Mandatory Reporting Law on Sexual Abuse Not So Mandatory -- Especially for Prep Schools / Abysmal Failures Noted on So-Called Background Checks        

Mandatory Reporting [NOT Really] Column
on Sexual Abuse Cases Generates Range of Comments

Meriden Record-Journal Post 7-18-17 Follows Hearst CT [links below]
& Cool Justice Blog 6-4-17

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  • State Reports Only 14 Arrests & Four Convictions in Past Seven Years
    Statute of Limitations Just One Year for This Misdemeanor

    By Andy Thibault
    The Cool Justice Report
    June 4, 2017

    Editor's Note: This column may be reprinted or re-posted courtesy of The Cool Justice Report

    Connecticut has been a very safe place to avoid arrest and prosecution for failing to report sexual abuse -- especially if you're a teacher or administrator at a prep school.

    That's just part of the picture.

    Suppose you lose your teaching job after being accused of rape. Just don't put that job on your resume. You'll be fine for perhaps a decade or more. It also helps to amend your full name on the resume. Supposed background checks will fail to detect resume gaps and irregularities.

    But what about that mandatory reporting law compelling teachers and administrators to report suspected abuse to the state? No problem. It hasn't been enforced with any great enthusiasm at the preps: No report, no warning for future employers or victims.

    The revelations come after a series of articles by The Boston Globe Spotlight Team and an investigation by the powerhouse law firm Covington & Burling for Choate Rosemary Hall in Wallingford. The Globe found that abuse victims routinely suffered retaliation at private schools in New England. The schools in turn covered up the abuse. Choate, for example, failed to report abuse incidents prior to 2010.

    A spokeswoman for Connecticut courts told The Cool Justice Report there were just 14 arrests in the state for failing to report sexual abuse from January 2010 through late April 2017. During the same time, there were only four convictions, according to the data provided via the state Judicial Department. One of the convictions was of a day care operator. No additional data was available immediately.

    There is only a one-year statute of limitations for failure to report sexual abuse claims, and that crime is a misdemeanor. Connecticut Deputy Chief State's Attorney Len Boyle said in a statement there are no plans to try to change that, but he noted there is a five-year statute of limitations for a felony charge if prosecutors are able to cite willfulness or other aggravating factors. Willfulness, like intent, carries with it a significant burden of proof.

    "The one-year statute of limitations," Boyle said, "is largely consistent with the limitations periods for all crimes (i.e.: one year for a misdemeanor and five years for a felony). We have not sought to lengthen it. The more egregious cases of failure to report (willfulness, gross negligence, etc.) are felonies and provide a five year limitations period."

    Boyle's office is investigating whether anyone at Choate broke the law by failing to report suspected abuse, The Hartford Courant reported in April.

    Among the 12 teachers accused of abuse in the Choate report, one went on to become a teacher and administrator at several public schools in Connecticut. He was able to avoid detection partly by amending his name and omitting two teaching jobs at private schools -- Choate and The Gunnery, in Washington, CT -- on his resume. The resume, obtained under Connecticut's Freedom of Information law, also shows some overlap for jobs at public schools in Connecticut and New York.

    This teacher / administrator, Jaime E. Rivera, aka Jaime Rivera-Murillo, resigned as principal of Wamogo High School in Litchfield in April. Before that, he was a teacher and assistant principal at Newtown High School for about 11 years. The first teaching job listed on his resume was at Henry Abbot Technical High School in Danbury, beginning in 2001. That leaves a seven-year gap following his graduation from St. Michael's College in Vermont, where he reported earning a Bachelor of Arts in Teaching English as a Second Language.

    The Covington & Burling report says Rivera-Murillo was fired after being accused of anally raping one student and grabbing the breast of another during a Choate field trip to Costa Rica in 1999. Rivera, a faculty leader for the trip, denied engaging in sexual misconduct but admitting drinking alcohol including beer with students and "local moonshine" with others.

    Choate did not report the alleged assaults at the time as required by law. The alleged rape victim told the Covington & Burling team that a female administrator admonished students not to discuss what happened.

    The process for vetting resumes at Connecticut public schools like Wamogo and Newtown high schools and Abbot Tech seems to be check the boxes and wave the guy through with barely a pretense of scrutiny. This abysmal failure of diligence and critical thinking should be alarming to students, parents and all taxpayers.

    "He didn't list Choate as a former employer when he applied," Christine Chinni, the lawyer for Regional District 6 which includes Wamogo, told The Boston Globe.

    District 6 Superintendent Edward Drapp, asked about the committee of 12 that reviewed Rivera-Murillo's credentials and the review process, declined to discuss his procedures for background checks. Besides the resume, which he produced after a formal FOI request, Drapp was also asked to provide documents related to that review committee. Here is Drapp's response: "Attached is a copy of Mr. Rivera's resume. This is the only document in the district's possession that meets the criteria of your FOI request. For the remainder of the school year I will be focused on the students and therefore I am not doing any additional interviews or making any other statements on this matter."

    Drapp's response sounds like the result of bad coaching from an inept lawyer. The assertion that there are no documents regarding the review committee is not credible. Are we to believe the review committee never had a meeting?

    The Globe reported in April that the sexual misconduct at Choate occurred from 1963 to 2010 and ranged from intimate kissing to groping and sexual intercourse. The Covington & Burling report cites 12 teachers. Other Globe stories cited more than 100 private schools in New England with more than 300 former students saying they faced sexual abuse or harassment.

    Just last month, The Kent School was sued and accused of failing to report a 49-year-old teacher who had sex with a 15-year-old student in the late 1980s.

    The student claims her advisor scolded her for spreading vicious rumors. Another teacher allegedly told the student she was a sinner for committing adultery. The suit claims the abuse was widely known at the school and that the student was shunned, called "obviously crazy" and blamed for the teacher's breakdown. During a church service the student attended at the school, the suit asserts, Kent staff openly prayed for the teacher's well being. The teacher subsequently got a job at a private school in Indiana.

    Kent School, founded in 1906, charges more than $60,000 annually for tuition, board and fees.

    Rev. Richardson Schell, the headmaster, said in a statement: "We do not know why [the student] has elected to pursue a lawsuit at this time."

    Schell opened the statement by saying he had reviewed the complaint: " ... I am deeply sorry for the wrongful actions of the former Kent teacher who engaged in an inappropriate relationship with this former student ... as the Headmaster of the school then, I responded immediately and to the best of my ability."

    The statement does not address the school's duty to report the alleged abuse in a timely manner.

    Notably, Schell undertook a massive letter writing campaign some years later when he was annoyed by what he called a TV sitcom's "obnoxious, objectionable content." His letter writing campaign netted responses from 17 companies and he also reached out to publications including Advertising Age and Media Week to generate publicity regarding his concerns about popular culture, The New York Times reported.

    Finally, on the national front, The Associated Press reported that a former president of Penn State and two other former university administrators were each sentenced Friday to at least two months in jail for failing to alert authorities to a 2001 allegation against ex-assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky, a decision that enabled the now-convicted serial predator to continue molesting boys.

    Thibault, a private investigator for the Hartford office of Integrated Security Services, is the author of a second collection of newspaper columns, “more COOL JUSTICE”, credited with helping to free a woman unjustly convicted of first degree murder. His public service includes four years on a local board of education. Follow him on Twitter @cooljustice.

  • The Choate Report

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    Flu (1) pode se juntar ao Milan (2) como campeão num ano e rebaixado no outro

    O tradicional Fluminense pode entrar num rol nada agradável neste domingo na última rodada do Brasileiro. O tricolor das Laranjeiras pode se tornar o 60º clube da história do futebol a ser rebaixado para a segunda divisão nacional apenas uma temporada após ter sido campeão. 

    Dentre os atuais 59 constam times da grandeza de LDU/EQU, Universidad Católica/CHL, Manchester City/ING, Olympique de Marselha/FRA e Milan/ITA. Entretanto, esses dois últimos caíram por motivos extracampo. 

    A equipe inglesa caiu após ser campeão de uma forma curiosa na temporada (1937/38): com saldo positivo de gols, marcando 80 vezes - mais até que o então campeão Arsenal. Entretanto o número de derrotas culminou com a ida à segundona.

    Já Olympique (1994) e Milan (1980) foram campeões na temporada anterior e rebaixados na seguinte  em suas respectivas ligas devido a escândalos de manipulação de resultados, que custou até a participação dos franceses da decisão do Mundial Interclubes de 1993.

    A Juventus de Turim chegou a ser campeã italiana em 2004/2005 e  na temporada seguinte disputar a Serie B. Contudo, o título da Vecchia Signora foi retirado pela Federação Italiana.

    A Noruega e a Suécia são os países em que mais esse tipo de situação aconteceu: 4 vezes. Curiosamente a Finlândia e a Dinamarca aparecem logo a seguir com 3 ao lado de mais alguns outros pelo planeta, fazendo até parece que tal situação estranha é uma especialidade nórdica.

    Editado (às 21h10 do dia 08/12/2013): O Fluminense tornou-se o 60º clube a ser rebaixado uma temporada depois de ter sido campeão nacional após a última rodada do Campeonato Brasileiro neste domingo.

    Abaixo, a lista dos 60 times que foram do céu ao inferno no intervalo de apenas uma temporada. Entre parênteses, na ordem, os anos em que foram campeões e rebaixados logo a seguir. 

    * Alemanha

    - 1.FC Nürnberg (1968 - 1969)

    * Argélia

    - Entente Sportive de Sétif (1987 - 1988)
    - USM El Harrach (1998 - 1999)

    * Andorra

    - Constel-lació Esportiva (2000 - 2000)
    Obs.: Rebaixado na mesma temporada por envolvimento em irregularidades financeiras.

    * Aruba

    - San Luis Deportivo (1984 - 1985)

    * Áustria

    - FC Tirol Innsbruck (2002 - 2002)
    Obs.: Rebaixado pela federação por não ter suas contas aprovadas.

    * Brasil

    - Fluminense (2012 - 2013)

    * Bolívia

    - Universitario de La Paz (1969 - 1970)
    - Jorge Wilstermann (Apertura 2010 - Clausura 2010)

    * Camarões

    - Aigle Nkongsamba (1994 - 1995)

    * Chile

    - Universidad Católica (1954 - 1955)

    * Costa Rica

    - El Carmen FC (1961 - 1961)
    Obs.: Rebaixado na mesma temporada após conflitos com outros clubes e a federação, que formularam a disputa de um "playoff" após o campeonato nacional e que terminou com o atual campeão ficando na última colocação.

    * Dinamarca

    - KB (1950 - 1951)
    - Hvidovre (1973 - 1974)
    - Herfølge BK (2000 - 2001)

    * Equador

    - LDU (1999 - 2000)

    * Finlândia

    - Ilves-Kissat (1950 - 1951)
    - TPV (1994 - 1995)
    - Haka Valkeakoski (1995 - 1996)

    * França

    - Olympique Marseille (1993 - 1994)
    Obs.: Rebaixado após escândalos de manipulação de resultados.

    * Guiné

    - AS Kaloum Star (2007 - 2008)
    Obs.: Rebaixado após dois WO's no campeonato por problemas contratuais com patrocinadores.

    * Guiné-Bissau

    - UDIB (2003 - 2004)
    Obs.: Rebaixado após WO's nas duas primeiras rodadas da temporada
    - Atlético Bissorã (2011 - 2013)
    Obs.: Não houve competição em 2012.

    * Holanda

    - RC Heemstede (1953 - 1954)

    * Ilhas Faroe

    - B71 (1989 - 1990)

    * Indonésia

    - PSIS (1999 - 2000)
    - Petrokimia Putra (2002 -2003)
    - Persebaya (2004 - 2005)
    Obs.: Rebaixado após se recusar a disputar a última partida do playoff em 2005.

    * Inglaterra

    - Manchester City (1937 - 1938)

    * Irlanda

    - Shelbourne (2006 - 2006)
    Obs.: Rebaixado pela federação por não ter as contas aprovadas.

    * Israel

    - Hapoel Kfar-Saba (1982 - 1983)
    - Hapoel Tel-Aviv (1988 - 1989)

    * Itália

    - Milan (1979 - 1980)
    Obs.: Rebaixado após escândalos de manipulação de resultados.

    * Jamaica

    - Violet Kickers (1996 - 1997)

    * Luxemburgo

    - Union Luxembourg (1927 - 1928)

    * Macau

    - Monte Carlo (2008 - 2009)
    Obs.: Rebaixado após divergências com a federação e com o Macau FC.

    * Malta

    - Rabat Ajax (1986 - 1987)

    * México

    - Marte (1954 - 1955)

    * Nigéria

    - Stationery Stores (1992 - 1993)
    Obs.: Rebaixado após vários WO's nos jogos fora de casa.
    - Shooting Stars (1998 - 1999)
    - Bayelsa United (2009 - 2010)

    * Noruega

    - Freidig (1948 - 1949)
    - Fram (1950 -1951)
    - SK Brann (1963 - 1964)
    - Lyn (1968 - 1969)

    * País de Gales

    - Barry Town (2003 - 2004)
    - Rhyl (2009 - 2010)
    Obs.: Rebaixado após não conseguir a licença para a disputa da nova liga criada.

    * Polônia

    - Ogniwo Bytom (1954 - 1955)
    Obs: Rebaixado após fundir-se com o Szombierki Bytom e mudar seu nome para Polonia Bytom.

    * República do Congo

    - Saint Michel de Ouenzé (2010 - 2011)

    * República Dominicana

    - Deportivo Pantoja (2001 - 2002)
    - Baninter/Jarabacoa (2003 - 2005)
    Obs.: Não houve competição em 2004.

    * Rússia (então União Soviética)

    - CDSA Moscou (1951 - 1952)
    Obs.: Rebaixado pela federação após a pífia participação soviéticas nas Olimpíadas de 1952, no qual o time era a base da seleção de futebol.

    * Santa Lúcia

    - Roots Alley Ballers (2009 - 2010)

    * San Marino

    - La Fiorita (1990 - 1991)

    * Suécia

    - Helsingborgs IF (1934 - 1935)
    - GAIS (1954 - 1955)
    - Djurgårdens IF (1959 - 1960)
    - IFK Göteborg (1969 - 1970)

    * Uzbequistão

    - MHSK Tashkent (1997 - 1998)

    * Vietnã

    - Cang Saigon (2002 - 2003)

    Foto 1: André Durão -
    Foto 2: Autor desconhecido


    Fim de semana de futebol que quase termina em tragédia pelo Brasil

    Nem sempre o futebol é só alegria para torcedores e profissionais que trabalham no meio, seja dentro dos próprios clubes, prestam serviços (como policiais, vendedores, etc.) ou na imprensa. No fim de semana que passou dois fatos lamentáveis aconteceram no que deveria ser apenas mais uma rodada do esporte mais popular do país.

    De um lado o poderoso Palmeiras, amargando a Série B em 2013, enfrentando o menos tradicional ABC em Natal no estádio Frasqueirão (1ª foto). O que se viu foi um "ensardinhamento", se é que podemos falar assim, de torcedores no portão de entrada C do estádio. As imagens não mentem e só comprovam que houve falta de bom senso e de organização do evento, colocando em risco o real motivo de existência do futebol: o torcedor. Jovens e adultos correndo perigo de esmagamento contra o alambrado do estádio, relembrando a tragédia de Hillsborough na Inglaterra, em 1989, em que quase 100 pessoas morreram ora asfixiadas, ora esmagadas por superlotação. Enquanto isso dirigentes do time natalense, Polícia Militar e demais envolvidos diretamente com a organização do evento ficam jogando a culpa uns nos outros.

    Do outro, pela Série A, o maior clássico do estado do Paraná: Atlético e Coritiba - o "Atletiba". O que também era pra ser uma disputa apenas na bola passou para as arquibancadas - e de maneira nada saudável. Uma briga entre torcidas no estádio da Vila Capanema (2ª foto) provocou vários feridos, inclusive com queda de alambrado e policiais atirando em direção às pessoas com balas de borracha. Por pouco outra tragédia não acontecia nos gramados brasileiros e alguma providência deve ser tomada para se encontrar os culpados pelos graves ocorridos.

    Dessa forma como se pode popularizar o esporte no país? Crianças ficam traumatizadas e adultos não vão mais por temerem outras confusões parecidas com riscos até de morte. E olha que ambas as cidades são sedes da próxima Copa do Mundo. É assim que os gestores do nosso futebol querem fazer a "maior Copa da história"? Muito complicado.

    Aproveitando o mote relembro uma postagem deste blog de fevereiro de 2012 que tratou das maiores tragédias da história do futebol mundial. E vejam que algumas são bem parecidas com os tristes acontecimentos do sábado e do domingo aqui no Brasil - que por sorte não entraram nas péssimas estatísticas que serão mostradas a seguir.


    Postagem de 04/02/2012

    Infelizmente nem sempre o futebol traz alegria e emoção ao torcedor. Assim como qualquer outra atividade na vida tem seus momentos de tristeza e amargura, como o que vimos na última semana em Port Said, no Egito, onde 74 pessoas morreram e outras centenas saíram feridas após uma partida pela liga local entre Al-Masry e Al-Ahly.

    A história mostra, ao lado de triunfos e da euforia de equipes e torcidas vitoriosas, que os problemas dentro e fora dos estádios são bem antigos. Sejam por má gestão da organização do evento, estruturas precárias, pela fúria desenfreada de vândalos travestidos de torcedores ou, simplesmente, por ineficiência da segurança no local. E o fato lamentável ocorrido em solo egípcio foi mais um a entrar nas estatísticas do lado triste que o futebol tem – e que pelo visto vai demorar muito a ficar sem solução, não sei se por negligência das autoridades ou por falta de civilidade de quem frequenta esses locais.

    O primeiro desastre oficialmente registrado em estádios ocorreu em 1902 na Escócia, no Ibrox Stadium. Algum tempo depois tivemos os desastres em Burnden Park, na Inglaterra, na década de 40, no Heysel Stadium em Bruxelas, na Bélgica, e em Hillsborough em Sheffield, na Inglaterra nos anos 80, na Guatemala em 1996, pelo continente africano e até aqui no Brasil – mais precisamente na Bahia – na década passada, entre outros.

    Ou seja, o esporte já testemunhou em mais de um século diversos problemas desta natureza em ambientes que deveriam se restringir à prática desportiva. Sempre é assunto recorrente a (in)segurança do público nos estádios de futebol. Por isso mesmo o blog vai relembrar algumas das principais tragédias ocorridas na história do futebol por ordem cronológica.

    Ibrox Stadium (Glasgow/ESC) – 05 de abril de 1902

    Vista da arquibancada que desabou

    No decorrer de uma partida entre a seleção escocesa e a inglesa um lance de arquibancadas recém inauguradas do estádio desabou, ferindo 517 pessoas e matando outras 25. O motivo foi o colapso da estrutura de madeira, que alicerçada por vigas de aço, após um intenso temporal que caíra sobre a cidade na noite anterior ao jogo, que foi suspenso no início do segundo tempo e reiniciado no dia 03 de maio no estádio Villa Park em Birmingham na Inglaterra. Tal evento motivou as federações de futebol de todo o Reino Unido a abolir o uso das vigas metálicas nas arquibancadas e substituí-las por estruturas de concreto.

    Burnden Park (Bolton/ING) – 09 de março de 1946

    Mortos e feridos após tumultuo em Bolton

    Durante as quartas-de-final da FA Cup entre Bolton Wanderers e Stoke City milhares de pessoas entraram no estádio sem pagar ingresso, causando superlotação. Cerca de 85 mil espectadores se amontoaram num espaço projetado para receber 70 mil e o resultado foi o desabamento de uma das arquibancadas, que resultou na morte de 33 pessoas e em aproximadamente 500 feridos. Até então era a maior tragédia ocorrida em gramados ingleses em todos os tempos. Por incrível que pareça a partida foi interrompida após o acontecimento e recomeçou depois de algum tempo – terminou empatada em 0 a 0.

    Estádio Nacional (Lima/PER) – 24 de maio de 1964

    Lima 1964: maior tragédia dentro de um estádio da história do futebol

    As seleções do Peru e da Argentina duelavam por uma vaga nos Jogos Olímpicos de Tóquio e os donos da casa jogavam por um simples empate para se classificarem. Entretanto, os argentinos abriram o placar, mas perto do fim da partida os peruanos empataram para delírio da torcida presente. Só que o árbitro da partida invalidou o gol, minando completamente as chances peruanas de irem ao Japão. Os torcedores se revoltaram e começaram a atirar tijolos e pedras para o gramado e a polícia local revidou com gás lacrimogêneo. Dois portões do estádio estavam trancados onde um segurança ficava no local. O tumultuo foi aumentando e com as duas saídas fechadas as pessoas começaram a ser esmagadas e asfixiadas com o amontoamento de gente em pânico. Foi a maior tragédia da história do futebol dentro de um estádio: 318 mortos e cerca de 500 feridos. 

    Ibrox Stadium (Glasgow/ESC) – 02 de janeiro de 1971

    Vítimas da segunda tragédia em Ibrox sendo socorridas

    Rangers e Celtics faziam o Old Firm, tradicional clássico escocês cuja rivalidade entre as torcidas é uma das maiores do planeta (assunto já retratado aqui no blog) – se não a maior – e requer todos os cuidados, quando os Bhoyz fizeram 1 a 0 aos 44 minutos da etapa final. Com a iminente derrota vários torcedores dos Gers começaram a se deslocar para a saída do estádio, entretanto, nos acréscimos, o atacante Colin Stein empatou a partida, provocando o retorno em massa de muitas pessoas que já tinham se deslocado para comemorar o gol da igualdade. O resultado foi um tumultuo generalizado na escadaria número 13 do Ibrox, que culminou com o esmagamento e morte de 66 pessoas – entre elas várias crianças – por asfixia e deixando outras 150 feridas.

    Valley Parade (Bradford/ING) – 11 de maio de 1985

    Pânico após incêndio em Bradford

    Após conquistar o retorno à segunda divisão inglesa naquela temporada, o Bradford City jogava contra o Lincoln City pelas rodadas finais da “Terceirona”. O que era para ser um jogo festivo para os torcedores virou tragédia após supostamente uma ponta de cigarro atirada por um torcedor embaixo das arquibancadas principais, feitas de madeira, ter dado início a um incêndio de grandes proporções. O jogo foi suspenso e o saldo final foi de 56 mortes e 256 pessoas feridas.

    Heysel Stadium (Bruxelas/BEL) – 29 de maio de 1985

    Tragédia de Heysel: a mais conhecida

    Certamente a tragédia dentro de estádio mais conhecida da história, pois envolveu uma final de Copa dos Campeões da Europa (atual Liga dos Campeões) entre Juventus/ITA e Liverpool/ING. Nos dias que antecediam a decisão as autoridades belgas, já sabedoras das possíveis conseqüências do encontro das duas torcidas, anunciaram uma série de medidas a fim de se evitar o confronto: revista em todos os espectadores na entrada para o jogo, proibição de venda de bebidas alcoólicas nas cercanias do estádio e um destacamento de 1500 policiais para garantir a segurança. Contudo, alguns bares próximos ignoraram as recomendações e serviram normalmente os torcedores. Fora do Heysel os distúrbios já começaram entre os Hooligans (os baderneiros) de ambas as equipes ao ponto de uma joalheria na vizinhança ter sido saqueada. Havia um planejamento para uma grande divisão das torcidas nas arquibancadas, entretanto, o que se viu foi a tribuna norte apinhada de torcedores dos dois clubes, separados apenas por uma simples grade de alguns policiais. Os britânicos começaram a provocação e o tumultuo ganhou proporções sem controle. Os confrontos começaram ali mesmo entre ingleses e italianos, tanto que a grade que separavam os rivais cedeu à pressão. Vários torcedores da Juventus foram agredidos pelos ingleses, inclusive com barras de ferro. Tamanho o pânico na torcida que o muro também cedeu e levou junto mais algumas dezenas de pessoas. O resultado do ocorrido foi a culpa do incidente imputada aos ingleses, um balanço final de 38 mortos e um número não confirmado de feridos. A polícia não deteve ninguém, mas os clubes ingleses sofreram uma dura punição: banimento das competições européias por um período de 5 anos. O jogo, relegado ao segundo plano, terminou 1 a 0 para a Vecchia Signora.

    Hillsborough (Sheffield/ING) – 15 de abril de 1989

    Hillsborough: mais um caso de superlotação no estádio

    Mais uma vez uma FA Cup via uma tragédia dentro de um campo de futebol. Desta vez valendo pelas semifinais, Liverpool e Nottingham Forest iam se confrontar no campo do Sheffield Wednesday FC, que tinha capacidade para quase 40 mil espectadores. A polícia local dividiu as torcidas nas arquibancadas e abriu um portão para a saída, que resultou num tumultuo generalizado com torcedores do Liverpool entrando por ele, causando uma superlotação do setor Lepping Lane Ends reservado aos fãs dos Reds. A pessoas iam sendo esmagadas no alambrado que separava o público do gramado até que a estrutura cedeu à pressão. A partida foi cancelada. O saldo foi de 96 mortos e 766 feridos, configurando-se na maior tragédia em estádios britânicos da história.

    Estádio Armand Césari (Bastia/FRA) – 05 de maio de 1992

    Arquibancada feita de Ãºltima hora destruída em Bastia

    Bastia e Olympique de Marselha iam se enfrentar pela Copa da França e a diretoria dos donos da casa resolveram de última hora aumentar a capacidade do estádio em 50%, tendo em vista a importância do confronto. As autoridades locais aprovaram a nova estrutura sem nenhuma restrição. Momentos antes do jogo o novo setor já estava sendo tomado e não suportando o peso do público desabou matando 18 pessoas e ferindo aproximadamente outras 2300.

    Estádio Mateo Flores (Cidade da Guatemala/GUA) – 16 de outubro de 1996

    Avalanche humana na Guatemala

    Guatemala e Costa Rica iam se enfrentar pelas Eliminatórias para a Copa do Mundo de 1998 e o estádio estava com público bem acima de seus 30 mil lugares. O motivo foi o derramamento de ingressos falsos nas mãos de cambistas que desencadeou numa avalanche humana para dentro de campo. Vários torcedores foram esmagados e pisoteados e o balanço final da tragédia foi de 150 pessoas feridas e 83 mortas.

    Ellis Park (Johanesburgo/AFS) – 11 de abril de 2001

    Ellis Park: quase o dobro da capacidade máxima

    Em outra grande rivalidade do futebol, Kaiser Chiefs e Orlando Pirates iam se enfrentar no Ellis Park e um grande público era esperado para o confronto. O estádio tinha capacidade para 60 mil pessoas, mas incrivelmente recebeu segundo relatos da época de 90 a 120 mil espectadores. A situação já era desconfortável para a torcida presente com o pouco espaço e só piorou quando os Pirates marcaram um gol. Vários torcedores dos Chiefs revoltados quiseram invadir o gramado e o que já era uma bomba relógio prestes a explodir foi à tona! O policiamento tentou reprimir os revoltosos lançando gás lacrimogêneo sobre os invasores, mas a o tumultuo só aumentou. Muitas pessoas foram pisoteadas na confusão – 43 morreram e cerca de 150 ficaram feridas.

    Accra Sports Stadium (Accra/GAN) – 09 de maio de 2001

    Incidente em Gana foi o maior da história do continente africano

    Poucos dias depois da tragédia no Ellis Park foi a vez do futebol ganês viver momentos de terror dentro do estádio de futebol – e em mais um clássico local. Accra Hearts of Oaks e Asante Kotoko se enfrentavam para uma casa lotada e a partida terminou em 2 a 1 para os anfitriões. Indignada com o resultado, a torcida visitante começou um tumultuo nas arquibancadas e passou a arremessar assentos e garrafas de plásticos para o gramado. O policiamento local reagiu com gás lacrimogêneo e provocou pânico generalizado nas pessoas presentes, que tentaram fugir desordenadamente. Com os portões fechados vários torcedores se amontoaram, causando a morte de 127 pessoas por esmagamento e asfixia. Esta foi a maior tragédia dentro de um campo de futebol da história do futebol africano. O detalhe mais triste é que não havia mais equipe médica no estádio – eles haviam deixando o local minutos antes da confusão.

    Fonte Nova (Salvador/BRA) – 25 de novembro de 2007

    Salvador: estádio em péssimo estado de conservação

    Em jogo válido pela fase final da Série C do Campeonato Brasileiro, Bahia e Vila Nova/GO se enfrentavam em campo e o jogo estava 0 a 0 para um público de cerca de 60 mil pessoas. Aos 43 minutos do 2º tempo uma parte das arquibancadas do estádio desabou matando 7 pessoas e ferindo 40. O laudo divulgado posteriormente constatou que o estado das estruturas da Fonte Nova era péssimo.

    Port Said Stadium (Port Said/EGI) – 01 de fevereiro de 2012

    Port Said: jogadores são alvos da ira dos revoltosos

    Depois da vitória de 3 a 1 do anfitrião Al-Masry sobre o Al-Ahly vários torcedores do clube local invadiram o gramado e atacaram a torcida e os jogadores visitantes e a polícia com pedras, artefatos de fogo, facas, garrafas, pedaços de pau e até espadas. Os atletas fugiram para o vestiário. Milhares de revoltados transformaram o estádio em uma praça campal de guerra, que teve como saldo final 79 mortos e mais de 1000 feridos. As autoridades egípcias investigam o caso e abriram a possibilidade do motivo do confronto não ser apenas esportivos, mas também político, visto que o país recentemente passou por um sangrento processo de mudança no governo.

    Foto 1: Augusto Gomes - G1/RN
    Foto 2: Geraldo Bubniak - Fotoarena
    Foto 3: Autor desconhecido
    Foto 4: Merseyside Potters
    Foto 5: TPS
    Foto 6: Daily Record
    Foto 7: Bradford Timeline
    Foto 8: Daily Mail
    Foto 9: Bleach Report
    Fotos 10 e 11: TVXS
    Foto 12: Odd Culture
    Foto 13: Futura Press
    Foto 14: Reuters

              The travesty that is Australia's asylum seeker offshore detention policy -"If they had arrived by airplane and with a tourist visa then they would be here."         

    It seems the truth will out.

    After the United States completes its vetting of asylum seekers held in overseas detention by the Australian Government it is not obliged to take even one of those individuals U.S. immigration officials have examined.

    In May 2017 the Department of Immigration and Border Protection confirmed 268 people had completed their second-stage security interview with US officials: 220 in Nauru and 48 on Manus Island.

    U.S. immigration officials halted screening interviews and departed Nauru on 14 July 2017, two weeks short of their scheduled timetable and a day after Washington said the US had reached its annual refugee intake cap.

    However, under the original agreement once that vetting is completed Australia becomes obliged to resettle between 20 and 50 people under a U.S. "Protection Transfer Arrangement" in Costa Rica set up to resettle refugees from El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala.

    Prime Minister Turnbull verbally changed that undertaking to an open-ended number of people the Trump Administration might be “very keen on getting out of the United States”.

    There is no indication that the U.S. Government intends to complete its vetting of those detained on Nauru and Manus islands.

    The Washington Post, 3 August 2017:

    The Washington Post has obtained transcripts of two conversations President Trump had with foreign leaders: one with Mexican President Enrique Peña Nieto and another with Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull.
    The transcripts were prepared by the White House but have not been released. The Post is publishing reproductions rather than original documents in order to protect sources. The reproductions below also include minor spelling and grammatical mistakes that appeared in the documents………………

    JANUARY 28, 2017 FROM 5:05 TO 5:29 P.M. EST.

