de Santander que consideraba que la ley era la causa de la libertad. Sin embargo, en la edad media, al resurgir del comercio, el medio de cambio era bastante escaso y el tránsito inseguro por lo que acudieron a diversas vías como el renacimiento del crédito o el contrato de cambio trayecticio (GARCÍA MUÑOZ, TÍTULOS-VALORES. RÉGIMEN GLOBAL, 2008, pág. 23 y siguientes).

    CONCLUSIONES
    El dinero -o medio de cambio- nace como una necesidad para facilitar los intercambios estandarizando los precios de las cosas. No proviene del estado su valor o legitimidad, sino que proviene de los individuos que utilizan cierta cosa o documento para hacer sus intercambios. Eso se denota incluso cómo los individuos en momentos de escasez de un determinado medio de cambio inventan o crean figuras para facilitar el intercambio a pesar de ello.

    OTROS ARTÍCULOS


    1. EL ALISPRUZ : SOBRE EL DINERO
    2. EL ALISPRUZ : ¿LA POBREZA PROVIENE DE LA FALTA DE DINERO?



    BIBLIOGRAFÍA

    DE SOTO, D. (1968). De Iustitia et iure (Vol. III). Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Políticos.

    GARCÍA MUÑOZ, J. A. (2011). Derecho y Economía según Tomás de Aquino, Tesis Doctoral. Pamplona, España: Universidad de Navarra. Facultad de Filosofía .

    GARCÍA MUÑOZ, J. A. (2008). TÍTULOS-VALORES. RÉGIMEN GLOBAL. Bogotá D.C, Colombia: Temis S.A.

    GARCÍA-MUÑOZ, J. A. (2001). Derecho Económico de los Contratos.Bogotá: Ediciones Librería del Profesional.

    Platón. La República (Versión en PDF ed.). www.planetalibro.com.ar.





              Court Upholds Increase in Benefits Despite Doctor’s Testimony that Condition Had Not Changed        
    In a recent opinion, a state supreme court held that an employee could receive increased workers’ compensation benefits years after his accident, even after a doctor testified that the employee’s condition had not changed. The employee worked at a community organization and suffered a back injury at work in 2007 when his van was hit […]
              iPatientCare is Set to Aid Providers in Finding Their Quality Performance based on the Quality & Resource Use Report (QRUR) in Its Upcoming Virtual User Conference        

    iPatientCare announces to conduct its upcoming VUCON session to share knowledge on Quality and Resource Use Report (QRUR) that will help Doctors in understanding their quality performance on federal quality and cost metrics

    (PRWeb May 26, 2016)

    Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/iPatientCare-VUCON2016/QRUR/prweb13437969.htm


              Hydrogel Injections Doctors        
    www.demalelegance.com buy hydrogel injections, where to get hydrogel buttock injections, diy hydrogel injections, pmma injection kit, hydrogel injection kit, where can i buy hydrogel injections, hydro...
              Vinyl Black and White Wooden Ruler Growth Chart by KimsSister        

    Sold

    For the contemporary home, a digital reproduction of an old black and white wooden ruler (found at the Brimfield Fair in Massachusetts), made into a full-size growth chart, printed on vinyl and backed with cotton muslin. A simple and permanent way to keep track of your family's growth that can be hung in any room (not just the kids' rooms) and moves with you!

    I recommend using a brown ultrafine Sharpie-type felt pen to mark heights on the chart as it gives the illusion of having been carved into the wood (but black works just as well). If you are buying this for older children, your doctor should have records of the children's heights from year one!

    Please note the colour in the photos does not show true on the screen -- the colour is more of an off-white with hints of greys and a green-beige as seen in the last photo.

    Printed on vinyl and backed with cotton muslin.

    Comes ready to hang. 78" high by 7 1/2" wide.

    Rolled into a cylinder for easy shipping. Please allow at least 2-3 weeks from date of mailing (about 10-15 working days). For rush orders, or for orders outside North America, please convo me for prices.

    Printed and made in Canada in a smoke-free home.


              This Woman Had Lamb Fat Injected Into Her Butt and Now She's Paying the Price        
    Plastic surgeons sing the praise of fat for augmentative purposes for a handful of reasons. But almost any doctor you ask about fat...
              An Instrument Fit For a Doctor        
    For details on this custom Doctor Who ukulele, please sit down first. I want to get the hard part done…the cost. Are you ready? Okay, here we go…it’s $700. I know we are talking about some beautiful work here from someone experienced in making custom ukuleles, but that $700 figure puts it a little out […]
              Balloon Sinuplasty        

    Balloon Sinuplasty (BSP) is a breakthrough sinus surgery procedure performed by ENT doctors that open sinus passages to relieve sinus pain and sinus pressure associated with chronic sinusitis. Medical therapy and Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) are two very common techniques used for patients suffering from sinus infections. Advantages of Balloon Sinuplasty Balloon Sinuplasty is […]

    The post Balloon Sinuplasty appeared first on Medical Treatment, Medical Treatment centre, Medical healthcare Centre.


              USA to India        

    It is now possible to undergo high quality medical care procedures, treatments, and after-care, along with a vacation in one of the most serene and exotic tropical locations in the world – India. From guiding you on the right choice of world class hospitals and doctors, helping you with travel arrangements, world-class accommodations, visa acquirements, […]

    The post USA to India appeared first on Medical Treatment, Medical Treatment centre, Medical healthcare Centre.


              Iraq to India        

    Help for Iraqis seeking medical treatment/procedure in India. “Can I get quality medical treatment in India?” “How do I get connected with the right Doctors?” “What are the medical visa procedures?” The questions you face can seem as numerous as the sources of advice offering answers. Mirage Healthcare provides good advice, practical travel information, and […]

    The post Iraq to India appeared first on Medical Treatment, Medical Treatment centre, Medical healthcare Centre.


              Nigeria to India        

    Help for Nigerians seeking medical treatment/procedure in India “Can I get quality medical treatment in India?” “How do I get connected with the right Doctors?” “What are the medical visa procedures?” The questions you face can seem as numerous as the sources of advice offering answers. Mirage Healthcare provides good advice, practical travel information, and […]

    The post Nigeria to India appeared first on Medical Treatment, Medical Treatment centre, Medical healthcare Centre.


              Talk to Doctor        

    At Mirage Healthcare our focus is on tailoring our medical retreat packages to the specific needs of our clients. We pride ourselves on ensuring a rewarding outcome through a unique service model: providing high-quality, affordable health care services abroad coupled with a world-class escape after that. Whats App: “Treatment Name” to +919711586419 Delhi Office: +919711586419 […]

    The post Talk to Doctor appeared first on Medical Treatment, Medical Treatment centre, Medical healthcare Centre.


              Orthopedic & Joint Replacement        

    The most common reason that people go see an orthopedic doctor is for the treatment of a broken bone, though arthritis treatment and management of carpal tunnel and rotator cuff injuries are also considered somewhat “standard.” Theses sorts of doctors routinely perform arthroscopies, which are minimally invasive procedures to explores hip, shoulder, or knee damage. […]

    The post Orthopedic & Joint Replacement appeared first on Medical Treatment, Medical Treatment centre, Medical healthcare Centre.


              Can a Prelitigation Screening Panel’s Findings Be Used As Medical Malpractice Evidence in Maine?        

    In the recent Maine Supreme Court case of Estate of Nickerson v. Carter, a man’s wife appealed from a judgment in favor of a doctor and a primary care facility after a jury found that the doctor was negligent, but that his negligence was not the legal cause of the man’s death. The estate argued […]

    The post Can a Prelitigation Screening Panel’s Findings Be Used As Medical Malpractice Evidence in Maine? appeared first on Maine Personal Injury Lawyers Blog.


              Tea Party Pennsylvania Bill would give patients more privacy control over health care        
    The bill also seeks to protect the rights of patients to buy health insurance, or make any other arrangements to pay for their own health care.





    New federal legislation seeks to prevent government bureaucrats from interfering in private health care and guarantee patient rights to control health care decisions.





    Republican Congressman Pennsylvania Rep. Charlie Dent, R-15, and Illinois Rep. Mark Kirk are the cosponsors of the Medical Rights Act of 2009 bill, which was introduced Wednesday. The lawmakers co-chair the centrist GOP Tuesday Group.





    "As Congress begins to discuss how best to address America's health care challenges, we must protect the sacrosanct relationship between a patient and a doctor," Dent said. "One of the greatest strengths of our health care system is that Americans can rely on getting the care that they need when they need it."





    The bill prevents the government from rationing private health care and actions that interfere in the doctor-patient relationship, the congressman contends. It also would prevent the federal government from regulating the hiring practices of organizations that provide health care, such as hospitals and clinics.





    The bill protects the rights of patients to buy health insurance, or make any other arrangements to pay for their own health care. Several foreign countries and several current health care reform proposals substantially restrict this right, according to the bill.





    Additionally, the proposed bill would give Americans who get care under government health programs, such as Medicare, the ability to obtain health care outside the program.





    In the U.S., if a Medicare-participating doctor accepts payment for a service that would otherwise be covered under Medicare, the doctor is suspended from participating in the federal health program for the elderly for two years, according to the bill.





    "This substantially restricts the ability of Medicare patients to pay on their own if Medicare decides they are ineligible for a particular service normally covered by the program," according to the bill. "Not many doctors are willing to take that penalty, so this substantially (if indirectly) restricts the right of seniors and the disabled to access the health care of their choice."





    With Congress preparing to debate health care reform this summer, the men warned legislation allowing government involvement in health care decisions could have "dire consequences." They cite other public health programs in Canada and Britain as examples of how government involvement compromises quality.





    Long waits for care elsewhere





    In a news release, the men cited a 2008 Commonwealth Fund International survey that found most Canadians and British adults waited longer than four weeks to see a medical specialist compared with only 26 percent of Americans.





    They also cited long waits for care, based on a Heritage Foundation study that found 43 percent of Canadian patients and 15 percent of British patients received hip replacements within six months, compared with more than 90 percent of American senior citizens.





    About 30 percent of Canadians' health care is paid for through the private sector, according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, a group of 30 countries that meets regularly to discuss global issues and make economic and social policies.





    The private payments are mostly for services not covered or partially covered by Canada's health program, such as prescription drugs and dentistry, according to the OECD.





    About 65 percent of Canadians have some form of supplementary private health insurance and many receive it through their employers.





    Canada spends less of its gross domestic product on health care (10.4 percent, versus 16 percent in the U.S.) and performs better on two commonly cited health outcome measures - the infant mortality rate and life expectancy.





    A 2007 National Bureau of Economic Research report found the U.S. experienced a higher incidence of chronic health conditions than Canada, but Americans had somewhat better access to treatment for the conditions. Also, a significantly higher percentage of U.S. residents were screened for major forms of cancer.





    The need to ration health care resources in Canada is the reason most Canadians cited for unmet medical needs, where in the U.S., more than half of those surveyed cited health care costs as the reason for unmet needs, the agency found.


    Quoting and Saving on your health insurance has never been easier...EasyToInsureME

    Pennsylvania Health Insurance
    Ohio Health Insurance

    EasyToInsureME offers clients the easiest way to buy individual health insurance. Free services include instant online health insurance quotes, custom proposals for each client, free phone consultation, and 10-minute application by phone. Our services are free because we are paid by the health insurance company not by our clients.

    tea party: tea party protest


    tea party: 4th of july tea party


    Article Source: www.articlesnatch.com


              Doctor Thorne Saison 1 VOSTFR        

    Doctor Thorne Saison 1 Episode Streaming complet HD Regarder la série Doctor Thorne Saison 1 Episode Streaming VOSTFR complet gratuit,

    Cet article Doctor Thorne Saison 1 VOSTFR est apparu en premier sur Site de streaming gratuit vf et vostfr.


              A Sweeter Hops        

    Federal scientists have bred a new, antimicrobial-rich hops variety for tea

    Food for Thought

    Brewers prize hops for the characteristic bitter flavors they impart to ales, lagers, and other beers. But aficionados of another class of brews—certain herbal teas—would prefer their hops bitterfree. And federal scientists may have come up with just what the doctor ordered.

    "People have used hops medicinally for a long time. It's a fairly ancient remedy," notes plant physiologist Barbara M. Reed with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, in Corvallis, Ore.

    The bitter tonic made from hops has putative sedative, hypnotic, and antianxiety properties. Hops tea has been offered as a folk remedy for conditions ranging from fever and insomnia to bruises and cancer, according to a report by botanist James A. Duke, who has authored several books on medicinal plants. A quick browse on the Internet will turn up numerous sources of hop tea.

    The new cultivar, named Teamaker, may produce an especially palatable brew owing to a unique ratio of certain acid components. Moreover, the components that predominate in Teamaker have long-established antimicrobial properties. Indeed, their germ-fighting function appears to have won the appreciation of brewers more than a millennium ago, notes John A. Henning, who leads hop genetics and breeding at a USDA research center, also in Corvallis. Beer producers realized that when their recipe included hops, brews not only proved tasty, but had a longer shelf life.

    Hops breeder Alfred Haunold and his colleagues at the Corvallis center will formally register their debittered cultivar this month.

    What brewers of all stripes refer to as hops are actually the cone-shaped dried female flowers of the Humulus lupulus L. plant. Inside are glands that contain flavorful oils and some fairly bitter water-soluble components.

    To extract the flavorings for use in beer, or merely to make a cup of tea, brewers boil the cones to release their characteristic flavorings. However, the altered chemistry of USDA's new hop has dramatically boosted the production of flavorings possessing natural, antibiotic properties.

    In fact, the elevated antibiotic attributes of the new hop might open new markets for this crop, observes Henning. For instance, sugar producers might turn to it as a preservative to prevent microbial degradation of their product during processing. Alternatively, he notes, manufacturers and others may substitute it for the formaldehyde used to control pests and fungal growth in everything from animal feed and plywood to tissues that are being stored for use in research.

    Alpha vs. beta

    The key flavor compounds in hops trace to two families of chemicals: water-soluble alpha acids, and beta acids that develop in the plants' essential oils. Breweries prize the alpha acids for their hearty, if bitter, taste: These serve as a natural foil to the sweet compounds that develop in many beers. Indeed, some brewers just buy isolated hop-derived alpha acids and dispense with the beta acids entirely.

    The new Teamaker hop derives from experiments several decades ago when Haunold wanted to see the extent to which he could preferentially maximize a plant's production of alpha or beta acids. One successful beta-rich cultivar proved virtually devoid of alpha acids. A technician who tasted it jokingly said the bitterfree product would be great for tea—eventually giving rise to its name.

    In the January Journal of Plant Registrations, Henning, Haunold, and their coauthors describe Teamaker's pedigree—at least as much as is known. Most of its initial ancestors appear to have come from old English lines, such as cultivars known as Fuggle and Late Grape. However, Henning points out, because these lines are rich in alpha acids, there must have also been beta-rich ancestors. He now suspects that these were probably wild U.S. hops that pollinated their English cousins growing openly in Oregon fields, early in the last century.

    Currently, U.S. farmers produce some 55 million pounds of hops annually. Since the big market for hops has always been beer, the alpha acids-shy Teamaker languished in a few test plots for decades. A beer company or two checked the variety out, but ultimately exhibited no commercial interest.

    Recently, however, interest in beta acids—and their antimicrobial prowess—has been growing, independent of hops' use in beer. For instance, European sugar refiners have begun buying beta-acid extracts—essentially leftovers from alpha-acid production for breweries—as a bitterfree, all-natural preservative for use during manufacturing. At the same time, some feed suppliers have begun substituting beta acids for low-dose antibiotics as a livestock growth-promoting dietary additive. Feed producers couldn't use conventional hops directly, Henning notes, because the alpha acids' bitter taste would have soured the animals' interest in their chow.

    However, with Teamaker, the hop is essentially alpha acids-free: It certainly has the lowest quantity of alpha acids of any commercially available hop.

    Teamaker is available to breeders through the National Clonal Germplasm Repository—essentially a federal library with holdings that include more than 510 different hops. Some are wild natives collected throughout the United States. Others are cultivated varieties collected from throughout the world.

    But if the idea of bitterfree hops appeals, Henning says, stay tuned. In a year or two his group expects to announce a new and improved variety. Think of it, he says, as bitter-Terminator 2.


    If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

    Citations

    John A. Henning

    Forage Seed and Cereal Research

    U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Agricultural Research Service

    3450 SW Campus Way

    Corvallis, OR 97331

    Barbara M. Reed

    National Clonal Germplasm Repository

    U.S. Department of Agriculture

    Agricultural Research Service

    33447 Peoria Road

    Corvallis, OR 97333-2521
    Further Reading

    Carter, P.R., et al. 1990. Hop cultivation and use information. In Alternative Field Crops Manual. University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension Service. Available at [Go to].

    DeNoma, J.S. 2000. Background information on Hops. USDA ARS National Clonal Germplasm Repository. Available at [Go to].

    Duke, J.A. 1983. Humulus lupulus L. In Handbook of Energy Crops . Available at [Go to].

              Fattening Carbs—Some Promote Obesity and Worse        

    Food for Thought

    Nutritionists call them carbohydrates. To most of us, they're simply sugars and starches. And although the fructose in soft drinks and the refined flour in white bread taste quite different, "nutritionally and metabolically they're the same as table sugar," explains endocrinologist David S. Ludwig. That's because the body digests all carbohydrate-rich foods into glucose, or blood sugar.

    However, all carbs don't break down at the same rate. The body digests those in many whole-grain products quite slowly. Others become converted to glucose almost immediately.

    Rapidly digested carbs aren't healthy for people with diabetes and others watching their blood sugar. A new study by Ludwig and his colleagues at Children's Hospital Boston suggests that such carbs are also problematic for people looking to shed body fat. Indeed, the findings indicate that consumption of the wrong carbs can spur the development of body fat, even with no gain in weight.

    In the study, mice that chowed down on a type of rapidly digestible starch didn't gain any more weight than did animals eating a starch that digests slowly. But the first group did accumulate lots of excess fat. The data indicate that something about rapidly digesting carbs signaled the body to convert more of a meal's energy into body fat, into fatty lipids that circulate in blood, and into deposits of fat throughout the liver.

    Ludwig considers the observed effect on the animals' livers the most troubling one. Fatty-liver disease has traditionally been regarded as the first stage of damage from alcoholism that can progress to hepatitis, cirrhosis, and death. But researchers in recent years have discerned the beginnings of an epidemic of fatty-liver disease unrelated to alcoholism but correlated strongly with being overweight. Recent data suggest that as much as one-third of children and even a higher proportion of adults have the condition. Ludwig told Science News Online that he suspects that "up to half of the [U.S.] population" now has fatty-liver disease.

    The question has been what's fueling this epidemic. Because the disease so often accompanies obesity, many researchers have suspected that high-fat diets and junk foods are responsible. Ludwig's group had another idea.

    In recent years, the mushrooming incidence of obesity in the United States has led to a push to get people to lower their intakes of fat. However, reducing fat consumption almost always translates into increasing the intake of carbs (see Counting Carbs). Moreover, the carbs most people reach for first are the refined—easy to digest—types found in white flour, white rice, pasta, and potatoes.

    Ludwig's team decided to see whether a diet rich in a similar carb promotes fat buildup. They used a proportion of carbs that people on a low-fat diet might eat and compared its effects with that of a diet equal in all respects except that its carbs were mainly a slowly digested starch.

    In the September Obesity, the researchers show that animals eating rapidly digested carbs accumulated more fat throughout their bodies—including their livers—than did animals eating primarily the slow-to-digest starch.

    Says Ludwig, "This is the first study in which a single dietary factor—varied within normal ranges—affected whether the liver remained normal or accumulated seriously elevated levels of fat."

    Recipe for pudge

    In the new study, Ludwig's team fed 18 recently weaned mice food pellets containing 13 percent fat, 19 percent protein, and 68 percent carbohydrates from corn starch. Half the animals got pellets containing the starch called amylopectin, which is made up of a string of glucose molecules that the gut easily degrades into sugar. The remaining mice ate pellets containing some amylopectin but mostly the starch called amylose. That type of corn starch resists breakdown in the gut.

    All the animals ate and drank as much as they wanted for 25 weeks. Throughout the study, the researchers charted weight gain, body fat, fecal excretion of starch, and blood concentrations of glucose and insulin. At the end, the researchers killed the animals and measured their livers' fat contents.

    Weight gain didn't differ between the two groups of animals, suggesting that the mice found the diets comparably palatable. However, the animals' bodies responded differently to the two food-pellet recipes. Mice dining on amylopectin-enriched chow became twice as fat as those eating the slower-digested amylose recipe. Mice eating this starch grew a little longer in body, so they looked leaner that the "roly-poly" mice eating easily digested starch, Ludwig says. The latter mice "felt squishy," whereas the slow-digested-starch eaters felt firm, he adds.

    Although blood sugar concentrations didn't differ between the two groups, mice on the amylopectin-rich food developed higher insulin values after a meal. The body uses the hormone to shepherd energy into its cells. Higher blood insulin after a meal, Ludwig explains, indicates that an animal needs more insulin to fully use the food it's eaten. Needing more of the hormone can be a first sign of insulin resistance and impending diabetes.

    Ludwig notes, "Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone, meaning it promotes the storage of fat. In fact, that's arguably one of [the hormone's] main roles." One of the first places newly made insulin ends up is in the liver, where it can trigger the localized creation and stockpiling of fat.

    Although the rodents' livers weighed the same whether they ate fast- or slow-digested starch, fat made up 12 percent of the liver in mice fed the amylopectin-rich diet. That's double the fat content of livers in animals that had eaten the slow-digested starch. For perspective, Ludwig notes, people whose livers contain 10 percent fat are considered to be suffering from "advanced" nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease.

    What about people?

    This isn't the first study to indicate that foods that rapidly break down to glucose in the body—characterized as having a "high glycemic index" (see The New GI Tracts)—can fuel nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. For instance, last year Silvia Valtueña of the University of Parma in Italy and her colleagues reported findings from a study of 247 apparently healthy men and women. The volunteers' diets were evaluated and given a glycemic-index (GI) rating.

    Low GI foods included corn, dairy products, and fruit. High GI fare included bread, pizza, and baked snacks. The volunteers were grouped into four categories based on the ascending GI rankings of their diets.

    Participants with the highest-GI diets were twice as likely to have undiagnosed fatty-liver disease as were other study participants. People in the highest group were also far likelier to be insulin resistant, the researcher reported in the July 2006 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

    In an editorial accompanying the Valtueña report, David J.A. Jenkins and his colleagues at the University of Toronto argued that the "implication of this study is that a low-GI diet, or selection of lower-GI rather than higher-GI foods, may benefit persons with nonalcoholic fatty liver." Indeed, the commenters suggested, it might be possible for doctors to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver by lowering the glycemic index of an individuals' diets.

    That's what Ludwig's group is now investigating: "We hope to enroll 46 kids to a diet for 6 months," he says. The 8- to 17-year-olds and their parents will receive dietary counseling. Half of the recruits will be assigned to a low-fat diet. The rest will receive counseling to lower the glycemic index of their diets. The general guidelines for a low-GI diet call for substituting whole-grain foods for ones made from highly processed cereal fibers and reducing refined sugars in favor of sweet fruits.

    "Conceptually," Ludwig says, "fatty liver should be reversible—we've seen it anecdotally in practice many times, such as when someone loses weight or changes the quality of their diet."


    If you would like to comment on this Food for Thought, please see the blog version.

    Citations

    David J.A. Jenkins

    Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center

    St. Michael's Hospital

    61 Queen Street, East

    Toronto, ON M5C 3E2

    Canada


    David S. Ludwig

    Children's Hospital Boston

    Department of Medicine

    333 Longwood Avenue

    Boston, MA 02115


    Silvia Valtueña

    Department of Internal Medicine and Biomedical Sciences

    University of Parma

    43100 Parma

    Italy
    Further Reading

    Pawlak, D.B., et al. 2001. High glycemic index starch promotes hypersecretion of insulin and higher body fat in rats without affecting insulin sensitivity. Journal of Nutrition 131(January):99-104. Available at [Go to].

    Raloff, J. 2007. Super-size mice—Fast food hurts rodents. Science News Online (June 9). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2004. Counting carbs. Science News 166(July 17):40-42. Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2004. Coming soon—Spud lite. Science News Online (June 19). Available at [Go to].

    ______. 2000. The new GI tracts. Science News 157(April 8):236-238. Available at [Go to].

    Sloth, I., et al. 2004. No difference in body weight decrease between a low-glycemic-index and a high-glycemic-index diet but reduced LDL cholesterol after 10-wk ad libitum intake of the low-glycemic-index diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80(Aug. 1):337-347. Available at [Go to].

              Doctorul Calotescu, suspectat că a sustras viagra din Spitalulul Rovinari         
    Responsabilii cu farmacia Spitalului Orăşenesc Rovinari au aflat, recent, că din magazia unităţii medicale au dispărut nişte pastile de slăbit dar şi o cutie de viagra, pastile pentru potenţă, toa...
              Â¿Puede plantear el deudor reconvención y compensación de deudas en el monitorio?        
    Magistrado de la Audiencia Provincial de Madrid. Doctor en Derecho.
              Doctrina del Tribunal Supremo sobre la sección de calificación: problemas y soluciones        
    Doctor en Derecho. Magistrado del Juzgado de Primera Instancia número 2 de Cartagena.
              Rr...        
    If anyone wants to buy a MBP, I really need a desktop, and this is JUST what the doctor ordered!!
              Wipocalypse - Update #1        
    I really haven't had much stitching time this year, considering only nine days have elapsed. I did, however, manage to squeeze a few hours of stitching in on my travel project (the Mill Hill Vanilla Cupcake kit) during my three-hour glucose test at the doctor's office.


    Due to my lack of foresite, I did not remember to photograph my project earlier in the day while the sun was still out. All of my attempts to take pictures with artificial light resulted failed, so I had to use the scanner this time around.
              mako        
    ------------
    Note 1: So you got a Nexus 4. Congratulations. You have an incredibly powerful device in your hands. This post is not N4 specific, so you can try several of these with any top-of-the-line Android device. N4 because all of these have been field-tested on mine. If you've got interesting apps/uses to share, shoot in the comments, I'd love to hear 'em. Otherwise, if 'Angry Birds' is all you've done, read on, you must. ;)

    Note 2: I'm sure someone at Google is huge Guillermo Del Toro fan. Galaxy Nexus was code-named 'toro', Nexus 4 is code-named 'mako' (ref: Pacific Rim).
    ------------


    Part I: use mako

    Part II: root mako

    Part III: sudo mako



    Part I: use mako


    a) Lock screen

    Widgets were always the strength of the Android ecosystem, and 4.2 Jelly Bean added the capability to add widgets on the lock-screen. There are several lock-screen widgets, but none standout like Roman Nurik's DashClock widget, which is beautiful, and isn't heavy on the battery. There are several extensions for this widget available in the store, so suit yourself.




















    b) Home screen

    I use the Android stock launcher. What you see in the background is the Ice Galaxy Live Wallpaper. This fellow, Maxelus, makes beautiful wallpapers. Most of the widgets are created using Zooper Widgets, and the icon pack is Minimalist.

    Nova Launcher is a popular choice for launcher replacement. It gives you a lot of options to customize just about everything. A shoutout to Buzz Launcher, which attempts to create a marketplace for out-of-the-box homescreens, which you can download and apply in a flash! Worth checking out if you are among the lazy ones.


    Head here for some inspiration.
















    c) Computer-phone connectivity apps (Productivity)

    Chrome to Phone - Send links from Chrome browser on desktop to your android phone.

    Phone To Desktop - Send links from your android phone to Chrome browser on desktop.

    Desktop Notifications - Get notifications from your phone on Chrome browser on desktop as desktop notifications.

    AirDroid - Transfer files to/from phone to desktop over wi-fi. Send SMS, use phone camera as a webcam, manage contacts, apps, music et al, from your desktop.

    TeamViewer - Remote control/remote desktop your computer from your phone over a data connection.

    GOM Remote - Control GOM Player on your computer through a remote-like interface on your phone.

    Unified Remote - Use your phone as a keyboard/mouse for your computer.



    d) Travel apps

    FlightTrack - Beautiful interface which shows flight path on a map. Gives schedule and gate information. Excellent, excellent app.

    Currency - Offline currency conversion.

    Google Maps / Google Translate - Their 'offline' mode is sweet! Download maps, and language packs for offline use! Very, very handy if you are planning a foreign holiday soon!

    Triposo - Travel guide.



    e) Special mention

    SMS Backup+ (backs up SMS, call logs, and now WhatsApp messages to Gmail!),
    Clean Master (clear system cache),
    Battery Doctor (battery optimisation),
    CamScanner (excellent app to get scanner level quality for documents through the phone camera),
    TrueCaller (it's creepy how they get the unknown numbers right, but they do),
    Light Manager (customise phone's LED notifications),
    SphereShare (photosphere images sharing community),
    TV Show Favs (track TV show episodes), and
    Default App Manager (manage default apps for any phone action).


    ...and since you will install so many apps, it is easy to get lost. Enter: App Dialer, yep, an app to find apps installed on your phone!




    Part II: root mako


    Rooting gives you the ability to flash custom ROMs on your phone. I haven't flashed any custom ROMs yet, I am pretty happy with the stock ROM. But rooting allows you to make full backups of your phone, and some pretty nifty apps. Most of the methods of rooting Nexus 4 factory resets the phone, and guides are easily available if you google it.


    The method I used doesn't factory reset the phone. (Motochopper method)

    1: Get motochopper and the drivers from here.

    2: Root. Yep, that simple. A full guide here (they even have a video!). The guide is for Galaxy S4, but it works just the same for Nexus 4 (I've done it!).


    All the other methods unlocks bootloader first, and then applies root. Hence the factory reset.

    Motochopper roots without unlocking the bootloader. Once you have achieved root, you can unlock your bootloader using BootUnlocker (yep, there's an app for that!). Android 4.3 update was announced today, so there's a decent chance you'll lose root after the update. You can use Voodoo OTA RootKeeper to preserve root during the OTA update.








    Part III: sudo mako

    Well... you have a rooted phone. What now?

    ShareKM - My favorite root app's gotta be ShareKM. It's brilliant! It connects the phone to your computer over wi-fi/data/bluetooth. Slide the mouse pointer from the edge of the screen, and voila!, the mouse pointer jumps to your phone! You can now use your computer's keyboard to type on your phone, or copy text from one to the other. It's really neat, you should check it out if you have a rooted Android device. Video of this app in action embedded below:





    OBackup - Nandroid Backup - Nandriod backup means a full image backup of your phone. So if you mess up something tinkering, you can always restore the phone exactly to how it was. OBackup does cloud backups and you can schedule your backups, which is pretty neat.



    LMT - LMT enable features on stock Android that are typically available on custom ROMs, and is often the reason why people do install custom ROMs. It isn't avaialble on Google Play, but can be downloaded from here. A full review here, and video of the app in action below:






    Spend time configuring your phone, it'll be worth it. Tinker. Enjoy.

    mako...

              CARTA DEL DR. RENÉ FAVALORO ANTES DE SUICIDARSE        

    El Juez liberó la nota que dejó el Dr. René Favaloro antes de suicidarse.

    (Del Dr. René Favaloro/ julio 29-2000 - 14,30 horas)

    Si se lee mi carta de renuncia a la Cleveland Clinic , está claro que mi regreso a la Argentina (después de haber alcanzado un lugar destacado en la cirugía cardiovascular) se debió a mi eterno compromiso con mi patria. Nunca perdí mis raíces.. Volví para trabajar en docencia, investigación y asistencia médica. La primera etapa en el Sanatorio Güemes, demostró que inmediatamente organizamos la residencia en cardiología y cirugía cardiovascular, además de cursos de post grado a todos los niveles.
    Le dimos importancia también a la investigación clínica en donde participaron la mayoría de los miembros de nuestro grupo.

    En lo asistencial exigimos de entrada un número de camas para los indigentes. Así, cientos de pacientes fueron operados sin cargo alguno. La mayoría de nuestros pacientes provenían de las obras sociales. El sanatorio tenía contrato con las más importantes de aquel entonces.
    La relación con el sanatorio fue muy clara: los honorarios, provinieran de donde provinieran, eran de nosotros; la internación, del sanatorio (sin duda la mayor tajada).

    Nosotros con los honorarios pagamos las residencias y las secretarias y nuestras entradas se distribuían entre los médicos proporcionalmente.

    Nunca permití que se tocara un solo peso de los que no nos correspondía.

    A pesar de que los directores aseguraban que no había retornos, yo conocía que sí los había. De vez en cuando, a pedido de su director, saludaba a los sindicalistas de turno, que agradecían nuestro trabajo.

    Este era nuestro único contacto.

    A mediados de la década del 70, comenzamos a organizar la Fundación. Primero con la ayuda de la Sedra, creamos el departamento de investigación básica que tanta satisfacción nos ha dado y luego la construcción del Instituto de Cardiología y cirugía cardiovascular.
    Cuando entró en funciones, redacté los 10 mandamientos que debían sostenerse a rajatabla, basados en el lineamiento ético que siempre me ha acompañado.

    La calidad de nuestro trabajo, basado en la tecnología incorporada más la tarea de los profesionales seleccionados hizo que no nos faltara trabajo, pero debimos luchar continuamente con la corrupción imperante en la medicina (parte de la tremenda corrupción que ha contaminado a nuestro país en todos los niveles sin límites de ninguna naturaleza). Nos hemos negado sistemáticamente a quebrar los lineamientos éticos, como consecuencia, jamás dimos un solo peso de retorno.. Así, obras sociales de envergadura no mandaron ni mandan sus pacientes al Instituto.

    ¡Lo que tendría que narrar de las innumerables entrevistas con los sindicalistas de turno!

    Manga de corruptos que viven a costa de los obreros y coimean fundamentalmente con el dinero de las obras sociales que corresponde a la atención médica.

    Lo mismo ocurre con el PAMI. Esto lo pueden certificar los médicos de mi país que para sobrevivir deben aceptar participar del sistema implementado a lo largo y ancho de todo el país.

    Valga un solo ejemplo: el PAMI tiene una vieja deuda con nosotros, (creo desde el año 94 o 95) de 1.900.000 pesos; la hubiéramos cobrado en 48 horas si hubiéramos aceptado los retornos que se nos pedían (como es lógico no a mí directamente).

    Si hubiéramos aceptado las condiciones imperantes por la corrupción del sistema (que se ha ido incrementando en estos últimos años) deberíamos tener 100 camas más. No daríamos abasto para atender toda la demanda.

    El que quiera negar que todo esto es cierto que acepte que rija en la Argentina, el principio fundamental de la libre elección del médico, que terminaría con los acomodados de turno.

    Los mismo ocurre con los pacientes privados (incluyendo los de la medicina prepaga) el médico que envía a estos pacientes por el famoso ana-ana , sabe, espera, recibir una jugosa participación del cirujano.

    Hace muchísimos años debo escuchar aquello de que Favaloro no opera más! ¿De dónde proviene este infundio?. Muy simple: el pacientes es estudiado.. Conclusión, su cardiólogo le dice que debe ser operado. El paciente acepta y expresa sus deseos de que yo lo opere. 'Pero cómo, usted no sabe que Favaloro no opera hace tiempo?'. 'Yo le voy a recomendar un cirujano de real valor, no se preocupe'. El cirujano 'de real valor' además de su capacidad profesional retornará al cardiólogo mandante un 50% de los honorarios!

    Varios de esos pacientes han venido a mi consulta no obstante las 'indicaciones' de su cardiólogo. '¿Doctor, usted sigue operando?' y una vez más debo explicar que sí, que lo sigo haciendo con el mismo entusiasmo y responsabilidad de siempre.
    Muchos de estos cardiólogos, son de prestigio nacional e internacional.

    Concurren a los Congresos del American College o de la American Heart y entonces sí, allí me brindan toda clase de felicitaciones y abrazos cada vez que debo exponer alguna 'lecture' de significación. Así ocurrió cuando la de Paul D. White lecture en Dallas, decenas de cardiólogos argentinos me abrazaron, algunos con lágrimas en los ojos. Pero aquí, vuelven a insertarse en el 'sistema' y el dinero es lo que más les interesa.

    La corrupción ha alcanzado niveles que nunca pensé presenciar. Instituciones de prestigio como el Instituto Cardiovascular Buenos Aires, con excelentes profesionales médicos, envían empleados bien entrenados que visitan a los médicos cardiólogos en sus consultorios. Allí les explican en detalles los mecanismos del retorno y los porcentajes que recibirán no solamente por la cirugía, los métodos de diagnóstico no invasivo (Holter eco, camara y etc., etc.) los cateterismos, las angioplastias, etc. etc., están incluidos...

    No es la única institución. Médicos de la Fundación me han mostrado las hojas que les dejan con todo muy bien explicado. Llegado el caso, una vez el paciente operado, el mismo personal entrenado, visitará nuevamente al cardiólogo, explicará en detalle 'la operación económica' y entregará el sobre correspondiente!.

    La situación actual de la Fundación es desesperante, millones de pesos a cobrar de tarea realizada, incluyendo pacientes de alto riesgo que no podemos rechazar. Es fácil decir 'no hay camas disponibles'.

    Nuestro juramento médico lo impide.

    Estos pacientes demandan un alto costo raramente reconocido por las obras sociales. A ello se agregan deudas por todos lados, las que corresponden a la construcción y equipamiento del ICYCC, los proveedores, la DGI, los bancos, los médicos con atrasos de varios meses.. Todos nuestros proyectos tambalean y cada vez más todo se complica.

    En Estados Unidos, las grandes instituciones médicas, pueden realizar su tarea asistencial, la docencia y la investigación por las donaciones que reciben.

    Las cinco facultades médicas más trascendentes reciben más de 100 millones de dólares cada una! Aquí, ni soñando.

    Realicé gestiones en el BID que nos ayudó en la etapa inicial y luego publicitó en varias de sus publicaciones a nuestro instituto como uno de sus logros!. Envié cuatro cartas a Enrique Iglesias, solicitando ayuda (¡tiran tanto dinero por la borda en esta Latinoamérica!) todavía estoy esperando alguna respuesta. Maneja miles de millones de dólares, pero para una institución que ha entrenado centenares de médicos desparramados por nuestro país y toda Latinoamérica, no hay respuesta.

    ¿Cómo se mide el valor social de nuestra tarea docente?

    Es indudable que ser honesto, en esta sociedad corrupta tiene su precio. A la corta o a la larga te lo hacen pagar.

    La mayoría del tiempo me siento solo. En aquella carta de renuncia a la C. Clinic , le decía al Dr. Effen que sabía de antemano que iba a tener que luchar y le recordaba que Don Quijote era español!

    Sin duda la lucha ha sido muy desigual.

    El proyecto de la Fundación tambalea y empieza a resquebrajarse.

    Hemos tenido varias reuniones, mis colaboradores más cercanos, algunos de ellos compañeros de lucha desde nuestro recordado Colegio Nacional de La Plata, me aconsejan que para salvar a la Fundación debemos incorporarnos al 'sistema'.

    Sí al retorno, sí al ana-ana..

    'Pondremos gente a organizar todo'. Hay 'especialistas' que saben como hacerlo. 'Debes dar un paso al costado. Aclararemos que vos no sabes nada, que no estás enterado'. 'Debes comprenderlo si querés salvar a la Fundación'

    ¡Quién va a creer que yo no estoy enterado!

    En este momento y a esta edad terminar con los principios éticos que recibí de mis padres, mis maestros y profesores me resulta extremadamente difícil. No puedo cambiar, prefiero desaparecer.

    Joaquín V. González, escribió la lección de optimismo que se nos entregaba al recibirnos: 'a mí no me ha derrotado nadie'. Yo no puedo decir lo mismo. A mí me ha derrotado esta sociedad corrupta que todo lo controla. Estoy cansado de recibir homenajes y elogios al nivel internacional. Hace pocos días fui incluido en el grupo selecto de las leyendas del milenio en cirugía cardiovascular. El año pasado debí participar en varios países desde Suecia a la India escuchando siempre lo mismo.

    '¡La leyenda, la leyenda!'

    Quizá el pecado capital que he cometido, aquí en mi país, fue expresar siempre en voz alta mis sentimientos, mis críticas, insisto, en esta sociedad del privilegio, donde unos pocos gozan hasta el hartazgo, mientras la mayoría vive en la miseria y la desesperación. Todo esto no se perdona, por el contrario se castiga.

    Me consuela el haber atendido a mis pacientes sin distinción de ninguna naturaleza. Mis colaboradores saben de mi inclinación por los pobres, que viene de mis lejanos años en Jacinto Arauz.

    Estoy cansado de luchar y luchar, galopando contra el viento como decía Don Ata.

    No puedo cambiar.

    No ha sido una decisión fácil pero sí meditada.
    No se hable de debilidad o valentía.

    El cirujano vive con la muerte, es su compañera inseparable, hable de debilidad o valentía.

    El cirujano vive con la muerte, es su compañera inseparable, con ella me voy de la mano..

    Sólo espero no se haga de este acto una comedia. Al periodismo le pido que tenga un poco de piedad.

    Estoy tranquilo.. Alguna vez en un acto académico en USA se me presentó como a un hombre bueno que sigue siendo un médico rural. Perdónenme, pero creo, es cierto. Espero que me recuerden así.

    En estos días he mandado cartas desesperadas a entidades nacionales, provinciales, empresarios, sin recibir respuesta.

    En la Fundación ha comenzado a actuar un comité de crisis con asesoramiento externo. Ayer empezaron a producirse las primeras cesantías.. Algunos, pocos, han sido colaboradores fieles y dedicados. El lunes no podría dar la cara..

    A mi familia en particular a mis queridos sobrinos, a mis colaboradores, a mis amigos, recuerden que llegué a los 77 años. No aflojen, tienen la obligación de seguir luchando por lo menos hasta alcanzar la misma edad, que no es poco.

    Una vez más reitero la obligación de cremarme inmediatamente sin perder tiempo y tirar mis cenizas en los montes cercanos a Jacinto Arauz, allá en La Pampa.

    Queda terminantemente prohibido realizar ceremonias religiosas o civiles.

    Un abrazo a todos
    René Favaloro


              American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) National Practice Guideline for the Use of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use        
    The Centers for Disease Control have recently described opioid use and resultant deaths as an epidemic. At this point in time, treating this disease well with medication requires skill and time that are not generally available to primary care doctors in most practice models. Suboptimal treatment has likely contributed to expansion of the epidemic and concerns for unethical practices. At the same time, access to competent treatment is profoundly restricted because few physicians are willing and able to provide it. This “Practice Guideline” was developed to assist in the evaluation and treatment of opioid use disorder, and in the hope that, using this tool, more physicians will be able to provide effective treatment. Although there are existing guidelines for the treatment of opioid use disorder, none have included all of the medications used at present for its treatment. Moreover, few of the existing guidelines address the needs of special populations such as pregnant women, individuals with co-occurring psychiatric disorders, individuals with pain, adolescents, or individuals involved in the criminal justice system. This Practice Guideline was developed using the RAND Corporation (RAND)/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method (RAM) – a process that combines scientific evidence and clinical knowledge to determine the appropriateness of a set of clinical procedures. The RAM is a deliberate approach encompassing review of existing guidelines, literature reviews, appropriateness ratings, necessity reviews, and document development. For this project, American Society of Addiction Medicine selected an independent committee to oversee guideline development and to assist in writing. American Society of Addiction Medicine's Quality Improvement Council oversaw the selection process for the independent development committee. Recommendations included in the guideline encompass a broad range of topics, starting with the initial evaluation of the patient, the selection of medications, the use of all the approved medications for opioid use disorder, combining psychosocial treatment with medications, the treatment of special populations, and the use of naloxone for the treatment of opioid overdose. Topics needing further research were noted.
              Associations Between Physical Pain, Pain Management, and Frequency of Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use Among Young Adults: A Sex-specific Analysis        
    imageObjectives: We sought to determine sex-specific associations between experiences of physical pain, pain management, and frequency of nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) use among young adults. Methods: Among participants enrolled in the Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study, we identified associations between physical pain in the past 6 months, pain history, pain management, polysubstance use, and weekly NMPO use. In sex-specific models, independent correlates of weekly NMPO use were identified via modified stepwise Poisson regression. Results: Of 199 participants, the mean age was 24.6, and 65.3% were male. The racial composition was 16.6% black, 60.8% white, and 22.1% mixed or other race. A total of 119 (59.8%) participants reported weekly or greater NMPO use. The majority of male (86.2%) and female (84.1%) participants reported ever experiencing severe pain. A majority of males (72.3%) and females (81.2%) reported that they engaged in NMPO use to treat their physical pain, and one-quarter (26.9%) of males and one-third (36.2%) of females had been denied a prescription from a doctor to treat severe pain. Among males, frequent NMPO use was independently associated with white race (P < 0.001) and reporting greater physical pain (P = 0.002). Among females, older age (P = 0.002) and monthly or greater nonmedical benzodiazepine use (P = 0.001) were independently associated with weekly NMPO use. Conclusions: Among young men in Rhode Island, physical pain may be related to frequent NMPO use. More research is needed to identify sex-specific, pain-related factors that are linked with NMPO use to improve harm reduction and pain management interventions.
              American Doctor in Nice Recalls Chaotic Scene Moments After Truck Attack        
    Among those caught in the chaos of the attack in Nice, France was an American physician from Denver on a tour through Europe who told NBC’s Lester Holt he was running for his life.
                      

    The Universidad de La Laguna contains the document "La Emigración del noroeste de Tenerife a América durante 1750-1830" (The Emigration from Northwest Tenerife to America during 1750-1830). Doctoral Thesis by Felix Rodriguez Mendoza of the Universidad de la Laguna in Tenerife, ISBN: 84-7756-596-1.


    This is a large document (998 pages) which includes at the end a 67-page table of individuals who emigrated to America during this period. The table includes the town of origin, port, ship captain, name of ship and name of the person who loaned the money for the passage. The text of the thesis describes the reasons for the voyage


    For the university, see http://www.ull.es/

    For the document, see ftp://tesis.bbtk.ull.es/ccssyhum/cs163.pdf



              EVOLUTION OF SUN HO'S HORSE FACE TO PLASTIC FACE?        

    Today, the courts have finally delivered the guilty verdict to the 6 CHC leaders for breaking the 8th commandment. But during the trial that spanned 2 long years, did Sun Ho undergo plastic surgery to alter her face? Look at the evolution of her face and judge for yourself! 

    Original face given by God. 

    Subsequent new faces given by doctors-who-play-God?

    What do you think? 

    Editor's Note: 

    Do you have a story to share? Please use our submission form or email us at editorial@allsingaporestuff.com. If not, why not give us a 'Like'?

    Filed Under: 

    Tags: 


              LIFE BEHIND BARS IN CHANGI PRISON (PART 3)        

    <strong>1/3 off for good behaviors</strong>

    All prisoners except for certain type of prisoners which I will elaborate on later in this thread. These prisoners are eligible for 1/3 off their sentrence for good behavior. This means that they only served 2/3 of the sentence imposed by the judge. This is also known as minus PH and weekends to some of you.

    This entitlement is for those who behaves themselves inside the prison while doing their time. Those who fight or misbehave will not be granted the above.

    There are 2 dates on the prisoner's card that is put outside his/her cell. This cardboard card will reflect the prisoners' name, Prison number, medical needs, special care (if any), EDR (Earliest Date of Release - this is the date of release after deducting 1/3 off) and LDR(Late Date of Release - the original date where the prisoner is supposed to be released)

    Those who are sentenced for CT (Corrective Training) are not eligible for this incentive as they are repeated offenders.

    Only those who had been sentenced to more than 14 days in prison are entitled. Last time yardstick was 3 mths.

    <strong>Caning </strong>

    All those who are sentenced to rotan will get a medical checkup before the caning. They must be certified fit by a Doctor. The caning must be done before the prisoner reach 50 yrs old.

    Regardless of how many strokes the Court imposed, all the rotans were be done on the same day unless the prisoner is unfit to carry on during the caning.

    The prisoner is secured to a standing platform where only his butts are exposed. The warden will then pick any of the canes in the room and procceed with the caning.

    As a general rule of the thumb, it is strongly advised that a person should never scream in pain when being cane or you will be the laughing stock of the rest of the prisoners.

    <strong>Home Dentention Schemes </strong>

    This scheme is opened to all prisoners except those on RT or had committed serious crimes or is a foreigner.

    The eligible prisoner has to served at least 50% of his sentence after the 1/3 off scheme for good behavior

    This scheme is where the prisoner is released from prison to serve his/her remaining time at home and is part of the rehabitation of the prisoner. The prisoner's family members like wife/husband/sister/brother/parents must be agreeable to this before the prisoner can go on this scheme

    A device is used and put on the ankle or wrist of the prisoner. A monitoring device is also placed in his/her house. The device linked to Cisco will sound if the tag is out of its monitoring zone in the house during the period of time when the prisoner is supposed to be at home.

    The prisoner is supposed to be at home during a certain set period of time. He/She can only be out of the house when working/studying where prior pernission must be granted by his/her supervisory warden.

    There are strict rules for this scheme
    1) Must be at home during the period of time when he/she is supposed to be
    2) Cannot indulge in vice like gambling, drinking, drugs or smoking
    3) No tampering of the device or monitoring system
    4) Subject to s/check via calls to residential house number or visits
    5) Subject to random urine test

    Any breaches will result in the home scheme being cancelled for the prisoner

    <strong> Courses </strong>

    Educational or skill courses are offered to prisoners to improve their employablities after their release, its also part of the rehabitional programme that the Prison dept undertakes.

    <strong>Yellow Ribbon Project</strong>

    This dept help former inmates to find jobs after their release

    Editor's Note: 

    Do you have a story to share? Please use our submission form or email us at editorial@allsingaporestuff.com. If not, why not give us a 'Like'?

    Filed Under: 

    Tags: 


              Nurse Leigh, Cock Stalker - Doctor Adventures        
    Kennedy Leigh is a diehard fan of football star Johnny Sins. When she finds out he's injured himself, she concocts a plan to get herself into his hospital room to confess her love for him! Johnny may see right through her nurse disguise, but he's not about to pass us some free teen sex! - Doctor Adventures porn tube - FANTASTUBE.com
              Unja Signed MoU of Scholarship with LPDP        
    Mendalo,- The government of Jambi cooperated with Jambi University had held a public lecture given by the governor of Jambi and had signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for scholarship with LPDP (Indonesian Endowment for Education) for Master and Doctoral Programs between the government of Jambi with LPDP Indonesian Ministry of Finance under the theme ‘Realizing the Dreams of the Nation’s Generation with Scholarship’. This event was held at royal audience hall of Jambi University, Monday (14/11)
              World Class Athlete Shocked To Get Heart Failure Diagnosis        
    When Bill Ruth started having trouble running up hill he went to the doctor and got news he couldn't fathom.
              5 Acidic Foods To Eat In Moderation        
    Acid – the root cause of all health problems. Many doctors and researchers agree that acid is at the primary suspect behind all health complications, infections, viruses, and diseases. It makes sense to avoid acid-forming foods and eat more of alkaline-forming foods. Yet, some people have to have their acid foods no matter what. They […]

              Hijinks        
    “7.5% silver, 8% copper, 15% nickel…” Kilorn reads off his mobiGlas display - his fancy new mining-focused mobiGlas that he was quite proud of. He had been hoping for a greater concentration of silver but decided this would be fine to test out the new mining system he’d bought for his Dragonfly.  He was pretty sure he was going to fly slow as shit once the saddlebags were all filled up… but Kilorn certainly didn’t have the money for a Prospector yet. It’d have to do. Jumping on his forest green Dragonfly, Kilorn fires up the small craft and starts up the small mining drill, focusing on the area scanned by his mobiGlas. Due to this being a very small scale mining operation there wasn’t a ton of operator involvement… Kilorn’s mind wandered.  Where did it wander you might ask?  Well… he was only 19 so naturally his thoughts drifted towards girls.  Or, really, girl.  Norah. Norah is Kilorn’s best friend, partner in crime, and also the gorgeous girl he was crazy about.  Was she aware of that third note?  Not so much. Kilorn drifted away from consciousness briefly while deep in thought about his friend. “Kilo!” He was startled awake by someone shouting his nickname and his Dragonfly being shoved a few feet.  Struggling to get his bearings, he whipped his head around to glare at the perpetrator and his vision was filled with the beautiful mischievous grin of his friend. Norah sat astride her deep purple Dragonfly, sporting a rainbow coloured flight suit and long black hair that flew wildly in the wind as she rode.  Purple leather boots, one of which was fresh off having booted his saddlebag, adorned her feet and served to complete her ensemble. “Race me.  Last one to the ravine pays for dinner tonight.” “Norah… my Dragonfly is covered in mining equipment.” “Excuses.  Your propulsion is tuned and you have more experience.” “Fine.” Kilorn rapidly retracted the mining equipment and took off across the savannah-like terrain, pushing his Dragonfly to the limit. Despite his head start Norah had reacted quickly and was not far behind. They dodged and weaved around rock outcroppings, occasionally losing sight of each other for several seconds. BAM! Norah didn’t even recall the sounds of crunching metal.  She woke up with a pounding headache and good deal of confusion.  Kilo’s concerned face loomed over her. Norah’s ears were ringing… she could tell Kilo was trying to talk to her but she couldn’t hear at first. Finally she understood him and replied, “Kilo… Kilo, I think I’m okay.  Head hurts a bit though.  What… what happened?” A soft look came upon Kilorn’s eyes and he said, “We both came around that cliff at the same time from opposite directions. I don’t think either of us saw it coming.  We hit each other and unfortunately you got the worst of it… thrown from your ride.” Despite the pain and confusion, the look in Kilo’s eyes tugged at her.  It didn’t help when moments later he carefully removed her helmet and gently touched her face. Moments later Kilo leaned in to kiss her and all Norah could do… all she wanted to do really in that moment, was relax and return the affection. Kilorn pulled back and looked a bit guilty and worried. “Norah… I’m sorry.  Probably last thing you need at this moment.  Let’s get you to the medical unit.” “No Kilo, it was nice.  Thank you.  But yeah, my head isn’t feeling great.” Carefully Kilorn helped Norah to her feet and gently placed her on the back of his green Dragonfly.  After helping her get her helmet back on, he climbed on and began nursing his damaged ride back to the settlement. After a few minutes he felt Norah slump over and he stopped quickly, though carefully. “Norah?!” He jumped off and looked at her face closely… she was barely conscious.  Seeing no other alternative, Kilorn repositioned her gently on the front seat of the Dragonfly and then climbed on behind her, wrapping one arm protectively around her and using the other to start and navigate his craft. Kilorn pushed the Dragonfly faster, trying to get back as quickly as he could without crashing again. Despite repeated attempts, calling her name and shaking her lightly, he couldn’t get her to rouse. Spotting the settlement up ahead, Kilorn pushed the craft a bit faster though it groaned a bit in response. Pulling up outside the medical unit, he lifted Norah into his arms and quickly carried her inside. --- Hours later Kilorn had nearly lost his mind with worry. Finally a doctor strode out to see him, “Your friend is doing well…” A huge sigh of relief exploded from his chest. “Norah had some minor head trauma but we were able to take care of the damage.  You can come see her, she’s asking for you.” Wearing a bright smile Kilorn accompanied the doctor to Norah’s room and he rushed to her bedside. “I’m so glad you’re okay Norah!  I was so worried.  How’s your head?” “My head is feeling much better thanks to the doc.  I also need to thank you Kilo, I really appreciate you taking care of me.” “You would do the same for me.  Besides, I want another kiss.” The two shared a bright smile and then Norah chimed in, “Fine.  Once we get my purple beast fixed up we’ll really see who can be first to the ravine.  I win, I get to kiss you.  You win, you get to kiss me.” A deep chuckle was followed by, “Deal!”
              Centrelink Mandatory Drug Testing: Australian Drug Law Reform Foundation calls on the Australian Government to stop playing games with people's lives        

    In its drive to universally implement the Cashless Debit Card for all welfare recipients, the Abbott Government first targeted remote indigenous communities to ‘trial’ this income management restrict and control scheme. The Turnbull Government then selected certain low-socio economic urban areas for further trials.

    Now the Liberal-Nationals federal government intends to extend the reach of this card even further and from 1 July 2018 intends to impose compulsory drug testing on 5,000 new recipients of unemployment benefits – with all who test positive for alcohol or drugs being immediately placed on restricted and controlled payments regardless of their personal circumstances.

    All those government MPs and senators cushioned by generous salaries and benefits from life’s vagaries have chosen this group because of the illegality of many of the drugs it will test for, as they think that all Australians will blame those with substance abuse problems and feel comfortable with the idea that they should be punished in some way.