    Good evening.

    Mr. Prime Minister, how are you?

    I am doing very well.

    And I guess our friend Greg Norman, he is doing very well?

    He is a great mutual friend yes.

    Well you say hello to him. He is a very good friend. By the way thank you very much for taking the call. I really appreciate it. It is really nice.

    Thank you very much. Everything is going very well. I want to congratulate you and Mike Pence on being sworn in now. I have spoken to you both now as you know. I know we are both looking to make our relationship which is very strong and intimate, stronger than ever – which I believe we can do.


    I believe you and I have similar backgrounds, unusual for politicians, more businessman but I look forward to working together.

    That is exactly right. We do have similar backgrounds and it seems to be working in this climate – it is a crazy climate. Let me tell you this, it is an evil time but it is a complex time because we do not have uniforms standing in front of us. Instead, we have people in disguise. It is brutal. This ISIS thing â€“ it is something we are going to devote a lot of energy to it. I think we are going to be very successful.

    Absolutely. We have, as you know, taken a very strong line on national security and border protection here and when I was speaking with Jared Kushner just the other day and one of your immigration advisors in the White House we reflected on how our policies have helped to inform your approach. We are very much of the same mind. It is very interesting to know how you prioritize the minorities in your Executive Order. This is exactly what we have done with the program to bring in 12,000 Syrian refugees, 90% of which will be Christians. It will be quite deliberate and the position I have taken – I have been very open about it – is that it is a tragic fact of life that when the situation in the Middle East settles down – the people that are going to be most unlikely to have a continuing home are those Christian minorities. We have seen that in Iraq and so from our point of view, as a final destination for refugees, that is why we prioritize. It is not a sectarian thing. It is recognition of the practical political realities. We have a similar perspective in that respect.

    Do you know four years ago Malcom, I was with a man who does this for a living. He was telling me, before the migration, that if you were a Christian from Syria, you had no chance of coming to the United States. Zero. They were the ones being persecuted. When I say persecuted, I mean their heads were being chopped off. If you were a Muslim we have nothing against Muslims, but if you were a Muslim you were not persecuted at least to the extent – but if you were a Muslim from Syria that was the number one place to get into the United States from. That was the easiest thing. But if you were a Christian from Syria you have no chance of getting into the United States. I just thought it was an incredible statistic. Totally true – and you have seen the same thing. It is incredible.

    Well, yes. Mr. President, can I return to the issue of the resettlement agreement that we had with the Obama administration with respect to some people on Nauru and Manus Island. I have written to you about this and Mike Pence and General Flynn spoke with Julie Bishop and my National Security Advisor yesterday. This is a very big issue for us, particularly domestically, and I do understand you are inclined to a different point of view than the Vice President.

    Well, actually I just called for a total ban on Syria and from many different countries from where there is terror, and extreme vetting for everyone else – and somebody told me yesterday that close to 2,000 people are coming who are really probably troublesome. And I am saying, boy that will make us look awfully bad. Here I am calling for a ban where I am not letting anybody in and we take 2,000 people. Really it looks like 2,000 people that Australia does not want and I do not blame you by the way, but the United States has become like a dumping ground. You know Malcom, anybody that has a problem – you remember the Mariel boat lift, where Castro let everyone out of prison and Jimmy Carter accepted them with open arms. These were brutal people. Nobody said Castro was stupid, but now what are we talking about is 2,000 people that are actually imprisoned and that would actually come into the United States. I heard about this – I have to say I love Australia; I love the people of Australia. I have so many friends from Australia, but I said – geez that is a big ask, especially in light of the fact that we are so heavily in favor, not in favor, but we have no choice but to stop things. We have to stop. We have allowed so many people into our country that should not be here. We have our San Bernardino’s, we have had the World Trade Center come down because of people that should not have been in our country, and now we are supposed to take 2,000. It sends such a bad signal. You have no idea. It is such a bad thing.

    Can you hear me out Mr. President?

    Yeah, go ahead.

    Yes, the agreement, which the Vice President just called the Foreign Minister about less than 24 hours ago and said your Administration would be continuing, does not require you to take 2,000 people. It does not require you to take any. It requires, in return, for us to do a number of things for the United States – this is a big deal, I think we should respect deals.

    Who made the deal? Obama?

    Yes, but let me describe what it is. I think it is quite consistent. I think you can comply with it. It is absolutely consistent with your Executive Order so please just hear me out. The obligation is for the United States to look and examine and take up to and only if they so choose – 1,250 to 2,000. Every individual is subject to your vetting. You can decide to take them or to not take them after vetting. You can decide to take 1,000 or 100. It is entirely up to you. The obligation is to only go through the process. So that is the first thing. Secondly, the people — none of these people are from the conflict zone. They are basically economic refugees from Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. That is the vast bulk of them. They have been under our supervision for over three years now and we know exactly everything about them.

    Why haven’t you let them out? Why have you not let them into your society?

    Okay, I will explain why. It is not because they are bad people. It is because in order to stop people smugglers, we had to deprive them of the product. So we said if you try to come to Australia by boat, even if we think you are the best person in the world, even if you are a Noble [sic] Prize winning genius, we will not let you in. Because the problem with the people —

    That is a good idea. We should do that too. You are worse than I am.

    This is our experience.

    Because you do not want to destroy your country. Look at what has happened in Germany. Look at what is happening in these countries. These people are crazy to let this happen. I spoke to Merkel today, and believe me, she wishes she did not do it. Germany is a mess because of what happened.

    I agree with you, letting one million Syrians walk into their country. It was one of the big factors in the Brexit vote, frankly.

    Well, there could be two million people coming in Germany. Two million people. Can you believe it? It will never be the same.

    stood up at the UN in September and set up what our immigration policy was. I said that you cannot maintain popular support for immigration policy, multiculturalism, unless you can control your borders. The bottom line is that we got here. I am asking you as a very good friend. This is a big deal. It is really, really important to us that we maintain it. It does not oblige you to take one person that you do not want. As I have said, your homeland officials have visited and they have already interviewed these people. You can decide. It is at your discretion. So you have the wording in the Executive Order that enables the Secretary of Homeland Security and the Secretary of State to admit people on a case by case basis in order to conform with an existing agreement. I do believe that you will never find a better friend to the United States than Australia. I say this to you sincerely that it is in the mutual interest of the United States to say, “yes, we can conform with that deal – we are not obliged to take anybody we do not want, we will go through extreme vetting” and that way you are seen to show the respect that a trusted ally wants and deserves. We will then hold up our end of the bargain by taking in our country 31 [inaudible] that you need to move on from.

    Malcom [sic], why is this so important? I do not understand. This is going to kill me. I am the world’s greatest person that does not want to let people into the country. And now I am agreeing to take 2,000 people and I agree I can vet them, but that puts me in a bad position. It makes me look so bad and I have only been here a week.

    With great respect, that is not right – It is not 2,000.

    Well, it is close. I have also heard like 5,000 as well.

    The given number in the agreement is 1,250 and it is entirely a matter of your vetting. I think that what you could say is that the Australian government is consistent with the principles set out in the Executive Order.

    No, I do not want say that. I will just have to say that unfortunately I will have to live with what was said by Obama. I will say I hate it. Look, I spoke to Putin, Merkel, Abe of Japan, to France today, and this was my most unpleasant call because I will be honest with you. I hate taking these people. I guarantee you they are bad. That is why they are in prison right now. They are not going to be wonderful people who go on to work for the local milk people.

    I would not be so sure about that. They are basically —

    Well, maybe you should let them out of prison. I am doing this because Obama made a bad deal. I am not doing this because it fits into my Executive Order. I am taking 2,000 people from Australia who are in prison and the day before I signed an Executive Order saying that we are not taking anybody in. We are not taking anybody in, those days are over.

    But can I say to you, there is nothing more important in business or politics than a deal is a deal. Look, you and I have a lot of mutual friends.
    Look, I do not know how you got them to sign a deal like this, but that is how they lost the election. They said I had no way to 270 and I got 306. That is why they lost the election, because of stupid deals like this. You have brokered many a stupid deal in business and I respect you, but I guarantee that you broke many a stupid deal. This is a stupid deal. This deal will make me look terrible.

    Mr. President, I think this will make you look like a man who stands by the commitments of the United States. It shows that you are a committed —

    Okay, this shows me to be a dope. I am not like this but, if I have to do it, I will do it but I do not like this at all. I will be honest with you. Not even a little bit. I think it is ridiculous and Obama should have never signed it. The only reason I will take them is because I have to honor a deal signed by my predecessor and it was a rotten deal. I say that it was a stupid deal like all the other deals that this country signed. You have to see what I am doing. I am unlocking deals that were made by people, these people were incompetent. I am not going to say that it fits within the realm of my Executive Order. We are going to allow 2,000 prisoners to come into our country and it is within the realm of my Executive Order? If that is the case my Executive Order does not mean anything Malcom [sic]. I look like a dope. The only way that I can do this is to say that my predecessor made a deal and I have no option then to honor the deal. I hate having to do it, but I am still going to vet them very closely. Suppose I vet them closely and I do not take any?

    That is the point I have been trying to make.

    How does that help you?

    Well, we assume that we will act in good faith.

    Does anybody know who these people are? Who are they? Where do they come from? Are they going to become the Boston bomber in five years? Or two years? Who are these people?

    Let me explain. We know exactly who they are. They have been on Nauru or Manus for over three years and the only reason we cannot let them into Australia is because of our commitment to not allow people to come by boat. Otherwise we would have let them in. If they had arrived by airplane and with a tourist visa then they would be here.

    Malcom [sic], but they are arrived on a boat?

    Correct, we have stopped the boats.

    Give them to the United States. We are like a dumping ground for the rest of the world. I have been here for a period of time, I just want this to stop. I look so foolish doing this. It [sic] know it is good for you but it is bad for me. It is horrible for me. This is what I am trying to stop. I do not want to have more San Bernardino’s or World Trade Centers. I could name 30 others, but I do not have enough time.

    These guys are not in that league. They are economic refugees.

    Okay, good. Can Australia give me a guarantee that if we have any problems – you know that is what they said about the Boston bombers. They said they were wonderful young men.

    They were Russians. They were not from any of these countries.

    They were from wherever they were.

    Please, if we can agree to stick to the deal, you have complete discretion in terms of a security assessment. The numbers are not 2,000 but 1,250 to start. Basically, we are taking people from the previous administration that they were very keen on getting out of the United States. We will take more. We will take anyone that you want us to take. The only people that we do not take are people who come by boat. So we would rather take a not very attractive guy that help you out then to take a Noble [sic] Peace Prize winner that comes by boat. That is the point.

    What is the thing with boats? Why do you discriminate against boats? No, I know, they come from certain regions. I get it.

    No, let me explain why. The problem with the boats it that you are basically outsourcing your immigration program to people smugglers and also you get thousands of people drowning at sea. So what we say is, we will decide which people get to come to Australia who are refugees, economic migrants, businessmen, whatever. We decide. That is our decision. We are a generous multicultural immigration nation like the United States but the government decides, the people’s representatives decides. So that is the point. I am a highly transactional businessman like you and I know the deal has to work for both sides. Now Obama thought this deal worked for him and he drove a hard bargain with us – that it was agreed with Obama more than a year ago in the Oval Office, long before the election. The principles of the deal were agreed to.

    I do not know what he got out of it. We never get anything out of it – START Treaty, the Iran deal. I do not know where they find these people to make these stupid deals. I am going to get killed on this thing.

    You will not.

    Yes, I will be seen as a weak and ineffective leader in my first week by these people. This is a killer.

    You can certainly say that it was not a deal that you would have done, but you are going to stick with it.

    I have no choice to say that about it. Malcom [sic], I am going to say that I have no choice but to honor my predecessor’s deal. I think it is a horrible deal, a disgusting deal that I would have never made. It is an embarrassment to the United States of America and you can say it just the way I said it. I will say it just that way. As far as I am concerned that is enough Malcom [sic]I have had it. I have been making these calls all day and this is the most unpleasant call all day. Putin was a pleasant call. This is ridiculous.

    Do you want to talk about Syria and DPRK?

    [inaudible] this is crazy.

    Thank you for your commitment. It is very important to us.

    It is important to you and it is embarrassing to me. It is an embarrassment to me, but at least I got you off the hook. So you put me back on the hook.

    You can count on me. I will be there again and again.

    I hope so. Okay, thank you Malcolm.

    Okay, thank you.

    * My yellow highlighting.

              So Florida is Very Flat        

    Its like the Gwyneth Paltrow of states.

    We zoomed from Miami to Naples this morning along Alligator Alley in 2 hours flat. The steering wheel didn't turn once and the needle stayed at 75 mph.

    (Apologies if you were expecting a repeat of the Costa Rican ordeal).

              Chill Expeditions and Camelbak Launch “An Eco-Immersion Adventure”        

    Campaign will award winner an all-expense-paid trip of a lifetime to Costa Rica with the choice of three custom experiential travel itineraries.

    (PRWeb August 27, 2013)

    Read the full story at

              Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
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              A motivated Ray Beltran gets an important win over Bryan Vasquez        

    Mexico’s Ray Beltran won a fight and a better chance to permanently remain in the U.S. on Saturday night, defeating Costa Rica’s Bryan Vasquez by majority decision at L.A. Live’s Microsoft Theater.

    Former junior-welterweight title contender Beltran (34-7-1) claimed a majority decision victory by...

              What are the best places to visit in Central America        
    Hi Friends,
    My name is John Rica and i am planning to do some new stuff, like i am thinking to visit the places in central America and Costa Rica.
    I am wanted to a lot of fun and adventure wanted to roam in the jungle and also wanted to do rafting in the river and also wanted to visit beaches. I have started all the preparation for this. I have gathered all the necessary things for this like Map of Central America Countries and guide books. Now i am needed your well wishes for this Because soon i am going to start my trip. If you guys wanted to give me any suggestion then please share with me.
              Things to see in Costa Rica        
    My sister and I are considering a trip to Costa Rica. We're young and active and keen for some adventurous eco-tourism. I would be really grateful for some feedback from anybody who's been there about the best places to go and what we should see and do. Thanks!
              Do Bulgarian citizens need transit visa for Puerto Rico        
    I am a Bulgarian citizen and need to make connection between flights in Puerto Rico (San Juan). Do I need a transit visa? If needed where I can apply? Is it possible to obtain the visa from San Jose, Costa Rica where I will stay for 2 weeks and how long does it take?
              For Sale: 4x4 1999 Mitsubishi Nativa in Peru with additions        
    we are a traveling family with 3 kids and drove from Costa Rica to Peru.

    we are selling our 4x4 1999 Mitsubishi Nativa which is in a GREAT condition and equipted with many additions for a great travel. the car has panamanian plate and the ownership transfer is very easy and simple.

    the car includes a family tent, chast cooler, AC converter, great stero system, vehicle gear, we added a rear "cage" the securely holds the cooler and additional food box and more!!!

    this is a great car to travel in this continent and you can find parts everyware! we never had any problem since, unlike other vehicles (e.g. from Europe), this car is common.

    as for the car:
    1999 Mitsubishi Nativa
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    no mechanical problems whatsoever! Great condition
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    price: 11k USD-negotiable

    so if you like to get more info and pics, let us know.
              Costa Rica Safe for Little Kids?        
    My daughter and her young family want to go to Costa Rica FOR A MONTH from Feb-March. I'm scared to death that, in the world's political climate, that's not such a safe choice. Your opinion?
              Congregación de Hermanas Josefinas de México        




    Nuestra Misión esta inspirada en el misterio de Nazareth teniendo como modelos a María Santísima y a San José como nuestros padres y Jesús como esposo. Nuestra atención está dirigida a la niñez y la juventud especialmente la más necesitada,

    Las hermanas josefinas te invitamos a vivir esta experiencia misionera en todos sectores en especial los más vulnerables de la sociedad en diferentes paises: México, Estados Unidos, Nicaragua, el Salvador, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Chile y las misiones en Angola.

              Â¡Sácale jugo a tu día!        
    La clave para alcanzar el éxito no solo radica en la capacidad para ejecutar el trabajo, sino también en la habilidad para distribuir el tiempo de manera eficiente.
    Para organizar el día hay que poner en orden la mente y establecer prioridades.
    Es importante, dice María Ester Flores, psicóloga, tener claridad mental desde el momento en que nos bajamos de la cama.“Hay que respirar profundo y tener pensamientos positivos hacia uno mismo para empezar el día cargado de energía”, dice Flores.
    Ella agrega que la noche antes de dormir también hay que tomarse unos minutos para preparar lo que se piensa hacer al día siguiente.
    Disciplina y orden
    En las primeras horas de la mañana, luego del desayuno, es probable que te sientas con mucha energía. Para sacarle mayor provecho, es necesario tener la información que se necesite, bien organizada. 
    También, hay que concentrarse en una actividad y terminarla. Principalmente, porque en esta época digital es más fácil distraerse navegando por internet.
    ¿Dónde radica el secreto? Según Karina Picado, psicóloga, hay que dividir el día y la semana en periodos y establecer plazos para cada uno de ellos.
    Para organizarse, lo mejor es contar con una agenda semanal donde se anoten todas las tareas, ya sea del trabajo, la universidad y hasta compromisos familiares.
    Lo ideal es calcular el tiempo que se dedicará a cada cosa, por ejemplo, una hora preparando un informe o escribiendo correos electrónicos.
    Se trata de definir tareas estructuradas y estar seguro de que se cuenta con las herramientas para cumplir la meta, dice Picado.  
    Al momento de programar las actividades, debá tratar de que el horario no quede demasiado ajustado y ser realista sobre el tiempo que tardan las cosas. 
    Por último, si queda algo pendiente de la lista de quehaceres al terminar la jornada, se acometerán al día siguiente, pero nunca  nunca extiendas tu dedicación a ellas, evita posponer las actividades del tiempo libre por cumplirlas. Si tienes pensado ir al cine, al gimnasio o una reunión de amigos, no dejes de hacerlo. Trata de que lo pendiente se termine al día siguiente, sólo preservando las relaciones sociales, el tiempo libre, compartir con nuestras familias, disfrutar de nuestro tiempo nos permitirá volver a las tareas laborales con la suficiente claridad y dedicación para avanzar. 
    ENASCENSO, Universidad Latina de Costa Rica

              Mel Gibson lists his jungle retreat in Costa Rica; bring your own machete        

    Mel Gibson discovered his 400-acre beachfront jungle getaway while scouting locations for his 2006 film “Apocalypto.” Now the actor-director, known to roam the property with machete in hand, has put the retreat in Costa Rica up for sale at $29.75 million. He previously listed it three years ago...

              Incredipede crawls onto mobile, 'feels wet and slimy'        
    Incredipede has wobbled its way to mobile, available now for $4 on the App Store and Google Play. The mobile version of Incredipede retains most of the pretty wood-cut art and graphics of the PC version, with only a few effects disabled, and it has a few improvements for touchscreens.

    The "what's under my fat finger window," as developer Colin Northway calls it, allows players to make detailed adjustments to Quozzle, the game's creature, even on tiny screens.

    "Building creatures in Incredipede is especially visceral on touchscreens," Northway says. "Pulling legs out of Quozzle with your finger feels wet and slimy. It adds a whole new dimension to the game and has made the sandbox my favorite mode."

    Colin Northway and his wife, Sarah Northway, famously travel the globe while developing their games, and Incredipede mobile is no different. They shipped this one from a tiny island in Panama, and they've also sent out games from Mexico, the Philippines and Costa Rica. See beautiful photos of the Northways' adventurous indie lives in their Flickr album.

    Source: @ColinNorthway

              Google Maps adds live traffic for over 130 cities, boosts existing coverage        

    Google Maps adds live traffic for over 130 cities, boosts existing coverage

    Google has expanded its Maps traffic coverage before, but rarely on a grand scale. The search giant isn't standing on tradition this time: it just flipped on live traffic data for at least the major roads in over 130 cities. Most of the coverage centers around smaller cities in the US, although Google is tipping its hat to Latin America with first-time support for Bogota, San Jose (in Costa Rica) and Panama City. Coverage has also been improved in a dozen other countries worldwide. While the widened reach still won't ease the burden of anyone already caught in a traffic jam, any democratization of smarter driving directions is good in our book.

               Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica: an updated checklist         
    González, Daniel A. Cáceres, Schulte, Katharina, Schmidt, Marco, and Zizka, Georg (2013) Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica: an updated checklist. Phytokeys, 29. pp. 17-61.
              Canadian Discount Network Visits Exciting Costa Rica        

    Some of the best summer fun as well as top amenities and accommodations in Costa Rica with a limited time deal from Canadian Discount Network.

    (PRWeb August 18, 2015)

    Read the full story at

              New Trailer For ‘Runner, Runner’ Starring Ben Affleck, Justin Timberlake, & Gemma Arterton        
    Fox has released a new trailer for Brad Furman’s (Lincoln Lawyer) upcoming gambling thriller Runner, Runner starring Ben Affleck & Justin Timberlake. The film centers on a Princeton grad student who travels to Costa Rica to confront the online gambling tycoon that swindled him out of his tuition money. Gemma Arterton, Ben Schwartz, Dayo Okeniyi […]
              FIDE Newsletter July 2017        

    official logo

    FIDE Grand Prix Series was held in Geneva, Switzerland from 5th to 16th of July 2017

    Teimour Radjabov emerged clear winner of the FIDE World Chess Grand Prix in Geneva after sharing the point with his nearest follower Ian Nepomniachtchi in the final round. Radjabov earned 20.000 EUR and 170 Grand Prix points for the clear first place. Nepomniachtchi and Grischuk took 13.500 EUR and 105 GP points each.

    Radjabov gp2017

    In the overall Grand Prix standings Shakhriyar Mamedyarov is leading with 340 points, while Grischuk is second with 316,4. They have completed three events each and will cautiously await the results from the final 4th leg.


    Radjabov jumped through to the third place with 241,4 points. Ding Liren on 240 and Maxime Vachier-Lagrave on 211,4 can also hope to earn one of the two qualifying spots for the Candidates Tournament.

    Official website

    Photo gallery

    European Senior Team Chess Championship 2017 took place in Novi Sad, Serbia from 24th of June till 4th of July 2017.

    The Serbian team became European champion in the "50+" section European Championships for seniors. The title was brought by the grandmasters Miloš Pavlović, Goran M. Todorović, Siniša Dražić and Nenad Ristić and international master Zoran Arsović.

    European Senior Team Chess Championship

    Second place get to the team of Italy, which had three grandmasters in their team composition, and the third place went to team of Sweden. Particularly interesting is the fact that for the Swedish team successfully played the Swedish ambassador in Serbia, His Excellency Jan Lundin.

    In the 65+ section the team of Russia, for which are playing the legendary grandmasters Sveshnikov, Vasyukov and Balashov made amazing result of all eight victories, and took the first place. The Danish team was the second, and Belgium, after they lost match in the last round against Russia, took third place.

    Official website

    Panamerican Youth Championship 2017 took place in Costa Rica from 30 June 2017 till 7th of July 2017.

    Panamerican Youth Championship 2017

    Total medal counts at PanAm Youth Championships:

    USA 4 Gold, 5 Silver, 6 Bronze = 15 medals
    Peru 2 Gold, 3 Silver, 2 Bronze = 7 medals
    Canada 2 Gold, 2 Silver, 1 Bronze = 5 medals
    Venezuela 1 Gold, 1 Silver, 1 Bronze = 3 medals
    Colombia 1 Gold, 1 Bronze = 2 medals
    Argentina 1 Gold
    Chile 1 Gold
    Mexico 1 Silver
    Bolivia 1 Bronze

    Lopez Rayo Santiago COL
    Mishra Abhimanyu USA
    Prestia Sebastian USA

    U8 girls
    Vidyarthi Omya USA
    Maravi Ceron Ayme PER
    Qu Greta CAN

    Li Eric USA
    Atanasov Anthony CAN
    Gao Marvin USA

    U10 Girls
    Contreras Fiorella PER
    Wong Allyson USA
    Wang Ellen USA

    Chasin Nico Werner USA
    Galaviz Medina Sion Radam MEX
    Flores Quillas Diego Saul Rod PER

    U12 Girls
    Perez Hernandez Vicmary C. VEN
    Yellamraju Ambica USA
    Matute Escobar Roxanny VEN

    Liu Aristo S USA
    Nakada Akira W USA
    Titichoca Daza Daniel BOL

    U14 Girls
    He Emma CAN
    Zeng Sheena USA
    Ehsani Yassamin L USA

    Varacalli Francisco ARG
    Ramirez Gonzalez Mauricio VEN
    Liang Albert USA

    U16 Girls
    Gomez Barrera Javiera Belen CHI
    Mostacero Velarde Isabella PER
    Caballero Quijano Mitzy Mishe PER

    Song Michael CAN
    Cori Quispe Kevin Joel PER
    Quinonez Garcia Santiago COL

    U18 Girls
    Cosme Contreras Trilce PER
    Wang Constance CAN
    Cervantes Landeiro Thalia USA

    Panamerican Youth Championship 2017 2

    Official website


    North American Youth Championship 2017 was held in Morristown, NJ, USA from 12th to 16th of July 2017.

    North American Youth Championship 2017 2

    A record-breaking 357 players from the United States, Canada and Mexico descended on the historic American Revolution town of Morristown, NJ, to compete in the North American Youth Chess Championships from July 12th to 16th. Sponsored by the Chess Tech, Continental Chess Association’s Darcy Lima, the International Chess School’s Michael Khodarkovsky and in Association with New Jersey Chess Federation and United States Chess Federation, the tournament had 12 sections with girls and open sections from under 8 to under 18. International Arbiters Steve Doyle, Eduard Duchovny and Ken Ballou have a staff of New Jersey State Chess Federation officers and staff: Hal Sprechman, Jim Mullanaphy, Jabari McGreen and Noreen Davisson. IA Steve Doyle, a legend on the chess scene, former President of USCF and Vice President of FIDE conducted the Tournament together with Tournament Directors GM Darcy Lima and Michael Khodarkovsky.

    Final Standings 

    Asian Zonal 3.1 took place in Tehran, Iran from 29th of June till 8th of July 2017

    20 players (18 from Iran, 1 from Syria, 1 from Iraq) took part in the women`s section. Mobina Alinasab, a youth player from North of Iran, won the golden medal; Sarasadat Khademalsharieh and Mitra Hejazipour were second and third.

    Asian Zonal 3.1

    30 players (28 from Iran, 1 from Syria, 1 from Iraq) took part in the Open section. GM Amirreza Pourramezanali achieved Gold Medal. IM Aryan Gholami and GM Pouya Idani took silver and bronze medals.

    Sponsor of Federation and this championship is MCI (Mobile Telecommunication Company).

    Official website

    African Individual Chess Championships 2017, African Rapid and Blitz Championships took place in Oran, Algeria from 1st till 13th of July 2017

    45 players (and 18 players) among which the best African players, including a member of the top 100 the Egyptian GM Bassem Amin (Elo 2684) and Ahmed Adly, ex-junior world champion Elo on 2598. All the participants representing 8 countries (Algeria, Egypt, Zambia, Angola, Tunisia, Republic Centers African, Tunisia, Zimbabwe, Ivory Coast) greeted the perfect organization and the good conditions of play in the international hotel "Assala" situated in the city center.

    African Individual Chess Championships 2017

    GM Amin Bassem from Egypt won the African Individual Championship. Daniel Cawdery from South Africa shared the first place but came second on the tie-break. Adly Ahmed from Egypt finished on the third place. 3 Egyptian players occupied the stage in women's section: WGM Mona Khaled won the championship, while Wafa Shrook and Wafa Shahenda took silver and bronze medals.

    Amin Bassem

    Rapid Championships: Amin Bassem (Egypt) won another golden medal, Adly Ahmed (Egypt) came second and Hesham Abdelrahman (Egypt) was third.

    Amin Bassem 2

    Wafa Shahenda (Egypt) was the best one in blitz, Esperance Caxita (Angola) and Amina Mezioud (Algeria) came third.

    Blitz championships:
    Adly Ahmed (Egypt) won blitz championship, Mohamed Haddouche (Algeria) was second and Phiri Richmond from Zambia was third.
    Wafa Shrook (Egypt) was the strongest in blitz. Amina Mezioud (Algeria) took the silver medal, while Mona Khaled (Egypt) came third.

    Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017 took place in New Delhi, India from 2nd till 10th of July 2017.

    Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017 2

    Grandmaster and former world junior champion Abhijeet Gupta (india) came up with an inspired performance in the final round to crush Aleksander Wohl of Australia and annexed the gold medal in the Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017. GM Vaibhav Suri (India) won the silver while the bronze medal went to GM Tejas Bakre (India). WGM Swati Ghate (India) became the Women Champion.

    Commonwealth Chess Championship 2017 3

    Players from 15 countries including some from South Africa and Kenya have registered for the nine-day long events. The championship had over 550 registered players in various categories spanning from under-8 till open. There were 16 Grandmasters and 13 International Masters in the fray apart from five more Woman Grandmasters.

    Official website

    Asian Schools Chess Championship 2017 and Asian Schools Rapid and Blitz Chess Championships were held in Panjin Lianoing, China from 20th till 30th of July 2017.

    Chinese Chess Association under the auspices of the Asian Chess Federation and World Chess Federation, organized the event in high-standard playing hall and hotel, earning unanimous acclaims from more than 700 participants from 23 countries and regions in Asia.

    Asian Schools Chess Championship 2017 3

    China won 10 gold medals, Uzbekistan won 8 gold medals and Philippines won 7 gold medals.

    Yuruultei Batbaatar MGL
    Nurgaliyev Sauat KAZ
    Kiaan Agrawal IND

    U7 Girls
    Tselmuun Dorjsuren MGL
    Ruzimatova Afruzabonu UZB
    Zhumagali Raian KAZ

    Xie Kaifan CHN
    Chen Muye CHN
    Huang Yishi CHN

    U9 Girls
    Chen Yining CHN
    Dela Cruz Daren PHI
    Azzaya Amarbat MGL

    Wei Yaqing CHN
    Rakhmatullaev Almas UZB
    Zhou Xiangru CHN

    U11 Girls
    Omonova Umida UZB
    Kriti Mayur Patel IND
    Withanarachchi W A Vinoli One SRI

    Peng Shunkai CHN
    Wang Zideng CHN
    Arfan Aditya Bagus INA

    U13 Girls
    Cai Boheng CHN
    Khegay Yuliya UZB
    Liuviann Cecilia Natalie INA

    Nanayakkara J A K Saranath SRI
    Lin Yi CHN
    Tan Jun Ying MAS

    U15 Girls
    Rasyid Nur Aini INA
    Mordido Kylen Joy PHI
    Saparova Sitora UZB

    Pangilinan Stephen Rome PHI
    Sagita Catur Adi INA
    Min Po-Yen TRE

    U17 Girls
    Doroy Allaney Jia G PHI
    Edithso Samantha INA
    Men JiaYi CHN

    All results

              â€˜Best Decision of my Life’        

    In 2013, Wyatt Lillie was touring colleges in Denver, Miami, and Boston. Then he was accepted to Northeastern’s program, which sends students abroad for their first fall semester. Did he want to study in Greece? Costa Rica? Australia? England? He chose England. “I’d traveled around the world with my fam­ily,” Lillie says, “but was an immersive, exhilarating experience. The world is your classroom.” In classes at London’s Foundation for International Education, he discovered the city’s mosaic of ethnic and cultural enclaves and then explored them, visiting markets, religious centers, and businesses. Arriving at Northeastern for the spring semester, Lillie, DMSB’18, dove into business, global eco­nomics, and political science. He also joined the Kappa Sigma fra­ternity, winning election as presi­dent for the 2016–2017 academic year. He’s worked co-ops at Trans­america and The Boston Consult­ing Group. And in July, he flew back across the pond for classes at the London School of Economics. “Best decision of my life,” Lillie says of and Northeastern. “Unfortunately, I’ve met kids who couldn’t afford either and missed out on an amazing opportunity.” Inspired by his concern, his par­ents, Jim and Lisa, will fund the first scholarships for sev­eral years. “Northeastern is a place where Wyatt can be a leader,” Lisa says. “This gift enables students to take advantage of who would otherwise miss a life-shaping ex­perience due to a lack of financial aid for the program.” By defraying travel and other costs, Wyatt adds, “these schol­arships will open more students’ eyes to the world.” Wyatt Lillie, DMSB'18, and his mother, Lisa.      
              Google Earth, class is now in session        

    So much of what students learn in the classroom—from social studies to history, science and literature—relates to a geographic place on Earth. Recently, we announced a new version of Google Earth, and since then, educators have been telling us what a valuable tool Google Earth is for their students. They use the “I’m feeling lucky” feature to inspire writing exercises, do research exercises with Knowledge Cards, and explore satellite imagery and cloud strata with their students. Now, to make it even easier for teachers to use Google Earth in the classroom, we’ve created a new “Education” category in the Voyager section, which includes new stories—complete with classroom activities—from National Geographic Society, PBS Education, HHMI Biointeractive and Mission Blue.

    Just click the new "Education" category on the Voyager homepage for new stories, complete with classroom activities for teachers

    The National Geographic Society stories take students on adventures following explorers through the Middle East, India, and coral reefs. To supplement the experience, National Geographic Society created idea for activities that highlight a range of geographical concepts, such as interpreting land forms and comparing map projections.

    With PBS Education, classrooms can go back in time and track the paths of famous explorers, from Lewis and Clark to the Vikings. As students follow along, they, in turn, become modern-day explorers.

    HHMI Biointeractive and Mission Blue created Voyager stories more geared towards science and math. With HHMI Biointeractive, students join “Scientists at Work” as they investigate important problems, from endangered coral reefs to the Ebola outbreak. And Mission Blue’s story teaches students about the unique oceanographic conditions of Costa Rica thermal dome. Short videos and questions embedded in the stories will help guide students with their own scientific research.

    Educators everywhere can find classroom activities (created by teachers, for teachers) at our new Google Earth Education website, and easily share locations and stories directly to Google Classroom. In addition, this week Google Earth will become an Additional Service for Google for Education users, which can be managed by IT administrators through the Google Admin console.

    Google Earth was built to inspire curious minds to explore, learn and care about our vast, fragile planet. With these updates, we’re excited to make it easier for the next generation to see the world from a new perspective.

              Crisis aérea de Venezuela se amplía: Avianca y Delta suspenden indefinidamente vuelos a Caracas; Air France e Iberia de manera temporal        
    Por Ricardo J. Delpiano

    Avión neutro wingview nubes negras (S.Díaz)
    Foto: Santiago Díaz
    De la misma forma como se acentúa la crisis política y económica, moverse entrar y salir de Venezuela cada vez es más difícil. A la reducción de capacidad desde 2014, producto de la eliminación de frecuencias y la salida de operadores que encarecieron significativamente los precios de los pasajes, se agrega una nueva ola de retiro de líneas aéreas del país producto de la creciente inseguridad que se vive por estos días.

    La pasada semana Avianca en una drástica decisión decidió poner fin a los 60 años de operaciones ininterrumpidas en el país desde el 27 de julio. Si bien inicialmente informó que la cancelación indefinida de operaciones se concretaría en agosto, determinó suspenderlos en forma inmediata aludiendo razones de seguridad y limitaciones operativas que se estaban registrando.

    “Debido a limitaciones operativas registradas en las últimas horas, Avianca se ve en la obligación de suspender a partir de hoy sus operaciones a Venezuela, y NO desde el 16 de agosto como estaba previsto. Esto incluye el cierre de la venta de pasajes en las rutas que conectan a Caracas con Bogotá y Lima”, declaró la compañía el día 27 de julio actualizando una información anterior.

    Avianca también tomó la drástica decisión de modificar las rutas aéreas que utilizan los vuelos hacia el Caribe y Europa que en operaciones normales deben cruzar el espacio aéreo venezolano, lo que representará un incremento en los tiempos de vuelo en un promedio de 10 minutos dependiendo de las condiciones.

    Entre las razones que permiten entender la decisión anticipada de la firma colombiana están la deficiente infraestructura en el aeropuerto de Maiquetía, la falta de internet, los sucesivos cortes de luz que impiden elaborar y trasmitir los planes de vuelos, deterioro y falta de repuestos para los servicios de handling entre otras razones que afectan la seguridad operacional de los vuelos y de los pasajeros.

    Avianca si bien reconoce una cierta incapacidad para trasladar a los viajeros afectados está recomendando a los residentes en Venezuela regresar a sus casas debido a la falta de disponibilidad hasta que exista oportunidad de transporte. Avianca está colaborando con Wingo (la filial LCC de Copa Airlines, que aún mantiene operaciones entre Colombia y Venezuela) y TAME de Ecuador para movilizar a los viajeros afectados en la medida de lo posible. Asimismo está coordinando las devoluciones de dineros para aquellos viajeros que lo soliciten. La ruta más afectada es Bogotá, por el número de conexiones que la compañía realiza. En Lima, no se han registrado mayores inconvenientes.

    En represalia, la Autoridad Aeronáutica de Venezuela (INAC) ha negado permisos para que las líneas aéreas contactadas por Avianca puedan incrementar vuelos a ese país para el traslado de los viajeros, decisión que afecta los principios del libre tránsito. Paralelamente, la estatal Conviasa también decidió poner fin a los vuelos a Bogotá.

    Hernán Rincón, CEO de Avianca dijo que “luego de más de 60 años de servicios continuos en Venezuela, en Avianca lamentamos haber tenido que llegar a esta difícil decisión, pero nuestra obligación es garantizar la seguridad de la operación. Como compañía tenemos toda la disposición y voluntad para retomar los vuelos, una vez se cuente con las condiciones requeridas para hacerlo.”

    Aunque todavía no lo hace oficial, ya es de público conocimiento que Delta también pone fin a sus vuelos a Caracas. La compañía podrá término y de manera indefinida a su único vuelo semanal entre Atlanta y Caracas desde el 16 de septiembre, sumándose al retiro reciente de United. En las redes sociales, la aerolínea con base en Atlanta ha confirmado la decisión y señala que próximamente anunciará medidas compensaciones a los afectados.

    Desde Europa, Air France e Iberia también han decidido suspender sus vuelos a la capital venezolana. A diferencia de Avianca, Delta y United, las suspensiones son temporales. En ambas la suspensión rige entre el 30 de julio y 1 de agosto, por razones de seguridad debido a las violentas protestas en distintos puntos de Venezuela y por las represalias existentes, lo que sumado a la ola de violencia, no dan garantías de seguridad para los viajeros ni para las tripulaciones.

    Para hoy 30 de julio, están convocados los comicios que permitirán elegir a los miembros de la Asamblea Constituyente quienes se encargarán de redactar una nueva Constitución que reemplace a la impuesta por Hugo Chávez. La propuesta ha generado una ola de violencia en las protestas ya que los opositores al gobierno de Nicolás Madura indican que â€œconsolidará la dictadura del Presidente”.

    Desde 2014, la salida de las compañías aéreas de Venezuela es una realidad constante. Primero se deben a la demora o no retorno de los dineros generados por las ventas en ese país al tipo de cambio adecuado y posteriormente, por el agravamiento de la situación política y el constante deterioro de la inseguridad. La primera en retirarse fue Air Canada y posteriormente, le siguieron Alitalia, Lufthansa, LATAM, Aeroméxico, GOL, Tiara Air y United.

    Al comienzos de la crisis, el Gobierno de Venezuela ha señalado que las compañías que se retiren de su país no tendrán derecho a volver, por lo que se infiere que la recuperación de la conectividad sólo será posible una vez que las condiciones políticas mejoren o decididamente exista un cambio de gobierno. En el periodo, sólo dos operadores han ingresado a Venezuela. Turkish Airlines en la ruta Estambul – La Habana – Caracas y Latin American Wings (LAW), desde Santiago de Chile.

    La estatal Conviasa tampoco ha sido capaz de atender la reducción de capacidad por sus problemas internos y la no renovación de contratos con terceros para atender sus vuelos internacionales hacia Buenos Aires (EZE) y Madrid, por las deudas no pagadas con sus contratistas como la española Wamos Air.

    Las compañías venezolanas tampoco lo están pasando de lo mejor ni pueden aprovechar los vacíos dejados por sus competidores extranjeros, debido a la falta de equipos y recursos para sustentar sus operaciones. SBA por ejemplo, ha tenido que reducir frecuencias a Miami por falta de aviones operativos para sustentar las rutas que mantenía (hasta cuatro vuelos diarios) mientras que Albatross explora otros mercados como Costa Rica como alternativa a sus operaciones, situación compartida en su momento por LAMIA, que terminó sus días operando irregularmente en Bolivia. 

              The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-22-2015 with Wally        

    John Frusciante- Murderers - To Record Only Water For Ten Days
    Beach House- Space Song - Depression Cherry
    My Bubba- Island - Goes Abroader
    Electric Squeezebox Orchestra- Gap Toothed Grin - Cheap Rent
    Del The Funky Homosapien- Eye Examination - The Best Of Del Tha Funkee Homosapien The Elektra Years BBoy Handbook
    Adrian Younge Ali Shaheed Muhammad- Feel Alive feat Karolina Loren Oden - Linear Labs Los Angeles
    Roots Radics- I Live - Forward Ever Backward Never
    The Domestics- American Drag - The Domestics
    Toto La Momposina Y Sus Tambores- Chi Chi Mani - Tambolero
    Head For The Hills- Fire On The Mountain - Live
    King Khan And The Shrines- Fool Like Me - The Supreme Genius Of King Khan And The Shrines
    Skylab- Nickers Of A Girl - 2 1999 Large As Life And Twice As Natural
    The Growlers- Purgatory Drive - Chinese Fountain
    Frank Zappa The Mothers Of Invention- San Berdino - One Size Fits All
    Algiers- Black Eunuch - Algiers
    Kamasi Washington- The Message - The Epic
    Kristin Hersh- Costa Rica - Sky Motel
    Barrence Whitfield The Savages- Rock And Roll Baby - Under The Savage Sky
    Arturo OFarrill The Afro Latin Jazz Orchestra- Just One Moment feat Michel Herrera - Cuba The Conversation Continues
    Land Lines- Plans - The Natural World
    Youssou Ndour- Bagn Len - DakarKingston
    The Chemical Brothers- Sometimes I Feel So Deserted - Born In The Echoes
    Chick Corea Bela Fleck- Bugle Call Rag - Two
    BeauSoleil- I Spent All My Money Loving You - Alligator Purse avec Michael Doucet
    Yo La Tengo- I Can Feel The Ice Melting - Stuff Like That There
    Ben Sollee- Only A Song - Something Worth Keeping Single
    Mother Falcon- Water - Good Luck Have Fun
    Del McCoury Band- Nothin Special - The Company We Keep
    Autechre- Rsdio - Tri Repetae
    Mason Jennings- Lonely Street - Always Been
    Sweet Baboo- Tonight You Are A Tiger - The Boombox Ballads
    Daby Toure- Kelimanta - Diam
    Public Enemy- Earthizen - Man Plans God Laughs
    David Bromberg The David Bromberg Band- World Of Fools - Only Slightly Mad
    Telekinesis- Lean On Me - Dormarion
    El Ten Eleven- We Lost A Giant - Fast Forward
    Joshua Redman The Bad Plus- Beauty Has It Hard - The Bad Plus Joshua Redman
    Blitzen Trapper- Furr - Furr
    Israel Vibration- Family - Israel Vibration Dub The Rock
    Ghostface Killah Adrian Younge- Rise Up feat Scarub - Adrian Younge Presents Twelve Reasons To Die II Deluxe feat RZA Lyrics Born Chino XL Scarub Bilal Raekwon Vince Staples
    Sea Of Bees- Dad - Build A Boat To The Sun
    Ballak Sissoko Vincent Segal- Prlude - Musique De Nuit
    The Ghost Ease- Raw - Raw
    Farao- Warriors - Till Its All Forgotten

    playlist URL:
              Pam And Eric’s Minneapolis Wedding Was Photographed, Filmed AND Livestreamed On Facebook All At The Same Time!        
    Hello from Esquire Photography HQ and have I got a totally fun, romantic and ANOTHER GROUND BREAKING wedding to share with you. As we are experiencing on this journey together – taking Esquire Photography around the world photographing, teaching and filming from the USA to Europe, Costa Rica & Mexico, Asia & India, we are also […]
    14 de Abril
    Día de las Américas
     Esta fecha conmemora la fundación de la Unión de las Repúblicas Americanas, posteriormente llamada Unión Panamericana y a partir de 1948 Organización de los Estados Americanos (OEA).
    Fue celebrada por primera vez el 14 de abril de 1931 como símbolo de la unión voluntaria de distintos países del continente americano.
    Actualmente, la OEA está integrada por más de treinta y cinco Estados que buscan consolidar una agenda con temas comunes. El espíritu de esta unión responde a la consolidación de relaciones diplomáticas para velar por los estados de paz en el continente.

    ¿Qué países celebran el día de las Américas?
    Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, República Dominicana, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haití, Honduras, México, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Perú, Estados Unidos, Uruguay y Venezuela
    Fuente: Organización de los Estados Americanos

              Lote For Sale In Costa Rica.        
    This set is sold with a beautiful view overlooking Lake Arenal and Are...
              Beautiful Property In Limón, Costa Rica.        
    Located in front of the beach, next to the road between Limón and Cahu...
              Beautiful Property In Limón, Costa Rica.        
    Located in front of the beach, next to the road between Limón and Cahu...
              Volunteer Sea Turtles opportunities in Costa Rica Conservation Program        

    Are you interested in volunteering with wild life? If so, why not become a Costa Rica Sea Turtle Volunteer? This opportunity gives you a chance to experience sea turtle wild life up close and personal in their natural hatching habitat. You can become a sea turtles volunteer and volunteer overseas in some of the most […]

    The post Volunteer Sea Turtles opportunities in Costa Rica Conservation Program appeared first on Volunteer Abroad News.

              Costa Rica eco-resort combines jungle yoga with sustainable design        
    NALU boutique hotel in Costa Rica is a sustainable jungle retreat for exercise and relaxation. Merging sustainability with local craftsmanship, architecture firm Studio Saxe designed a building as a series of pavilions scattered amongst the trees which offer a sense of privacy to their occupants. The hotel is located in Nosara, a burgeoning tourist destination for health, wellness and surfing. The owners of the hotel, Nomel and Mariya Libid, wanted the design of the new building to reflect this...
              Costa Rica aims to become the first country to ban all single-use plastics        
    Costa Rica is taking a stand against the plastic waste that is flooding our oceans and clogging up our landfills. The country is poised to become the first in the world to eliminate all single-use plastics. This isn't just a ban on plastic bags or water bottles - using a multi-prong approach, Costa Rica will eliminate plastic forks, lids and even coffee stirrers. And they plant to do this by 2021.
              Supervisor de operaciones        
    Gray Line Costa Rica - San José - La persona que desempeña este puesto está encargada de la programación de los servicios, seguimiento de las rutas, control de los materiales, inventarios, cotizaciones con proveedores, contactos con talleres, entre otras. Perfil del puesto La persona que desempeña este puesto ...
              Desarrollador de Software con Inglés Intermedio y Manejo de JAVA        
    Manpower Costa Rica - Heredia - Importante empresa ubicada en Heredia busca los servicios de un Desarrollador de Software Requisitos 1 a 2 años de experiencia Manejo de Java Conocimientos en .Net Inglés 70...
              Women's Soccer - Costa Rica - Day One        
              Can We Restore 350 Million Hectares by 2030?        

    Can We Restore 350 Million Hectares by 2030?

    With growing awareness of the economic costs of land degradation, political leaders are adopting ambitious targets to restore degraded forests and agricultural land.  Building on the interest in forest landscape restoration generated by the Bonn Challenge, in 2014, countries adopted the New York Declaration on Forests to restore 350 million hectares (865 million acres) of degraded forests and agricultural land by 2030. That’s an area bigger than the size of India.

    Several regional initiatives focused on galvanizing further political and financial support for implementing restoration at scale have emerged, like Initiative 20x20 to restore 20 million hectares (49 million acres) by 2020 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the African Forest Landscape Restoration initiative (AFR100) to restore 100 million hectares (254 million acres) of degraded forests in Africa by 2030.

    The question now is: How can we restore this massive amount of degraded and deforested landscapes? Evidence shows that we can—as long as we learn from the places showing early successes. Tree planting is key, but it's not enough.

    Challenges Moving from Pledges to Implementation

    Following the groundswell of national commitments, the focus is shifting to the challenge of implementing restoration at scale.  The world still deforests and degrades 15 million hectares (37 million acres) of land annually. To reach the target to restore 350 million hectares by 2030, annual restoration needs to be around 23 million hectares (57 million acres). 

    Continuing with business-as-usual, which is largely focused on increasing the rate of tree planting, will not be sufficient to achieve this target. The main reasons are that planting is too slow, too costly and hampered by low survival rates in many cases. Many national tree-planting campaigns currently amount to only tens of thousands of hectares annually. Costs can exceed $1,500 per hectare ($607 per acre), so planting 23 million hectares every year would require some $34 billion annually. And that doesn’t factor in the fact that in many semi-arid restoration projects, fewer than half of planted trees survive.

    Can Restoration Scale at Low Cost?

    <p>Case studies from Niger, Ethiopia and Costa Rica demonstrate importance of smallholder farmers to achieving restoration results. Photo by Bob Winterbottom/WRI</p>

    Case studies from Niger, Ethiopia and Costa Rica demonstrate importance of smallholder farmers to achieving restoration results. Photo by Bob Winterbottom/WRI

    There will always be a role for tree planting, but the key to restoring hundreds of millions of hectares will likely also entail a series of steps that trigger and accelerate the widespread adoption of cost-effective and proven restoration practices such as “assisted natural regeneration.” Giving more attention to the protection and management of trees that regenerate on cropland as well as off-farm could make a big difference.  The key is to enable rural communities to nurture and accelerate the growth of naturally established seedlings and resprouting trees.

    • In Niger, farmers have built new agroforestry systems on 5 million hectares in 20 years, which is an average of 250,000 hectares (618,000 acres) per year. External funding costs were below $20 per hectare. Farmers protected and managed the natural regeneration of woody species of trees and shrubs on their farmland, and by doing so they added 200 million new trees without costly external assistance for tree-planting. These on-farm trees help increase crop yields, produce fodder for livestock, improve household energy supply and increase household income.
    • Northern Ethiopia is now greener than it has ever been during the last 145 years. Local communities organized themselves to control livestock grazing and wood cutting on degraded plateaus and mountain slopes, which allowed vegetation to regenerate naturally.  Coupled with community labor investments in rainwater harvesting, alongside downstream development of irrigated agriculture, landscapes have been completely transformed by grassroots restoration. This has helped farmers and their communities diversify and increase crop production, secure water supplies and build resilience to drought.
    • Costa Rica is another example of a country that has overcome a history of deforestation largely through assisted natural regeneration. Policy reforms that reduced subsidies to farmers engaged in converting forests to pastures for livestock production, along with the recognition of the economic benefits of forest restoration, helped to drive changes in land use. As forests have been restored, ecotourism has flourished and now provides significant economic benefits.

    These examples show that smallholder farmers are often the key private investors in tree-based restoration. Business as usual has often included increased support for forest departments to plant trees. While this is useful and important, greater success in achieving ambitious forest restoration targets may well depend on mobilizing a “restoration movement” of millions of smallholders in ways that both enable lower-cost restoration and encourages behavior changes that address root causes.

    Scaling Tree-Based Restoration Strategies

    Much more could be done to build on these successes. In 2015, WRI published a report about how to scale existing successes through six steps.

    Lots of stakeholders have a role to play here. There is a vital role for governments to improve forest legislation to strengthen tree tenure as farmers and communities will invest in trees if they feel they own them. NGOs and other organizations need to build a grassroots movement that supports peer-to-peer learning and the development of community-based institutions to protect and manage the new tree capital. And we need more investment from both public and private sources to expand communication and outreach activities, and to disseminate information about restoration successes and their associated benefits. 

    In partnership with millions of smallholders, the global community can restore 350 million hectares – if we set our sights on what each key stakeholder needs to do and how to do it!

              Weekly Stack Episode 42: Marvel-less        

    Richard is back from his sojourn in Costa Rica and ready to talk comics! This week the guys go all independent and discus no Marvel or DC titles! Will this be a wonderful mess? Listen and find out! Also, will Lucas be able to handle the feelings he gets from John Layman and Rob Guillory's Chew? Will Seth love Grant Morrison's new book Avatarex as much as he hopes? And will Richard be okay with no trivia to ask? The answers to all this and more on this episode of Weekly Stack! Dept. H #4 - Matt Kindt (W/A) Black […]

    The post Weekly Stack Episode 42: Marvel-less appeared first on Comic Plunder.

              Weekly Stack Episode 41: Brightest Day        

    Seth is back from his trip to Windy City and ready to talk about this exciting week in comics! But something is still missing! Richard is in Costa Rica for the week so the very vibrant Josh Day is filling in again! The comics this week were great and the Stack wastes no time getting down to it! What has Lucas so mad? Why is Seth stressed about his pull list? Will Josh get over the feels of Old Man Logan and his first experience with Heavy Metal to ask a trivia question? Tune in to find out! Civil War II […]

    The post Weekly Stack Episode 41: Brightest Day appeared first on Comic Plunder.

              Ejercicios de estimulacion fisica y mental para adultos mayores        

    Enero en los Cursos Libres de la Universidad de Costa Rica se impartió un taller interdisciplinario con el Equipo Vivir Mejor.
    Los ejercicios y técnicas ayudarán a mantener y preservar las facultades mentales y físicas en una forma amena y divertida.
    Venga y aprenda cómo ejercitar su cerebro,
    su memoria, su cuerpo y secretos de longevidad.
    Estimular procesos básicos cognitivos (atención, percepción, lenguaje, memoria, cálculo….) mediante la realización de actividades de ocio (pasatiempos, juegos de mesa)
    Importancia de la actividad física en la vida cotidiana, salud para el cerebro, Ejercicios para mejorar el equuilbrio, la coordinación, la postura y manejo de ansiedad.
    Juegos rítmicos que estimulan la coordinación, la atención, la concentración y la memoria, y mejoran la regulación espacio-temporal del movimiento
    Estimular la atención y escucha de los y las participantes, el trabajo en equipo, la cooperación y sincronización entre los compañeros (as) y la comunicación.
    Todo a través de dinámicas corporales y lúdicas que permiten entrenar estas habilidades.

    Casa Club: 22354404
    Móvil:83741903 Sonia
    Móvil. 8829 0237 Ligia
    Fax. 2225 4690

    Si desea observar imágenes y ver un vídeo del Curso "VIVIR MEJOR" es:
              Amigos del Mundo se Mueven!!        

    El instituto de Amigos del Mundo en Costa Rica se mueve!
    Un centro educativo internacional que recibe estudiantes de todo el mundo recibió la capacitación a sus docentes.
    Gracias por pensar en la salud de su "staff" a final de semestre!
    Suerte aplicando estas rutinas con sus nuevos estudiantes!
              El Incae, entre los 50 mejores MBA del mundo        
    El INCAE Business School de Costa Rica informó que figura entre los 50 mejores programas de MBA fuera de los Estados Unidos, según el ranking de la publicación Poets&Quants (P&Q), especializada en posgrados de escuelas de negocios.
              Villa Punto de Vista – A Luxurious Destination Wedding Venue        

    At some point, every bride probably wonders about the possibility of a Destination Wedding. The logistics may seem overwhelming, but they don’t have to be – not when you find the right place to host your wedding celebration. We would like to recommend stunning Villa Punto de Vista, located in beautiful Costa Rica! This 2016 Conde Nast Awarded […]

    The post Villa Punto de Vista – A Luxurious Destination Wedding Venue appeared first on Once Wed.

              Del Bicentenario al Centenario, pasando por Guinea Ecuatorial...        

    Vivimos días de cambios, como indica el slogan del partido en el gobierno. Pero son cambios turbulentos y me animo a decir, dramáticos. No son los cambios que lograron instalar en el imaginario de muchos de sus votantes. Y digo que fue en el imaginario porque nunca explicaron claramente a qué se referían. Sólo eran ambigüedades y frases hechas que evidentemente consiguieron el objetivo de llevar a Mauricio Macri al gobierno. Su historia y las historias de sus "colaboradores" nos daban la pista de lo que podría ser un gobierno como este, sin embargo la mayoría prefirió quedarse con eso que imaginaron que sería el cambio. Los responsables de ese "cambio" no quisieron explicarlo al conjunto del pueblo argentino (sí, en cambio, lo explicaron muy bien en los foros del poder económico) y aquellos que lo votaron no supieron definir ese "cambio" pero quisieron creer que sería para mejorar. Al menos para cambiar los "modos" o las "formas". Jamás pensaron en lo central, el "fondo". Les incomodaba demasiado pensar esto último y prefirieron apoltronarse en la frivolidad del cambio "sin fondo"...

    Las cartas más importantes ya han sido echadas en apenas una semana de gobierno y de pronto despertamos un día sabiendo o sintiendo que a partir de entonces éramos todos más pobres. O no todos, a decir verdad. Sólo las grandes mayorías, como siempre sucede con el neoliberalismo, por otra parte...

    Pero como una de las palabritas mágicas que se pusieron de moda ahora es "sinceramiento", pues vamos a tratar de "sincerar" lo que en realidad acaba de pasar y nos seguirá pasando por los próximos años si es que lo permitimos...
    Como Axel Kicillof dijo, "si no entendés lo que los economistas te están diciendo, es porque te están mintiendo". Por eso viene muy bien la contratapa de hoy del querido Adrián Paenza en Página 12.

    En este pequeño párrafo ya deja mucho más claras las cosas: "Supongamos que al comienzo de esta semana usted tenía 10 pesos. Con esos 10 pesos usted podía comprar UN dólar. Si el dólar se cotiza ahora a 14 pesos por unidad, con los MISMOS 10 pesos que usted tenía, ahora ya no puede “acceder” al dólar al que tenía acceso hace unas horas. No. Ahora puede comprar 0,71428571... Es decir, “perdió” casi 29 centavos de dólar en la operación"

    Así aprendemos de Adrián que quienes poseían dólares antes de aquel anuncio del prolijo y simpático Prat Gay (o que tenían bienes a la espera de traducirlos en dólares) obtuvieron de la noche a la mañana una ganancia del orden del 40%, mientras que todos aquellos que dependemos de ingresos en moneda nacional perdimos en el mismo acto un 30% de nuestro poder adquisitivo.

    Sabiendo esto, sabemos que los que más perdieron en este asunto son los asalariados. Los trabajadores en su totalidad, sean obreros, empleados o cuentapropistas y tengan la categoría que tuvieren. Todos aquellos que dependemos de ingresos en pesos, perdimos ese 30%...

    Entonces, ¿quienes son los máximos ganadores?¿Quienes son los que fueron más beneficiados con este cambio drástico de la política económica argentina? Sin ninguna duda que fueron los agroexportadores. Esos mismos que le negaron al gobierno anterior la liquidación de la cosecha a la espera de esto que sucedió ahora. No sabían quién ganaría la elección, por eso la idea primaria era tratar de ahogar al kirchnerismo con la intensión de obligarlo a devaluar. Pero ganó el macrismo y le hizo la vida mucho más fácil y más afortunada de lo que quizás ellos mismos hubieran imaginado. Para ellos estas serán las fiestas de fin de año más felices de sus vidas. Se les habrá hecho realidad "la revolución de la alegría" que como pastor evangélico pregonó Mauricio Macri durante su campaña electoral...

    Para colmo, estos señores que guardan desde hace meses verdaderas fortunas en sus silobolsas, no son productores (o no lo son básicamente). Ellos compran la producción de cientos, de miles de pequeños y medianos productores que necesitan liquidez para poder vivir y solventar sus gastos. Y con todo ese volúmen de granos (dólares) almacenados, se dedican a especular y a presionar.

    Imaginemos que en esos silobolsas hay un total de unos 12 mil millones de dólares (algunos decían que había 8 mil millones y otros daban cifras mayores, hasta 14 mil millones). Evidentemente no es lo mismo liquidar esos granos al valor que tenía antes del 10 de diciembre de unos $9,80 por dólar, que a los $ 14 de hoy. La diferencia que han hecho solamente con esconder la cosecha de otros trabajadores y esperar es descomunal...
    Y a pesar de que además se le rebajó el 5 % de las retenciones a la soja y se eliminó dicha retención para el resto de los granos, no están conformes. No han liquidado la cantidad que se comprometieron con este nuevo gobierno. Están esperando a que el dólar llegue al menos a $ 15 la unidad.

    Todo esto nos indica mucho más claramente que lo que hubo aquí no fue un "sinceramiento" de nada, sino que fue simple y llanamente un robo. Una brutal transferencia de riqueza de un sector absolutamente mayoritario hacia otro absolutamente minoritario, básicamente unos 1.500 especuladores de granos.

    Podemos encontrar otra mirada sobre los efectos del mismo suceso, por ejemplo en éste sitio web británico.

    El artículo que allí podemos leer, comienza así: "Los argentinos se despertaron el jueves más ricos que los polacos, los chilenos y los húngaros. A la hora de dormir no sólo eran más pobres que los tres anteriores, sino también más pobres que los mexicanos, los costarricenses y la buena gente de Guinea Ecuatorial."
    "La caída del país en el ránking mundial por el PBI per cápita (medido en términos de dólares, por lo menos) fue el resultado de la caída del peso en un 29 % frente al dólar después de que Mauricio Macri, el presidente recién elegido, levantó los controles de capital (Cepo)."

    Más adelante dice el mismo artículo: "El FMI previó que Argentina se posicionaría en el lugar 53 en 2015, con su PIB per cápita de 13.428 anuales, apenas por detrás de Letonia, pero por delante de la vecina Chile, así como de los países de renta media similares de Polonia y Hungría.
    Ahora, con un PIB per cápita de tan sólo 9.534 dólares (producto de la devaluación del peso), Argentina se ha retrasado al puesto 64, por detrás de este trío (Chile, Polonia y Hungría), así como de Guinea Ecuatorial, Líbano, Costa Rica, Malasia y México."