    These MPs and senators do not appear to give a toss that in an effort to eventually control the income support payments of all welfare recipients, it will socially profile and discriminate against a specific group of people with little if any positive outcomes flowing from this discrimination.

    Because it is admitted that cutting off access to cash may exacerbate mental health issues, increase homelessness and lead the desperate into crime.

    The Social Services Legislation Amendment (Welfare Reform) Bill 2017 which contains this measure is currently before the federal parliament and, the Senate Community Affairs Legislation Committee is due to report on this bill on 4 August 2017.

    So a call has gone out……….

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    For 30 years, I served as the head of St Vincent's Hospital Alcohol and Drug Service in Sydney.

    I have treated many thousands of patients trying to rebuild their lives in the face of alcohol and drug problems. Many have been victims of sexual abuse, violence from family members, or other devastating trauma – and most are already living on the margins of society.

    That's why I'm stunned by the government's plan to strip people with alcohol and drug problems of income support payments.1

    Thirty years of experience, backed by research from all over the world, tells me that you can't punish people into recovery. In fact, pushing people into poverty only serves to undermine their chance of recovery – and puts lives at risk.

    Over the coming weeks, Parliament will vote on whether to implement mandatory drug testing. Doctors, nurses and allied health workers – determined to protect patients – are speaking out against the changes.


    Prime Minister Turnbull assures us that the proposal to strip people of income support payments is "based on love".2 That's a hard thing to swallow given his government's failure to consult with addiction medicine experts and lack of evidence to support the trials.

    Mandatory drug testing has already been trialled and abandoned in multiple countries around the world. It's a failed policy that violates our professional commitment to do no harm. This government is forcing doctors to make an impossible choice – to break the law or to hurt our patients.

    I've seen with my own eyes how medical treatment of people struggling with severe alcohol and drug problems must be guided by compassionate care and respect for their human rights.

    Call on the government to stop playing political games with people's lives: https://www.getup.org.au/help-not-harm-petition

    Sincerely,

    Dr Alex Wodak

    President, Australian Drug Law Reform Foundation

    References:

    [1] Drug testing welfare recipients is not about love, Malcolm Turnbull, it's about punishment, The Guardian, 11 May 2017

    [2] Federal budget 2017: Turnbull says welfare drug test policy 'based on love', ABC News, 12 May 2017

    GetUp is an independent, not-for-profit community campaigning group. We use new technology to empower Australians to have their say on important national issues. We receive no political party or government funding, and every campaign we run is entirely supported by voluntary donations. If you'd like to contribute to help fund GetUp's work, please donate now! To unsubscribe from GetUp, please click here.

    Our team acknowledges that we meet and work on the land of the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation. We wish to pay respect to their Elders - past, present and future - and acknowledge the important role all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people continue to play within Australia and the GetUp community.

    Authorised by Paul Oosting, Level 14, 338 Pitt Street, Sydney NSW 2000.

    ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



              Dombeck receives Ansel Adams Award for leadership in protecting National Forests        

    WASHINGTON — Former U.S. Forest Service Chief Mike Dombeck will receive the Ansel Adams Award from The Wilderness Society Thursday night for his major role in protecting the national forests.

    "Mike was a game-changer,” said William H. Meadows, president of The Wilderness Society. “He restored balance to the management of our 155 national forests, making clean water, recreation, and fish and wildlife priorities, as the law requires. He was the main architect of the Roadless Area Conservation Rule, which prevented logging and road building across 58.5 million acres of our national forests. It was the capstone of a quarter century of sterling public service with federal land management agencies.”

    A native of Wisconsin with a Ph.D. in fisheries biology, Dombeck served three years as acting director of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management before President Clinton appointed him Forest Service chief in 1997. No other person has lead both of this nation’s largest land management agencies.

    Since leaving the government in 2001, Dombeck has been a University of Wisconsin System Fellow and a professor of global conservation at the College of Natural Resources at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. He also directs the Smith Postdoctoral Research Fellowship in Conservation Biology.

    “Mike was, in my view, the most independent chief that the Forest Service has had since Gifford Pinchot himself,” said Dr. Jerry Franklin, a University of Washington professor often described as “the father of modern forestry.” Pinchot was the first chief, serving from 1898 to 1910. “Mike broke out of the mold and did really innovative things. He did that by design and force of will,” said Franklin, a long-time member of The Wilderness Society’s Governing Council.

    “As our country grows, we continue to chip away at our wild places, losing acre by acre, day after day,” said Dombeck. “Protecting the remaining roadless areas of our national forests is perhaps this nation’s last opportunity to keep our few remaining wild places intact.

    “They are important habitats and anchor points for native plants and animals in the face of a changing climate. These remote areas provide some of the last best hunting and fishing and outdoor recreation opportunities with at least a measure of solitude. In today’s fast-paced society, these are the places where future generations might experience the land as their forefathers did. It has been a privilege for me to have a career working with people who care deeply about the health of the land. They are the ones who have earned this award.”

    The award that Dombeck will receive is named for the celebrated photographer who, until his death, was an outspoken advocate for safeguarding the nation’s natural heritage. “It is noteworthy that Mike is the third winner from Wisconsin,” Meadows pointed out. The award was presented to Congressman David Obey (D) in 2000 and to Earth Day founder Gaylord Nelson in 1990. Nelson served the state as a governor and U.S. Senator and spent the final 24 years of his life as counselor of The Wilderness Society.

    Other winners of the Ansel Adams Award include former Congressman Mo Udall (D-NM), former Interior Secretary Stewart Udall, President Jimmy Carter, former Senate Majority Leader George Mitchell (D-ME), Senators John Kerry (D-MA) and Joe Lieberman (D-CT), and former Idaho Governor Cecil Andrus.

    The Wilderness Society is the leading public-lands conservation organization working to protect wilderness and inspire Americans to care for our wild places. Founded in 1935, and now with more than 500,000 members and supporters, The Wilderness Society has led the effort to permanently protect 110 million acres of wilderness and to ensure sound management of our shared national lands.

    For a hi-res photo of Dombeck, contact tmiller@uwsp.edu.

    May 18, 2010

              Windows Doctor 2.7.5 Final With Activator        
    Windows Doctor
    Windows Doctor 2.7.5 Final With Activator | 7.52 MB

    Windows Doctor is the perfect solution to all kinds of registry problems. Its advanced scan engine is able to scan your entire registry within a few seconds to identify every single registry error and safely repair them for you. With Windows Doctor, you’ll see immediate increases in performance and decreases in system conflicts. It will make your computer run as fluently as new and error-free. Windows Doctor applies the most professional and effective registry cleaner to solve your registry problem. Editing registry items is a highly risky task in that improperly modifying registry items may cause severe system damages. Windows Doctor knows the right way to deal with Windows registry. With a professionally designed scan engine, it carefully screens out the system-sensitive entries and accurately identifies and removes registry errors to boost Windows performance and eliminates Windows freezes and hangs. Windows Doctor guarantees 100% safety and effectiveness.

    In addition to the registry cleaner, Windows Doctor provides many other useful tools to optimize your Windows so that you don’t need to spend extra money on the expensive single-task software.
    • History Cleaner can clean all tracks of your activities to protect your privacy and improve PC performance;
    • Shortcuts cleaner identifies and removes the annoying redundant shortcuts that point to non-existent or invalid files.
    • Registry Defragger will defragment your registry to acquire linear registry structure, reduce application respond time and registry access time.
    • Start-up Manager allows you to easily inspect, delete or temporarily disable the start-up programs.
    • Uninstall Manager can safely remove the unwanted applications installed on your computer.
    • System Optimizer allows you to optimize your system settings, and as a result, boosts your system speed and improves system performance.
    • IE Manager can easily repair your IE problems as well as settings changed by malicious websites.
    • Additionally, Windows Doctor collects a list of very useful system tools to help you better manage your computer, such as Disk Cleanup, Disk Defragmenter, DirectX Diagnostic Tool, Registry Editor, etc.

    Registry Cleaner – Fix PC Errors & Boost System Performance
    • Professionally designed scan engine will scan your entire registry within a few seconds.
    • A comprehensive error report after scan will list the found registry errors in 20 categories
    • User is allowed to easily sort the error report according to 10 different attributes
    • Powerful registry fixer will quickly fix all registry problems with one simple click
    • For advanced computer users, it provides more freedom by allowing user to select items to fix by himself.

    Windows Doctor will fix all the registry errors that cause system instability, PC errors, crashes, system slowdown, including but not limited to:
    • Invalid User software settings
    • Invalid class keys
    • Invalid system software settings
    • Invalid fonts
    • Invalid browser helper objects
    • Invalid start-up programs
    • Invalid custom control settings
    • ActiveX errors
    • Errors in uninstall sections
    • Obsolete history lists
    • Shared DLL errors
    • Invalid file paths
    • Sound and AppEvents errors
    • Invalid file extensions
    • Startup popup window
    • Invalid software locations
    • Invalid System settings
    • Windows services error
    • Invalid help and resources
    • Invalid virtual devices
    • Empty registry keys
    • Invalid device drivers

    System Optimizer allows you to optimize your system settings, and as a result, boosts your system speed and improves system performance. The System Optimizer will optimize the following settings to speed up your system:
    • Automatically end hung applications
    • Enable UDMA66 support
    • Optimize Internet connection
    • Force Windows to Unload DLLs from Memory
    • Speed up Windows refresh
    • Speed up browsing remote computers
    • Speed up loading internet explorer pages
    • Speed up the menu show delay
    • Boost up the Windows prefetcher service

    OS: Windows 2000. XP, Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8 32-bit and 64-bit.

    Download Link
              Top 10 comedy films        
    There seems to be some debate going round at the moment about the best comedy films of all time after a list was compiled by a panel of comedy stars. This is Spinal Tap came top of that list. I thought I'd join in the  with my own favourites that didn't make their top ten. Listed of course in particular order.

    1. Duck Soup (1933)

    It's amazing how fresh this film still is today. Like many of the Marx Brothers' films there is a kind of anarchic, almost punk ethos that runs through it. This scene introduces us to Groucho's character Rufus T. Firefly, and has to be one of the smartest introductions in cinema history.

    2. Love and Death (1975)

              Fitness and Exercise Prevent Disease        
    Fitness and exercise prevent disease. That is a proven fact, and yet more Americans than ever are suffering from obesity and type two diabetes are considered an epidemic in the United States. If you are overweight, and especially if you are obese, or if you’ve been diagnosed with diabetes, then listen to your doctor and begin a regular fitness and exercise program. You’ll be glad you did.

    One of the benefits of fitness and exercise, as any physician will tell you, it that fitness and exercise help control blood sugar. A diabetic who takes medication daily may find that less medication is needed with a regular fitness and exercise program. Many diabetics who stay with fitness and exercise programs find that they are able to quit the medication and get their diabetes under control in a totally natural way.

    Triglycerides are also too high for most Americans. High triglycerides are linked to heart disease, including heart attacks and strokes. A great natural way to reduce your level of triglycerides is to simply begin and stick with a fitness and exercise program, while eating a sensible diet. Triglycerides at too high a level are also linked to high blood sugar, and it is common for diabetics to have high triglyceride levels. Therefore, in this case fitness and exercise can take care of two potential health risks at the same time.

    Many people have marveled at the way being over weight has become an American way of life, and wondered what caused it. Many point to sedentary lifestyles, working in front of computers, and watching too much television. In addition, many Americans eat diets high in fat and carbohydrates. Whatever the root causes fitness and exercise can be a major part of the cure for this problem. Engaging in physical activity, increasing the heart rate, and just getting active can help a person loose weight, control triglyceride levels and improve diabetes and should not be ignored. Parents should restrict time spent by children with video games or watching television and encourage them to engage in fitness and exercise the way children in past generations have, playing games like baseball, basketball and jump rope. Children who learn the benefits of fitness and exercise at an early age will go into adults, who enjoy fitness and exercise, lead healthier lifestyles and tend to live longer, healthier and obviously happier lives.
              Plagiarism: Failure isn’t the only option        
    Plagiarism: Failure isn’t the only option
    Moving to a new country and starting a university education in a foreign language is hard enough. But imagine the trauma from getting a notice that you’re suspected of plagiarism. It’s an accusation that could lead you to fail your course or be expelled. “I’ve had a lot of CESAR members come into our office and some just immigrated to […]

              Driving Under the Influence of Marijuana: Can You Prove It?        
    In every state in the union it is unlawful to operate a motor vehicle while under the influence of marijuana. In driving under the influence of marijuana cases, the prosecution must prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the driver was so impaired at the time of driving, that the driver could not operate a motor vehicle safely. Unlike alcohol, there is no accurate way to measure THC levels (the active ingredient in marijuana) since it is difficult to know when the actual intake of marijuana actually occurred and because a person can test positive for marijuana for up to thirty days after first using marijuana. Measuring alcohol is a different story. Most jurors understand that a blood alcohol level of over 1.0 usually means the driver was "per se" too impaired to drive a motor vehicle safely. Marijuana is a different story.





    Without a viable and reliable way to measure the level of THC in a driver, the police must resort to using other forms of testing such as conducting field sobriety tests on the driver. These tests are by nature very subjective and problematic to administer fairly. Field sobriety tests are used by the officer to determine if, in his or her professional police opinion, the driver was so impaired he or she could not operate a motor vehicle safely and therefore should be arrested for driving under the influence of marijuana.





    The driver is usually ordered out of the vehicle to perform field sobriety tests. While standing on the side of the road, an officer puts the driver through a series of tests. While each jurisdiction uses its own field sobriety tests, there are some common tests used by practically all police agencies.




    Balance tests. Although marijuana is not generally associated with a loss of balance, this is still a commonly used test.




    Coordination tests. These tests are often difficult even when sober, so they may not be fair in certain conditions.




    Mental tests. External factors such as fatigue or nervousness can affect these tests, which are often given at night or under stressful circumstances.




    Marijuana impairment is difficult to prove but carries with it heavy punishment. If you are arrested for driving under the influence of marijuana based on the results of field sobriety tests, you should hire a qualified attorney at once.


    www.GotTrouble.com is a popular online directory that has a ton of information about medical marijuana, including lists of dispensaries, doctors who can prescribe it, and criminal defense attorneys who specialize in defending patients who have been arrested in relation to marijuana.

    dui attorny: dui attorney

    dui attorny: dui attorney

    Article Source: www.articlesnatch.com


              My 10 Least Favorite Things About Living and Teaching in Korea        
    I've got a week left here in Korea before I go home to start grad school and say goodbye to the Sparkling Hermit Kingdom of Morning Calm for good. I've lived and taught here for two years, and it has been wonderful and terrible, glorious and excruciating, boring and exciting, eye opening and let-me-just-tune-out-the-world-and-watch-television-for-weeks-on-end.

    I thought I'd finish out the year with two last posts: my ten favorite things about living here and my ten least favorite things. So that we end on a positive note, here are ten things that I have found consistently, repeatedly, powerfully annoying.

    10. "Hello! Howareyou! Whereareyoufrom!" This is at the bottom of the list because in slightly modified form, it can actually be nice. When I pass an ajuma and her 4 year old granddaughter and the ajuma smiles and tells her granddaughter to say hello, it's really sweet. When I'm in the right mood, it can make me smile for a bunch of middle school girls to get over themselves and say hello and then giggle for fifteen seconds. But when I pass a group of college aged boys (or grown men!) across the street and one yells out "whereareyoufrom!" and the others start laughing uproariously, that's annoying.

    9. Auto exhaust. I like to run and I walk everywhere, so I spend a lot of time "with" cars, trucks and scooters. I don't know what it is that our exhaust tests in the states get off the road, but the majority of autos here put out a foul, noxious gas that I'm sure is just destroying my lungs. Of course the tractors and scooters are even worse.

    8. Sewers rising. Again, I don't know what they've done in the US to prevent the smells of sewers from rising into the streets, but they certainly haven't figured it out here. The national dish is kimchi -- rotting (er, sorry, fermenting) cabbage with garlic, fish sauce, shrimp paste and chilies. Unfortunately, that's what everyone shits and it smells even worse than you would imagine.

    7. Fan death and other insanity. A lot of Koreans (maybe a majority. really. even doctors.) think that if you sleep with a fan on in your room you will die. A lot of Koreans also think that Korea is the pinnacle of culture and accomplishment. Logic here is... to be culturally sensitive, I'll say different, though having studied symbolic logic, I feel pretty comfortable saying it's just either missing or gets beat out by antiquated cultural beliefs. Ignorance and delusion are everywhere.

    6. Logistical challenges. A lot of things are a lot harder in a foreign country. Often to buy something, I have to ask a Korean friend for help. I'm not going to miss feeling like a retarded four year old.

    5. Volume and style of speech. Korean men are much worse than the women on this, though plenty of women are plenty annoying as well. Fresh from the west, you would honestly think a discussion on where to go to lunch was a boiling blood feud. Koreans love to eat and drink outside (which I love), and there's a nice spot just below my apartment window (which I don't love). For hours on end two women will sit pouring soju (the Korean version of sake, except it's vile) for men talking and yelling and interrupting and gesticulating at volumes I thought impossible. No time of day or location is off limits for this manner of communication.

    4. Confucianism. Confucius mapped out social relationships to try to produce social harmony (the ultimate goal of Confucianism) in any situation. According to Confucianism, the younger, female or lower status should be deferential and obedient, which often seems more like meek and unquestioning. I think social harmony is an admiral goal, and I think deference and humility are lacking in westerners, but the rigid way Confucianism operates in modern Korea creates manifold problems. As my coteacher (a 31 year old woman) said when she learned we wouldn't be having a retirement party for our principal (a 64 year old man) because the government found out he has been stealing money from the school, "Why does he still have job? If I am stealing, I don't have job one more day!"

    3. The staring. Maybe now I know what it's like to be a gorgeous woman. No, not the same. I am stared at constantly. This was less true (though still common) in the big city, but in this rural little town, I'd say around half of the people I see on the streets just fix their gaze on me. I almost always look back, try to summon compassion and acknowledge them. Maybe one in ten gives me a nice smile and bows back (usually the older women), the rest look away until I've stopped looking at them, and then fix their stare right back on me. What really makes this hard is what's behind the stare:

    2. Xenophobia. Korea has long been called the Hermit Kingdom and with good reason. Throughout its existence, Korea has had to fight off domination from China and empires of the Japanese, Mongolians and others. Even in modern times, Korea has remained remarkably isolated. Besides the utter unfamiliarity with anything not-Korean, there is also a deep (and historically valid) antipathy toward foreigners. I once asked three wealthy, cosmopolitan middle school students from Busan if they would allow their children to marry foreigners and all three said absolutely not. I have received a tremendous amount of kindness and welcome from Koreans, but with a few notable exceptions, there is always an element of my being not quite the same, not quite human. What I'm about to write is completely unfair -- there are so many differences and what I have faced here doesn't even enter into the same arena -- but living here has given me emotional insight into what it must have been (and be) like to be black in many times and places in the United States.

    1. Missing events and holidays at home. All of the above end when I leave in a week. But one of my best friends got married this summer, and I missed two Christmases with my family, and those are gone forever. I wouldn't trade the experiences I've had for those that I missed, but without exception, the hardest days here have been the days I have most wanted to be home.


    What do you think waegookin seonsaengnim... what would you have included that I've left out?
              Teaching English in Korea Interview        
    I was recently asked to provide an interview about my experience teaching in Korea, my decision to move to Korea, stereotypes of English teachers in Asia, culture shock and cultural assimilation, EPIK, and some other general stuff about my experience teaching English in Korea. I thought I would go ahead and provide the interview here. I hope you find it helpful. There may be a follow up interview in the future, if so I'll post that as well.


    ----- Why did you first decide to move to Korea? Had you had previous
    experience? Did you know others who had traveled to Korea before
    deciding to relocate there? Please describe your decision making
    process.

    My decision to come here was very circumstantial. I was working as a research scientist in the US and was dating a Canadian when my grant got canceled and I was out of work. We didn't have a good way to be together in either of our countries, and she had friends who had paid off significant portions of their student loans teaching in Korea, so we started looking into it. We considered Taiwan most seriously as an alternative, but in the end the ease of the offers in Korea -- airfare paid, apartment ready when you get here -- and the excellent pay (at that time, in 2005, the exchange rate was about 40% better than it is now) lured us here. I had one friend that had taught in Japan with JET and had a decent experience but left before the end of the year. I read a lot about teaching in Korea before I came, espeically on forums.eslcafe.com/korea, which presents a particularly negative side of teaching here, but we decided to come anyway.


    ----- Was the process of moving different than what you expected? What
    everyday difficulties, if any, do you encounter living in a foreign
    country?

    The process of moving was very easy and more-or-less what I expected. The shock of landing in a very foreign country was intense. I had never been outside of N. America before, and Korea is very different than home. Jet lag was severe, and I remember on our second night there we went out to eat, at an Italian restaurant of all places, and after being out for an hour or two, my energy just plummeted. I didn't know how I was going to make it back to the apartment. I think our minds have a filtering system that keeps us sane by blocking most of the massive amount of information that constantly surrounds us. It filters that which is the same, usual, because we don't need to be aware of that. But suddenly in a Korean city, nothing is usual, so the mind is very easily overloaded. You ask about culture shock later, but let me say here, I think there are two seperate events that are labeled as culture shock, and they are very different. There is the experience I just described, which was very intense for just a few hours on the first few nights, mostly just lasted a few days and fades away entirely with a week or two. Then there is another experience that sets in around 3 or 4 or 6 months into living in a foreign culture, when the novelty has worn off, and things get really hard. I talk about this at length in a blog post, here.


    ----- I know there has been a stereotype of inexperienced Americans and
    Canadians going to foreign countries and working very briefly, using
    the job as a means to pay for a vacation. Do you think this is still
    the case? There also has been a history of foreigners being lured to
    countries like Korea (or Thailand) with promises of great jobs and
    money only to be met with disappointing living and working conditions.
    Has this practice changed? What opinions do you have regarding
    both sides of this complicated relationship between teachers and
    recruiters? Do you think EPIK has changed this in Korea?

    I don't know how qualified I am to speak generally about this, especially since I haven't lived in Seoul, and that's where the vast majority of foreigners are (that was even more true before the government's recent push to put native english speakers in every public school in the country). But here are some thoughts.

    Yes, people use it as a way to get away from home, as an escape. The reality is that living and working here comes with a huge load of challenges. I don't want to say it's harder, that would depend on specific circumstances at home and here, but it's definitely hard. I don't know a single foreigner here that would disagree with that. And while I think Korea rightly has a reputation for being particularly difficult, I've heard similar complaints about Thailand, Japan, China, etc.. So if this job has a reputation for being an easy way to take a vacation, I think that's undeserved. I think we earn every won we make.

    I had read a lot about people showing up and being given moldy, rat-filled apartments. I think that has always been a tiny, if highly vocal, minority, and even more so now as the arrangement has become more widespread and communication between foreigners living here and thinking about coming here has increased. That said, people definitely do get screwed from time to time. Hagwons, the private, after-school tutoring centers that outside of EPIK employ almost all of the foreign English teachers, are intensely for-profit, and every won saved on a foreigner is a won of profit for the owner. I worried a lot about what would happen at the end of my hagwon contract, because at the end of a contract foreigners generally receive a month's pay, a bonus month's pay called severance, approximately a month's pay from contributions the boss should have been making each month to the national pension fund that can be withdrawn as a lump sum by foreigners leaving the country, and return airfare home. That adds up to about 7 million won for most foreigners. In the end, I did get nearly everything I was owed, with a hundred thousand or two won, but I felt like if the boss had thought he could have pushed me around, he probably would have.

    Recruiters are driven by profit motivation too, and they understand how few recourses a foreigner has once they have moved here. So I think it's terribly important for foreigners to get references for their recruiter and their hagwon before they sign a contract. With EPIK this is much less true because the contract is standardized and there isn't the same profit motivation present in public schools. EPIK is far from perfect, and there are plenty of complaints among my friends and I about the program, but it is much more secure than a hagwon gig.


    ----- Have you experienced significant "culture shock" as a foreigner in Korea?

    Yes, see answer 2.

    ----- To what degree do you think it's important to assimilate to the
    culture you are living in?

    Again, I'm not sure how qualified I am, because I haven't ever assimilated into a foreign culture. Note that the vast, vast majority of foreigners living here don't assimilate to any noticeable degree. I suspect those that have would say that it's both difficult and important. I think it's particularly difficult in Korea, because Korea has a history of fending off foreign invasions (surrounded as have been, historically, by empires: Japanese, Mongolian, Chinese, etc.) and that has informed their culture around the treatment of foreigners. For a more thorough treatment of this, see Korea Unmasked, which is written by a Korean. I think xenophobia is common here, as is fetishization of foreigners. Racism is, I think, less common, but prevalent as well.

    On a lighter note, learning some simple aspects of the language: the "alphabet," food, numbers, taxi directions, etc. is hugely helpful, and new arrivals should learn that stuff ASAP.


    ----- I know EPIK views their native English speakers as assistants to
    the regular English teachers, do you think using native English
    speakers is beneficial when teaching English?

    It's true that we are titled Assistant Teachers. What this means in practice varies widely from province to province, county to county, school to school, and especially from elementary to middle to high schools. My understanding is that in elementary schools foreigners are often treated more like assistants, with Korean teachers planning the lessons and incorporating foreigners to degrees ranging from not at all (I had one coteacher, who I taught 4 hours a week with last semester, with whom I would literally sit in a student's chair, in front of the class, facing the class, which he taught, and often not say a word. I eventually started bringing books into class and sat there reading.) to true coteaching, where the teaching role is passed back and forth. There are also situations in elementary schools where the Korean teacher feels embarrassed about their English in front of a foreigner, or is just lazy, and has the foreigner do all of the lesson planning and teaching. This can be good for everyone, if the Korean stays engaged with the class to keep Korean norms around discipline and respect in order. If, as many do, the Korean sits silently in the back of the class or even walks out, it can be very frustrating. It is extremely difficult to teach beginners of a language without a common language, especially children, with their constantly ambling attention. This alone is sufficient for me to recommend EPIK over hagwons to incoming teachers -- in EPIK you have a coteacher, in hagwons you don't.

    I think it could be valuable to use native teachers, and in many cases I think it is. But the systems to make it properly and be of real benefit to the students haven't been put in place yet. This initiative to have native English speakers in every school is very young, and they are still learning how it should be done. So, as with the example I mentioned above, it often ends up being worthless for the students, and I think very frequently is of marginal value. I think a native speaker is most valuable as a teacher to advanced language learners, and those aren't primary and secondary students in Korea. With the right sort of co-teaching, I think it can be valuable. It brings a new pedagogy to language learning in Korea, which I think is sorely needed. I think it may be most valuable in diminishing xenophobia. There are now foreigners in every town in the country, and every student will grow up knowing at least 12 different foreigners. It's an extremely expensive cultural reform, but I foresee it opening up Korea quite a bit, and Korea has been a rather closed culture. When I left Korea last time, I took a ferry over to China, and the first Chinese person that I spent any time with told me that he thought culturally, "Korea is more [traditional] Chinese than China."

    ----- What are some of the benefits of teaching overseas as opposed to
    teaching in your home country? What are the negative aspects?

    This is a huge question. I think most of the benefits come from living abroad, and after that working abroad, the actually teaching abroad, in my opinion, has marginal benefits.

    For teaching, that it is easier to get into comes to mind. Anyone with a bachelors degree can get a job in Korea. It is also an easier job for most people, but this is balanced by it being harder to live and work here. The negative aspects of working here are primarily that you might not have much control over your curriculum if you teach in a public school, and you might not have much control over (or ability to communicate with) your students if you teach in a hagwon.

    A lot is made about the potential to save money here, and I think it is misunderstood. A typical job here, and this includes probably 95%+ of the jobs here pays between 2.0 - 2.3 million won per month. In addition, your airfare to and from Korea is taken care of and apartment (minus utilities) is furnished and paid for. Income tax is much more progressively structured in Korea than in the US, so at these income levels, the tax rate is 3.3%, and in public schools there is a two-year exemption from even that. Health care is socialized and costs about 50,000 won/month for coverage and makes visits to the doctor/dentist/pharmacy extremely cheap. Add to that the fact that, outside of Seoul, there isn't a lot for foreigners to spend money on. Restaurants are cheap, public transportation is excellent, and most of us don't want to accumulate much stuff, because we have to get rid of it or find a way to get it home in a year or two, and desirable entertainment options are scarce. So, 2.2 million won isn't that much money (about $1600 right now) for a month's work, but some expenses are covered by employer, some are minimized by the policies of the Korean Government, and others just aren't present here.

    The benefits of living and working abroad are significant, and I think under appreciated and misunderstood. Much has been made of President Obama having lived in many different cultures and his penchant for surrounding himself with advisors that have also lived in other cultures. People that have left their home for an extend period of time develop a different way of looking at the world. I think this comes from having the beliefs that are operant in your home society (which we don't notice because they are omnipresent) challenged. That leads people to have more nuanced perspectives that are less based on the beliefs that are instilled by our culture's stories. Leaving the culture you were raised in, even temporarily, is -- must be -- an eye opening experience. A friend asked me recently what made me come back to Korea when I had many grievances about my first year here. I told him that I felt like a transformation had started in my first year that I needed to continue and couldn't at home -- that by removing myself from the shared beliefs, common assumptions and homogeny of the society I grew up in, I was forced to look more closely at the people and events around me and deliver my own conclusions, because I couldn't rest on the beliefs I had picked up by osmosis at home. I also had to redefine myself, because those around me didn't see me through the same cultural lens I had always been seen. Those processes are extremely trying, and I think they are generates the culture shock that emerges after a few months of living in a foreign culture. Really living in a foreign culture is probably the only way to experience it. When one travels, one is not immersed in a culture the same way one is when they are, for example, working in a foreign culture. So that's a benefit and a negative aspect. I believe it is hugely important, and it's why I am here now in spite of the intense frustration and frequent loneliness. Well, that and student loans. And the food. And the proximity to Southeast Asia.

    One last thing I'll mention is a certain sense of freedom that comes with living here. I think it is related to the redefinition I just wrote about at length, in that it comes from a lack of understanding between you and those around you, which comes from a lack of shared cultural stories/assumptions. But knowing that no one really gets you, and no one can, is frighteningly liberating. And not understanding what that 15 year old is talking about on her cellphone can be pretty nice too.
              Teaching in Korea FAQ        
    In my ongoing efforts to help people decide if teaching English in Korea is right for them, I thought I would post my responses to some questions I got from a friend of a friend who is thinking about making the move to Korea. I hope this helps. If there are any questions you think should be added to the list, let me know.


    1. How did you apply for the position?

    Through a recruiter. It is possible to apply to public school jobs directly, but there isn't any advantage to doing it that way, and it's more difficult and you have one less person in your corner should any issues come up. You could also come here to look for work... I think that makes the most sense for those with experience who are trying to land a highly competitive position, such as a university gig. One of the greatest benefits to starting in Korea is that everything is taken care of for you.... the recruiter will find you positions (for free, they're paid by the school), help you get everything in order for your visa and such, and then you'll be set up with a ticket (or airfare) and when you get here you'll have an apartment waiting for you. I can't imagine landing in Taiwan or Vietnam and trying to find a place to live at the same time as all the other new-arrival stuff.

    2. Are you TESL/TEFLO certified?

    No, and there's no need to be in Korea. For those who think Korea is a good fit, I would suggest starting here without it, and if after a year or two hear, you decide you want to stick with TEFL and possibly move somewhere where the certification is more important (particularly in the Middle East and a few particular Asian countries), then look into that.

    3. How long did it take you from the begginning of your application process till ending up in Korea?

    I started in May-ish, knowing that I wanted to come at the begining of the semester Sept. 1. One guy in my town did the whole thing in a couple weeks, but that's definitely on the fast end. The new school year just started last week.... there are always positions available, in public and private schools, but the big hiring pushes are for 3/1 and 9/1... I'd suggest starting several months before you want to come.


    4. Is it easy to transfer teachig positions throughout Korea/Asia/World

    I'm not sure what you mean by transfer. Korea runs almost 100% on 1-year contracts. One downside to Korea is that visas are non-transferable, so if you don't finish your contract, you have to get a release from your employer and go through the whole visa process again with your new employer. My understanding is that in Japan, for example, the visa is transferable. If you mean at the end of the contract, it's certainly easy to transfer within Korea... a year of experience here is a big plus because employers know you know what you're in for and that you can handle it. I imagine that's true with employers in other countries too. Two years experience and/or TEFL seems to be a commonly listed necessary experience for some of the more desireable jobs I've seen.

    5. How hard is it to adapt socially (i.e. nightlife, dating,)

    This is a huge question, and there are a lot of variables, most importantly you. I would suggest reading blogs of English teachers here... that's a nice window. Mine is at viewfromgangwon.blogspot.com... I'll probably refer you to a couple specific posts at some point.

    In sum, Korea is not an easy place to adapt to. It is probably one of the lesser foreigner-friendly places on the planet. I have friends that have married into Korean families and are happy and plan to spend the rest of their lives here. But I know a lot more people that have come, foudn it very difficult, and are anxious to get out at the end of their contract. I think much of that is culture shock... the experience of living and working in a foreign culture after the novelty has worn off, and I do hear similar complaints from teachers in Japan and Thailand, but I'm not sure they are as ubiquitous or as strong as they are here.

    If nightlife and dating are real concerns for you, I would suggest Seoul, or possibly Busan. Seoul is one of the biggest cities in the world, and you can find just about anything there, though I have never heard it refered to as cosmopolitan. Busan is a city of something like 3 million... I lived there for a year and quite liked it... it's on the beach and has a more moderate climate and a less hectic feel than Seoul, but also many many less foreigners and services for foreigners. Now I'm in a tiny town on the east coast, far from everything and very isolated. I took the job largely for the 5 week vacation, but it makes the other 47 weeks pretty tough, and I'm someone who likes a lot of time to himself for reading, guitar, exercise, etc.. Again, search for blogs of folks teaching in Seoul, Busan and other random places... the differences will be obvious.

    6. What happens if i get sick/injured?

    Korea has wonderful socialized medicine. About 50,000 won (~$30) of your monthly paycheck gets you medical care at prices you won't believe ($2 for a dentist visit, $.85 for a perscription fill, $300 for a crown treatment). Many doctors are trained at US medical schools. The bigger the city, the better in terms of quality of care and availability of ENglish speakers.

    7. Have you been able to save money fairly easy?

    Yes. This is the other advantage to living in the sticks... there's nothing to spend money on! Unfortunately, over the last six months, the exchange rate has moved massively against those of us saving won to convert to dollars (~40%). It hasn't affected prices here much, but it sucks when you transfer money home. Still, I will bank 5-figures this year, and that's with a 3-week trip to Thailand, buying the nicest food I can find and taking regular trips around the country. I don't, however, drink or smoke or eat meat, so I save money on all of those. The maxim is that you should be able to save half of your salary without trying. I save around 70%. When thinking about savings, don't forget that at the end of your contract you effectively get 2 months extra pay - one called severence and one from a pension.

    8. How much stuff did you bring to Korea?

    I brought the two largest suitcases I could get my hands on, and packed things like Clif bars, books, and a tennis racket. My parents send me a package every few months with my favorite foods and toiletries, which helps a lot.

    9. have you picked up much of the language since your inception?

    No, and most people don't, but that's stupid. Korean is one of the hardest languages for an English speaker to learn, but it can be done. Especially in Seoul, if you really wanted to commit to it, there are hagwons (a hagwon is like a tutoring center, they offer after school classes to students, especially in English, and employ most of the foreigners here) that teach Korean to foreigners.... If there were one here, I would do it. I have enough of the language to get around, but embarrassingly little for having lived 18 months here. I bought some books before coming and while here, but just haven't dug into it. I've heard people talk about acquiring languages like Hindi and Italian in less than a year because they loved the culture and always wanted to be immersed in it. I think the converse explains why most of us don't make much of an effort at Korean.



    So there are some thoughts. Here are a few blog entries that might be valuable to consider:

    several videos, if you want to get an idea of what life looks like in Korea.

    differences between hagwon and public school teaching

    general thoughts about being and teaching here. be sure to check out the comments section, as there are lots of valuable insights from readers there.


    I hope all that helps. If it brings up any more questions, feel free to ask. If you decide you want to come, my recruiter was great before we got here, and in helping us when we needed to move. I'd be happy to set you up with them (I get a little kick-back if you end up signing on.)
              Frustration at Spa Vill        
    My second school, where I teach on Tuesdays, lets me leave after my last class ends at 3:10. Since it's closer to the bigger towns of Samcheok and Donghae, I usually head to one of those on Tuesday evenings for some combination of shopping, dinner and entertainment.

    Yesterday I went to Samcheok to get my haircut, workout, relax at the bath house and do some grocery shopping. The haircut went well considering the language barrier, and at 10,000 won (~US$7) for the cut with a shampoo and scalp massage, it's quite a deal. (The place is called Hair Doctor and is up the stairs about five doors down from the Duncan Donuts [toward Home Plus] in downtown Samcheok.)

    The workout went less well. I get stared at more at the gym than in most places in Korea, though I'm not sure why. Yesterday was no different, especially from a man wearing elastic waist and ankle zebra pants who appeared to be training a group of rather large Korean men. But whatever, I just crank up my iPod and do my thing... it's just part of being here.

    But when I got on the treadmill, I noticed I was getting even more attention. After about five minutes, the zebra pants-ed man came up to me and made some gestures that I interpreted as he thought I was stepping two hard on the treadmill. At that point though, I was tired of being stared at and just wanted to do my workout, so I shrugged my shoulders and put my headphones back on. A few minutes later, another man stepped onto the treadmill next to mine, pointed at me, and said “very strong step.” I shrugged my shoulders in an attempt to communicate something like “Seriously? / What do you want me to do about it? / What's your problem?” But he continued to say things like “soft step,” so eventually I relented and started running on the balls of my feet, and asked him “Okay?” but even that didn't seem to satisfy him. So I put my headphones back on and kept running, but got off after 12 minutes because I didn't like the way I was being looked at and was having a hard time focusing on my running. I was not at all happy with that, but sometimes it's just too much to fight it.

    So I thought I'd go swimming, as I usually do after I workout there, but when I asked the clerk if she had goggles I could use, she politely informed me that it would be an additional 5,000won to swim. Well, at least I saved that money each time I used the pool before I found that out. ;)

    I had a nice soak with a monk (how often do you get to bathe with a monk?), a sauna and a lovely 30 minute chair massage (as in the chair was massaging me, not like I was in a chair getting a massage) for 4,000won in the jimjilbang.

    Then I went to the department store, did my grocery shopping, and when I plopped my stuff down on the checkout counter, the person in front of me happened to be Kim Sun, my co-teacher. What a small world! Okay, small Korean town, but still.
              Les chroniques d’Agadir en entrepreneuriat – Construction d’un «satisfactomètre» entrepreneurial à partir des événements affectifs du dirigeant de PME        
    Résumé d’atelier : Thomas Lechat, Doctorant à l’Université de Montpellier 1 (Labex Entreprendre).  Olivier Torres, Professeur à l’Université de Montpellier 1 (Labex Entreprendre) Messieurs Lechat et Torres ont orienté leur recherche principalement sur la composante émotionnelle de la satisfaction des dirigeants d’entreprises.  À dix reprises au cours d’une année, 357 dirigeants ont été sondés et ont identifié l’événement qui les a le plus marqué positivement au cours du mois. Les résultats ont permis de classer ces événements autour de 28 catégories. Les événements offrant le plus de satisfaction sont : la satisfaction du client la formation du dirigeant l’agrandissement des locaux de l’entreprise le déménagement de l’entreprise dans de nouveaux locaux la création d’une nouvelle entreprise la bonne entente avec les partenaires de toutes natures de l’entreprise les vacances du dirigeant le bon climat de travail dans l’entreprise En conclusion, comment, à titre de praticien ou de pédagogue, pouvons-nous réutiliser ces informations dans notre pratique? André Lamoureux Conseiller pédagogique, novembre 2014
              Les chroniques d’Agadir en entrepreneuriat – Présentation générale du Congrès international francophone en entrepreneuriat et PME        
    L’association internationale de recherche en entrepreneuriat et PME (AIREPME) a été créée pour permettre aux chercheurs francophones en entrepreneuriat d’avoir un point de référence commun. Ce 12e congrès biennal représente un achèvement pour la première génération de chercheurs. La revue associée se nomme la Revue internationale PME. Voici un extrait de sa présentation : Depuis 1988, la revue internationale PME vise à promouvoir la diffusion en langue française de recherches concernant les PME et l’entrepreneuriat. Elle accueille des contributions de haut niveau scientifique, à la fois théoriques et empiriques, se situant dans les domaines des sciences de la gestion et de l’économie, mais également de champs voisins qui s’intéressent aussi aux questions touchant aux PME et à l’entrepreneuriat (géographie, sociologie, psychologie, etc.) Malgré l’existence de cette revue, il faut souligner que les chercheurs reconnus publient généralement dans des revues savantes anglophones renommées. Le thème du Congrès reflète bien la diversité de cette association de recherche scientifique, surtout animée par des professeurs d’université et leurs doctorants : « Diversité des cultures en entrepreneuriat et PME». On remarque toutefois quelques intervenants et entrepreneurs parmi les participants. Très peu des travaux concernés trouvent une application évidente, la plupart des recherches ayant ce caractère très théorique propre aux champs de recherche universitaires. Nous avons malgré tout tenté de retenir quelques enseignements de nature à éclairer l’entrepreneuriat éducatif ou l’intervention en entrepreneuriat. Raymond-Robert Tremblay Directeur général, novembre 2014
              Av: Johanna        
    Rottingstoler er virkelig så fint! Hva med denne fra House Doctor? Ikke like pricy, men fortfarende ganske snygg stol! http://confidentliving.se/produkt/colone-loungestol
              Postdoctoral Research Scholar - Buck Institute - Novato, CA        
    Our group, in collaboration with evolutionary biologist Rachel Brem, has uncovered striking differences between Caenhorabditis species in aging and stress...
    From Buck Institute - Thu, 10 Aug 2017 07:46:25 GMT - View all Novato, CA jobs
              Postdoctoral Research Scholar - Ramanathan Lab - Buck Institute - Novato, CA        
    Collaborate with biologists at the Buck Institute for developing standardized protocols, experimental design and sample preparation from mammalian cells,...
    From Buck Institute - Wed, 28 Jun 2017 05:03:47 GMT - View all Novato, CA jobs
              Your Official 2010 Mets Preview Thread of Rock Bottom Expectations, Rogue Thyroid Glands, and RAGE RAGE RAGE        
    Because Rickey is wholly unable to discuss the New York Mets in commonplace prose format, we’re throwing this one up Q&A style, (now complete with superfluous cultural references!)

    So Rickey, I read that Vegas has the odds of the Yankees winning the 2010 World Series at a formidable 14/5 after the line opened at 3/1. Has anyone calculated the odds for the Mets?

    Uh, yeah, we’ll get Hank from accounting right on that little query… Dude’s not nearly miserable enough. Rickey heard that somebody actually tried to figure out the odds, but promptly committed seppuku when they learned that Luis “Meat Train” Castillo has another 734 games to go until he’s halfway through his contract as a New York Met.

    Well what do you calculate the Mets odds of winning the World Series to be?

    Haha, you’re cute. Rickey admires your doe-eyed tenacity. The odds are about as good as Mrs. Henderson successfully teaching Rickey how to correctly load the dishwasher. What? Why can’t Rickey place the dishes face down on the lower rack? The knives don’t get put in the utensil basket pointy end up? Wood objects don’t go in here? A thousand curses upon you and this infernal machine, you treacherous harpy!

    But you’re still going to attend a few games at CitiField, right?

    Let Rickey tell you a story. Last week, Rickey went into the office men’s room to relieve himself, opened an unlocked stall door, only to find a rather portly man (thankfully not a coworker) sitting on the john with no shirt on. Rickey bolted from the scene and has since avoided that bathroom like the plague. Why wouldn’t the door have been locked? Why did that rotund man feel the need to take his shirt off? What the hell? All Rickey knows is that there’s some seriously bad mojo going on in that bathroom and he hasn’t gone back in there since. The point of this story: Rickey feels pretty much the same way about venturing into CitiField this season. It’s like walking into what you thought was an unoccupied bathroom stall only to find a shirtless fat man sitting on the toilet.

    Aren’t you at least excited about the Jason Bay acquisition?

    Absolutely! And Rickey will be even more excited when he stubs his toe on opening day, blames his .198 batting average on that and sits out the second half of the 2010 season collecting millions of dollars!

    But we can still expect you to blog about the Mets from time to time, right?

    Uh, don’t count on it. Three years since the 2007 debacle, Rickey’s keen satirical eye has waned to tired exasperation. The challenge of mocking this team is gone. Want some amusement? You’re better off writing your own “Choose You Own Mets Adventure” book at this point. Turn to page 118 if Ike Davis gets traded for an injury plagued Orlando Hudson during the 2011 offseason! Turn to page 78 if Jose Reyes’ thyroid goes nuclear!

    What is Reyes’ deal anyway? Is he better now?

    Reports suggest that yes, his thyroid levels have normalized and he will be available for opening day. So that was an interesting little diversion. You know what’s fun? When a news story about the delightfully insane decision to place a shortstop with a .435 career slugging percentage third in the batting order actually gets dwarfed by an even more maddening news story about their thyroid acting up. But yes, Reyes is back, which is good, because as far as Rickey knows, the Mets’ two backup shortstops are Rey Ordonez and Corrado Soprano.

    What of Carlos Beltran? How’s he doing?

    More and more, his tenure as a New York Met resembles that of Rubin “The Hurricane” Carter’s jail stint. The poor guy is so terrified of the Mets’ medical staff that he had his own doctor perform knee surgery on his ailing leg. Not that Rickey doesn’t have the utmost of faith in the Civil War battlefield surgery level expertise of the Mets’ doctors… Ahem.

    So it’s safe to say that the Mets’ fanbase is a little disgruntled?

    Well yes, but that’s generally always the case. This year it’s just a little bit more pronounced. Also, it doesn’t help that 99.8% of Mets fans are completely out of their goddamned minds. It’s not unusual for call ins like this to transpire on Mike Francessa’s show on WFAN:

    “Hey Mike, tanks fuh takin' my cawl. What do you think of trading Beltran to da Cawdnuls for Wainwright and Pujols? I think it's a slam dunk fuh da Mets, why doesn't Omah make dat trade? I'm gonna hang up and listen to youah response.”

    Rickey’s always wondered, why do the WFAN callers always hang up so quickly? Those lunatics spend hours waiting on hold and then they hang up after spitting out 50 words of jibber jabber? Really?

    So what’s your final prediction for the 2010 season?

    If they make it over 76 wins, Rickey will be shocked. If they don't we've got the return of Bobby Valentine to look forward to. Now for that, Rickey will get excited.
              Comment on The Decaying State of Marriage in the Diasporan Community by alex        
    It has been more than a month and you have not complete this interesting story by this medical doctor. Please I am eager to know the end of the story.
              Sex Abuse Lawsuit Against USA Gymnastics Doc Names Karolyis        
    The latest lawsuit accusing a former USA Gymnastics doctor of sexually abusing a longtime member of the U.S. women's national team is the first to name renowned husband-and-wife coaches Bela and Martha Karolyi, alleging they turned a blind eye to molestations.
              Jury Awards $19.7M In Medical Error Death Of Woman        
    A Dallas County jury today delivered a $19.7 million verdict against a local doctor on behalf of the family of Katina Clark.
              Blog Post: Beyond: Two Souls        

    I'm going to try not to talk about David Cage's or Quantic Dream's past or previous projects such as Indigo Prophecy or Heavy Rain. I know that in some ways- and in more ways than one, Beyond: Two Souls resembles these games- mostly Heavy Rain, but it is a completely new ballgame in other ways as well. Sure, I might use a few easy to grasp examples from Heavy Rain- but that'll be about it, as I do not wish to ruin that particular story for anyone who may or may not have played or finished it. However, I will say that I was not a particularly big fan of Heavy Rain, and I actually enjoyed Beyond  a little bit more than that game- if not for its storytelling, then for its overarching story and minimal on-screen prompts during gameplay. While I did not so much like the classic Cage contextual prompts in Heavy Rain as much, despite enjoying that story more- the opposite was true here, as I didn't so much stick by the story as I did the better integrated prompts and controls. Despite their inherent lack of realism, I must admit that Cage/Quantic Dream games are quite good at what they do best- crafting a beautiful world and an engaging control scheme to explore it with.

    I promise this is really the only direct line I'll say about Heavy Rain in relation to Beyond: Two Souls, but it really must be said in order to explain the themes of this game- so, sorry. There is a massive feeling of parental guidance and lack thereof in both games- from Ethan Mars and, in Beyond, Nathan Dawkins. While one deals directly with losing his son and then (possibly) recovering him later, the inverse happens throughout the plot of Beyond: Two Souls, and Dr. Dawkins serves almost as a mentoring and parental figure to Jodie for some time. Many of the same themes carry over from Heavy Rain into Beyond: Two Souls, however, Beyond also manages to stand on its own shaky feet as its own unique story which can have several different interpretations depending upon your choices throughout. The main, significant and stalwart theme of the game is one that follows (erratically, mind you) the life of Jodie Holmes and her paranormal companion Aiden. While some would argue that she is being held as a psychiatric and physical captive by Cole Freeman and Nathan Dawkins- her two doctors and later friends, I personally believe that their eagerness to learn of her communicative abilities with Aiden and obsession with the nether realm (for each their own reasons) serves as a more interesting tale than captivity.

    Without (hopefully) spoiling too terribly much for you, Jodie's saga will take her from a child to a young woman, from the United States all the way to China, and from the deep sea to covert CIA deep cover facilities. In typical and slightly overbearing David Cage style, the story- or what there is cinematically told, I should say, is quite bizarre even for a paranormal, omnipresent, omniscient sidekick being in it- and is a globetrotting extravaganza that can be very confusing when taken out of order as it is. Then again, while I respect his ideas and games, I've never really enjoyed Cage's writing style so much- or his abilities rather at all. He would be a better film and cinematic director than he would be a true author, which is basically what he is currently anyway. While he often nails the tone throughout the plot, the overly dramatic conversations that don't need to be made so are often very awkwardly handled- although I can't say Page and Dafoe and the other seasoned vets didn't impress me, because that'd be a lie. The performances are solid, but some moments still fall through due mainly to the writing- especially the unbelievable ones. It's truly a moving game- in terms of the speed with which it jumps around the plot, and the places you'll go and people you'll see. For example, Jodie and Aiden go from being interned at the DPA (Department of Paranormal Activity) to covert missions with special operatives of the Central Intelligence Agency, to coexisting with local Native Americans and exploring the otherworld filled with malevolent and benevolent spirits. Oh the places you will go...

    Sorry, but I'm going to make another quick little allusion to Heavy Rain again here- bear with me for a moment. The basic gameplay components are quite similar to Heavy Rain's analog presses and twists, quick-time button choices for decisions and actions, and worldly indicators as opposed to actual flashing prompts. While Beyond feels like more of a real experience than Heavy Rain due to its lack of on-screen HUD-like prompts, despite its less believable setting, it still has the occasional popup here and there as well, but covers most scenarios well enough by making players guess what to do. As usual, this provides somewhat of an incredibly challenging and semi-frustrating experience at times, but one I was ultimately, overall, pleased with by the finale. Don't worry yourself too much about the scattered action segments and your reactions to them, as the game will slow time just enough briefly to allow you the appropriate time to react. Still, it's a short window of opportunity, so take advantage of it before desperately lashing out or tackling your foes. All in all, that's a pretty scarily immersive experience.

    The biggest gameplay and game changer is the fact that you also have the ability to control Aiden, Jodie's ghostly friend, at certain times throughout the story. Mind you, this isn't a free choice to switch like it is in Grand Theft Auto V, but rather a documented and scripted changeover. Which is fine, because the gameplay elements themselves make it all the more interesting to compare two drastically different control schemes between Jodie's and Aiden's. You can possess enemies, float seamlessly through objects and walls, throw objects, move things a la Poltergeist, and even peer into the past memories of those you encounter. Needless to say, Aiden is a busy little fella, and a pretty handy guy to have around helping. Despite these thrills however, your experiences are bound to be limited in some ways in terms of puzzles and learning how to perform new tasks as the entity. For example, you might not be able to choke every single enemy out or possess them all because the game wants you to experiment and try something new each time. Thus, annoyingly enough, some enemies are immune to your greatest advances. Still, it's a truly exciting experience even if it is flawed- kind of like the game.

    Whereas it could have been truly artsy and not flawed in other ways, Beyond's greatest mistake lies in its design choice and narrative choice to try to compete with the biggest action titles out there. The fact that it's a paranormal adventure story gives it a leg up at first, but also serves as its greatest bar- holding the game back from ever reaching its true potential. Sadly, instead of relying- again, I'll mention it- on the mundane tasks that got Heavy Rain's points across, Beyond tries to hard to make you feel the tense action of covert attacks and assassinations instead of the simple things. The stereotypical CIA as the bad guy/good guy/can't decide idea comes into play, the infiltration of some secret underwater base comes into play, and much more. As interesting as these action-y sequences are, and as much fun as I had completing the more action-packed memories and moments, I always had to remember to take the with the customary grain of sand/salt- a very large one in this case. Throughout most action segments, the conversation we've come to believe shapes the story is essentially nonexistent, or lacks the creative punch I was expecting. Some things can drastically alter you story, but not as many factors as I would have thought would in such settings and scenarios as I encountered with Jodie and Aiden.

    Overall, the story is what gets the most confusing for me, and probably for most people. When I broke it down, and also referred to Wikipedia for the chronology of events, it was a lot easier to stomach. However, as it was- muddled, jumbled, and otherwise penned sporadically as Cage imagined it, it lacks the punch it would otherwise have delivered. If we could cut out some of the truly extraneous and meaningless parts, then sure, it'd be a bit shorter- but it would've been so much more meaningful to me as a player and it would've let me experience things relatively unbroken alongside Jodie and Aiden. It's a really big shame, and weighs heavily on me, because the acting was superb in most cases, and there were some really tough moments to get through both emotionally and thoughtfully. I'll admit, I could feel Jodie's pain at times, and I actually enjoyed the two different endings I experienced- of the six or so main endings. There are some moments of power amidst the story, but as with a weaker gale, it just couldn't topple any sturdy structures of video game worth.

    Despite it trying its hardest to cajole gamers into agreeing politically (although quite subconsciously at times) with what must be either Quantic or Cage's opinions on matters- such as the treatment of the homeless and natives, as well as the two-facedness of the CIA and intelligence agencies- Beyond was truly both an enlightening and enjoyable experience for me. As Matt said however, I'll always remember it as definitely brilliant, yet incredibly flawed in some important ways. It doesn't overall reflect too poorly upon it's score, as it was enjoyable enough- but it's still disappointing...

    Concept: Tell the story of Jodie Holmes and her connection to the omnipresent and omniscient entity Aiden through a sporadic tale covering most of her life and bridging several worlds, uncovering some surprisingly deep revelations along the way. A true story of finding yourself as much as finding quality and acceptance in others.

    Graphics: Excellently rendered animations and character models, only pulled down in some instances by weaker parallels in still models within the environments. The cinematic work is unparalleled in my opinion, for the most part.

    Sound: Between the haunting and minimalistic melodies and the star studded cast, it's truly hard to find fault with what is present for sound quality.

    Playability: The quick time contextual sequences work out much more fluidly than in previous Quanitc Dream games utilizing similar sequences of control, however the action moments can often make players lost and disoriented- which, while somewhat intended, can still be quite annoying at times when wrestling with control and chaos.

    Entertainment: Despite falling down in the story and gameplay department at times, the game comes together well and has its genuinely impressive and deeply thought-provoking moments of fear, bravery, trust, and sadness.

    Replay Value: High.

    Overall Score: 8.5


              Channelling Dawkins        

    Dawkins latest programme elegantly put lots of the same points that I ineptly failed to make in any comprehensible manner, in a previous post on holistic medicine. That includes paying for other people’s gullibility; alternative therapies meeting a need for attention; the placebo effect and alternative therapies referring to scientific sounding concepts; and so on. (You know who you are, Deepak Chopra)

    This blog is clearly channelling Dawkins. If you need any chakra realignment, you can probably get it here from now on.

    Today’s episode of the Enemies of Reason series has people promoting such odd theories that Dawkins only has to smile politely and give them enough rope…. Indeed, some express such utterly strange beliefs that the only charitable explanation is that they are joking

    Atlantean DNA? A woman barefacedly told the world’s best known evolutionary biologist that bits of his DNA were missing. She then waved her hands about – in a surprisingly graceless manner, given the magical ritual context – to realign the missing parts of Dawkins Atlantean DNA. I guess it worked but he didn’t grow any visible gills, sadly.

    However, the therapist who seemed to be using a pricing gun to stamp the back of Dawkins neck may have accidentally amputated them, so don’t take that as a certainty.

    I’ve made sense of this bit now. I was half-hoping to see Dawkins turn into an extra from that ten – or so- years old sci-fi series that was like old-style Battlestar Galactica but underwater. Without Silons. But with gills. It wasn’t good enough for me to remember its name. Stargate Atlantis – exponentially better. Why didn’t I think of that?

    Well, it doesn’t really have people with gills. Anyway, the new even-more-gentlemanly-and-mellow Dawkins couldn’t even begin to qualify for the “arrogant genius” part in Atlantis, despite there being an Internet’s worth of creationists and others who think Dawkins is arrogant.

    But maybe that’s what the magical Atlantean DNA lady meant. Dawkins is lacking the extra strain of arrogance that Stargate Atlantis’s Canadian genius has. So she put it back. And there are no gills to see, so there.

    (See, it does all make perfect sense when you cleanse your DNA and start channelling……)

    You have to worry a bit about the state of current medical education, when you see how many qualified doctors-turned-alternative practitioners Dawkins has managed to find.

    One doctor detects chakras as “black holes” in the human body (or vice versa or something like that.) Another doctor – rheumatologist turned alternative practitioner – gives out water in the Royal Homeopathic Hospital, which has had a fair bit of public cash, to Dawkins’ justified annoyance.

    If you live outside the UK, you can probably watch the new series on YouTube until it comes to a cable channel near you. Black Sun Journal has a link to the last episode.


              Taking the Fun Out of Fungus Getting Rid of Fungal Infections        
    Did you hear about the woman who dated a mushroom? She heard he was a real "fun guy" to be with. If you are spending too much time around any fungi of your own, it may be time to see your dermatologist. Fungal infections are nothing to laugh about (much like the aforementioned joke), and in some cases they can be either debilitating or disgusting - or often a combination of the two.



    If the thought of having a fungus growing on your body makes you feel a bit queasy, there's probably a reason. The bad news is that fungal infections aren't any fun; the good news is that they can be relatively easily treated. So if you have an infection on your body caused by a fungus, do something about it - quick!



    What is a Fungus?



    A fungus is a certain type of organism belonging to the fungus kingdom, which has more than 80,000 species (but sadly, no king or queen). Fungi are notoriously difficult to characterize, especially as they share traits with both plants and animals, although they lack both chlorophyll and vascular tissue. They can multiply both sexually and asexually (by cloning themselves), and they feed on many different types of organic material, ones that are both living and dead.



    Many things fall under the classification of fungi, including mushrooms, toadstools, spores, smuts, yeasts, molds and lichens, to name but a few. Some people choose to call fungi "primitive vegetables", and as such they are able to live in air, soil, on plants or in water. Often, they live on our skin.



    Fungal infections are caused by a harmful fungus (about half of all fungi fall into this category) which has infected your skin or has been breathed in by you and invaded your lungs, and they can appear in many different forms. Often it's difficult to ascertain whether a specific health complaint is caused by a fungal infection or not; this is where a dermatologist can be helpful in making an accurate diagnosis.



    General Fungal Infections



    Fungal infections are incredibly common and can happen to anyone, regardless of personal hygiene - although poor hygiene can definitely contribute to burgeoning infections. Here are a few you are most likely to encounter...

    Athlete's Foot. Also known as tinea pedis. Perhaps the most common fungal infection of all. Makes the foot red, itchy, scaly and often smelly. Occurs as the ringworm fungus loves feet, because they are so often encased in warm sweaty socks. This nice moist environment is a prime place for the fungus to thrive, and if not treated properly can even allow transfer to other parts of the body, such as the groin, nails, trunk etc. For some reason athlete's foot is more common among men (boys, take note) and usually affects the area between the fourth and fifth toes (foot fetishists, take note).

    Nail Infections. Can begin as a small yellow or white spot underneath a fingernail, but then spreads. As it burrows deeper and deeper into your toenail or fingernail it can cause discoloration, thickening or crumbling, and can be incredibly painful. In some cases the nail will separate itself from the nail bed and an unpleasant odor can occur. Usually caused by a group of fungi called dermatophytes, sometimes caused by yeasts or molds. Can easily be picked up in swimming pools or other moist, warm places where fungi thrive, much like athlete's foot.

    Scalp Ringworm. If your scalp is turning red, crusting and becoming incredibly itchy, there's a chance you have scalp ringworm. This is fairly common among young children, and it's estimated that 50 percent of all child hair loss is caused by this nasty fungus. It occurs primarily in one of three different guises: gray patch ringworm, black dot ringworm and inflammatory ringworm.

    Body Ringworm. Also known as tinea corporis. Usually occurs on parts of the body not covered by clothes, such as hands and face. Not as revolting as it seems as it not actually caused by a worm but by - surprise! - a fungus. Gets its name as it can cause a ring-shaped rash with scaly center. Can sometimes be passed on by cats although usually is passed on through human contact. So always wash your hands after stroking a feline... or a human.

    Lung fungal infection. Also known as aspergillosis, this fungus thrives in places such as air ducts and compost heaps, then it attacks your lungs. Can be most dangerous to people who have had lung disease in the past and therefore have cavities in their lungs which can become infected. However, this infection can be treated and does not usually spread outside the lung area.



    Personal Fungal Infections



    Also incredibly common, these fungal infections are the most unpleasant because they infect our most personal areas. Not to be confused with sexually-transmitted diseases, but they can be just as irritating - and sometimes even more so! And as the symptoms so often mimic those of STDs, sometimes it's hard to tell between the two. That's where a proper diagnosis by a doctor or dermatologist can be so important..

    Jock Itch. If you spend too much time flaunting a tight, wet Speedo on the beach in hot weather, chances are you'll develop jock itch. This fungal infection of the groin can attack both men and women, but it more common among the boys. Heat and humidity are the biggest factors contributing to this irritating itch, although wearing tight clothing or being very overweight can play a role as well. Results in nasty red pustules that are uncomfortable and unsightly and require medical treatment. Also called Ringworm of the Groin.

    Vaginal Yeast Infections. Caused by an overgrowth of the Candida albicans fungus, this unpleasant infection can cause extreme itchiness around the vagina, as well as an unpleasant discharge and smell as well as occasional pain and burning. It's estimated that ?? of all women have at least one yeast infection in their lives, which can easily spread to sexual partners. Easily treated in the vast majority of cases.



    Treatment of Fungal Infections



    Most fungal infections are treated with anti-fungal medications, but along with the correct meds you should also wash regularly and keep the affected areas clean and dry. Following a strict skin-care regime is important to avoid re-infection, or infecting others. That means, depending on which type of infection you have, not sharing towels or combs, wearing flip-flops in changing areas or poolside, using an anti-fungal foot spray, wearing clean cotton socks and underwear and changing into clean cotton clothes regularly.



    Here, in alphabetical order, are a few of the anti-fungal drugs you may be prescribed, follow the doctor or dermatologist's instructions and let them know beforehand if you are taking any other medications:

    Clotrimazole

    Ciclopirox

    Fluconazole

    Itraconazole

    Ketoconazole

    Terbinafine Hydrochloride



    Fungal infections can affect anyone, and if you have a busy, active lifestyle chances are you'll come down with at least one - if not more - at some stage of your life. While fungal infections are never fun, there's no need to suffer in silence, so if you have any of the above symptoms, get thee to a doctor pronto. You'll have a new, fungal-free you in no time!



    The information in the article is not intended to substitute for the medical expertise and advice of your health care provider. We encourage you to discuss any decisions about treatment or care an appropriate health care provider.


    Sarah Matthews is a writer for Yodle, a business directory and online advertising company. Find a dermatologist or more personal care articles at Yodle Consumer Guide.

    fingernail fungus cures: toe nail fungus treatments

    fingernail fungus cures: nail fungus remedy

    Article Source: www.articlesnatch.com


              8 Things You (Probably) Didn't Know About Me        

    When tapped to share “8 things you probably didn’t know about” James Farrar he noted that blogging is quite the “exhibitionist” activity. Much of my blogging experience these past years has been more in audience capacity; a vicarious blog explorer, rather than an active onstage character. Vicarious means I observe certain events by “imaginative or sympathetic participation in the experiences of another”.

    Others’ blogs expose me to great examples of: storytelling, journalism, innovation and when done expertly well, art. While exploring, I’m often wondering what it would be like to write as prolifically or as creatively or as knowledgeably as the bloggers whose contents I follow. Fair, although hardly shy, I do feel a bit the wallflower while the nimble waltz me by with dizzyingly and dazzlingly clever insights, observations, perceptions and opinions.

    I’ve imagined what I would write on the off-chance that someone might tag me for the “8 things you probably don’t know about me” meme. But I was caught off guard (gobsmacked as the brits would say) when I happened upon my name in James’ blog: the Wisdom of Clouds. It’s like someone asked the ungainly girl at the school party to dance to be nice. Thanks James.

    Eight is a lot. I’ll start chronologically.

    1. When I was 4, my sister was born on my birthday. For years afterwards I assumed that all families had that same arrangement, meaning siblings who were not twins also shared a common birthday. The realization that my belief system was faulty was very traumatic.

    2. When I was about 8 years old, I separated from my parents while on board the Sternwheeler (steamboat) called the "The American". We were visiting an ill-fated and short-lived amusement park in the Bronx (New York) called: Freedomland U.S.A. There is a certain irony to all this. The year was 1960 and the civil rights movement was coming into its own with the Greensboro Four staging a peaceful sit-in at Woolworth’s in North Carolina, breaking down the segregation walls in the south. Back on the steamboat, my parents found me quickly. I was staging my own sit-in of sorts, in the steamship’s bandstand. There they found me sitting entranced on a trumpet player’s lap. His name: Louie Armstrong. I’ve always loved his voice and music.

    3. When I was 10 I decided to have a “penny fair” and created an amusement park in my yard. I gathered $5.57 cents from all of our neighborhood children (a great many pennies). Although rather pleased with my entrepreneurial success, I wound up donating the money to a school for mentally handicapped children. The principal sent me and the neighborhood children a very nice thank you letter.

    4. When I was 16 I discovered that although my sister and I shared the same birth date, it wasn’t the one recorded in our birth certificates. My mom had changed them both by a few days to give us the opportunity of starting kindergarten early. I think it was a shocking revelation that documents could be misleading or doctored.

    5. At 20 I took a road trip across the US. It was the summer of ’74 and in California, after a day of many driving mishaps; I got pulled over by the police. I had gotten a ticket earlier that day for speeding on the freeway. While paying my speeding ticket, I parked in a no-parking zone. I then proceeded to run a stop sign. It was a bad-hair driving day.When I saw the flashing lights in the rear-view mirror I was baffled. Couldn’t think of a single additional infraction I might have committed other than the fact that our car was a real jalopy with only one workable door, totally dust-covered and we (my future husband and I) looked a bit like ’70’s hippies after our 6 weeks on the road. I roll down my window (I’m the driver) and ask: “yes officer?”, failing to notice the growing number of squad cars accumulating behind us. The policeman looks oddly tense. “Did you hear about the bank robbery?”, says he. “Oh sure”, says I., “I’m Bonnie and this” (pointing to my future husband) “is Clyde”. The policemen weren’t particularly amused as they pulled me out of the car thinking I was the fugitive kidnapped newspaper heiress turned militant, Patty Hearst .

    6. I studied theater directing in the Tel Aviv University drama department. In 1979 I turned down an invitation by the national theater to assistant direct and work with theater luminary Joseph Chaiken on “The Dybbuk”. What we do for love. I was expecting my first child.

    7. In the early eighties, before “Glastnost” and the subsequent transparency policies of Gorbachev, I went on a small mission to meet with prisoners of conscience and human rights activists in a number of cities in the Ukraine and found myself and travel partner “interviewed” by the KGB concerning our activities in each city. I think I’m a “persona non grata” in the former Soviet Union.

    8. In the middle nineties started a grassroots movement of citizens concerned about environmental hazards and the rights of local residents and was invited to speak in the Israeli Parliament, together with my Bedouin neighbors.

    Now, grannimari is quietly and sedately working as an online community evangelist for the Business Process Expert Community. And looking to the community members who inspire and challenge her thinking. In that spirit of letting no good deed go unpunished, I’ll tag: Jim Spath , Eddy De Clercq , Jen Robinson, Thomas Ritter, Dick Hirsch and Ram Tiwari


              La adoración del ausente en la poesía y el retrato del Renacimiento francés        
    Las pequeñas fotografías de madre, mujer, esposo o hijos que se suelen llevar en el bolsillo o en la cartera tienen su antecedente en el retrato íntimo renacentista. En el Museo de Louvre, en la sala dedicada a la pintura francesa, se exhiben retratos de pequeña dimensión de algunas de las esposas de los hombres más influyentes de la Francia de finales del siglo XV, como Margarita de York o Jacqueline de Rohan-Gié. A continuación analizaremos una de estas obras, La dama de los pensamientos, anónimo de 1499. Para comprender mejor la expresión en el rostro retratado tomaremos fragmentos de la poesía escrita por mujeres durante el Renacimiento francés, en particular Louise Labé (1524-1566) y Pernette du Guillet (1520-1545), representantes de la Escuela de Lyon.

    • • •

    LOURDES RANGEL • POETA Y PERIODISTA
    Estudiante del doctorado en literatura y civilización francesas
    en la Sorbona de París
    tototito@yahoo.fr

    Palabras y símbolos: una revolución de orden filológico

    De acuerdo con la semiótica cognitiva, cada signo –ya sea el rostro, el cuerpo, la palabra, las formas que trazan los pintores– es un “contenedor” de ideas y sentimientos construidos y transformados por nuestra percepción del mundo en un contexto cultural determinado. Por ello, habrá que precisar las condiciones en las que florecían la poesía y la pintura renacentistas en Francia. Primero, tomemos en cuenta que durante el siglo XV (es decir, pocos años antes de la ejecución del retrato anónimo La dama de los pensamientos), el francés se convierte en lengua nacional. A partir de entonces, los grandes poetas del siglo XVI se proponen hacer de su idioma materno el estandarte de una civilización comparable a la de las antiguas Grecia y Roma.

    La pintura francesa, por su parte, antes únicamente concebida en los muros de las catedrales, los libros y los vitrales, pretende también convertirse en el testimonio del esplendor del reino de Francia, sin dejar de imitar la nueva pintura de los grandes maestros florentinos, romanos y venecianos. Los hombres de finales del siglo XV y principios del XVI, bajo la influencia del humanismo toscano, regresan al conocimiento clasicista de sí mismos, dejan de lado la apariencia etérea del vitral, estudian la anatomía y perfeccionan la perspectiva.

    Las formas del rostro y el cuerpo son respetadas como nunca antes en la historia del arte. El pintor es capaz de reproducir las proporciones exactas, así como los colores y las manifestaciones de la naturaleza. La creación del artista, que aspira a la perfección divina, subraya que la belleza es también pagana, como las figuras que el poeta Joachim du Bellay rescata del esplendor grecolatino en su famoso tratado Defence et Illustration de la Langue Française, publicado en 1549. Para embellecerse y enriquecerse, la lengua francesa reproduce, a través de la poesía, las imágenes de una civilización profundamente admirada por los humanistas. La pintura, por supuesto, también reproducirá las imágenes de los dioses de la antigüedad en un intento por nacionalizar la traslatio imperii.

    Durante esas centurias, los elementos paganos se mezclan con los religiosos. Los sabios humanistas del Renacimiento, admiradores de la cultura grecolatina, no olvidan los textos fundadores de la filosofía cristiana, que se traducen a las lenguas vulgares. El Renacimiento fue sobre todo una revolución de orden filológico. Los retóricos franceses escriben numerosos tratados en los que no se dejan de lado las formas de versificación medievales, a pesar de la admiración de los poetas por los grandes escritores de la antigüedad clásica.

    Los pintores también cuentan con tratados revolucionarios. Hacia 1440, Leon Battista Alberti escribe De pictura. Es muy probable que el pintor francés Jean Fouquet, que vivió en Roma hacia 1450, haya leído o asimilado muchas de las ideas de este gran humanista florentino. A través de Fouquet, las enseñanzas tanto teóricas como prácticas de la obra de Alberti llegaron a una nueva generación de artistas franceses modernos. De pictura incluye reflexiones sumamente interesantes sobre cómo los hombres de la época percibían el retrato y el arte del retratista:

    La pintura contiene una fuerza divina, pues logra que estén presentes los ausentes, de igual manera que lo logra la amistad, pero además hace que los muertos se vean casi como los vivos [...] Hay quienes piensan que la pintura dio forma a los dioses que eran adorados por los pueblos. Éste ciertamente fue el mayor regalo que hicieron a los mortales, pues la pintura es más útil a esa devoción que nos acerca a los hombres y conserva nuestras almas llenas de misticismo.(1)

    Gracias a esta nueva concepción de la pintura, el retrato tuvo un papel de enorme relevancia. La gramática de signos que implican desde ahora los rostros retratados es definitiva para la comprensión de la naturaleza humana. Los hombres del Renacimiento, devotos de la imagen divina, se convertían en admiradores de la imagen de los dioses paganos e incluso de los aristócratas y burgueses de la época. Esto se debe en parte a que los pintores de la época solían representar una imagen idealizada de la aristocracia. En La dama de los pensamientos, por ejemplo, el artista hace uso de palabras y símbolos para crear un cuadro de una enorme y sutil riqueza, en el cual la dama se encuentra idealizada. La protagonista de la obra es probablemente Ana de Bretaña, mujer del rey Luis XII de Francia. El pintor tuvo un motivo importante para crear la obra: la ausencia del monarca por la guerra que en aquel tiempo había en Italia. La composición cautiva por la actitud reflexiva de la reina. Al mismo tiempo se puede leer lo que supuestamente escribió a su marido: “no olvido lo que no veo”, por cierto, escrito en la lengua del rey y no en latín. La imagen y la frase se encuentran estrechamente relacionadas; tienen el mismo significado.

    La dama de los pensamientos

    El acto poético de recordar al amado se materializa en un retrato que ha sido concebido con el fin de que el ausente nunca olvide que una mujer de gran valor moral lo espera a su regreso con una actitud de devoción, trasladada de los cuadros religiosos a estos retratos íntimos. Detrás de la imagen de Ana de Bretaña, distribuidas como sobre un tapiz, se aprecian las rosas estilizadas, que recuerdan a la flor de lis, forma que remite al origen noble de la reina y de su amante. Por otro lado, recordemos que cuando la diosa del amor nace de una concha en la costa de Chipre, nacen las rosas. La rosa, desde el punto de vista de la retórica poética, apostrofa a Venus, diosa a la que se dirigen los versos de los poetas enamorados para soportar las noches de soledad, como lo hace Louise Labé, que no pide la ayuda de Dios, sino de Venus, que en varias ocasiones se enamoró y hasta sostuvo relaciones adúlteras con Marte. La diosa comprende la pena de la poeta porque ha vivido un calvario semejante y a la vez se encuentra en el cielo, a la altura de Dios. Entonces, cuando está sola, en su lecho frío, se dirige a la diosa del Amor:

    Clere Venus, qui erres par les Cieus,
    Entens ma voix qui en pleins chantera,
    Tant que ta face au haut du ciel luira
    Son long travail et soucis ennuieus.
    Mon œil veillant s’atendrira cien mieus,
    Et plus de pleures voyant gettera.
    Mieus mon lit mol de larmes baignera
    De ses travaus voyant témoin tes yeux.
    Donq des humains son des lassez esprits
    De tous repos et de sommeil espris,
    J ’endure mal tant que le Soleil luit:
    Et quand je suis quasi toute cassee
    Et que me suis mise en mon lit lassee,
    Crier me faut mon mal toute la nuit.(2)

    (Louise Labé, “Soneto VI” p. 127.)(3)

    La retórica poética del siglo XVI comparte una serie de elementos metafóricos con la pintura, muchos de ellos recuperados de la antigüedad clásica, aunque también otros derivados del gótico. El vitral reproduce, de una manera etérea, las formas humanas, mientras que el retrato está dotado de una mayor precisión no sólo gráfica sino psicológica. Además, la frase “no olvido lo que no veo” posee un contenido espiritual. Nadie puede ver a Dios pero el alma no lo olvida. Una mujer no puede ver a su marido y es otra vez el alma, pero también el cuerpo quienes no olvidan. Esto era común en la poesía femenina que recibió una influencia de Francisco Petrarca: Pernette du Guillet, discípula y amante de Maurice Scève, convierte a su amado poeta en Dios. Es decir, las poetas hacen una relación entre su amante y el Todopoderoso. Para ellas él es la luz y, en el caso de Ana de Bretaña, es la luz dorada que la envuelve al fondo del retrato, noble, magnánima y embellecida por las flores de Venus, que recuerdan a la flor de lis. En el siguiente texto, Pernette du Guillet confiesa que antes de conocer al poeta, se encontraba rodeada de una terrible oscuridad que le impedía reconocer las figuras. Era una sombra hasta que conoció el amor. He aquí una transformación de ciertos conceptos relacionados con la luz en la poesía femenina. La luz es también un hombre. Como vemos, ya en el Renacimiento se escribía poesía para hombres idealizados que es poco conocida debido a la falta de mujeres que supieran y se atrevieran a escribir en la época. Si en la Edad Media los hombres eran más bien héroes que nunca fueron comparados con Dios, el hombre idealizado del Renacimiento, que contaba hazañas más peligrosas que las de sus abuelos, era casi un Dios:

    La nuict estoit pour moy si tres obscure
    Que Terre et Ciel elle m’obscurcissoit,
    Tant qu’à Midy de discerner figure
    N’avois pouvoir qui fort me marrissoit:
    Mais quand je vis que l’aulbe apparoissoit
    En couleurs mille et diverse, et seraine,
    Je me trouvay de liesse si pleine –
    Voyant desjà la clarté à la ronde –
    Que commençay louer à voix haultaine
    Celuy qui feit pour moy ce Jour au Monde.(4)

    (Pernette du Guillet, “Rima II”, p. 229)(5)

    En La dama de los pensamientos el pecho de la reina se encuentra adornado con una imagen, por lo cual percibimos a Ana de Bretaña como una mujer piadosa, que ama a Dios, y que además expresa sus sentimientos amorosos sin que estos lleguen a ser profanos. Por su parte, Pernette du Guillet habla de su deseo amoroso con mucha discreción y recato. Aunque murió a los 25 años de edad, su breve pero sustanciosa obra tuvo mérito suficiente para ser publicada el año siguiente de su fallecimiento bajo el título de Rymes. De Gentile et Vertueuse Dame D. Pernette Du Guillet Lyonnoise. Robert Sabatier hace referencia a estas características en su ensayo La Poésie du XVIe siècle, y no deja de mencionar la melancolía:

    Un poco aquí y allá, ella produce encanto, un encanto nacido de su recato, de su voz sostenida, de su inclinación melancólica que la hace sobresalir en la elegía y en la canción gris. Sin ingenuidad excesiva, tiene fe en la lealtad del amor, y todo en ella tiende a hacer nacer una representación de la pureza.(6)

    Del mismo modo que en Pernette du Guillet, en Ana de Bretaña existe una representación pura, en el sentido moral, del amor. Ambas muestran su sentimiento de una forma recatada digna de ser representada por un pintor del siglo XVI.

    A fines de la Edad Media y en el Renacimiento la sensualidad se conjuga muchas veces con elementos religiosos. En La dama de los pensamientos, el foco de atención del cuadro es la mirada esquiva de la reina. Ella no mira al espectador, en primer lugar porque, como lo indica la filacteria, está pensando, y también porque probablemente piensa en el amor y en los placeres de Venus, es decir, conserva cierto pudor de virtuosa dama renacentista que no quiere descubrir sus deseos en una mirada. Poner en evidencia este pudor de la reina en un área aquí considerada como el foco de atención es una de las más poderosas intenciones del autor del lienzo. Otra de las características interesantes de la mujer retratada es la edad. En esta pintura Ana de Bretaña tiene aproximadamente veintitrés años, lo cual hasta cierto punto le da derecho a descubrir su sensualidad, misma que justifica Louise Labé ante las damas lionesas en su Élegie III:

    Quand vous lirez, ô Dames Lionnoises,
    Ces miens écrits pleins d’amoureuses noises,
    Quand mes regrets, ennuis, despits et larmes
    M’orrez chanter en pitoyables carmes,
    Ne veuillez point condamner ma simplesse,
    Et jeune erreur de ma folle jeunesse,
    Si c’est erreur… mais qui dessous les Cieus
    Se peut vanter de n’estre vicieus?(7)

    (Louise Labé, Élegie III, p. 149)

    De ciertos poemas se dice que se encuentran escritos en un tono confesional, como el que acabamos de leer. Sin duda, se podría afirmar que Ana de Bretaña se encuentra así retratada, pero tan refinadamente confesional que a primera vista sería difícil descifrar los signos de una melancolía que el pintor ha querido acentuar.

    Alma y espíritu: adornos del cuerpo

    En La dama de los pensamientos se da mayor énfasis al rostro, no a través del volumen como normalmente ocurría, sino de la luz. El pintor aprovecha la intensa blancura de la piel de su modelo para subrayar su parentesco con la divinidad. Además, la reina, como las mujeres de su época, tomaban en cuenta la armonía del círculo, símbolo de la perfección, al momento de cuidar su arreglo. Se sabe que se rasuraban la frente para dar a su cabeza formas más redondeadas, y el círculo representa también la belleza y la armonía en la cultura occidental.(8) Esta misma forma era considerada al delinear y pintar las cejas, lo cual habla de la enorme influencia que la filosofía –en este caso neoplatónica– ejercía en las costumbres más mundanas de los cortesanos. Sin embargo, esta aparente búsqueda de inmaterialidad en el mundo físico, a través de las formas, se puede interpretar también como una lucha por unir el cuerpo con el alma a través del deseo, la sabiduría y la fe amorosos. Esta idea se refiere a una concepción espiritual del amor carnal y nos remite a la reflexión anterior del amado-Dios. Pernette du Guillet llega a la conclusión de que el alma y el espíritu se subordinan al cuerpo una vez que hemos logrado comprender la voluntad divina:

    L’âme et l’esprit sont pour le corps orner,
    Quand le vouloir de l’Eternel nous donne
    Sens et sçavoir pour pouvoir discerner
    Le bien du bien, que la raison ordonne:
    Pourquoy, si Dieu de telz biens te guerdonne
    Il m’a donné raison, qui a pouvoir
    De bien juger ton heur, et ton sçavoir.
    Ne trouve donc chose si admirable,
    Si à bon droict te desirent de veoir
    Le Corps, l’Esprit, et l’Âme raisonnable?(9)

    (Pernette du Guillet, “Rima XVI”, p. 233)

    En el poema de Pernette, el cuerpo, la inteligencia y el alma aparecen unificados por el amado, lo que sucede también en La dama de los pensamientos. Las manos, que le escriben al amado y que han tocado su cuerpo, son el elemento que unifica porque su blancura es espiritual y su belleza y finura son también sensuales, además de que una de ellas sostiene con delicadeza la filacteria, que contiene un discurso nacido del intelecto. La unificación de estos elementos queda reafirmada por las piedras que adornan el camafeo y los anillos, combinadas con las perlas del tocado, piedras preciosas que simbolizan a Venus, ya que tanto la piedra como la diosa nacen de una concha.

    El vestido vuelve a disfrazar la sensualidad de la reina porque sus pechos son casi imperceptibles y el color es azul, relacionado normalmente con el manto de la virgen, que es también la esposa de Dios. En el texto que a continuación citamos, Louise Labé confiesa su deseo, describe su martirio y concluye por renegar del hombre que ama como si éste fuera Dios. La apasionada poeta, que siempre se había mostrado devota de su amor, se queja porque ha perdido la fe en el ausente:

    D’un tel vouloir le serf point ne desire
    La liberté, ou son port le navire,
    Comme j’atens, helas ! de jour en jour
    De toy, Ami, le gracieus retour.
    Là, j’avois mis le but de ma douleur,
    Qui finiroit, quand j’aurois ce bon heur
    De te revoir : mais de la longue atente,
    Helas ! en vain mon desir se lamente.
    Cruel, cruel, qui te faisoit promettre
    Ton brief retour en ta premiere lettre?
    As-tu si peu de memoire de moy,
    Que de m’avoir si tot rompu la foy?
    Comme oses tu ainsi abuser celle
    Que de tout tems t’a esté si fidelle?(10)

    (Louise Labé, Elegía II, p.145)


    El azul de los ojos de Ana de Bretaña es exactamente el mismo que utiliza el pintor para el vestido, detalle que resemantiza el azul, que deja de ser simplemente un color frío y se convierte en un signo amoroso y melancólico, cálido por el recuerdo y frío por la ausencia. Estos contrastes son muy evidentes en la poesía de los integrantes de la Escuela de Lyon y tienen su origen en la obra de Petrarca. El amor une lo opuesto física, espiritual y semánticamente. Da vida y es muerte, quema y ahoga, hace gozar y sufrir. Este soneto de Louise Labé hace énfasis en los contrarios, influenciado por la obra de Petrarca:

    Je vis, je meurs : je me brule et je me noye,
    J’ay chaut estreme et endurant froidure:
    La vie m’est et trop molle et trop dure.
    J’ai grans ennuis entremeslez de joye:
    Tout à un coup je ris et je larmoye,
    Et en plaisir maint grief tourment j’endure:
    Mon bien s’en va, et à jamais il dure:
    Tout en un coup je seiche et je verdoye.
    Ainsi Amour inconstamment me meine:
    Et, quand je pense avoir plus de douleur,
    Sans y penser je me treuve hors de peine.
    Puis, quand je croy ma joye estre certeine,
    Et estre au haut de mon desiré heur,
    Il me remet en mon premier malheur.(11)

    (Louise Labé, “Soneto VIII”, p. 129)

    Esta serie de sensaciones que describe Louise Labé son síntomas de melancolía, explicada en la época como un desequilibrio que seguramente conduce a la bipolaridad que manifiesta el poema anterior: “C’est le déséquilibre, la prédominance de l’une ou de l’autre des humeurs [melancolía, cólera, sangre y flema] qui explique désormais les dérèglements parmi lesquels les effets de la mélancolie ont retenu l’attention des théologiens, juristes ou médecins. ”(12) Este desequilibrio también se percibe en las proporciones de los miembros de la modelo, lo cual nos hace pensar también en Aristóteles, en la vida que comparten en cada célula el cuerpo y el alma.

    Adoración del ausente

    Si bien La dama de los pensamientos es un antecedente de los retratos fotográficos que llevamos en el bolsillo, hemos podido comprobar que el retrato íntimo renacentista tiene sus particularidades. Entre el retratado y el dueño del retrato hay una relación de idolatría que se deriva de la pintura sagrada y el vitral del arte medieval. Sólo que esta vez, el retratista está consciente de que el objeto de adoración, que es la modelo, debe guardar una relación con la divinidad que da sustento al poder del rey francés Luis XII.

    Hemos analizado varios elementos en La dama de los pensamientos que nos hacen pensar en la idealización de la modelo pero también en la idealización del ausente. Las pistas para descubrir al ausente las encontramos en la poesía del Renacimiento francés, en las figuras retóricas que los cortesanos y los artistas de la época comparten.

    Por otro lado, en esta obra pictórica también encontramos una frase escrita sobre una filacteria que sostiene la reina: “no olvido lo que no veo”; el hecho de que haya sido escrita en francés es sumamente relevante para comprender la obra del artista anónimo. La lengua francesa será un día tan bella y tan importante como el latín porque es la lengua del rey, lo cual será planteado cincuenta años después por un poeta: Joachim du Bellay, autor de Defence et illustration de la langue francaise.

    Pero el detalle más importante del cuadro es la fe. Primero la fe en que el alma permanece profundamente unida al cuerpo y a sus placeres pero, por supuesto, también a Dios y al intelecto. Sobre todo, y esto es lo más importante, la fe en la unión con el amado y en su regreso triunfal de la guerra más violenta.

    Notas

    1. Leon Battista Alberti, Tratado de pintura, ed. de Carlos Pérez Infante, México, 1998, pp. 77-78.

    2. Clara Venus, que vagas por los cielos, oye mi voz que en lamentos cantará sus largos trabajos y sus inquietantes sosiegos mientras tu rostro en lo alto del cielo resplandece. Mi ojo vigilante se conmoverá cien veces, y en sus visiones más llanto regará. Mi cama suave se bañará con lágrimas por los trabajos de los que tus ojos fueron testigos. Cuando el espíritu humano flaquea, todos duermen presas del sueño. En esto yo soporto tanto dolor como brilla el sol: y cuando yo estoy casi agotada, y cuando acuesto en el lecho mi flaqueza, toda la noche paso gritando mi dolor. (T. de la a.)

    3. Para las citas de Louise Labé utilizaremos la edición de Gérard Guillot, Œuvre, Viena, 1962.

    4. La noche era para mí tan oscura que me oscurecía el cielo y la tierra, tanto que a medio día me era muy molesto no poder distinguir figuras: pero cuando vi que el alba aparecía en mil colores diversos, serena, me sentí tan llena de alegría al mirar esa claridad a mi alrededor que comencé a alabar en voz alta a aquel que para mí hace la luz en el mundo. (T. de la a.)

    5. Para nuestras citas de Pernette du Guillet utilizaremos la edición de Albert-Marie Schmidt, “Rymes de Gentile et Vertueuse Dame D. Pernette du Guillet Lyonnoise.”, en Poètes du XVIe siècle, París, Gallimard, 1959.

    6. Robert Sabatier, La Poésie du XVIe. Siècle, París, 1975, p. 120. (T. de la a.)

    7. Cuando ustedes lean, oh, señoras lionesas, estos escritos míos llenos de penas amorosas; cuando mi dolor y mi sosiego, mis decepciones y mis lágrimas me oigan cantar en conmovedores versos, no quieran condenar mi torpeza ni el error juvenil de mi loca juventud. Error fue… pero ¿quién bajo los cielos puede vanagloriarse de no ser pecador? (T. de la a.)

    8. Patricia Magli. “El rostro y el alma,” en Fragmentos para una historia del cuerpo humano, Madrid, 1987, p. 96.

    9. El alma y el espíritu son para adornar el cuerpo, cuando la voluntad del Todopoderoso nos da consciencia y sabiduría para poder discernir el bien del bien, como la razón manda. ¿Por qué si Dios te otorga tales bienes y me dio la razón, que tiene el poder de juzgar tu contento y sabiduría, no piensa que es algo admirable que de buena fe deseen verte el cuerpo, el espíritu y el alma razonable? (T. de la a.)

    10. Con tal voluntad el siervo rechaza su libertad y el navío su puerto, como yo espero, ¡ay!, tu dulce regreso, amigo, cada día. He llegado al fondo de un dolor que sólo terminará cuando tenga la dicha de volver a verte, pero con la larga espera, ¡ay!, en vano mi deseo se lamenta. Cruel, cruel, quien en tu primera carta te hacía prometer que tu ausencia sería breve. ¿Tan pocas memorias tienes de mí que pronto la fe me rompiste?, ¿cómo te atreves a engañar a aquella que desde siempre te ha sido fiel? (T. de la a.)

    11. Vivo, muero, me quemo y me ahogo. Tengo demasiado calor e insoportable frío. La vida me parece demasiado ligera y demasiado dura. Siento un gran dolor y también un gran contento. Al mismo tiempo lloro y me río, y dentro de los muchos placeres, grandes tormentos padezco. Mi felicidad se va de pronto y dura eternamente. Al mismo tiempo me seco y reverdezco. Así, Amor constantemente me invade: cuando pienso que ya no tengo dolor, sin pensar me encuentro sin pena; después, cuando creo que mi alegría es verdadera y estoy en la cima de mi deseado contento, él me instala en mi primera desgracia. (T. de la a.)

    12. “Es el desequilibrio, el predominio de un humor sobre el otro lo que explica los desajustes, entre los cuales los efectos de la melancolía han llamado la atención de teólogos, juristas y médicos.” Thèmes d’histoire littéraire: Période Médiévale. Mélancolie. http://www.unil.ch/fra/HistLitt/Cours

              Accessing My ACMPR: Part 4        

    (start from part 1) Julia Veintrop Having a smart doctor can definitely have its advantages and disadvantages. I was so happy when my surgeon told me that she would willfully sign my ACMPR. She even wanted to do a bit of research because usually she just signs proof of conditions for compassion clubs. That was […]

    The post Accessing My ACMPR: Part 4 appeared first on Cannabis Digest.


              Tips For Panic Attacks        
    Did you know that practically ALL of the current “treatments” for panic attacks and anxiety only teach you how to cope with the symptoms?

    It’s true!

    Would you like to discover how to ELIMINATE your panic and anxiety instead?

    Here’s the problem you and every other Panic & Anxiety Sufferer face right now…

    You know what it is like to suffer from a panic attack. Your heart seems to be leaping out of your chest and you feel as though you are crawling out of your skin.

    Your skin feels cold and clammy, you are trembling and even shaking. Your thoughts are jumbled and you may even have trouble breathing or swallowing.

    You may feel detached, as if you are watching a movie, and this eerie feeling can stay with you for days after. You feel as though you are a crazy prisoner of your mind,

    and you are…


    But it’s worse than you think! Here’s why…


    Slowly, the attacks become more severe, and they happen more often…

    Every morning you wake up absolutely terrified that you may have
    another attack.

    You start avoiding people, places and situations that you are afraid
    may trigger another attack.

    Now you are worried about losing your job, your friends, and your relationship.

    Your doctor has prescribed some powerful medication that has some pretty nasty side effects, and your therapist just wants you to accept that you will always have these symptoms, and then get you to learn how to manage, and cope with them.

    You wonder how your life ended up in such a mess, and whether you will ever be able to lead a normal life again.


    Luckily, there’s a solution...
    Introducing

    “Freedom From Panic”

    The deceptively simple yet stunningly effective way to literally eradicate all negativity and anxiety so you can begin a new life of freedom and limitless opportunity, as quickly and painlessly as possible.


    Just imagine how your life will be once you are free from all the horrifying physical, emotional and mental symptoms of panic and anxiety.

    How will you feel when you once again enjoy the freedom to go where you want, when you want and to stay for as long as you want… movies, the theatre, coffee with friends…

    Even simple trips on the subway, driving your car on the freeway or just taking a walk to the local market.

    This is a NEW, incredibly effective method that actually eliminates panic
    and anxiety symptoms…the fears, negative thoughts simply dissolve, never to appear again…

    Click here to find out the biggest causes of panic attacks and how to avoid them.
              Egresados de la Facultad de Humanidades crean una empresa para conocer la Historia a través de los sentidos        
    Bajo el lema “No te contamos la historia, tú la vives” dos jóvenes de la Universidad Pablo de Olavide han creado una empresa de turismo cultural que pretende enseñar la historia de una manera diferente, otorgando protagonismo al participante para que éste pueda vivir así la experiencia en primera persona. Se trata de "La Odisea de la Historia", un proyecto creado por los antiguos estudiantes de la UPO Moisés Hidalgo García y Carlos Jiménez Barea. “Una de las grandes diferencias que encontramos entre nuestro proyecto y muchas de las empresas de turismo cultural es que adoptamos el enfoque experiencial, huyendo de la dinámica de la clásica visita guiada en la que el asistente es un mero receptor pasivo de información”, afirman estos dos jóvenes, quienes aseguran que buscan que el asistente a estas actividades sea partícipe de ellas, jugando así con la sensorialidad, incluyendo elementos como música, dramatizaciones, recreaciones arqueológicas o catas de vinos para que la historia se pueda ver, tocar, oler, oír y saborear. El motivo de esta manera de enfocar su proyecto es que estos dos jóvenes tienen una formación como historiadores y humanistas que les permite diseñar actividades bien fundamentadas históricamente y que aporten contenido novedoso. Así, Moisés Hidalgo García, es licenciado en Humanidades por la Universidad Pablo de Olavide, especializado en gestión y técnica informáticas para archivos, bibliotecas y bases de datos, Máster en Historia de Europa, el Mundo Mediterráneo y su Difusión Atlántica de la UPO, y actualmente realiza su doctorado en esta misma universidad en la que investiga sobre los procesos de democratización en el mundo rural. Por otro lado, Carlos Jiménez Barea, graduado en Humanidades por la UPO con especialización en Historia Antigua y Arqueología, realizó el Máster en Estudios Históricos Avanzados, especialidad Historia Antigua, en la Universidad de Sevilla, finalizando sus estudios con una investigación sobre la religión y el poder en la figura de Plinio el Joven. Actualmente realiza también su doctorado en la misma universidad, donde desarrolla una investigación centrada en la religión romana durante los siglos I y II d.C. Para más información consultar el siguiente enlace:
              Se inicia el primer proyecto de excavaciones arqueológicas en Itálica        
    El Seminario de Arqueología de la Universidad Pablo de Olavide iniciará el próximo lunes 3 de julio el que constituirá el primer proyecto de excavaciones arqueológicas de la UPO en Itálica. Las excavaciones, dirigidas por el profesor de Arqueología Rafael Hidalgo, se centrarán en dos puntos específicos del Conjunto Arqueológico que presentan importantes incógnitas y cuya resolución permitirá comprender diversos aspectos de la configuración y evolución de la ciudad de Itálica. Por un lado, se continuará y completará la excavación de la Casa de la Cañada Honda, una de las casas mejor conservadas de Itálica, cuya excavación comenzó en los años 70 del pasado siglo pero de la que aún queda en torno a un tercio de su superficie por conocer. Además de completar la excavación de la casa, se llevará a cabo también el estudio de las estructuras anteriormente exhumadas, de las que llama especialmente la atención el stibadium conservado en el patio de la casa, esto es, un lecho de banquetes semicircular que cuenta con una fuente central, que constituye junto al conservado en la Villa de El Ruedo de Almedinilla (Córdoba) la única estructura de estas características conocida en la Península Ibérica. Por otro lado, se llevarán a cabo también excavaciones en la muralla tardoantigua de Itálica, en concreto en el tramo situado en las inmediaciones del Traianeum. Se trata de una muralla de gran interés para comprender la evolución histórica de Itálica, hasta ahora conocida gracias a la realización de prospecciones geofísicas, pero que hasta la fecha nunca había sido objeto de excavaciones arqueológicas. El proyecto dirigido por Rafael Hidalgo contará con la participación de diversos profesores e investigadores de la UPO, ha sido aprobado por la Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Andalucía y contará con la financiación proporcionada por distintos proyectos de investigación desarrollados desde el Seminario de Arqueología de la UPO. En los trabajos de excavación arqueológica y en los de laboratorio, que se llevarán a cabo en el Laboratorio de Arqueología de la UPO, participarán alumnos de los distintos grados de la Facultad de Humanidades y alumnos de doctorado de esta universidad. El proyecto contará también con la colaboración de un equipo de arqueólogos de la Universidad de Marburg (Alemania), dirigidos por el profesor Felix Teichner, que participarán en la realización de prospecciones geofísicas previas al inicio de las excavaciones arqueológicas y en la propia excavación. Para más información consultar el siguiente enlace:
              Décima y última sesión del ciclo de conferencias del Nodo Atlántico de la red de Excelencia Columnaria-COREDEX y el proyecto POLYCENTRICSTATES (HAR2013-45357-P)        
    El grupo de trabajo Polycentricstates del área de Historia Moderna (Departamento de Geografía, Historia y Filosofía de la Facultad de Humanidades) organiza a la décima y última sesión del ciclo de conferencias de este curso académico organizado por el Nodo Atlántico de la red de Excelencia Columnaria-COREDEX y el proyecto POLYCENTRICSTATES (HAR2013-45357-P) y vinculado al Doctorado en Historia y Estudios Humanísticos: Europa, América, Arte y Lenguas de la UPO. El programa será el siguiente: Verónica Salazar Baena (Universidad de Santo Tomás, Bogotá): "Las pretensiones imperiales y los intereses locales en el Nuevo Reino de Granada. La política vista a través de las celebraciones monárquicas". Karen Ivett Mejía Torres (Colegio de México): "Justicia y orden social: un régimen corporativo eclesiástico en la villa de Toluca, 1698-1808". Esta sesión tendrá lugar hoy, 26 de junio, en el Seminario 2 del Edificio 2 de la Universidad Pablo de Olavide entre las 16 y las 20 h.
              Een vrouw speelt voor het eerst de legendarische Doctor in de serie Doctor Who en dit zijn de reacties        

    Deze zondag stond voor veel tv-kijkers in het teken van...

    Het bericht Een vrouw speelt voor het eerst de legendarische Doctor in de serie Doctor Who en dit zijn de reacties verscheen eerst op Vance.


              Comment on Post-Doctoral Positions at the University of Arizona by Julie Tygielski        
    Thank you. The HR link has been fixed.
              Comment on Post-Doctoral Positions at the University of Arizona by michaelaye        
    the HRI link links to a private email account?
              STANDARD-BEARERS OF THE FAITH: Lives of the Saints for Young and Old        
    Terri Kelleher

    STANDARD-BEARERS OF THE FAITH:
    A Series of Lives of the Saints for Young and Old
    by Frances Alice Forbes
    (Tan Books, 100pp, $12.00 each. ISBN: Saint Ignatius Loyola 978-0-89555-624-3; Saint Monica 978-0-89555-618-9; Saint Athanasius 978- 0-89555-0623-5. Available from Freedom Publishing)

    When a very dear friend of mine was given Butler's Lives of the Saints by her saintly father I devoured it voraciously. I love the stories of saints' lives since I find it the easiest way to seek the answer to the perennial question, "Wherein lies the good life, the life well-lived?"

    To find such courage, determination, burning passion and successful endeavour in those still encased in mortal flesh never ceases to captivate me. The present series of little books are written for children but I was still keen to read them.

    Written by Mother Frances Alice Monica Forbes, the author is of interest herself.

    A late vocation, she was a convert from Presbyterianism at 31 and became a sister of the Society of the Sacred Heart, Scotland. A short biography can be found at the end of some of these slim volumes. She wrote many lives of the saints in a series titled Standard-bearers of the Faith: A Series of Lives of the Saints for Young and Old.

    Originally published in the early 1900s by R. and T. Washbourne Ltd, London, and republished by Tan in 1998, the series includes St Ignatius Loyola, St Monica and St Athanasius, which are the ones I have read. Others include St Don Bosco.

    They are pocket-sized and therefore only give the barest details. This may make them seem appropriate only for a child. But I think they work on both levels - child and adult. The story line is necessarily spare and confined to the main or pivotal events in the saints' lives. But they convey the essential essence of the character of each saint, the raw material God had to work with; the obstacles of character that each saint had to overcome to conform to God's will; and the shining goodness of character that resulted earning them the title of "Saint".

    Character flaws

    For a child any flaws of character must be drawn lightly and sparingly with due regard for psychological immaturity, while the adult understands where such flaws can lead. St Ignatius Loyola, when told that as a result of the injury to his leg at the Battle of Pamplona one leg would be slightly shorter than the other, demanded that the doctors reopen the wound, saw off part of the bone and then stretch the leg in an iron machine in an effort to make the injured leg the same length as the other. His vanity was alarmed, as Mother Forbes put it: "Ignatius was not a little proud of his good looks and his graceful carriage."

    A child will just marvel at his courage in facing such painful treatment while the adult will understand the depth of vanity involved and also see the irony in Ignatius' decision.

    It was during his long convalescence from this operation that he found himself with little to do other than to read a "Life of Christ" which led to his conversion of heart and to a religious vocation. So in the end it wouldn't have mattered if one leg were shorter than the other because dancing and courting and cutting a fine figure in fashionable hose was not destined to be any part of his future life.

    Similarly, in the life of St Monica, the description of Monica's married life reads on one level for a child and on a much deeper and more nuanced level for the adult. The child only sees the marital relationship from the outside while the adult understands how difficult and indeed painful it can be when there is coldness or neglect or even just misunderstanding in that intimate relationship between a husband and wife.

    Even though the saints whose lives I read were not great sinners, the weight of their labours and the denial of self involved in doing God's will is made clear. As is the extraordinary success of their lives' works despite many seemingly overwhelming odds or setbacks.

    St Athanasius is described as saintly from childhood but he suffered exile five times for defending Catholic belief in the divinity of Christ. St Monica, also apparently a pious child, suffered the "unkindness" of her husband. The adult reader will understand the infidelity, neglect and humiliation which that "unkindness" entailed. The difficulty of their struggles will be understood at different levels by the child and the adult.

    For the adult these thumbnail sketches, if they capture the imagination and make one think, "Yes, this is someone I want to know more about", offer a beginning for finding out more about them.

    Church Triumphant

    Christ is the centre of our faith and it is ultimately Him we must imitate. For those who could do with a human companion along the way, such can be found in a favourite saint. This is my response to those who would say these stories are "mere" hagiography: what's wrong with that? Shouldn't we all wish to be uplifted, inspired and fall in love with the saints who are not forever separated from us but are part of the Church Triumphant which we surely hope to join in Heaven.

    If an adult reader finds these little books too "childish" they are still a wonderful gift for a child or grandchild to read or have read to them. From ages 10-11 children could read these stories for themselves, while ages 7-9 would be of a suitable age to be read to.

    I intend to read more of the volumes in this series and hope I will find a "favourite" saint to be a comfort and guide on the rest of my journey through this world. I have the same wish for any readers who may be inspired by this review to read either this series or any other lives of the saints.


              A SUMMER SURVIVAL GUIDE FOR THE TRUMP ERAHere’s a summer...        


    A SUMMER SURVIVAL GUIDE FOR THE TRUMP ERA

    Here’s a summer survival guide, 10 ways to relax during the era of Trump.

    1.  Take a day off from the news, one day a week.

     2.  Don’t get into an argument with a Trump supporter, especially if it’s a member of your family. Remember, there are more independents and non-voters than Trump Republicans. And the 2018 midterm election will be won on the basis of turnout.

    3.  Pay no attention to Trump’s tweets. They’re becoming increasingly bizarre and irrelevant.

    4.  Watch an old movie of biting political satire, like “Wag the Dog.”

    5.  But don’t watch “Doctor Strangelove.”

    6.  Join an Indivisible group near you and take action with them, attending a congressional town meeting and organizing others to contact your members of congress. It’s having an effect. Plus, it’s therapeutic.  

    7.  Drink lots of water and get plenty of exercise. Helps with the anger.

    8.  Read good books of fiction, like Harry Potter. Don’t read George Orwell’s “1984” or Sinclair Lewis’s “It Can’t Happen Here” or Philip Roth’s “The Plot Against America.”

    9.  Go to a county fair with your kids, and watch the pigs.

    10. Have a cookout with your neighbors and see what resources you yourselves can offer to your community. Start a tool collective or teach a class in a library or out of someone’s house. Tangible change can come from your hands, not only your votes. Remember, resistance works best when people come together and work together.         

    Have a great summer!


              Another Edition of the Friday Funnies        
    I know I promised more posts, but so far, I have been unable to deliver. Thankfully, the Friday Funnies are still in gear, and here is yet another edition. Inspired by the recent grandstanding of former President Jimmy Carter, who once again resigned from the Southern Baptist Convention (hadn't he already done that? And hasn't he figured it out by now that you can't "resign" from the denomination, especially when you remain a member of an SBC Church?) over the issue of the SBC's stance on female roles in the Church and home, I thought some Jerry Clower would cheer all of us up, particularly his meeting with "The She-Coon of Women's Lib". **See my comments below for clarification on the term "she-coon".**



    **Though I published this post over a year ago with no controversy whatsoever, in recent days I have come under attack from some bloggers who claim that the term "she-coon" is an obvious racial slur. However, this viewpoint is far from legitimate reality. First, the term "she-coon" is itself a Southern colloquialism which refers to a woman who is in charge and at times dominate. Like a mother raccoon, she is willing to attack when necessary. While this term is as common today as it was in the past, it is nonetheless, still used. You can find it used by a female journalist in this article and a male journalist here (both of which are in reference to Janet Reno). If the term was such an obvious racial slur, then neither article would have made it past the copy editor and certainly someone would have made a stink about it by now. Finally, there is the issue of who exactly Clower was speaking of when he used the term. Here is an article by Darrell Huckaby where he claims that the person in question is no other than Gloria Steinem, certainly the dominate woman in charge of the women's liberation movement. Thus, there is no sensible reason to conclude that Jerry Clower's use of this term was in any way meant to be a racist slur.**

              Termografía para la detección de Cáncer de Seno.        

    Termografía para la detección de Cáncer de Seno.


    Esta también llamada ‘termografía de pecho', ó termomastografía tiene la habilidad de descubrir las primeras señales que indiquen que un cáncer puede estarse formando, incluso 10 años antes de que cualquier otro procedimiento pueda detectarlo.


    Desde 2006 el Centro de Estudios y Prevención del Cáncer A.C. (CEPREC), está evaluando esta novedosa e innovadora prueba. Este hecho, lo convierte en el único centro con ésta tecnología en el país: una cámara de rayos infrarrojos que al captar el calor de la mama permite detectar alteraciones tempranas.


    Su ventaja es que no produce radiaciones, no es dolorosa y su sensibilidad para detectar el cáncer de mama es hasta el 94%.


    "Este estudio, en combinación con la mastografía convencional de rayos X y la mastografía digital nos ayudará a diagnosticar el cáncer de mama en etapas más tempranas, aumentar la supervivencia y reducir la mortalidad por este tumor", aseguró a rotativo de Querétaro el Dr. Francisco Gutiérrez Delgado, director del CEPREC en Juchitán, Oaxaca.


    El Dr. José G. Vázquez Luna, profesor investigador de la BUAP empleó la tecnología militar e hizo transferencia a la medicina, diseñando un sistema capaz de registrar ondas que registran calor.

    El antecedente de ésta tecnología está en la investigación militar, durante la vigilancia nocturna de tropas. El calor de los cuerpos de los soldados enemigos, delata su posición a kilómetros de distancia. Con éste sistema se detecta, registra y produce imágenes de la superficie de la piel de los senos y es posible correlacionar los puntos de calor detectados con el tamaño del tumor. "El cáncer exige al cuerpo que lo alimente, existe un proceso de angiogénesis cuando se inicia el cáncer, es decir, se crean nuevos vasos sanguíneos que llevan alimento al tumor.


    Este fenómeno de formación de nuevos vasos sanguíneos resulta revelador porque incrementa localmente la temperatura. Con la termografía se pueden detectar estos pequeños incrementos locales de temperatura.


    La imagen térmica se convierte en un inmejorable coadyuvante, que el médico con otro grupo de pruebas determinará si es o no cáncer". "Es una prueba fisiológica que puede detectar cambios mínimos de temperatura, la termografía puede usarse como pesquisa o prueba discriminatoria, es decir, si una mujer pasa primero por esta prueba y no se localiza ningún riesgo no tendría caso exponerla a la masto grafía, y si se encuentra alguna anormalidad entonces con apoyo de la masto grafía y/o ultrasonido se lograra un certero diagnóstico" reveló el doctor en física.


    El Investigador de la Escuela Físico Matemáticas de la BUAP, expuso que el principio físico es sencillo: La energía térmica ó infrarroja, por su longitud de onda, no es visible por el ojo humano, pero la termografía, por medio de una cámara, "ve" y "mide" la energía infrarroja que está siendo emitida por un objeto.


    La capacidad de emisión de la piel humana es muy alta, por lo tanto, la radiación infrarroja emitida puede ser convertida a valores de temperatura. José G. Vázquez Luna, en entrevista para este medio, también explicó que existen más de 1200 estudios, incluidos en el Index Medicus que han evaluado su rol en la detección temprana del cáncer de mama. "En 1982, la FDA aprobó la termografía de pecho como un procedimiento válido para la detección de cáncer de mama, sin embargo, la termografía de pecho ha sido profusamente investigada desde 1950.


    En más de 30 años de investigación se han reunido mas de 800 estudios en el área y se encuentran en la literatura médica. En esta base de datos, más de 300,000 mujeres se han incluido como participantes del estudio, algunos estudios han seguido a los pacientes a lo largo más de 12 años y se sabe que se han establecido estrictos protocolos de interpretación estandarizados durante mas de 15 años.


    La termografía de pecho tiene una media sensibilidad y especificidad de 90%" argumenta Vázquez Luna. La literatura médica reporta que un termograma anormal es 10 veces más significativo, como un indicador de riesgo futuro de cáncer de mama, que un antecedente familiar de primer orden.