    Y concluye el análisis diciendo que "La devaluación del peso es un trago amargo para los hogares argentinos que mantenían sus ahorros en pesos y para las multinacionales que habían informado los saldos de caja en pesos al tipo de cambio oficial de divulgación de información financiera", dice Bill Adams, economista internacional senior de PNC Financial Services Group.
    "Con el tiempo, un tipo de cambio más valorado competitivamente debe ser positivo para el crecimiento económico de Argentina, así como para los primeros socios comerciales como Brasil. Pero en 2016, un período potencialmente doloroso de ajuste es posible ".

    Ahora podemos saber quiénes son los máximos ganadores por la movida Macri/Prat Gay (que no son los únicos, desde ya) y también podemos tomar consciencia de quienes somos los perdedores y cuánto dolor nos producirá la "revolución de la alegría" de los ricos y de los especuladores.

    Pero como también sabemos o imaginamos, esto recién empieza...

    Dicen que "saber es poder", salvo que la falta de memoria sea una enfermedad endémica. Atemos una cinta en el dedo anular para no olvidar y vayamos por el "poder" porque de lo contrario estaremos convalidando un vertiginoso viaje de regreso en el tiempo desde el Bicentenario al Centenario...

              Community of Hope Missions Sunday        
    The Missions Taskforce at WOW Vineyard give a report report on the status of our partnership for church planting in Costa Rica and Indonesia. They both inspire and invite us all to participate in what God is doing in these two nations.
              Como aprovechar las megatendencias        

    Como aprovechar las megatendencias es una conferencia impartida en Costa Rica en el Foro de telecomunicaciones, innovacion y disrrupcion tecnologica, impartida por Rodolfo Salazar @rokensa, comentarios a cargo de George Miley, Expresidente del Consejo de la Sutel Carlos Fernandez Gerente General de Prides Jose Gutierrez, Nuevos Negocios y Regulación Cabletica. Modera: lria Ramirez, Consultora de Ciber Regulaci6n.
              Wildlife Disease Journal Digest        

    Browse complete Digest publication library here

    New alphacoronavirus in Mystacina tuberculata bats, New Zealand
    Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.3201/eid2004.131441
    Hall RJ, Wang J, Peacey M, Moore NE, McInnes K, Tompkins DM.
    [Thank your fellow Digest reader for sharing!]

    Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013
    Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014 May; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131707
    B. Zhao et al.

    Mercury Exposure Associated with Altered Plasma Thyroid Hormones in the Declining Western Pond Turtle (Emys marmorata) from California Mountain Streams
    Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print]
    Meyer E1, Eagles-Smith CA, Sparling D, Blumenshine S.

    Survey of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the southeastern USA
    Dis Aquat Organ. 2014 Feb 19;108(2):91-102. doi: 10.3354/dao02705.
    Stewart JR et al.

    Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health
    Front Microbiol. 2014 Feb 5;5:23. eCollection 2014.
    Radhouani H et al.

    Polar Bear Encephalitis: Establishment of a Comprehensive Next-generation Pathogen Analysis Pipeline for Captive and Free-living Wildlife
    J Comp Pathol. 2013 Dec 19. pii: S0021-9975(13)00385-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.12.005. [Epub ahead of print]
    Szentiks CA et al.

    International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - December 2013

    Neglected wild life: Parasitic biodiversity as a conservation target
    Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Aug 2;2:222-227. eCollection 2013.
    Gómez A and Nichols E

    Haemogregarine infections of three species of aquatic freshwater turtles from two sites in Costa Rica
    Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Mar 5;2:131-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.02.003. eCollection 2013.
    Rossow JA et al.

    Wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: Mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis
    Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Mar 5;2:110-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.02.002. eCollection 2013
    Hollings T et al.

    Parasites and the conservation of small populations: The case of Baylisascaris procyonis
    Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Dec; 2: 203–210
    L. Kristen et al

    Predictors of malaria infection in a wild bird population: Landscape level analyses reveal climatic and anthropogenic factors
    J Anim Ecol. 2014 Feb 16. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12214. [Epub ahead of print]
    Gonzalez-Quevedo C et al.

    Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata
    J Invertebr Pathol. 2014 Feb 8. pii: S0022-2011(14)00017-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2014.01.008. [Epub ahead of print]
    Work TM and Farah Y.

    Veterinary Pathology - March 2014
    Special Issue: Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals
    Volume 51, Number 2

    Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation - January 2014
    Volume 26, Number 1

    Emerging Infectious Diseases - March 2014
    Volume 20, Number 3

              Daydreaming about Envision Festival 2018        

    Tickets just went on sale for Envision Festival 2018, and I've been doing a lot of daydreaming about heading back to Costa Rica in February!

    The post Daydreaming about Envision Festival 2018 appeared first on Vibrant Wellness Journal.

              Surf Costa Rica Vacation Update - with pics!        
    O...M...G, people. Costa Rica is THE BOMB!
    I have been planning this vacation for more than 6 months, and toward the end I started to worry that it couldn't possibly live up to my expectations. But I was so wrong!
    We had SUCH a fantastic time. We all managed to get up on our surfboards and ride a few waves. Our teachers were so patient and the ocean conditions were absolutely perfect for beginning surfers like us!
    Can I just say that all my hard work leading up to this trip ...
              Sticking to 1200 cals per day        
    So, 1500 cals per day was just not taking the weight off. I have decided to go down to 1200 calories/day during the week and 1500 on the weekends. If thta doesn't shift some pounds, I don't know what will.

    Today is looking good, have stayed on plan and have a good dinner ready to go at home. I will be at 1172, provided I don't eat something I haven't already tracked. Which I WON'T!

    I have 12 weeks until my vacation in Costa Rica. I want to lose AT LEAST one pound per wee...
              Costa Rica Surf Camp!!        
    One of my daughters is OBSESSED with surfing. Bethany Hamilton is her hero.

    Unfortunately, we live in Oklahoma, so it's not something we can just run out and practice. We've been to beaches in Mexico, Florida and Venezuela, but we've never surfed. We've been promising her for a while that we would find a family surf camp so we can all learn.

    So, I found what looks like a great one in Costa Rica and we're ...
              Mexico wins 1st World Cup qualifier in US since 1972         
    • Mexico's Hector Herrera, right, falls to the ground as United States' Matt Besler looks for the ball during the second half of a World Cup qualifying soccer match Friday, Nov. 11, 2016, in Columbus, Ohio. (AP Photo/Jay LaPrete)

    COLUMBUS, Ohio (AP) — A pro-American crowd of 24,650 chanted "Dos a cero!" at the start.

    Mexican supporters yelled "Dos a uno!" as they left.

    Rafa Marquez scored a tiebreaking goal on a header in the 89th minute, giving Mexico a 2-1 victory Friday night and its first victory at the United States in World Cup qualifying since 1972.

    After winning four straight home qualifiers against Mexico by 2-0 scores — all in Columbus — the U.S. hoped to open the final round of the North and Central American and Caribbean region with another victory. Instead, the Americans began the hexagonal with a loss for the second straight cycle, and they play Tuesday night at Costa Rica, where they have never won in qualifying.

    "It gets a sense of anger in us. It gets a sense of absolutely urgency," U.S. coach Jurgen Klinsmann said. "It's not a problem, but it's obviously disappointing."

    Miguel Layun put Mexico ahead in the 20th minute, but Bobby Wood tied it in the 49th.

    The U.S. dominated the second half before the 37-year-old Marquez, unmarked and drifting across the penalty area at the near post, got a glancing nod on Layun's corner kick. The Mexican captain lifted the ball over goalkeeper Brad Guzan for his 17th international goal.

    Mexico's previous win at the U.S. in qualifying was also by a 2-1 score, at the Los Angeles Coliseum.

    "I think we deserved this match," Layun said. "We were focused."

    Klinsmann said John Brooks was supposed to mark Marquez on the corner kick. Jozy Altidore blocked the defender from getting there.

    "We lost him there. Individual mistake," Klinsmann said.

    The Americans had been 30-0-2 at home in qualifying since a 3-2 loss to Honduras at Washington's RFK Stadium in September 2001.

    "They're very good in terms of when they have a little time circulating the ball, and they start to find space," American captain Michael Bradley said.

    Guzan had lost the U.S. goalkeeper job to Tim Howard, who started at the last two World Cups. But Howard pulled a muscle in his right leg on a goal kick and was replaced in the 40th minute.

    Howard was to have a scan Saturday, a day before the U.S. travels, and Klinsmann said Howard likely will miss the match at Costa Rica.

    "He knows it's not looking that good," Klinsmann said.

    The top three teams in the six-nation round qualify for the World Cup, and the fourth-place country advances to a playoff.

    With the U.S. struggling early in what Klinsmann called a 3-4-3 formation, Mexico could have led 3-0. Howard tipped Jesus Corona's 10th-minute shot off a post and Carlos Vela's 25th-minute header hit a crossbar.

    "Out midfielders didn't get into the one-on-one battles we expected them to," Klinsmann said, citing Jermaine Jones and Bradley.

    After switching to a more familiar 4-4-2 in the 27th minute, the Americans began to find their rhythm, and Wood scored off a pass from Altidore.

    It was 44 degrees at game time, half the 90-degree temperature for the 2013 match in Columbus, when the U.S. clinched its seventh straight World Cup berth.

    Mexico went ahead after Bradley and Giovani dos Santos battled for the ball 30 yards out. The ball skipped to Layun, who took a touch, and his right-footed shot deflected off Timmy Chandler past Howard's left for his fourth international goal in 46 appearances,

    Wood tied the score after Brooks forced a turnover. Altidore turned his defender and passed to Wood, who took two touches as he split defenders. His 8-yard, left-footed shot deflected off a leg of Layun for his eighth goal in 28 international appearances. Wood also scored against Mexico last fall during an extra-time loss in the playoff for a berth in the 2017 Confederations Cup.

    Altidore and Wood have combined for seven goals in 11 games they've started together.

    Notes: All three visiting teams had victories in their openers. Costa Rica won 2-0 at Trinidad and Tobago on goals by Christian Bolanos in the 65th and Ronald Matarrita in second-half injury time, and Panama won 1-0 at Honduras on Fidel Escobar's 22nd-minute goal. ... CONCACAF and Fox extended their Gold Cup agreement to cover the 2017 and 2019 tournaments. ... Mexico's Carlos Salcedo is suspended for Tuesday after receiving two yellow cards late in the match.



              Hány ország van a földön?        
    Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

    A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

    Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

    Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

    Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

    Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

    Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

    Afganisztán - Kabul
    Albánia - Tirane
    Algéria - Algiers
    Andorra - Andorra la Vella
    Angola - Luanda
    Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
    Argentína - Buenos Aires
    Örményország - Yerevan
    Ausztrália - Canberra
    Ausztria - Vienna
    Azerbajdzsán - Baku
    Bahamák - Nassau
    Bahrein - Manama
    Banglades - Dhaka
    Barbados - Bridgetown
    Fehéroroszország - Minsk
    Belgium - Brussels
    Belize - Belmopan
    Benin - Porto-Novo
    Bhután - Thimphu
    Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
    Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
    Botswana - Gaborone
    Brazília - Brasilia
    Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
    Bulgária - Sofia
    Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
    Burundi - Bujumbura
    Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
    Kamerun - Yaounde
    Kanada - Ottawa
    Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
    Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
    Csád - N'Djamena
    Chile - Santiago
    Kína - Beijing
    Kolumbia - Bogota
    Comore-szigetek - Moroni
    Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
    Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
    Costa Rica - San Jose
    Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
    Horvátország - Zagreb
    Kuba - Havana
    Ciprus - Nicosia
    Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
    Dánia - Copenhagen
    Dzsibuti - Djibouti
    Dominika - Roseau
    Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
    Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
    Ecuador - Quito
    Egyiptom - Cairo
    El Salvador - San Salvador
    Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
    Eritrea - Asmara
    Észtország - Tallinn
    Etiópia - Addis Ababa
    Fidzsi - Suva
    Finnország - Helsinki
    Franciaország - Paris
    Gabon - Libreville
    Gambia - Banjul
    Grúzia - Tbilisi
    Németország - Berlin
    Ghána - Accra
    Görögország - Athens
    Grenada - Saint George's
    Guatemala - Guatemala City
    Guinea - Conakry
    Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
    Guyana - Georgetown
    Haiti - Port-au-Prince
    Honduras - Tegucigalpa
    Magyarország - Budapest
    Izland - Reykjavik
    India - New Delhi
    Indonézia - Jakarta
    Irán - Tehran
    Irak - Baghdad
    Írország - Dublin
    Izrael - Jerusalem
    Olaszország - Rome
    Jamaica - Kingston
    Japán - Tokyo
    Jordánia - Amman
    Kazahsztán - Astana
    Kenya - Nairobi
    Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
    Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
    Dél-Korea - Seoul
    Koszovó - Pristina
    Kuvait - Kuwait City
    Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
    Laosz - Vientiane
    Lettország - Riga
    Libanon - Beirut
    Lesotho - Maseru
    Libéria - Monrovia
    Líbia - Tripoli
    Liechtenstein - Vaduz
    Litvánia - Vilnius
    Luxemburg - Luxembourg
    Macedónia - Skopje
    Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
    Malawi - Lilongwe
    Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
    Maldív-szigetek - Male
    Mali - Bamako
    Málta - Valletta
    Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
    Mauritánia - Nouakchott
    Mauritius - Port Louis
    Mexikó - Mexico City
    Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
    Moldova - Chisinau
    Monaco - Monaco
    Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
    Montenegró - Podgorica
    Marokkó - Rabat
    Mozambik - Maputo
    Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
    Namíbia - Windhoek
    Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
    Nepál - Kathmandu
    Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
    Új-Zéland - Wellington
    Nicaragua - Managua
    Niger - Niamey
    Nigéria - Abuja
    Norvégia - Oslo
    Omán - Muscat
    Pakisztán - Islamabad
    Palau - Melekeok
    Panama - Panama City
    Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
    Paraguay - Asuncion
    Peru - Lima
    Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
    Lengyelország - Warsaw
    Portugália - Lisbon
    Katar - Doha
    Románia - Bucharest
    Oroszország - Moscow
    Ruanda - Kigali
    Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
    Santa Lucia - Castries
    Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
    Szamoa - Apia
    San Marino - San Marino
    São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
    Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
    Szenegál - Dakar
    Szerbia - Belgrade
    Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
    Sierra Leone - Freetown
    Szingapúr - Singapore
    Szlovákia - Bratislava
    Szlovénia - Ljubljana
    Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
    Szomália - Mogadishu
    Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
    Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
    Spanyolország - Madrid
    Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
    Szudán - Khartoum
    Suriname - Paramaribo
    Szváziföld - Mbabane
    Svédország - Stockholm
    Svájc - Bern
    Szíria - Damascus
    Tajvan - Taipei
    Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
    Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
    Thaiföld - Bangkok
    Togo - Lome
    Tonga - Nuku'alofa
    Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
    Tunézia - Tunis
    Törökország - Ankara
    Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
    Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
    Uganda - Kampala
    Ukrajna - Kyiv
    Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
    Egyesült Királyság - London
    Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
    Uruguay - Montevideo
    Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
    Vanuatu - Port-Vila
    Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
    Venezuela - Caracas
    Vietnam - Hanoi
    Jemen - Sanaa
    Zambia - Lusaka
    Zimbabwe - Harare

              8/10/2017: NEWS: Pallister defends use of wife’s e-mail in Costa Rica        
    Manitoba Premier Brian Pallister is bristling at questions about his use of his wife’s personal e-mail account and cellphone to conduct government business while at their vacation home in Costa Rica. While government records indicate he didn’t...

    A cada hora e meia, uma mulher é assassinada por um homem no Brasil, apenas por ser mulher. 

    À esse crime que dá-se o nome de feminicídio, tradução de femicide (femicídio) mais usada na América Latina. 

    Feminicídio é o assassinato de uma mulher pela condição de ser mulher. Já Ã© tipificado como uma das formas de homicídio qualificado. 

    O crime é definido como o homicídio praticado contra a mulher por razões de gênero, quando houver violência doméstica ou familiar, violência sexual, mutilação da vítima ou emprego de tortura. 

    Tecnicamente é um erro grosseiro afirmar:“que foi criado um crime de feminicídio”. Em realidade, o crime continua sendo de homicídio, sendo que o feminicídio é uma qualificadora do crime de homicídio.

    Suas motivações mais usuais são o ódio, o desprezo ou o sentimento de perda do controle e da propriedade sobre as mulheres, comuns em sociedades marcadas pela associação de papéis discriminatórios ao feminino, como é o caso brasileiro.

    “O feminicídio é a instância última de controle da mulher pelo homem: o controle da vida e da morte. Ele se expressa como afirmação irrestrita de posse, igualando a mulher a um objeto, quando cometido por parceiro ou ex-parceiro; como subjugação da intimidade e da sexualidade da mulher, por meio da violência sexual associada ao assassinato; como destruição da identidade da mulher, pela mutilação ou desfiguração de seu corpo; como aviltamento da dignidade da mulher, submetendo-a a tortura ou a tratamento cruel ou degradante.”, - Comissão Parlamentar Mista de Inquérito sobre Violência contra a Mulher (Relatório Final, CPMI-VCM, 2013)

    O termo passou a ser reconhecido principalmente com a sanção da lei que o tornou uma qualificadora do homicídio, mas ainda é pouco discutido fora de círculos especializados, como os do Direito e da militância feminista, onde surgiu originalmente. 

    O feminicídio pode ser definido como uma qualificadora do crime de homicídio motivada pelo ódio contra as mulheres, caracterizado por circunstâncias específicas em que o pertencimento da mulher ao sexo feminino é central na prática do delito. Entre essas circunstâncias estão incluídos: os assassinatos em contexto de violência doméstica/familiar, e o menosprezo ou discriminação à condição de mulher. Os crimes que caracterizam a qualificadora do feminicídio reportam, no campo simbólico, a destruição da identidade da vítima e de sua condição de mulher. 

    Não resta dúvida que ao longo da história, as mulheres continuam sofrendo preconceitos em todos os níveis. Também é certo que a violência contra mulher é um dos males que assolam e desafiam a sociedade em todo mundo. Segundo a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS), 35% das mulheres no mundo foram vítimas de violência física ou sexual em 2013. Em alguns países, essa realidade atinge 70% da população feminina.

    Não se pode ignorar o fato de que no Brasil 77% das mulheres em situação de violência sofrem agressões semanal ou diariamente, conforme revelaram os dados dos atendimentos realizados pela Central de Atendimento à Mulher .

    Estima-se que, entre 2001 e 2011, tenham ocorrido mais de 50 mil homicídios motivados por misoginia: isso torna o Brasil o quinto país que mais mata mulheres no mundo. 

    Os números alarmantes traduzem uma realidade que tem nome: femicídio. O termo é uma alternativa a palavra homicídio e busca reconhecer este fenômeno como algo intimamente ligado à violência sexual usada para punir, culpar e controlar as ações, emoções e comportamento de mulheres. 

    Os números chocam e causam questionamento, e embora não haja uma origem única, podemos buscar respostas em nossa história: “Desde que fomos descobertos, tivemos a presença dos portugueses, que tentaram escravizar os índios e não conseguiram. Depois trouxeram os negros da África, que foram submetidos - as mulheres negras tinham que obedecer ou apanhar”, contextualiza a delegada Vilma Alves, de Teresina. 

    “Segue-se os cafezais e seus senhores, sempre com o poder macho, o açúcar e os senhores de engenho, e a época dos grandes comerciantes, sempre o poder do homem ligado ao poder financeiro. Nessa época, o homem era dono da mulher ao casar, podia bater, surrar, até matar sem consequências. O machismo está arraigado na nossa cultura, onde o homem teve o poder durante toda nossa história”. 

    A herança deste passado se reflete nos dados atuais da pesquisa realizada em 2012 pelo Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica e Aplicada (Ipea), que mostra que as mulheres negras representam 61% das vítimas de feminicídios no país. 

    Stela Meneghel, pós-doutora em medicina de Porto Alegre com especialização em saúde pública e gênero e professora da UFRS, destaca: “Não é por acaso que a violência contra a mulher existe. Não é por causa de distúrbios mentais dos homens ou de uma vontade incontrolável de sexo, por psicopatologias, ou mesmo, digamos, porque esses conflitos seriam comuns a relacionamentos” enfatiza. 

    Segundo ela, a violência é uma maneira de se adestrar as mulheres para que elas se mantenham numa posição de inferioridade e de adestramento. Seria por isso que o ápice de um contínuo ou de uma escalada crescente de violência é a morte de algumas mulheres. 

    Da caça às bruxas do passado ao crescente infanticídio de meninas em algumas sociedades e aos assassinatos de mulheres supostamente em defesa da honra, não há nada de novo no feminicídio. 

    Feminicídio: Em que contextos acontece

    No Brasil, o cenário que mais preocupa é o do feminicídio cometido por parceiro íntimo, em contexto de violência doméstica e familiar, e que geralmente é precedido por outras formas de violência e, portanto, poderia ser evitado.

    Trata-se de um problema global, que se apresenta com poucas variações em diferentes sociedades e culturas e se caracteriza como crime de gênero ao carregar traços como ódio, que exige a destruição da vítima, e também pode ser combinado com as práticas da violência sexual, tortura e/ou mutilação da vítima antes ou depois do assassinato.

    "Trata-se de um crime de ódio. O conceito surgiu na década de 1970 com o fim de reconhecer e dar visibilidade à discriminação, opressão, desigualdade e violência sistemática contra as mulheres, que, em sua forma mais aguda, culmina na morte. Essa forma de assassinato não constitui um evento isolado e nem repentino ou inesperado; ao contrário, faz parte de um processo contínuo de violências, cujas raízes misóginas caracterizam o uso de violência extrema. Inclui uma vasta gama de abusos, desde verbais, físicos e sexuais, como o estupro, e diversas formas de mutilação e de barbárie.” - Eleonora Menicucci, ministra chefe da Secretaria de Políticas para as Mulheres da Presidência (SPM-PR)

    Feminicídio e Tortura

    O termo feminicídio foi cunhado pela primeira vez pela escritora feminista Diana Russell, nascida na África do Sul. Em seu livro Femicide: The Politics of Killing Woman (Feminicídio: as políticas de matar mulher), lançado em 1992 em parceria com Jill Radford, Russell define o crime como resultado de contínuos abusos, tanto físicos como psicológicos ou sexuais, marcados por escravidão sexual, mutilação genital, maternidade forçada, homofobia (quando a mulher é morta por ser lésbica) e racismo, entre outros atos misóginos. Um desses atos, que também é inserido com característica de feminicídio, é a tortura.

    No mundo, o feminicídio já foi tipificado como crime em países como México, Chile, Guatemala, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Espanha e Peru, segundo dados do Comitê Latino-americano e do Caribe para a Defesa dos Direitos da Mulher (Cladem). Aqui no Brasil, país que ocupa o 5° lugar no ranking dos países com maior número de feminicídios (o primeiro é El Salvador).

    No Brasil, a taxa de feminicídios é de 4,8 para 100 mil mulheres – a quinta maior no mundo, segundo dados da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). 

    Em 2015, o Mapa da Violência sobre homicídios entre o público feminino revelou que, de 2003 a 2013, o número de assassinatos de mulheres negras cresceu 54%, passando de 1.864 para 2.875.

    Na mesma década, foi registrado um aumento de 190,9% na vitimização de negras, índice que resulta da relação entre as taxas de mortalidade branca e negra. Para o mesmo período, a quantidade anual de homicídios de mulheres brancas caiu 9,8%, saindo de 1.747 em 2003 para 1.576 em 2013. Do total de feminicídios registrados em 2013, 33,2% dos homicidas eram parceiros ou ex-parceiros das vítimas.

    Alguns números sobre a violência contra as mulheres no Brasil:

    Embora muitos avanços tenham sido alcançados com a Lei Maria da Penha (Lei nº 11.340/2006), ainda assim, hoje, contabilizamos 4,8 assassinatos a cada 100 mil mulheres, número que coloca o Brasil no 5º lugar no ranking de países nesse tipo de crime. 

    Segundo o Mapa da Violência 2015, dos 4.762 assassinatos de mulheres registrados em 2013 no Brasil, 50,3% foram cometidos por familiares, sendo que em 33,2% destes casos, o crime foi praticado pelo parceiro ou ex. Essas quase 5 mil mortes representam 13 homicídios femininos diários em 2013.

    Homicídio de mulheres negras aumenta 54% em 10 anos – O Mapa também mostra que a taxa de assassinatos de mulheres negras aumentou 54% em dez anos, passando de 1.864, em 2003, para 2.875, em 2013. Chama atenção que no mesmo período o número de homicídios de mulheres brancas tenha diminuído 9,8%, caindo de 1.747, em 2003, para 1.576, em 2013. 

    Violência sexual no Brasil: usando dados do Ministério da Saúde, o Ipea (Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada) analisou os registros de violência sexual e concluiu que 89% das vítimas são do sexo feminino e em geral têm baixa escolaridade. Do total, 70% são crianças e adolescentes. Em metade das ocorrências envolvendo crianças, há um histórico de estupros anteriores. 70% dos estupros são cometidos por parentes, namorados ou amigos/conhecidos da vítima. 

    Percepção da sociedade sobre violência e assassinatos de mulheres (Data Popular/Instituto Patrícia Galvão, 2013)

    Para 70% da população, a mulher sofre mais violência dentro de casa do que em espaços públicos no Brasil. É o que mostra pesquisa inédita, realizada com apoio da SPM-PR e Campanha Compromisso e Atitude pela Lei Maria da Penha, que revelou significativa preocupação da sociedade com a violência doméstica e os assassinatos de mulheres pelos parceiros ou ex-parceiros no Brasil.

    Além de 7 em cada 10 entrevistados considerar que as brasileiras sofrem mais violência dentro de casa do que em espaços públicos, metade avalia ainda que as mulheres se sentem de fato mais inseguras dentro da própria casa. Os dados revelam que o problema está presente no cotidiano da maior parte dos brasileiros: entre os entrevistados, de ambos os sexos e todas as classes sociais, 54% conhecem uma mulher que já foi agredida por um parceiro e 56% conhecem um homem que já agrediu uma parceira. E 69% afirmaram acreditar que a violência contra a mulher não ocorre apenas em famílias pobres. Saiba mais sobre essa pesquisa

    Em comparação a 2014, houve aumento em 2015 de:
    44,74% no número de relatos de violência
    325% de cárcere privado (média de 11,8/dia)
    129% de violência sexual (média de 9,53/dia)
    151% de tráfico de pessoas (média de 29/mês)

    "A violência contra as mulheres é uma manifestação de relações de poder historicamente desiguais entre homens e mulheres que conduziram à dominação e à discriminação contra as mulheres pelos homens e impedem o pleno avanço das mulheres..." (Declaração sobre a Eliminação da Violência contra as Mulheres, Resolução da Assembleia Geral das Nações Unidas, dezembro de 1993).

    A representante da ONU Mulheres no Brasil, Nadine Gasman, afirma: â€œFeminicídios são assassinatos cruéis e marcados por impossibilidade de defesa da vítima, torturas, mutilações e degradações do corpo e da memória. E, na maioria das vezes, não se encerram com o assassinato. Mantém-se pela impunidade e pela dificuldade do poder público em garantir a justiça às vítimas e a punição aos agressores”.

    E acrescentou: "buscamos eliminar as discriminações a que as mulheres são alvo pelo machismo, pelo racismo, pelo etnocentrismo, pela lesbofobia e por outras formas de desigualdades que se manifestam desde a maneira como elas vivem, a deflagração de conflitos com base em gênero e os ciclos de violência, que culminam com as mortes violentas”.

    Mulher protesta contra os feminicídios na Argentina

    Esse mês de outubro de 2016,  na Argentina, a morte de Lucía Perez, na cidade litorânea de Mar del Plata, chocou o mundo, gerando uma grande mobilização por parte das mulheres. Lucía Perez foi drogada, violentada e morta. Foi estuprada não só com pênis, mas também com um objeto. Lucía foi empalada. Tinha 16 anos.

    O movimento foi chamado por um grupo de organizações feministas, mas teve a participação expressiva de mulheres que nunca tinham participado de nenhum protesto nem pertencem a qualquer coletivo. É do controle sobre os corpos femininos que se trata. Pelo estuprador e assassino, tolerado e seguidamente impune, quando não justificado. Pelo Estado e pela Igreja, que com frequência se articulam para barrar direitos sexuais e reprodutivos.

    O controle dos corpos das mulheres não é uma denúncia de militantes, um jargão feminista. A relação entre os corpos das mulheres, o poder e a política se dá no cotidiano. Não corre no paralelo, corre imbricado. Intimamente imbricado – e implicado.

    Os pais de Lucía Pérez, Guillermo (centro) e Marta (dir.) num protesto  para exigir justiça

     â€œA menos de uma semana do Encontro Nacional de Mulheres, um novo feminicídio brutal mostra a violência a que estamos expostas. Por todas as mulheres que faltam, pelas assassinadas e desaparecidas, contra a violência e o terrorismo machista, contra a impunidade, contra o acobertamento, contra a inação e a cumplicidade estatal e policial”

    Vale lembrar que, neste momento, há também uma ofensiva conservadora no mundo. Argentinas e Brasileiras têm, em comum, um projeto conservador nos respectivos governos. Não liberal, mas conservador. 

    Baseado nas seguintes fontes:

              Nursing a dream        
    Children learn many things from their parents. Maria, 22, from Costa Rica, is going to school to become a nurse, has a job as a social worker with Unbound and is a former sponsored member and scholarship recipient through Unbound. She credits her parents, Francisco and Maria, with teaching her and her eight siblings many important lessons. One of the […]
              La lengua polifónica        
    Siameses. Ilustración: María de los Ángeles Vargas. Fuente: Bienvenido pi pi pi pi

    ¿Escribir en castellano o en español? ¿Por qué los españoles sienten que el castellano de América Latina es un dialecto y reemplazan, por ejemplo, "zopilote" por "buitre" en los libros intercontinentales (Ruiz Rosas dixit)? ¿Por qué a los latinoamericanos nos sabe tan mal las traducciones de autores coloquiales a la española con su "joder" "tío" "esto mola" etc hasta el punto que incluso los hermanos Glass de Salinger parecen personajes de Verano Azul? La revista "Babelia" se pregunta eso a dos escritores, un español que conoce bien América Latina (José María Merino) y un colombiano afincado en Barcelona (Juan Gabriel Vásquez). Esto dicen:

    José María Merino: La anciana está tejiendo en un pequeño telar, sentada en una sillita, en uno de los extremos del enorme bohío de suelo de madera brillante -al parecer, el salón de baile de la pequeña localidad inmersa en la frondosa selva- en una de las orillas del canal, o mejor los canales, del Tortuguero, en Costa Rica. De esto hace más de veinte años. Es uno de mis primeros viajes a la América que habla español, y estoy charlando con esa mujer, que me cuenta algunas cosas a propósito del lugar, de los huevos de tortuga, tan sabrosos, de los pequeños caimanes que llevan a su cría sobre el lomo, de los monos aulladores, del tráfico fluvial que convierte los canales en imprescindibles vías de comunicación. Me sorprende su español, en el que la riqueza léxica muestra palabras para mí castizas, y hasta arcaicas -me trata de vos- junto a otros vocablos cuyo sentido tengo que adivinar -llama lagartos a los pequeños caimanes- igual que me sorprende la música que hace resonar su discurso, el modo de pronunciar las erres, las cadencias del fraseo. El momento, el esplendor solar convertido en una luz suave gracias al gigantesco arbolado y remansado en la solemne penumbra del bohío, la humedad que enaltece los aromas, quedan en mi recuerdo envolviendo ese español nuevo, diferente, que fluye de la boca de la mujer. [...] En la época de la que hablo he leído con atención y gusto a los escritores de lo que conocimos como boom latinoamericano -varios acabarán convirtiéndose en clásicos vivos de nuestro idioma- y he advertido las peculiaridades que le dan a su prosa su inconfundible identidad. Pero es a través de las palabras de esta mujer del pueblo cuando comprendo que mi lengua ya no tiene un único lugar de referencia, que puede ser la misma y presentar otra melodía, e incluso un léxico donde convivan pacíficamente lo habitual y lo ajeno, en tierras para mí muy lejanas. La revelación de que la anciana no habla una lengua segundona de la mía es, en cierto modo, similar a otra: la que, al leer a los cronistas y escritores de Indias, a raíz de mi primer descubrimiento americano, tuve al comprender que, en los Comentarios Reales, el Inca Garcilaso realiza un genial injerto, al contarnos la historia de sus antepasados a la luz de la cultura grecolatina. Con los años he recorrido muchos lugares de Iberoamérica, he vuelto a tener gustosas conversaciones con hablantes populares, y me sigue asombrando, con el deleite de compartir lo más hondo de ese patrimonio, la variedad de registros melódicos y la riqueza de los vocabularios. Los hispanohablantes nunca seremos capaces de abarcar todas las músicas de nuestro idioma, ni todo el léxico que lo enriquece. La fragmentación comunitaria ha favorecido la existencia de muchos reductos regionales, y en ellos surgen espacios verbales donde la intimidad, la familiaridad, ofrecen nuevos registros de un al parecer infinito panorama de modulaciones del español.

    Juan Gabriel Vásquez: He tenido que pasar catorce años fuera de Colombia -y diez años de escritura, o de intentos de escritura, en Barcelona- para enterarme de algo que todos sabían, menos yo: mi lengua está en peligro. Me refiero, claro, a la lengua española con que escribo mis ficciones: al parecer, el hecho de llevar tanto tiempo fuera de mi país es una especie de atentado contra su pureza. La lengua de un expatriado como yo está amenazada (me explican) por la globalización, y el resultado es la pérdida de sus matices locales o nacionales, y la consecuente creación de una koiné donde las novelas de todo un continente acabarán sonando igual. La lengua de un expatriado como yo está sitiada (me explican) por la ubicua y contaminante presencia del inglés, con el resultado -indeseable, por lo que se ve- de que la ficción latinoamericana ahora suena toda como una traducción de Cheever o Yates. Me parece que en ello, en estas bienintencionadas inquietudes, hay un gran malentendido: la idea de que la lengua literaria se comporta igual que la lengua hablada, y de que los escritores que pasan mucho tiempo en países ajenos corren el riesgo, como si dijéramos, de "perder el acento". Pues bien, no es así. Mi coterráneo Fernando Vallejo lo explicó bien en el menos vallejiano de sus libros: Logoi. "La prosa", dice allí, "es como una lengua extranjera opuesta a la lengua cotidiana". En otras palabras, la voz con que uno cuenta sus novelas es siempre una fabricación, una invención; desde Lázaro de Tormes hasta Jacobo Deza, la voz de la ficción es una creación artificial que sólo a grandes rasgos coincide con la dicción del escritor metido en eso que, a falta de mejores palabras, llamamos mundo real. Si uno siente, como siento yo, que siempre está escribiendo en una lengua extranjera, puede sin miedo dejarse contaminar por tres años de vida en países francófonos, por diez años de vida en español peninsular, por una vida entera en estrecho contacto con el inglés de varios países; y, lejos de amilanarse por ello, lejos de sentir y temer la desnaturalización de su lengua, comprenderá que esas voces y esos ámbitos que se le ofrecen en el extranjero pueden muy bien acabar por enriquecerlo. Así que ni la contaminación ni el descenso a la koiné me han preocupado nunca. Hubo un tiempo, sí, en que la exhibición indiscriminada de localismos bastaba para hacer literatura latinoamericana; ese tiempo, por fortuna, ha pasado, y de la superstición del color local -tan afín a esa otra superstición, la del nacionalismo literario- ya se ocupó Borges en El escritor argentino y la tradición, un ensayo de los años treinta que para mí tiene el lugar de un manifiesto

              Todo listo para la Copa América 2011        
    El fútbol de alta competición paró en el viejo continente hace unos meses. Pèro el deporte rey siempre nos tiene algo guardado en los veranos impares, donde brillan por su ausencia la Copa del Mundo y la Copa de Europa, pero sin embargo, nos deleita con su presencia la Copa América.

    Un torneo que se celebrará a partir del próximo 1 de julio en Argentina, país cuya mitad de su población llora por el dramático descenso de River Plate, y que espera reír y disfrutar con su selección durante las próximas semanas, ya que la albiceleste es una de las grandes favoritas para llevarse el torneo, además de por su condición de local, por la calidad que poseen hombres como Leo Messi, Kün Aguero o Angel Di María. Sin lugar a dudas Argentina es la favorita para la mayoría de las casas de apuestas.

    Por otro lado se encuentra Brasil, selección que esté en el momento que esté, siempre va a ser favorita para cualquier torneo, y es que las estrellas de la amiseta brasileira pesan mucho...Jugadores como Neymar, Ganso o Pato serán los centros de atención de este combinado.

    La tercera en discordia, debería ser Uruguay, selección que llegó hasta las semifinales del pasado Mundial de Sudáfrica 2010, pero el mal estado de forma de Diego Forlán quizá les reste puntos. También es una incógnita el rendimiento de Chile, ahora sin el técnico que la llevó hasta los cuartos de final del mismo mundial, Marcelo Bielsa, pero que mantiene cmo mayor arma al sevillista Gary Medel.

    Quien si llega pisando fuerte es la selección de Colombia, ojo porque puede ser la gran sensación del torneo, y pese a que las apuestas deportivas online  no la den como clara favorita, para mí es por potencial una de las más favoritas. Hombres como Falcao y Guarim, que han brillado con luz propia en el Porto durante la pasada campaña, se suman a los Rodallega, Zapata o Zuñiga,

    También presenta muy buen cuadro la selección de Ecuador, con una defensa formada por varios de los jugadores del Udinese.Tampoco quisiera dejarme en el tintero a la Paraguay de Nelson Haedo Valedez o a México de Giovani Dos Santos, que disputará este torneo con la sub´22 ya que la absoluta acaba de ganar la Copa de Oro, recordemos que es la selección invitada junto a Costa Rica a este torneo..
              Hey Ocean! – Beatboxer (Who Broke My Heart) – Live on Fearless Music HD        
    If asked, the members of Hey Ocean!, will probably tell you that they are a Canadian band, however their humble beginnings swapping songs on the beaches of Costa Rica are undeniably where the spirit of their music resides. Stemming from the minds of Vancouver songstress Ashleigh Ball and British-born singer/songwriter David Beckingham their mix of [...]
              Heboh! Situs Liberty Reserve Ditutup Karena Kasus Money Laundering        

    Heboh! Situs Liberty Reserve Ditutup Karena Kasus Money Laundering

    Halo sahabat trader, pagi ini saya mendapatkan kabar yang cukup menghebohkan, yaitu kabar yang menyatakan bahwa situs Liberty Reserve ( online payment processor ) yang biasa digunakan untuk transaksi keuangan, khususnya dalam bisnis forex trading, dinyatakan DITUTUP oleh pihak yang berwajib. Penutupan situs Liberty Reserve secara paksa ini dikarenakan tertangkapnya pendiri dan pemilik Liberty Reserve yang bernama Arthur Budovsky Belanchuk dalam kasus pencucian uang atau Money Laundering.
    Arthur Budovsky Belanchuk yang merupakan warga negara Ukrania, ditangkap oleh kepolisian negara Costa Rica, berkat kerja sama dengan kepolisian Amerika Serikat. Pejabat kepolisian Costa Rica José Pablo González menyatakan bahwa memang Arthur Budovsky Belanchuk sudah lama diselidiki terkait kejahatan pencucian uang, yaitu sudah sejak tahun 2011. Dan yang menghebohkan bahwa penyelidikan ini didasarkan pada indikasi adanya praktek pencucian uang yang terjadi dalam perusahan yang dimiliki oleh Arthur Budovsky Belanchuk, yaitu Liberty Reserve.
    situs liberty reserve ditutup karena kasus pencucian uang
    situs liberty reserve ditutup karena kasus pencucian uang
    Situs Liberty Reserve yang merupakan salah satu Online Payment Processor yang ternama, diindikasikan menjadi alat bagi Arthur Budovsky Belanchuk untuk melakukan praktek tindak kejahatan pencucian uang, khususnya uang dari hasil perdagangan obat-obatan terlarang, dan juga dari situs-situs dengan konten dewasa yang menjadikan anak-anak sebagai objek.
    Penangkapan yang dilakukan oleh kepolisian Costa Rica tidak terlepas dari penyelidikan yang dilakukan oleh kepolisian Amerika Serikat sejak tahun 2007. Sehingg akhirnya, Arthur Budovsky Belanchuk dapat ditangkap berkat kerjasama kedua institusi penegak hukum dari Costa Rica dan Amerika Serikat.
    Saya sendiri awalnya tidak percaya bahwa situs Liberty Reserve benar-benar ditutup, namun setelah saya mencoba lansung untuk mengakses situs Liberty Reserve di , ternyata memang sudah tidak bisa di akses. Hal ini sangat mengejutkan, karena saya berpikir, pasti banyak orang di dunia yang masih memiliki dana yang terdapat di akun Liberty Reserve mereka. Saya pribadi sudah tidak memiliki dana disana, hanya ada sekitar $0.2 , karena kamis kemaren saya sudah menjual semua dana saya di Liberty Reserve.
    Kemudian yang menjadi pertanyaan besar saya adalah, jika benar situs Liberty Reserve ditutup selamanya, kemudian bagaimana nasib para pemilik akun Liberty Reserve, yang masih memiliki dana disana? Apakah kemudian ada upaya dari pihak berwajib untuk membantu orang-orang ini agar dapat mendapatkan kembali dana mereka, atau mungkin ada prosedur lainnya? Yang pasti kita masih perlu menunggu kelanjutan dari kasus pencucian uang yang dilakukan oleh Arthur Budovsky Belanchuk si pemilih situr Liberty Reserve ini.  Semoga ada jalan keluar yang terbaik, khususnya bagi para pemilik dana di Liberty Reserve.
    sumber: >> Silahkan baca berita di link tersebut terkait situs Liberty Reserve ditutup karena kasus pencucian uang.

              Vulcan PAOS San Jose — San Jose, Costa Rica        
    With VW Bus Vanagon (RV, Westfalia) all through America
              Manuel Antonio and Quepos — Quepos, Costa Rica        
    With VW Bus Vanagon (RV, Westfalia) all through America
              Brian Pallister, Manitoba Premier, Gets Miffed At Questions About Using Wife's Email, Phone        
    Manitoba Premier Brian Pallister speaks at a press conference during the Council of Federation meetings in Edmonton on July 18, 2017.

    WINNIPEG — Manitoba Premier Brian Pallister is bristling at questions about his use of his wife's personal email account and cellphone to conduct government business while at their vacation home in Costa Rica.

    While government records indicate he didn't communicate with his staff each day, he said was "accessible" every day.

    "Frankly, if sending emails and phone calls is your measure of effectiveness, we should have a teenager as the premier of Manitoba," Pallister said at a news conference Wednesday.

    Are you questioning my wife's integrity?

    Last December, documents show government staff reached out to his wife, Esther, through her email account while trying to set up a conference call with Health Minister Kelvin Goertzen.

    A document obtained by the Opposition New Democrats shows a draft of this year's budget speech was emailed to Esther Pallister nine days before the budget was delivered.

    Pallister took exception to questions about his wife's access to confidential government information.

    He said he has shared information with his wife for 25 years and they have never been associated with a leak. His wife has acted for years as his gatekeeper, including screening calls and emails to allow him to spend time with his family, Pallister said.

    Pallister appeared to take umbrage when asked if his wife is a government employee.

    "No. Are you questioning my wife's integrity?" he said. "She doesn't receive a salary from the taxpayers of Manitoba. She is my principal adviser and confidante in my life and she will remain so."

    Pallister said it's possible he used his wife's email account during his career as a Conservative MP, including when he served as chairman of the Commons finance committee and as a parliamentary secretary.

    He reiterated that he now uses government equipment and accounts.

    "Because I take it seriously, we have stepped up the practices," he said.

    "We are taking action to change those rules to make them more effective. We are trying to stay ahead of those who would try to access government information for mischief or personal gain."

    I don't have to defend my work ethic to you or anyone else.

    Pallister said his position about the emails and his work habits haven't really changed and the media need to figure that out.

    "A few weeks ago, I was a totalitarian dictator and a control freak and now I am supposed to be lazy."

    His vacation home in Costa Rica has been an ongoing issue for Pallister since last December when he said he planned to spend up to eight weeks a year there.

    When the issue came up again in May, Pallister said he didn't have to reveal how he communicates with staff while at his vacation home.

    "I work harder than any premier that's been around here for a long, long time," he said. "I don't have to defend my work ethic to you or anyone else."

    Also On HuffPost:

              Moving along: Continuing to expand the Panama transport and logistics network        
    A geostrategic location and the presence of the Panama Canal make Panama a natural centre for transportation and logistics. In fact, the transportation, logistics and communication sector combined is easily the largest contributor to GDP, a fact recognised by the current administration. In its Strategic Economic Plan 2010-14, the logistics sector, along with finance, agriculture and tourism, was identified as one of the country’s four pillars of economic growth. To secure the future of the sector the administration is investing $9.6bn, equivalent to 70% of public sector investment, from 2010 to 2014 in infrastructure upgrades alone. Public spending on infrastructure extends well beyond the flagship $5.25bn Panama Canal Expansion and includes the construction of a line on the Panama City Metro, a large overhaul of the national road network and several upgrades to maritime and airport infrastructure. With the canal’s ability to attract global trade, the country has been working for nearly a decade to create a business-friendly regulatory framework – replete with special economic areas and incentives for multinational headquarters – which should serve in attracting further investment as it continues developing the transport and logistics hub. While on the one hand the government is moving quickly to ensure its infrastructure networks are capable of providing a platform for the growing logistics and value-added manufacturing industries, on the other it is aggressively revamping airport infrastructure and further pushing to establish itself as a major aviation centre.

    Quantifying Progress

    Figures published by the National Statistics Agency (Instituto Nacional De Estadí stica y Censo, INEC) aptly portray the sector’s wider role within the rapidly growing economy. According to the latest available figures from INEC at the time of writing, the transportation and communication sector accounted for 24.1% of the nation’s total GDP (at 1996 prices) in 2012. Moreover, the sector has grown at double-digit rates in each of the past five years apart from 2009 when the global financial crisis slowed progress in the sector to 8.2%. The sector’s average annual growth rate from 2008 to 2012 was an impressive 12.7%. It has also been a major attractor of foreign direct investment (FDI) as logistics, construction and infrastructure firms look to take advantage of the country’s expanding role in regional and global transport. FDI stock in the transportation, logistics and communication sector reached $4.52bn in 2011 and represented 19.6% of the national total of $23.1bn, according to data from the National Comptroller.

    Global Rankings

    Heavy spending on infrastructure development has yielded improved scores in the World Economic Forum’s “Global Competitiveness Report 2013-14”. Indeed, Panama’s score in the report’s metric on overall quality of infrastructure has improved drastically under the current administration from 67th in the 2009-10 iteration of the report to 30th in the 2013-14 edition. Other related categories also paint a similar picture. Panama improved from 54th in the 2009-10 index to 35th in 2013-14 in goods market efficiency, from 18th to sixth in quality of port infrastructure, from 32nd to fifth in air transport infrastructure, from 62nd to 30th in railroad infrastructure, and from 62nd to 48th in road infrastructure.

    Sector Structure

    Despite steadily improving infrastructure across the country, the transportation and logistics sector lacks a titular head in the form of a dedicated Ministry of Transportation and Logistics. In its place is the Ministry of Public Works (Ministerio de Obras Públicas, MOP) which oversees the construction and maintenance of the national public infrastructure network, though in practice the MOP is primarily responsible for the national road network together with the autonomous Terrestrial Transport and Transit Authority. Numerous additional public entities with varying degrees of autonomy oversee the rest of the sector, including the Metro de Panamá Secretariat, a special secretariat created in 2009 to monitor the planning, construction and administration of the Panama City Metro. The Panama Canal Authority (Autoridad del Canal de Panamá, ACP) has been in complete control of the Panama Canal and its finances since the country took over control in 1999. Although it possesses a board consisting of various ministerial heads, another autonomous government agency, the Panama Maritime Authority (Autoridad Marítima de Panamá, AMP) is charged with overseeing all things maritime. Meanwhile, in the aviation sector it is the Civil Aviation Authority (Autoridad Aeronáutica Civil, AAC), which also boasts a diverse board full of governmental leaders, that supervises the country’s aeronautical activity.
    In October 2010 the Ministry of Industry and Commerce (Ministerio de Comercio e Industrias, MICI), together with the Georgia Tech Panama Logistics Innovation and Research Centre, launched the National Logistics Council (Consejo Nacional de Logística, CNL). The CNL was created to establish a platform for collaboration among the government, private sector and academic institutions and eventually facilitate the development of the country into “the logistics and trade hub of the Americas”. However, the lack of a governmental ministry or secretariat charged with overseeing the long-term development of all infrastructures and responsible for coordinating inter-agency stratagem and budgets is a common complaint from the private sector given the already large and growing impact of the sector on the wider economy. Indeed, though the creation of the CNL represents a step forward in the logistics segment, it still falls short of the sort of authority granted the Secretary of Science, Technology and Information, for example, in driving the growth of the information and communication sector.


    The legislative environment in Panama has for the most part been conducive to business and investment in the country. Legal and tax incentives have been established through several laws for companies basing themselves in one of the country’s free or special economic and trade zones.
    The Colón Free Zone (CFZ), the second-largest of its kind in the world, is a strong example of the importance of creating such areas, in particular for logistic and reexport companies. New special economic areas including Panama Pacifico and the City of Knowledge have also been created and should lead the way forward in the future (see Economy chapter).
    However, in the second quarter of 2012 a new piece of legislation passed through the national legislature and was signed by the president. Known as Act 41, the legislation could cause issues with international investors within the maritime sector. The law stipulates that 75% of shares and personnel within the maritime services and auxiliary fuel distribution sector be sourced domestically. The rule sparked backlash from the EU, which considers it to be in violation of international commitments already made by Panama.

    The Hub & Spoke

    Panama’s location bodes well not only for its status as a trading hub, but also for its growing stature as a major regional centre of aviation. Indeed, Panama City’s location is within “narrow-body” range, the typical distance that the single-aisle airplanes which dominate the Latin American market can travel, of nearly all major cities within the Americas. Additionally, its improving airport infrastructure, expanding tourism sector and rapid economic growth are all supporting the country’s efforts to become the most important transit hub in the region.

    Commercial Aviation

    The impressive growth of Panama’s only major airline, Copa Airlines, also points towards a bright future for the sector. Founded in 1947, the Compañía Panameña de Aviación (Copa) is now the flagship airline of the country and one of the most prominent airlines in the expanding, yet still underserved, Latin America region.
    Following the 2005 purchase of AeroRepublica in Colombia and the company’s initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange, making Copa the third Latin American airline to list on the exchange, growth has been impressive. According to figures from Copa, from 2005 to 2013 capacity has increased at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 17%, while earnings have experienced a CAGR of 21% during the same timeframe. As a result Copa has become one of the most profitable airlines on the planet, recording an operating profit margin of 17.9% for 2012. According to the latest data from the International Air Transport Association’s 2010 airline profitability report, the carrier ranked 10th in 2007 and fourth in 2008, with operating profit margins around 18-20%.
    Meanwhile, the airline’s expansion plans include increasing its numbers in terms of fleet, route and frequency over the next five years. Indeed, Copa’s fleet plan includes the addition of 44 (30 firm orders and 14 optional) new aircraft between 2013 and 2018, most of which are single-aisle Boeing 737-800s with a range of 3000 nautical miles.

    International Connections

    Although Copa is responsible for more than 80% of daily operations at Tocumen International Airport, several international airlines also operate out of Tocumen including KLM, United Airlines, American Airlines, Iberia and Delta Airlines. In total, commercial airlines flying from Panama City service around 70 destinations – up from 29 in 2004.
    The AAC has been working together with the Ministry of Foreign Relations and the executive branch to firm up accords with foreign nations over air traffic rights. According to Ivan Vergara, director of air transport at the AAC, “Over the past several years we have signed agreements with Brazil, Ecuador and Peru and expanded our accord with Mexico. In 2013 we also added or expanded agreements with Costa Rica and France as well.” Indeed, with Air France joining KLM and Iberia in operating transatlantic flights to Europe in November of 2013, Panama City could soon establish itself as a transit hub not only for travellers going from South America to North America, but to Europe as well.


    One of the flagship projects of President Ricardo Martinelli’s administration, the construction of the $1.88bn Metro de Panamá should help to alleviate traffic congestion within the capital. The first line is expected to be inaugurated on March 5, 2014. The long-term master plan for the system’s development calls for the construction of four separate lines and one tramway line by 2035, though thus far construction has been started only on the first line (see analysis).

    Urban Transport

    In fact, the metro is just one part of a complete renovation of Panama City’s transportation system as the MOP has been in the midst of a major overhaul to the capital city’s road network since 2011. Meanwhile, structural changes to the existing public transportation system – mainly the replacement of the city’s diablo rojo (red devil) bus network – should also ease congestion in the medium to long term.
    Over the course of the past few years numerous projects to improve road connectivity and traffic flow have seen various parts of Panama City turned into construction zones. In total the MOP reported in June 2013 that a combined eight road projects totalling $1.7bn were under way in the capital city. The largest project is the $782m construction of an underground connection between Avenida Balboa and Avenida Los Poetas, which was awarded to Brazil’s Odebrecht. It not only involves the construction of a new tunnel, but also renovations to Los Poetas, the construction of new sports facilities, bike lanes, gardens and even a sporting arena, the Maracanã Stadium. However, the project has become a source of controversy as it will also include the extension of the Cinta Costera (Coastal Beltway), a highway constructed a few years ago to relieve congestion inside the city and whose extension will wrap around the city’s Casco Viejo (Historic District).
    While the project includes green areas and pedestrian walks it has drawn criticism as the beltway is seen as an eye sore and counterproductive to ongoing efforts to renovate the historic district. Fears that it would lead to the removal of Casco Viejo from UNESCO’s list of World Heritage Sites – due to the destruction of the centuries-old sea wall to make way for the highway – have been allayed as UNESCO announced in June 2013 the project would not impact Casco Viejo’s status.
    The preservation of the historic district itself is a $175m project also being completed by Odebrecht and is seen as a key part of the country’s tourism development plan. Apart from renovating the area’s small streets and alleyways, the project also includes the construction of a new road dubbed Vía Cincuentenario. Both projects are expected to be completed in 2014.
    Other projects include the $237m improvement and expansion of Avenida Domingo Díaz, which consists of the construction of three vehicular and three pedestrian bridges and the expansion of the road to six lanes.
    Via Brasil, another major artery, is also being renovated in a two-phase project to the tune of $217m and $181m for each respective phase. The remainder of the investment, $76.5m, was poured into the construction of three underpasses, which are now fully operational.

    On The Road

    Outside Panama City, the road network is also under development as connectivity in the interior of the country continually improves. From 2009 to 2013 the MOP reported investing $3.4bn in road and public infrastructure projects, though the majority of that figure ($2.25bn) has been used to overhaul Panama City’s road network. Outside the capital the heaviest investment was found in Chiriquí, which received $262m, most of which was used to upgrade two highways from David to Boquete ($119m) and from Paso Canoas to Port Armuelles ($114m). Meanwhile, Veraguas received $179m; Herrera and Los Santos, each $156m; Coclé, $136m; Bocas del Toro, $72m; Colón, $64m; Comarca, $66m; and Darién, $61m.
    In 2012 the introduction of a new stretch of highway from Panama City to Colón – easily the most important intra-city highway in Panama – reduced travel time from the capital to the Colón Free Zone to just 45 minutes. The project began in 2010, and when construction was completed in 2012, investment in the project reached $186m, MOP figures show. The $80.7m renovation of the Bridge of the Americas – which spans the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal – is another major project which was started in 2010, though it will not be completed until the end of 2014.

    Maritime Transport

    Obviously many of the maritime transport activities revolve around the Panama Canal, which has extensive port facilities at both entrances in the Port of Cristóbal (Atlantic), the Manzanillo International Container Terminal (MIT, Atlantic), the Colón Container Terminal (Atlantic) and the Port of Balboa (Pacific). In total Panama boasts 14 private and 14 state-owned and operated ports. Ensuring the country is able to meet demand increases following the arrival of post-Panamax ships after the completion of the Panama Canal expansion project is crucial to sustaining the long-term growth of the sector.
    “Panama needs to have more terminals built in order to continue growing, especially a new post-Panamax port inside the canal,” Ricardo Lince Boyd, the executive president of Agencias Continental, a local ports and shipping logistics firm, told OBG.
    Both the Port of Cristobal and the Port of Balboa are receiving an upgrade by the Panama Ports Company, operator of both ports, at a cost of $1bn. All expansion projects at both ports are expected to be completed by 2015 and will improve their combined capacity to 6.5m twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs).
    Meanwhile, the MIT and the Colón Container Terminal (CCT) serve the CFZ and have also received sizeable investments in recent years. According to information published by Georgia Tech, the CCT recently spent $100m upgrading its terminal to its current capacity of 1.3m TEUs. The MIT is currently investing $270m to upgrade capacity to a total of 4m TEUs per year.


    Identified as one of the four pillars of future economic growth, the logistics sector is arguably the most integral piece in further developing the Panamanian economy. According to Proinvex, the investment promotion agency, roughly 3% of global maritime trade, including 10% of US international seaborne trade, passed through the canal in 2013. These figures are likely to swell upon the doubling of the canal’s cargo capacity once the expansion project is complete. This fact alone gives the country an edge over competing logistics centres in the Caribbean and along the Atlantic coasts of the US and South America. Still, obstacles do stand in the way, mainly a lack of qualified personnel.


    All of the ingredients for Panama to become a centre for transportation and logistics are beginning to coalesce. Domestic connectivity is being upgraded via major infrastructure projects such as the Metro de Panamá, the Panama-Colón Highway and an overhaul of the national road system. Meanwhile, international connectivity is also being improved thanks to continued investment in airports and seaports. Nevertheless, if the goal of improving national transportation infrastructure is to capitalise on goods moving through the canal by expanding the logistics and transport sectors, there are still obstacles to overcome such as the short supply of labour and strong regional competition.
    Full text in

              Baru Free Trade Zone offers tax savings in Western Panama        


    Located in the Baru district, on the Pacific side of Chiriqui province, Baru Free Trade Zone was created by Law No. 19 of 2001 with the purpose of establishing a special tax and customs regime to promote tourism, a logistic multimodal system, export processing zones and petroleum development area. Baru has an area of 588.7 sq. km. and population of 60,551 inhabitants. The zone is divided in 5 small villages, which are eager to develop the economic potential of the area. Baru FTZ meets the requirements to be a dynamic place for business, based on the following features:

    • Commercial Zone: It is expected to become an important platform for agricultural exports since Chiriqui Province is rich in agricultural production. It enjoys an easy access to ports on the Pacific side, and therefore, enables it to export goods to the whole continent, Europe and Asia, as well as to new markets. It is seen in the future as a regional warehouse and distribution center for all sorts of merchandise. There are duty free shops in the border area of Paso Canoas and Puerto Armuelles, where you can find commodities such as liquors, perfumes, electric appliances, car devices, and so forth.
    • Tourism Development Zone: Plenty of virgin natural resources and convenient access ways, Baru provides the opportunity to launch any kind of ecological adventure, while offering interesting and picturesque sightseeing such as Paso Canoas International village, near the border with Costa Rica, in which you can find a multiple variety of shops and commercial establishments. The multicultural nature of Baru adds special charm for visitors. The company Fish on Panama, Inc. has already invested more than US$ 500,000 in developing sports fishing activities. There are incentives to promote tourism development which allow to import free of tax ships, yachts, airplanes and any other vehicle that will be required to develop such activities. Furthermore, companies that invest in the tourism zone will be exempted from the income tax and can receive other fiscal benefits.
    • Manufacturing Zone: Baru aims at transforming itself into a manufacture and re-exports zone of agricultural products. Its main objective is to guarantee regular supply of perishable agricultural products to markets in Europe, US, Canada and Asia. It also seeks to boost a regional economic cooperation framework in areas such as transport, classification, management, packaging design, freight handling and warehousing techniques and so forth. For instance, wood manufacturing and exporting firm Tecno Empresarial, S.A. has made an important impact to the region, where it has invested above US$ 1.5 millions. Based on the zone regulations, companies could be exempted from income tax, import tax on equipment and machinery, and be subject to any other benefits for being involved in activities related to manufacture.
    • Petroleum Zone: Baru Free Trade Zone is able to store, manufacture, refine, purify, blend, market, transship, transport, pump, process, transform, sell, export, re-export, provide and in general sense, operate and handle crude, semi-crude and any other oil related products. A 204 km-long roadways in the region, and a 131 km-long oil pipeline crosses the Isthmus from the Pacific to the Caribbean Ocean, by which oil from Ecuador is transported to the terminals located in Panama, such as Charco Azul, which allows oil tankers of 300,000 dwt to dock.


    • A special and simplified procedure for the establishment and operation of a manufacture zone to export, which enables the creation of large factories to export a huge variety of goods.
    • Exemption of payment of the Panama income tax, patents, licenses and tax on other goods or capital.
    • Exemption of the import tax of raw or semi-elaborated materials, construction materials, equipment, furniture, accessories, appliance, or services that will be used in the operation of the company.
    • Exemption of the consumption or sales tax (ITBM)
    • Exemption of tax on interests, bonds and stocks.
    • Exemption of exports tax.
    • Issuance of one-year-valid resident business visa to perform transactions or business, which is also applicable on equal terms to spouse and children of the applicant.
    • Use of multiple reentry permit until visa expiration date.

    Facilities & Advantages

    Baru Free Trade Zone has the following facilities to offer:

    • Infrastructure: Airport, docks, paved highways, the second transcontinental oil pipeline built in the Americas.
    • Public utilities such as electricity, telephone lines and drinking water.
    • Adequate land features for the construction of deep ports.
    • Flat and fertile lands.
    • Extended beaches for tourism development.
    • Abundant fauna and flora.



    • Power of Attorney addressed to the General Manager of the Baru Free Zone, requesting company registration.
    • Notarized copy of the company’s Article of Incorporation.
    • Four-month valid Certificate of Public Register of the company.
    • Copy of the petitioner’s Lease Agreement requesting the Permit for Operation.
    • Valid Certificate of Tax Payment.
    • Completely fill out the form ZFB-05 on Permit for Operation Application.
    • Copy of personal ID or passport of the Legal representative as well as the Manager of the company.
    • Letter of Commercial References.
    • Letter of Banking References
    • Form ZFB-09 related to the Income Statement of the company’s legal representative.
    • Form ZFB-10 related to the Income Statement of the company’s manager.
    • Certificate of Tax Payments of Baru Free Zone. Fees for Operation Permits (US$ 1,200, annually) and Operation Code Fee (US$ 200, annually).