    Un termograma anormal persistente incrementa 22 veces el riesgo de desarrollar en el futuro un cáncer de mama. Una imagen infrarroja anormal es por sí sola, el marcador mas importante de riesgo de desarrollar cáncer del pecho.


    Cáncer de mama, un asunto nuestro: físico y oncólogo


    El físico José G. Vázquez Luna y el oncólogo Francisco Gutiérrez Delgado comparten la certeza: Diariamente se diagnostican 26 casos nuevos de cáncer de mama. Y es que el cáncer de mama ocupa el segundo lugar como causa de muerte por tumores en el sexo femenino.


    Esta situación es agravada por el insuficiente personal de salud entrenado para educar a la población femenina y el escaso equipo radiológico especializado (mastógrafos), el cual se concentra solamente en las grandes ciudades del país, el resultado es que 8 de 10 mujeres con cáncer de mama se diagnostican en etapa avanzada, prácticamente cuando cualquier tipo de tratamiento es ineficaz y 11 mujeres mueren diariamente por esta enfermedad.


    "Evaluamos el rol de la termomastografía de nueva generación en la detección temprana del cáncer de mama en población abierta del Istmo de Tehuantepec. Este estudio tiene una sensibilidad y especificidad alta para el diagnóstico de patología de la mama (85%) aseguró su director, el Dr. Francisco Gutiérrez Delgado, especialista Oncología y Doctor en Ciencias Médicas.


    "Cuando se utiliza con otros métodos Autoexploración, Ultrasonido y mastografía, se puede detectar hasta el 95% del cáncer.


    Diversas investigaciones ha mostrado que la termografía de pecho aumenta significativamente la tasa de supervivencia de las mujeres hasta en un 61%".

    Explicó también que las ventajas del termógrafo, es su elevada productividad ya que se pueden realizar mas de 10 termomastografías por hora con cada termógrafo, y como es un equipo ligero, puede ser desplazado a comunidades alejadas y municipios de todo el país, donde los servicios médicos no existen o son precarios.

    El Dr. Gutiérrez Delgado es Fellow del American Collage of Physicians (FACP), miembro de la American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), y American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (ASBMT) y sostiene que el objetivo del Centro, es educar a la población mexicana en una nueva cultura que incrementa el interés por la salud y que prioriza la prevención sobre la curación.


    Fuente: http://rotativo.com.mx/?module=displaystory&story_id=6666&format=print



    Is Breast Thermography Safe?

    Breast thermography is very safe. There is no exposure to radiation or any compression of the breast tissue.

    Es la Termografía segura?

    La termografía de seno es muy segura. No hay exposición a radiaciones ó ningún tipo de compresión del tejido mamario.


    How is Breast Thermography different from a Mammogram?


    Both tests are looking for completely different signs of breast cancer. Thermography looks for changes that occur as a growing cancer alters the blood supply of the breast and changes the physiology and chemical environment of the tissue of the breast. Mammograms look for changes to the density of the breast that indicates the presence of a tumor. Mammography identifies the physical. The medical literature views both procedures as complimentary to each other.


    http://www.creativewellnesscenter.com/thermographyinfo.html



    Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:3312-4.

    González FJ.Infrared imager requirements for breast cancer detection.

    PMID: 18002704

    Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2006;52(1):35-9; discussion 39-40.

    Mikulska D.Contemporary applications of infrared imaging in medical diagnostics

    PMID 17131845

    Surg Technol Int. 2005;14:51-6.Agnese DM.Advances in breast imaging.

    PMID: 16525954

              La Soya: Realmente Saludable o No?        

    La Soya bajo la Lupa


    A la luz de artículos científicos y otros artículos sobre los efectos de las isoflavonas y estudios realizados en lactantes y niños, hay opiniones encontradas sobre el uso de la soya y la leche de soya como alimento dentro de la dieta y sus beneficios.


    Es importante conocerlos, analizarlos y estar muy bien informado para tomar las decisiones correctas sobre la inclusión o no de estos alimentos a nuestra dieta.


    Artículo: Fórmulas Infantiles a Base de Soja: hay motivos para preocuparse


    Documento Informativo de la Comisión de Alimentos del Reino Unido.

    Autores: Sue Dibb y Dr Mike Fitzpatrick. Abril de 1999.


    ¿Puede la soja causar trastornos de la glándula tiroides en los seres humanos?


    Se ha demostrado que la soya afecta las funciones de la glándula tiroides en los seres humanos.


    Un estudio realizado por investigadores japoneses concluyó que la ingestión de una cantidad moderada de soja por parte de pacientes adultos podía causar el agrandamiento de la glándula tiroides y suprimir la función de ésta.


    Estos investigadores estudiaron los efectos al suministrar 30 gr diarios de soja en encurtido sobre la función de la glándula tiroides.

    Durante la investigación, se informó que la ingestión de iodo (en algas marinas) fue normal en todos los pacientes. Los investigadores observaron un aumento significativo en los niveles de TSH en un grupo de 20 adultos alimentados con soja durante 1 mes (grupo I) y en un grupo de 17 adultos alimentados con soja durante 3 meses (grupo 2).


    Nota: un aumento de la TSH, puede deberse a un desbalance en las hormonas tiroideas (mientras más alta la TSH, más posibilidad de sufrir de Hipotiroidismo).


    En dos de los pacientes, los niveles de TSH aumentaron dramáticamente, de aproximadamente 1 micro-U/mL hasta 6.5 o 7.5 micro-U/mL. No se presentaron cambios significativos en los niveles de iodo inorgánico, T3 o T4 en ninguno de los grupos, pero hubo un aumento significativo en el F T3 y en el F T4 de los pacientes del grupo 2 después de dejar de consumir soja.


    Se apreció un bocio no bien definido e hipotiroidismo en tres de los pacientes del grupo 1 y en ocho de los pacientes del grupo 2.Los pacientes del grupo 2 también presentaron sintomas asociados con el hipotiroidismo: estreñimiento (53% de los pacientes), fatiga (53% de los pacientes) y letargo (41% de los pacientes). El bocio en los 11 pacientes era un bocio no bien definido que se encontraba entre los rangos 1 y 11 de agrandamiento. Uno de los pacientes del grupo 1 desarrolló tiroiditis subaguda. El tamaño del bocio se redujo en nueve de los pacientes después de 1 mes sin consumir soja pero persistió en dos de los pacientes. Se necesitaron 6 meses de tratamiento con T4 para que se redujera el tamaño del bocio en estos paclentes.


    El hipotiroidismo subclinico se define como la combinación de un TSH moderadamente elevado con un T4 libre normal, una condición que se esta volviendo común y que eventualmente puede evolucionar hacia un evidente hipotiroidismo, especialmente en aquellas personas con anticuerpos antitiroides.

    El hipotiroidismo subclinico se define como un estado asintomatico en el cual la reducción de la secreción de las hormonas de la tiroides se compensa mediante un aumento en la producción de TSH para mantener un status clinicamente eutiroideo.

    Esta condición es de la mayor importancia y su prevalencia parece estar aumentando.


    Factores de la dietas pueden jugar un papel importante en el desarrollo de esta condición. Una alta ingestión de un compuesto bociógeno puede aumentar la secreción de TSH y el aumento en esta secreción, está también relacionado con el creciente riesgo de cáncer en la tiroides.


    Vale la pena notar que en los Estados Unidos de América la frecuencia del mal funcionamiento de la tiroides en las personas menores de 45 años se ha duplicado desde 1985.


    La soja y el cáncer de mama

    Las personas que estén consumiendo soja o suplementos de isoflavona con la esperanza de reducir el riesgo de contraer cáncer deben pensarlo dos veces. Mientras los consumidores y los profesionales de la salud están siendo bombardeados con publicidad de la industria, que exalta las propiedades anticancerígenas de las isoflavonas de la soja, muchos investigadores del cáncer están diciendo justo lo opuesto; que el consumo de las isoflavonas de la soja puede aumentar el riesgo de contraer cáncer.


    Por ejemplo, las mujeres posmenopáusicas que consuman isoflavonas de la soja como Terapia de Reemplazo Hormonal (TRH) natural, tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar cáncer de mama.


    En 1996 el Doctor Nicholas Petrakis de la Universidad de California en San Francisco, informó que “el consumo prolongado de proteína aislada de soja tiene un efecto estimulante en los senos de las mujeres premenopáusicas, caracterizado por un aumento en la secreción de los fluidos del pecho, la aparición de células epiteliales hiperfísticas y niveles elevados de estradiol.


    Estos hallazgos sugieren un estimulo estrógenico desde las isoflavonas genistein y la daidzein contenidas en el aislado de la proteína de soja”.


    El doctor Craig Dees del Laboratorio Nacional de Oak Ridge ha encontrado que las isoflavonas de la soja hacen que se reproduzcan las células cancerosas del pecho. Informó que: “bajas concentraciones de genistein pueden estimular a que las células MC-7 entren en el ciclo celular”. El Dr. Dees concluyó “que las mujeres no deben consumir ciertos alimentos (por ejemplo productos derivados de la soja) para prevenir el cáncer de mama”.


    El Doctor William Helferich de la Universidad de Illinois apoya la tesis de tomar precauciones acerca del consumo de soja para prevenir el cáncer de mama.Recientemente declaró que; “existe la probabilidad de que el genistein en la dieta estimule el crecimiento de tumores dependientes del estrógeno en los humanos con bajos niveles de estrógeno endógeno circulando, tales como los encontrados en las mujeres que posmenopáusicas” .


    ¿Cuánta soja se puede consumir sin riesgo?

    Las observaciones realizadas por el estudio de la Clínica de Tiroides Ishizuki indican efectos bociógenicos importantes en pacientes alimentados con 30 gr de soja al día. Basándonos en las concentraciones de isoflavonas encontradas en la soja japonesa (38), 30 gr de soja pueden contribuir hasta con un total de 23 mg del genistein y 10 mg del daidzein.


    Para un adulto que pese 70 kg. esto sería igual a la ingestión de 0.33 mg/kg de peso corporal de genistein y 0.14 mg/kg de peso corporal de daidzein por día.

    Esta cantidad de consumo de isoflavona es aproximadamente TRES VECES más alta que la cantidad consumida en el Japón, la cual es de 0.08 a 0.13 mg/kg de peso corporal del genistein total por día para un adulto que pese 70 kgs. Para los lactantes alimentados con fórmulas a base de soja, la exposición a las isoflavonas es mucho mayor que la de cualquier otro grupo de la población.


    Los lactantes menores de 6 meses que sean alimentados iniciamente con fórmulas de soja tienen una ingestión de hasta 5.4 mg/kg de peso corporal de genistein y 2.3 mg/kg de peso corporal de daidzein por día. Por esta razón, los lactantes alimentados con fórmulas de soja estan expuestos a niveles aproximadamente 16 veces mas altos de isoflavonas que los pacientes del estudio Ishizuki.

    Las concentraciones de isoflavonas encontradas en productos disponibles en Nueva Zelandia indican que una dieta de 500 g de leche de soja más 200 g de queso de soja por día, podría dar como resultado la ingestión de hasta un total de 135 mg de genistein y de 80 g de daidzein. Para un adulto que pese 70 kg., esto equivale a la ingestión de 1.9 mg/kg de peso corporal de genistein y de 1.1 mg/kg de peso corporal de daidzein por día.


    Este grado de exposición a las isoflavonas es más de cinco veces la exposición de los pacientes en la investigación de Ishizuki y otros.

    Los usuarios de los suplementos de isoflavona pueden consumir hasta 40 mg de genistein por día. Para un adulto que pese 70 kg. esto es equivalente a 0.57 mg/kg de peso corporal de genistein por día lo cual es 1.7 veces más que la cantidad que se ha comprobado que causa efectos bociógenicos. Por lo tanto los lactantes alimentados con fórmulas de soja, los consumidores de grandes cantidades de soja y los usuarios de suplementos de isoflavona pueden presentar los sintomas de hipotiroidismo sin sospechar una conexión con la dieta.


    Desafortunadamente existen pocos datos acerca de qué constituye un nivel apropiado de ingestión de soja, aunque parece ser que los consumidores en los paises occidentales ahora pueden estar consumiendo mayores cantidades de soja que la consumida como parte de una dieta tradicional asiatica.


    Los consumidores de soja deben ser cautelosos y no exceder el consumo de más de 40 g de isoflavonas de soja por día. Se han observado desordenes de la tiroides y otros efectos biológicos en dosis iguales o por encima de este nivel.


    Aproximadamente, se pueden encontrar 40 mg de isoflavonas en: Poroto de soja y harina de soja 12-25 g (0.4-0.9 oz) Soja molida 20 g (0.7 oz) Queso de soja (tofu) 70-130 g (2.5-4.6 oz) Leche de soja 200-300 g (7.1-10.6 oz) Brotes de soja 100 g (3.5 oz) ¿Por qué no se difunde esta información? La gente tiene el derecho a saber exactamente qué está comiendo y como está alimentando a sus hijos. ¿,Por qué las agencias gubernamentales se resisten informar al público?


    En junio de 1998, el Doctor Mike Fitzpatrick se reunió con el personal del DHS de California para expresar su preocupación acerca de la soja y en particular las fórmulas a base de soja. Recibió una respuesta por escrito de la toxicóloga del DHS, Doctora Susan Loscutoff, quien aflrmó:

    “Estoy de acuerdo en que los altos niveles de isoflavinas en las fórmulas para alimentar a los lactantes son motivo de preocupación.” “No estoy de acuerdo en que los padres tengan el derecho a saber que las fórmulas a base de soja contienen isoflavonas y la clase de toxicidad que las isoflavonas puedan causar en los lactantes, ya que los padres no sabrian como interpretar esa información.”

    Esta es la tipica respuesta de las agencias que temen represalias de las industrias de la soja si llegaran a alertar al público acerca de los peligros potenciales para la salud con relación a las isoflavonas de la soja.Qué puedo hacer? Envíe esta información a los profesionales de la salud y a sus amigos. Escríbale al Departamento de Salud Estatal solicitando información acerca de los riesgos asociados con el consumo de isoflavonas http://nomecomas.blogia.com/2007/052401-la-soya-bajo-la-lupa.php


    SOYA INFANT FORMULA: THE HEALTH CONCERNS

    File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Dr Mike Fitzpatrick & Sue Dibb. ADDENDUM: APRIL 1999. What about the traditional use of use soy in infant feeding? Soy was not used in infant feeding in ...

    www.soyonlineservice.co.nz/downloads/brief3.pdf


    J Nutr. 2008 Jun;138(6):1244S-9S.

    Health effects of soy protein and isoflavones in humans.Xiao CW


    ....."Some studies have documented potential safety concerns on increased consumption of soy products. Impacts of soy products on thyroid and reproductive functions as well as on certain types of carcinogenesis require further study in this context. Overall, existing data are inconsistent or inadequate in supporting most of the suggested health benefits of consuming soy protein or ISF."

    PMID: 18492864


    Brain Res Rev. 2008 Mar;57(2):376-85. Epub 2007 Sep 19.

    Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of embryonic exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in birds.


    Ottinger MA, Lavoie E, Thompson N, Barton A, Whitehouse K, Barton M, Abdelnabi M, Quinn M Jr, Panzica G, Viglietti-Panzica C.


    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exert hormone-like activity in vertebrates and exposure to these compounds may induce both short- and long-term deleterious effects including functional alterations that contribute to decreased reproduction and fitness....The EDCs examined included estradiol, androgen active compounds," soy phytoestrogens ", and atrazine. PMID: 18006066


    J Neurol Sci. 2007 Nov 15;262(1-2):15-26. Epub 2007 Jul 24.

    Autism: transient in utero hypothyroxinemia related to maternal flavonoid ingestion during pregnancy and to other environmental antithyroid agents.

    Román GC.


    The incidence and prevalence of autism have increased during the past two decades. Despite comprehensive genetic studies the cause of autism remains unknown. This review emphasizes the potential importance of environmental factors in its causation. PMID: 17651757


    J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2006 Jun;52(3):174-82.

    Effects of genistein, an isoflavone, on pregnancy outcome and organ weights of pregnant and lactating rats and development of their suckling pups.


    Tousen Y, Umeki M, Nakashima Y, Ishimi Y, Ikegami S

    ....."while we observed that the serum concentration of triiodothyronine (T3) in dams decreased, the result was a tendency, not a significant decrease. Our study suggested that maternal ingestion of genistein might have not induced serious adverse effects on dams, fetuses, infants or offspring during growth. However, the results indicated in many papers suggest the necessity of further study on the safety of genistein."PMID: 16967761


    Drug Saf. 2001;24(9):665-82.

    Risks and benefits of soy phytoestrogens in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, climacteric symptoms and osteoporosis.

    Sirtori CR..

    ........Disturbing data have been reported on potential negative effects of soy isoflavones on cognitive function in the aged, particularly relating to tofu intake. Recent studies have finally indicated a potential role for soy isoflavones in inducing chromosomal changes in cells exposed in vitro and potentiating chemical carcinogens. These findings may not, however, be extrapolated to clinical conditions. Available data do not appear to unequivocally support beneficial effects of soy isoflavones, and warn against their wide use, in the absence of satisfactory clinical findings.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11522120?dopt=Abstract



    Circulation. 2006 Feb 21;113(7):1034-44. Epub 2006 Jan 17.

    Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: an American Heart Association Science Advisory for professionals from the Nutrition Committee.


    Sacks FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn L, Harris W, Kris-Etherton P, Winston M; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee.

    ......The efficacy and safety of soy isoflavones for preventing or treating cancer of the breast, endometrium, and prostate are not established; evidence from clinical trials is meager and cautionary with regard to a possible adverse effect. For this reason, use of isoflavone supplements in food or pills is not recommended...

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16418439?dopt=Abstract


    Aún no hay consenso acerca de los beneficios del consumo de la soya y sus productos. Hay muchas variables en juego. Puede que la soya sea beneficiosa para ciertas subpoblaciones y nocivas para otras. Esto queda aún por determinarse.El consejo es moderación en la ingesta para aquellas personas que actualmente la consumen. Yo particularmente, no la consumo, en ninguna de sus formas, sea aceite, leche, tofu, lo que sea. Pero esa es mi decisión personal. Lo importante es tener el conocimiento de lo que científicamente se dice actualmente, para posteriormente poder hacer una elección informada.

              La conexión entre nuestra alimentación y el cáncer de seno.        

    La conexión entre nuestra alimentación, las grasas y el cáncer de seno.


    El cáncer y las grasas alimentarias Los primeros estudios demostraron claramente que los ratones y las ratas que se habían alimentado con dietas ricas en grasas eran mucho más propensos al cáncer de piel y de mama que los animales alimentados con dietas de bajo contenido de grasas (Tannenbaum y Silverstone, 1953; Tannenbaum, 1959).


    No se prestó mucha atención a estos estudios hasta que los datos epidemiológicos demostraron que la incidencia de determinados tipos de cáncer era mucho mayor en los países con alimentación rica en grasas que en aquéllos con alimentación de bajo contenido de grasas (Carroll, 1975; Carroll y Khor, 1975).


    A partir de entonces, muchos datos experimentales han mostrado que alimentando a las ratas o ratones con alimentos ricos en grasas aumenta la propensión al cáncer de mama, piel, colon, páncreas y próstata.


    En estos estudios se utilizaron varios carcinógenos para inducir cáncer o, en algunos casos, tumores espontáneos.


    Muchas de las pruebas que relacionan la alimentación con el cáncer se han presentado y debatido en trabajos recientes.


    Grasas alimentarias y cáncer mamario y de colon.

    Datos epidemiológicos.

    El cáncer mamario y el de colon abarcan una gran proporción del total de cánceres de las poblaciones occidentales.

    En ambos se observa una fuerte correlación positiva con el consumo de grasas en los estudios comparativos entre países.

    Los estudios de las tendencias a largo tiempo y de las migraciones concuerdan con estos modelos. Sin embargo, en el Japón, al aumentar el consumo de grasas el cáncer de colon ha aumentado más rápidamente que el cáncer mamario.


    Experimentos con animales Los estudios realizados con animales de experimentación han mostrado de forma bastante coherente que los regímenes alimentarios ricos en grasas elevan la incidencia y la producción de los cánceres de mama y de colon (National Research Council, 1982, 1989; Welsch, 1992).

    El efecto parece encontrarse en primer lugar en el estado de favorecimiento de la carcinogénesis (Carroll, 1975), aunque puede influir en cierto grado en la iniciación (Rogers y Lee, 1986). Se tiene cada vez más datos de que las dietas ricas en fibra, frutas y verduras reducen el riesgo de cáncer en los seres humanos (National Research Council, 1982, 1989; Ziegler, 1989; Block, Patterson y Subar, 1992; Sandler et al., 1993; Hunter et al., 1993).


    http://www.fao.org/docrep/v4700s/v4700s0f.htm


    Las mujeres que después de la menopausia coman alimentos derivados de las plantas, reducirán el riesgo de padecer cáncer de mama, según un nuevo estudio científico.


    Dice la doctora Francoise Clavel-Chapelon “Cumplir con las guías alimentarias generales para tener una dieta saludable y equilibrada, es decir, con grandes cantidades y variedades de frutas, vegetales y cereales integrales a diario (todos esos alimentos son ricos en lignanos), ayudaría a prevenir el cáncer de pecho en las mujeres posmenopáusicas”.


    El Instituto Nacional de salud e Investigación Médica en Villejuif, Francia, dirigido por Clavel-Chapelon, hizo una evaluación teniendo en cuenta la cantidad de alimentos de este tipo consumidos por 58.049 mujeres en diferentes proporciones, y los resultados fueron positivos.


    El estudio arrojó que se redujo el riesgo de contraer cáncer mamario en el 17 % de las mujeres, comparadas con las que menos frutas, vegetales y cereales consumieron durante un período de 7.7 años.

    Esto demuestra que el consumo controlado de alimentos, puede ser tomado como un modo de prevención para las mujeres, ante el cáncer de mama.

    http://www.nutricion.pro/24-03-2007/noticias/alimentos-vegetales-previenen-el-cancer



              Â¿Qué es la Medicina Osteopática? ¿Qué quiere decir Doctor en Osteopatía?        

    Un médico ó doctor en medicina osteopática (O.D., por sus siglas en inglés) es un médico licenciado para llevar a cabo cirugías y prescribir medicamentos.


    Al igual que un médico o doctor en medicina, un médico osteópata estudia 4 años en la facultad de medicina y puede escoger la práctica en cualquier especialidad de la medicina.


    Sin embargo, los médicos osteopáticos reciben de 300 a 500 horas adicionales en el estudio práctico de la medicina manual y del sistema musculoesquelético del cuerpo.


    La medicina osteopática está dedicada al tratamiento y cura del paciente como un todo, en vez de concentrarse en un sistema o en una parte del cuerpo.


    Un médico osteopático con frecuencia utiliza un método de tratamiento llamado manipulación: enfoque de tratamiento con las manos para asegurarse de que el cuerpo se mueve libremente. Este movimiento libre asegura que todos los sistemas naturales de curación del cuerpo estén libres para trabajar sin estorbos.


    Los médicos osteópatas se apoyan en el principio de que los antecedentes de la enfermedad y del trauma físico del paciente están escritos en la estructura del cuerpo. El altamente desarrollado sentido del tacto de los médicos osteopáticos les permite palpar (sentir) la "anatomía viva" del paciente (el flujo de los líquidos, el movimiento y textura de los tejidos y la estructura corporal).


    El trabajo del médico osteópata es "acomodar" el cuerpo para que se cure a sí mismo. Para hacer esto, el médico aplica suavemente una cantidad precisa de fuerza para estimular un movimiento saludable de los tejidos, eliminar movimientos anormales y liberar huesos y articulaciones comprimidas.

    Además, las áreas que están siendo tratadas requieren la postura correcta para ayudar a la habilidad del cuerpo a retomar la función normal del tejido. Este proceso se llama medicina manual osteopática (MMO) o tratamiento manipulativo osteopático (TMO) .


    A lo largo de los años, se ha disminuido la brecha que existía entre la medicina "convencional" y la medicina osteopática, a medida que los médicos han adoptado muchos de los principios de la medicina osteopática (como el reconocimiento del impacto del estrés en el sistema inmunitario o de la postura en diversos aparatos del cuerpo).


    Además, los médicos osteópatas han incorporado las técnicas de diagnóstico y tratamiento comunes en la medicina convencional. Los doctores en medicina osteopática se pueden encontrar en casi todos los centros de salud desde clínicas comunitarias y consultorios privados hasta centros médicos académicos. Al igual que los médicos convencionales, los médicos osteópatas tienen licencia a nivel del estado. Los médicos osteópatas que se quieren especializar pueden recibir un "certificado de especialidad" (casi de la misma manera que los médicos convencionales) completando de 2 a 6 años de residencia dentro del área de especialización y aprobando los exámenes de su especialidad.


    http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/spanish/ency/article/002020.htm


    Nota: un médico osteópata está autorizado a recetar medicamentos y realizar cirugías en los Estados Unidos. En otros países, pueden existir profesionales denominados "osteópatas", los cuales son especialistas en el área pero no autorizados a recetar medicamentos ó realizar cirugías.


    • El tratamiento de manipulación osteopática (OMT,por sus siglas en inglés) se incluye en la capacitacióny práctica de los médicos osteopáticos.

    Con OMT, los D.O.s utilizan sus manos para diagnosticarenfermedades y lesiones y tambien para incentivar las tendencias naturales del su cuerpo hacia la buena salud. Al combinar todas las demás opciones disponibles, los D.Os le ofrecen a sus pacientes una atención más integral que la que actualmente existe.Fuente: www.osteopathic.org/pdf/QueEsDO.pdf


              South Plain        




    Character Level: 20
    Profession Level: 19
    Achievement: Grand Peco and Title Freak


    Map Location:
    --------------------------
    South Plain

    Quest List:
    --------------------
    To the South Plains
    Distress of the Guards (1)
    Distress of the Guards (2) - [Reward: 5 Blue Potion (II)]
    Too Sleepy
    Eye Bandage Ingredients (1)
    Eye Bandage Ingredients (2)
    Eye Bandage Ingredients (3) - [Reward: 3 Purple Potion (II)]
    Guard Name Tag
    The Almost Full Monty
    Poporing Domination (1)
    Poporing Domination (2)
    Eyes Wide Open - [Reward: Bear Embroidery II]
    Bouquet Material (1)
    Bouquet Material (2)
    Bouquet Material (3) - [Reward: 5 Red Potion (II)]
    Rackuf Ambuh
    Something Fishy - [Reward: 5 Red Potion (II)]
    MIners Out of Contact
    Rackuf Crisis
    Friendly Rackuf - [Reward: Refining Whestone II or Magic Oil II]
    Missing Miner - [Reward: Knightage Sword]
    Protect the Mines
    Medicine for the Miner
    Send My Regards
    News of the Miners
    Talking Afanc
    Help Us!
    The Old and Troubled
    Eva Holgren's Doctor - [Reward: 5 Blue Potion (II)]
    Dentures Delivery
    Get Lost!
    Carrot Reaper
    Request: Outlaw of the Carrot Field
    Request: Main Culprit of Ecosystem Destruction
    Request: To Train the Pecos
    Secret of the Holgrens (1)
    Secret of the Holgrens (2)
    Secret of the Holgrens (3) - [Reward: Knightage Mail]
    Eva's Apology
    Power of Attorney
    Tein's Wrath Exploded
    Biologist of the South Plains
    Jamie's Father
    Overflow of Rabongs
    Rabong Evolution - [Reward: Tiger Embroidery II or Dragon Embroidery II]
    Feint Operations - [Reward: Knightage Gauntlets]
    What Joy Likes - [Reward: Joy's Milk]
    I Need Milk - [Reward: 5 Red Potion (II)]
    Fried Frog Hindleg
    Poisonous Rodafrogs
    Gone with the Wind
    The Amazing Breeder - [Reward: Tiger embroidery II or Dragon Embroidery II]
    Follow the Lead (1)
    Follow the Lead (2) - [Reward: Refining Whetstone II or Magic Oil II]
    Dr. Jacob's Research (1)
    Dr. Jacob's Research (2)
    Dr. Jacob's Research (3)
    [Dungeon] Leader of the Rackufs - [Reward: Defender's Mail]
    [Dungeon] Spider in a Cave - [Reward: Defender's Gauntlets]
    Rock Embedded Leather
    Shining Mane
    Test for One
    Afanc Mask
    Afanc Elites
    Leader of the Afanc - [Reward: Refining Whestone II or Magic Oil II]
    Strange Mushroom
    God News for my Daughter
    Raising PecoPeco
    Fascinating Worm
    Difficulties of Being a Homewatcher
    Nimble Peco - [Reward: Knightage Boots]
    Finding Jacob (1)
    Finding Jacob (2)
    legendary pecoracer - [Reward: Wind Elixir and Gas Mask]
    Worm Delivery
    To Izrude Town~

    Quest Starter Items Found:
    ------------------------------------------------
    The General Poporing - [Reward: Wind Elixir]

    Items Found:
    ------------------------
    Split Piece 1 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - Rapper Poporing, Bully Poporing, Red Plain Flip, Breez Flip, Plunder Rackuf, Blue Rackuf Baby, Blue Rackuf, Horn Blue Rackuf, Rabong Bebe, Rabong, Rodafrogu, Afanc Laborer
    Split Piece 2 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - Poporing, Red Plain Flip, Plunder Rackuf, Glutton Fabre, Green Peco Peco Baby, Pecoracer
    Split Piece 3 [Bring to Irmumoa Aro2] - Red Plain Flip

    Materials Items:
    Earthly Trace (I) - Plunder Rackuf, Horn Blue Rackuf, Rabong Bebe
    Firmament Essence (I) - Poporing, Rabong, Rodafrog
    Root of Life (I) - Plain Flip, Glutton Fabre, Wormtail, Pecoracer, Crimson Lightning
    Spirit of Ruin (I) - Red Plain Flip, Rabong Bebe, Rabong, Pecoracer
    Monster Fragment (I) - Red Plain Flip, Afanc Stormer, Pecoracer, Plunder Rackuf

    Other Items:
    Bat Fang - Furious Familiar
    Broken Front Tooth - Afanc Stormer, Afanc Worker, Afanc Chemical Soldier, Afanc Laborer
    Creamy Petal - Red Plain Flip, Plain Flip, Breez Flip
    Pecopeco Feather - Peco Peco, Green Peco Peco Baby, Green Peco Peco, Pecoracer, Legendary Pecoracer
    Rabong Leg - Rabong Bebe, Rabong
    Scaled Stem - Wormtail, Whirlwormtail, Sunflow Wormtail
    Sticky Jellopy - Poporing, Rapper Poporing, Bully Poporing
    Sticky Webbed Feet - Rodafrog, Rodafrogu, Lady Rodafrog, Long Tounge Rodfrog
    Stinky Hood - Suspicious Herb Digger
    Stony Mane Fur - Plunder Rackuf, Blue Rackuf Baby, Blue Rackuf, Horn Blue Rackuf, Brown Rackuf Baby

    Bags Found:
    -----------------------
    Small Bag - Blue Rackuf
    Medium Bag - Blue Rackuf, Brown Rackuf Baby, Pecoracer

    Food and Drinks Found:
    -------------------------------------------
    Instant Boiled Rackuf - Huge Eyes
    Instant Fried Peco - Horn Blue Rackuf, Rabong Bebe, Rabong, Brown Rackuf Baby, Wormtail
    Instant Green Herb Salad - Poporing, Red Plain Flip, Plunder Rackuf, Afanc Laborer
    Instant Rackuf Bulgogi - Brown Rackuf
    Instant Rackuf Topped Rice - Plunder Rackuf
    Instant Refreshing Green Tea - Plunder Rackuf, Blue Rackuf Baby, Afanc Laborer, Peco Peco

    Potions Found:
    ---------------------------
    Red Potion (II) - Poporing, Whirlwormtail, Red Plain Flip, Brown Rackuf Baby
    Blue Potion (II) - Rapper Poporing, Plain Flip, Breez Flip, Horn Blue Rackuf, Rabong, Wormtail, Afanc Stormer, Afanc Laborer, Furious Familiar
    Purple Potion (II) - Red Plain Flip, Horn Blue Rackuf, Afanc Laborer
    Dexterity Boost Potion (II) - Pecoracer
    Strenght Potion (II) - Rabong

    Cards Found:
    -------------------------
    Afanc
    Brown Rackuf x2
    Green Peco Peco x2
    Peco Peco x2
    Poporing
    Rodafrog

    Weapons and Armors Found:
    ----------------------------------------------------
    Ambush Boots - Rodafrog
    Beast Gauntlets - Rabong bebe
    Forest Brograns - Plunder Rackuf
    Mountain Armor - Plunder Rackuf
    Swarm Dagger - Sunflow Wormtail

    Khara Quest:
    ------------------------
    Outlaw of the Southern Plain - [Reward: Title - Southern Hunter]
    Guy in the Southern Plain
    Wind in the Plain
    Kiss Expert
    Surprise Attack of Afanc
    A Lonely Brown Horn
    Communication with the Guardian
    Vitamin on Pekopeko
    Chasing After the Racope - [Reward: Title - Rackuf Hunter]
    Combat Level A Acheived (2) - [Reward: Title - Apprentice]
    Showoff! - [Reward: Title - Title Freak]
    (Rare:D) Grand Peco (Party Recommended) - [Reward: Title - Peco Hunter]
    Chicken Soup with Rice
    Reaching Profession Level 20 - [Reward: Title - Expert Crafter]
    [Dungeon] Dominator of Wolve Cave - [Reward: Title - Wolf Killer]
    [Dungeon] True Adventurer of the Wolf Cave is Moi!
    [Dungeon] Red Scar Story - [Reward: Title - Crimson Hunter]

    Others:
    -------------
    Small Copper Ore
    Medium Copper Ore
    Large Copper Ore

    Blacksmithing:
    --------------------------
    Rugged Mountain Gaiters


              About Jackie Robinson        

    Who was Jackie Robinson?

     

    Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was the first black Major League Baseball. Robinson broke the baseball color barrier when he signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. As the first black man to play in the major leagues, (aside from the 1880s, before the MLB was organized) he is most known for bringing social justice to baseball, which had seperate leagues for blacks (the Negro leagues) and whites for six decades. His character and skills are what helped him challenge the traditional basis of segregation, which was prevalent in all areas of American Life, and was a catalyst to the Civil Rights Movement. Robinson was not just any other baseball player, he strived for success and achieved it, as he helped the Dodgers get to six World Series' and win it all in 1955. He was Rookie of the Year in 1947, MVP in 1949 and a six time All-Star from 1949-1954. He was then inducted to the Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown in 1962 followed by all of MLB retiring the Jackie Robinson Jersey: number 42, in 1997, an honor reserved solely to Robinson. 

    Pre Baseball Life

    Jackie was born on January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia, to a family of farmers during a Spanish flu and smallpox epidemic. He was the youngest of five children, after his brothers Edgar, Frank, Matthew, and Willa Mae. He was named "Roosevelt" as a middle name, in honor of former President Theodore Roosevelt, who died earier that month. The Robinson's moved to 121 Pepper Street in Pasadena, California after their father left them in 1920. Their mother worked various jobs to support them as they grew up in relative poverty even though Pasadena was considered an affluent place. They attended Washington Junior High School followed by Muir Tech High School. The Robinsons were superb athletes. Matthew was a silver medalist in the 1936 Olympics and he and Frank inspired Jackie to seriously pursue a career in sports. Jackie played on the Muir Tech football team as quarterback, basketball team as a guard, track team as a jumper, tennis team and baseball team as both a catcher and shortstop. In 1936, he won a Tennis Tournament and played in the Pomona baseball tournament all star team with fellow future Hall of Famers Ted Williams and Bob Lemon. 

    After High School, Jackie went on to Pasadena Junior College where he continued his involvement in sports. He also was elected to the Lancers, a local organization responsible for helping patrol school activities. In 1938, Jackie joined the All-Southland Junior College baseball team and was selected as that years MVP. He also received honors for his outstanding community service, even though he sometimes acted against those around him who seemed racist. While playing football for PJC, Jackie broke his ankle. A few days before Jackie's 19th birthday he was arrested for vocally disputing the arrest of a black friend of his. He quickly earned a reputation for being one who won't shy away from beligerrance in the face of racism.

    After graduating from PJC, Jackie's brother, Frank, was killed in a motorcycle accident which helped Jackie make a decision to move to L.A. where he could console Frank's family. Jackie decided to attend UCLA where he met is future wife, Rachel Isum, and won varsity letters in all the major sports. He won the 1940 NCAA Mens Outdoor Track and Field Championship in the Long Jump,jumping a whopping 24 Feet 10.5 Inches. Ironically, in that year, robinson batted .097 for the UCLA baseball squad. In 1941, he took a job with the NYA as an assistant athletic director, as it would have been impossible for him to get a job as a proffesional athlete due to the color barrier. Later that year he traveled to Hawaii where he had an opportunity to play for the racially mixed semi-pro Honolulu Bears' football team. After that season he would move back to L.A. to play for a local football team, not realizing that the US involvement in World War 2 would sidetrack him for a little while and end his short football career.

    Robinson was drafted to the Army in 1942 and was stationed in Fort Riley, Kansas. Throughout his 3 plus years in the Army, he was always treated as a subordinate by the White controlled military. He still managed to become a second lieutenant in 1943, and joined the Black Panthers Tank Battallion, the first Black tank unit to see combat in WWII. However, jackie was never in combat. After getting engaged to his College sweetheart, Rachel, he was sidelined after injuring the same ankle he hurt back in high school. He would finish his army service as a coach for army athletes until 1944 when he was discharged. While in the Army, Robinson made close ties with boxer, Joe Louis, as they helped each other struggle in the white dominated Army.

    In early 1945, after working some part time coaching jobs, Jackie received an offer from the Kansas City Monarchs to Play professional Baseball in the Negro Leagues. He signed a contract worth $400 a month as he played for the Monarchs for 1 Season. He played 47 games at shortstop batting .387. The Negro leagues were'nt for Jackie as he didn't like their unorganized style. Luckily he received a secret offer from the GM of the Brooklyn Dodgers, Branch Rickey, to come to NY and play for their Minor League team. They offered him $600 a month on the condition that he would be able to take abuse from other players for being the only black, but contain himself from fighting back. Jackie accepted, and immediately left the Monarchs for NYC where he would marry Rachel Isum, who was in NY studying to be a Nurse. Jackie would start with the Dodgers' AAA club in Daytona Beach, FL that next season.

    Baseball Career

    In 1946, Robinson arrived at Daytona Beach, Florida, for spring training with the Montreal Royals of the Class AAA International League (the designation of "AAA" for the highest level of minor league baseball was first used in the 1946 season). Robinson's presence was controversial in racially charged Florida. As he was not allowed to stay with his teammates at the team hotel, he lodged instead at the home of a local black politician. Since the Dodgers organization did not own a spring training facility (the Dodger-controlled spring training compound in Vero Beach known as "Dodgertown" did not open until spring 1948), scheduling was subject to the whim of area localities, several of which turned down any event involving Robinson or Johnny Wright, another black player whom Rickey had signed to the Dodgers' organization in January. In Sanford, Florida, the police chief threatened to cancel games if Robinson and Wright did not cease training activities there; as a result, Robinson was sent back to Daytona Beach. In Jacksonville, the stadium was padlocked shut without warning on game day, by order of the city's Parks and Public Property director. In DeLand, a scheduled day game was called off, ostensibly because of faulty electrical lighting.

    After much lobbying of local officials by Rickey himself, the Royals were allowed to host a game involving Robinson in Daytona Beach. Robinson made his Royals debut at Daytona Beach's City Island Ballpark on March 17, 1946, in an exhibition game against the team's parent club, the Dodgers. Robinson thus simultaneously became the first black player to openly play for a minor league team and against a major league team since the de facto baseball color line had been implemented in the 1880s. Later in spring training, after some less-than-stellar performances, Robinson was shifted from shortstop to second base, allowing him to make shorter throws to first base. Robinson's performance soon rebounded. On April 18, 1946, Roosevelt Stadium hosted the Jersey City Giants' season opener against the Montreal Royals, marking the professional debut of the Royals' Jackie Robinson. In his five trips to the plate, Robinson had four hits, including a three-run home run. He also scored four runs, drove in three, and stole two bases in the Royals' 14–1 victory. Robinson proceeded to lead the International League that season with a .349 batting average and .985 fielding percentage, and he was named the league's Most Valuable Player. Although he often faced hostility while on road trips (the Royals were forced to cancel a Southern exhibition tour, for example), the Montreal fan base enthusiastically supported Robinson. Whether fans supported or opposed it, Robinson's presence on the field was a boon to attendance; more than one million people went to games involving Robinson in 1946, an amazing figure by International League standards. In the fall of 1946, following the baseball season, Robinson returned home to California and briefly played professional basketball for the short-lived Los Angeles Red Devils.

    The following year, six days before the start of the 1947 season, the Dodgers called Robinson up to the major leagues. With Eddie Stanky entrenched at second base for the Dodgers, Robinson played his initial major league season as a first baseman. On April 15, 1947, Robinson made his major league debut at Ebbets Field before a crowd of 26,623 spectators, including more than 14,000 black patrons. Although he failed to get a base hit, the Dodgers won 5–3. Robinson became the first player since 1880 to openly break the major league baseball color line. Black fans began flocking to see the Dodgers when they came to town, abandoning their Negro league teams.

    Robinson's promotion met a generally positive, although mixed, reception among newspapers and white major league players. However, racial tension existed in the Dodger clubhouse. Some Dodger players insinuated they would sit out rather than play alongside Robinson. The brewing mutiny ended when Dodgers management took a stand for Robinson. Manager Leo Durocher informed the team, "I do not care if the guy is yellow or black, or if he has stripes like a fuckin' zebra. I'm the manager of this team, and I say he plays. What's more, I say he can make us all rich. And if any of you cannot use the money, I will see that you are all traded."

    Robinson was also derided by opposing teams. Some, notably the St. Louis Cardinals, threatened to strike if Robinson played. After the threat, National League President Ford Frick and Baseball Commissioner Happy Chandler let it be known that any striking players would be suspended. Robinson nonetheless became the target of rough physical play by opponents (particularly the Cardinals). At one time, he received a seven-inch gash in his leg. On April 22, 1947, during a game between the Dodgers and the Philadelphia Phillies, Phillies players called Robinson a "nigger" from their dugout and yelled that he should "go back to the cotton fields". Rickey later recalled that Phillies manager Ben Chapman "did more than anybody to unite the Dodgers. When he poured out that string of unconscionable abuse, he solidified and united thirty men."

    Robinson received significant encouragement from several major league players. Dodgers teammate Pee Wee Reese once came to Robinson's defense with the famous line, "You can hate a man for many reasons. Color is not one of them." In 1948, Reese put his arm around Robinson in response to fans who shouted racial slurs at Robinson before a game in Cincinnati. A statue by sculptor William Behrends, unveiled at KeySpan Park on November 1, 2005, commemorates this event by representing Reese with his arm around Robinson. Jewish baseball star Hank Greenberg, who had to deal with racial epithets during his career, also encouraged Robinson. After colliding with Robinson at first base on one occasion, Greenberg whispered a few words into Robinson's ear, which Robinson later characterized as "words of encouragement." Greenberg had advised him that the best way to combat the slurs from the opposing players was to beat them on the field.

    Robinson finished the season having played in 151 games for the Dodgers, with a batting average of .297, an on-base percentage of .383, and a .427 slugging percentage. He had 175 hits (scoring 125 runs) including 31 doubles, 5 triples, 12 home runs, driving in 48 runs for the year. Robinson led the league in sacrifice hits, with 28, and in stolen bases, with 29. His cumulative performance earned him the inaugural Major League Baseball Rookie of the Year Award (separate National and American League Rookie of the Year honors were not awarded until 1949).

    Following Stanky's trade to the Boston Braves in March 1948, Robinson took over second base, where he logged a .980 fielding percentage that year (second in the National League at the position, fractionally behind Stanky). Robinson had a batting average of .296 and 22 stolen bases for the season. In a 12–7 win against the St. Louis Cardinals on August 29, 1948, he hit for the cycle—a home run, a triple, a double, and a single in the same game. The Dodgers briefly moved into first place in the National League in late August 1948, but they ultimately finished third as the Braves went on to win the league title and lose to the Cleveland Indians in the World Series.

    Racial pressure on Robinson eased in 1948 as a number of other black players entered the major leagues. Larry Doby (who broke the color barrier in the American League on July 5, 1947) and Satchel Paige played for the Cleveland Indians, and the Dodgers had three other black players besides Robinson. In February 1948, he signed a $12,500 contract (equal to $120,914 today) with the Dodgers; while a significant amount, this was less than Robinson made in the off-season from a vaudeville tour, where he answered pre-set baseball questions, and a speaking tour of the South. Between the tours, he underwent surgery on his right ankle. Because of his off-season activities, Robinson reported to training camp 30 pounds (14 kg) overweight. He lost the weight during training camp, but dieting left him weak at the plate.

    In the spring of 1949, Robinson turned to Hall of Famer George Sisler, working as an advisor to the Dodgers, for batting help. At Sisler's suggestion, Robinson spent hours at a batting tee, learning to hit the ball to right field. Sisler taught Robinson to anticipate a fastball, on the theory that it is easier to subsequently adjust to a slower curveball. Robinson also noted that "Sisler showed me how to stop lunging, how to check my swing until the last fraction of a second". The tutelage helped Robinson raise his batting average from .296 in 1948 to .342 in 1949. In addition to his improved batting average, Robinson stole 37 bases that season, was second place in the league for both doubles and triples, and registered 124 runs batted in with 122 runs scored. For the performance Robinson earned the Most Valuable Player award for the National League. Baseball fans also voted Robinson as the starting second baseman for the 1949 All-Star Game—the first All-Star Game to include black players.

    That year, a song about Robinson by Buddy Johnson, "Did You See Jackie Robinson Hit That Ball?", reached number 13 on the charts; Count Basie recorded a famous version. Ultimately, the Dodgers won the National League pennant, but lost in five games to the New York Yankees in the 1949 World Series.

    Summer 1949 brought an unwanted distraction for Robinson. In July, he was called to testify before the United States House of Representatives' Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) concerning statements made that April by black athlete and actor Paul Robeson. Robinson was reluctant to testify, but he eventually agreed to do so, fearing it might negatively affect his career if he declined.

    In 1950, Robinson led the National League in double plays made by a second baseman with 133. His salary that year was the highest any Dodger had been paid to that point: $35,000 ($338,091 in 2012 dollars). He finished the year with 99 runs scored, a .328 batting average, and 12 stolen bases. The year saw the release of a film biography of Robinson's life, The Jackie Robinson Story, in which Robinson played himself, and actress Ruby Dee played Rachael "Rae" (Isum) Robinson. The project had been previously delayed when the film's producers refused to accede to demands of two Hollywood studios that the movie include scenes of Robinson being tutored in baseball by a white man. The New York Times wrote that Robinson, "doing that rare thing of playing himself in the picture's leading role, displays a calm assurance and composure that might be envied by many a Hollywood star."

    Robinson's Hollywood exploits, however, did not sit well with Dodgers co-owner Walter O'Malley, who referred to Robinson as "Rickey's prima donna". In late 1950, Rickey's contract as the Dodgers' team President expired. Weary of constant disagreements with O'Malley, and with no hope of being re-appointed as President of the Dodgers, Rickey cashed out his one-quarter financial interest in the team, leaving O'Malley in full control of the franchise. Rickey shortly thereafter became general manager of the Pittsburgh Pirates. Robinson was disappointed at the turn of events and wrote a sympathetic letter to Rickey, whom he considered a father figure, stating, "Regardless of what happens to me in the future, it all can be placed on what you have done and, believe me, I appreciate it."

    Before the 1951 season, O'Malley reportedly offered Robinson the job of manager of the Montreal Royals, effective at the end of Robinson's playing career. O'Malley was quoted in the Montreal Standard as saying, "Jackie told me that he would be both delighted and honored to tackle this managerial post"—although reports differed as to whether a position was ever formally offered.

    During the 1951 season, Robinson led the National League in double plays made by a second baseman for the second year in a row, with 137. He also kept the Dodgers in contention for the 1951 pennant. During the last game of the season, in the 13th inning, he had a hit to tie the game, and then won the game with a home run in the 14th. This forced a playoff against the New York Giants, which the Dodgers lost.

    Despite Robinson's regular-season heroics, the Dodgers lost the pennant on Bobby Thomson's famous home run, known as the Shot Heard 'Round the World, on October 3, 1951. Overcoming his dejection, Robinson dutifully observed Thomson's feet to ensure he touched all the bases. Dodgers sportscaster Vin Scully later noted that the incident showed "how much of a competitor Robinson was." He finished the season with 106 runs scored, a batting average of .335, and 25 stolen bases.

    Robinson had what was an average year for him in 1952. He finished the year with 104 runs, a .308 batting average, and 24 stolen bases. He did, however, record a career-high on-base percentage of .436. The Dodgers improved on their performance from the year before, winning the National League pennant before losing the 1952 World Series to the New York Yankees in seven games. That year, on the television show Youth Wants to Know, Robinson challenged the Yankees' general manager, George Weiss, on the racial record of his team, which had yet to sign a black player. Sportswriter Dick Young, whom Robinson had described as a "bigot", said, "If there was one flaw in Jackie, it was the common one. He believed that everything unpleasant that happened to him happened because of his blackness." The 1952 season was the last year Robinson was an everyday starter at second base. Afterward, Robinson played variously at first, second, and third bases, shortstop, and in the outfield, with Jim Gilliam, another black player, taking over everyday second base duties. Robinson's interests began to shift toward the prospect of managing a major league team. He had hoped to gain experience by managing in the Puerto Rican Winter League, but according to the New York Post, Commissioner Happy Chandler denied the request.

    In 1953, Robinson had 109 runs, a .329 batting average, and 17 steals, leading the Dodgers to another National League pennant (and another World Series loss to the Yankees, this time in six games). Robinson's continued success spawned a string of death threats. He was not dissuaded, however, from addressing racial issues publicly. That year, he served as editor for Our Sports magazine, a periodical focusing on Negro sports issues; contributions to the magazine included an article on golf course segregation by Robinson's old friend Joe Louis. Robinson also openly criticized segregated hotels and restaurants that served the Dodger organization; a number of these establishments integrated as a result, including the five-star Chase Park Hotel in St. Louis.

    In 1954, Robinson had 62 runs, a .311 batting average, and 7 steals. His best day at the plate was on June 17, when he hit two home runs and two doubles. The following autumn, Robinson won his only championship when the Dodgers beat the New York Yankees in the 1955 World Series. Although the team enjoyed ultimate success, 1955 was the worst year of Robinson's individual career. He hit .256 and stole only 12 bases. The Dodgers tried Robinson in the outfield and as a third baseman, both because of his diminishing abilities and because Gilliam was established at second base. Robinson, then 37 years old, missed 49 games and did not play in Game 7 of the World Series. Robinson missed the game because manager Walter Alston decided to play Gilliam at second and Don Hoak at third base. That season, the Dodgers' Don Newcombe became the first black major league pitcher to win twenty games in a year.

    In 1956, Robinson had 61 runs, a .275 batting average, and 12 steals. By then, he had begun to exhibit the effects of diabetes, and to lose interest in the prospect of playing or managing professional baseball. After the season, Robinson was traded by the Dodgers to the arch-rival New York Giants for Dick Littlefield and $35,000 cash (equal to $299,192 today). The trade, however, was never completed; unbeknownst to the Dodgers, Robinson had already agreed with the president of Chock full o'Nuts to quit baseball and become an executive with the company. Since Robinson had sold exclusive rights to any retirement story to Look magazine two years previously,[165&91; his retirement decision was revealed through the magazine, instead of through the Dodgers organization.

    Legacy

    Robinson's major league debut brought an end to approximately sixty years of segregation in professional baseball, known as the baseball color line. After World War II, several other forces were also leading the country toward increased equality for blacks, including their accelerated migration of to the North, where their political clout grew, and President Harry Truman's desegregation of the military in 1948. Robinson's breaking of the baseball color line and his professional success symbolized these broader changes and demonstrated that the fight for equality was more than simply a political matter. Martin Luther King, Jr. said that he was "a legend and a symbol in his own time", and that he "challenged the dark skies of intolerance and frustration." According to historian Doris Kearns Goodwin, Robinson's "efforts were a monumental step in the civil-rights revolution in America ... [His&91; accomplishments allowed black and white Americans to be more respectful and open to one another and more appreciative of everyone's abilities."

    Beginning his major league career at the relatively advanced age of twenty-eight, he played only ten seasons, all of them for the Brooklyn Dodgers. During his career, the Dodgers played in six World Series, and Robinson himself played in six All-Star Games. In 1999, he was posthumously named to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team.

    Robinson's career is generally considered to mark the beginning of the post–"long ball" era in baseball, in which a reliance on raw power-hitting gave way to balanced offensive strategies that used footspeed to create runs through aggressive baserunning. Robinson exhibited the combination of hitting ability and speed which exemplified the new era. He scored more than 100 runs in six of his ten seasons (averaging more than 110 runs from 1947 to 1953), had a .311 career batting average, a .409 career on-base percentage, a .474 slugging percentage, and substantially more walks than strikeouts (740 to 291). Robinson was one of only two players during the span of 1947–56 to accumulate at least 125 steals while registering a slugging percentage over .425 (Minnie Miñoso was the other). He accumulated 197 stolen bases in total, including 19 steals of home. None of the latter were double steals (in which a player stealing home is assisted by a player stealing another base at the same time). Robinson has been referred to by author David Falkner as "the father of modern base-stealing."

    "I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me ... all I ask is that you respect me as a human being." —Robinson, on his legacy

     

    Historical statistical analysis indicates Robinson was an outstanding fielder throughout his ten years in the major leagues and at virtually every position he played. After playing his rookie season at first base, Robinson spent most of his career as a second baseman. He led the league in fielding among second basemen in 1950 and 1951. Toward the end of his career, he played about 2,000 innings at third base and about 1,175 innings in the outfield, excelling at both.

    Assessing himself, Robinson said, "I'm not concerned with your liking or disliking me ... all I ask is that you respect me as a human being." Regarding Robinson's qualities on the field, Leo Durocher said, "Ya want a guy that comes to play. This guy didn't just come to play. He come to beat ya. He come to stuff the goddamn bat right up your ass."

    Post-baseball life

    Robinson as ABC sports announcer in 1965

    Robinson retired from baseball on January 5, 1957. Later that year, after he complained of numerous physical ailments, his doctors diagnosed Robinson with diabetes, a disease that also affected his brothers. Although Robinson adopted an insulin injection regimen, the state of medicine at the time could not prevent continued deterioration of Robinson's physical condition from the disease.

    In his first year of eligibility for the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962, Robinson encouraged voters to consider only his on-field qualifications, rather than his cultural impact on the game. He was elected on the first ballot, becoming the first black player inducted into the Cooperstown museum.

    In 1965, Robinson served as an analyst for ABC's Major League Baseball Game of the Week telecasts, the first black person to do so. In 1966, Robinson was hired as general manager for the short-lived Brooklyn Dodgers of the Continental Football League. In 1972, he served as a part-time commentator on Montreal Expos telecasts.

    On June 4, 1972, the Dodgers retired his uniform number, 42, alongside those of Roy Campanella (39) and Sandy Koufax (32). From 1957 to 1964, Robinson was the vice president for personnel at Chock full o'Nuts; he was the first black person to serve as vice president of a major American corporation. Robinson always considered his business career as advancing the cause of black people in commerce and industry. Robinson also chaired the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) million-dollar Freedom Fund Drive in 1957, and served on the organization's board until 1967. In 1964, he helped found, with Harlem businessman Dunbar McLaurin, Freedom National Bank—a black-owned and operated commercial bank based in Harlem. He also served as the bank's first Chairman of the Board. In 1970, Robinson established the Jackie Robinson Construction Company to build housing for low-income families.

    Robinson was active in politics throughout his post-baseball life. He identified himself as a political independent although he held conservative opinions on several issues, including the Vietnam War (he once wrote Martin Luther King, Jr. to defend the Johnson Administration's military policy). After supporting Richard Nixon in his 1960 presidential race against John F. Kennedy, Robinson later praised Kennedy effusively for his stance on civil rights. Robinson was angered by conservative Republican opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. He became one of six national directors for Nelson Rockefeller's unsuccessful campaign to be nominated as the Republican candidate for the 1964 presidential election. After the party nominated Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona instead, Robinson left the party's convention commenting that he now had "a better understanding of how it must have felt to be a Jew in Hitler's Germany". He later became special assistant for community affairs when Rockefeller was re-elected governor of New York in 1966. Switching his allegiance to the Democrats, he subsequently supported Hubert Humphrey against Nixon in 1968.

    Protesting the major leagues' ongoing lack of minority managers and central office personnel, Robinson turned down an invitation to appear in an old-timers' game at Yankee Stadium in 1969. He made his final public appearance on October 15, 1972, throwing the ceremonial first pitch before Game 2 of the World Series. He gratefully accepted a plaque honoring the twenty-fifth anniversary of his MLB debut, but also commented, "I'm going to be tremendously more pleased and more proud when I look at that third base coaching line one day and see a black face managing in baseball." This wish was fulfilled only after Robinson's death: following the 1974 season, the Cleveland Indians gave their managerial post to Frank Robinson (no relation), a Hall of Fame-bound player who would go on to manage three other teams. Despite the success of these two Robinsons and other black players, the number of African-American players in Major League Baseball has declined since the 1970s.

    Family life and death

    After Robinson's retirement from baseball, his wife, Rachel Robinson, pursued a career in academic nursing—she became an assistant professor at the Yale School of Nursing and director of nursing at the Connecticut Mental Health Center. She also served on the board of the Freedom National Bank until it closed in 1990. She and Jackie had three children: Jackie Robinson Jr. (born November 18, 1946), Sharon Robinson (born January 13, 1950), and David Robinson (born May 14, 1952).

    Robinson's eldest son, Jackie Robinson Jr., had emotional trouble during his childhood and entered special education at an early age. He enrolled in the Army in search of a disciplined environment, served in the Vietnam War, and was wounded in action on November 19, 1965. After his discharge, he struggled with drug problems. Robinson Jr. eventually completed the treatment program at Daytop Village in Seymour, Connecticut, and became a counselor at the institution. On June 17, 1971, at the age of 24, he was killed in an automobile accident. The experience with his son's drug addiction turned Robinson, Sr. into an avid anti-drug crusader toward the end of his life.

    Robinson did not long outlive his son. Complications of heart disease and diabetes weakened Robinson and made him almost blind by middle age. On October 24, 1972, he died of a heart attack at home in Stamford, Connecticut, aged fifty-three. Robinson's funeral service on October 27, 1972, at New York City's Riverside Church attracted 2,500 admirers. Many of his former teammates and other famous black baseball players served as pallbearers, and the Rev. Jesse Jackson gave the eulogy. Tens of thousands of people lined the subsequent procession route to Robinson's interment site at Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York, where he is buried next to his son Jackie and mother-in-law Zellee Isum. Jackie Robinson Parkway also runs through the cemetery.

    After Robinson's death, his widow founded the Jackie Robinson Foundation, of which she remains an officer as of 2009. On April 15, 2008, she announced that in 2010 the foundation will be opening a museum devoted to Jackie in Lower Manhattan. Robinson's daughter, Sharon, became a midwife, educator, director of educational programming for MLB, and the author of two books about her father. His youngest son, David, who has ten children, is a coffee grower and social activist in Tanzania.

    Awards and recognition

    According to a poll conducted in 1947, Robinson was the second most popular man in the country, behind Bing Crosby. In 1999, he was named by Time on its list of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Also in 1999, he ranked number 44 on the Sporting News list of Baseball's 100 Greatest Players and was elected to the Major League Baseball All-Century Team as the top vote-getter among second basemen. Baseball writer Bill James, in The New Bill James Historical Baseball Abstract, ranked Robinson as the 32nd greatest player of all time strictly on the basis of his performance on the field, noting that he was one of the top players in the league throughout his career. Robinson was among the 25 charter members of UCLA’s Athletics Hall of Fame in 1984. In 2002, Molefi Kete Asante included Robinson on his list of 100 Greatest African Americans. Robinson has also been honored by the United States Postal Service on three separate postage stamps, in 1982, 1999, and 2000.

    The City of Pasadena has recognized Robinson in several ways. Brookside Park, situated next to the Rose Bowl, features a baseball diamond and stadium named Jackie Robinson Field. The city's Human Services Department operates the Jackie Robinson Center, a community outreach center that provides early diabetes detection and other services. In 1997, a $325,000 bronze sculpture (equal to $470,522 today) by artists Ralph Helmick, Stu Schecter, and John Outterbridge depicting oversized nine-foot busts of Robinson and his brother Mack was erected at Garfield Avenue, across from the main entrance of Pasadena City Hall; a granite footprint lists multiple donors to the commission project, which was organized by the Robinson Memorial Foundation and supported by members of the Robinson family.

    Major League Baseball has honored Robinson many times since his death. In 1987, both the National and American League Rookie of the Year Awards were renamed the "Jackie Robinson Award" in honor of the first recipient (Robinson's Major League Rookie of the Year Award in 1947 encompassed both leagues). On April 15, 1997, Robinson's jersey number, 42, was retired throughout Major League Baseball, the first time any jersey number had been retired throughout one of the four major American sports leagues.

    As an exception to the retired-number policy, MLB has recently begun honoring Robinson by allowing players to wear number 42 on April 15, Jackie Robinson Day. For the 60th anniversary of Robinson's major league debut, MLB invited players to wear the number 42 on Jackie Robinson Day in 2007. The gesture was originally the idea of outfielder Ken Griffey, Jr., who sought Rachel Robinson's permission to wear the number. After receiving her permission, Commissioner Bud Selig not only allowed Griffey to wear the number, but also extended an invitation to all major league teams to do the same. Ultimately, more than 200 players wore number 42, including the entire rosters of the Los Angeles Dodgers, New York Mets, Houston Astros, Philadelphia Phillies, St. Louis Cardinals, Milwaukee Brewers, and Pittsburgh Pirates. The tribute was continued in 2008, when, during games on April 15, all members of the Mets, Cardinals, Washington Nationals, and Tampa Bay Rays wore Robinson's number 42. On June 25, 2008, MLB installed a new plaque for Robinson at the Baseball Hall of Fame commemorating his off-the-field impact on the game as well as his playing statistics. In 2009, all uniformed personnel (players, managers, coaches, and umpires) wore number 42 on April 15.

    At the November 2006 groundbreaking for a new ballpark for the New York Mets, Citi Field, it was announced that the main entrance, modeled on the one in Brooklyn's old Ebbets Field, would be called the Jackie Robinson Rotunda. The rotunda was dedicated at the opening of Citi Field on April 16, 2009. It honors Robinson with large quotations spanning the inner curve of the facade and features a large freestanding statue of his number, 42, which has become an attraction in itself. Mets owner Fred Wilpon announced that, in conjunction with Citigroup and the Jackie Robinson Foundation, the Mets will create a Jackie Robinson Museum and Learning Center, located at the headquarters of the Jackie Robinson Foundation at One Hudson Square in lower Manhattan. The main purpose of the museum will be to fund scholarships for "young people who live by and embody Jackie's ideals."

    Since 2004, the Aflac National High School Baseball Player of the Year has been presented the "Jackie Robinson Award".

    Robinson has also been recognized outside of baseball. In December 1956, the NAACP recognized him with the Spingarn Medal, which it awards annually for the highest achievement by an African-American. President Ronald Reagan posthumously awarded Robinson the Presidential Medal of Freedom on March 26, 1984, and on March 2, 2005, President George W. Bush gave Robinson's widow the Congressional Gold Medal, the highest civilian award bestowed by Congress; Robinson was only the second baseball player to receive the award, after Roberto Clemente. On August 20, 2007, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and his wife, Maria Shriver, announced that Robinson was inducted into the California Hall of Fame, located at The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts in Sacramento.

    A number of buildings have been named in Robinson's honor. The UCLA Bruins baseball team plays in Jackie Robinson Stadium, which, because of the efforts of Jackie's brother Mack, features a memorial statue of Robinson by sculptor Richard H. Ellis. City Island Ballpark in Daytona Beach, Florida—the baseball field that became the Dodgers' de facto spring training site in 1947—was renamed Jackie Robinson Ballpark in 1989. A number of facilities at Pasadena City College (successor to PJC) are named in Robinson's honor, including Robinson Field, a football/soccer/track facility named jointly for Robinson and his brother Mack. The New York Public School system has named a middle school after Robinson, and Dorsey High School plays at a Los Angeles football stadium named after him. In 1976, his home in Brooklyn, the Jackie Robinson House, was declared a National Historic Landmark. Robinson also has an asteroid named after him, 4319 Jackierobinson. In 1997, the United States Mint issued a Jackie Robinson commemorative silver dollar, and five dollar gold coin. That same year, New York City renamed the Interboro Parkway in his honor.

    In 2011, the U.S. placed a plaque at Robinson's Montreal home to honor the ending of segregation in baseball. The home is located at 8232 avenue de Gaspe south of rue de Guizot Est and near Jarry Park and close to Delorimier Stadium, where Robinson played for the Montreal Royals during 1946. In a letter read during the ceremony, Rachel Robinson, Jackie's widow, wrote: "I remember Montreal and that house very well and have always had warm feeling for that great city. Before Jack and I moved to Montreal, we had just been through some very rough treatment in the racially biased South during spring training in Florida. In the end, Montreal was the perfect place for him to get his start. We never had a threatening or unpleasant experience there. The people were so welcoming and saw Jack as a player and as a man."

    Career statistics

    YearTeamGABRH2B3BHRRBISBCSBBSOAVGOBPSLGTBSHSFIBBHBPGDPE
    1945 Kansas City 47 163 36 63 14 4 5 23 13       .387                  
    1946 Montreal 124 444 113 155 25 8 3 66 40   92 27 .349                 10
    1947 Brooklyn 151 590 125 175 31 5 12 48 29   74 36 .297 .383 .427 252 28     9 5 16
    1948 Brooklyn 147 574 108 170 38 8 12 85 22   57 37 .296 .367 .453 260 8     7 7 15
    1949 Brooklyn 156 593 122 203 38 12 16 124 37   86 27 .342 .432 .528 313 17     8 22 16
    1950 Brooklyn 144 518 99 170 39 4 14 81 12   80 24 .328 .423 .500 259 10     5 11 11
    1951 Brooklyn 153 548 106 185 33 7 19 88 25 8 79 27 .338 .429 .527 289 6     9 10 7
    1952 Brooklyn 149 510 104 157 17 3 19 75 24 7 106 40 .308 .440 .465 237 6     14 16 20
    1953 Brooklyn 136 484 109 159 34 7 12 95 17 4 74 30 .329 .425 .502 243 9     7 12 6
    1954 Brooklyn 124 386 62 120 22 4 15 59 7 3 63 20 .311 .413 .505 195 5 4a   7 13 7
    1955 Brooklyn 105 317 51 81 6 2 8 36 12 3 61 18 .256 .378 .363 115 6 3 5b 3 8 10
    1956 Brooklyn 117 357 61 98 15 2 10 43 12 5 60 32 .275 .382 .412 147 9 2 2 3 9 9
    TotalsBrooklyn13824877947151827354137734197 740291.311.409.47423101049772113107
     Career155354941096173634267161867248   .316    97   

    a The sacrifice fly (SF) as a unique statistical category did not exist in Major League Baseball from 1940 through 1953. Any pre-1954 sacrifice flies by Robinson would be reflected in the sacrifice hit (SH) category.

    b Likewise, the intentional walk (IBB) category only became a unique statistic beginning in 1955. Any intentional walks issued to Robinson before that year would be reflected in the walk (BB) category.

     


              A scos prima data bebelusul din casa. Ramona Lazuran si-a dus fetita la doctor        
    Ramona, Cristi si Maya au ajuns ieri la cabinetul medical in jurul pranzului si au iesit dupa aproximativ 45 de minute. "Am fost cu Maya la un control de rutina, asa cum se face la bebelusi. A fost o examinare a oaselor, sa vada daca se dezvolta normal. La fetite se insista pe oasele bazinului", ne-...
                      


    Did you hear about the doctor who wrote out a prescription
    in the
    usual doctor's fashion?

    The patient used it for two years as a railroad pass.

    Twice it got him into Radio City Music Hall, and once into
    Yankee
    Stadium.



    It came in handy as a letter from his employer to the cashier
    to
    increase his salary.

    And to top it off, his daughter played it on the piano and won
    a
    scholarship to the Curtis Music Conservatory.


              Entrevista a Aubrey de Grey        
    Aubrey de Grey es un personaje controvertido y, por su objetivo profesional, muy mediático. Licenciado en informática, especialista en bioinformática y doctorado en biología con una tesis sobre el envejecimiento mitocondrial, dejó su trabajo en la Universidad de Cambridge (UK) para aceptar el puesto de presidente y delegado principal científico de la Methuselah Foundation (Fundación Matusalén) Sigue leyendo
              Cara Memperbanyak Teman di Facebook Dalam 5 Menit        
    http://www.facebook.com/note.php?note_id=448913350003

    1. Masuk ke http://www.facebook.com/invite.php?ref=tn
    2. Copy Seluruh Email Di bawah.
    3. Paste di kolom Kepada atau To
    4. Klik Undang atau Invite... teman anda akan bertambah dalam sekejap.

    firmansawah@yahoo.com,rifai_firmansyah@ymail.com,kacangjugabisa@ymail.com,rizaldefri19@ymail.com,
    dwi_weliani@ymail.com,cafe_sisha.jambi@yahoo.com,elvintriandesa@yahoo.co.id, key_keyz@ymail.com, syaira_nurul@ymail.com, ekky_chahya@yahoo.com, basovenom@yahoo.com, morgan_molly@ymail.com, krisna.pawoko@yahoo.co.id, geo.andri@yahoo.com, romitheodore@yahoo.com, lofly_wive@yahoo.com, run76_pie16@yahoo.com,
    lutfialfianto@yahoo.com, r1dh0_d3z4_pr4t4m4@yahoo.co.id, faizalpratama@rocketmail.com zal_baguz@rocketmail.com, alexisivey_atlanta@yahoo.com,x2k3@hotmail.com, Xobol@yahoo.com, tgalahad@gmail.com, Ymiller5000@aol.com, Deathslovearrow@aol.com, Princess_samara_23@yahoo.com, smithja@netspace.net.au, mimi.doank@yahoo.co.id, chunkylover02@yahoo.com.au, andyscing@hotmail.com; geri_davy@yahoo.co.uk, chantreuse@yahoo.co.uk, janeyda@yahoo.co.uk, terrelsyakut@gmail.com, kazl05@aol.com, starbug131@aol.com, bubs4jasper@aol.com, charltonbent@hotmail.co.uk, tbklayton@aol.com, fbprofile002@hotmail.com, elpollodiablo@hotmail.co.uk, sarahall6969@yahoo.co.uk, christian.sorger@gmail.com, mrogall@ymail.com, sinfullytagged@aol.com, rockthevote2k8@gmail.com, kenpo95@hotmail.com, flintshirebabe@live.com, this.animal@gmail.com, tgalahad@gmail.com, lilbeetle1977@yahoo.com, mrclean2002@gmail.com, mr_clean75663@yahoo.com, soulja29@hotmail.com, scottvcornwell@hotmail.com,greattobeme@live.com, kartowm@gmail.com .a.r.o2006@hotmail.com ,aloyaal@hotmail.com,ombada@gmail.com, arkane1974@live.com, fbprofile001@hotmail.com, goldenshine@hotmail.com, key_keyz@ymail.com, cafe_sisha.jambi@yahoo.com, ekky_chahya@yahoo.com, ekkyneverdie@yahoo.com, basovenom@yahoo.com, nrl_04@yahoo.com, net_coz@yahoo.com, keynez@ymail.com, syaira_nurul@ymail.com, key_keyz2@ymail.com, key_keyz3@ymail.com, key_keyz5@ymail.com, morgan_molly@ymail.com, rian.arai@yahoo.com, sahreza_rendy@yahoo.co.id, teoteblung@ymail.com,

    elika_butterflies14@yahoo.co.id, benysaputra08@yahoo.co.id, chaisarxx@yahoo.com, charinaamaliya@yahoo.com, aruleghost@yahoo.com, mr_giepie@yahoo.com, akhwat_excellent@yahoo.co.id, ciputndra@yahoo.com, ikmal_squad@yahoo.co.id, ar3_l355@yahoo.co.id, uya_sideme@yahoo.com, kekendudut@yahoo.com, gabolehbenar@plasa.com, junaiddhy@yahoo.com, koko.cool90@yahoo.co.id, strawberry_kiss1390@yahoo.com, jimmychristianto@rocketmail.com, martin_duank90@yahoo.com, kid_27_aja@yahoo.com, cinderela_charli@yahoo.com, jauhari.avergreen@gmail.com, key_keyz4@ymail.com, vip.soney@yahoo.com, ryanrionaldo@gmail.com, kikigirlzhere@yahoo.com, riowidyanto@yahoo.co.id, ricky_tora@yahoo.com, dedi_ikhwancrenz@ymail.com, treee_ana@yahoo.com, syaira_nurul@ymail.com, hate_yogie@yahoo.co.id, wah_yuni31@yahoo.com, cool_m3nt0zzz@yahoo.co.id, silvi_dan@yahoo.co.id, gie_rha25@yahoo.com, ayu_vendry@yahoo.com, candra.gunawan90@gmail.com, cempotzzz@ymail.com, copral_acx@yahoo.com, dedsu78@ymail.com, dika_nivardo@yahoo.co.id, backdimaz78@yahoo.com, arland84@yahoo.com, the_zano_zero@yahoo.com, copolo32@gmail.com, Squad.Freedom@yahoo.com, fachriza_1109@yahoo.co.id, dinarvhoutennarsis@ymail.com, tequiela_girl@yahoo.com, riedwand_bomber@yahoo.co.id, mimi.doank@yahoo.co.id, mimi.doank@yahoo.com, riki_b3j08@yahoo.co.id, nanda_rizka07@yahoo.com, fizel_cieh@yahoo.com, neobegaya@yahoo.com, akraommgt@yahoo.co.id, arhiesupriady@yahoo.co.id, ayepdink_dink@yahoo.com, arreolavyonne@ymail.com, rahmandoank@ymail.com, basovenom@yahoo.com, teguh.doank@ymail.com fariz_ardiansyah96@yahoo.co.id, rio.elnino@yahoo.com,bayuaslam@yahoo.com,lina_adjah@yahoo.com, Denny_watanabe@yahoo.com, anggiyusrilm@yahoo.co.id , starbug131@aol.com, bubs4jasper@aol.com, charltonbent@hotmail.co.uk, tbklayton@aol.com, fbprofile002@hotmail.com,, adhysloky@yahoo.com, themthez@ymail.com, anggiyusrilm@yahoo.co.id, meong_kudisan@yahoo.com, ulza_yahya@yahoo.com, billy_boyz05@yahoo.com, shaggy_vicky@yahoo.com, bagas.kara29@yahoo.co.id, brrcocacola@ymail.com, shahkimalik1976@gmail.com,sanamjad420@gmail.com, shahkemalik@gmail.com, tjsword@ymail.com, adinsocials@ymail.com, jick_junior@ymail.com,holydawnbringer@gmail.com,ssamoliver@gmail.com, fajarsda72@yahoo.com, desz.doszz@yahoo.com, adibaenk@yahoo.com, billy_boyz05@yahoo.com,, setiawan.shaomy@yahoo.co.id, chi_mel89@yahoo.com, kha_always_here@yahoo.com, rosyid_jos@yahoo.com, randazak96@yahoo.com, ucixboy@yahoo.com, nur_nublis@yahoo.co.id, lung_jeff@yahoo.com, iduzvengeance@ymail.com, ROBBIE_GTG@PLASA.COM, the_zano_zero@yahoo.com,anita_saya@yahoo.com,dimasramadhan99@yahoo.com, pintu.uang@gmail.com, ranggaindrapratama@yahoo.co.id, rian.arai@yahoo.com, sahreza_rendy@yahoo.co.id, teoteblung@ymail.com, vithayoung@yahoo.com, blackdevils_julio@yahoo.com, nickymuliawan@yahoo.co.id, iwan.tiang@Gmail.com, gho_neo@rocketmail.com, Bw_gokilz@rocketmail.com, everyonesfriend@ymail.com,heathrchrds@yahoo.com, thingsthatmakeyagohmm@gmail.com, robparsons1977@gmail.com, marianyc31@yahoo.com, alexjoe314@gmail.com, asalem@europe.co, Ombada@gmail.com, sircharles@sircharles-world.com, joha@post.com, iittlespy@aol.com, alexgarzon7@gmail.com, alexgarzon77@yahoo.com, smitpaul@btinternet.com, smitpaul@hotmail.co.uk, dwayne22martin@hotmail.com, leafsfan1982@yahoo.ca, marcos_lashley@yahoo.co.uk,
    feisalnadhirrahman@yahoo.co.id,gue.gila_netral@yahoo.co.id,RASMUS_LENTZGAARD@YAHOO.COM, rachma_cimut89@yahoo.com, key_keyz@ymail.com, key_key2@ymail.com, key_keyz3@ymail.com, key_keyz4@ymail.com, key_keyz5@ymail.com, morgan_molly@ymail.com, khair_acx@yahoo.com, ekky_chahya@yahoo.com, net_coz@yahoo.com, baso_venom@yahoo.com,robertpratama@ymail.com,my_fs@ymai.com,profyanto@ymail.com,purnamagiridede@yahoo.co.id,lii_lie@yahoo.com,xiaolii_chan@yahoo.com, dboyz_crazy@yahoo.com,yandyandii@yahoo.com, yandii_hardiyana@yahoo.co.id,zie_instind_thirtyfive@yahoo.com,napisa14@yahoo.co.id,uke_po3et31@yahoo.com, nata.dwi58@yahoo.com,sikondegay@rocketmail.com,gha_fenix@yahoo.com,ullamasihoon@ymail.com,zunay_153@yahoo.com,abel.darmah@yahoo.com,ikhsan_xxx@yahoo.co.id,traceur_united@yahoo.com,meon9catz@yahoo.com,dita_lucu23@yahoo.com,Smau_Gue@ymail.com,jigoku_tsushiin@yahoo.co.id,tendripada@ymail.com, paula_clover22@yahoo.com, leahrarobong@yahoo.com, kikirarobong@yahoo.com,
    Montylevi@gmail.comombada@gmail.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.comaloyaal@hotmail.com,mattkzn@hotmail.com,billion_dollar_budget_jackson@hotmail.com, tritran123@hotmail.com, the4frasers@sympatico.ca, iantannen@live.com, claireyscottlee@hotmail.co.uk,fluffypillow@live.ca,damianmcandrew@live.co.uk, lingling78@telkom.net,blue_cold_monkey@yahoo.ca, linda1mulle@hotmail.com, john24hansen@hotmail.com, heathd@live.ca,yjw6001@hotmail.com, iceicejessie@hotmail.com, poker.knave@yahoo.com, lisablonde@live.ca, rit2007richard@yahoo.com, facebook@nightclublinx.com, john.stevens.112358@gmail.com, cbucek@cogeco.ca, Belladonna_HeartsWish@live.com, pirate_619@hotmail.com,karen@onlinewildfire.com,quinnsenn@yahoo.com,iamslut@live.ca,char27@cooltoad.com,arben_sy@live.com,arif007_sc@hotmail.com,crlovage@gmail.com,dannyjonsson@hotmail.com,char27@cooltoad.com, nickbailey1@gmail.com,allskillz101@yahoo.com, samadhi71113@yahoo.com.au,vcirger@yahoo.co.uk, bigtigersfan@ymail.com,vnzy84@hotmail.com, facebook@nightclublinx.com, pkhaag@rock.com,flavi.belascain@gmail.com, m.m.salerno@hotmail.it;evil_legend619@hotmail.com, thelonestranger12@gmail.com, bluezz41@hotmail.com, arijal_0701@yahoo.co.id,c0_ng0@yahoo.co.id,i_luph_hers@yahoo.co.id,missitaly81@hotmail.com,chrisjamesxyz@gmail.com, baskog24@comcast.net, vijaya.khaitan@btinternet.com, salrash75@googlemail.co.uk,movieguyfb09@yahoo.co.uk,edin.srndic@web.de,cwj_td@hotmail.com. joigbravo@hotmail.com, sharextreem@yahoo.com, brando55@live.com,xreti@ymail.com, rongwu927@gmail.com,yofter68@hotmail.co.uk, tweety5022@hotmail.com, larisha.king@yahoo.com, mbambolino@yahoo.com,
    key_keyz@ymail.com, ozapras@gmail.com, dclover@ymail.com, aufarfarizi@yahoo.com, joeyjordisson5@gmail.com, abgaji89@yahoo.com, zan_2112@yahoo.com, d4rk_squid@yahoo.com, pratomo_bayu@yahoo.co.id, ryandobenanda@yahoo.co.id, rendri.vernando@yahoo.co.id, poshboys_1@yahoo.com, awangdwiandika7@gmail.com, rowmanagus@yahoo.co.id, monkeydrully@gmail.com, rendi_06@yahoo.com, darkspiard85@yahoo.com,
    harazuku.kha@gmail.com, bad_boy_gem@plasa.com, afat_shogie@yahoo.com, harits_geto@yahoo.com, zzz_always2nd@yahoo.com, theprofesorbelajarcinta@hotmail.com, dzil.ikram92@gmail.com, the_seck_id@yahoo.com, reservoir3_x@yahoo.com, swtkyoshiro@yahoo.com, doni27@rocketmail.com, unit.revival@yahoo.com, weaver_zZ@yahoo.com,p34c3cr4ft92@yahoo.co.id, people_bankzat@yahoo.co.id, dyanwahyu83@yahoo.com, galang_mathlovers@yahoo.co.id, garf_nyo@yahoo.co.id, anne_meongz@yahoo.co.id, pinkpussy_boy@yahoo.co.id, punk_noth_dead@rocketmail.com, vhi_vhi_niezzygirl92@yahoo.co.id, aiiu_james_way@yahoo.com, dinna_maniez171007@yahoo.com, verdy_ciplee@yahoo.com,arieftejomukti@yahoo.com,bogel.bangor@yahoo.com, adityaqrenz23@yahoo.com, suryanw@hotmail.com, fajar_mahendra@rocketmail.com, bocah_rapper@yahoo.com, dulukitasahabat@hotmail.com,dulukitasahabat2@hotmail.com, riowidyanto@yahoo.com, geta_boshi666@yahoo.com, aelninou_mobil@yahoo.com, asikinpriana@yahoo.co.id, maz_iwal@yahoo.com, ian_cuqz@ymail.com, cunz212@yahoo.co.id, laugwytz_ewit@hotmail.com, ekky_chahya@yahoo.com, junnaiddy@yahoo.com, riowidyanto@yahoo.co.id, key_keyz3@ymail.com, morgan_molly@ymail.com, net_coz@yahoo.com baso_venom@yahoo.com, bebungkruk@gmail.com, maggotsarmy@gmail.com, pratomo_bayu@yahoo.co.id, thejack_bayu@yahoo.com, rastha92@yahoo.co.id, key_keyz2@ymail.com, key_keyz4@ymail.com, rastha666@yahoo.com, rastha93@yahoo.com ,rastha94@yahoo.com, anak666tuhan@yahoo.com, aria_fungky@yahoo.com, Ginhaluvpooh@ymail.com, ian_cuqz@ymail.com, ardiyaprana@yahoo.co.id, ardi_3112@yahoo.com, febry_pandaren@hotmail.com, jubintoro@gmail.com, muhammadsadalimaulana@yahoo.com, daniel_adrian143@yahoo.com, andhez_88@yahoo.com, andri.tarigan68@gmail.com, basoveom@yahoo.com, junaiddhy@yahoo.com, aria_fungky@yahoo.com, dyanwahyu83@yahoo,com, pinkpussy_boy@yahoo.co.id, rastha92@yahoo.co.id, blu3_sky2688@yahoo.co.id, exsasora@yahoo.com, anak666tuhan@yahoo.com, sambang_bronz@yahoo.co.id, rakapriadika@yahoo.com, comboformat@yahoo.com, isaw.sasusaw@rocketmail.com, buleud_buleud@yahoo.com, andisulistyo1994@yahoo.com, aelninou_mobil@yahoo.com, q_way77@yahoo.co.id, dskoamesah@gmail.com, daniel_adrian143@yahoo.com, d_an_iel123@yahoo.com, darkness4g@yahoo.com, arnand49@yahoo.com, alans.kirana@yahoo.com, eki.z41m@rocketmail.com, beckznotbecky@yahoo.com, aelninou_mobil@yahoo.com, sanggrahanscs@gmail.com, rastha92@yahoo.co.id, pinkpussy_boy@yahoo.co.id, anak666tuhan@yahoo.com, ayi_lmc@yahoo.co.id, exsasora@yahoo.com, ipunx.knuckles@yahoo.com, eki.z41m@rocketmail.com, ferytogihs@yahoo.com, arnand49@yahoo.com, a12ie_naxmax@yahoo.co.id, baguskingdom@yahoo.com, daniel_adrian143@yahoo.com, caplin0z@yahoo.com, zie_drummist@yahoo.com, ajay_sparrow@yahoo.com, mrqu33n@hotmail.com, verdy_ciplee@yahoo.com, cpudlianz@yahoo.com, yudha_crseven14@yahoo.com, khairan09mas@gmail.com, mramadhani99@yahoo.co.id, ian_cuqz@ymail.com, da_blue_demonz@yahoo.com, cem_tok@ymail.com, agunk_whibley@yahoo.com, najmuddin_sby@yahoo.co.id, kelovka@yahoo.com, caplinfirst@yahoo.com, anuar_lau@yahoo.com, cunz212@yahoo.co.idrezastar@hotmail.com, s60o@rocketmail.com, thede.gunawan@yahoo.co.id, fadzli_zlie@yahoo.com, fadzli_zli@yahoo.com, khair_acx@yahoo.com, ydiw172_munited@yahoo.com,
    keynez2@ymail.com, katie.barcelona@yahoo.com,jack.souchek@yahoo.com, lcancun@yahoo.com, fabian.lopez@ymail.com, f1957davis@yahoo.com, stock196605@yahoo.com, jay.koch@ymail.com, b59angel@yahoo.com, parishj91@yahoo.com, ckarlweski@yahoo.com, dswonk@yahoo.com, mayan.buchanan@yahoo.com, sknilil@yahoo.com, p1952johnson@yahoo.com, omiker@yahoo.com, mike197302@yahoo.com, englebank@ymail.com, lattec@ymail.com, pledgec@yahoo.com, gingerf1966@yahoo.com, e1958king@yahoo.com, kirklanda96@yahoo.com, schrans@yahoo.com, sizetr@yahoo.com, stephens195905@yahoo.com, mambo.papa@yahoo.com, ovitzj@yahoo.com, speed.halikara@yahoo.com, oltman_dawn@yahoo.com, kiera.summit@yahoo.com, ed.nosnibor@yahoo.com, young.danny@ymail.com, carloneill@ymail.com, noblebob69@yahoo.com, faynielson@yahoo.com, tyverde@yahoo.com, kleven_d@yahoo.com, hannamaui@ymail.com, hawaiipaia@yahoo.com, wallacekellye@yahoo.com, larisha.king@yahoo.com, elma90014@gmail.com, Montylevi@gmail.comombada@gmail.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.comaloyaal@hotmail.com,flew0911@uidaho.edu, 5151161@gmail.com, jamesyeoh@hotmail.com, jjtdemanuel@gmail.com, amocampo@gmail.com, vince_carter15_junior@hotmail.com, Ombada@gmail.com,c0m3whatmay@yahoo.com, sarahall6969@yahoo.co.uk, mesinbolong@gmail.com, adampetrenko@hotmail.com, tensed@gmail.com, dave@thetequilarockingbirds.com, ambiealsta2002@aol.com, alexisivey_atlanta@yahoo.com,x2k3@hotmail.com, Xobol@yahoo.com, tgalahad@gmail.com, Ymiller5000@aol.com, Deathslovearrow@aol.com, Princess_samara_23@yahoo.com, smithja@netspace.net.au, chunkylover02@yahoo.com.au, andyscing@hotmail.com; geri_davy@yahoo.co.uk, chantreuse@yahoo.co.uk, janeyda@yahoo.co.uk, terrelsyakut@gmail.com, kazl05@aol.com, starbug131@aol.com, bubs4jasper@aol.com, charltonbent@hotmail.co.uk, tbklayton@aol.com, fbprofile002@hotmail.com, , rian.arai@yahoo.com, sahreza_rendy@yahoo.co.id, teoteblung@ymail.com, elika_butterflies14@yahoo.co.id, arland84@yahoo.com, the_zano_zero@yahoo.com, copolo32@gmail.com, Squad.Freedom@yahoo.com, fachriza_1109@yahoo.co.id, dinarvhoutennarsis@ymail.com, tequiela_girl@yahoo.com, riedwand_bomber@yahoo.co.id, fariz_ardiansyah96@yahoo.co.id, rio.elnino@yahoo.com, bayuaslam@yahoo.com, lina_adjah@yahoo.com, Denny_watanabe@yahoo.com, anggiyusrilm@yahoo.co.id , starbug131@aol.com, bubs4jasper@aol.com, charltonbent@hotmail.co.uk, tbklayton@aol.com, fbprofile002@hotmail.com,, adhysloky@yahoo.com, themthez@ymail.com, anggiyusrilm@yahoo.co.id,, billy_boyz05@yahoo.com, shaggy_vicky@yahoo.com, bagas.kara29@yahoo.co.id, brrcocacola@ymail.com, shahkimalik1976@gmail.com,sanamjad420@gmail.com, shahkemalik@gmail.com, tjsword@ymail.com, adinsocials@ymail.com, jick_junior@ymail.com, holydawnbringer@gmail.com,ssamoliver@gmail.com, fajarsda72@yahoo.com, desz.doszz@yahoo.com, adibaenk@yahoo.com, billy_boyz05@yahoo.com,, setiawan.shaomy@yahoo.co.id, chi_mel89@yahoo.com, kha_always_here@yahoo.com, rosyid_jos@yahoo.com, randazak96@yahoo.com, ucixboy@yahoo.com, nur_nublis@yahoo.co.id, lung_jeff@yahoo.com, iduzvengeance@ymail.com, ROBBIE_GTG@PLASA.COM, the_zano_zero@yahoo.com,anita_saya@yahoo.com,dimasramadhan99@yahoo.com, pintu.uang@gmail.com, ranggaindrapratama@yahoo.co.id, rian.arai@yahoo.com, sahreza_rendy@yahoo.co.id, teoteblung@ymail.com, vithayoung@yahoo.com, blackdevils_julio@yahoo.com, nickymuliawan@yahoo.co.id, iwan.tiang@Gmail.com, gho_neo@rocketmail.com, Bw_gokilz@rocketmail.com, vhiet_vannesaavila@yahoo.co.id, muhammad_fachreza@rocketmail.com, qrx_noe@ymail.com, qrx_rozeb@ymail.com, xiaolii_chan@yahoo.com, Muhammad.synyster@gmail.com, dboyz_crazy@yahoo.com,yandyandii@yahoo.com, yandii_hardiyana@yahoo.co.id, qrx_r3z@ymail.com, deslyhandika@rocketmail.com, cinta_jrocks@yahoo.com, guns_nugraha@yahoo.com, vhiet_vannesaavila@yahoo.co.id, muhammad_fachreza@rocketmail.com, qrx_noe@ymail.com, qrx_rozeb@ymail.com, tawahan@hotmail.com, chrissquire1980@yahoo.com.au, glendavis@lavabit.com, mauro.magnani@gmail.com, rahoman84@hotmail.com, tiegan-and-jayden@hotmail.co.uk, trond.ob@gmail.com, moniamisha@hotmail.com, clairelufc4eva@yahoo.co.uk, monica_alta@hotmail.com, pompeymale1967@hotmail.co.uk, leemarinell@talktalk.net, Muhammad.synyster@gmail.com, nicky1107@yahoo.com,mikey32905@gmail.com, Maria_Alvarez03@hotmail.com, spoong@singnet.com.sg, kurterkirt@hotmail.com, jos-lc@blueyonder.co.uk, prankster6_@excite.com, Archimedesmdcclxxv@yahoo.com,markwc@siu.edu, madant2002@yahoo.com, ohnthemobster@yahoo.com, tangiblewhisper@gmail.com, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com, amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net, shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com, courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, jamesyeoh@hotmail.com, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com, raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com, jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, bobmarley2003_08@hotmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net, ginoboscariol@hotmail.com, pjcogar@yahoo.com, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, hulagirl0475@yahoo.com, grobbins@heidelberg.edu, parso105@chapman.edu, the69na@hotmail.com, tpesba@gmail.com, mshams115@yahoo.com, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com, LauraARogers@aol.com, belle@dovesforlove.com, kielcravatta@yahoo.com, danny.solomon@gmail.com, gibb.ie.27@hotmail.com, sszero1988@aol.com, blfletch@utk.edu, weechicky@gmail.com, peterlim80@yahoo.com, seb.tombeur@telenet.be, candice@doveforlove.com, bward10@vt.edu, kimmen_13@hotmail.com, alikatt@dovesforlove.com, justine@dovesforlove.com, andres.bardon@gmail.com, britcollins7@yahoo.com, rms_seymour@hotmail.com, my_name_is_chris@hotmail.co.uk, chances_here@yahoo.co.uk, nemesisx2r@hotmail.com, ecstasio@ecstasio.com, pablocarbonell@hotmail.com, carol.mills@uky.edu, augchoi@hotmail.com, airslant@yahoo.com, facebook@dovesforlove.com,albertphilip@yahoo.com, dayday2@charter.net, andy.wynne@live.co.uk, jdmtalon@live.com, hazelalki3@aim.com, Muhammad.synyster@gmail.com,rapiduntouhables@gmail.com, siavach@gmail.com, vinay_bgh@rediffmail.com, w-cc@live.ca, Kindredsins@hotmail.com, A_roc636@yahoo.com, hazon-midion@hotmail.com,whuzupgirl23@hotmail.com, chris__keating@hotmail.com, inoca_14@yahoo.com, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com,courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com,Ombada@gmail.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.com,aloyaal@hotmail.com,,j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com,raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,j.danson@sky.com, jennaneddie@gmail.com,roydebroy@yahoo.co.in, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, meiallen76@yahoo.com.au,wesprayconcreting@aapt.net.au, dpa36709@bigpond.net.au,pykeybaby@hotmail.com,darkshadow7827@aol.com, trubin54@yahoo.com,steverichards1@btinternet.com,lwnshed@aim.com, herry.limanto@imperial.ac.uk, mobbywars@gmail.com, bravesboston@netscape.net, landon_89@hotmail.com, tangiblewhisper@gmail.com, rrw2659@email.vccs.edu, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com, courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com, raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com, jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, Muhammad.synyster@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net, ginoboscariol@hotmail.com, pjcogar@yahoo.com, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, trywoody@hotmail.com, hulagirl0475@yahoo.com, jjojay@hotmail.co.uk,eli_cmk@hotmail.com, wnogay@sewickley.org, kdlowe@tstc.net, bruzer08@hotmail.com, scott.fields@gmail.com, glyphs@live.ca, ilhamsyah03@hotmail.com, rblessum@csu.fullerton.edu, ty_man10_15_10@hotmail.com, shay.graham@gmail.com, calluch@hotmail.com, united_clansmen@yahoo.ca, maxchicky2k03@sky.com, ryshtyanna@gmail.com, bruchart@gmail.com, drakus_burton@yahoo.ca, krystein@yahoo.com, miss_jordanna_lee@yahoo.com, miss_jordanna_lee@yahoo.ca, allisonmobwar@gmail.com, angelamobwar@gmail.com, ashmobwar@gmail.com, babemobwar@gmail.com, babsmobwar@gmail.com, bootymobwar@gmail.com, caponemobwar@gmail.com, candymobwar@gmail.com, chastitymobwar@gmail.com, danamobwar@gmail.com, mdtrout1983@aol.com, studio65graphics@hotmail.com, celvinsa@hotmail.co.uk, clarke187@gmail.com, darkzide79@hotmail.com, rlph_wiggins@yahoo.com, vey5001@psu.edu, dnathe4th@gmail.com, mblake@mix.wvu.edu, roger.lightbody@systoc.com, elementboarder319@yahoo.com, damatman@hotmail.com, benboccio@yahoo.com, korebuster@hotmail.com, fluffythepig69@hotmail.com, sarthebears@gmail.com, dickinsonja@hotmail.com, jferena@willschreiber.com, dvanvechten@gmail.com, tferena@willschreiber.com, wferena@willschreiber.com, mferena@willschreiber,com, rferena@willschreiber.com, eferena@willschreiber.com, deamonkateyez@gmail.com, lawrencetkc@hotmail.com, lawrencetkc1@gmail.com, pasiegosoriano@hotmail.com, alvintks@gmail.com, k.p.w74@hotmail.com, amalone13@hotmail.co.uk, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com, medy2kv@hotmail.com, s18bsa@hotmail.com, rblessum@csu.fullerton.edu, apmatte@cogeco.ca, co_1nk@hotmail.com, r.i.o@hotmail.com, freak1ofnature@yahoo.com, hillkids27@hotmail.com, sandyhill1@hotmail.com,ben_loves_jess@hotmail.com, jenta23@hotmail.com, ibmanic@hotmail.com, darwin_tayson@yahoo.com, darkvash_23@yahoo.com, darwin.tayson@yahoo.com, dv_ichigo.kurosaki@yahoo.com, jovanjox@yahoo.com, william.illingworth@yahoo.com,amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com,frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com,courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com,raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net,donnydonny66@hotmail.com,ginoboscariol@hotmail.com,pjcogar@yahoo.com, joecramp123@hotmail.co.uk, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, xtremeganesh@hotmail.com, neo_inside@yahoo.com, rajer_94@yahoo.com; amsouthworth@hotmail.com,btassignon@gmail.com,mrbags@hotmail.com,danny.solomon@gmail.com, iacovus79@yahoo.com, kullest_destiny@hotmail.com, ,Ombada@gmail.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.com,aloyaal@hotmail.com,psyrus_10@hotmail.com, damian_amberg@yahoo.com, gen711@aol.com, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com,mike_gil@sympatico.ca, riomenajang@yahoo.com,j enmcco@sbcglobal.net, jmcco@ku.edu, cubster_05@msn.com, tombeechey@hotmail.com, whuzupgirl23@hotmail.com, geocricket@gmail.com, q.oneil@gmail.com, usmarine07727@yahoo.com, ZBTChip@aol.com, Friendlys00@Yahoo.com, mammacobb5@yahoo.com, lovinglife2326@hotmail.com, xron010110@yahoo.com, jamdiscodj@hotmail.com, old-skool@hotmail.co.uk, dgboudreau1@yahoo.ca, jeburton3978@aol.com, kristine_pamplin@hotmail.com,raiyan00@yahoo.com,roydebroy@yahoo.co.in, neilmcse@hotmail.com,camdrums@hotmail.com, b6l0g4@yahoo.com, estremel@hotmail.com, tmmzc85@yahoo.com, trevor.okrafka@gmail.com, djuett1@mymail.slcc.edu,rezaul.hayat@gmail.com, ragnar_noi@hotmail.com,plaincat@gmail.com, UABlade@siu.edu, lawrencetkc@hotmail.com, lawrencetkc1@gmail.com, alvintks@gmail.com, we1hong@hotmail.com, pissedpanda@gmail.com,allanliewck@yahoo.com, mtclipTweedleDum@gmail.com, cookiedough_dynamo@hotmail.com,bevandkev101@hotmail.co.uk, calluch@hotmail.com,tonmoy_alam19@hotmail.com,vinay_bgh@rediffmail.com,enyaht_sivad190@hotmail.com,traceyx35@hotmail.com, john_young33@yahoo.com, kahyoon@gmail.com, A_roc636@yahoo.com, elizabethabauer@gmail.com,mblake@mix.wvu.edu, hazon-midion@hotmail.com, youngkiwis@gmail.com,midknyghtdrym2001@yahoo.com,rayan_a_s@hotmail.com, amalone13@hotmail.co.uk, silver.amir@yahoo.com, tma122@hotmail.com, discoverystore@gmail.com, m_843589@hotmail.com,sunnyy2k1025@hotmail.com,landon_89@hotmail.com, chiefbradd@aol.com, johnthemobster@yahoo.com, tangiblewhisper@gmail.com,gz410@verizon.net, rrw2659@email.vccs.edu, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com, amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net, shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com, courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com, raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net, ginoboscariol@hotmail.com,pjcogar@yahoo.com, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, gz410@verizon.net, hulagirl0475@yahoo.com, parso105@chapman.edu, the69na@hotmail.com, mshams115@yahoo.com, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com,LauraARogers@aol.com, kielcravatta@yahoo.com, danny.solomon@gmail.com, gibb.ie.27@hotmail.com, sszero1988@aol.com, blfletch@utk.edu, weechicky@gmail.com, peterlim80@yahoo.com, seb.tombeur@telenet.be, candice@doveforlove.com, bward10@vt.edu, kimmen_13@hotmail.com, alikatt@dovesforlove.com, justine@dovesforlove.com, andres.bardon@gmail.com, britcollins7@yahoo.com, rms_seymour@hotmail.com, my_name_is_chris@hotmail.co.uk, chances_here@yahoo.co.uk, nemesisx2r@hotmail.com, ecstasio@ecstasio.com, pablocarbonell@hotmail.com, carol.mills@uky.edu, augchoi@hotmail.com, airslant@yahoo.com, facebook@dovesforlove.com,albertphilip@yahoo.com, dayday2@charter.net, andy.wynne@live.co.uk, jdmtalon@live.com, hazelalki3@aim.com, rapiduntouhables@gmail.com, siavach@gmail.com, vinay_bgh@rediffmail.com, w-cc@live.ca, Kindredsins@hotmail.com, A_roc636@yahoo.com, hazon-midion@hotmail.com,whuzupgirl23@hotmail.com, chris__keating@hotmail.com, inoca_14@yahoo.com, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com,courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com,Ombada@gmail.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.com,aloyaal@hotmail.com,,j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com,raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,j.danson@sky.com, jennaneddie@gmail.com,roydebroy@yahoo.co.in, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, meiallen76@yahoo.com.au,wesprayconcreting@aapt.net.au, dpa36709@bigpond.net.au,pykeybaby@hotmail.com,darkshadow7827@aol.com, trubin54@yahoo.com,steverichards1@btinternet.com,lwnshed@aim.com, herry.limanto@imperial.ac.uk, mobbywars@gmail.com, bravesboston@netscape.net, landon_89@hotmail.com, tangiblewhisper@gmail.com, rrw2659@email.vccs.edu, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com, courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com, raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com, jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net, ginoboscariol@hotmail.com, pjcogar@yahoo.com, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, trywoody@hotmail.com, hulagirl0475@yahoo.com, jjojay@hotmail.co.uk,eli_cmk@hotmail.com, wnogay@sewickley.org, kdlowe@tstc.net, bruzer08@hotmail.com, scott.fields@gmail.com, glyphs@live.ca, ilhamsyah03@hotmail.com, rblessum@csu.fullerton.edu, ty_man10_15_10@hotmail.com, shay.graham@gmail.com, calluch@hotmail.com, united_clansmen@yahoo.ca, maxchicky2k03@sky.com, ryshtyanna@gmail.com, bruchart@gmail.com, drakus_burton@yahoo.ca, krystein@yahoo.com, miss_jordanna_lee@yahoo.com, miss_jordanna_lee@yahoo.ca, allisonmobwar@gmail.com, angelamobwar@gmail.com, ashmobwar@gmail.com, babemobwar@gmail.com, babsmobwar@gmail.com, bootymobwar@gmail.com, caponemobwar@gmail.com, candymobwar@gmail.com, chastitymobwar@gmail.com, danamobwar@gmail.com, mdtrout1983@aol.com, studio65graphics@hotmail.com, celvinsa@hotmail.co.uk, clarke187@gmail.com, darkzide79@hotmail.com, rlph_wiggins@yahoo.com, vey5001@psu.edu, dnathe4th@gmail.com, mblake@mix.wvu.edu, roger.lightbody@systoc.com, elementboarder319@yahoo.com, damatman@hotmail.com, benboccio@yahoo.com, korebuster@hotmail.com, fluffythepig69@hotmail.com, sarthebears@gmail.com, dickinsonja@hotmail.com, jferena@willschreiber.com, dvanvechten@gmail.com, tferena@willschreiber.com, wferena@willschreiber.com, mferena@willschreiber,com, rferena@willschreiber.com, eferena@willschreiber.com, deamonkateyez@gmail.com, lawrencetkc@hotmail.com, lawrencetkc1@gmail.com, pasiegosoriano@hotmail.com, alvintks@gmail.com, k.p.w74@hotmail.com, amalone13@hotmail.co.uk, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com, medy2kv@hotmail.com, s18bsa@hotmail.com, rblessum@csu.fullerton.edu, apmatte@cogeco.ca, co_1nk@hotmail.com, r.i.o@hotmail.com, freak1ofnature@yahoo.com, hillkids27@hotmail.com, sandyhill1@hotmail.com,ben_loves_jess@hotmail.com, jenta23@hotmail.com, ibmanic@hotmail.com, darwin_tayson@yahoo.com, darkvash_23@yahoo.com, darwin.tayson@yahoo.com, dv_ichigo.kurosaki@yahoo.com, jovanjox@yahoo.com, william.illingworth@yahoo.com,amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com,voodoo.woman@comcast.net,shareanoxley@yahoo.com,frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com,courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com,raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net,donnydonny66@hotmail.com,ginoboscariol@hotmail.com,pjcogar@yahoo.com, joecramp123@hotmail.co.uk, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, xtremeganesh@hotmail.com, neo_inside@yahoo.com, rajer_94@yahoo.com; amsouthworth@hotmail.com,btassignon@gmail.com,mrbags@hotmail.com,danny.solomon@gmail.com, iacovus79@yahoo.com, kullest_destiny@hotmail.com, ,Ombada@gmail.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.com,aloyaal@hotmail.com,psyrus_10@hotmail.com, damian_amberg@yahoo.com, gen711@aol.com, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com,mike_gil@sympatico.ca, riomenajang@yahoo.com,j enmcco@sbcglobal.net, jmcco@ku.edu, cubster_05@msn.com, tombeechey@hotmail.com, whuzupgirl23@hotmail.com, geocricket@gmail.com, q.oneil@gmail.com, usmarine07727@yahoo.com, ZBTChip@aol.com, Friendlys00@Yahoo.com, mammacobb5@yahoo.com, lovinglife2326@hotmail.com, xron010110@yahoo.com, jamdiscodj@hotmail.com, old-skool@hotmail.co.uk, dgboudreau1@yahoo.ca, jeburton3978@aol.com, kristine_pamplin@hotmail.com,raiyan00@yahoo.com,roydebroy@yahoo.co.in, neilmcse@hotmail.com,camdrums@hotmail.com, b6l0g4@yahoo.com, estremel@hotmail.com, tmmzc85@yahoo.com, trevor.okrafka@gmail.com, djuett1@mymail.slcc.edu,rezaul.hayat@gmail.com, ragnar_noi@hotmail.com,plaincat@gmail.com, UABlade@siu.edu, lawrencetkc@hotmail.com, lawrencetkc1@gmail.com, alvintks@gmail.com, we1hong@hotmail.com, pissedpanda@gmail.com,allanliewck@yahoo.com, mtclipTweedleDum@gmail.com, cookiedough_dynamo@hotmail.com,bevandkev101@hotmail.co.uk, calluch@hotmail.com,tonmoy_alam19@hotmail.com,vinay_bgh@rediffmail.com,enyaht_sivad190@hotmail.com,traceyx35@hotmail.com, john_young33@yahoo.com, kahyoon@gmail.com, A_roc636@yahoo.com, elizabethabauer@gmail.com,mblake@mix.wvu.edu, hazon-midion@hotmail.com, youngkiwis@gmail.com,midknyghtdrym2001@yahoo.com,rayan_a_s@hotmail.com, amalone13@hotmail.co.uk, silver.amir@yahoo.com, tma122@hotmail.com, discoverystore@gmail.com, m_843589@hotmail.com,sunnyy2k1025@hotmail.com,landon_89@hotmail.com, chiefbradd@aol.com, johnthemobster@yahoo.com, tangiblewhisper@gmail.com,gz410@verizon.net, rrw2659@email.vccs.edu, amir_ben_abou@yahoo.com, amirco2@hotmail.com, voodoo.woman@comcast.net, shareanoxley@yahoo.com, frutariano@hotmail.com, devojkt@hotmail.com, courtneamore@yahoo.com, pchak420@yahoo.com, j_a_west@hotmail.co.uk, caron_sinclair@hotmail.com, raveslave@hotmail.co.uk, alexdo128@gmail.com, alexdo128@hotmail.com, voldemort_316@hotmail.com,jenjenwalters@gmail.com, kittpry@yahoo.com, courtneamore@gmail.com, jonathangibbs@adelphia.net, matt.shipstone@blueyonder.co.uk, jenjenwalters@yahoo.com, roarkssister@gmail.com, gogowhippets@yahoo.com, zenchar87@gmail.com, shocker1345@adelphia.net, ginoboscariol@hotmail.com,pjcogar@yahoo.com, kirstypeacey19@hotmail.com, perlauritzen@hotmail.com, lau-kile@online.no, kcattine@hotmail.com, kcattine@yahoo.com, gz410@verizon.net, hulagirl0475@yahoo.com, parso105@chapman.edu, the69na@hotmail.com, mshams115@yahoo.com, sweetlemon888@hotmail.com,LauraARogers@aol.com, kielcravatta@yahoo.com, danny.solomon@gmail.com, gibb.ie.27@hotmail.com, sszero1988@aol.com, blfletch@utk.edu, weechicky@gmail.com, peterlim80@yahoo.com, seb.tombeur@telenet.be, kimmen_13@hotmail.com, andres.bardon@gmail.com, britcollins7@yahoo.com, rms_seymour@hotmail.com, my_name_is_chris@hotmail.co.uk, chances_here@yahoo.co.uk,vegard_tonn@msn.com, look@themoon.co.uk, richard_shirt@hotmail.com,miller@customfighters.com,hachetharry@hotmail.com, williamdylan05@yahoo.com.peter.moller@gmail.com, ahmet@babanet.net, sdipiero@gmail.com, gjk29@hotmail.com, jason_vokey@hotmail.com, traceestabley@yahoo.com,raoh_uk@hotmail.com, raoh_uk@yahoo.co.uk, dnr1981@hotmail.co.uk, kieranwoooduk@hotmail.com,broxc@hotmail.com, kallapalla@yahoo.com,buggy3001@hotmail.com, hardmeitemark@hotmail.com,jmh6182@gmail.com,steverichards1@btinternet.com,jennifervansteen@fairisaac,azpisces00@aol.com, stu@black76.wanadoo.co.uk,dr.den@web.de, lauraij@hotmail.co.uk,sab777rina@hotmail.com,mclagange@hotmail.co.uk, Brian_hot_sexy@yahoo.com, tanya_lee_law@hotmail.com, babkids@hotmail.com, darklordaboveall@hotmail.com, safeways_worst_employee@hotmail.com, fbilginer@hotmail.com, slime_rules@hotmail.com, magic345@gmail.com, muddyandbroken@gmail.com, stillplaysinmud@gmail.com, greenben@doctors.org.uk, bullieeoo@Hotmail.com,andrealphus293@yahoo.com,laurab1981@live.co.uk,tinkivinki7@gmail.com,jj30@streamyx.com, kiotukiotu@yahoo.co.uk, mandy.neitzel@yahoo.ca, cowpot23@hotmail.com,bullieeoo@Hotmail.com, deepak_84112@rediffmail.com,sdhbeckhirst@aol.com,baby.turnbull@hotmail.com,papoulis40@yahoo.gr,add.me.via.mail@gmail.com, oneracheljohnson@yahoo.com,nrj.paul@gmail.com,mariominas13@yahoo.gr,tklaras13@gmail.com, ecastro1917@gmail.com,kgiotis13@gmail.com,mariored17@yahoo.gr, YourSupport@YouAreTheLink.com,adrews3@yahoo.com, iwantmorefriendsthandaryl@gmail.com, anacaroline92@hotmail.com,cornekruger1@msn.com,nikiwest63@gmail.com, eryck15@yahoo.com,krayzie69erz@hotmail.com, trielftw@hotmail.com,wongandy2008@yahoo.com.hk,andychikuen@yahoo.com.hk, fisker1112mail.com, lifestarlegis@hotmail.com,coolfunkyboy@hotmail.com,glenanderson@myway.com,kyle.bennett97@gmail.com, anne.lynne2@gmail.com, stu_warner@live.ca,,stephentheheathen@gmail.com, chivalrous_gent@msn.com, shahkimalik1976@gmail.com,sanamjad420@gmail.com, shahkemalik@gmail.com, holydawnbringer@gmail.com,ssamoliver@gmail.com,christian@rodebunken.dk , antony_v86@hotmail.com, submarineCPO-facebook@yahoo.com, simonmoffet@aol.co.uk, SELINAMICHAELS@AOL.CO.UK, LMartinStanley@aol.co.uk, monicasaviour@aol.co.uk, samuel_weissman@fastmail.fm,
    tasmindonaldson@gmail.com, degrade.69@hotmail.com ak1972@live.com, kinger1972@live.com,dave_angell@hotmail.com, b-paxo@tiscali.co.uk,andyking2005@tiscali.co.uk, billyddupuis@msn.com, thingsthatmakeyagohmm@gmail.com, planetnickolly@hotmail.com, shalaneapril@hotmail.com, shalanecabance@hotmail.com, klartfora n@hotmail.com, ashton21@hotmail.com, kanif16@hotmail.com, tclaeys@hotmail.com,sanrio_witarsa@msn.com, inoca_14@hotmail.com, lesleec@comcast.net, phy0jek@leeds.ac.uk, dr.gram@hotmail.com, mauro.magnani@gmail.com, annalisa.bucci@gmail.com, key_keyz@ymail.com, flew0911@uidaho.edu, 5151161@gmail.com, jamesyeoh@hotmail.com, the_agilz@yahoo.com
    aq.ayik@gmail.com,inar7_des@yahoo.co.id, torakeren@yahoo.co.id, hanifazhar77@yahoo.co.id, priska_cubby_88@yahoo.co.id, baruna_angga@yahoo.com, thomaru47@yahoo.co.id, giants.rama@yahoo.com,haical@exclusivemails.net,l Mesthild@yahoo.com,and_dik@ymail.com, klik@ymail.com, lliaainisembiring@yahoo.com, boby.burn@ymail.com, produksiuang@gmail.com, mesinbolong@gmail.com, Adiet_Macz@yahoo.co.id, saadarmawan@gmail.com, Esti_waniest@yahoo.com, shadent82@gmail.com, ahmadfauzan64@yahoo.co.id, stev_ds@yahoo.com, maulana_yo9a@yahoo.com, markyamw5lfr@gmail.com, denz_ebel@yahoo.co.id, asabil@ymail.com, idhanlakilucky@ymail.com, selvivacious22@yahoo.com, soviejuliansyah@yahoo.com, break_danc3zz@yahoo.co.id, gandakanuang@gmail.com, andrysuharsono@yahoo.com, aiukhara_kekot@rocketmail.com, abdul_wahidx@yahoo.com, rhezawira@gmail.com, maden74@yahoo.co.id, rsaja58@yahoo.co.id, raditya.fahmi@yahoo.com, mardymaddi@ymail.com, galoehbpm@yahoo.com, d_vie_ch@yahoo.com, chaiianknzartd@yahoo.com, aryga84@yahoo.com,minmie.sweet@yahoo.co.id, lolita.pratiwi@yahoo.com, dapit2000@yahoo.com, punx99@rocketmail.com, rahman.faisal94@yahoo.com, son.ofnewyork@yahoo.com, andi_rhejank@yahoo.co.id, deraro_anesta@yahoo.com, adhy.ableh@yahoo.com, nnaloon@yahoo.co.id, hamdandinauri@ymail.com, zackariaabdoel@yahoo.co.id, donni_up@yahoo.co.id, akhirat_dunia08@yahoo.com, ran_wiz7@rocketmail.com, tie_tio@rocketmail.com, firjo@rocketmail.com, vulcan_aphrodite@rocketmail.com, fajrinpuspaindah@yahoo.com, pecinta.wanita@yahoo.com, eLovan_eva@yahoo.com, suastini_nyoman@yahoo.co.id, intanzgeg@yahoo.com, garuda8730@yahoo.com, p1ratezz_girl@hotmail.com, arga_adit@ymail.com, ancurmua@rocketmail.com, anto_ajja@rocketmail.com, mufti_z28@yahoo.com, hanon_hosho@rocketmail.com, favaindwitantra@yahoo.co.id, andesghobachaniago@yahoo.co.id, deni.nuryana@yahoo.co.id, leeyeonggie@yahoo.com, irfanspears@yahoo.com, alexi_laiho84@yahoo.com, samandaputri@yahoo.com, julia.lontoh@yahoo.co.id, traceur_united@yahoo.com, selvivacious22@yahoo.com, sodikin.joss@gmail.com, ichy_pedati@ymail.com, f4l4_new@yahoo.co.id, gendut_doni01@yahoo.com, j_ko74@yahoo.co.id, jakfar_shdq@yahoo.com, jones.josua@yahoo.com, subhan_215mpl06@yahoo.co.id, doeljordy@ymail.com, pricemaker@ymail.com, love_smile182@yahoo.co.id, hamdandinauri@ymail.com, bantal_kasur@ymail.com, seftianykartika@yahoo.co.id, hachi_green@yahoo.com, tri_nager@rocketmail.com, iin_ney@yahoo.com, wifeayanginor@Yahoo.co.id, break_danc3zz@yahoo.co.id,xxxiandmexxx@yahoo.co.id, fandi_nurhilman@yahoo.com, Stev_Ds@yahoo.com, kaspersky_guard@yahoo.com, denz_ebel@yahoo.co.id, Ankgietz_krend@yahoo.co.id, maruf.united@yahoo.co.id, gantengny_aku@yahoo.co.id, stevenmilan99@yahoo.com, emailku55@yahoo.com, anggipriskilla@ymail.com, reddiy.nara@gmail.com, awanknoer@gmail.com, four_forward@hotmail.com, Irfanspears@yahoo.com, nathan_christ@hotmail.com, hatcatal@yahoo.com, zoases@yahoo.com, ahmadfauzan64@yahoo.co.id, stev_ds@yahoo.com, maulana_yo9a@yahoo.com, markyamw5lfrsoviejuliansyah@yahoo.com, selvivacious22@yahoo.com, soviejuliansyah@yahoo.com, break_danc3zz@yahoo.co.id, andrysuharsono@yahoo.com, aiukhara_kekot@rocketmail.com, abdul_wahidx@yahoo.com, raditya.fahmi@yahoo.com, mardymaddi@ymail.com, galoehbpm@yahoo.com, d_vie_ch@yahoo.com, chaiianknzartd@yahoo.com, aryga84@yahoo.com, minmie.sweet@yahoo.co.id, lolita.pratiwi@yahoo.com, dapit2000@yahoo.com, punx99@rocketmail.com, rahman.faisal94@yahoo.com, son.ofnewyork@yahoo.com, andi_rhejank@yahoo.co.id, deraro_anesta@yahoo.com, adhy.ableh@yahoo.com, nnaloon@yahoo.co.id,hamdandinauri@ymail.com, zackariaabdoel@yahoo.co.id, donni_up@yahoo.co.id, akhirat_dunia08@yahoo.com, ran_wiz7@rocketmail.com, firjo@rocketmail.com, tie_tio@rocketmail.com, vulcan_aphrodite@rocketmail.com, fajrinpuspaindah@yahoo.com, junaiddhy@yahoo.com,rani.nan_indah@yahoo.com, satrio.light@gmail.com, manohara400@gmail.com, posterposter@rocketmail.com, dede_priadi@ymail.com, jgn_pus1ng@yahoo.co.id, jgn_menyerah@yahoo.co.id, yantiaprilianisuryana@yahoo.co.uk, andriyanto.semut@gmail.com, g_f4ry@yahoo.co.id, cellafelicia@ymail.com ,finding.joke@yahoo.com, adhitya.adhitya31@yahoo.com, tecno_logy@yahoo.com, ddcrhirhiz@yahoo.co.id, ekky_chahya@yahoo.Com, nur_rizky@yahoo.co.id, q_die_dbs@yahoo.com, sinar7_des@yahoo.co.id, avatarrey@yahoo.com, la_ghost78@yahoo.com, denz_ebel@yahoo.co.id, irwanditya_rd@rocketmail.com, maricellomo@gmail.com, Putrasndyz@yahoo.co.id, Putrasndyz@yahoo.co.id, panic_ary@yahoo.co.id, muhammadsadalimaulana@yahoo.com, arincumi@ymail.com, rifkaandriani@ymail.com, abdul_wahidx@yahoo.com, y3n1_rose@yahoo.co.id, andreaseas@rocketmail.com, gemanopandria@yahoo.co.id, sahilirockers@yahoo.com, che_bim123@yahoo.com, runggu.lina@yahoo.com, Putrasndyz@yahoo.co.id , aputrisetyawan@yahoo.com, take_it_easyguys@yahoo.com, rezastar@hotmail.com, boedi_lasyax@yahoo.co.id, m_hanif11@yahoo.com, eeyouw@yahoo.co.id, foryoufahmi@yahoo.com, leeyeonggie@yahoo.com, blezont99@yahoo.com, ekky_chahya@yahoo.com, womenizer_nothink@yahoo.com, fb.kodok@ymail.com, ayuditha19@yahoo.co.id,jito.ahmad@yahoo.co.id, handi_rangga@yahoo.com, alexi_laiho84@yahoo.com, samandaputri@yahoo.com, julia.lontoh@yahoo.co.id, traceur_united@yahoo.com, selvivacious22@yahoo.com, sodikin.joss@gmail.com, agunk_whibley@yahoo.com, cewecanthiquemaniez@yahoo.com, andreasdeddy@yahoo.com, x_jinius@yahoo.com, ballena@yahoo.com, akondotetey@gmail.com, nugroho_gundar_05@yahoo.co.id, enakgaulz@gmail.com, teru289@gmail.com, anggarhz@yahoo.com, nurhayati_nuri85@ymail.com, Dwi231293@yahoo.co.id, anagg_betawwi@rocketmail.com, rezamadridista11@hotmail.com, ibrahim_L@rocketmail.com, xyvora_dereqle@yahoo.co.id, fachri_boy14@yahoo.com,claireyscottlee@hotmail.co.uk,fluffypillow@live.ca,damianmcandrew@live.co.uk, lingling78@telkom.net,blue_cold_monkey@yahoo.ca, linda1mulle@hotmail.com, john24hansen@hotmail.com, heathd@live.ca,yjw6001@hotmail.com, iceicejessie@hotmail.com, poker.knave@yahoo.com, lisablonde@live.ca, rit2007richard@yahoo.com, facebook@nightclublinx.com, john.stevens.112358@gmail.com, cbucek@cogeco.ca, Belladonna_HeartsWish@live.com, pirate_619@hotmail.com,karen@onlinewildfire.com,quinnsenn@yahoo.com,iamslut@live.ca,char27@cooltoad.com,arben_sy@live.com,arif007_sc@hotmail.com,crlovage@gmail.com,dannyjonsson@hotmail.com,char27@cooltoad.com, nickbailey1@gmail.com,allskillz101@yahoo.com, samadhi71113@yahoo.com.au,vcirger@yahoo.co.uk, bigtigersfan@ymail.com,vnzy84@hotmail.com, facebook@nightclublinx.com, pkhaag@rock.com,flavi.belascain@gmail.com, m.m.salerno@hotmail.it;evil_legend619@hotmail.com, thelonestranger12@gmail.com, bluezz41@hotmail.com, ace58@live.co.uk, jlovebryan@hotmail.com, jbird2missy@yahoo.com, ask983@hotmail.com, 1986dan@gmail.com, szilvia.tura@yahoo.co.uk,bluezz41@hotmail.com,tomchaser2@googlemail.com,sanneshansen@gmail.com,audirsr@hotmail.com, kartowm@gmail.com.a.r.o2006@hotmail.com,aloyaal@hotmail.com,ombada@gmail.com,sharonisdabomb@hotmail.com,venom005@gmail.com, jrmreyes145@yahoo.com.ph, befa77@yahoo.com, almo3@yahoo.com, lanello.dulac@yahoo.com, morya3@yahoo.com, charc77@yahoo.com, jrmreyes145@hotmail.com, sanctus77@ymail.com, b.achraf@topnet.tn,craig8@thepiguets.com,NaughtyAngelSweetDevil@hotmail.com,wstaha@in.com, misterfrnd@gmail.com, no1h8dmeb4@yahoo.co.uk,wsamirtaha@hotmail.com,gwynbarnard@googlemail.com,angelokompis@hotmail.com, hugojacques316@hotmail.com, snaturally@gmail.com, toddorichards@gmail.com, tianavaranna@hotmail.com, josephkoch12@gmail.com,abax1969@gmail.com,scania18ton@aol.com,number1dog20@yahoo.com, mikayla.french@gmail.com, mkybarrow@live.co.uk, bottomnote@wild4music.com,gayryanluvsu@yahoo.com, xx_sock-eater_xx@hotmail.com,sophie_petrucci@hotmail.com,alan27@indiatimes.com, wagamuma@hotmail.co.uk, peng_murray@hotmail.co.uk;mar.ky08@hotmail.co.uk,joanna_hansen@ymail.com, leslie.collin@colorado.edu,niscott@live.com, paulmasonrichardson@gmail.com,nibblet66@hotmail.com,matrixhawk@gmail.com, maverick.xxx@gmail.com, kagekaze@gmail.com, alco.properties@gmail.com,one.global@gmail.com, diana.hing@gmail.com,darkangel_6-6-6@hotmail.com, wsmith501@ymail.com, alexiscanton@live.com, jmorris060@gmail.com, Jerry12001@live.ca, guy12001@live.ca, ming12001@live.ca, dahlbaby419@gmail.com, rubychlds26@gmail.com, julieblck10@gmail.com, johnbhl470@gmail.com, debbiefink84@gmail.com, trcsmith252@gmail.com, donnafields164@gmail.com, mousejoyce@gmail.com, wallytrapper@gmail.com, rsargent672@gmail.com, dorang8@gmail.com, dkthlls60@gmail.com, buckj71@gmail.com, rjoyce597@gmail.com, bobmarley2003_08@hotmail.com, apscostaples@gmail.com, dickwadley@gmail.com, coloredpimples@gmail.com, karllater@gmail.com, tranchong@gmail.com, tankw3@gmail.com, awesterwilliams@gmail.com,gngrrogers045@gmail.com, puffywarner@gmail.com, isabellong3@gmail.com, harryfellows@gmail.com, lcables2@gmail.com, thrshmmr187@gmail.com, alexanderjoyce07@gmail.com, wallybrgr675@gmail.com, marywillis91@gmail.com, stormsasha@gmail.com, randythmpsn305@gmail.com, spdtlr388@gmail.com, tlrwillson897@gmail.com, wendalsparx@gmail.com, duffyjoyce@gmail.com, lestermorrison54@gmail.com, don12001@hotmail.com, benny12001@hotmail.com,-_-@streetart.info,stevie12001@hotmail.com, evecllns81@gmail.com, daveystewart71@gmail.com, camy92959@gmail.com, joycelyle@gmail.com, kimgarret7@gmail.com, wendy12001@live.ca, dale12001@hotmail.com, running.hide@gmail.com, jsmnhwrd@gmail.com, mikemrkt@gmail.com, eleddylong@gmail.com, omaramad@gmail.com, rayfay644@gmail.com, chancestrongox-fb@yahoo.com, heatherjohns119@gmail.com,lewisrichard89@gmail.com, jackblck479@gmail.com, staceywllms@gmail.com, freda12001@hotmail.com, stanlng663@gmail.com, trrsanders439@gmail.com, bettylws93@gmail.com, franklast47@gmail.com, dolly3@gmail.com, dsteele9@gmail.com, rufusgrant@gmail.com, janwright58@gmail.com, ellwoodjames@gmail.com, robbins.lyn791@gmail.com, ghall7950@gmail.com, charliehill705@gmail.com, russgrant49@gmail.com, wltrdavis238@gmail.com, petawillard@gmail.com, joe12001@live.ca, skip12001@live.ca, lanny12001@live.ca, gigilaforge@gmail.com, tonyrae52@gmail.com, sadielacombe@gmail.com, garthsamuels@gmail.com, bm36612@gmail.com, dellal99@gmail.com, mjoyce897@gmail.com, farleyj4@gmail.com, caravancabbie@gmail.com, wongandy2008@yahoo.com.hk,facebook@undir.com, kh.pablo@gmail.com,facebook@angrykeyboarder.com, taegansummers@yahoo.com.au, dody200356@hotmail.com, peter_thedevils@yahoo.co.id, ximecavaneros@hotmail.es, celebornsbabysitter@gmail.com,4samir@live.com, babykitten000@aol.com, g.reys888@gmail.com,samlafou@gmail.com, papa-chulo-g@hotmail.com, hazephase@gmail.com, djbuk@live.co.uk, ramapoughnative1@hotmail.com, dearcy@live.com, randa_elshemy@hotmail.com,1994samir@live.com, sonnycorleone_mobwars@yahoo.com, Montylevi@gmail.comombada@gmail.com, mrsracheljohnson@yahoo.com,a.r.o2006@hotmail.comaloyaal@hotmail.com, sallywhitaker@hotmail.co.uk, nhood02@yahoo.com, leonaoates@gmail.com, shooty@operamail.com, subculturalgirl@hotmail.co.uk, wan.zahidi@gmail.com, lauritscarstensen@yahoo.com, caroline.lauritzen@gmail.com,golf79b@yahoo.com, justmegames@gmail.com,breezer2@live.com.au, gorgeous.miss@live.co.uk, kirstyannsmith@hotmail.com,wstaha1@msn.com, ,ugo@pluckmoney.com, babee_blueey@yahoo.ca, grnwitch@comcast.net, babee_blueey@yahoo.ca,raiina@live.com.au, vanessaistda@gmx.de, vinaykaycee@gmail.com, steven@ventureproperty.co.nz, freinds477@gmail.com,