              Tom Brady: Cliff-diving ‘a lot of fun,’ but no biggie        
    Tom Brady on Saturday called his recent cliff-diving adventure — documented as always by — no big deal, according to the Providence Journal. You know — date and marry a supermodel, win three Super Bowls, and jump off a cliff on your Costa Rican vacation. No big deal.“I don’t look at it as a […]
              Costa Rica sur la carte du monde        

    Situation géographique du Costa Rica sur la carte du monde. . Découvrez le plan du Costa Rica avec ses villes et ses régions. Costa Rica et carte d’Amérique du sud Infos : costa rica paysage - dubai geographie carte -

    Cet article Costa Rica sur la carte du monde est apparu en premier sur Voyages - Cartes.

              Grand Rapids, MI: Living Area and Kitchen        
    See my bathroom here and my office here!

    This is almost the end of my apartment! I have to post my bedroom, but there are still plans a-foot in there. But here are my living room and kitchen - these might be my two favorite rooms in the house. Living room is about 15' x 18' and kitchen is 7' x 10'.


    Most of you have seen all of this stuff before if you checked out my old apartment. But, to recap! The coffee table is a Lane table circa 1949 according to the serial number underneath. Someone left it in one of my apartments and I refinished it. The red chair is by Milo Baughman, from the early 60s - I got it cheap off of ebay and had it reupholstered. That red chair is my favorite piece of furniture. The tv center I found on ebay for a local pick up. It was probably the top part of a hutch but whomever had it before me put feet on it and used it as a cabinet. The rocking chair is 1920s mission style chair that my boyfriend had re-seated and reupholstered for me for Christmas. The little round table was part of a set for Shakespeare in the part (my boyfriend is in theater). Let's see, the table lamp and the bookcase are both from Ikea, the couch is from Pier One and the rug is from overstock. I don't remember where the other lamp came from - some big box store. Whew!

    Better view of my chair - also, you can see the curtain pattern. Those are also from Ikea. The top painting is from a gallery in Barcelona. The lower painting was painted by a friend (hard to see in the photo).

    The other chair! The top print is by Stephen Huneck.

    I used an old, enamelware chamber pot for my plant.

    The copper plate is an a letterpress from a newspaper advertisement circa 1930. The red pig is from Barcelona and the large white water pitcher is english ironstone. I sourced the mark to 1860-1880. the little candles are from Villainess.

    Looking in from the doorway.

    Better view of the cabinet. The two framed pictures I got from a vendor outside the metropolitan museum of art. The basket is from South Africa, the box from Tanzania and the little black vase from Oaxaca, Mexico. The little painting I got in Athens, Greece.

    Looking from next to the tall lamp towards the door. The pillow covers I got from an etsy seller and my mom knitted that blanket for me.

    That table is mission style from the 1920s. It was DIRE. My boyfriend and I refinished it together.

    Close up! The large print is by Audry Kawasaki. Top left watercolor I purchased from a guy outside the Metropolitan Museum of art. Top right is a mixed media piece that I purchased at a gallery in Barcelona. The two on the lower level are plates that I got in Canterbury, UK. The red lamp is from Bed Bath and Beyond and the two turquoise candle holders were a gift from a good friend.

    Art detail! The picture on the left I got from a street vendor in Barcelona.

    Shelf detail. Top: Two wine ducks I won in a housingworks auction, probably midcentury. I found the pewter decanter at a random thrift store and I have no idea about its origins or age. Sadly there is no mark. The coffee pot also has no mark, but I suspect 1920-30 at the latest as the top button is made of celluloid but not bakelite. Top shelf: conch shell legally collected in the Cayman Islands. Second shelf: Painted ostrich egg shell from Cape Town, South Africa; vintage glass fishing float from the Oregon coast; small collection of vintage bottles from here, there and everywhere. My cousin made the glass fish. Third shelf: Pottery is from Guatil, Costa Rica and the elephant book ends were hard won in negotiations in Kenya. HARD WON. Bottom shelf: Statue from the Dominican Republic (love the way that the African influences are so evident in the traditional art there) and the key bowl is from Kenya. Pretty book ends I got at one of those rocks and minerals stores at the mall when it was going out of business when I was still in high school.

    Doorway. The picture is from Kenya.

    Such a ham.

    Okay, now a tour of the kitchen.

    From the back of the kitchen. My kitchen is small, so we mounted a bunch of shelves from Ikea on the wall to give more space. My boyfriend found the table on the street and we de-rusted and repainted the legs. It was perfectly good. The chairs I ordered - I love those folding chairs but they did not come cheap. I originally wanted to get 8 or them, but I ended up only getting two because they were so pricey.


    Standing by the sink, looking backwards. The two white framed prints I got at NYCC and are by Tara McPherson. The CYRK poster is a vintage, 1966 polish circus poster. My boyfriend HATES it, but I love it. The stove and fridge are on the right. The birds on a branch is a painting I got in Xi'an, China.

    Sigh, love.

    I had chickens in my backyard in Manhattan and this was my egg basket. Sadly urban chickens are illegal in Grand Rapids, MI - but I still have my chicken egg basket!

    Looking in from the hallway. The sign was legally acquired at the Museum of American History when I was in college. The bar cart I got at a thrift store - it's probably mid-late 1970s, early 80s.

    Close up of the bar cart. The white enamelware water jug is my recycle bucket. I'm looking for something equally cool that will kind of match for my paper recycling.

    Vintage cocktail shaker and modern penguin ice bucket.

    I like magnets.

    Front wall of the kitchen. It sucks.

    I got this suncatcher in Portland, OR.

    Okay, I think I'm done now.
              A few more sketchbook pages..        
    I am going back to Costa Rica. It’s a bit of a long story. I thought I would post a few more pages out of my Costa Rica sketchbook now, before it gets hopelessly behind. I am hoping that on this trip, which involves family, that I will have a few hours a day to [...]
              Cyber Surf Shop and more links        
    175 links and growing... If you know of a surf label with its own Web site that should be on this list and isn't, submit it by posting a comment. LEGENDARY NAMES Surfboards or works of art? Bruce Jones Surfboards The Endless Summer dude. Robert August boards That other Endless Summer dude. Sweet fish shapes. Michael Hynson Surfboards Wanna surf a Donald Takayama? Hawaiian Pro Designs These ain’t your dad’s Hobie Alters. Hobie Shapes the longboard champ’s ride, retros and more. Stewart Surfboards All shapes from a historic San Diego label. Gordan & Smith 24 shapes endorsed by a magical surfer. Joel Tudor Boards from a true pioneer. Dewey Weber Lightning bolts, tow-ins and more. Gerry Lopez Surfboards Gotta Hawaiin surf spot named for you? Dale does. Surfboards By Velzy You probably want a longboard from this guy. Dick Brewer Surfboards Australian icon Wayne Lynch's brand. Evolution WOOD BOARDS Expensive but beautiful kits and finished boards from paipo to log. Grain Surfboards Redwood and balsa shapes. Eaton Surfboards From ancient Hawaiian shapes to fish. Tom Wegener Surfboards Unreal, exquisite hollow woodies. Paul Jensen Surfboards Redwood planks and balsa models. Born Again Boards Solid balsa and redwood. Chuck Bassett Custom balsa’s at Ron Jons. Jeri Custom Balsawoods Hollow, solid and foam-core balsas from Oz. Riley Balsa’s from Satellite Beach. Balsa Bill Custom balsas from Carlsbad, Cali. Mack Surfboards How about a solid Agave board? Linden Surfboards Santa Cruz classics. Johnny Rice LONGBOARDS Credited with resurrecting longboards, has all shapes now. Walden Surfboards Seal Beach, Cali., since 1959. Beautiful work. Harbour Surfboards San Diego guns, logs and funshapes. Eaton Surfboards Legend? Yes. Longboards? Definitely. "Renny" Yater Family tree mother branch, Hap Jacobs. (Under Construction.) Hap Jacobs Surf Original noseriding legend. David Nuuhiwa Surfboards Some say he was really “First in Foam.” Dave Sweet Surfboards New label from family of the Duke. Kahanamoku Sons Legendary island label, iconic triple stringers. Surfboards Hawaii Mostly longboards. Classic Cali. Con Surfboards Crescent City, Cali., models. Rhyn Noll Surfboards Absolutely gorgeous Rincon-area retros. Cooperfish Surfboards Ventura, Calif., classic designs. Mobley Surfboards Famed longboards, but have lots of shapes. Pearson Arrow Surfboards Two-piece longboards buit to travel. Pope Bisect New York shop with all shapes, really. Bunger Really sweet shapes, paints from Costa Mesa,Calif. Dano Surfboards Bing Copeland started on the Pacific Coast Highway in 1959. Bing Surfboards PRO RIDES Kelly Slater’s ride. Channel Islands Al Merrick's new logo. Anacapa Can’t go wrong with this medicine. Surf Prescriptions Not just Hawaiian, world class. Hawaiian Island Creations The official Jeff Bushman site. Bushman Surfboards Put an ace of spades in your quiver. Kechel Surfboards Blue-chip label from a variety of big names. Ripcurl boards Signature grooved deck to reduce buoyancy in rails. Stretch Surfboards Another group of high profile names for this major label. Billabong boards Preisendorfer, as in Rusty. That says it all. Rusty Tractor logo. Andy Irons’ ride. This is it. JS Industries Tim Bessell custom shapes. Bessell Mayhem and Chili's versions. Lost... Mark Richard's version. Lost... That Chilli pepper logo. (Under Construction) Chilli Surfboards Attitude included. Rat Surfboards Big name from Santa Cruz. M10 Surfboards Loads of styles. Loads of style. Xanadu Surf Designs Hawaiian heavy. JC Hawaii That rocket logo. It’s pronounced “take off.” Teqoph Surfboards RETRO STYLES Five fins, channeled bottoms? The Cambell brother’s original. Bonzer Surfboards inspired by the 70s surf flick. Morning of the Earth Surfboards Knock out resin tints, gorgeous lines. Rainbow Surfboards More than just groovy. Plastic Machine Surfboards ALTERNATIVE MATERIALS & SHAPES Looks like an alien shape. Jet Bottoms Hemp and cotton cloth, hollow balsas. Ocean Green Full-on space aged internal frames. Hydro Epic Displacement hulls, flex fins. Say what? A must read. Liddle Surfboards The one and only Nugget shape. McCoy Surfboards Patagonia magnate, Fletcher Chouinard’s composite boards. Point Blanks Parabolic rail stringers. Firewire Surfboards A tail with springs in it. Surf Syndicate Hollow carbon fibers. Aviso Surf Built like airplane wings or UFOs? Salomon S-Cores Balsa, redwood, cedar and foam composite. GR Designs Soft tops for serious surfing. Tom Morey Tougher contruction’s by name-brand shapers. Surftech Epoxies from 6’2” to 10’ South Point Epoxies from 4’9” to 11’ NSP Aerated Cellular Structure tech equals indestructible. Bic Sport Surfboards FLORIDA SHAPERS Port Orange in the house! Klein Surfboards A Cocoa Beach master. Natural Art Flagler Beach shaper. maTTz Surfboards A real New Smyrna kahuna. Wooster Surfboards Still working on their site, but... Quiet Flight Flagler Beach’s world champ. Queen of the pier. Zamba Surfboards Atlantic Beach shop. Whisnat Surfboards St. Augustine shapes. Inspired Surfboards. Power to the Peeples. Erie Surfboards Melbourne labels. Cannibal Surf Space Coast shaper.Tom Neilson Shapes Daytona Beach rockers. Clever Surfboards Fernandina Beach house. Cyclone Surfboards EAST COAST RIDES Virgnia Beach icon. Wave Riding Vehicles North Carolina shop. AJW Surfboards GULF COAST Texas sticks of all shapes and sizes. Superior Surfboards Never seen a channeled bottom like this. Fry Surfboards THE HAWAIIAN BUNCH All style. All business. Town & Country Mostly guns. Casey Surf Designs Nothing says Hawaii like it. Aloha Surfboards A top dog name, bruddah. Ben Aipa North Shore bro, Jeff Johnston. Shapes Hawaii Another North Shore all star. Pyzel Surfboards Ridden at Jaws, a Maui address and a variety of shapes. Timpone Surfboards Maui wowie. Elua Makani Craig Kawamura shapes. CK Surfboards CALIFORNIA COOL Namesake label of Nor Cal’s surf city USA. SC Handshaped from Encinitas, retros, long dogs and shorties. Free Spirit Surfboards One of San Diego's big dogs. Kane Garden Hometown shop of the Dana Point mafia. Infinity Surfboard Encino man. Encinitas Surfboards Major label from Hermosa Beach. Sypder Surf Fish with home breaks of Trestles, Malibu, Huntington. 9 Fish Surf San Clemente shop. Cole Surfboards Name a shape. They make it. Channin Surf Hermosa Beach shaping bay. Stickman Surf Redondo Beach shop with lots of shapes. Fuego Surf Another Cali guru. Linden Surfboards Oceanside. Streetsmart. Chemsitry Surfboards San Diegan ridden world wide. Sharp Eye Surfboards Are you west coast on the schneid? Schneider Surfboards You stay classy San Diego. Christenson Surfboards Who’s ridden these? Machado. Kalani Robb. Sauritch Surfboards Newbury Park, Cali., shapers. Barker Surfboards From the home of the Banana Slugs. That's Santa Cruz, yo. Schroedel San Francisco Bay-area boards. Natural Curves Self-taught San Diego shaper. TDK Surfboards Another Dana Point heavy. Ellis Surfboards Marina Del Rey biz with nice shape selection. Anderson Surfboards Limited Southern Cal menu. Roberts Surf Hermosa Beach shop who’s chief is in Noosa Head, Australia. Wegener Surfboards Carpenteria surf shop and shaping bay. JHR Surfboards Ventura, Calif., high performance. Proctor Surf Costa Mesa shop. Cordell Miller Surfboards Big, big name from San Clemente. TPatterson Surfboards Another Costa Mesa shop. DT Surf Beautiful Ventura boards. Dennis Ryder Surfboards Nothing says Hawaiian like it, but it's from Cali, bro. Ukulele Surfboards Santa Barbara home of McCrystal and the Soul Octopus. Beatty Products PACIFIC NORTHWEST British Columbia boards. Sitka Surfboards Oregon shapes. Seven Surfboards Another Oregon crew. Hammer Surf Lincoln City, Oregon EPS shapes. Russo Surfboards THE BRONZED AUSSIES He started in the 60s and helped spearhead the shortboard revolution. McTavish North Coast boards. Bear Surfboards Won a world title on a twin fin. Mark Richards Surfboards No they’re not see-through. Clear Surfboards Darren Handley boards. Base Surfboards Gold Coast performance shapes. Lowen88 Aussies with a Cali shop, too. Mad Surf Tom Carroll rides on this team. Enough said. Byrne Surf Specializing in custom jobs. Stramger Surfboards Brookvale, Australia. Misfit Shapes What's in a name. Pedigree. History. Legend. Watercooled Surfboards Dale Chapman’s label. Chapman Surfboards SOUTH AFRICAN STICKS “Dream” boards. Wave Scape Cape Town shaper. 33 Srf J-Bay shop. Jigsaw Surfboards Mas Africaners. HH Surfboards When they safari, they mean it. Safari Surf Yet another shark biscuit. Billeon Still more from the dark continent. Bilt Surf NEW ZEALAND Location, location, location. Season Surfboards Team Jamaica's label. Quashi IRELAND Remember your wetsuit. Power Source Surfboards GERMANY Olas uber alas! Norden-Surfboards BRASIL Can you read Portugese? FM Surf PANAMA Surf the canal! Boa Surfboards BRITAIN There are loads more Brit shapes, but check these tail stringers! SKUA Surfboards STAND-UP PADDLEBOARDS Ku Ku Hoe’s. Hawaiian for “stand up paddle.” Infinity The kind Laird Hamilton and crew ride. Pohakus More Hawaiian stand-ups. Paddle Surf Hawaii Here's a list of more links for all things surfer. If you think of any more surfy sites that should be included, send in a suggestion by posting a comment and I'll take a look. LOCAL SURF DOCUMENTARY The photo-documentary "When We Were Kings" is about New Smyrna Beach surfing in the 80s. It's by J. Patrick Altes. WEATHER LINKS NOAA wave models NOAA St. Augustine buoy NOAA Canaveral buoy NOAA wind flow vector model National Weather Service marine forecasts NOAA Northwest Atlantic water vapor loop satellite SURF REPORTS & CAMS New Smyrna Beach cam Daytona Beach cam East Coast Cams Sunglow Pier cam Cocoa Beach based 2nd Light report Melbourne Beach wave gague St. Augustine based The Surf Station report Daytona Beach based Pier Monkey report Gulf coast report Rep Your Break's Jacksonville Pier report Fluid Groove's Jacksonville Beach report Rep Your Break's Daytona Beach Pier report Dade County surf report South Florida report Southern North Carolina reports Links and more on Ross's Cocoa and Idiatlantic report Red Dog's New Smyrna report 16 Streets Cocoa report Surf Consolidator northeast Florida reports NATIONAL FORECASTS Surfline WaveWatch Wet Sand Magic Seaweed COSTA RICA Nosara, Costa Rica Costa Rica surf map BAJA LINKS Scorpion Bay campground Web site COMPETITION ASP World Tour ASP North America regional tour Eastern Surfing Association National Scholastic Surfing Association ZINES & CLEARINGHOUSES Surfing The Mag Surfer Magazine Global Surfers Surfers Village surfing news Swaylock's surfboard design forum Surf Expo! MAPS Map of Bahamas surf spots SURFBOARD MUSEUM DISPLAY This link is to a 360-degree photographic tour of the surfboard exhibit the Daytona Beach Museum of Arts and Sciences held in May 2005, called Surfing USA. . The photo tour was created was John McSwain. Surfboard exhibit I NEVER KNEW THAT! There's a site to report and look for stolen surfboards. StolenSurfboardsOnline The American Society of Civil Engineers did a paper on Ponce Inlet wave simulations.

              Payless y Silvia Tcherassi        
    Hoy en día es difícil distinguir unos zapatos Payless de unos Louboutin o Sergio Rossi. Desde que la compañía de calzado viene contratando a diseñadores de la talla de Isabel Toledo, Christian Siriano y Lela Rose, sus zapatos se han puesto al nivel de aquellas maravillosas (y muchas veces inaccesibles) creaciones que vemos en las pasarelas. Sí, siguen siendo económicos, pero ahora son estilosos, sofisticados y ¡súper trendy! La más reciente adición al grupo de talentosos diseñadores que han creado colecciones para Payless, es la colombiana Silvia Tcherassi. A partir de mayo, la modista de fama internacional diseñará dos colecciones por año, que incluirán zapatos y carteras para primavera y otoño a un costo de $40 a $70. "Trabajar con el equipo de Payless en Nueva York fue muy inspirador. Juntos creamos una colección sofisticada y contemporánea que representa lo último en tendencias y un estilo muy lujoso", dice la diseñadora. "La temporada de primavera/verano incluye importantes siluetas como zapatos de taco de cuña, bailarinas, zapatos con tiras y sandalias con color blocking, exclusivos empeines de malla y detalles con cintas y lazos de satén". La colección no sólo estará disponible en Estados Unidos, Puerto Rico y, sino que tendrá un alcance internacional al estar a la venta en países de América Latina como Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panamá y Guatemala, entre otros.  Será grato disfrutar de una colección que, según Payless, reflejará una influencia latina inspirada en la mujer urbana, de estilo contemporáneo, apasionado y vibrante.
    A continuación reproduzco el discurso del ex-presidente de Costa Rica dado en la Cámara de Comercio de Guayaquil:
    Óscar Arias Sánchez
    Guayaquil, Ecuador
    121 Aniversario
    Cámara de Comercio de Guayaquil
    10 de junio de 2010 
    Amigas y amigos: 
          Para cualquier habitante del mundo, Ecuador tiene un significado particular. Este país en el centro de la Tierra, este rincón en el vientre del planeta, nos recuerda las clases de Geografía que nos repetía la maestra de escuela. Dentro de las memorias primeras de cualquier ser humano, está aquella imagen de Ecuador en el cinturón del globo terráqueo, aquel punto que aprendimos a señalar con orgullo, cuando éramos chiquillos de pantalones cortos.

          Hoy visito aquella tierra que de niño señalaba en el mapa. Visito aquel país que era un retazo en la colcha del globo terráqueo. Vengo ante ustedes con pantalones largos, en el cuerpo y en el alma. Vengo ante ustedes cargando cuarenta años de lucha por América Latina. He visto muchas maravillas en nuestro subcontinente. He visto, también, dolores inconcebibles. Pero en todas las esquinas se repiten las notas de una misma tonada, las claves de un mismo código. Por eso confío en que mi mensaje, que es un mensaje costarricense, pueda ser entendido por este pueblo hermano.
          Me han pedido que les hable sobre la democracia y la libertad en Ecuador. Y he accedido porque comprendo que la democracia y la libertad no son idiosincráticas, no dependen del lugar en donde se las evoque. En Ecuador, en Suiza o en Indonesia, democracia quiere decir un núcleo básico de instituciones, derechos y deberes, que permiten la expansión de las libertades fundamentales de los individuos en una colectividad. Es un juego en el que cambian los jugadores, pero no cambian las reglas.
          Una de las grandes falacias políticas, en América Latina y en muchas otras partes del mundo, consiste en vender la idea de que cada lugar puede desarrollar una democracia específica o un sistema de libertades particular. Muy a menudo, esas justificaciones no son más que disfraces para ocultar una vocación opresiva o autoritaria. Para ponerlo en términos sencillos, muchos argumentan que el juego se juega diferente en todas partes, tan sólo para cometer fouls sin recibir tarjeta roja.
          Yo estoy plenamente convencido de que las reglas democráticas son universales, y que los países son más o menos democráticos, dependiendo de cuánto se acercan o cuánto se alejan de ese sistema que esbozaron los griegos, que perfeccionaron los estadounidenses, que sofisticaron los nórdicos y que hoy intentamos impulsar, con mayor o menor éxito, la mayoría de los países de la Tierra.
          Por eso no hace falta que hable de las características distintivas de Ecuador. Nadie conoce este país mejor que ustedes. En cambio, prefiero hablar de las amenazas que percibo para la democracia y la libertad en América Latina, que se repiten en muchos países de la región. Porque, a pesar de que abandonamos las dictaduras que marcaron con sangre la segunda mitad del siglo XX, es claro que todavía queda mucho camino por recorrer.
          Cuatro son las amenazas principales que percibo en nuestra región: la concentración del poder, supuestamente justificada por el respaldo electoral; el irrespeto a la ley y la debilidad del Estado de Derecho; la ineficiencia de nuestros aparatos estatales a la hora de brindar los frutos de la democracia; y la tentación militar que desde siempre ensombrece los más claros días de nuestra región.
          El poder democrático es un poder insalvablemente limitado. Por definición, un gobernante demócrata tiene oposición política, es controlado por los medios de comunicación, recibe críticas por parte de sus detractores, es supervisado por el Poder Legislativo y el Poder Judicial, tiene un periodo establecido para ejercer sus funciones, tiene un marco legal definido en el que puede operar, y se encuentra siempre sujeto al escrutinio ciudadano y a la evaluación pública de su gestión. Éstas son las reglas incuestionables del poder democrático y cualquiera que pretenda saltarlas, incurre en vicios autoritarios, aunque haya sido elegido por el pueblo.
          Se trata de una trampa en que han caído algunos gobiernos latinoamericanos. Al recibir el apoyo electoral, interpretan que el mandato del pueblo les permite modificar las reglas democráticas para llevar adelante su proyecto político. Entonces, si la Constitución se interpone en su camino, la cambian. Si el Poder Judicial objeta sus decisiones, nombran nuevos jueces y magistrados. Si los medios de comunicación cuestionan sus comportamientos, los cierran. Si sus adversarios políticos se pronuncian, los amenazan. Y si su periodo no les alcanza, lo prorrogan.
          Tengamos mucho cuidado. Las elecciones son una parte esencial del proceso democrático, pero no son el proceso democrático. Si un gobernante coarta las garantías individuales, si limita la libertad de expresión, si restringe injustificadamente la libertad de comercio, subvierte las bases mismas de la democracia que lo hizo llegar al poder.
          El dilema que esto presenta, y que aún no hemos logrado resolver, es cómo lidiar con democracias en donde los gobernantes se comportan autoritariamente, pero no son dictaduras. Porque, en honor a la verdad, en América Latina sólo existe una dictadura y es la dictadura cubana. Los demás regímenes, nos guste o no, son democracias en mayor o menor grado de consolidación. Pretender derrocar esos gobiernos, o removerlos de alguna forma violenta o contraria a la Constitución y las leyes, es caer en el mismo juego autocrático que pretendemos combatir. Un verdadero demócrata no pide jamás la caída de un gobierno electo por el pueblo. Si algo nos ha enseñado la dolorosa experiencia de Honduras, es que un golpe de Estado es siempre, siempre, una pésima idea.
          La única vía para restarle poder a quienes lo han concentrado luego de recibir el apoyo popular, es minando ese apoyo popular. Con educación cívica, con debates, con ideas, con argumentos, con ejemplos. Los pueblos mismos deben aprender a apartar los espejismos de la demagogia y del populismo. Los pueblos mismos deben aprender a condenar, en las urnas, el comportamiento antidemocrático de un régimen. Los pueblos mismos deben aprender a separar la paja del trigo. Porque el problema no son los falsos Mesías, sino los pueblos que acuden con ramas y palmas a celebrar su llegada. De nada le sirve a América Latina deshacerse de líderes con delirios autoritarios, si tan sólo van a ser sustituidos por nuevas estrellas del teatro político.
          No nos corresponde “proteger” a nuestros pueblos de las amenazas. Nos corresponde, en cambio, educarlos para que ellos mismos aparten esas amenazas. El paternalismo debe ser sustituido por una fe genuina en el poder transformador de las sociedades, un poder que, hoy más que nunca, puede ser canalizado de forma efectiva. Las redes sociales como Facebook o Twitter, los foros de debate como esta Cámara de Comercio, los espacios de discusión, que pueden ir desde la mesa del comedor hasta el anfiteatro más grande, nos invitan a pregonar el credo democrático. El argumento más convincente que podemos dar, la forma más honesta de convencer a alguien de la necesidad de apoyar únicamente a los líderes que respetan las reglas del juego, es que, tarde o temprano, sólo esos líderes mejoran las condiciones de vida de los ciudadanos. Tenemos que convencer a nuestros pueblos de la vacuidad de la promesa mesiánica, si es que queremos construir una verdadera vocación democrática en América Latina.
          La segunda amenaza que percibo, está profundamente ligada con la anterior, y es la fragilidad de nuestro Estado de Derecho. Gran parte de los problemas que ha tenido América Latina en los últimos años, son producto de una incapacidad estatal de evitar la concentración del poder. Muchos tribunales carecen de la autoridad para decirle a un gobernante “hasta aquí”. Muchos congresos carecen de la facultad para controlar, verdaderamente controlar, a los mandatarios. Hay un uso perverso de los instrumentos legales y una flexibilización constante de las normas, para perseguir fines particulares.
          En parte, esto es producto de una debilidad cultural. A los latinoamericanos les cuesta mucho identificarse con el Estado, y como consecuencia, les cuesta mucho obedecer las normas públicas. La evasión fiscal, por ejemplo, no sólo no es vista como delito en nuestros países, sino que incluso es vista como astucia. Lo mismo sucede con el irrespeto a las leyes de tránsito o a las normas ambientales o a las reglas de la competencia. Parece elemental, pero necesitamos entender que una región que no respeta las normas del juego, no puede pedir que sus gobernantes las respeten.
          Esto tiene serias incidencias sobre la capacidad de hacer negocios, y estoy seguro de que ustedes lo saben mejor que yo. Al final del camino, la inseguridad jurídica, la incapacidad de confiar en el sistema legal de un país, la incertidumbre en torno a las consecuencias que nuestros actos pueden tener, es uno de los peores enemigos del crecimiento económico. A ustedes, más que a nadie, les conviene fortalecer el Estado de Derecho, a partir de su ejemplo y a partir de su discurso. Les corresponde contribuir responsablemente con la educación cívica de las escuelas y colegios. Les corresponde demostrar que el sector privado no cae en el mismo juego de atajos que critica en el sector público. Les garantizo que un respeto indiscutible a las normas y a la autoridad, de parte de los empresarios, es uno de los principales alicientes con que puede contar un pueblo para abrazar la democracia.
          La tercera amenaza que he mencionado es la ineficiencia de nuestros aparatos estatales. Con muy pocas excepciones, como Tailandia y Nepal, los pueblos latinoamericanos son los que han luchado durante más años, desde su Independencia, por cruzar el umbral del desarrollo. El retorno democrático de fines del siglo XX, vino aunado a una promesa de prosperidad que aún hoy no ha sido cumplida. Nuestros habitantes todavía esperan que la democracia les cambie la vida, todavía esperan que la libertad ponga pan sobre la mesa.
          Esa incapacidad para traducir en realidad las promesas, es culpa de una esclerosis estatal que nos tiene paralizados. En muchos sentidos, nuestros gobiernos trabajan muy duro para obtener muy pocos resultados. Hemos construido Estados hipertrofiados, a los que les cuesta mucho ejecutar las acciones más esenciales, en primera instancia, porque son Estados desfinanciados, que deben lidiar con el perpetuo dilema de construir sociedades de primer mundo con impuestos exiguos; y en segunda instancia, porque son Estados amarrados, obsesionados con controles duplicados y triplicados que hacen muy poco para detener la corrupción, pero mucho para detener el crecimiento económico.
          Sé que, como empresarios, a ustedes les genera ansiedad la posibilidad de pagar mayores impuestos. Pero también sé que el costo de hacer negocios en un país subdesarrollado es, muchas veces, prohibitivo. Es mejor pagar mayores tributos, pero transitar por carreteras en buen estado, tener trabajadores educados, contar con un sistema de salud universal, realizar rápidamente los trámites públicos, tener barrios y ciudades seguros, recibir el producto de la investigación y la innovación en las universidades, y en general disfrutar los beneficios con que cuenta el sector empresarial en las naciones industrializadas. Es crucial que entendamos que si nuestros países no mejoran su competitividad, nunca podrán dar el salto al desarrollo que nuestros pueblos esperan y merecen.
          Una reforma estatal, que revise nuestra maraña legal, que elimine las trabas innecesarias para el  buen funcionamiento de nuestros gobiernos, es un elemento esencial no sólo en la generación de mayor riqueza, sino en la profundización de nuestra democracia y en la expansión de nuestras libertades individuales, porque un pueblo satisfecho es menos propenso a rendirse ante las tentaciones autoritarias. Presionar por la reforma del Estado, desde las campañas políticas pero también en la vigencia de los Gobiernos, debería ser una de las principales preocupaciones de cámaras como ésta.
          La última amenaza que quería mencionarles, es la persistente tutela militar de la región, que se resiste a abandonarnos a pesar de los dolores infligidos en el pasado. Cuando era estudiante en Inglaterra, y del otro lado del océano llegaban las noticias de una retahíla inacabable de golpes de Estado en América Latina, mis compañeros se burlaban diciendo que yo venía de una región que era como un disco de larga duración, es decir, de 33 revoluciones por minuto.
          Aquello que era una broma cruel para mí, es una realidad que ha lacerado incansablemente a nuestra región. Guerras civiles, revoluciones sangrientas, golpes de Estado, represiones brutales, torturas, desapariciones: a pesar de la retórica nacionalista, el expediente de los ejércitos de la región tiene muy pocas glorias, sobre todo durante el último siglo.
          El año pasado, el gasto militar de la región ascendió a 60 mil millones de dólares, lo cual es más del doble de lo que era hace seis años. Muchos países destinan alrededor del 2% de su Producto Interno Bruto a sus ejércitos, aunque algunos destinan mucho más. Esto es alarmante per se, pero sobre todo cuando recordamos que la carga fiscal de nuestros países es, en promedio, del 18% del Producto Interno Bruto, con casos extremos que apenas llegan al 10%.
          Â¿En qué fortalece esto nuestra democracia y nuestra libertad? ¿Cómo contribuye a brindarles a nuestros ciudadanos una mejor calidad de vida? Cuando digo estas cosas, hay quienes me argumentan que los ejércitos combaten el narcotráfico o realizan labores de rescate, en caso de emergencia. Pero ninguna de estas razones es una función propia de los ejércitos, ni justifica la carrera armamentista en la que actualmente se encuentra América Latina. Por el contrario, la presencia de fuerzas armadas cada vez más poderosas no hace sino reforzar la idea de que es con la violencia, y no con la razón, con que se resuelven las cosas; y que es la fuerza, y no la ley, la que debe regir la convivencia entre los seres humanos.
          Reducir el gasto militar no sólo sería una demostración de la fe en la democracia y en las reglas del juego, sino la oportunidad de disponer de una liquidez necesaria para invertir en escuelas y colegios, en clínicas y hospitales, en carreteras y aeropuertos, en laboratorios y centros de cómputo, en escuelas de música y teatros. Un gasto ocioso pasaría a ser una inversión en la competitividad de nuestras economías.
          No hablo por hablar. Costa Rica fue el primer país en la historia en abolir su ejército y declararle la paz al mundo. Nuestros hijos no conocen los tanques de guerra, los submarinos o los helicópteros artillados. Desde hace más de sesenta años, destinamos a la educación, a la salud y a la protección del medio ambiente, lo que destinábamos a nuestro ejército. El producto es que somos uno de los países con mejor Índice de Desarrollo Humano en la región y el país más feliz del mundo, según recientes publicaciones.
          No estoy abogando por la abolición de todos los ejércitos latinoamericanos, aunque ganas me sobran. Comprendo que se trata de instituciones que son respetadas, y cuya necesidad es percibida por la mayoría de personas. Pero no veo razón alguna por la cual nuestra región deba embrollarse en una carrera armamentista. Un aumento en el gasto militar es injustificable para países que, con la sola excepción de Colombia, no experimentan actualmente ningún conflicto armado.
         Con un poco de memoria uno comprende que, en América Latina, fortalecer a los ejércitos es, casi siempre, debilitar las democracias. Dejar de invertir en la industria de la muerte, empezar a gastar en la prodigiosa empresa de la vida, debería ser una prioridad para países que están en deuda con la paz, con el desarrollo y con la libertad. 
    Amigas y amigos:
          He venido a esta hebilla del cinturón de la Tierra, recordando mis años de infancia. Aquel globo terráqueo con que jugaba en la escuela, se convirtió luego en el escenario de las largas luchas de mi vida. La búsqueda de la paz me llevó a comarcas lejanas, “y me gradué doctor en sueños”, para usar una expresión del gran po
    eta ecuatoriano,  Jorge Carrera Andrade. “Vine a América a despertar”, nos dice el poeta. Yo también vine a despertar a América, a darme cuenta de que los sueños no sólo hay que pensarlos, sino que hay que construirlos.
          He dedicado mi vida a construir el sueño de una América Latina más pacífica, más libre, más próspera, más democrática, más acorde con la idea que me inculcó la maestra. Aún hoy sigo construyendo esa visión: una América Latina en donde el poder no se concentre, sino que se distribuya; en donde la ley no se irrespete, sino que se fortalezca; en donde los aparatos estatales no se ahoguen, sino que se vuelvan eficaces; en donde el militarismo no se atice, sino que ceda campo al desarrollo humano. Esa América Latina es posible. Existe en cada uno de ustedes. Hoy les pido que, como yo, se gradúen en sueños y despierten a esa América que espera más allá del esfuerzo y el trabajo.
          Muchas gracias.