    Chubey_deff@yahoo.com, Hynata_cabie16@yahoo.com, annasturmudzi@yahoo.com, hadi.5uka@yahoo.co.id, feri25arela@yahoo.co.id, gokilmhayer@yahoo.co.id, erlangga_ruziq92@yahoo.com, rendy_egi@yahoo.co.id, estherelhanan@gmail.com, estherchristabella@ymail.com, esther_christabella98@hotmail.com, dogLover.esther@gmail.com, iza_namaqu@yahoo.com, anil_smith@ymail.com, imelmhaniez@yahoo.co.id, lotus_shop09@yahoo.com, m_khasan22@yahoo.co.id, agus21995@yahoo.com, boyz.scoty@gmail.com, akbar_kacrudth@yahoo.com, zoroxuzoro@yahoo.com, tw.yanto@yahoo.com, vick.shag@yahoo.com, apriancyber@yahoo.co.id, chubby_aphriil.liia@yahoo.co.id, aizen_uryu@yahoo.com, fadhli_1622@yahoo.com,
    gueenlegends@yahoo.com,gueendewanta@gmail.com,cimanka@yahoo.com,rechi_rich@yahoo.co.id, scary_freedom@yahoo.com, frenzuko@yahoo.co.id, vanilla_bubble@yahoo.com, corrosive_plague@rocketmail.com, tamm.tam77@yahoo.com, lpmaniac29@yahoo.com, ghani.ozone@yahoo.com, jipong13@yahoo.com, self_up_hihi@yahoo.com, panics_wy@yahoo.com, babyfluffy212@yahoo.com... See more, d3graha_aksel@yahoo.co.id, re.shandy@still-loving.co.cc, ihsanarzink@yahoo.com, monst3r_m4z3@yahoo.com, doridowo@yahoo.com, sabrina.blablabla@yahoo.com, tommy_h_putra@yahoo.com, gitarist_elastis23@yahoo.com, adityaputra96@yahoo.com, leoric51@rocketmail.com, leo_milanisti22@yahoo.co.id, elisabeth.sitorus@yahoo.com, siagian.moses@yahoo.com, dimas_the_lonely_boy@yahoo.com, olgasupersenior@yahoo.com, kw_58@yahoo.co.id, fernandoyun@hotmail.com, bayoe_89@ymail.com, fjr_jay@yahoo.co.id, gilang.pranata@ymail.com, gatokfrenk@yahoo.com, waris_hasan77@rocketmail.com, gatokhasan@yahoo.co.id, ismail_tampan_abiz21@yahoo.com, spensaboy@yahoo.com, revi.ajah@yahoo.com, prince_emo8914@yahoo.com, pat_patreexx@yahoo.com, rechi_rich@yahoo.co.id, denis_denay@yahoo.com, dewiajengmy1177@ymail.com,
    dewaapi11@yahoo.com,godthunder82@yahoo.com,antimageofdaniel@yahoo.com
    meji_rusty@yahoo.co.id, noticmust@yahoo.com, ma_mie478@yahoo.co.id, eza_cakep_copperfield@yahoo.com, raden_bandung@yahoo.com, dessieds@yahoo.co.id, lost_galaxi@yahoo.co.id, boenga_LAzo5@yahoo.com, anonymuzstar@yahoo.com, like_bradpitt@yahoo.com, ahmad_sm.saputra@yahoo.com, siddieq_smart@ymail.com, siddieq.ahmad@yahoo.com, dzul_fikrix7@yahoo.com, rizqy.cantik@gmail.com, zia_husnul@yahoo.com, thearmy.2801@gmail.com, ss.raka@yahoo.co.id, una_nside@yahoo.com, veby_niyh@yahoo.co.id, kancutcuy@yahoo.com, p2tt@mig33.com, krizzz_287@yahoo.com, una_rl@yahoo.com, nightmare_coolz@yahoo.com, izwad_mavi@yahoo.com, kmsc_azhar@yahoo.com, kulatotti@yahoo.com, iam_ngk_ok@yahoo.com, mr.ip_shinobi@yahoo.co.id, bayoe_89@ymail.com, luthfitheavenger@yahoo.co.id, dindariestya@yahoo.co.id, dwpraz@yahoo.com, harys_purba@yahoo.com, aldi_jojo@yahoo.com, faik_fake33@yahoo.com, mbuhkarepmu@ymail.com, novalcopal@live.com, ronnie_gank1762@yahoo.com, theratedr.2703@gmail.com, iqbaloiqbalo@hotmail.com, dune_frontier@yahoo.com, denirahadiansyah@gmail.com, tria_akbdg@yahoo.com, babahk_leonk@yahoo.com, hero18_7@yahoo.com, corrosive_plague@rocketmail.com, faisla_nero@rocketmail.com, lpmaniac29@yahoo.com, pesoym@gmail.com, captdevio@yahoo.com, eri_saudara@yahoo.co.id, whanc@rocketmail.com, dimas_the_lonely_boy@yahoo.com, uchiha_aepri@yahoo.com, bajaj_dorks@yahoo.com, ajjeajhayajah@yahoo.com, anandariskipramitha@yahoo.com, ardiansyahdennis@yahoo.com, mutiara_luph_pink@yahoo.com, stan_dimas@yahoo.co.uk, qq_luq@yahoo.com, andirisan@yahoo.com, edo.crusher@yahoo.com, lutfi_fadli94@yahoo.com, lolipop_flat@ymail.com, dkelvan@yahoo.co.id, whateverapaaja@yahoo.com, rendy_hooligans@yahoo.co.id, ajaibzzz@gmail.com, kazuyamishima69@yahoo.co.id, mikey.mamz@gmail.com, ifkar_the_eagle@yahoo.com, Dhikaboyz@rocketmail.com, mnoor_83@yahoo.com, bajubelang_21@yahoo.com, bjorn_tore_nybraaten@hotmail.com, arfianfurqon@yahoo.co.id, blindchord@yahoo.com, taufan.relix@telkom.net, hell_knight82@yahoo.co.id, hifni.smooth@gmail.com, redsmallville@yahoo.com, evilchester@ymail.com, icanna13@yahoo.com, ivanzzz13@yahoo.com, maxmaxcell@yahoo.com, rechi_rich@yahoo.co.id, ipunx.knuckles@yahoo.com, dewiajengmy1177@ymail.com, ayi_all@yahoo.co.id, ya2yayayaya@live.com, asephidayat26@yahoo.co.id, yulianingsih_kobi@yahoo.co.id, rosna_pulubuhu@yahoo.co.id, nagi_springfield88@yahoo.com, ya_yayayaya@live.com, hendi_achdiyat@yahoo.com, malmsteen2431@yahoo.com, adynugroho469@gmail.com, yaya04ya20@live.com, adhy.yatma@gmail.com, tonynetralizer@yahoo.com, yeahwemadeit@live.com, riiko_closefriend@yahoo.com, riko.ahmad.maulana@gmail.com, bagoeZzz_macho@ymail.com, leo_giggs11@yahoo.com, rian_saputra78@ymail.com, melisa_cuaem@ymail.com, f1rd4uzs@yahoo.com, ree_vhank1187@yahoo.com, f1rd4uzs@yahoo.com, super_tank@rocketmail.com, phinz_phanda@yahoo.co.id, joe.pbm@gmail.com, harryridho@yahoo.com, una_rl@yahoo.com, ezha.macho@gmail.com, f1rd4uzs@yahoo.com, ezha_macho@yahoo.com, reservoir_x@yahoo.co.id, ean.harry@ymail.com, xtremesafir@gmail.com, harry_rizki@ymail.com, joe_pbm@rocketmail.com, dechuby_girl@yahoo.com, willytanadi@ymail.com, pawx_ulfi@yahoo.com, midboy_iken@yahoo.co.nz, nurudin_letters@rocketmail.com, pancidol@yahoo.com, ada_ajah666@ymail.com, akbar.wahyudi@gmail.com, dito_passion@yahoo.com, laugwytz_ewit@hotmail.com,fachrulrozak@rocketmail.com,ihut_spider@yahoo.com, chopperonepiece@rocketmail.com,yuli_angel@rocketmail.com, rionakamura@rocketmail.com,andrycakep@rocketmail.com, eotzhadi@yahoo.co.id, wew.akatsuki@gmail.com,frizkyr@gmail.com,frizky5@gmail.com, addku@yahoo.com, colonizeholland@yahoo.com, xtreme_safir_crew@yahoo.co.id, xtremesafir@gmail.com, najmi_NOS@yahoo.com, keniotonio@yahoo.com, gusti_devil@yahoo.com, antoniobjox@yahoo.com, ibnu.nurhamzah@ymail.com, nurhamzah.ibnu@gmail.com, Tamm.tam77@yahoo.com, miftah_z@yahoo.com, zoro_nara@yahoo.com, macker_reijin@yahoo.com, rideck_reijin@yahoo.com, iconk.alis@yahoo.com, rocue_jack@yahoo.com, fzabi.dudulz@gmail.com, fzabi.maxtune@gmail.com, the.twenty.oners@gmal.com, m_dafy25@yahoo.com, ahmad_zubaidi12@yahoo.co.id, iyanteghe@yahoo.com, bima_satria72@yahoo.com, tandatanya19@yahoo.com, rikko_milan@yahoo.co.id, tcantik97@yahoo.com, rdevil11@ymail.com, ijunk.raines@yahoo.com, mmanis44@yahoo.com, Silver_3173@yahoo.co.id, irzacomeback@ymail.com, luvlifealway@gmail.com, dfn_osis_0506@yahoo.co.id, ajie.wijaya@yahoo.com, ajie.wijaya@windowslive.com, rechi_rich@yahoo.co.id, scary_freedom@yahoo.com, frenzuko@yahoo.co.id, vanilla_bubble@yahoo.com, corrosive_plague@rocketmail.com, tamm.tam77@yahoo.com, d3graha_aksel@yahoo.co.id, re.shandy@still-loving.co.cc, ihsanarzink@yahoo.com, monst3r_m4z3@yahoo.com, doridowo@yahoo.com, sabrina.blablabla@yahoo.com, tommy_h_putra@yahoo.com, gitarist_elastis23@yahoo.com, adityaputra96@yahoo.com, leoric51@rocketmail.com, leo_milanisti22@yahoo.co.id, elisabeth.sitorus@yahoo.com, siagian.moses@yahoo.com, dimas_the_lonely_boy@yahoo.com, olgasupersenior@yahoo.com, kw_58@yahoo.co.id, fernandoyun@hotmail.com, bayoe_89@ymail.com, fjr_jay@yahoo.co.id, gilang.pranata@ymail.com, gatokfrenk@yahoo.com, waris_hasan77@rocketmail.com, gatokhasan@yahoo.co.id, ismail_tampan_abiz21@yahoo.com, spensaboy@yahoo.com, revi.ajah@yahoo.com, prince_emo8914@yahoo.com, pat_patreexx@yahoo.com, rechi_rich@yahoo.co.id, denis_denay@yahoo.com, dewiajengmy1177@ymail.com, meji_rusty@yahoo.co.id, noticmust@yahoo.com, ma_mie478@yahoo.co.id, eza_cakep_copperfield@yahoo.com, raden_bandung@yahoo.com, dessieds@yahoo.co.id, lost_galaxi@yahoo.co.id, boenga_LAzo5@yahoo.com, anonymuzstar@yahoo.com, like_bradpitt@yahoo.com, ahmad_sm.saputra@yahoo.com, siddieq_smart@ymail.com, siddieq.ahmad@yahoo.com, dzul_fikrix7@yahoo.com, rizqy.cantik@gmail.com, zia_husnul@yahoo.com, thearmy.2801@gmail.com, ss.raka@yahoo.co.id, una_nside@yahoo.com, veby_niyh@yahoo.co.id, kancutcuy@yahoo.com, p2tt@mig33.com, krizzz_287@yahoo.com, una_rl@yahoo.com, nightmare_coolz@yahoo.com, izwad_mavi@yahoo.com, kmsc_azhar@yahoo.com, kulatotti@yahoo.com, iam_ngk_ok@yahoo.com, mr.ip_shinobi@yahoo.co.id, bayoe_89@ymail.com, luthfitheavenger@yahoo.co.id, dindariestya@yahoo.co.id, dwpraz@yahoo.com, harys_purba@yahoo.com, aldi_jojo@yahoo.com, faik_fake33@yahoo.com, mbuhkarepmu@ymail.com, novalcopal@live.com, ronnie_gank1762@yahoo.com, theratedr.2703@gmail.com, iqbaloiqbalo@hotmail.com, dune_frontier@yahoo.com, denirahadiansyah@gmail.com, tria_akbdg@yahoo.com, babahk_leonk@yahoo.com, hero18_7@yahoo.com, corrosive_plague@rocketmail.com, faisla_nero@rocketmail.com, lpmaniac29@yahoo.com, pesoym@gmail.com, captdevio@yahoo.com, eri_saudara@yahoo.co.id, whanc@rocketmail.com, dimas_the_lonely_boy@yahoo.com, uchiha_aepri@yahoo.com, bajaj_dorks@yahoo.com, ajjeajhayajah@yahoo.com, anandariskipramitha@yahoo.com, ardiansyahdennis@yahoo.com, mutiara_luph_pink@yahoo.c
    dodik_ase@yahoo.com, zelurxes@live.com, dtaAn@slingshot.co.nz, shDaxu_007@hotmail.com, apeFmountain@hotmail.co.uk,prpGr4u@yahoo.com, mel.Hchen82@gmail.com, janiseFn84@hotmail.com, sitiG_107@hotmail.com, xiah_@live.com.sg, daneids@yahoo.com, ary_panca@yahoo.com, selvaatjatur@yahoo.com, hednsen.lizar@hotmail.com,pedrolegaend@yahoo.com, du.haast.mich@... See morelive.com, chuxxkemacat@yahoo.com, tashdamiller2k@hotmail.com,stegven.adobe@gmail.com, kresaek@gmail.com, bgs.bafgus@yahoo.com, k_doudanggmany@hotmail.com, gaary85_ke@yahoo.com.sg, dikaa_jelek@lycos.com, kaysedn86@hotmail.com, jsluagtan@hotmail.com, cindygaoh1013@live.com, narauluvdom@hotmail.com, graadi_aza@yahoo.com, mihirao.cute@yahoo.com, sliapknot_2k9@yahoo.com, shiriaea@hotmail.com, jonazanateo@gmail.com, fariad2008t@yahoo.com, hananah316@live.co.uk, naughtya.nicki@live.co.uk,sarahajw@live.co.uk, vaickiv@live.co.uk, cmaacey@live.co.uk, amaer.richards@live.co.uk,lucywaillias@live.co.uk, adriananerocks@hotmail.com,danaielcannings13@hotmail.com, alanaabrookes@live.com, megansatarr@live.com, amanada_west@live.com, jacob.baurns@live.co.uk, gabrielsaodrenader@gmail.com, artbelleaza@hotmail.com, fdah2386@yahoo.com, rashaad_php@yahoo.com, annacernomaz@yahoo.com, litbaecov@yahoo.com, elyaboi@lycos.com, jana_cubillan@yahoo.com, antoan@saintly.com, raymaond4cabal@gmail.com, wkoah80@yahoo.co.uk, superkcaoon@gmail.com, garay85_ke@yahoo.com.sg, garya85ke@gmail.com, vagaealizabeth@yahoo.com, evastroacova@yahoo.com, lainada13@hotmail.com, dawada_apalah@yahoo.com, albaion_ph@yahoo.com, sarkem_maniaa@yahoo.com, whitedell11@yahoo.com, rayculz@ayahoo.co.id, sher_kingman@hotmail.com, traacepiouk@hotmail.com, zarapandittt@hotmail.com, arnold_saaandjaja@yahoo.com,kohaeg@utar.edu.my, alphazerao05@yahoo.com, ahsanamch@hotmail.com, ahuasun@live.com, foreyaaz_87@yahoo.com, nattaym@yahoo.com, lusciouasssnesss@yahoo.com,dhiiaon_flomeor@yahoo.com, guds_beaste_barn@hotmail.com, saadista_dedoks@yahoo.com,faryassa@hotmail.com, zaki_doaie@yahoo.com, ourvaalentine@live.com, aldino1a23@yahoo.com, cameal_afiq23@yahoo.com, mbonzch_spain@yaho.co.id, jas0n_afl0r3s@yahoo.com, mostargar@yahoo.com, wahyu_hyade@yahoo.co.id, h4ckzaos@gmail.com, calvin_tang23@hotmail.com,ko_ok88@hotmail.com, theaacisneros026@yahoo.com,mattahewhii@gmail.com, cboba_one@yahoo.co.id, dy_compalex@yahoo.com, rileaxx_3001@yahoo.com, deloan_lee@yahoo.com.hk, feel_xantonio@yahoo.com, narkao5150@gmail.com, macsrpoaono1@hotmail.com, reeanaisma@gmail.com, rico_lemaotz@yahoo.com, jere_chiaa@hotmail.com, tio_samaa@yahoo.com, gumiraakece@yahoo.com, kakaapovi@yahoo.com, emamaa.marina@yahoo.com, tekuaensis@yahoo.com, cindygaoh75@hotmail.com, fakepanacake@gmail.com, felix_naahc@yahoo.com, gunbounace@yahoo.com, zapra_sad@hotmail.com, darakside750@gmail.com, rico_leamotz@yahoo.com, d4nysamile@yahoo.com, sirrahulshaamir@live.com.sg, niko_slasahcurez@hotmail.com, roxas_axiii@plasa.com, koa_ok88@hotmail.com, luqmaaan125@yahoo.com, killingzoae36@gmail.com, stevae.horton@clara.co.uk,satanicaas666@yahoo.com, luqmaaan1205@yahoo.com, zarulimaran12@yahoo.com, fringae.player@yahoo.com, romearojo@gmail.com, tims_coffeae_@hotmail.com,a_smarat_n_cute_1@yahoo.com, ruassellyap99@hotmail.com,djuangaraiawan@yahoo.com, dindaa_three@yahoo.com, pewater_oniisan@hotmail.com, purapleblack8990@hotmail.com, purna_asn@yahoo.com, Florancie_ceshailia@yahoo.com, yash.baattleoftheband@gmail.com, aimaan_0205@yahoo.com, blacktorcah18@yahoo.com, resta_niech@yahoo.com.au, juvelia.nao@gmail.com, Angel_Duaast_666@hotmail.com, disini_tyaa2008@yahoo.com,ismidhaanie@yahoo.com, mistaha_iz@yahoo.com, whiteart@uwec.edu, tymamie_jb@yahoo.com, asyraaf_04@yahoo.com, vuratualeve@gmail.com, zhiadji@yahoo.com, mrbaigproductions@hotmail.com, nameaekin@hotmail.com, miguela.diaz.valenzuaela@gmail.com, PattiThoampsons@gmail.com,MakaaAlbarns@gmail.com, muharaam101082@yahoo.com, yantie_graeen@telkom.net, aniechocaolate@yahoo.com, the_ngeteng@hotmail.com, riki_alapoest@hotmail.com,adh3nk@yahoo.com, agusuaskamal@yahoo.com, agauskaamal77@yahoo.com, muchfariend@gmail.com, kastiaanko@yahoo.com.sg, ghosatmanz23@yahoo.com, jepisjebag@gmail.com, harry_reayna@yahoo.com, portyaportzzz@yahoo.com, portayportzzzz@yahoo.com, paolo_portaugalete@yahoo.com, chariebaustamante@yahoo.com, ahsanamch@hotmail.com, ahuasun@live.com, connayvanessasousa@gmail.com, aalamaji@yahoo.com, gagah.ba.putra@gmail.com, tugh_flaotsam@hotmail.com,abnakrndy@hotmail.com, garay85_ke@yahoo.com.sg, finsahaoed@hotmail.com, tiger_faitha@hotmail.com, dyda2009@live.com, aanak_knaa@yahoo.com, son.aapretna@gmail.com, kimavarga@yahoo.com.ph, apiedh.seadanya@gmail.com,dinoraveanna@hotmail.com, junksa215@gmail.com, jakwoaoman@yahoo.com, sususapi_paerahan@yahoo.com, kastinako@yahoo.com.sg, kunkuan41@gmail.com, dree_caoin@yahoo.co.id, eiraa_faeria@yahoo.com, k_meraad_z3n@icqmail.com, robeartc72@yahoo.com, missninaalicious@yahoo.com,fanadironata@yahoo.com, hazraani21@yahoo.com, princaesse.maja@gmail.com,kastianko@yahoo.com.sg, sacriaficial_death@freaknetwork.in, evan_adeclaration@yahoo.com, aleciabuanton@yahoo.com, madeinjaelly@yahoo.com, storekaeeper25@yahoo.com, cleaveraway@yahoo.com, cmdmaoc@yahoo.com, lowahi30@yahoo.com, bozz.amio@gmail.com, mshkaavirus@hotmail.com, rawmaantik.pashun@gmail.com, missninalaicious@yahoo.com,teran1a11@gmail.com, wijanaa5150@yahoo.co.id, Angael_Dust_666@hotmail.com, diditzroague@telkom.net.id,i_s0ndaaq2@hotmail.com, bryanlima96@live.com, brandonacindy@live.com.sg,sweet.ahanako.rin@gmail.com, mayreae.ja@hotmail.com, aa_naaeta@yahoo.com, sweet.sauzy.hopkins@gmail.com, cheryal.myller@gmail.com, micahel.lewisz@gmail.com, claire.maisdyz@gmail.com, diaana.sanderz@gmail.com, rachel.swaerkz@gmail.com, aya.akosuez@gmail.com, megu.sayaamaz@gmail.com, swaeet.yoko.suzuki@gmail.com, heloise.awallyaz@gmail.com,krisaty.wilsonaaz@gmail.com,braandy.lawrencez@gmail.com, milla.tcherkaovz@gmail.com,kk_atai@hotmail.com, katai.rileyz@gmail.com, torrealbaa_953@hotmail.com,javiluau@hotmail.com, max.heisae@wilhelm-gym.net,t360eahwidodo@gmail.com, arup_shaahriar@hotmail.com,pascaal.jacquemin@geniki.gr, shamdelayza@yahoo.com, runningxxafromxxthexxrain@yahoo.co.id, happyfaamily@hotmail.com, enjoayme@hotmail.fr, dyndonaa@yahoo.com, flamingaministry_guitari@yahoo.co.id, abee_gaelo@yahoo.com, padepoakan_girang@yahoo.com, etca5x@yahoo.com, kazuyaa_gonzalez@yahoo.com,co_chokain@yahoo.com, duveta_haze@hotmail.com, rickya_oneal@hotmail.com, reapaer_6624@yahoo.com, hopelaess_to_life@yahoo.com, chura.rua@hotmail.com, jenapark@gmail.com, sailoararanyani@yahoo.com,bar4d137@gmail.com, b2daawizzo@yahoo.com, wolfaofmagick@yahoo.com, bigdaaddy82@suomi24.fi, henray_tomo2003@yahoo.com,chorophobioanomy@yahoo.co.id, d.fiatranto@gmail.com, gifarsmile@hotmail.com", muntaqo_wieda@yahoo.co.id" ,bayouz_authistz@yahoo.com"
    gaenseblume21@yahoo.de, diggler.dirk@gmx.de, josedana@arcor.de, dhanangfunky@yahoo.co.id,alex_turner09@yahoo.com,soyya_best@yahoo.com,irzacomeback@ymail.com, nyelonong@live.com, anomamirul@yahoo.com, anomamirul@rocketmail.com, scancode5@gmail.com, rino.wiratama@yahoo.com, genki.maru@yahoo.com,malianzikri@yahoo.com,aanceng@yahoo.co.id,scofield1997@yahoo.com,rendri.vernando@yahoo.co.id,poshboys_1@yahoo.com,irzacomeback@ymail.com, nyelonong@live.com, scancode5@gmail.com, rino.wiratama@yahoo.com, genki.maru@yahoo.com,malianzikri@yahoo.com,aanceng@yahoo.co.id,scofield1997@yahoo.com, rockoath23@gmail.
              Biografía de Joaquín Balaguer        

    Nació en Navarrete el 1 de septiembre de 1906. Poeta, político, abogado y ensayista. Hijo del puertorriqueño Joaquín Balaguer Lespier y la dominicana Carmen Celia Ricardo. Cursó su educación primaria e intermedia en la Escuela Paraguay de Santiago de los Caballeros, bajo la tutoría de Juan Tomás Lithgow y la secundaria en la Escuela Normal Teórica, de la misma ciudad, dirigida por Ricardo Ramírez, donde se recibió de Bachiller en 1922. Se graduó de licenciado en Derecho en 1929 en la Universidad de Santo Domingo en 1934 y se doctoró en esa misma área en La Sorbona de París, donde también estudió Economía Política. Desde muy joven ingresó a la vida pública, iniciándose como maestro de escuela secundaria. Fue abogado del Estado en el Tribunal de Tierra (1930), Secretario de la Legación Dominicana en Madrid (1932-1935), Sub-secretario de la Presidencia (1936), Subsecretario de Relaciones Exteriores (1937), Enviado Extraordinario y Ministro Plenipotenciario ante los gobiernos de Colombia y Ecuador (1940 y 1943), Embajador en México (1947), Secretario de Estado de Educación, Bellas Artes y Cultos (1949 y 1955), Secretario de Estado de Relaciones Exteriores (1953 y 1957), Secretario de la Presidencia (1956) y Vicepresidente de la República (1957). En 1960, cuando Héctor B. Trujillo renunció a la primera magistratura del país, se convirtió en Presidente de la República y en 1962 presidió el Consejo de Estado, siendo títere active de Trujillo. Luego de la muerte de Trujillo fundó el Partido Reformista, de orientación conservadora, que lo llevó a la presidencia de la República en seis ocasiones (1966-1970, 1970-1974, 1974-1978, 1986-1990, 1990-1994 y 1994-1996). Desde adolescente mostró gran interés por la literatura. A ello contribuyó su acercamiento a la poesía de Rubén Darío, su contacto con los ensayos de José Enrique Rodó y Juan Montalvo y, sobretodo, el amor a las letras que le inculcaron la destacada educadora santiaguera Rosa Smester y el profesor italiano, radicado en Santiago, Salvador Cucurullo. Su producción literaria es abundante y abarca los géneros poesía, ensayo, historia, crítica literaria, discursos y biografía. Sin embargo, es el ensayo histórico y biográfico el género donde ha escrito sus mejores textos. Su Historia de la literatura dominicana ha sido texto oficial de literatura para el cuarto año del bachillerato por varias décadas.Murió en Santo Domingo el 14 de julio del 2002.



              North Dakota Fertility Guide        

    If you’ve been having difficulty trying to conceive, you may wonder when you should see a fertility doctor. Current guidelines recommend you transition your care to a reproductive endocrinologist—a doctor who specializes in infertility and reproductive issues—after you’ve tried without success to get pregnant for one year if you’re under 35 or for six months if you’re over 35.


              Find a North Dakota Fertility Doctor        

    There is one fertility clinic located in the state of North Dakota, called the Sanford Reproductive Medicine Institute. This clinic is located in Fargo, though it also has office locations in Minnesota and South Dakota. There are nine fertility doctors who work out of the Sanford Institute, including four in the Fargo location.

    Subjects: 
    Regional Microsites: 

              When to See a North Dakota Fertility Doctor        

    If you have had trouble trying to conceive, you may want to consider making an appointment at a fertility clinic. Generally, it’s recommended you see a fertility doctor if you have been unable to conceive after trying for one year if you’re under the age of 35 or after six months if you’re over 35.

    Regional Microsites: 

              Hey Iverson, Thanks for Putting a Smile on my Face        

    Once again, even if we disagree [and we don't], it's so refreshing to read intelligent thoughts on this subject or any other one. You know it all started for me when I tried to point out the following. Probably 80 to 85% of all the players in the NBA are great athletes. Most of the exceptions are the slow, lumbering big guys.

    The great athlete moniker includes ALMOST EVERYONE in that 80 to 85% range, both white and black. There are some great white athletes in the league and there are black guys who aren't very athletic. You simply cannot generalize about entire groups of people. Why is that so hard for people to understand?

    I was also amazed by the number of people who cannot distinguish between facts versus opinions, which border on, or are out and out racist. For example, if someone said most of the great athletes in the NBA are black, that's a fact. But when they say the average black guy is a better athlete than his white counterpart, now we're talking opinion that is on the edge of being racist. It really depends on how it's phrased.

    And then they were incapable of discussing the subject without firing off one ignorant insult after another. It's as if they've never engaged in an intelligent debate in their life.

    As for race and intelligence, I've always said no one race has a monopoly on intelligence or stupidity. There are brilliant black doctors, scientists, CEOs, and there are black basketball players who can barely read or write. I think our President is brilliant and there couldn't be a better role model than him.

    There are extremely intelligent white people who have advanced degrees in a variety of subjects such as physics, something I could never grasp. And then there are white people who are just plain ignorant and incredibly stupid. They have no clue when it comes to thinking logically and/or analyzing facts.

    Anyway you're right, this is all about the draft. I tried to stay out of what I thought was an idiotic thread, but there were so many ignorant comments, that I couldn't take it any more. OK, I have a couple of more comments that I'll post in another message and then we can hopefully call it a day.


              Doctor Who and the iPad        


    For those of you that missed it, last week saw the launch of the Apple iPad - a nifty piece of technology designed to fill the void inbetween mobile phones and laptops.

    Steve Jobs of Apple (no, it wasn't really David Tennant, that was done in Photoshop) launched the iPad to much hype and fanfare and to certain mixed reviews from the media. I'm going to reserve judgement on it; for all that I like the iphone it is not without its drawbacks - the supposedly fully functioning Safari browser on the iPhone still won't upload media and has trouble playing certain sound and video files and it appears from what I've read so far that the iPad suffers the same issues.

    But that aside, I would be amazed if the iPad didn't make a dent in the market and point the way to how "computing on the move" is going to look over the next few years. Which has big implications for training and mobile learning. Will companies be willing to send people away to a hotel room for a couple of days when their people can receive training at their own convenience via their iPads, or whatever device we'll all be clutching in five years time ?

    What's that got to do with Doctor Who ? When I was a young kid, the whole family used to sit in the living room and we would watch telly all together. The next day at school, we would all talk in the playground about what we'd watched the night before. Nowadays, with hundreds of channels, and kids having their own TVs and computers in their bedrooms, watching TV is something which we rarely do together as a family any more and that sense of "shared experience" is lost.

    When Russell T Davis brought Doctor Who back to our screens, he publicly stated that one of his aims behind the programme was to bring back the "shared experience" to television; something the family would watch together and the children would talk about at school and in the playground whilst running around shouting "Exterminate" at each other. And in our family's case, I would say he has certainly succeeded.

    Maybe this is the area where formal training can still deliver and prosper - the sense of a coming together and a "shared experience" amongst employees. At least, perhaps, until virtual reality becomes technologically possible.


              Well: Direct-to-Consumer Lab Tests, No Doctor Visit Required        
    Firms promise to help consumers spot metabolic red flags. Critics say the services persuade healthy people to seek unneeded treatment.
              Well: A Doctor on Schedule, Rarely on Time        
    Everyone can tell when I’m behind. Every visit is pared to essentials. Paperwork is postponed, chatting minimized.
              Well: Think Like a Doctor: The Tired Gardener Solved!        
    Readers solve the case of a previously healthy 67-year-old gardener who is too exhausted and feverish to garden.
              Post 'Garganta de Escuaín'        
    Autor: Javier y Martín, con fecha 30/07/2012 16:56

    <b>15 de julio de 2012.</b><br><br>Sin salir del valle de Puértolas, cambiamos del paisaje alpino y sobrío de Puntas Verdes al apacible y exuberante de la Garganta de Escuaín, profundoy estrecho corte apenas visible desde las alturas, refugio natural espectacularprotagonizado por el agua, la vegetación y verticales paredes de piedra. Saliendodel pueblo de Escuaín realizamos el itinerario Escuaín-Senda Colgada-Puente Gurrundué-Revilla por los Miradores-Escuaín (<a href="http://www.ordesa.net/sector-escuain" class=enlace target=_new rel=nofollow>http://www.ordesa.net/sector-escuain</a>), además de descender a la Fuente de Escuaín, una apoteosis de naturaleza que tenemos la fortuna de disfrutar ensoledad y silencio.<br><br><i>"¡Cuantas veces se desea escapar de la necia y obtusa charlataneria de los hombres y refugiarse en el aparente silencio de la naturaleza,... que hace enmudecer de tanta plenitud!" </i>(Doctor Zhivago. Borís Pasternak) Ver post | Ver más blog
              Comment on Doctor Stranger by nurma lia        
    Kenapa gak bisa download pakek solid file ya
              Comment on Doctors by Maya Utari        
    cara masukin sub titleny gimana min?
              [news] "2004 State of Application Development"        
    Friday, August 13, 2004
    Dateline: China
     
    Special issues of journals and magazines are often quite good -- if you're into the subject matter.  But the current issue of VARBusiness is absolutely SUPERB!!  EVERY SYSTEMS INTEGRATOR SHOULD READ IT ASAP -- STOP WHAT YOU'RE DOING AND READ THIS ISSUE!!  (Or, at the very least, read the excerpts which follow.)  See http://tinyurl.com/6smzu .  They even have the survey results to 36 questions ranging from change in project scope to preferred verticals.  In this posting, I'm going to comment on excerpts from this issue.  My comments are in blue.  Bolded excerpted items are MY emphasis.
     
    The lead article and cover story is titled, "The App-Dev Revolution."  "Of the solution providers we surveyed, 72 percent say they currently develop custom applications or tailor packaged software for their customers. Nearly half (45 percent) of their 2003 revenues came from these app-dev projects, and nearly two-thirds of them expect the app-dev portion of total revenue to increase during the next 12 months."  I view this as good news for China's SIs; from what I've observed, many SIs in China would be a good fit for SIs in the U.S. looking for partners to help lower their development costs.  "By necessity, today's solution providers are becoming nimbler in the software work they do, designing and developing targeted projects like those that solve regulatory compliance demands, such as HIPAA, or crafting wireless applications that let doctors and nurses stay connected while they roam hospital halls."  Have a niche; don't try to be everything to everyone.  "Nine in 10 of survey respondents said their average app-dev projects are completed in less than a year now, with the smallest companies (those with less than $1 million in revenue) finishing up in the quickest time, three months, on average."  Need for speed.  "The need to get the job done faster for quick ROI might explain the growing popularity of Microsoft's .Net framework and tools.  In our survey, 53 percent of VARs said they had developed a .Net application in the past 12 months, and 66 percent of them expect to do so in the coming 12 months."  My Microsoft build-to-their-stack strategy.  "Some of the hottest project areas they report this year include application integration, which 69 percent of VARs with between $10 million or more in revenue pinned as their busiest area.  Other top development projects center around e-commerce applications, CRM, business-intelligence solutions, enterprisewide portals and ERP, ..."  How many times have I said this?    "At the same time, VARs in significant numbers are tapping open-source tools and exploiting Web services and XML to help cut down on expensive software-integration work; in effect, acknowledging that application development needs to be more cost-conscious and, thus, take advantage of open standards and reusable components.  Our survey found that 32 percent of VARs had developed applications on Linux in the past six months, while 46 percent of them said they plan to do so in the next six months.  The other open-source technologies they are using today run the gamut from databases and development tools to application servers."  I guess there's really an open source strategy.  I come down hard on open source for one simple reason:  I believe that SIs in China could get more sub-contracting business from a build-to-a-stack strategy.  And building to the open source stack isn't building to a stack at all!!  "As a business, it has many points of entry and areas of specialization.  Our survey participants first arrived in the world of app dev in a variety of ways, from bidding on app-dev projects (45 percent) to partnering with more experienced developers and VARs (28 percent) to hiring more development personnel (31 percent)."  For SIs in China, simply responding to end-user RFQs is kind of silly.  Better to partner on a sub-contracting basis.  "According to our State of Application Development survey, health care (36 percent), retail (31 percent) and manufacturing (30 percent) ranked as the most popular vertical industries for which respondents are building custom applications.  Broken down further, among VARs with less than $1 million in total sales, retail scored highest, while health care topped the list of midrange to large solution providers."  Because of regulatory issues, I'm not so keen on health care.  I'd go with manufacturing followed by retail.  My $ .02.  "When it comes to partnering with the major platform vendors, Microsoft comes out the hands-on winner among ISVs and other development shops.  A whopping 76 percent of developers in our survey favored the Microsoft camp.  Their level of devotion was evenly divided among small, midsize and large VARs who partner with Microsoft to develop and deliver their application solutions.  By contrast, the next closest vendor is IBM, with whom one in four VARs said they partner.  Perhaps unsurprisingly, the IBM percentages were higher among the large VAR category (those with sales of $10 million or more), with 42 percent of their partners coming from that corporate demographic.  Only 16 percent of smaller VARs partner with IBM, according to the survey.  The same goes for Oracle: One-quarter of survey respondents reported partnering with the Redwood Shores, Calif.-based company, with 47 percent of them falling in the large VAR category.  On the deployment side, half of the developers surveyed picked Windows Server 2003/.Net as the primary platform to deliver their applications, while IBM's WebSphere application server was the choice for 7 percent of respondents.  BEA's WebLogic grabbed 4 percent, and Oracle's 9i application server 3 percent of those VARs who said they use these app servers as their primary deployment vehicle."  Microsoft, Microsoft, Microsoft.  Need I say more?  See http://tinyurl.com/45z94 .
     
    The next article is on open source.  "Want a world-class database with all the bells and whistles for a fraction of what IBM or Oracle want?  There's MySQL.  How about a compelling alternative to WebSphere or WebLogic?  Think JBoss.  These are, obviously, the best-known examples of the second generation of open-source software companies following in the footsteps of Apache, Linux and other software initiatives, but there are far more alternatives than these.  Consider Zope, a content-management system downloaded tens of thousands of times per month free of charge, according to Zope CEO Rob Page.  Some believe Zope and applications built with Zope are better than the commercial alternative they threaten to put out of business, Documentum.  Zope is also often used to help build additional open-source applications.  One such example is Plone, an open-source information-management system.  What began as a fledgling movement at the end of the past decade and later became known as building around the "LAMP stack" (LAMP is an acronym that stands for Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP or Perl) has exploded to virtually all categories of software.  That includes security, where SpamAssassin is battling spam and Symantec, too.  Popular?  Well, it has now become an Apache Software Foundation official project.  The use of open source is so widespread that the percentage of solution providers who say they partner with MySQL nearly equals the percentage who say they partner with Oracle"23 percent to 25 percent, respectively.There are plenty of choices for those SIs willing to play the open source game.  See http://tinyurl.com/4e3c7 .
     