              The ultimate viper – Costa Ricas farligste hugorm        
    Efter en måneds Indiana Jones ekspedition i Costa Ricas jungle har jeg desværre måttet vende tilbage til det triste danske sommervejr for at sikre, at der styr på forskningslaboratoriet, og at de specialestuderende ikke tisser i reagensglassene eller udfører endnu værre idéer, som jeg mistænker d...
              Hvor gemmer slangerne sig i Costa Ricas jungle?        
    "Bienvenida de vuelta, Dr. Laustsen!" lyder det fra Policía de Fronteras (det costaricanske grænsepoliti), hvilket efterfølges af et officielt fist-bump som reaktion på at høre, at jeg forsker i modgift mod slangebid. Politiofficeren havde for nylig en uhyre giftig koralslange i sit køkken og var...
    El continente Américano se encuentra dividido por America de Norte, America del Sur y Centro América, ésta ultima división es caracterizada por estar compuesta por 6 paises (Belice, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Panamá y Costa Rica), los cuales se identifican enormemente por sus culturas y la diversidad de lugares turisticos que ofrecen a todas aquellas personas que deseen tener una experiencia diferente y agradable.

              2002 World Cup team ratings        

    An elimination tournament does not, by its nature, produce overall standings. You can construct a table by points, of course, but it will not take into account the differences in games played and opponents' strengths. I wanted, just for fun, to devise an objective (which doesn't mean meaningful) way to rate and rank the 32 teams in the World Cup. After several iterations, here's the scheme I came up with.

    For each team I calculated a raw efficiency rating based on their points per game. At 3 points for a win, 1 for a tie and none for a loss, with 2 bonus points for making it to the elimination stage, I added up each team's points, divided by an expected point total of 4/3 * games-played (figuring an average result for three round-robin games would have been a win, a tie and a loss), and then added 1, anticipating later multiplication, so that the resulting ratings start at 1 instead of 0.

    I then went back and used those ratings as a measure of opponent's strength, assigning each match for each team the product of the points gained (again 1-base (4/2/1) rather than 0-base (3/1/0)) and the opponent's raw rating. Add those values up and average them, and then add a 1-point bonus for making it to the elimination stage. This approach takes no account of goals for or against, and does not make any attempt at incorporating any information (like FIFA rankings) from outside the tournament. Nonetheless, it produces the following interesting set of adjusted ratings:

    5South Korea7.45
    19Costa Rica4.23
    24South Africa3.78
    31Saudi Arabia2.41

    Since all that math was totally arbitrary, there is no reason to believe these numbers mean anything, but I'm surprised how well they seem to accord with my subjective intuition. And the table passes the obvious sanity checks: the top and bottom are right, South Korea is penalized a little bit for playing and losing an extra game, almost (but not quite) all the second-round teams come in ahead of the teams that were eliminated in the first, and France barely edges out the three teams that didn't gain any points.

    So I'm going with it. As far as I'm concerned, the US is now temporarily the 7th best men's soccer nation on the planet.


    The bendy brilliance attained by practicing yoga regularly has become a treasure sought after by many Americans. Hindu monks brought the 5,000-year-old practice to the West in the late 19th century, and by the mid-1980s, yoga was heralded as a way to cultivate strength, mindfulness and calm. And as yoga has gained popularity, newfangled ways of practicing have emerged.
    Love the ocean? Had a few too many Appletinis last night? Want to be surrounded by "bro" energy? There's a yoga class for you.
    It seems only natural that people who practice yoga will combine it with other interests.
    "Yoga is constantly evolving," said Kaitlin Quistgaard, editor in chief of Yoga Journal. "Variety gives people an opportunity to approach yoga from different perspectives."
    Here's a look at a few bends and twists from traditional yoga.
    Hip-hop yoga
    Want to hold side crow to some classic Notorious B.I.G.? At YogaHop, with studios in Santa Monica and Pasadena, you can do just that.
    Blaring hip-hop, rock and pop music combine with a high-energy vinyasa flow practice. With a lightning bolt as its logo and brightly colored walls and TV screens, the studio is not what one might imagine as the neighborhood yoga class.
    Nevertheless, co-owner Matthew Reyes, 44, has practiced yoga for 15 years, but he has taught spinning to booming pump-it-up music. He began to wonder, "How can I make a class so efficient that it has an element of all of these things?"
    Six years ago, Reyes founded YogaHop, a practice that combines traditional poses, mainstream music and an intense workout.
    Dian Evans, a family nurse practitioner and clinical assistant professor at Emory School of Medicine's School of Nursingwho has studied the influence of yoga on chronic back pain, wondered about the collision of hip-hop and yoga.
    "It's fun to move your breath with sound, but I don't know how you can be doing yoga to hip-hop music and breathe in a controlled fashion," Evans said.
    But Reyes countered that the end goal for all types of yoga is the same. "Yoga is a big tree with many branches. All the branches have something to offer. Our yoga and a traditional type of yoga all get to the same finish line; we just get there in a dynamic and fun way."
    Paddle board yoga
    Stand-up paddle boarding has grown exponentially popular in recent years. So why not try some yoga while balancing on a paddle board? That was Sarah Tiefenthaler's logic after taking her yoga-teaching course in Costa Rica and getting introduced to paddle boarding soon after her certification.
    "I took the board out every week, and I just started putting together sequences while on the board," said Tiefenthaler, 30, of Los Angeles.
    YOGAqua was soon born.
    Tiefenthaler said the practice starts off slow, and the class is always held in calm waters. Students have about half an hour to get acquainted with the water and their board, and then their boards are anchored, so there is no worry that they will float away during the class. People shouldn't hesitate to try the class if they've never been on the board, she said. They'll catch on.
    The practice works the core muscles even more than a typical practice because of the need to balance and stabilize, said Tiefenthaler.

              En el mes de la herencia hispana, tres deportistas latinos que nos ponen en alto        
    Dalia Torres, nadadora olímpica de Nicaragua; Kevin Cordón, de Guatemala, jugador de la Selección Nacional de Badminton; Andrey Fonseca, de Costa Rica y ganador en ciclismo de montaña, hablan con Horacio Gioffré y José Carlos Ortiz en Tercer Tiempo.
              Comment on A Loft Bed Dream House for a Little Girl by Scott Benson        
    I would like to build this for my daughter here in Costa Rica. What size is this, a twin?
              Congresos Nacioanles E internacionales de Trabajo Social segundo SEMESTRE 2010        
    29, 30, 31 octubre y 01 de Noviembre Valparaiso.Chile

    El II Congreso Nacional de Estudiantes de Trabajo Social busca ser una instancia de reflexión, construcción y vinculación de los y las estudiantes de las diferentes escuelas de Chile para el desarrollo de la carrera, Profesion y del futuro profesional, que tiene su origen en la intención de estos mismos por generar plataformas de trabajo, más allá del desarrollado al interior de las aulas, de modo de incentivar la investigación y desarrollo teórico, complementando así la formación del estudiante.

    Valor de la inscripción ZONA NORTE Y ZONA SUR: 16..000 HASTA EL 20 DE Septiembre, después 18.000



    En el marco del II Encuentro Regional Sur Andino de Trabajo Social “Intervención e Identidad Profesional en la cuestión social Sur andina contemporánea”, realizado en San Salvador de Jujuy- Jujuy- Argentina el año 2008, se tomó el acuerdo unánime por parte de los asistentes, que la Facultad de Trabajo Social de la UNA-Puno, asuma la organización del presente Encuentro, el mismo que propicia la participación profesional especialmente de la Región Andina : Argentina, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, Chile y Perú.


    Profesionales: Extranjeros 80.00 soles

    Estudiantes: 50 soles



    II CONGRESO CIENCIAS, TECNOLOGÍAS Y CULTURAS. Diálogo entre las disciplinas del conocimiento. Mirando al futuro de América Latina y el Caribe

    29 de octubre - 01 de noviembre de 2010. SANTIAGO- CHILE
    Se convoca a los académicos a presentar ponencias al simposio:


    Nota: En razón de la importante convocatoria que tuvo esta red ( en el I Congreso Ciencias, Tecnologías y Culturas, se ha optado por organizar un “mega simposio” con dos opciones:

    a) Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Estéticos y Éticos.

    b) Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Políticos y Ambientales.


    Coordinadora General (Chile): Cecilia Aguayo, Dra en Filosofia
    OPCION A: Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Estéticos y Éticos.

    Costa Rica:Dr. Marcos Chinchilla Dr Trabajo Social

    Francia: Jean Luis De Ottes Dr en Estética

    Chile: Maria Emilia Tijoux: Dra en Sociología

    España: Monste Feu. Mag en Ciencia Política Paris 8
    OPCION B: Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Políticos y Ambientales.

    Chile: Marcel Claude: Dr Economía

    Brasil: Dr. Jovino Pizzi Dr Filosofía

    Chile: Mónica Fernandez. Mag Política y Gestión ambiental;

    Francia: Francisca Salas. Mag en Ciencias Políticas Paris 8

    En la actualidad el bienestar humano, la calidad de vida, la justicia social, y la dignidad humana entre otros, constituyen algunos de los Fines que despliegan los profesionales del mundo social en América latina. Estos fines se realizan en contextos institucionales, culturales, económicos, y políticos, que requieren no solo un trabajo técnico profesional sino también un dialogo ético y político profundo. Desde estas reflexiones, el simposio busca responder a las siguientes preguntas: ¿cuales son las condiciones de este dialogo, respetando cada una de las diversidades profesionales y culturales en que se despliega? ¿cuáles son las condiciones institucionales en que se enmarcan estas acciones? ¿cuáles son las condiciones que deben esclarecerse para una consideración profunda de nuestros pueblos latinoamericanos?, ¿bajo qué modelo político de desarrollo, se logran plataformas integrativas de acción? , Si esto es así ¿cuáles son las características y perfiles necesarios de los actuales profesionales?


              II CONGRESO CIENCIAS, TECNOLOGÍAS Y CULTURAS. Diálogo entre las disciplinas del conocimiento. Mirando al futuro de América Latina y el Caribe        
    II CONGRESO CIENCIAS, TECNOLOGÍAS Y CULTURAS. Diálogo entre las disciplinas del conocimiento. Mirando al futuro de América Latina y el Caribe

    29 de octubre - 01 de noviembre de 2010. SANTIAGO- CHILE

    Se convoca a los académicos a presentar ponencias al simposio:

    Nota: En razón de la importante convocatoria que tuvo esta red ( en el I Congreso Ciencias, Tecnologías y Culturas, se ha optado por organizar un “mega simposio” con dos opciones:

    a) Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Estéticos y Éticos.

    b) Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Políticos y Ambientales.


    Coordinadora General (Chile): Cecilia Aguayo, Dra en Filosofia Esta dirección electrónica esta protegida contra spam bots. Necesita activar JavaScript para visualizarla

    OPCION A: Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Estéticos y Éticos.

    Costa Rica:Dr. Marcos Chinchilla Dr Trabajo Social Esta dirección electrónica esta protegida contra spam bots. Necesita activar JavaScript para visualizarla
    Francia: Jean Luis De Ottes Dr en Estética Esta dirección electrónica esta protegida contra spam bots. Necesita activar JavaScript para visualizarla
    Chile: Maria Emilia Tijoux: Dra en Sociología Esta dirección electrónica esta protegida contra spam bots. Necesita activar JavaScript para visualizarla
    España: Monste Feu. Mag en Ciencia Política Paris 8 Esta dirección electrónica esta protegida contra spam bots. Necesita activar JavaScript para visualizarla

    OPCION B: Diálogos Interdisciplinarios: Desafíos Interculturales, Políticos y Ambientales.

    Chile: Marcel Claude: Dr Economía Esta dirección electrónica esta protegida contra spam bots. Necesita activar JavaScript para visualizarla
    Brasil: Dr. Jovino Pizzi Dr Filosofía Esta dirección electrónica esta protegida contra spam bots. Necesita activar JavaScript para visualizarla
    Chile: Mónica Fernandez. Mag Política y Gestión ambiental Esta dirección electrónica esta protegida contra spam bots. Necesita activar JavaScript para visualizarla
    Francia: Francisca Salas. Mag en Ciencias Políticas Paris 8

    Hace unas semanas la Universidad de Santiago de Guayaquil realizo el XIX Seminario Internacional de Escuelas de Trabajo Social, donde 15 compañeros de nuestra Universidad tuvieron la posibilidad de ir a dicho encuentro:

    algunas de las tematicas en las ponencias fueron las siguientes:

    Aquella experiencia fue bastante enriquecedora debido a que que se dio un contexto agradabe y se compartio e interactuó con jovenes de otras partes de Latinoamerica, como de colombia, brasil, ecuador, peru, chile (arica, santiago, chillan, antofagasta,), costa rica, cuba, bolivia, uruguay, argentina, españa, todo por la "Coyuntura politica del trabajao social", y sus nuevas de Intervención Profesional.

    Hubieron grandes Exponentes, como Teresa Matus (Chile), Carlos Montaño (Brasil), Elizabethe Mota (Presidenta de ALAEITS)(Brasil), Luis Suárez (Cuba),Susana Morales(Argentina), Blanca Gabin( Uruguay), Teresa Ortiz (México), entre otros.

    Archivos disponibles en:

              Top 10 Things To Do In Nicaragua        

    Nicaragua is beginning to appear on the radar of travelers, with its natural beauty and old-fashioned charm that neither tourism nor internal strife has ruined. It’s a low-key, slow-moving Latin American culture, inexpensive to travel and live in, and is often referred to as “Costa Rica 30 years ago.” Nicaragua is easy to travel within […]

    The post Top 10 Things To Do In Nicaragua appeared first on TheExpeditioner Travel Site.

              Where Is Nicaragua Again?        

    Where is Nicaragua again? It may be a crashing generalization, but for many people, Nicaragua could just as well be the name of a new prescription to help you stop smoking (just in case you didn’t know, it’s a beautifully diverse Central American country just north of Costa Rica and south of Honduras, with both […]

    The post Where Is Nicaragua Again? appeared first on TheExpeditioner Travel Site.

              Nicaragua: Costa Rica Without The Rica        

    I had some relatively unfamiliar free time the other day and found myself reading an article titled “Cheap but Chic Destinations.” I have to admit, “chic” is not included in my vocabulary, but it was “cheap” that reeled me in. I sifted through the mandatory sentences that you would expect to see under this title, like […]

    The post Nicaragua: Costa Rica Without The Rica appeared first on TheExpeditioner Travel Site.

              Granada On Haphazard Guitar Strings        

    A night out on the town in Granada, Nicaragua, with a Canadian, a Rastafarian painter, and an ex-revolutionary. Does it get any better than this? By Luke Armstrong España was beautiful, young, Argentinean, and when she came up to talk to me on a bus heading towards the Costa Rican-Nicaraguan border to ask if I […]

    The post Granada On Haphazard Guitar Strings appeared first on TheExpeditioner Travel Site.

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              Web traffic analysis=nonsense        

    What is it with search engines? and web-traffic rankers?

    This blog has done enough whining about Technorati’s randomness. It’s well overdue to say that it’s probably working far more consistently and reliably than most of the facilities that claim to find Internet resources. (On a note that shows how shamelessly susceptible to flattery we are at – others please take note – it puts this blog at under 60,000 in the blogosphere which is almost beyond its wildest dreams.)

    As an experiment, look up your blog in a few search engines. See if you can find any points in common between them.

    Here’s one of my favourites in that I suspect they actually must a randomiser to generate web traffic numbers and links. Pick a blog, look at it in technorati’s blog directory.

    Go to the traffic rank bit and click on it. You will find yourself in the realm of Alexa. This will probably show you that the traffic isnt really counted because the blog isn’t in the top 100,000. The daily page views are shown as a percent of people using the whole Internet, i.e., if the site isnt in the top 100,000 sites in the world, you wont get any figures. (If you come in at a newbie 5,195,452 – as this blog does – you may wonder if you are even reading the blog yourself)

    100,000 sounds like a lot of sites. However, if you consider, global players (like Google or Microsoft), then big online retailers (like Tescos and Dell), then news sites (CNN, BBC) and national government information sites, you can see it must be pretty difficult to get into the club.

    Beneath this blank chart, you will see “Percent of Internet users who visit this site” with a fraction of a percent if it’s anything like this one. (Maybe you’re Microsoft, in which case i guess it will be higher. Will check shortly.)
    Then “average number of pages visited” and “3 months average traffic rank” (risibly low) and average page views per visitor (1) (1 🙂 Do you suspect that’s hard-coded?)

    But the next bit is what creases me up for its randomness. People who visit this site come from (in order of most visits):

    United States 40.0% (fair enough, the blog’s in English. Most English-speaking Internet users are in the USA)
    France 20.0%
    India 20.0%
    Costa Rica 10.0%
    United Kingdom 10.0% traffic rank in other countries: (These seem to be the same countries to me)
    Costa Rica 46,349
    India 167,900
    France 170,280
    United States 658,841
    United Kingdom 703,872

    Come on…. To what do we owe this unprecedented popularity in Costa Rica? India? France? This is a UK-based blog. Most of the stuff we witter on about, apart from atheism and technology, relates to the UK.

    It’s not that I don’t want to believe it. A central American flavour to its posts would make this blog much more interesting. I just think the figures have been made up.

    OK, let’s look at the sites that link here, according to Alexa. These are so out of date, that it’s obviously not been updated since the blog was a couple of months old. In fact, until I submitted a more recent image, Alexa had a screen shot of the blog that was well over a year old. (Yes, I know, that’s like saying “We don’t get enough spam here, please deluge us with as much as you can possibly manage”.) Maybe because of their age, the sites listed in some of these links are unrecognisable. In fact none of the blog links would be counted by Technorati, being over a year old, but then, it shows no links that Technorati counts (under 90 days.)

    Let’s search for this blog on Google. Here, it’s wierder. There are few points of comparison between different Google results, if you repeat the search over a day or so. Maybe it’s just how Google treats blogs, but the post that comes up first is always the same one from a few months ago. Other posts can only be seen by asking for similar results, excluded the first time for being the same. Well, guess what Google, every post is different. It’s a blog. Lots of the other Google results for the blog are bits of the RSS feed. I’d like to think that lots of people are devouring the RSS feed, but, unfortunately, these tend to be link farms. In fact, lots of obscure references to the blog linkfarm sites turn up on Google, most being complete news to us. Real human-created references to the blog don’t turn up as often as they actually happen.

    I could go on to the point where I was boring even myself.

    None of this would matter if getting seen and indexed correctly wasn’t crucial to getting any visitors. I know that indexing engines and search engines are bomabarded with spammers trying every trick there is to get high on the first results page. The search engines have algorithms that are supposed to penalise sites and blogs that don’t match their definition of legitimate – density of keywords, number of inbound links, and so on. I believe that not only are these not working, they are often acting in exact reverse to their intentions.

    Content from blogs get scraped and put into blag sites that exist just to spew out other people’s content. Google then decides the original source site has “duplicate” content and downranks it. How do you stop this without stopping legitimate blogs from commenting on your posts?

    Keywords in the metatags don’t match teh keywords in the text? Well, duh, normal human beings aren’t thinking only of page rank. So they put keywords in their metatags then write content, without remembering to keep changing the metatags. Only people obsessed with search engine rankings do that and ,of course, a fair percentage of them aren’t just bloggers or normal website owners.

    It’s not just a question of getting visitors. Anyone who wants to bring in revenue from their site or blog by displaying adverts gets judged by these bizarre standards. Some schemes base what they send you on your Alexa rating, which is itself derived from Google’s well-nigh arbitrary page rank . If you’ve ever tried to have GoogleAds on a site, you’ll see how abstract the GoogleAds process is. In fact, visitors who think they’re helping you pay for the site, so click a few times on your ads every time they visit will get you disqualified. Ditto, your rivals……. (It seems as if you get automatically disqualified anyway, at the very point that you might actually receive any revenue.)

    I know it must be well nigh impossible to filter the enormous volume of material in the Internet, especially in the face of the number of spammers there are. However, there must be better ways of doing it. I am always amazed when people find things here and comment or email us about them. How do they manage to find it?

    So here, is an unaccustomed prop for Technorati (unaccustomed for this blog, anyway, whioch has done its fair share of ranting about it). For all the irritating Technorati monster error messages and totally inconsistent service, Technorato remains the best performing indexing service that I’ve come across yet. The tags are really helpful when they work. You can still find an interesting read on someone’s first post. And Technorati isn’t yet totally under the sway of the giant players. The fabled Web 2.0 stuff really does still have something going for it.

              A Gift From god You Betcha        
    My ass!

    The recent accusation against a father who allegedly raped and impregnated his 12-year-old daughter has generated waves of controversy through Costa Rica. In the midst of a growing national debate, heightened when a Catholic priest called the pregnancy “a blessing from God,” Fanning the flames of the debate, a Costa Rican priest told a local newspaper that although the act itself was “unfortunate,” the girl “has to thank God for this gift.” Priest Sixto Varela of the Alajuela Archdiocese told the Spanish-language news site La Prensa Libre“(Giving our support) can make her see the gift of life that God is giving her at such a young age, as this unfortunate assault has sprung forth an unplanned pregnancy,” Varela said. “But also we have to see the blessing from God here and she has to thank God for this gift and not feel guilty, because that is the most important thing when something like this happens.”

    Frankie is probably fine with this too as he just let off the hook known pedophile robes that were supposed to be removed from the priesthood. It's who they are and don't let your children anywhere near these evil people who operate within the realm of religious insanity.
              Colors And Stuff        
    If not you should know pictures of anything are taken around here at times. This guy was inside and a bit over a 1/2" long. This new camera does not do macro's near as good as the three Pentax camera's that came before it. Still worth clicking on to get a better look though.
    And yes there is quite a diversity in plants and colors.

    This fellow was no more than an 1.5" long. Do not have a clue what he was going to grow up to be. This could be it.

    Took a cruise a bit north of Vallarta and then east into farm country and there was a lot going on. There is no lack of food around here that is for sure.

    Behind these mountains not seen here are some massive scraggly fourteener's. Do not have a picture at all. Just looks interesting and here is maybe a few hundred feet above sea level.

    The job to have around here may be a tractor operator.

    Many inexpensive places to eat. None out in the country though like Costa Rica.

    The place I live is almost dead center.

    The mountains around Nogalito are pure jungle that's all there is too it. To get to the other side here would not be easy.

              Comentario en Amsterdam a través de mi objetivo por albertespinola        
    Bueno de nada con mucho gusto. si algun día quieres ir que sepas que en mi blog hacemos asesorias especificas para costa rica. si quieres puede seguirlo y saber más con el tiempo. gracias
              Comentario en Amsterdam a través de mi objetivo por joseluisfuentesphotography        
    Ya me gustaría a mi poder ir a Costa Rica a hacer fotos. Tal ves algún día vaya de visita. Gracias por seguirme y comentar.
              Comentario en Amsterdam a través de mi objetivo por albertespinola        
    Seria intersesante costa rica através de tu objetivo. Es un paraiso para la fotografia. te invito hechar un ojo a mis experiencias.
              The Riddle of Teleportation        

    The Riddle of Teleportation
    By Scott Corrales - © 2017 Inexplicata

    An interesting news item passed unnoticed among the never-ending news about terrorism, celebrity outrage or virtue-signaling. A Chinese satellite, the Micius, broke the 100 kilometer quantum teleportation record set two years ago.

    Micius - launched in 2016 as part of the QUESS program - was designed as an initial step at establishing a "global quantum communication network", sending photons at a distance of 1200 kilometers. A small step for a satellite, a giant leap for a new era in communications.

    But the concept of "teleportation" evokes unfortunate memories, such as the haunting 1950's film The Fly and the hideous commingling of scientist and insect. Even Star Trek's transporter room - one of the crown jewels of that beloved franchise - wasn't free of awful moments, such as the transporter accident in Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979) early on in the feature. Fantasy has taught us that moving objects through space, and sometimes through time, is fraught with peril. Random teleportation is even more frightening: who would want to take a casual step forward on a city street, a country field, or in the safety of a school or office building, only to find themselves transported to a remote jungle, desert or the middle of the ocean? Suddenly appearing in medieval times wouldn't be a picnic, either. In an earlier article on the subject of bizarre relocations in space, we mentioned Isaac Asimov's "Pebble in the Sky", whose protagonist, Joseph Schwartz, suddenly finds himself on a future planet Earth where people are condemned to die at the age of sixty. The retired tailor avoids "stepping over a Raggedy Ann" doll to find himself in an empty field, looking nowhere like his native Chicago.

    In more recent times, the U.S. Air Force has commissioned the Teleportation Research Study (AFRL-PR-ED-TR-2003-0034) that includes a very interesting paragraph. "Very early investigations of, and experiments on, p-Teleportation occurred during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Many cases that were studied, and the experiments that were performed, were undoubtedly due to fraud, and few experiments have occurred under controlled conditions during that period [...] Psychics Uri Geller (1975) and Ray Stanford (1974) claimed to have been teleported on several occasions. Most claimed instances of human teleportation of the body from one place to another have been unwitnessed. There are also a small number of credible reports of individuals who reported being teleported to/from UFOs during a UFO close encounter, which were scientifically investigated (Vallée, 1988, 1990, 1997). But a larger number of such reports are anecdotal, whereby the witness data tends to be unreliable." It is nonetheless fascinating to look back at some of these early accounts of teleportation.

    The Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology gives us the intriguing case of Ofelia Corrales (no relation) and her siblings, who were seen to suddenly vanish from the living room of their early 20th century home in San Jose, Costa Rica only to reappear in the back yard. To their delight, without a scrap of fear, they were returned to the living room in the same manner. The bizarre claims were investigated by law professor Alberto Brenes, who wrote that children had been placed the greenhouse as part of a test. A loud report was heard, and when the living room doors were unlocked, they found the youngsters, whose ages ranged from seven to ten - standing single-file inside, laughing and discussing the experience. When Brenes asked them the manner in which they had been spirited away, the children described feeling a kind of "pressure under their arms" and then finding themselves in the place to which they had been taken. "Spirits" were deemed to be responsible for this activity, and researchers interacted with them.