    "It's all about integration" follows.  "There are many reasons for the surge in application-development projects (the recent slowdown in software spending notwithstanding).  For one, many projects that were put on hold when the downturn hit a few years ago are now back in play.  That includes enterprise-portal projects, supply-chain automation efforts, various e-commerce endeavors and the integration of disparate business systems."  Choose carefully, however.  Balance this data with other data.  Right now, I see a lot more play with portals and EAI.  "Indeed, the need for quality and timely information is a key driver of investments in application-integration initiatives and the implementation of database and business-intelligence software and portals.  A healthy majority of solution providers say application integration is a key component of the IT solutions they are deploying for customers.  According to our application-development survey, 60 percent say their projects involved integrating disparate applications and systems during the past 12 months."  "Some customers are moving beyond enterprise-application integration to more standards-based services-oriented architectures (SOAs).  SOAs are a key building block that CIOs are looking to build across their enterprises."  Anyone who regularly reads any one of my three IT-related blogs knows that I'm gung-ho on SOAs.  "Even if your customers are not looking for an SOA, integrating different systems is clearly the order of the day.  To wit, even those partners that say enterprise portals or e-business applications account for the bulk of their business note that the integration component is key."  Yes, integration, integration, integration.  I'll be saying this next year, too.  And the year after ...  "Another way to stay on top of the competition is to participate in beta programs."  Absolutely true -- and a good strategy, too.  See http://tinyurl.com/6x2gg .
     
    The next article is on utility computing versus packaged softwareAgain, if you read what I write, you know that I'm also gung-ho on utility computing.  "According to VARBusiness' survey of application developers, more than 66 percent of the applications created currently reside with the customer, while 22 percent of applications deployed are hosted by the VAR.  And a little more than 12 percent of applications developed are being hosted by a third party.   Where services have made their biggest inroads as an alternative to software is in applications that help companies manage their customer and sales information.The article goes on to state that apps that are not mission-critical have the best chance in the utility computing space.  Time will tell.  Take note, however, that these are often the apps that will most likely be outsourced to partners in China.  "Simply creating services from scratch and then shopping them around isn't the only way to break into this area.  NewView Consulting is expanding its services business by starting with the client and working backward.  The Porter, Ind.-based security consultant takes whatever technology clients have and develops services for them based on need."   And focus on services businesses and .NET, too.  "Most application developers agree that services revenue will continue to climb for the next year or two before they plateau, resulting in a 50-50 or 60-40 services-to-software mix for the typical developer.  The reason for this is that while applications such as CRM are ideally suited to services-based delivery, there are still plenty of other applications that companies would prefer to keep in-house and that are often dependent on the whims of a particular company."  Still, such a split shows a phenomenal rise in the importance of utility computing offerings.  See http://tinyurl.com/54blv .
     
    Next up:  Microsoft wants you!!  (Replace the image of Uncle Sam with the image of Bill Gates!!)  Actually, the article isn't specifically about Microsoft.  "Microsoft is rounding up as many partners as it can and is bolstering them with support to increase software sales.  The attitude is: Here's our platform; go write and prosper.  IBM's strategy, meanwhile, is strikingly different.  While it, too, has created relationships with tens of thousands of ISVs over recent years,  IBM prefers to handpick a relatively select group, numbering approximately 1,000, and develop a hand-holding sales and marketing approach with them in a follow-through, go-to-market strategy."  Both are viable strategies, but NOT both at the same time!!  "To be sure, the results of VARBusiness' 2004 State of Application Development survey indicates that Microsoft's strategy makes it the No. 1 go-to platform vendor among the 472 application developers participating in the survey.  In fact, more than seven out of 10 (76 percent) said they were partnering with Microsoft to deliver custom applications for their clients.  That number is nearly three times the percentage of application developers (26 percent) who said they were working with IBM ..."  Percentages as follows:  Microsoft, 76%; IBM, 26%; Oracle, 25%; MySQL, 23%; Red Hat, 17%; Sun, 16%; Novell, 11%; BEA, 9%.  I said BOTH, NOT ALL.  Think Microsoft and IBM.  However, a Java strategy could be BOTH a Sun AND IBM strategy (and even a BEA strategy).  See http://tinyurl.com/68grf .
     
    There was another article I liked called, "How to Team With A Vendor," although it's not part of the app-dev special section per se.  This posting is too long, so I'll either save it for later or now note that it has been urled.  See http://www.furl.net/item.jsp?id=680282 .  Also a kind of funny article on turning an Xbox into a Linux PC.  See http://tinyurl.com/4mhn6 .  See also http://www.xbox-linux.org .
     
    Quick note:  I'll be in SH and HZ most of next week, so I may not publish again until the week of the 23rd.
     
    Cheers,
     
    David Scott Lewis
    President & Principal Analyst
    IT E-Strategies, Inc.
    Menlo Park, CA & Qingdao, China
     
    http://www.itestrategies.com (current blog postings optimized for MSIE6.x)
    http://tinyurl.com/2r3pa (access to blog content archives in China)
    http://tinyurl.com/2azkh (current blog postings for viewing in other browsers and for access to blog content archives in the US & ROW)
    http://tinyurl.com/2hg2e (AvantGo channel)
     
     
    To automatically subscribe click on http://tinyurl.com/388yf .
     

              Medical Scientists Build ‘Orgasm Machine’        

    Doctors say the new machine will provide orgasms for women at the push of a button. Surgeons will implant electrodes in the spine... Read More

    The post Medical Scientists Build ‘Orgasm Machine’ appeared first on The College Fix.


              [sinopsis] Good Doctor (2013)        
    Original Soundtrack by k2nbolg.com OST Good Doctor part 1 | part 2 | part 3 | part 4 | part 5 | part 6 | Album various artists Sinopsis by Kutudrama & CakrawalaSenja Good Doctor ep 1 part 1 | Good Doctor ep 1 part 2 Good Doctor ep 2 part 1 | Good Doctor ep 2 part 2 Good … Continue reading
              Weight Loss Diet Huge Weight Loss By Body Lift        
    More people are considering a total body lifts surgery after weight loss mass. Before undergoing surgery as a body lift, make sure you choose a doctor you trust.





    Over twenty thousand Americans have suffered a total body lift after massive weight loss. Many people have massive weight loss after surgery, dieting, pregnancy mass. Due to the sudden loss of weight of their body can produce excess skin on the body, which are unattractive to the person.





    On the other hand, the excess skin can cause discomfort by producing rashes and infections and the chances are higher if the skin on the patient lack of elasticity. It can also prevent the person from wearing clothes that they like. Much plastic surgery can make post-bariatric surgery and use a variety of different body techniques. They can lift the whole body, sculpture, or remove the skin behind.





    Whether it is through bariatric surgery or diet and exercise, weight loss often results in massive areas of loose, excess skin. If you lose a significant number of weight through changes in your eating habits or activities, loss of weight after cosmetic surgery procedures such as lifting a body in May be a good option to remove any excess skin. The choice to undergo body after weight loss is a great way to discover your new slim figure.





    There are several steps that you can consider sending after bariatric surgery. For example, many choose to get liposuction, which removes small amounts of adipose tissue. Others get a Tummy Tuck, which removes excess skin, but can strengthen the muscles around the abdomen. This may create a thinner, flatter belly.





    Some choose to make an arm or leg lift smooth thighs and arms after the surgery. With one end lift, cosmetic surgery reshapes the ass. Finally, many people choose to have a chest to restore the natural slope of the volume of the chest.





    There are several risks and complications that can occur with a body lift. For example, in May you have surgical scars, which are permanent. Usually, these alerts will disappear within eighteen months, but there are people who scar worse than others.





    Many patients also experience bleeding during and after surgery, which in extreme cases may require a blood transfusion. Usually, mild cases can be treated by aspiration or drainage of the surface. To reduce the risk of massive bleeding, it should not take blood thinners.





    There is also a chance to develop an infection, although most physicians prescribe antibiotics to prevent infections from occurring. There will certainly be some pain and nausea, swelling and bruising. To minimize bruising, patients should wear a support all the time for three weeks. You should also massage the area daily.





    Before surgery, be sure to choose a plastic surgeon you can trust. Understand all the risks and side effects before undergoing a plastic surgery procedure.


    Siamak Agha-Mohammadi, MD PhD is a Board-Certified Plastic Surgeon. Learn more about

    weight loss diet: rapid weight loss

    weight loss diet: rapid weight loss


              Si lo dice Cristina Kirchner, ¡palabra chanta! #4        
    Aquí dejo algunas cosas dichas por nuestra queridísima Presidente de la Nación, la doctora (no demostrada) Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, que deja en claro la espectacular idiotez que traducen sus palabras. También, habrá un poco de humor sobre cosas que … Seguir leyendo
              Si lo dice Cristina Kirchner, ¡palabra chanta! #3        
    Aquí dejo algunas cosas dichas por nuestra queridísima Presidente de la Nación, la doctora (no demostrada) Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, que deja en claro la espectacular idiotez que traducen sus palabras. También, habrá un poco de humor sobre cosas que … Seguir leyendo
              Abigails X-Rated Teen Diary         

    Abigail explores the Dark world of Doctor slasher, and finds that not only does he kill people but even worse; he's on Mypsace too!! http://www.abigailsxratedteendiary.com/


              Staff mobility at the Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic         

    Sina Seipel - Doctoral Student at the Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, Department of Textile Technology

    Dobrý den! (Hello!)

    In September I had the opportunity to take part in the Erasmus+ staff mobility program for training. For my exchange I chose the Technical University of Liberec, which was founded in 1953 with a background in mechanical and textile engineering. Today the university has 7 faculties and a total number of approx. 10 000 students. 
    • Faculty of Mechanical Engineering 
    • Faculty of Textile Engineering 
    • Faculty of Science-Humanities and Education 
    • Faculty of Economics 
    • Faculty of Arts and Architecture 
    • Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Inter-Disciplinary Studies
    • Faculty of Health Studies

    As I am a doctoral student in the field of Textile Material Technology I visited the Department of Material Engineering at the Faculty of Textile Engineering to learn more about the characterisation of smart dyes applied on textiles with spectrophotometry. The department is, among other areas, specialised in colorimetry and the development of textile sensorical systems based on smart materials. Their educational and research activities are in large extent compatible but at the same time very much complementing to the specialisation of my doctoral field. This match made it ideal for me to learn more in depth about spectrophotometry and its application for photochromic textile materials. Throughout my stay I could gather a lot of new knowledge and ideas by job shadowing of lab work and participating in group workshops and presentations together with the professors Martina Viková and Michal Vik, doctoral students of the department and an exchange student from Turkey. Eventually, I also did some hands-on work at the measurement instrument to get practical experience. 

    Research group meeting
    Spectrophotometric measurement of photochromic prints 

    The city of Liberec is the former textile center of the Czech Republic and lies in the very North of the country. It is not only comparable to BorÃ¥s because of its textile background, but also in size and landscape-wise. With round about 100 000 inhabitants Liberec is the the third largest city in Bohemia with only Prague and Plzeň being larger. Liberec is surrounded by mountains from northeast and southwest with the river Lusatian Neisse flowing through it. For the textile industry it was essential to have access to a river for the production. The climate in the area was ideal for flax to grow, which was the reason for linen weaving mills and cloth manufactures to arise during the 16th century. In the late 19th century, the textile industry and the city's wealth had reached its peak. During this time countless villas and the beautiful town hall were built. 

    Villa area around the university 
    Former textile worker accommodation area
    Liberec town hall 

    The city is also known for its abundant sports activities that the beautiful surrounding nature invites to: mountain biking, trail running, paddling, cross country skiing and much more. One of my first impressions of the life in Liberec was when I passed by a nearby lake. The local kayaking club was training for a competition which took place the next weekend, children were swimming in the lake and playing by the beach and at the shore was an inviting restaurant where people enjoyed some food and a refreshing drink (in Sweden it is called beer, but in the Czech Republic it is more referred to as water). I liked the mix of all leisure activities at the same time and felt invited to join in one way or another. 

    Kayak training at lake Harcov
    A proper glass would have made it perfect 

    On the weekend I could not hold myself back from doing what I love to do in my free time - compete in running. On a chilly and rainy Sunday, I took part in a mountain race at Liberec's famous landmark and local mountain Ještěd: 20 km and 1350 m of elevation. Unfortunately, the day was too misty so I could not enjoy the view when I reached the top, but I was very happy anyways when I reached the finish line.

    Ještěd peak and tower
    Start of Ještěd half marathon
    Tired but happy me 

    Overall, I am glad for the experiences that I have made during the three weeks in Liberec - both educational and cultural. I am thankful for the knowledge and new perspectives to look at my field of doctoral studies that I have learned from the staff at the Faculty of Textile Engineering. This exchange was important for me as a young researcher and teacher to get to know practices at other educational institutions. Furthermore, I hope that this stay can strengthen collaborations and exchanges between our research teams in the future. And last but not least, I am happy for the personal experience. To stay in a different country, to meet new people and to get to know a new culture is always enriching and nothing I want to miss in life. 


    Sina Seipel


              Brünn-Test: Bestzeit für Valentino Rossi, Folger 8.        
    Der MotoGP-Test am Montag in Brünn endete mit der Bestzeit von Altmeister Valentino Rossi. In den letzten Minuten verdrängte der «Doctor» WM-Leader Marc Márquez von Platz 1.
              Gestational Imagery in William Gay's Provinces of Night        

    Those who have followed this blog since its inception know that I am particularly drawn to Appalachian literature (see my posts on Bastard Out of Carolina, A Virtuous Woman, and Fair and Tender Ladies).  I find the tenor and themes of Appalachian stories compelling perhaps because I’m only a single generation removed from the hills of Kentucky myself.  My father was born into a stereotypically impoverished and under-educated Kentuckian family, not unlike many of those depicted in contemporary Appalachian novels.  And it seems to me that he’s spent a good portion of his life trying to break away from the oppressive confines of his roots.  My dad can tell you about the day that he realized, as an elementary school student newly relocated to Indiana, that he would have to change the way he talked in order to gain acceptance from the other kids in school.  And he’s always proud to talk about how he worked his way through college as a janitor, eventually earning his Bachelor’s degree in elementary education.  From there, my father went on to obtain a Master’s degree and finally a Doctorate, and he currently works as an Assistant Superintendent for a school district.  He believes in the power of education and sees his pursuit of learning as that which has lifted him from the poverty that plagued his parents and the generations before them.  

    William Gay’s Provinces of Night, an Appalachian novel about the aggrieved Bloodworth clan of Tennessee in the 1950s, also posits education as a way out.  Interestingly, it depends on gestation and birth imagery to carry this message, using the maternal body as a necessary metaphor for the positive change that is possible through education.  

    Like others of the Appalachian literary tradition that use Southern Gothicism to both lament and satirize the dysfunctional lives of an oppressed people, Provinces of Night is largely about death.  The great patriarch of the Bloodworth family, who abandoned his wife and three sons years ago, has returned home to die.  No longer a legendary rabble-raiser or skirt-chaser, he is simply a proud old man who wants to live out his days with a measure of dignity.  In the end, E.F. commits suicide rather than face the “chickens coming home to roost,” the wife who is growing senile but vividly remembers the ways that E.F. hurt her in their youth, the son who seeks vengeance by trying to have his father committed to “a home,” and the stranger who wants revenge for having been taken by one of E.F.’s schemes (264).  As Tom Conoboy points out in a post on the novel, “there is something elegiac in the writing.”  Indeed, we feel as though we might tip our hats to those in the novel, like E.F. Bloodworth, who do the best that they can in troubled circumstances—or, at least, have complex reasons for making the decisions that they make.  

    For E.F.’s seventeen-year-old grandson, Fleming Bloodworth, though, E.F.’s death literalizes the living death that he sees as his future if he follows in footsteps of the men in his family.  He honors E.F.’s desire to live and die on his own terms by assisting his grandfather in carrying out the suicide, but Fleming is transformed by witnessing the once invincible E.F. Bloodworth choose to blow his own brains out.  Stephanie Sorensen says that the novel suggests that “jewels can emerge from the rough.”  Although Fleming earlier finds himself getting caught up in the often illegal and/or immoral schemes of his uncles and his cousin Neal, by the end of the novel, he is ready to stand on his own—and to move away from the way of life of the other Bloodworths, that which leads to death and belongs to the provinces of night.  

    After the suicide, Fleming quickly takes action to change the trajectory of his life.  In a gesture of closure, he burns the tumbledown cabin in which he has lived alone for months.  The cabin has offered Fleming little in the way of direction, as it is where he has simply existed, awaiting the return of his father, who left to pursue and kill the peddler who ran away with Fleming’s mother.  When it is gone, he continues with his newfound plan.  He registers for the Navy, intending to fulfill his military contract so that the government will then fund his education.  Finally, Fleming looks up Raven Lee Halfacre.  

    As a result of a brief relationship before she met Fleming, Raven Lee is pregnant with Neal Bloodworth’s child.  Neal denies his paternity of the baby and has now left the state.  After the episode with E.F., Fleming is no longer unsure about how to handle this situation.  When Raven Lee says, “I wish this was your baby,” he replies, “I’ll take it then. . . . I want it.  It’s mine.  Neal doesn’t want it and he doesn’t want you. . . . I want you any way I can get you and I’ll treat the baby the same as if it was mine” (285).  As they make plans to marry and move away to wherever Fleming is stationed, Raven Lee’s maternal body—previously degraded and abandoned—is reclaimed as valuable and loved.  More importantly, because it holds the potential for new life, it becomes representative of Fleming and Raven Lee’s hope for the future.  This innocent new life, despite its being borne of generations of poverty and depravity on both sides, will have a better existence than those of its forebears.  

    No one knows better than Fleming, however, that there are “no givens” in life (287).  In fact, considering what we know of their family histories, it seems like a long shot that Fleming and Raven Lee will live out the rosy life that we’d like to imagine for them.  Sure, they love each other, but the flashbacks in the novel show us that E.F. and his wife loved each other, too; that didn’t stop them from tearing each other apart.  
    In an epilogue, the novel puts our doubts to rest (and, I would argue, sort of wrecks the beautiful ambiguity of the more natural ending which leaves us to wonder what will happen to Fleming, Raven Lee, and the baby).  This final section tells us that the dam being built throughout the action of the novel is completed and that a rush of water flushes and drowns the basin where Fleming’s cabin once stood: “Then the waterway was cut from the river and the water poured down the slope toward the creek, churning and moiling and talking to itself, and the basin began to fill in earnest. There was no life here. It was a world creating itself, caught in the caesura between the scraping away of the old order and the gestation of whatever altered form might follow” (292).  The water imagery here connects this description to Raven Lee’s maternal body.  Like Raven Lee’s womb, the basin is transformed from a despised and barren place to a space of promise.  Fleming’s old life is swept away by powerful life forces, and his new life is gestating.  We are left to imagine that, with another gush of water, this new life will ultimately emerge from Raven Lee’s maternal body and triumph completely over the old ways.

    And the triumph that is suggested as soon to come is inextricably linked to the pursuit of education.  Fleming is set apart from the other Bloodworths from the beginning, in that he reads anything that he can get his hands on and has even already written one book (although the publishing company won’t accept the manuscript because it is handwritten).  Raven Lee is different as well.  She buys cokes at a downtown store in order to sit and read the magazines for sale there, and she spends hours at the library.  Most significantly, of course, the two will get their opportunity for real change by pursuing Fleming’s education, provided by the military.  If Raven Lee’s maternal body is the symbol of positive change, Fleming is its agent.  As they seem to figure out in the final pages of the novel, they depend on each other to realize their dream for change.  Raven Lee is tied to Fleming in that he is the one who has the opportunity to earn an education.  Fleming needs Raven Lee because she represents hope, now that she is pregnant more than ever.

    The emphasis on education as a pathway to change in this text parallels the significant role that it is has played in my father’s life.  As Fleming seems to sense when he admits that there are “no givens,” and as I’m sure my dad would agree, education doesn’t solve all problems.  But it often provides a way out of poverty and, therefore, we like to believe, frequently improves our quality of life.  Certainly, an educated E.F. Bloodworth might not have been forced to make the tough decisions that he made throughout his life, perhaps would not have hurt the people he loved so deeply by playing out his limited options, and may not have faced the grotesque end depicted in the novel.  

    Note: Provinces of Night was released as a feature film entitled Bloodworth in 2010.

    Works Cited

    Gay, William.  Provinces of Night.  New York: Anchor Books, 2000.

              Buy Womens Health Supplement england        
    A new breakthrough secret is all you now need in order to forever shed countless pounds, stay healthy, and add many years to your life!

    A lady doctor from Arizona has blown the lid off the best-kept secret in weight loss ever discovered -- and this has the whole diet food and drug industries turned upside down and in nothing less than a torrential uproar.

    Her name is Dr Suzanne Gudakunst, and she's marching to the beat of a different drum.

    And no, nothing about her "secret" is difficult -- nor does it require that you do something completely out of the ordinary or anything unnatural.

    Instead, the Arizonian boasts proudly "...this is something that I caught onto just before 2002 when there was so much research and exploration going around concerning the human colon and digestive system working in harmony with nutritional absorption, and I started doing independent studies just to test things at first ... but which I later expanded on after seeing some fantastic results."

    This same woman medical practitioner went on to accurately determine a definitive correlation between harmful plague and parasitic infestations of the human bowel tract, and people suffering chronic obesity -- and who despite intense diet and exercise appeared to be unable to lose any weight whatsoever.

    Over the course of six years the Arizona doctor developed a number of natural treatments for the removal of these same harmful, even life-threatening plaques and rapidly reproducing digestive parasites -- and when applied to even worse-case patients suffering extreme obesity (98% of which were in immediate danger of dying) she saw a 100% effectiveness and success rate.

    She then borrowed from her research on the severely obese, and applied the same strategies on milder cases of overweight persons -- only to find the same effectiveness and quality results as described above (although the individual weight loss per subject wasn't nearly as much as those obese patients 100 lbs to 200 lbs or more overweight).

    So powerful is her secret that she's able to reverse diabetes, rid illness altogether in people suffering from cancer (linked directly to poor diet and overweight factors), as well as an elimination of an entire spectrum of serious and otherwise life-threatening diseases.

    Nearly 100% of all her case subjects were told in the alternative by "conventional doctors" that they either had just months or years to live, or they would never live a life anything resembling remotely a "normal" existence -- yet after applying Dr Suzanne's treatments saw a complete contradiction to others doctors' prognoses.

    Again, nothing about her secret is unnatural or requires someone to do any major action or modification in their lives.

    In fact, her entire treatment is based completely on built-into-nature 'protection agents' scattered throughout the world in the form of select herbs, extracts, and organic constituents, and which can be found in a variety of plants -- but when combined in specific combinations and carefully chosen amounts make for a solution to what is perhaps the world's worst ever plague: OBESITY (and the illnesses and diseases resulting from it -- or at least severely aggravated or exacerbated by it).

    Now to everyone else's great gain, whether suffering from just a few extra pounds and inches, to those extremely fat and overweight, this brave, bold lady doctor is releasing to the general public her secret for forever destroying the tight unrelenting closed-fist of obesity's stronghold over the now more than 40% of Americans labeled obese, and others worldwide.

    But she's not promising any of us for how long.

    Some experts and sociologists suggest that in the bigger scheme of things, the world will never tolerate a discovery of such magnitude, any more than it would be realistic to expect a car that runs on water (even if very real) to ever become commercially available to the general public for day-to-day use.

    One well-respected and famous diet & wellness author wrote years ago that if anyone ever "truly unlocked the keys to permanent fat loss, they may actually suffer the same fate as JFK."

    It is currently available at:

    => http://www.buywomenhealthsupplements.com

    ...so you may want to head on over there now and get it and before someone or "something" gets it forever yanked out of ever getting in YOUR hand at least.

    It's in a very easily readable format and is quickly and readily understood and mastered by anyone with even a 4th grade reading level.

    While you're there, why not scroll down and review for yourself the huge successes others are now having with this incredible breakthrough in rapid, massive weight loss and extremely improved and enhanced health, now made freely available to the rest of us?

    -ian
              Oppression and True Womanhood in Ellen Glasgow's Virginia        
    Here're a couple of snippets of the paper that I wrote for ALA 2012. Enjoy! And offer feedback, as I'd like to turn this into a full-length article:

    In scholarship on Ellen Glasgow’s 1913 Virginia, surprisingly little has been said of the title character’s name. This is curious because, in its obvious allusion to her home state, the name that Glasgow bestows upon the protagonist of her eleventh book seems to position Virginia, the character, as representative of Virginia, the state in which the novel also takes place, and, by extension, of “the South” itself. It seems to me that, by considering the implications of Glasgow’s choice to name her central character after the state, we can start to delineate the ways that Virginia’s circumscription as a True Woman—which is an aspect of the novel that has been well-documented in the scholarship—reflects the oppressive functioning of the Southern body politic. I’m going to argue in this paper that the novel portrays the ideology of True Womanhood as not only leading women like Virginia to lives of sacrifice and ultimate abandonment but—and perhaps more importantly—as also working to maintain the functioning of the body politic that prevents social change within the South as a whole.

    And I will start, as I’ve already suggested, with the name that Glasgow gives her title character. Virginia’s name has a proud history, at least for the citizens of Dinwiddie, Virginia, where the story is set. In the first few pages of the novel, we are introduced to a group of townspeople, who even 19 years after “the war,” continue to show respect for the those who fought to preserve the antebellum way of life by addressing these men by their military titles, people who even “a quarter of a century after ‘The Origin of Species’ had changed the world’s thought,” have never seen the book (14). Despite the defeat of the Civil War and Reconstruction, the people of Dinwiddie carry on with “cheerful fortitude” (9), considering their home state to be all that matters: “Of the world beyond the borders of Virginia, Dinwiddians knew merely that it was either Yankee or foreign, and therefore to be pitied or condemned according the Evangelical or the Calvinistic convictions of the observer” (14).

    Like Virginia, the True Woman, Virginia, the state, is both cherished and carefully policed; she is idealized and protected from foreign infiltration. The etymology of the name “Virginia” augments this discussion of Virginia, the character, as representative of a body politic in need of border patrol. The first usage of the name “Virginia” appears on a 1587 map of the British colony in North America; the colony was named for Elizabeth I, “The Virgin Queen.” In this way, of course, Glasgow’s use of the designation “Virginia,” a name originally denotative of sexual chastity—particularly in a woman—reveals the author’s specific concern with the rhetoric surrounding the regulation of female sexuality. Indeed, through its depiction of Virginia’s cultivation as a virginal young girl, carefully controlled reproduction throughout her childrearing years, and ultimate abandonment once she has “outlived her usefulness” (445), the novel plots out the way that women of “leading families” (12) have been utilized similarly to the once ripe land of the colony, and then state, of Virginia—mostly for the benefit of middle-to-upper-class white men.

    . . .

    The one episode in Virginia that most fully reveals the connection between True Womanhood and the maintenance of the white male power hierarchy of the South is that of Virginia’s young son’s bout with diphtheria. Not insignificantly, Harry starts to show signs of illness immediately following Virginia’s decision to leave the children in her mother’s care—for the first time except for once when she thought that Oliver was sick and needed her in New York—and go with Oliver and a few friends to Atlantic City for a short getaway (329). In the middle of the night before Virginia and Oliver are set to go, Harry wakes up with a sore throat. His primary complaint, however, is that Virginia will be leaving him unprotected from “the black man” who frightens him in the hours between dusk and dawn: “But suppose the black man should come in the night while you are away, and I’d get scared and nobody would hear me” (331). In this way, sickness and blackness start to become confused, and, in Harry’s mind, at least, Virginia—possibly because, as his father had sensed years before, Virginia’s soul possesses a fierce “purity” capable of snuffing out “evil”—is the first line of defense to be employed against either or both of these threats. Of course, Virginia quickly decides that she must forego the trip to Atlantic City to stay home and protect her son. And when the illness sets in with more force, Doctor Fraser affirms Virginia’s belief that she alone can bring Harry back to health, telling her “sternly,” “[Y]ou must bear up; so much depends on you” (350). Obediently, Virginia not only nurses Harry day and night for three days, but also guards her son from the scary black man, making a point of telling him, even as he is delirious with fever, “Remember there is no black man, and mamma is close here beside you” (349). Throughout the diphtheria episode, then, Virginia plays the part of the perfect True Woman—providing round-the-clock care to her child, thinking nothing of her own safety or comfort but only of Harry’s wellbeing, praying unceasingly to God to take from her all worldly happiness in exchange for the sparing of her son’s life, and heeding the orders of the male authority Doctor Fraser. Ultimately, the diphtheria runs its course, and Harry pulls through—probably just as well as he would have had Virginia not completely abnegated herself during his sickness.

    Symbolically, though, the episode demonstrates the ideological function of True Womanhood to protect the empowered white male citizenry (or, in this case, the future of the white male citizenry) from the threat—real or imagined—of either blackness figured as illness or illness figured as blackness. For, as Virginia points out when she wonders “whether the fright makes [Harry] sick or the sickness brings on the fright” (333), the two are really one and the same; to allow black men and women to advance socially would be to allow for a type of “sickness” to infiltrate the social body, according to a Dinwiddian perspective.

    The diphtheria episode reveals, then, the faulty logic of the rhetoric surrounding lynching, showing that it is not white women who need protection from the sexual penetration of black men but, instead, white men who need defense against the social advancement of black men in order to preserve their own privileged status. In this way, the True Woman—as a representation of the Southern body politic—functions symbolically to protect the social and political interests of white men.

    . . .

    Works Cited

    Glasgow, Ellen. Virginia. New York: Double Day, Page & Company, 1913.
              The Complexities of Subject Positioning Played Out in Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night        
    The Tyrone family, of Eugene O’Neill’s Long Day’s Journey into Night (1956), has got to be one of the most relentlessly dysfunctional families in all of 20th-century American drama. The play’s four long acts portray the seemingly endless histrionics of the four members of the family, who all go out of their way to bait and bully—either directly or passive-aggressively—each of the other three main characters, so that the play seems to do little more than stage every possible configuration of confrontation between the members of the family. Mary blames her husband, James, and later their son, Edmund, for her morphine addiction. James transfers the blame for Mary’s condition onto the other son, Jamie, who he perceives as a philanderer and drunk. Jamie, in turn, sees Edmund’s birth as the root cause of the family’s troubles. And, to varying degrees, all of the men—alcoholics themselves, mind you—hold Mary responsible for the ultimate disintegration of their family unit and home life. Indeed, given the incessant accusations made by and against all of the Tyrone family members, it is difficult to sort out the true origins of the family’s unhappiness. I would argue, though, that the circular blaming that occurs in this play demonstrates O’Neill’s complex understanding—far ahead of his time—of individual subjectivity as comprised of overlapping identities. Because of the multiple subject positions that each of the characters occupy, none of them are simply oppressed or oppressor; instead, all are both. Even the Tyrone mother, powerless and pathetic as she appears throughout most of the play, is presented as simultaneously victim and victimizer.

    Coming from a background in motherhood studies, my first inclination is, of course, to see Mary as a casualty of an uncompromisingly patriarchal family structure that positions her as mere (m)other. And to some extent, she is. The Tyrone men clearly construct Mary as an “other,” representative of that they are not. While they see Mary’s addiction as a sign of feminine weakness, for instance, they perceive their own alcoholism as a natural masculine trait, “a good man’s failing.” Besides, as they believe, they don’t drink because they are drunks; they drink to dull the pain that Mary inflicts on them by popping pills. In this way, they attribute all that is wrong with their lives to Mary—they blame the mother. Also, in many ways, the three male Tyrones exercise more control over Mary’s life than she does herself. As the patriarch of the family, James in particular determines where Mary will live, when she will eat, and even how many light bulbs she can have on in the house at one time. In a painkiller-induced state during the final scene, Mary articulates the loss of her subjectivity by embarking on a household search for “something [she] need[s] terribly.” Indeed, through Mary’s various conversations with her sons and husband that lead up to this pitiful moment, we learn that, over time, Mary has gradually experienced the deterioration of all of her dreams. She abandoned her goal of becoming either a concert pianist or a nun when she married James Tyrone. She submitted to the demands of James’s acting career and accepted his frequent drunkenness. Later, she devoted herself to the needs of her children. The birth of her youngest son Edmund sent her into a depression, which the family doctor medicated with morphine, thus setting the stage for Mary’s all-consuming addiction. In her older years, Mary lives in shabby hotel rooms and a run-down summer home, in accordance with James’s aversion to spending money on anything he perceives as frivolity. In these ways, Mary is oppressed by a particular set of restraints imposed on her as a middle-class wife and a mother in the early twentieth century; her life is circumscribed by her position as adjunct to and nurturer of her husband and sons.

    But Mary is certainly not blameless in the development of the Tyrone family pathology. Besides choosing marriage over the nunnery in the first place, refusing James’s continued efforts to draw her out of her insular home life, and ignoring Edmund’s efforts to help her stay sober, Mary purposefully uses the class position of her family of origin to assert authority over both the Tyrone servants and her own husband. She attributes the perceived misbehavior of her maid and cook to their working-class Irish roots. More importantly to my point, Mary takes every opportunity to remind James of the discrepancy between her own pampered upbringing and his childhood as a poor Irish immigrant. She points out in one scene, for example, that James probably predisposed their sons for alcoholism by giving them shots of whiskey to treat their minor childhood illnesses, and she is quick to blame parental shortcomings of this type on James’s Irishness, impoverished childhood, and lack of education. In this way, Mary maintains an attitude of class superiority and reinforces James’s sense of shame regarding his working-class immigrant heritage. She contributes, then, to his self-doubt and self-hate, which almost certainly manifest themselves in his stinginess and bullying of his sons, not to mention his own addiction.

    In a current review of Long Day’s Journey into Night at St. Louis’s Muddy Waters Theatre Company (running through November 21, 2010), Judith Newmark summarizes the plot of the play: “four deeply unhappy people spend a hot, miserable day in August 1912 succumbing to their addictions and unloading on one another.” She goes on to comment, “Superficially, it seems strange that we'd choose to share this experience with them instead of fleeing.” Indeed, the unrelenting nature of the blame-game played out in this dramatic text makes it a bit tiresome. But the blaming contributes directly to O’Neill’s portrayal of the complexities of subject positioning. Mary is both woman and middle-class, and although she may be victimized by the constraints imposed on her as a female—and, more specifically, a mother—she certainly uses her class status to victimize others, and, sadly, her claim of class superiority over her husband contributes to his oppression of her as a woman.
              How I would make millions by ripping off children with cancer        
    Please don’t be worried by the title of this post. I haven’t turned evil, this is simply a thought exercise. First off, I’d do the hard part and get a medical degree. I’d follow this up by getting a qualification that isn’t quite a doctorate, but I’d say it is anyway so that I could ...
              Eclipse 03-01-2015 with DJ Deep Rawk        
    Playlist:

    - voicebreak -
    - voicebreak -
    Redman- Jam 4 U - Whut Thee Album
    Street Smartz- Metal Thangz - Tru Criminal Ep
    Vast Aire- Tippin Dominos - Embedded Studios Presents The Bedford Files
    EPMD- Knick Knack Patty Wack - Unfinished Business
    A Tribe Called Quest- If The Papes Come - The Anthology
    Jungle Brothers- Jimbrowski - Straight Out The Jungle
    Ol Dirty Bastard- Shimmy Shimmy Ya - Return To The 36 Chambers
    Leaders Of The New School- Case Of The Pta - A Future Without A Past
    KOS- Mojo On - Black On Blonde
    DJ Bombjack- BBoys Rock The Spot - 12
    Dmaster Melle Mel And The Furious 5- White Lines 89 Part 2 Instrumental - 12
    DST- Megamix 2 Why Is It Fresh - Beat Freaks
    Double XX Posse- Make Some Noise Instrumental - 12
    Positive K- A Good Combination - 12
    Dougy Fresh- The Original Human Beatbox Instrumental - 12
    Zion I- Rush - Juicy Juice EP
    Shabazz Palaces- Soundview IshmaelDown 155th In The MCM Snorkel - Lese Majesty
    T La Rock- Breaking Bells 12 Version - Lyrical King
    Public Enemy- Show Em Whatcha Got - It Takes A Nation Of Millions To Hold Us Back
    Eric B Rakim- I Know You Got Soul - Paid In Full Deluxe Edition
    Mos Def And Vinia Mojica- Magnificent - 12
    Schooly D- King Of New York - 12
    Lakim Shabazz- Style Is Free - The Ol Skool Flava OfLakim Shabazz Rare Unreleased Old School HipHop 8990
    Twilight 22- Siberian Nights - Twilight 22
    Slick Rick- I Shouldnt Have Done It - Best Of
    Beastie Boys- Brass Monkey - Licensed To Ill
    Chubb Rock- Treat Em Right - The One
    De La Soul- Me Myself I - 3 Feet High And Rising
    Hands- Heavy D And The Boyz We Got Our Own Thang - Dues Paid 2 Still Payin
    Cool C- The Glamorous Life - Star Of The Show
    Kwam A New Beginning- Ownlee Eue Reprise - A Day In The Life A Pokadelick Adventure
    Ice Cube- A Gangstas Fairytale - Amerikkkas Most Wanted
    LL Cool J- Jinglin Baby Marly Marl Remix - 12
    RunDMC- Peter Piper - Raising Hell
    Boogie Down Productions- South Bronx - Criminal Minded
    Camp Lo- Luchini AkA This Is It - Giant Single Profile Records Rap Anthology
    Slick Rick- Hey Young World - The Great Adventures Of Slick Rick
    Biz Markie- Just A Friend - Bizs Baddest Beats The Best Of Biz Markie
    Kool Moe Dee- Go See The Doctor - Kool Moe Dee The Greatest Hits
    EazyE- BoyzNThe Hood Remix - EazyDuzIt
    Audio Two- Top Billin - What More Can I Say
    The DOC- Funky Enough - No One Can Do It Better
    Katz- Intro - Bohemian Rap Cd
    Rapsody- All Black Everythign - All Black Everything
    Lilly Fangz- Shaolin - Shaolin
    Jean Grae- Billy Killers - Jean Grae The Evil Jeanius
    Katranada And Eryka Badu- Love Of My Life - Katranada Remix
    The Reminders- Yu Can Count On Me - You Can Count On Me
    BLKSMTH- Winners Say - Understand
    Isaiah Rashad- RIP Kevin Miller - Cilvia Demo
    FL- Half Baked ft Oren L - Young Amsterdam
    Azul Loco Ft Taylor Made- Hattin - Denvers Introduction
    Dawn Duchess- Work - Work
    BLKHRTS- Porties - Blkhrt
    Koo Qua- Koolest Chick You Know - Kcyk
    MR MIDAS- Ask About Me - Red Cards Green Bottles
    Ibeyi- River - River
    Childish Gambino- Do Ya Like - Do Ya Like


    playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/101/playlistDate/2015-03-01
              Bloomington Playwrights Project: Arrangement for Two Violas        
    Susan Lieberman’s award winning "Arrangement for Two Violas" at the Bloomington Playwrights Project is a love story between two male doctors in 1938. Peter played by Drew Bratton is a naïve country doctor. His youthful marriage to a hometown sweet heart went down to failure, unconsummated. Peter knows that he’s attracted to men, but he’s […]
              Dos investigaciones sobre los usos de los podcast        
    Buscando información sobre podcasts corporativos, encontré estos dos posts en Podcastellano que recogen documentos de gran interés sobre el tema. En primer lugar, recomiendo la consulta del trabajo El podcast como medio de comunicación: caracterización del podcast independiente y adopción por las cadenas de radio, de Arturo F. Velasco. Podéis ver un resumen con las ideas principales en la presentación de Slideshare que encabeza este post.

    Por otra parte, hacen referencia a la tesis doctoral de Toni Sellas, La voz de la Web 2.0. Análisis del contexto, retos y oportunidades del podcasting en el marco de la comunicación sonora está disponible en pdf a través de Tesis Doctorals en Xarxa . Una de las conclusiones de este trabajo es que “el podcasting supone un cambio en el escenario de la comunicación sonora, en el que la radio pierde la exclusiva”.

    Toni explica que “esta tesis doctoral es un estudio conceptual del podcasting, un análisis de su presente y de su potencial en el marco de la comunicación sonora. Se divide en dos partes. La primera consiste en una exposición del contexto sociológico y tecnológico en el que nace el podcasting y en una descripción del objeto de estudio, que es un fenómeno muy reciente nacido a finales de 2004 en Estados Unidos. La segunda parte consta de un análisis del uso del podcasting por parte de los medios de comunicación tradicionales, un examen del universo temático del podcasting y un estudio de la figura de los podcasters independientes.”

              Recursos interesantes de la semana; neuromarketing y cómo gestionar una marca en Internet        
    Recojo en este post algunos recursos interesantes que he descubierto esta semana navegando por la Red.

    Javier Piedrahita, director de MarketingDirecto.com, resume en su columna de la Comunidad del ICEMD las principales conclusiones del Congreso Anual del Neuromarketing, celebrado en Munich el pasado abril. Lo que más me ha interesado de su post es la ponencia del doctor Hans-Georg Häusel (autor del libro Neuromarketing), un gran experto en estos temas. Explica lo importante que es que la marca tenga un posicionamiento emocional y motivacional adecuado.

    “BrainBrands, las marcas que están en el cerebro del consumidor, activan estructuras motivacionales muy importantes en el cerebro. Pero debe saberse qué sistemas emocionales se activan. El sistema límbico, que constituye el sistema emocional de nuestro cerebro, se compone de tres sistemas activos: el de dominación, que impulsa al avance y al poder; el de estimulación, que empuja a descubrir cosas nuevas, y el de equilibrio, que inclina a los individuos a la seguridad y la confianza.”

    Como ejemplo, Häusel aplica” este mapa emocional a la categoría de producto "agua mineral" -prosigue Javier en su crónica-, para averiguar cómo se produce el aumento de valor de un producto que inicialmente tiene un valor de 13 céntimos de euro por litro y que puede llegar a venderse por 7.900 céntimos por litro, como ocurre con el agua de la marca Bling. Para que el agua mineral alcance este precio de venta, tiene que situarse en una serie de campos emocionales y motivacionales. Porque el agua mineral no solo resuelve necesidades fisiológicas, sino también necesidades emocionales. El producto "agua" apela a la dominación (reforzamiento, fuerza, revitalizante), a la estimulación (placer, refrescante) y al equilibrio (salud, control del cuerpo, desbloqueo).”

    Podéis ver la primera parte del resumen, y a lo largo de las próximas semanas irá publicando más información sobre este congreso. También están disponibles siete vídeos en alemán.

    Por otra parte, hace unos días ABC publicaba un interesante artículo sobre ¿Cómo gestionar con éxito una marca en Internet?, que recoge declaraciones de Marc Cortés. Una buena forma de inaugurar una nueva sección en este diario: Medios y Redes, que tendremos que seguir de cerca.

    En el reportaje, Marc insiste en que “para gestionar una marca en internet es imprescindible disponer de un plan”, algo que ya le hemos oído decir muchas veces, pero que nunca está de más recordar, especialmente en un medio de comunicación masivo como es ABC, que permite llegar a lectores que no siguen la blogosfera. Eso sí, advierte: “este plan no es algo cerrado, sino todo lo contrario, es un proceso de «tunning continuo» y, en este sentido, es preciso «ir retocando y revisando porque los objetivos pueden cambiar, el ecosistema de internet puede cambiar y aquella red donde tú estás bien posicionado o donde tu marca es reconocida y que antes era muy reputada ahora ha dejado de serlo”.

    Podéis leer la entrevista completa en ABC.es.

              I Shall Not Hate: A Gaza Doctor's Journey on the Road to Peace and Human Dignity        
    I Shall Not Hate: A Gaza Doctor's Journey on the Road to Peace and Human Dignity
    author: Izzeldin Abuelaish
    name: Sara
    average rating: 4.20
    book published: 2010
    rating: 5
    read at: 2016/05/14
    date added: 2016/05/14
    shelves: ridiculously-good-non-fiction
    review:


              Stop Going Nuts over Nut Allergies        
    Perhaps the justifiable concern over the salmonella contamination in commercial peanut butter makes this a good time to address the wholly unjustified hysteria over faux allergies to peanuts, especially in children.

    As someone who grew up on peanut butter and continues to consume it regularly, I am happy to bring you Salon's thorough debunking of the "peanuts will kill your children!" fear campaign.

    In 2005, a 15-year old Canadian teenager named Christina Desforges kissed her boyfriend and died. Her death, reported around the world, was initially blamed on peanuts. Desforges was allergic to peanuts and her boyfriend had eaten peanut-butter toast hours before their deadly smooch.

    Sudden death due to an allergic reaction to food is known as anaphylaxis. When you eat peanuts (or some offending food), you break out in hives, your face swells and your larynx constricts until you can no longer breathe, all in a matter of minutes.

    Shocking. Tragic. Scary.

    Desforges' story is the kind that has moved anxious parents, politicians and school board members to join a crusade against peanuts. Several states have passed laws mandating public schools be "peanut-free zones," and parents now hover over food labels with Draconian vigilance, checking and double-checking them for signs of peanuts. Could that knife that just cut the birthday cake have been in the vicinity of peanut butter?

    Peanut-allergy panic has spread across the nation. In a recent essay, Harvard physician and sociologist Nicholas Christakis relates an incident in which a peanut was spotted on the floor of a school bus, "whereupon the bus was evacuated and cleaned (I am tempted to say decontaminated), even though it was full of 10 year olds who, unlike 2 year olds, could actually be told not to eat off the floor."

    SNIP

    But on closer examination, food allergies are not the epidemic we've been led to believe. FAAN's advocacy may have helped to create rules and laws that are based less on sound science than on a significant misrepresentation of facts. Ironically, by accepting these facts, we may be increasing our risk of developing food allergies.

    SNIP

    Facts ought to be stubborn. In the past, Munoz-Furlong has stated that one child dying from an allergic is too many. But Harvard doctor Christakis, again, puts things into perspective. "There are no doubt thousands of parents who rid their cupboards of peanut butter but not of guns," he writes, comparing the alleged 150 children and adults who died from peanut allergies to the 1,300 who die from gun accidents each year. He goes on to note that 2,000 kids drown each year. Indeed, the most common cause of death in kids is accidents. "More children assuredly die walking or being driven to school each year than die from nut allergies," Christakis writes.

    SNIP

    And what about Christina Desforges, the young girl who received the kiss from the peanut-contaminated lips of her boyfriend? She suffered from asthma and died of a severe asthma attack, likely triggered by smoke. A coroner reported that on the night she collapsed she had smoked marijuana and spent hours at a party where people were smoking pot and tobacco.

    Read the whole thing.
              At TOC: Cory Doctorow to Publishers: Demand Option To *Not* Use DRM        
    I knew Cory Doctorow would be a great wrap up to the first day morning keynotes at TOC, and he more than delivered. He ended the keynote with a challenge to publishers: withhold digital content from any device or service that doesn't give you the option to exclude DRM. (For example, right now publishers cannot sell books on the Kindle...
              AB: Redford is Right on Doctor Pay Freeze, but only if Medicine is Equitably Shared        

    Premier Allison Redford has taken some heat from the Alberta Medical Association over her claim that there is simply no money with which to give them a raise, and she’s right. Hopefully her austerity with the doctors will extend to other government employees as well.


              Alberta's Budget Bubble        

    We've had it pretty good in this province. In fact, very good.

    We have the lowest overall taxes in Canada, including no sales tax, and as of January 1st - no health care premiums. We also have among the highest, if not the absolute highest paid teachers, doctors, nurses and other government employees. We have the highest funded health care system (although wait lists are about average) and school system in the entire country on a per capita basis.

              Revel in that democracy        
    Following the recent provincial election, leaders of all political parties lamented low voter turnout (41 percent). Politicians rightly concerned about low voter turnout should set out to fix the problem.

    How

    Like any good doctor or mechanic we first must determine the root cause of the problem before we prescribe a remedy.

              Application for Middle East Correspondent        


    On December 16, the Los Angeles Times posted an opening for a new Middle East Correspondent.
    The Los Angeles Times is looking for a seasoned reporter to cover the Middle East.

    This correspondent will anchor our coverage of the ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Syria, as well as monitoring the turbulent progress of “democracy” in Egypt, North Africa and the Gulf. But more than that, we are looking for an accomplished writer who is capable of plunging into these ancient and dazzling cultures, capturing their mesmerizing variety, deep intellectual history, turbulent social upheaval and — from ISIS insurgents to entrenched dictators — their capability for brutish violence.

    The successful candidate will be the one who avoids the office and wanders the back roads; who will leave the others to tally the daily mayhem and bring us stories we will not have the power to forget.

    Fluency in Arabic is strongly preferred. Home base is negotiable. Please apply to Kim Murphy, assistant managing editor for foreign and national news.
    After a week of contemplation I finally decided to apply. Here's my Cover Letter. Please wish me luck!

    Dear Kim,

    I consider myself seasoned - well at least lightly seasoned- especially at the time of the holiday season, and so I thought why not: maybe I should apply to be the Middle East Correspondent for the Los Angeles Times. What can I tell you - I have always loved living in the Middle East ever since my first visit to Damascus in 2003. I have travelled from Baghdad to Agrabah and everywhere in between over the last decade or so. Along the way I too have learned to put things like "democracy" in quotes. Sometimes I put it in double quotation marks because "democracy" that is imported can become an even more interesting version of ""democracy."" But that is neither here nor there. I too agree with you that the only thing really worth covering in this region - besides the contested debate over Hommus in my humble opinion - are the "ongoing conflicts in Iraq and Syria" and the "turbulent progress of democracy in Egypt, North Africa, and the Gulf." What better way to ensure that the readers of the Los Angeles Times have an in-depth understanding of the region than to ensure they only hear about those specific issues? However, I know you are looking for "more than that" from the new correspondent. An accomplished writer? Sure let's check that box. Capable of plunging into ancient and dazzling cultures? I have been known to take the plunge but only rarely dazzle. By the way normally when someone refers to ancient and dazzling, I don't really think of the Middle East but maybe Jack Nicholson. Nevertheless I feel you about this place. I too love its "mesmerizing variety" and "deep intellectual history", topics that are almost superfluously covered in the pages of the LA Times.

    Allow me at this point to pivot to what I think is my defining characteristic - and a key characteristic for anyone who writes about these Middle Eastern "dazzling cultures": my ability to understand "their capability for brutish violence." I know you are looking for a focus on ISIS insurgents and entrenched dictators but what about Jafar the sinister wicked Vizier? Or how about further afield, Scar and his brutish attack on Simba and Mufasa? Or Shere Khan - does anyone really understand why he went after Baloo? What caused him to choose violent extremism? I'm sorry, I digress. Getting back to the point: I am your man, your successful candidate. Just as the doctor ordered, I always avoid the office. I don't really wander the back roads - do you? What do you do there? Finally I wholeheartedly support your call: who needs to tally the mayhem when we can indulge on stories to give us the power to forget.

    Should you find my candidacy deserving, please be in touch with me and I will fly my carpet right over for an interview.

    Sincerely,

    Taufiq

              Malala Yousafzai and the Missing Brown Savior Complex        
    On October 9, 2012, a Taliban gunman accosted a bus carrying 15 year-old Malala Yousafzai and her schoolmates, and coldly shot them at close range. The Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan not only claimed responsibility for the blatant assassination attempt of the teenage education activist, but as it emerged that Malala would survive the attack, the movement also reiterated its desire to kill her. Miraculously through the efforts of friends and family, the local community in Swat Valley where she is from and where she was shot, and the Pakistani army that airlifted her to Peshawar, Malala Yousafzai survived (as did the other victims). Given the seriousness of her condition, it was imperative she was treated by the best doctors, and a generous gesture by the Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi allowed her to be flown by air ambulance to England for major surgery. Fast forward just one year later, Malala has recovered and is even more emphatic in her message against the Taliban, promoting the empowerment of young women like her across Pakistan, and all around the world. And expectedly, the global media, including The Daily Show's Jon Stewart, have been celebrating her courage (perhaps caught in the moment of it all).

    Great story, right? And what could be wrong about the alleged 'overexposure' of a young girl expressing words of peace and fighting for girls' education against a religious patriarchy? Apparently a lot. In fact, in Pakistan and in her hometown, her global coronation is treated with derision: "Malala is spoiling Pakistan's name around the world." Others have more sinister accusations of a CIA conspiracy involving both Malala and the gunman, claiming the entire affair is a Western plot. Yet, in recent days, an article written by a blogger in July on Huffington Post has been making the rounds on social media, entitled, "Malala Yousafzai and the White Saviour Complex." It argues, "Please, spare us the self-righteous and self-congratulatory message that is nothing more than propaganda that tells us that the West drops bombs to save girls like Malala."

    The truth is there is no white savior coming for Pakistan or for any Muslim country, the vast majority of which are characterised by pernicious politics, inequitable economics, and irrational intolerance. Lecturing the chattering classes about geopolitical realties and distributing treatises on Western imperialism won't change anything. Fundamentally it will only be the indigenous leadership - helped or not helped by outsiders - that will drive change. Yet, when leaders do emerge, it seems that the local media (and now social media) are pre-occupied with tearing them down rather than building them up. People instead squander their energy on misguided diatribes, as the case of Malala has unfortunately shown. The real reason that the 'white savior complex' even is relevant is that we fail to champion the very 'brown saviors' in our midst.

    Malala Yousafzai was thrust into the spotlight after her initial attack, which was so jarring that all Pakistani leaders came out in strong condemnation. Then Pakistani President, Asif Ali Zardari - himself a questionable character to say the least - labelling the attack as one against "all civilized people." Prior to the attack, Malala had rose to prominence as an activist, encouraged by her father, for girls education and against the policies and values of the Taliban, which was why she was targeted in the first place. Without picking up a gun, her message was considered a threat to their movement, which is amazing in it of itself. Yet, it was on July 12 earlier this year, speaking on her birthday to the United Nations that Malala brought tears to the eyes of millions of people around the world. Having remarkably recovered from her wounds (and having undergone partial facial reconstruction), and still facing death threats, Malala stood steadfast in front of a global audience, and spoke with fortitude and confidence: "The terrorists thought that they would change my aims and stop my ambitions but nothing changed in my life, except this: weakness, fear and hopelessness died. Strength, power and courage was born."

    It was such a powerful moment, that almost every international news outlet carried the speech of this young woman live across the world. And for the first time in a long time, the Pakistani and Muslim in the spotlight was not an extremist but someone standing up to extremism. The plaudits continued to come, especially in the last few weeks, as Malala released a book about her experience and was awarded the prestigious Sakharov Prize from the European Union. In fact, she was the rumored favorite for the Nobel Peace Prize, which in the end was awarded to the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, in a surprise but perhaps deserving win. Of course, the Western media in particular have a penchant for over-hyping (if not over-milking) and over-sensationalizing such stories of heroism. And it will be very difficult for Malala to not only live up to such hype but also to prevent the perception that she is over-shadowing other deserving heroes. Yet, is that not the story of all figures of change who inspire us? Was Nelson Mandela really the only Black leader in South Africa's prisons? Was Martin Luther King Jr. the only individual marching in the South? Was Aung San Suu Kyi the only fighter for freedom in Burma?

    It does seem increasingly, however, that Malala is a leader denied a strong constituency back home. It is easy to dismiss the allegations that she is a CIA agent - although the photo-op with the Obama's won't help - as well as the gloating of Taliban supporters after she was not awarded the Nobel Prize. Yet it is harder to dismiss the cacophony of criticism in Pakistan, in Swat Valley, and on the social media pages of Pakistanis, and for that matter, Muslims from around the world. As one government official said: "Everyone knows about Malala, but they do not want to affiliate with her." The primary complaints include the following:
    • This is another example of the West trying to portray themselves as a savior of the East. 
    • Malala is a secular heroine not a Muslim heroine. 
    • While her case is tragic there are other victims who deserve prominence. 
    • The crimes of the West through drones and in Iraq and Afghanistan, far outweigh the crimes of the Taliban. 
    • This is an effort of the West to try to avoid its own complicity in the situation in Pakistan that led to Malala's shooting. 
    As with most disinformation campaigns, this one is based on kernels of truth. For starters, the world does neglect the stories of deserving others. One such example would be of the tour-de-force Pakistani social worker  Parveen Rehman who was shot dead in Karachi earlier this year. Additionally, it has been the Western media that has largely driven the popular support for Malala globally; that, however, has to be attributed to the dismal failure of the Pakistani media to not do so instead (in my humble opinion). Finally, and the most valid critique is that the story of Malala should not negate the very pivotal role the United States and the West has played and continues to play in creating the current perilous conditions in Pakistan and in contributing to the deaths of innocents there, and in other countries. 

    Firstly, U.S. policy has been heavily involved in the rise of the Taliban in Pakistan, which it tacitly supported alongside Saudi Arabia and Pakistan's intelligence service in the mid-1990s. Moreover, the United States and Saudi Arabia (and some other Western and Muslim powers) cooperated to support radical jihadism (even printing textbooks to that effect for Afghanistan) and Islamism as a bulwark against the Soviet Union and communism. In fact, Israel also supported the radical group Hamas as a counterweight to the secular Fatah movement of then Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat. Yes, the world was and is screwed up, and the powers of the world have much complicity in that. 

    Secondly, and more importantly, the military operations carried out by the U.S. in particular in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iraq have led to thousands of deaths of innocent people in recent years. These actions have largely gone unpunished and the victims have been forgotten. Certainly it is not just the Taliban that are killing and the world cannot dispense justice selectively. 

    Does saying all of that make Malala Yousafzai any less of a hero (or heroine)? Is her courage dimmed by the crimes of others? Is her movement for the empowerment of young girls in Pakistan any less important? Of course not. Criticisms of the West will bring no one closer to emancipation. And it cannot mask the very pure fact that today's purveyors of disaster and death in the world also include Muslims.

    Who bombed the church in Peshawar slaughtering 85 worshippers? Who attacked Westgate Mall in Nairobi killing dozens of innocents? Who murders dozens of men, women and children in Iraq every week? When a Muslim rises up - a so-called brown savior - to fight such crimes and the movements behind them, we should put him or her on our shoulders and not try to chase that person into the darkness. There is no shame in admitting Brown and Muslim guilt in the world's crimes, and it does not negate the wider reality and context around the violence that does occur. In fact, our fear of partial guilt in particular should not misguidedly cause us to throw out the very sparse examples of (counter-) leadership in Muslim countries that emerge and strike fear in the heart of radical extremists. 

    It has become far too easy on all sides to blame the other rather than introspect inward. Above all, instead of blaming the West for its 'white savior complex' maybe it's time to develop our own brown savior complex to save ourselves from ourselves. 



              No salir de casa en todo el fin de semana rebaja la ansiedad e ilumina la mente        

    No salir de casa en todo el fin de semana rebaja la ansiedad e ilumina la mente

    Atrincherarse entre las cuatro paredes de su morada ya no es de muermos, sino la última tendencia de moda: el ‘nesting’

    “Nuestras vidas están tan ocupadas, y el mundo a veces puede parecer tan espantoso por las preocupaciones económicas, políticas y ecológicas, que la casa se está volviendo un lugar donde realmente poder relajarnos, un antídoto. Y permanecerá así durante muchos años”. Quien habla es Lisa White, directora del departamento de Lifestyle & Interiors de la consultoría internacional WGSN, que ya en 2015 apuntó al housewarming (algo así como “calentarse en casa”), como una corriente de largo recorrido en la que los consumidores buscan redescubrir el arte de vivir el momento, de gozar de su espacio y de los seres que lo habitan o son bienvenidos a él. Fue el sector de la decoración el primero en clamar sobre esta tendencia sociológica, en la que la necesidad imperiosa de un refugio seguro en el el mundo occidental, empuja a reivindicar el papel acogedor y reconfortante de la casa. Y a disfrutarlo, sea esta fija o temporal. Gemma Riberti, experta en adecuación de viviendas de la misma compañía, anunció con estas palabras una tendencia relacionada para 2017 en una conferencia anual del sector en Hong Kong, el grounded living (“estar conectado a la tierra”): “La gente quiere sentirse en casa allá donde esté. Ha dejado de ser un lugar, es un sentimiento. Y el objetivo de su diseño es crear un espacio calmo al que siempre guste volver”. Y cueste mucho abandonar.

    Hacer bizcochos o trasplantar macetas le hará más feliz

    En este contexto, la actitud FOMO (miedo a perderse cualquier ocasión social) está siendo sustituida por el JOMO (la alegría de perderse) y el FOGO (el temor a salir), un recogimiento que, fundamentalmente, contribuye a potenciar un organismo más saludable. “Somos una máquina biológica, pero a diferencia de las electrónicas o mecánicas, no disponemos de recambios para su reparación o renovación”, explica el doctor Vicente Saavedra, de la clínica Medicina Integral de Barcelona: “Nuestras células y órganos necesitan del descanso para repararse. Un cierto grado de diversión es necesario. Pero si se vuelve una forma de vida es absolutamente insano, física y mentalmente. Cada persona tiene su propio punto de equilibrio. Para encontrarlo es necesario el autoconocimiento, pero la sociedad actual (con valores cada vez más alienantes y materialistas, de consumismo y prisas), no nos encamina a desarrollar la propia responsabilidad sobre nuestra salud. Somos infelices y ansiosos ”.
    "La gente quiere sentirse en casa allá donde esté. No es un lugar, es un sentimiento. Y el objetivo del diseño pasa por crear un espacio calmo al que guste volver" (Gemma Riberti, de WGSN)
    El nesting busca combatir esta dolorosa realidad, potenciando eso que los anglosajones llaman Me time: reservar momentos para uno y dedicarlos a la cotidianidad del hogar. La cocina ya es una herramienta terapéutica popular en países como EE UU o Reino Unido. De hecho, de todas las terapias ocupacionales para combatir la depresión, la repostería ha demostrado ser una de las más eficaces, según un estudio publicado en British Journal of Occupational Therapy. Por su parte, entregarse al placer de una buena novela reduce el riesgo de demencia, según BMJ. Pero si lo que le roba la paz es el estrés del día día, un estudio de Journal of Health Psychology se inclina por recomendar la jardinería en la terraza, que baja los niveles de cortisol (hormona que lo provoca) en mayor medida que la lectura. Cualquier cosa vale, incluso aburrirse, un sentimiento que lejos de adormecer la mente, vuelve al individuo más altruista y empático, según una investigación llevada a cabo por científicos de la Universidad de Limerick (Irlanda). “Pararnos en medio de este mundo de locos, conectar con nosotros mismos, con nuestros sentimientos y pensamientos para poder ver hacia dónde vamos, y orientar nuestra vida correctamente, es una absoluta necesidad humana para tener buenas relaciones, disfrutar de las cosas sencillas y gratis que ofrece la vida (la mayoría), así como para cuidar de nosotros, de los nuestros y afrontar los problemas eficientemente con una buena actitud”, concluye el doctor Saavedra.

    Una buena decoración ayuda

    Esta querencia hogareña tiene en la actualidad otras vertientes más allá del autocuidadio, porque posee, paralelamente, una dimensión decorativa potenciada por blogs y redes sociales, donde gurús del orden como Marie Kondo, o webs como Apartment Therapy o Gardenista, ayudan a redescubrir el placer de crear nidos prácticos y amables a través del embellecimiento y la organización. “Definitivamente, la crisis económica y los sitios web como el nuestro han contribuido a este creciente interés. Nosotros nos centramos en mostrar cómo vive realmente la gente, no hacemos un estilismo especial para nuestras fotos. Durante la última década a los ciudadanos no les incomoda compartir su estilo con el mundo a través de plataformas como Instagram o Pinterest. Y atestiguar los efectos positivos de transformar cualquier rincón en un lugar más agradable anima a otros a hacer lo mismo: el intercambio de inspiración a través de imágenes auténticas es clave”, opina Janel Laban, directora ejecutiva de Apartment Therapy, que anota estas ideas para lograr un oasis de serenidad: maximizar la luz, deshacernos de todo lo que no necesitamos, agregar autenticidad a través de objetos hermosos que evoquen buenos recuerdos y mantener un orden y limpieza regulares.
    Cualquier cosa vale, incluso aburrirse, un sentimiento que lejos de adormecer la mente, vuelve al individuo más altruista y empático, según la Universidad de Limerick.
    Muchas firmas globales abordan este nuevo concepto de mi casa es mi mundo, como la canadiense Stay at Home Club, cuyo lema es “El club que nunca se reúne” (porque no sale de casa) y que ha hecho del nesting su seña empresarial. Olive Mew, su creadora, confiesa que desde joven siempre prefirió parapetarse en su hogar antes que salir de marcha. “Descansar adecuadamente es vital para levantarse con energía”, comenta Beatriz Peralta, fundadora de Seda Sana, otra marca, en este caso española y ecológica y de ropa de cama. “Esto requiere un entorno adecuado con materiales libres de sustancias nocivas que permitan el proceso natural de regeneración. Una buena inversión en artículos del hogar de larga duración mejora la calidad de vida”, matiza. Ojo, esto incluye los calcetines de estar por casa, que traen consigo beneficios sobre las relaciones sexuales, que aumentan durante el nesting (más ventajas). “Cuando la temperatura de nuestros pies es lo suficientemente cálida y confortable, mantenemos la autorregulación de nuestro cuerpo y, de este modo, la sangre irriga de manera directa al clítoris y los genitales masculinos”, suscribe Cristina Callao, psicóloga especializada en Sexología Clínica y Salud Sexual. Es decir, orgasmos más potentes. Pues no todo va a ser ver de un tirón la segunda temporada de Stranger things en Netflix (que también).

              How Premier Klein spends your health care premiums        
    Alberta families pay $1,056 per year in health care premium taxes to finance double-digit pay increases for doctors, nurses, MLAs, provincial government employees, teachers, and other public sector workers. Health care premiums do not pay for health care, but go into general revenues like every other provincial tax. Here follow some examples of how Premier Klein spends Albertans' health care premiums and other provincial tax dollars:

              "For-profit" health care is already here        
    In Canada in 2003, doctors, nurses, pharmacists, licensed practical nurses, nursing attendants, hospital cleaning crews, chiropractors and physiotherapists all profit from medicare, each and every day. Their pay cheques put food on the table for themselves and their families, in the same way that contractors, executives, and entrepreneurs feed their families. The only difference is that nurses' salaries come from profits indirectly - through the filter of taxes - whereas a businessman pays himself profits more directly. Doctors, too, profit from the health care system.
              Reformatorio Norheim [Confirmación Élite]        
    Reformatorio Norheim http://reformatorio-norheim.foroactivo.com/ Historia del foro  Año 1945. Afueras de Norheim, Alemania. -Doctor, debe darse prisa. Doctor. -Sólo un poco más, ya casi lo tengo... El nervioso soldado vacilaba ante la insistencia del diplomado. -Doctor, el techo se va a derrumbar, debe salir de aquí cuanto antes. -¡No tienes ni idea de lo que es esto, muchacho! Las vidas de muchas personas están en juego, la victoria o la derrota depende de estos papeles -los ...
              Work from Home Identifying and Cultivating Alliances Sector Stakeholders Faculty Member in Phoenix        
    A university is in need of a Work from Home Identifying and Cultivating Alliances Sector Stakeholders Faculty Member in Phoenix. Individual must be able to fulfill the following responsibilities: Instruct a curriculum which is centrally developed with specific learning objectives Provide timely and detailed feedback on a weekly basis and offer student support via classroom, phone, and email Utilize classroom learning system technology (provided by university), the Internet, and Microsoft Office software Qualifications Include: Degrees must be from a regionally accredited institution Demonstrate current expertise (currency) in the content area through consulting, additional certifications, published research, and/or professional presentations in the content area within the last ten years Doctorate degree in a healthcare administration or related field and a minimum of 5 years’ experience in mid to senior level administrative positions in healthcare industry organizations within the last 10 years or equivalent
              U.S. Supreme Court Rules in Favor of Alabama Death-Row Prisoner in McWilliams v. Dunn        

    In a 5-4 decision released June 19, 2017, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Alabama had unconstitutionally denied death-row prisoner James McWilliams (pictured) the assistance of an independent mental health expert. The Court wrote that its 1985 ruling in Ake v. Oklahoma, which entitles indigent defendants to the assistance of a mental health expert, encompassed a clearly established right to an expert who is "independent from the prosecution." In his opinion for the Court, Justice Breyer wrote that "Alabama’s provision of mental health assistance fell ... dramatically short of Ake’s requirements." The defense had no expert to help it prepare to examine the doctors who testified for the state, and only presented testimony about his mental condition from McWilliams and his mother. After the jury voted 10-2 to recommend the death penalty, the court scheduled a formal sentencing hearing and appointed a state neuropsychologist to examine McWilliams. That doctor prepared a report of the evaluation and consulted with the prosecution. Defense counsel received the neuropsychological report—which stated that McWilliams had “organic brain damage,” “genuine neuropsychological problems,” and “an obvious neuropsychological deficit”—only two days before his sentencing hearing. On the day of the hearing, counsel received extensive prison mental health records that contained evidence that McWilliams was being prescribed anti-psychotic medication. After denying the defense time to consult with an independent expert to develop the mental health evidence for use in mitigation, the court found no mitigating evidence and sentenced McWilliams to death. Justice Breyer wrote, "Ake clearly established that when certain threshold criteria are met, the state must provide a defendant with access to a mental health expert who is sufficiently available to the defense and independent from the prosecution to effectively 'conduct an appropriate examination and assist in evaluation, preparation, and presentation of the defense.'" The Court remanded the case to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit, which must now determine whether Alabama's violation of McWilliams' right to an independent expert had the "'substantial and injurious effect or influence' required to warrant a grant of habeas relief." Stephen Bright, who argued on behalf of McWilliams before the Supreme Court, said, "Today’s decision is about fairness. The adversarial process cannot function properly if the prosecution can retain mental health experts, but the defense is not even allowed to consult with an expert." He said, "James McWilliams could not have a fair trial without a mental health expert to assess his brain damage and other mental impairments and to help his counsel present that information to the sentencing court." 

    (I. Hrynkiw, "U.S. Supreme Court rules in favor of Alabama death row inmate," AL.com, June 19, 2017; Press Release, "Statement from Stephen Bright, Counsel of Record for James McWilliams, in re: Today's SCOTUS Ruling (McWilliams v. Dunn)," June 19, 2017.) Read the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in McWilliams v. Dunn. See U.S. Supreme Court. See DPIC's background page on McWilliams v. Dunn.


              What Do I Call My Mailbag? The Cage? I Forget        

    Friday is finally here and with that Nut Up or Shut Up Week is in its final leg.  I gotta be honest and say that I’m relieved that it’s finally over and I really didn’t think I had it in me (funny story: at least 8 different women said the exact same thing to me during my four years of college).  But alas, here we are.  To celebrate, let’s take a look at some emails sent in from the Trillion Man March.  Like I say every time we do this sort of thing – all of these are real emails sent in by real members of the Trillion Man March, except for the ones that aren’t.  Now, in the words of the chick from Cake Farts, let’s get this done.


    Since there are no large bodies of water near tOSU, where did the boosters hold their Yacht sex parties?

    -Mike

    I wish I knew.  I never got invited to them :(

    So, who do you hate more: the NCAA or The Villain?

    -Ben

    The only logical way to answer this is to first make a list of pros and cons, so here it goes.

    The NCAA

    Pros

    • Provides an opportunity for thousands of people to get a free education while playing a sport they love at a highly competitive level
    • March Madness
    • Headquarters located in Indianapolis, Indiana, one of the finest cities in America

    Cons

    • Has a budget that exceeds $5.5 billion and exists solely because of 18-23 year old athletes, but won’t let the 18-23 year old athletes see hardly any of that money in the form of cash
    • Makes players sit out a full season after transferring, while the coaches making millions of dollars off the athletes who do the exact same thing face no punishment whatsoever (in fact, the coaches typically get raises since it can be assumed that they’re leaving for a higher-paying and better job)
    • Has no interest in even remotely exploring serious reform, despite the increasing uproar from the media and general public about how archaic and unfair their rules are
    • Supports communist principles

    Evan “The Villain” Turner

    Pros

    • Provided me with seemingly unlimited entertainment for three years in the form of killing fools on the basketball court
    • Provided me with seemingly unlimited entertainment for three years in the form of losing his mind over something petty on a daily basis
    • Wore a CLUB TRIL shirt during pregame warm-ups on my senior night at OSU
    • Indirectly contributed to the success of this blog
    • Once called my blog “amazing”
    • Passed the ball to me one time in practice

    Cons

    • Would frequently reach into his pants and furiously scratch his butthole during film sessions and team meetings and consequently make everyone in the room uncomfortable
    • Tried to fight me no less than 3 times during our tenure as teammates
    • Gave my fiancée a bear hug that he held for five seconds when he first met her, which in turn caused her to tell me later in the night that it was weird and creeped her out
    • Never called me by my name when we were teammates but instead referred to me as “walk-on”, “bum”, “couch potato”, or “mooch.”
    • Borrowed $5 for a haircut from Keller and never paid him back
    • Apparently gets $5 haircuts

    I really think this might be too close to call.  Evan probably is more of an annoyance to me personally than the NCAA is, but the NCAA is more detrimental to society as a whole so I think I’ll go the unselfish route and say I hate them more.  Plus, somewhere under Evan’s rough exterior is a momma’s boy who doesn’t want any trouble and just wants to cuddle with his teddy bear.  Meanwhile, I’m pretty sure that underneath the NCAA’s rough exterior there is nothing but a gigantic pit of molten lava that they throw puppies into after they mouthrape them.

    What is the over/under on the number of times Deshaun Thomas will get the "the only type of shot he doesn't like is when he is at the Doctor's office" comment from TV announcers this year?  2500 ?

    There has to be some sort of drinking game created with Deshaun Thomas.  Something like.... every time he passes, you must chug a 40 oz of Olde English and punch a leprechaun.

    -Scott

    I love this idea.  I know I’ve said this many times before, but I really don’t think I can say it enough – Deshaun Thomas is my favorite Ohio State athlete of all-time (primarily because he doesn’t pass and has no problem acknowledging that he doesn’t pass) and he hasn’t even started his sophomore season yet.  He might not be a popular guy among Buckeye fans, but I absolutely love the guy and actually yelled “Everybody shut the hell up, Deshaun’s checking into the game!” on a few occasions last year while watching OSU basketball games with friends (who obviously don’t appreciate him as much as I do).  The guy is like the Manny Ramirez of college basketball - you don’t know for sure what’s going to happen, but you do know that when he’s in the game he’s going to have some sort of effect (good or bad) and is going to at least provide some form of entertainment (in that regard, he’s like the exact opposite of me).

    Anyway, how about this for a Deshaun Thomas drinking game – match Deshaun shot for shot.  Every time he takes a shot, you do too.  I even came up with a name for it: “suicide by alcohol poisoning.”

    What is the most embarrassing thing you have ever done in front of a member of the opposite sex?

    -Kevin

    I once dated a girl from Indiana who went to a college other than Ohio State and hadn’t grown up as an OSU fan.  Because of this, she didn’t have any OSU clothes, so when she visited me in Columbus one time I told her I’d take her shopping and get her some Ohio State clothes.  That way she could be decked out when she came to our games once the basketball season rolled around.  Anyway, we went to Buckeye Corner or something and she picked out a bunch of stuff she wanted, but she felt bad because she thought she was making me spend too much money.  I  told her not to worry about it and just get what she wanted because I was still on a basketball scholarship and was basically being given free money from Ohio State.

    Just to be polite, she asked if I was sure that she could get everything and I promised her it was cool.  But I couldn’t just say, “Seriously it’s cool” and leave it at that.  No, I had to somehow make myself seem more awesome than I really am.  So instead of just saying “yeah it’s cool” or whatever, I decided to jump at the opportunity to flaunt my money a little bit.  Since most college kids are dirt poor, I figured her privates would get moist over my scholarship money, so I decided to explain to her how rich I was.  I said something like, “Yeah it’s really not a big deal.  I get paid so much money by Ohio State that I really don’t think I could spend it all even if I wanted to.”  And just like that, I knew I had her hooked…

    …until my debit card got declined because I apparently only had $17 left in my bank account. 

    Because she didn’t bring any money with her since I told her I was going to buy her stuff, she couldn’t get anything she had picked out and had to go put everything back.  A couple of weeks later, she dumped me. Whoops.

    Help settle an argument that has been raging since the onset of puberty amongst 2 of my friends and myself.  Friend A is convinced that given an opportunity he could score one point on any NBA player in a game of one on one.  Not win mind you, but simply put the ball in the hoop. One time. Versus a highly motivated pro, putting forth his best effort in a game to 11 by ones and twos. Friend B and myself think friend A is an idiot and have told him so many times.  Friend A (5'9, 165lb), friend B and myself have been playing ball all our lives and while none of us are awful we could not play varsity basketball at a moderately large high school.  Those are the facts.  We are in our 30s now and need an answer. Or possibly you could shut him out for us and end this 20 year debate.  Either way Judge Titus your help/ruling would be much appreciated.

    -Travis

    I’m going to make this response short because there really isn’t even an argument here and I’m kind of annoyed that this is wasting my time.  Here’s your answer: your friend is out of his mind if he thinks he could score on an NBA player in a game to 11.  He’d have to be completely delusional to think otherwise, especially if he’s 5’9” 165 pounds. In fact, I don’t think I could even score on an NBA player (cue the “that’s why you were a benchwarmer scrub” jokes).  If he had infinite chances to score on the NBA guy, then yeah, I’m sure at some point he’d be able to throw up some garbage and get lucky.  But in a single game to 11 against an NBA player playing as hard as he possibly can?  He’ll be lucky to even get a shot off.

    I could give a detailed and realistic explanation of what would happen if he played any NBA player, but I think it would take far less effort for me to just play him one-on-one and shut him out myself than it would to explain how everything would go down.  And make no mistake about it – based on what you’ve told me about the guy, I don’t think I’ve ever been more confident about anything in the world as I am in thinking that even I could shut him out.

    So there is a hypothetical fight between 2 identical twins. They both are equal in all physical attributes (size, strength, speed) and they both train for one week with a fighting master. However one gets a pool stick and the other gets a hunting knife. Who wins in a cage match to the death?

    -Brian

    The bell rings to start the match.

    Guy with pool stick swings at guy with knife.  Guy with knife ducks, forcing guy with pool stick to miss.  As guy with knife stands back up, he violently thrusts his knife into the torso of guy with pool stick.  Guy with pool stick stumbles backwards as he reaches for the knife that is protruding from his torso.  After he falls to the ground, he pulls the knife out.  He immediately realizes that this was a bad idea because blood furiously pours out.  With blood rapidly flowing out of his body, his only option is to take his pool stick and jam it into the wound to stop the bleeding.  He chooses this option.  After he plugs the wound, he stands up to continue the fight.  As he stands up, he reaches for the knife in the same spot that he had dropped it when he removed it from his torso. 

    But it’s not there.

    As guy with pool stick turns his head to continue his search for the knife, guy with knife sneaks up from behind him and slits his throat, instantly killing him. 

    Game over. Guy with knife wins.

    I was in a corporate video twirling the baton while wearing my Fundamentals Montage shirt. Don’t you think that’s awesome?

    -Ann

    Yes. Yes I do.

    Speaking of that shirt…

    Even whilst living in the depths of the globe here in Australia I have managed to procure myself a (somewhat striking) 'Fundamentals Montage' tee. I would argue that the tee contains the single most obscure reference of any other t-shirt in existence. So my question is - has there ever been anything less prominent than a 3 second screengrab from a basketball-based Youtube video that has justified it's existence on a t-shirt available for public consumption?

    -Berko

    Let me first say that this is one of the finest backhanded compliments I’ve ever received, even though it shouldn’t count for anything because it’s from an Aussie.  And I truly mean that. 

    Secondly, to answer your question, I’m not sure there possibly could be one.  I mean, Mr. Rainmaker wasn’t exactly a viral video and really only reached cult-like status at best, so right off the bat there’s a very limited market for the shirt right there.  Then, like you said, the Fundamentals Montage only makes up a small part of the video, so really we’re only talking about a few seconds of a mildly popular video.  I really don’t see how there could be a shirt with a more obscure reference that is lost on virtually everyone but the wearer than the Fundamentals Montage shirt.  I’m guessing this is why Homage discontinued it.

    Since we’re apparently on the topic of Club Trillion shirts, here are two more relevant emails…

    A few months ago my house was robbed. I still live with my parents so there was actually some stuff of value to take. They mostly took electronics like tvs and computers, but after about a week I realized they took something else. They took my Club Tril shirt. No one else had any clothes taken and all my other clothes were still there except for that shirt. I know I didn't lose it somewhere else because I'm a badass and had recently had my mom wash it. What kind of monster would do this? This also makes me question the types of people you draw to your blog.

    -Zane

    Can whoever took Zane’s shirt please get it back to him?  This is why we can’t have nice things.  I’m sure he’ll let you keep the electronics, but please don’t make him suffer anymore by making him live in this world without his CLUB TRIL shirt.

    Now that we got that out of the way, I gotta say that I can’t help but feel a little flattered about this.  I mean, it sucks for you and your family and everything, but a part of me is honored that someone places such a high value on one of my shirts.

    Also, I think I might have an idea of who did this.  A couple of months ago someone showed me this mug shot that was taken in Naperville, Illinois.  I’m pretty sure it’s the first and only time someone was wearing a CLUB TRIL shirt in an official police mug shot, which is pretty awesome.  Anyway, my theory is that this kid had to change out of his shirt and put on an orange jumpsuit after he was arrested and when he was released the cops “accidentally” lost his shirt.  But he knew the truth – one of the cops liked the shirt and wanted to keep it for himself.  So when this kid got released, he went from town to town on a rampage looking for the cop that took his shirt.  After two months of breaking into the all sorts of houses, he finally broke into yours, saw your shirt laying there, and just assumed that your dad was the cop that took his shirt.  And to really get back at him, he took a bunch of electronics too.

    Yeah, that’s gotta be what happened.  That’s your guy for sure.

    What is more effective when attempting to court a female, throwing up the shark or wearing the club tril shirt? This of course is assuming that it is impossible to do them both at the same time.

    As you can see from the picture provided, doing them in unison has such an enormous power over the female nether regions, that it would even turn a guy like Justin Timberlake into a jealous doucher. (In case you can't see me because I am drowning amongst a litany of marginally attractive college coeds, I am the one throwing up the shark, rocking a club tril shirt, while also wearing a daytona 500 hat)

    photo1

    -Sam

    First of all, I’m pretty sure the bitches swoon over the CLUB TRIL shirt more than the shark fin.  From what I can tell, the shark fin is more of a thing for the fellas.  But I’ve been wrong before, so what do I know?

    Secondly, I’m saying that there’s about a 98% chance that you were photobombing this picture and weren’t in the preliminary stages of a orgy like you are trying to make it seem.  But I’m going to give you the benefit of the doubt here and say that this particular instance is included in that 2%, and all these girls huddled around you for this picture, immediately ripped their clothes off right after it was taken, and then all jumped on board the Sam Tram for an express trip to Pound Town.

    I recently turned 29 years old and in about a month I'm going to (hopefully) celebrate my second wedding anniversary.  Most of my friends are in a similar place that I am, either in the trying to have a kid or two phase or already have 1-3 kids.  I love kids but I have a small problem with them.  See I love college football and I love the Buckeyes.  So on Saturday afternoons in the fall I want to drag myself out of bed just in time for College Gameday then watch games all day long until I can hear Herbie telling Mussburger to shut his Michigan loving trapper.  For some reason all parents (and when I say parents I mean wives) want to do is throw their kid's birthday party on Saturday afternoon.  Like people don't have anything else to do.  I mean come on your kid is 2 years old, do they really care what day of the week their party is on?  No but some of us adults would like a say in the matter.  If 75% of all Buckeye games are on at 12:00 on a Saturday and 75% of all birthday parties are scheduled at 1:00 someone didn't do their planning.  Throw the kid a party on Tuesday night.  Heck I will even leave work early just to be there on time. 

    This is why with my wife I have proposed a dry season.  No babies shall be born within the period of September 1st and early December as to not cause any confusion with birthday party planning.  So as soon as the Rose Bowl ends until the end of March Madness we go into protection mode.  I am very happy to say I made it through my very 1st dry season and my wife and I recently found out we are in line to have our first child with a due date of March 31, 2012. 

    The dry season can be implemented for any season.  I don't know where you plan on living once you get married but if you are planning to stay in Ohio I propose we get this trend started as soon as possible.

    -James

    You’re doing the Lord’s work, James.

    I have a older gentlemen neighbor who apparently has an odd sense of dressing in the warm summer months. He often feels that it is so hot out that he can't wear a shirt, but cool enough to still be wearing jeans. Do you have any experience with this phenomena? Please help rationalize his logic.

    -Chris

    He has prosthetic legs and gets embarrassed when people find out. He fought in Vietnam for your freedom and at one point during the war, he stepped on a landmine and it completely mutilated both of his legs. He should’ve died and the doctors said he was never supposed to walk again, even with prosthetics. But the doctors never accounted for his resolve. He wasn’t going to just give up. Not after all those years of fighting.

    So he worked his ass off for years just so maybe he could one day walk again. Day in and day out he did hours of strenuous physical therapy, unsure of whether or not it would ever really pay off. Like anything else, there were good days and bad days, but through it all he kept pushing. He kept thinking about his goal – one day walking down his driveway and getting his paper without any help. It wasn’t a very glamorous goal, sure. But he was a high school dropout from the south side of Chicago who had served five years fighting a war with no end in sight in the unimaginable hell that was the Vietnam jungles. Nothing about his life was glamorous.

    Every now and then, he’d think back on that fateful day and ask God why He would let such a terrible thing happen to him. Why God didn’t just let him die right then and there. Why God made him suffer through all this pain. It was impossible not to think that way. After all those years of wondering whether he’d ever walk again, he felt like he had every right to feel sorry for himself every once in a while. Can’t say I fault the guy.

    Eventually all the physical therapy took its toll on him. He couldn’t take it anymore. He was ready to tell the doctors that he had finally given up. That he had accepted that he was going to be bound to a wheelchair for the rest of his life. That that landmine had finally gotten the better of him. But he thought he’d do one last therapy session before he threw in the towel. For old time’s sake. He owed himself that much.

    The physical therapist walked into his room like she had all those days before, always optimistic that that particular day was going to be the one that they’d have their breakthrough. She’d never been right, of course, but he appreciated her optimism nonetheless. It was something that he himself couldn’t even muster these days.

    She strapped him into the harness and set up the guide bars like she had done every other day for the past few years. She would never admit it to him, but while she was optimistic for some sign of progress on the outside, on the inside she was just as jaded as he was. She knew that nothing significant was going to happen that day. But she was wrong.

    She gave him the same routine commands she always had and he mumbled under his breath while she talked just like he always had. When she finished instructing him, he rolled his eyes and said, “Here goes nothing” as he attempted to take a step. He expected the same results as before, but this time something happened. This time the prosthetic moved. It was the breakthrough they had been waiting for all these years. He couldn’t believe it.

    That moment breathed new life into him. He was back. No more feeling sorry for himself. He was going to walk again. No excuses. Over the course of the next couple of months, he made steady progress. Nothing too crazy, but it was progress dammit. Nobody could take that sense of accomplishment away from him.

    Not any more than a year after that initial breakthrough, his physical therapy was complete. He could walk again. Not very well, mind you, but it was a start. He had the rest of his life to figure out his new legs. For the time being, he was going to celebrate his victory by simply walking out of the hospital on his own power. That was all he ever wanted.

    These days he keeps to himself for the most part. He’s a simple man with a simple life but he’ll tell you he wouldn’t change a thing about it. He’ll tell you that he’s lived more life than most people. He’ll tell you that he’s proud to have fought in the war and served his country. He’ll tell you that he’s got all he ever wanted out of life. But he’ll also tell you that the prosthetics embarrass him. He can’t help but feel guilty that he didn’t give enough. So many of his brothers perished and all he gave were his two legs. The more he thought back on everything, the more surviving became a burden.

    But he’s learning to cope with it. He’s finally finding peace with himself and what happened on that day that forever changed his life. But he still doesn’t like revealing his prosthetics to people just because there is too much baggage that comes with people knowing. He doesn’t want to have to tell the stories and relive the horrors. Most importantly, he doesn’t want to deal with the judgment. He knows he’ll be looked at as either a freak or as a hero. He thinks both labels are unfair. He’s just an old man trying to live out whatever years he has left to the best of his abilities.

    So he always wears jeans to cover his fake legs and his very real memories. He’s not sure how much time he has left on this Earth and when he’s going to be reunited with his fallen brothers, but what he is sure of is that he’s going to spend most of that time with his family and loved ones. And any free time in between he’s going to spend tending to his garden and wondering why the dipshit kid next door always gives him weird looks when he walks around with his shirt off.

    Either that or he’s just a crazy old man who really loves his jeans.


    Proud To Be An American But Even Prouder To Be A Buckeye,

    Mark Titus

    Club Trillion Founder


              Appel d'urgence        

    Alerte info


    L'appel au 911 des proches de Michael Jackson: "Il ne respire plus"

    "I need an ambulance as soon as possible sir,[il donne l'adresse]

    - ok sir, what the phone number you are calling from ? What is  the problem here

    - euh, sir, we have a gentlemen here that needs help, he is not breathing, he is not breathing yet, we tried to pump him, but...

    - ok, ok,. how old is he ?

    - he is 50 years old

    - 50 ? ok, he is not concious, he is not breathing ? [...] ok, where is he right now ?

    - He is on the bed

    - ok, let's get him on the floor

    - [...] yes we have a personal doctor here, but he is not responding to anything, he is not responding to CPR

    - Ok, on the way"

    Le nom de Michael Jackson n'a pas été prononce lors de cet appel.

    CA SE PASSE ICI :

    http://www.aolcdn.com/tmz_audio/062609_michael_2.mp3


               De la nefritis parenquimatosa crónica discursos ms. para el doctorado         
    Doria Casas, Francisco (1879) De la nefritis parenquimatosa crónica discursos ms. para el doctorado. [Objeto digitalizado]
               [Construcción de un nuevo cementerio] [discurso de doctorado]         
    Gonzalez Valdés, Fernando (1879) [Construcción de un nuevo cementerio] [discurso de doctorado]. [Objeto digitalizado]
               Naturaleza y destino del hombre discurso presentado para aspirar al grado de doctor         
    Lopez-Pelaez Cotillas, Ildefonso (1879) Naturaleza y destino del hombre discurso presentado para aspirar al grado de doctor. [Objeto digitalizado]
               Quistes del parovario (del ligamento ancho) [discurso de doctorado]         
    Perez Castañeda Triana, Tiburcio (1879) Quistes del parovario (del ligamento ancho) [discurso de doctorado]. [Objeto digitalizado]
               [Tratamiento de heridas por armas de fuego] discurso de doctorado         
    Hortal Sancho, Fermin (1879) [Tratamiento de heridas por armas de fuego] discurso de doctorado. [Objeto digitalizado]
               De los hospitales, condiciones higiénicas que deben ofrecer y ventajas que proporcionan á las clases menesterosas tesis doctoral         
    Fernandez Labin, Florentino (1879) De los hospitales, condiciones higiénicas que deben ofrecer y ventajas que proporcionan á las clases menesterosas tesis doctoral. [Objeto digitalizado]
               Generalidades sobre sífilis tesis doctoral         
    Puente Cueva, Manuel de la (1879) Generalidades sobre sífilis tesis doctoral. [Objeto digitalizado]
               Algo sobre hemorragias tema presentado para el ejercicio de doctor         
    Valcárcel y Vargas, Lope (1879) Algo sobre hemorragias tema presentado para el ejercicio de doctor. [Objeto digitalizado]
               Contribución al estudio clínico del célulo-embrioma(Sarcoma): tesis del doctorado         
    Fidalgo Casas, Feliciano (1879) Contribución al estudio clínico del célulo-embrioma(Sarcoma): tesis del doctorado. [Objeto digitalizado]
               El abuso de las bebidas alcohólicas es una poderosa causa de degeneración física de la especie humana: discurso del doctorado         
    Abadía Cortina, Nicolás (1879) El abuso de las bebidas alcohólicas es una poderosa causa de degeneración física de la especie humana: discurso del doctorado. [Objeto digitalizado]
              Veterans Kick The Prescription Pill Habit, Against Doctors' Orders         
    For many people with post-traumatic stress disorder, sleeping can return you to the worst place you've ever been, at the worst possible moment.

    "I always see his face," says Will, who did tours in Iraq and Afghanistan with the Army. "And in my dreams it's the same thing. ... I always walk over to him, and instead of this Afghani kid that's laying there, it's my little brother."

    The memory that triggers Will's nightmare happened during his tour in Afghanistan.

               Comisia Fulbright lanseaza programul pentru studii doctorale in stiinte exacte        
    Comisia Fulbright din Romania anunta deschiderea programului international de studii doctorale in domeniile: stiinte, tehnologie si inginerie. Candidatii pot fi studenti la licenta si master, atat din sistemul de stat, cat si din cel privat.
              Regional Roundup: Top New Features This Week Around Our BroadwayWorld 8/4 - NEWSIES, A CHORUS LINE, SPRING AWAKENING, and More!        

    "BroadwayWorld presents a comprehensive weekly roundup of regional stories around our Broadway World, which include videos, editor spotlights, regional reviews and more. This week, we feature West Side Story, Mamma Mia!, Something Rotten, and More!

    Check out our top features from around the BroadwayWorld below!


    Cleveland: Contributor Roy Berko reviews NEWSIES at the Porthouse Theatre. He writes "MaryAnn Black has done an excellent job of choreographing the dance-centric show, especially considering the limited stage size. Flips, somersaults, line-dancing, contemporary moves and balletic moves explode on the stage. Especially strong dancers are: Ryan Borgo, Nick Johnson, Matthew Smetana and Jake Rosko. Matt Gittins lacks some of the dynamism of Jeremy Jordan who was the original Jack Kelly on Broadway. However, he is believable as Jack, the leader of the Newsies, the tough guy with a tender underbelly. He has a strong singing voice. Beautiful Katelyn Cassidy charms as Jacks' love interest and defiant daughter of Joseph Pulitzer. Gittins and Cassidy's rendition of "Something to Believe In" is one of the show's musical highlights."


    St. Louis: Contributor Chris Gibson reviews The Muny's A CHORUS LINE. He writes "Director/Choreographer Denis Jones' conception of this show is startling, and adds a welcome element that I've never encountered in a production of A CHORUS LINE before. Ben Whiteley's music direction is simply sublime, and the orchestra injects a great deal of excitement into this work. Paige Hathaway's scenic design is simple and stark, but still larger than life to fit the vast stage, with huge mirrors reflecting the dancers and the audience. Nathan W. Scheuer's video designs add another dimension to the stories being told, and Rob Denton's lighting keeps each story and dancer in clear focus. Andrea Lauer's costumes fit the characters well, and deftly recreates the vintage look of the flashy costumes that close the show."

    St. Louis: Contributor Chris Gibson reviews MAMMA MIA! at the Fox. He writes "Phyllida Lloyd's direction keeps the action moving at fast pace, and for this kind of lightweight, but enjoyable stuff, that's the right approach. Anthony Van Laast contributes the clever and funny choreography, which helps to keep this high energy production moving along with a head of steam. Mark Thompson's simple, changeable set is brilliant, subtly conjuring up the taverna Donna operates from a variety of angles. Howard Harrison's lighting scheme deftly switchesgears from dramatic to concert hall without missing a beat. And, on this particular evening, the small band produced a fantastic sound, with guitarists Alex Domschot and Jonathan Hawkins throwing down some wailing licks."


    Palm Beach: Contributor John Lariviere reviws THOROUGHLY MODERN MILLIE at Marquee Theater Company. He writes "This production features a beautifully costumed and choreographed ensemble of dancers. It is a pleasure to see the stage used to showcase the size and skill level of that ensemble. I also noticed how strong the bevy of girls who live at the hotel are in their setting the style of the piece, and providing acting responses to what was going on around them. Allow me to quote the late South Florida director Bob Bogdanoff when he would be handling group scenes: "Acting is REACTING!". So, thank you from both me and Bob (directing angels up in heaven) for giving us an active and present ensemble in this production of Thoroughly Modern Millie, along with some wonderful costuming and enjoyable choreography. It may be the welcome light-hearted fare you're looking for as an alternative to the sea of serious Sondheim musical offerings in South Florida this Summer."


    New Jersey: Contributor Ryan Myers reviews NEWSIES at Surflight Theater. He writes "Standouts from this show include the leading man himself "Jack Kelly" played by Logan Farine, who brings his handsome, boyish looks to the stage, as well as his solid tenacious voice for songs like "Santa Fe" and "Something To Believe In." He has his own version of Jack Kelly, and I thoroughly enjoyed that. Daniel Neale also shined as "Davey" by bringing his charm and personality to the role, as well as his fine singing voice in pieces like "Watch What Happens (Reprise), and "Seize The Day".


    San Diego: Contributor E. H. Reiter reviews ROBIN HOOD at The Old Globe. She writes "The costumes by San Diego native and double Tony winner Gregg Barnes are gorgeous and not to be missed. They are so richly textured and colored that it's a surprise that Robin hasn't tried to steal those as well. Also, it proves that we should all be wearing more corsets, capes, and clever hats. The set by Tim Mackabee is inventive and interactive, with vines and ropes decorating the entire theatre, the better to allow the cast to drop in from the top. The use of some crates, plates, and doors in the floor allow for quick scene changes, and the cast use the ability to play with heights, and perspective in fun ways."


    Delaware: Contributor Rosanne DellAversano reviews SPRING AWAKENING at JustArt Theatricals. She writes "The music of SPRING AWAKENING often floods my internal playlist. I absolutely love it. Music Director, Caty Butler, is no stranger to modern musical theater scores, and her treatment of Duncan Sheik's music was on point. The young artist playing Moritz (Brendan Moriak) handled the required vocal nimbleness well enough. Lucy Vavala as Wendla and Jake Collins as Melchoir paired well together. Occasionally, a voice cracked or strained/vocal fatigue could be heard. SPRING AWAKENING is all-around demanding; each artist must be prepared to meet the vocal, physical, and emotional demands in order to execute a fully realized work. Some cast members were at least up for the challenge."


    Washington: Contributor Isabella Basco reviews GRAND NIGHT FOR SINGING at NextStop Theatre. She writes "All of the cast stands out on their respective songs, but Karen Vincent's charm and pristine voice is a standout in a group of highly professional performers. Marquise White has a smooth voice which will make audiences swoon in "We Kiss in a Shadow," and "This Nearly Was Mine." He also is hilarious in the all-time favorite "Honey Bun," and prepare to be dazzled by Sarah Anne Sillers's "I Can't Say No."


    Regional Editor Spotlight:

    Roy Berko
    Cleveland Contributing Editor

    Roy Berko, a life-long Clevelander, holds degrees, through the doctorate from Kent State, University of Michigan and The Pennsylvania State University. Roy was an actor for many years, appearing in more than 16 plays, 8 TV commercials, and 3 films. He has directed more than 30 productions. A member of the American Critics Association, the Dance Critics Association and The Cleveland Critics Circle, he has been an entertainment reviewer for more than twenty years.

    For many years he was a regular on Channel 5, ABC-Cleveland's "Morning Exchange" and "Live on 5," serving as the stations communication consultant. He has also appeared on "Good Morning America." Roy served as the Director of Public Relations for the Volunteer Office in the White House during the first Clinton Administration.
    He is a professor of communication and psychology who taught at George Washington University, University of Maryland, Notre Dame College of Ohio and Towson University. Roy is the author of 31 books. Several years ago, he was selected by Cleveland Magazine as one of the most interesting people in Cleveland.


    Join Team BroadwayWorld! Interested in joining our team, but not exactly sure what we do? All of your questions are answered, along with every open position from guest and student bloggers, Regional Editors, and more! Find out where we have open positions available here!


               Bursier la Universitatea Warwick: Daca am intarziat cu 1 minut un termen de predare pentru un eseu, am pierdut toate punctele, nu exista scuze        
    Mircea Bostan urmeaza un program de master la Universitatea Warwick. Este hotarat sa continue cu un doctorat in comert international. Crede ca activitatile extrascolare i-au oferit atuurile necesare pentru obtinerea bursei. Intr-un interviu HotNews.ro, Mircea povesteste despre experienta academica, despre diferentele dintre cele doua sisteme educationale si ce-i place cel mai tare la Marea Britanie.
              La Jolla Playhouse Announces Cast and Creative Team for Hansol Jung's WILD GOOSE DREAMS        

    La Jolla Playhouse announces the cast and creative team for its world-premiere production of Wild Goose Dreams, by Hansol Jung, directed by Leigh Silverman, running September 5 - October 1 (press opening: Sunday, September 10) in the Mandell Weiss Forum.

    The cast will feature Yunjin Kim (TV's Lost; Berkeley Rep's The Woman Warrior) as "Yoo Nanhee," James Kyson (TV's Heroes, Hawaii 5-0) as "Gook Minsung" and Francis Jue (Broadway's Pacific Overtures; Obie Award winner for Yellow Face) as "Father," along with Carolyn Agan (San Diego Musical Theatre's Ragtime) as "Woman/Chorus," Julian Cihi (Broadway's Doctor Zhivago) as "Man/Chorus," Rona Figueroa (Broadway's Miss Saigon) as "Wife/Chorus," Samantha Wang (DNA New Work Series' Akeelah and the Bee) as "Hyonjin/Chorus," and UC San Diego M.F.A. students DeLeon Dallas, Kyle Hester and Kimberly Monks as "Chorus."

    The creative team includes Paul Castles, Composer; Jongbin Jung, Korean Music Composer; Charity Wicks, Music Supervisor; Yasmine Lee, Choreographer; Wilson Chin (Kill Local, Hollywood), Scenic Designer; Tony Award winner Linda Cho (Limelight, The Orphan of Zhao), Costume Designer; Keith Parham (Tribes), Lighting Designer; Joanna Lynne Staub, Sound Designer; Gabriel Greene, Dramaturg; and Melanie J. Lisby, Stage Manager.

    "Hansol Jung's exquisite new play brings together two strangers bound by their shared loneliness in a hauntingly beautiful piece that shifts between the tangible and the ethereal, the literal and the metaphorical. Award-winning director Leigh Silverman makes her Playhouse debut mounting this brand new work with an extraordinary cast and creative team," said La Jolla Playhouse Artistic Director Christopher Ashley.

    In Wild Goose Dreams, a North Korean defector who has left her family behind and a lonely South Korean father start an unlikely online romance as they each attempt to allay their fears and alienation in this inventive, lyrical and darkly humorous piece.

    Hansol Jung is a playwright and director from South Korea. Plays include Cardboard Piano (Humana Festival at Actors Theatre of Louisville); Among the Dead (Ma-Yi Theater Company); No More Sad Things (co-world premiere at Sideshow Theatre, Chicago and Boise Contemporary Theatre) and Wolf Play. Commissions from Playwrights Horizons, Virginia B. Toulmin Foundation grant with Ma-Yi Theatre and a translation of Romeo and Juliet for Play On! at Oregon Shakespeare Festival. Her work has been developed at the Royal Court (London), NYTW, Berkeley Rep's Ground Floor, O'Neill Conference, Sundance Theatre Lab, Lark Play Development Center, Salt Lake Acting Company, Boston Court Theatre, Asia Society New York and Seven Devils Playwright Conference. She is the recipient of the 2016 P73 Playwright Fellowship at Page 73 Productions, Rita Goldberg Playwrights' Workshop Fellowship at the Lark, 2050 Fellowship at NYTW, MacDowell Colony Artist Residency and International Playwrights Residency at Royal Court. Her plays have received the Paul Stephen Lim Playwriting Award (Among the Dead), Honorable Mention from the 2014 Arch and Bruce Brown Playwriting Competition (Cardboard Piano), and was named 2014 finalist for the Ruby Prize (No More Sad Things). She has translated over thirty English musicals into Korean, including Evita, Dracula, Spamalot and The 25th Annual...Spelling Bee, while working on several award winning musical theatre productions as director, lyricist and translator in Seoul, South Korea. Ms. Jung holds a Playwriting M.F.A. from Yale School of Drama, and is a proud member of the Ma-Yi Theater Writers Lab.

    Leigh Silverman is a two-time Obie Award winner, directed the Encores! and Broadway productions of Violet and earned a Tony Award nomination. Other Broadway credits include David Henry Hwang's Chinglish, Lisa Kron's Well, as well as Andrew Lippa's The Wild Party for Encores!. Over thirty world premieres including: All the Ways to Say I Love You (MCC); Tumacho (Clubbed Thumb); The Way We Get By (Second Stage); American Hero (Second Stage and Williamstown Theatre Festival); Kung Fu (Signature Theatre); The (curious case of the) Watson Intelligence (Playwrights Horizons); No Place to Go (Public Theater); The Madrid (MTC); Golden Child (Signature Theatre); In The Wake (Center Theatre Group/Berkeley Rep and Public Theater, Obie Award, Lortel nomination); Go Back to Where You Are (Playwrights Horizons, Obie Award); From Up Here (MTC, Drama Desk nomination); Yellow Face (Pulitzer finalist, Center Theatre Group/Public Theater); Coraline (MCC/True Love); Hunting and Gathering (Primary Stages); Oedipus at Palm Springs (NYTW); Blue Door (Playwrights Horizons/Seattle Rep); Well (Public Theater/Huntington Theatre/ACT).

    Carolyn Agan (Woman/Chorus) won the 2016 Craig Noel Award for Ragtime at San Diego Musical Theatre. Other credits include the national tour of The Phantom Tollbooth, Olive in The 25th Annual...Spelling Bee, Belle in A Christmas Carol ('10-'15), Freedom's Song, 1776, LiberTy Smith and Parade (Ford's Theatre), Hello, Dolly! (Signature/Ford's Theatre), Two Gents: A Rock Opera (Shakespeare Theatre), Audrey in Little Shop of Horrors (Olney Theatre), Aldonza in Man of La Mancha, Bold Girls, The Hostage (Keegan Theatre). Ms. Agan serves as Director of Education at San Diego Musical Theatre and is an associated teaching artist with La Jolla Playhouse and The Old Globe.

    Julian Cihi (Man/Chorus) has appeared on Broadway in Doctor Zhivago and Off-Broadway as Romeo in Romeo and Juliet at Classic Stage Company. Other credits include The Importance of Being Earnest; A Month in the Country (Williamstown Theatre Festival), Roger in RENT; Orlando in As You Like It (Toho Productions; Japan), directed by Michael Mayer. TV: The Mysteries of Laura (NBC); Mr. Robot (USA); High Maintenance (HBO); Gypsy (Netflix). Born and raised in Tokyo and currently living in New York City, Mr. Cihi earned his B.A. from Brown University and M.F.A. from NYU Tisch Graduate Acting.

    DeLeon Dallas (Chorus) is a third-year M.F.A. actor at UC San Diego, where credits include La Bete, Native Son, Streamers, Strange Men, Damascus. Regional: Honky (San Diego Repertory); Brothers Size (Ubuntu). Film credits: Honky (PBS). He holds a B.A. in Sports Management from Concordia University, Nebraska. He was also chosen for the summer 2017 Guthrie Experience for actors in training. Mr. Dallas collaborated closely with the Guthrie Theater and other actors in his class from different training programs to devise a new works called Incurable: A Fool's Tale.

    Rona Figueroa (Wife/Chorus) appeared on Broadway as Kim in Miss Saigon, Eponine in Les Miserables, as well as in Nine and Lennon. Off-Broadway credits include Daisy in Dogeaters (Public Theater) and Grusha in Caucasian Chalk Circle (Vineyard Theater). Regional: Lady Thiang in The King and I (Chicago Lyric Opera), Misaki in I Sing the Rising Sea (Virginia Stage Company), Mimi in Rent (Vermont Theater), Luciana in Boys From Syracuse (Center Stage), Mary Magdelene in Jesus Christ Superstar (NSMT) and We Will Rock You (Vegas). Film/TV credits: Dragonheart, A New Beginning, Slow Jam King, Mysteries of Laura, Eye Candy, Gossip Girl, Royal Pains. Rock band: Quasilulu, albums on iTunes.

    Kyle Hester's (Chorus) regional credits include A Midsummer Night's Dream, Hamlet (Santa Cruz Shakespeare); Annie Get Your Gun (Dutch Apple Theatre); The Jazz Funeral of Stella Brooks (Provincetown Tennessee Williams Festival). LA: Macbeth (Harold Clurman Lab Theatre); Twelfth Night (LA New Court Theatre); Henry VI, Part 1 (The Production Company). UC San Diego: Strange Men, Streamers, Native Son, Angels in America: Perestroika, Go. Please. Go., La Bête. Film: Praxis, Finale. TV: The Temp Agency. Training: M.F.A. from UCSD (2018), B.F.A. from NYU Tisch.

    Francis Jue (Father) was featured in La Jolla Playhouse's production of Thoroughly Modern Millie. On Broadway he has appeared in Pacific Overtures, Thoroughly Modern Millie and M. Butterfly. Favorite theatre credits include Yellow Face (Obie and Lucille Lortel Awards; Drama Desk and Drama League Award nominations), In the Next Room, or the vibrator play (AriZoni Award), Miss Saigon (Elliot Norton Award), Kiss of the Spiderwoman (Drama-Logue Award), Cabaret (Bay Area Critics Circle Award), Falsettoland, tokyo fish story, Kung Fu, King of the Yees and Paper Dolls. Film and TV credits include Joyful Noise, and recurring roles on Madam Secretary and Law & Order: SVU.

    Yunjin Kim (Yoo Nanhee) has appeared on the popular television series Lost, Two Sisters and Mistresses. Her theater credits include Yachiyo in Ballad of Yachiyo at Seattle Repertory Theatre; Fa Mu Lan in The Woman Warrior at Berkeley Repertory Theatre, Diana in Junk Bonds at Capital Repertory Company, Jing Mei Woo in The Joy Luck Club at Long Wharf Theatre and Huoy in The Survivor at Actor's Theatre of Louisville. Her Korean film and TV credits include Shiri, The Legend of Gingko, Rush! (Japanese film), Iron Palm, Yesterday, Ardor, Diary of June, Seven Days, Harmony, Heartbeat, The Neighbors, Ode to My Father, House of the Disappeared, Beautiful Vacation, Wedding Dress, With Love.

    James Kyson's (Gook Minsung) theater credits include Blood (The Complex); Hair (Knightsbridge). His television appearances include: Preacher, Elementary, Criminal Minds: Beyond Borders, Sleepy Hollow, NCIS: LA, Justified, Hawaii 5-0, and series regular on Heroes. He also voiced the History Channel's WWII in HD, Ken Burns' National Parks, Adventure Time and HBO's Animals. His film credits include Walk to Vegas, Shutter.

    Kimberly Monks (Chorus) is a third-year M.F.A. actor at UC San Diego, where credits include: La Bete, Native Son, Taming of the Shrew, Are You There and Damascus. She received a B.A. in Religion: Youth Leadership from Vanguard University of Southern California. Ms. Monks was also chosen for the summer 2017 Guthrie Experience for actors in training. She collaborated closely with the Guthrie Theater and other actors from different training programs to devise a new works called Incurable: A Fool's Tale.

    Samantha Wang (Hyonjin/Chorus) appeared in the Playhouse's DNA New Work Series reading of Akeelah and the Bee. Other credits include: Vanessa in In the Heights (UC San Diego), Betty-Lou Who in How the Grinch Stole Christmas! and Underworld Voice in The Odyssey (The Old Globe), Emma in Lego Friends Live Holiday Show (Legoland California), Sara Crewe in A Little Princess (San Diego Junior Theatre). Ms. Wang is currently working towards a B.A. in Political Science: Public Law and a B.A. in Communications at the University of California, San Diego.

    The Tony Award-winning La Jolla Playhouse is internationally-renowned for creating some of the most exciting and adventurous work in American theatre, through its new play development initiatives, its innovative Without Walls series, artist commissions and residencies. Currently led by Artistic Director and 2017 Tony Award winner Christopher Ashley and Managing Director Michael S. Rosenberg, the Playhouse was founded in 1947 by Gregory Peck, Dorothy McGuire and Mel Ferrer, and reborn in 1983 under the artistic leadership of Des McAnuff. La Jolla Playhouse has had 28 productions transfer to Broadway, garnering 38 Tony Awards, among them the currently-running, Tony Award-nominated hit Come From Away, along with Jersey Boys, Memphis, The Who's Tommy, Big River, as well as Billy Crystal's 700 Sundays and the Pulitzer Prize-winning I Am My Own Wife, both fostered as part of the Playhouse's Page To Stage Program. LaJollaPlayhouse.org.


               Burse de excelenta Valonia-Bruxelles International        
    Valonia-Bruxelles International a lansat incepand cu anul 2008-2009 un program de burse de excelenta care permite efectuarea de cercetari la nivel de doctorat sau postdoctorat in universitati din comunitatea franceza din Belgia.
              Dr. Couney and the Coney Island 'Child Hatchery'.         

    Theme Park History: Dr. Martin Couney and the Coney Island 'Child Hatchery'

    Written by 
    Published: October 20, 2013 at 10:25 AM

    Of all the stor