    These were the years of spiritualism and the investigation of forces unseen to humans, conducted earnestly by persons of unimpeachable reputation. Frauds were unmasked, as could be expected, but other cases presented a challenge, such as the 1901 case involving Italy's Pansini family, where the teleportation phenomenon appeared to center around their son Alfredo. The youngster was possessed by "angelic forces" who instilled with mediumistic abilities and the less desirable attribute of being able to vanish suddenly from his home in Ruvo di Puglia, reappearing elsewhere in the town or in adjacent communities - in one instance, the boy found himself aboard a fishing vessel at sea. The case was the subject of research by Dr. Joseph Lapponi, a physician with ties to the Vatican, who included it in his book L'Hypnotisme et le spiritisme, étude médico-critique (Perrin, 1907). Teleportation bedeviled not only poor Alfredo, but his sibling as well. "Very often in a few minutes and in various ways, writes Lapponi, "the boys have found themselves successively at Biscelglie, Giovinazzo, Mariotta, and Terlizzi, from whence they returned to Ruvo either by the help of friends of the family or the public Authorities. One day the two boys were in the Piazza di Ruvo at 1:35 in the afternoon and at 1:45 were at Trani, before the door of the house of one of their uncles, Signor Girolamo Maggiore." The author adds: "It was concluded to useless to fight against the supernatural forces" and the boys were allowed to remain paranormal shuttlecocks, at the mercy of the unknown "angels." (The reader will allow a brief note at this point - the Alfredo Pansini of this disturbing paranormal case is not the Alfredo Panzini who went on to write the screenplay for the 1926 version of The Last Days of Pompeii, and who was a distinguished lexicographer as well).

    Spanish researcher Marcelino Requejo looked into a high-strangeness event that took place in Galicia, Spain’s northwestern corner. On May 7, 2007, Juan M.L. and Bernardo D.G. became the protagonists of a bizarre incident in the vicinity of Lugo. The events took place around 15:00 hours as they traveled in their car toward a saw mill located near the city. Apparently they were barely one kilometer from their destination at a location known as Piugos da Pena, and had just left behind a well-known automotive dealership, when the witnesses noticed a dense fog that appeared to emerge from their vehicle.

    They pulled over on the shoulder to see what was going on. The smoke vanished. Only seconds after continuing their journey, they realized that they were in a completely different location from the one they had been before.

    "We had no idea where we were," said Juan. "We were only meters away from the sawmill and we suddenly found ourselves next to a road sign that read: "Santa Eulalia de Bóveda". So, completely astonished, we decided to continue driving to Santa Eulalia to see if we could get to the saw mill from there."

    In the wink of an eye, they had traversed the 6 kilometers that separate the environs of the saw mill and the detour to Santa Eulalia de Bóveda. While they looked for the way back, both men witnessed an odd phenomenon: the Sun appeared to be right in the middle of a gigantic, smoky triangle.

    Aside from the notorious “Vidal Case” and its fictional trappings, one of the most interesting teleportation experiences on record is that of Carlos Acevedo and Miguel Angel Moya which occurred in Argentina in 1978. Both men were participating in the first stage of the Rally de America del Sur, an event involving a number of drivers and sponsored by major organizations. Much like the better known Paris-Dakar competition, the rally sought to test the limits of both man and machine by asking drivers to go from the Venezuelan capital, Caracas, to Buenos Aires.
    By the time Acevedo’s vehicle – a Citroen GS – reached the Andean resort city of Bariloche, he had lost his co-pilot, Hugo Prambs, and replaced him with Miguel Angel Moya. During the last leg of the rally, the drivers stopped for fuel in Viedma, Province of Rio Negro, and much needed coffee. At 2 o’clock in the morning on September 23rd, the race car was on the road again, heading toward Bahía Blanca (notorious in UFO and teleportation chronicles). At around 3 in the morning, Acevedo and Moya had reached the salt flats located to the north of Carmen de Patagones with Acevedo at the wheel.

    They were about to enter the pages of the history of the unknown.

    An overwhelmingly bright light became visible in the car’s rear view mirror. It was subsequently described as a “dense yellow light” which appeared at first as small dot, yet increased in size at it approached.

    The Citroen’s crew was not in the least bit alarmed, thinking the light represented the headlights of one of the other vehicles involved in the rally. Acevedo slowed down and moved over to the shoulder to allow the competitor to “pass”. The light had other intentions.

    According to the driver, the passenger compartment was bathed in light, blinding the occupants. Acevedo felt he had lost control of the Citroen, which was now six feet above the ground. In a split second of confusion, the driver thought the vehicle must have hit a bump on the road and become airborne, waiting for the inevitable crash as the car hit the paved road again. But the car kept rising into the air.

    In subsequent interviews, the racer would say that it took him a number of seconds to realize he was caught in an abnormal situation, unable to see his dashboard or even the car’s hood on account of the dense yellow light with a “slightly violet cast” to it. Turning to his co-pilot, he was stunned to see that Moya was “no longer there” or had become invisible.
    Moya, on his part, would later say that Acevedo looked rigid, with outstretched arms clutching the steering wheel, staring straight ahead. The driver appeared to be screaming, but nothing was coming out. The overpowering yellow fog had them in its clutches, causing enough fear in the co-pilot that Moya thought to bail, reaching for the car door handle. The door appeared to be welded shut as the temperature inside the passenger compartment increased. “Suddenly,” he told interviewers, “the light enveloped everything and I could see nothing whatsoever. I don’t think I could even see my own hands.”

    There was a shudder and Acevedo realized the car was on the road surface once more. The light dimmed and normal visibility was restored as the “object” – a cone of yellowish light – departed in a westward direction. Driver and co-pilot exchanged stunned looks, remaining silent. What unknown force had overtaken their car, and what was it after?
    Realizing that his first duty was to the car, Acevedo stepped outside to inspect the vehicle before getting back in and resuming the drive. Upon reaching a filling station in the town of Pedro Luro, north of Carmen de Patagones, they had a shocking realization: the distance between these communities was seventy-eight miles (127 km) and the odometer showed they had only covered thirty-two miles (52 km). However, the clock showed that it had taken them a little under two and half hours to cover a journey that should have taken an hour and fifteen minutes. Worse yet: the Citroen’s fuel tank – filled to capacity during their stop in Viedma – was now completely empty.

    An article appeared at in 2010 featuring corroborating testimony by two other drivers:

    “Race car drivers Edmundo Carvajal and German-born Lothar Ranft were the only Ecuadoran team to participate in the Rally Sudamericano held in September 1978.

    “Carvajal and Ranft finished the race, which was an accomplishment in itself for an unserviced vehicle. But aside from participating in the race, both shared an experience involving an alleged UFO witnessed by a pair of Chilean drivers. The unusual situation took place in the penultimate lap of the Rally, organized by the Automovil Club de Argentina.

    “We were leaving the Comodoro Rivadavia to Bahía Blanca leg,” explains the former tricolor driver, stating that the incident occurred during a normal stage of the competition. “A Citroen vehicle belonging to a Chilean businessman by the surname of Acevedo passed us before a curve, and this was followed by a very long straight segment, typical of the Pampas, some 80 to 100 kilometers long. I never saw him again after the curve. This drew our attention, because the vehicle wasn’t going that fast, to point that we couldn’t even see its lights.”

    “In the early morning hours, Carvajal and Ranft reached a filling station. They found Carlos Acevedo standing outside his car; co-pilot Miguel Angel Moya sitting inside, and many people surrounding them.

    “When we got there, we asked them what had happened, because we noticed they were extremely nervous. He told us that after the long straight segment, they saw a very bright light come up behind them; they thought it was one of the Mercedes Benz units that were winning the rally. They were about to pull aside to allow them to pass, but the light became more intense and didn’t pass them by – it placed itself above them.”

    “The light lifted our car,” Acevedo allegedly told Carvajal.

    “The light carried the car through the air for a few seconds, and at the end, they were deposited without a drop of gasoline in their tank near a filling station. Acevedo recovered from the fright, but his co-pilot was pale and in shock.

    “Skeptically, Carvajal noted that “it could have been a well-contrived ruse” but three things impressed him: “[Acevedo and Moya] arrived at the filling station nearly an hour and fifteen minutes before we did. This means an average speed of 4000 kilometers per hour. This was confirmed, because they took time to report the case to the local police. Their odometer showed that the vehicle had covered less than 70 kilometers. Add to that the co-pilot’s state of shock. One can make up stories, but it must be very hard to get into such a state on purpose.”

    “Once they reached Buenos Aires, the drivers of the Rally Sudamericano received their awards from Juan Manuel Fangio, the five-time World Formula One champion. There was a celebration later that evening. “We were in a group of friends talking to Acevedo. A lady approached and jokingly asked why they had made up the story about the UFO. They became annoyed with this person and decided to leave the party. Acevedo said that he was a serious businessman in his country and that discussing his experience could be harmful. But what they had experienced was indeed true.” (INEXPLICATA, March 10, 2010).

    Interest in abrupt teleportation was rekindled in 2017 as a result of news stories concerning the “Hermandarias Event” – an incident during which a teenager vanished within his own home, only to reappear miles away at a taxi stand, having contacted his worried relatives from that location.

    The incident occurred on Monday, 22 May, around 22:30 hours in the small and pleasant town of Hernandarias, Province of Entre Rios, Argentina. The situation: a family gathered together for dinner. A 13-year-old had been sent to another part of the property to fetch certain items. An adult gave him a hand in opening a door that presented certain difficulties and was in fact stuck, causing the boy to be delayed. The man struggled with the stuck door for two or three minutes, and upon turning around to look, he noticed that the teen was no longer there. Supposing he'd returned to the rest of the family, the man did the same. Confusion reigned: no one had seen the boy.

    Concerned, they took to the street as a group to find him, something that took the family less than ten minutes to accomplish when a cellphone rang. It was the teenager, saying he had no idea how he suddenly found himself at a "taxi stand". He described the location. Meanwhile, the police - which had already been alerted - identified the location and went to collect him. The youth did not understand what had happened. All he knows is that he was standing behind he was "blinded by a powerful light" and heard "a snapping noise", finding himself next at the place where he was ultimately found.

    Researcher Gustavo Fernández – whose investigative team has been granted exclusive access to the family – describes the main experiencer, identified only as “R.”, as a quiet, introverted fellow who interacts with a limited number of relatives and acquaintances, never leaving his home unless escorted by a family member, hardly the type of fellow who would pull a prank. Fernandez also dismissed suggestions that the experiencer “had run at top speed” from his home to the taxi stand in order to stage the deception.

    “No satisfactory theory exists to explain the mechanism of such events,” wrote Stuart Gordon in his compilation The Paranormal-An Illustrated Encyclopedia (London: Headline, 1992). “If indeed it is possible to take apart the billions of constituent atoms in any one body, then somehow transport them, or the information as to their organisation, to a distant point, there to reassemble them exactly in their former arrangement, this is a science unknown…or forgotten.”

              U.S. Treasury Department Announces Cayman Islands And Costa Rica Agree To Implement FATCA, Sign Agreements To Disclose U.S. Accountholder Information        

    Kevin Thorn of Thorn Law Group discusses impact of recent Intergovernmental Agreements (IGA’s) with the Cayman Islands and Costa Rica. The IGAs require Cayman and Costa Rican banks to disclose account information to the U.S. government.

    (PRWeb December 12, 2013)

    Read the full story at

              US Dollar price up 2 colones in last week        
    Alberto Font/The Tico timesThe price of the US dollar has shown a slight increase over the last 7 days, according to Central Bank of Costa Rica data. The price of the US dollar has remained stable since the Central Bank announced a series of measures. These measures were necessary to curb an abrupt rise. Experts have called the […]
              University of Costa Rica takes tree protection decision        
    UCR_TreeEven before a pending resolution by the courts comes to a resolution, the University of Costa Rica (UCR) has decided to a change of plans and protect some trees. The new dentistry building project obliged the UCR to cut 30 more trees besides another 90 that were removed the previous year. The Sala IV has […]
              August soccer magic in the National Stadium        
    Ronaldinho in Costa Rica 2017Ronaldinho Gaúcho, the famous Brazilian soccer star, will be playing famous Costa Rican soccer players at the National Stadium in La Sabana San José.
              Mantido decreto de prisão contra devedor de alimentos que recusa pagamento por motivos “egoísticos”        
    A 2ª câmara de Direito Privado do TJ/SP negou provimento a agravo interposto por um devedor de pensão alimentícia contra decisão que suspendeu momentaneamente o decreto prisional contra ele, sem revogá-lo, concedendo prazo prorrogável de 10 dias para o adimplemento do débito.
    A ação de execução de alimentos está em fase de cumprimento de sentença. E, no caso, se discute a hipótese de renovação da prisão relativa a prestações que venceram no curso da mesma execução.

    Os pagamentos já foram reconhecidos como devidos por decisão do TJ/SP, sob a relatoria do desembargador Neves Amorim, até o trânsito em julgado da apelação da ação de divórcio, onde anteriormente havia sido decretada e cumprida a pena de prisão de 30 dias, sendo decretada nova pena de prisão de 30 dias por débitos posteriores.
    O recorrente alega que não possui condições financeiras de pagar R$ 449.993,75 a título de pensão alimentícia e que seria inviável nova ordem de prisão relativa ao inadimplemento da mesma dívida. Além disso, afirmou ter oferecido imóvel a título de dação em pagamento. No agravo, ele pede que seja mantida a suspensão da ordem da sua prisão civil até o julgamento definitivo do recurso, e a reforma de decisão para que não se autorize a prorrogação ou novo decreto de prisão pelo débito que já o levou ao cárcere.
    Relator do recurso, o desembargador Alcides Leopoldo e Silva Júnior pontuou que o § 7º do art. 528 do CPC/15 estabelece que o débito alimentar que autoriza a prisão civil é o que compreende até as três prestações anteriores ao ajuizamento da execução e as que se vencerem no curso do processo, o que, segundo o magistrado, confirma o entendimento consolidado pelo STJ na súmula 309.
    Para ele, não há ilegalidade na prisão decretada, o que não se altera pelo conteúdo do recurso. Ressaltando que o STF admite a possibilidade da prisão civil por alimentos, mesmo após o ingresso do Pacto de São José da Costa Rica no direito nacional, o desembargador afirmou que que "a privação da liberdade não tem caráter punitivo, mas persuasivo, por presumir-se que o devedor tem condições de solver a obrigação, mas é renitente por motivos egoísticos, como ocorre no caso".
    “O alimentante é empresário rural de grande porte, e para tanto contrai empréstimos de alto valor, havendo informações às fls. 302/318 dos autos principais do recebimento da importância de R$ 2.340.279,91, relativo ao fornecimento de laranja a uma indústria no ano de 2012, admitindo que possui 31 funcionários fixos e 279.483 árvores cítricas distribuídas por sete fundos agrícolas, não afastando a presunção de solvabilidade pela pena de prisão anteriormente cumprida, chegando a oferecer imóvel em dação de pagamento.”
    O mesmo entendimento também foi o da juíza de Direito Lizianne Marques Curto, da 1ª vara da comarca de Itápolis, que na execução de alimentos, acolheu parcialmente pleito da exequente para que o prazo de prisão civil do executado fosse prorrogado.
    Para ela, a prorrogação é cabível no caso, pois o não pagamento do valor dos alimentos pelo executado não se deve à falta de recursos, “mas à resistência injustificada certamente oriunda da exacerbada litigiosidade existente entre as partes”.
    “Assim, cabível exclusivamente a concessão de um prazo razoável para pagamento do débito, tendo em vista o seu "quantum", antes do decreto da prisão. Desse modo, concedo ao executado o prazo improrrogável de 10 dias para o adimplemento do débito.”
    O número do processo não pode ser divulgado em razão de segredo de justiça.

    FONTE: Migalhas

              Alfredo M. Cepero: DONALD TRUMP SE QUEDA CORTO FRENTE A NICOLÁS MADURO        

    Tomado de

    Con ello, Trump se ha quedado corto en sus medidas y Maduro se ha envalentonado ante la duplicidad del único adversario que puede ponerle fin a su régimen sin necesidad de disparar una sola bala.

    Por Alfredo M. Cepero
    Director de
    Sígame en:

    Quienes carezcan de la habilidad de leer entre líneas o no hayan sido testigos de las contradicciones entre la retórica y la acción de la política exterior norteamericana de los últimos 60 años, podrían pensar que Donald Trump se prepara a defenestrar al dictador Nicolas Maduro. Pero no hay nada más lejos de la realidad. Trump habla como defensor y líder de la libertad en el mundo en sentido genérico pero actúa como defensor de los intereses específicos de su país. Con todos los retos que confrontan los Estados Unidos en este momento, la libertad de Venezuela anda muy por debajo en su agenda.

    Y aunque esta conducta nos moleste a quienes queremos la libertad del pueblo que regó con sangre los surcos de cinco repúblicas americanas, Trump está actuando como actúan los presidentes de todos los países. De la misma manera han actuado los presidentes de países hermanados por geografía, historia, tradición, cultura e idioma con Venezuela que forman parte de esa desarticulada e incoherente América Latina.

    Pero el derroche de patriotismo y coraje de un pueblo que se ha lanzado a las calles para recuperar la libertad que le ha sido robada no han podido ser ignorados ni siquiera por los más contumaces aislacionistas. El pasado 30 de julio la prensa internacional dio cuenta de la muerte de 125 venezolanos y de centenares de muertos y desaparecidos en los cuatro meses que ha durado esta avalancha de heroísmo.

    Estos farsantes tienen que decir algo para cubrir las apariencias y mitigar su complicidad con la barbarie desatada por Maduro y sus amos cubanos. Media docena de cancillerías latinoamericanas se han empezado a distanciar de la dictadura venezolana condenando la burla de la Asamblea Constituyente. Donald Trump, con la locuacidad compulsiva que lo llevó a la presidencia y le crea constantes e innecesarios problemas, no podía quedarse atrás. Mandó entonces a hablar a su gente.

    A mediados de julio, funcionarios estadounidenses revelaron que el gobierno del presidente Donald Trump se estaba alistando para imponer nuevas sanciones a Venezuela. Dichos funcionarios agregaron que las nuevas sanciones podrían ser impuestas en pocos días y que probablemente apuntarían al sector petrolero de Venezuela, incluso posiblemente a su compañía estatal de petróleo.

    Veamos el impacto de una medida tan drástica en el contexto de la actual situación venezolana. Venezuela atraviesa por una severa crisis económica, con una prolongada escasez de medicamentos y alimentos; así como un alarmante cuadro económico para este año de una inflación que podría llegar a 720% y una caída del PIB de 12%, según el FMI. Asfixiados por esta crisis, un 80% de venezolanos rechaza su gestión y el 72% su proyecto de constitución, según Datanálisis.

    Si a esta situación crítica de la economía de Venezuela añadimos el hecho de que el petróleo representa el 96 por ciento de sus ingresos en divisas, cualquier recorte en las ventas internacionales del producto podría resultar desastroso para una dictadura que se tambalea. Sobre todo si pierde a un cliente como los Estados Unidos, que le compra y le paga en moneda dura la cantidad de 800,000 barriles diarios de petróleo de una producción total de 1,9 millones de barriles. Sería el clavo final que podría cerrar en forma hermética el ataúd de un ya moribundo Nicolas Maduro.

    Pero todo indica que Trump no está dispuesto a clavar ese clavo porque traería consigo consecuencias negativas para su partido en las elecciones parciales del 2018 y para sus aspiraciones reeleccionistas en las generales del 2020. El precio del galón de gasolina en los Estados Unidos podría aumentar en un respetable porcentaje. Y ahí es donde ha empezado la marcha atrás y la adopción de medidas cosméticas que cubren las apariencias pero no son suficientes para acelerar el final de la dictadura.

    En tal sentido, el pasado 31 de julio, el Gobierno de Estados Unidos se limitó a imponer sanciones económicas directas contra Nicolás Maduro, no contra su régimen. Le congelaron sus activos personales bajo jurisdicción estadounidense. Un pellizco en la fortuna de un ladrón que tiene inversiones y cuentas bancarias en todo el mundo. Con ello, Trump se ha quedado corto en sus medidas y Maduro se ha envalentonado ante la duplicidad del único adversario que puede ponerle fin a su régimen sin necesidad de disparar una sola bala.

    Entonces aparecieron las contradicciones, siempre las contradicciones en una Administración Trump que parece incapaz de la coherencia y la disciplina. Por una parte, el Secretario de Estado, Rex Tillerson, hablaba de crear condiciones para que Maduro se convenciera de que “no tiene futuro y se marche por decisión propia” o que el Gobierno regrese a la vía constitucional.

    Por otra, mientras Tillerson hablaba de “convencer” a Maduro de abandonar el cargo, otro funcionario del Departamento de Estado enviaba un mensaje contradictorio. Michael Fitzpatrick, el encargado del Departamento de Estado para Suramérica, en entrevista con la agencia EFE el 01AGO17, afirmó que EEUU “respeta al gobierno oficial de Venezuela y del presidente Maduro en este momento” con el cual “queremos dialogar”.

    Si esta tragedia de sangre y lágrimas no fuera tan dolorosa estas declaraciones serían motivo de risa y hasta de burla. ¿Cómo es posible que funcionarios de la nación más poderosa y próspera de la Tierra se expresen con tanta ignorancia sobre un régimen manipulado y asesorado por una tiranía feroz de 58 años como la de Cuba? Me inclino a pensar que, más que ignorancia, estamos en presencia de un subterfugio diplomático cuyo objetivo es justificar la inercia.

    Sin embargo, hay un ingrediente en todo este entuerto que no controlan ni Trump ni Maduro: el pueblo heroico de Venezuela. Esta gente sabe que no puede regresar a casa porque la dictadura se graduaría como tiranía, al estilo de la cubana. Saben que es ahora o nunca y vaticino que seguirán desafiando la muerte para que viva la patria. Eso podría desencadenar un mar de sangre como no visto antes en la historia reciente de América. Los ciegos tendrían que ver y los paralíticos tendrían que andar.

    Esa cosa inútil que es la Organización de Estados Americanos y su diletante amanuense Luís Almagro cobrarían importancia transitoria como vehículo para solucionar la crisis. Una convocatoria por parte de Washington de una reunión de cancilleres podría ser la fórmula para crear una fuerza interamericana de intervención en Venezuela. Esa fórmula salvó del comunismo a la República Dominicana en abril de 1965.

    En aquel momento Lyndon Johnson decidió cortar por lo sano y frustrar los planes del ex Presidente Juan Bosch y del Coronel Francisco Caamaño Deñó, de crear un eje comunista con la tiranía castrista con el potencial de extenderse a otras islas del Archipiélago de Las Antillas. Johnson convocó a la OEA y los demás miembros votaron a favor de la ponencia de Washington de intervenir en la República Dominicana.

    La fuerza interamericana estuvo integrada en su mayoría por soldados norteamericanos pero Brasil, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panamá, Costa Rica y El Salvador enviaron tropas. Para acentuar aún más la condición multinacional de las fuerzas invasoras, el general brasileño Hugo Panasco Alvin fue designado jefe de las fuerzas terrestres de la OEA.

    Como antes en nuestra historia, América se encuentra una vez más en una encrucijada donde se decidirán la esclavitud o la libertad. El desenlace del drama venezolano nos impactará a todos los que vivimos en este continente, incluyendo a los Estados Unidos. Luego nuestra suerte está estrechamente ligada a la de esa tierra rebelde y bravía. En este momento todos tenemos que actuar como venezolanos para garantizar nuestra democracia y nuestra libertad. Ojalá Donald Trump entienda el mensaje y actúe en consecuencia.

              Video sobre Venezuela: 16 Países firman la Declaración de Lima contra dictadura de Nicolás Maduro en Venezuela.         
    16 Países firman la Declaración de Lima contra dictadura de Maduro en Venezuela.

    Published on Aug 9, 2017
    Diplomáticos de 16 países se reunieron en Lima Peru para evaluar una propuesta de salida a la crisis que atraviesa Venezuela, donde gobierna una dictadura. 🇦🇷 🇧🇷 🇨🇱 🇨🇦 🇨🇴 🇨🇷 🇬🇹 🇭🇳 🇲🇽 🇵🇦 🇵🇾 🇵🇪 🇯🇲

    Los Cancilleres y Representantes de Argentina, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Panamá, Paraguay y Perú, reunidos en la ciudad de Lima, el día 8 de agosto de 2017, para abordar la crítica situación en Venezuela y explorar formas de contribuir a la restauración de la democracia en ese país a través de una salida pacífica y negociada;

    Animados por el espíritu de solidaridad que caracteriza a la región y en la convicción de que la negociación, con pleno respeto de las normas del derecho internacional y el principio de no intervención, no atenta contra los derechos humanos y la democracia, y es la única herramienta que asegura una solución duradera a las diferencias;


    1. Su condena a la ruptura del orden democrático en Venezuela.

    2. Su decisión de no reconocer a la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente, ni los actos que emanen de ella, por su carácter ilegítimo.

    3. Su pleno respaldo y solidaridad con la Asamblea Nacional, democráticamente electa.

    4. Los actos jurídicos que conforme a la Constitución requieran autorización de la Asamblea Nacional, sólo serán reconocidos cuando dicha Asamblea los haya aprobado.

    5. Su enérgico rechazo a la violencia y a cualquier opción que involucre el uso de la fuerza.

    6. Su apoyo y solidaridad con la Fiscal General y los integrantes del Ministerio Público de Venezuela y exigen la aplicación de las medidas cautelares emitidas por la Comisión Interamericana de Derechos Humanos.

    7. Su condena a la violación sistemática de los derechos humanos y las libertades fundamentales, a la violencia, la represión y la persecución política, la existencia de presos políticos y la falta de elecciones libres bajo observación internacional independiente.

    8. Que Venezuela no cumple con los requisitos ni obligaciones de los miembros del Consejo de Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas.

    9. Su seria preocupación por la crisis humanitaria que enfrenta el país y su condena al gobierno por no permitir el ingreso de alimentos y medicinas en apoyo al pueblo venezolano.

    10. Su decisión de continuar la aplicación de la Carta Democrática Interamericana a Venezuela.

    11. Su apoyo a la decisión del MERCOSUR de suspender a Venezuela en aplicación del Protocolo de Ushuaia sobre Compromiso Democrático.

    12. Su decisión de no apoyar ninguna candidatura venezolana en mecanismos y organizaciones regionales e internacionales.

    13. Su llamado a detener la transferencia de armas hacia Venezuela a la luz de los artículos 6 y 7 del Tratado sobre el Comercio de Armas.

    14. Que, teniendo en cuenta las condiciones actuales, solicitarán a la Presidencia Pro Témpore de la CELAC y a la Unión Europea, la postergación de la Cumbre CELAC-UE prevista para octubre de 2017.

    15. Su compromiso de mantener un seguimiento de la situación en Venezuela, a nivel de Cancilleres, hasta el pleno restablecimiento de la democracia en ese país, y de reunirse a más tardar en la próxima sesión de la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas, oportunidad en la que podrán sumarse otros países.

    16. Su disposición a apoyar de manera urgente y en el marco del respeto a la soberanía venezolana, todo esfuerzo de negociación creíble y de buena fe, que tenga el consenso de las partes y que esté orientado a alcanzar pacíficamente el restablecimiento de la democracia en el país.

              Civilización y barbarie: otra vuelta de tuerca (II). Alejandro González Acosta: Continuación de la sección “De lo real maravilloso… venezolano” de ese texto en dos partes, que aquí concluye        
    Tomado de

    Civilización y barbarie: otra vuelta de tuerca (II)

    Continuación de la sección “De lo real maravilloso… venezolano” de ese texto en dos partes, que aquí concluye

    Por Alejandro González Acosta
    Ciudad de México

     El tal Francisco Moctezuma llevaba ese apellido como muchos habitantes en México, pues al ser vencido el señorío azteca, generalmente escogieron el que desearon, no sólo autóctono, sino hispano: numerosos indígenas entonces se apropiaron (por bautizo o por declaración propia) de apellidos de la aristocracia española, como Álvarez de Toledo, Castilla, Aragón, de la Cerda, Manrique de Lara, Ponce de León, incluso Cortés y Alvarado, entre muchos más, y a veces también como homenaje de pleitesía o compadrazgo… pero sin que fueran miembros legítimos del linaje, ni mucho menos. Otros decidieron llamarse Moctezuma, sin ser descendientes legítimos ni aún sanguíneos del personaje. Hoy, documentados debidamente, sí hay descendientes del tlatoani por línea de varón, asunto que ha trabajado estupendamente mi buen amigo Don Javier Gómez de Olea y Bustinza[1], Director de la Real Academia Matritense de Genealogía y Heráldica (RAMHG); y de los descendientes por línea femenina de Isabel Tecuichpoh Moctezuma, me he ocupado yo[2], y con muchos de ellos mantengo actualmente contacto y amistad.

    A ese Francisco “Moctezuma” espurio, ya en Venezuela, le añadieron (o se otorgó él mismo) el “de” nobiliario, pero en México nunca lo usó porque no podía: no era un hidalgo. Un aspecto poco conocido —o intencionalmente olvidado— es que España aceptó, respetó y mantuvo las dignidades nobiliarias indígenas, sustituyendo el vasallaje de los antiguos señores por el de los monarcas hispanos y sus representantes directos, los virreyes. En las Leyes Nuevas de Indias, los reyes españoles cuidaron de proteger a los súbditos de todos sus reinos (México, Perú y los otros dominios en América), y les reconocieron y concedieron la condición de “reinos de ultramar”, con semejantes derechos y deberes que los peninsulares. Pero entre estos, introdujeron como novedad la creación —no imitada por ningún otro imperio— de crear los Cabildos de Españoles y de Indios: eran entidades de justicia paralelas y con igual valor jurídico, que sólo diferían en su campo de acción y aplicaban sentencias entre semejantes.

    Este Francisco Moctezuma (sin “de”, a secas) en realidad era un indígena —o mestizo— vecino de Tepeji de la Seda, sin ningún parentesco con el tlatoani, quien se caracterizó por maltratar extraordinariamente a sus sirvientes, compatriotas y vecinos, con gran crueldad; a tal extremo, que fue expulsado del pueblo y desterrado, según constaté en el expediente conservado en el AGN: así llegó a Coro y se afincó allí. Ese es el antepasado documentado de la familia Hunda. Hasta ahí sí existe una secuencia probatoria, pero esta se rompe por la declaración unipersonal y sin sustento de Maisanta, quien tuvo dos hijos naturales con la ya mencionada Claudina Infante; uno de ellos, Rafael Infante. De esta suerte, Hugo Chávez se declaró descendiente al mismo tiempo de Maisanta (su ídolo infantil) y de Eloy Hunda, según él, heredero de Moctezuma II. En realidad, Claudina Infante era una mujer que, como muchas infelices más, seguía a las tropas en las interminables guerras civiles venezolanas, y estaba ofrecida “a todo servicio” de los militares.

    Maisanta (así llamado porque utilizaba con frecuencia la frase “Madre Santa”, pero que sólo atinaba a pronunciar torpemente “Mai Santa”), fue uno de tantos caudillos rurales de la violenta historia venezolana, pero sí está documentado que El último hombre de a caballo, como se le llama ahora, fue un bandolero que se afilió a distintos partidos políticos o facciones según sus conveniencias, y solía cambiar de bando de acuerdo con las coyunturas, hasta que fue finalmente apresado y murió en prisión, encadenado y al parecer “envenenado con vidrio molido” puesto en su comida, pero esto no está probado. Lo que sí está documentado es que desde la cárcel envió numerosas peticiones de clemencia a su vencedor, reconociendo y arrepintiéndose de sus muchos delitos y crímenes, prometiéndole fidelidad absoluta si lo perdonaba. Nunca ocurrió: Juan Vicente Gómez fue mucho más atinado que Rafael Caldera…

    En resumen, Hugo Chávez decía ser descendiente de Maisanta y de Eloy Hunda a la vez; pero esta familia Hunda (o Unda) sí eran descendientes documentados del tal Francisco Moctezuma (sin el “de”), expulsado de Tepeji de la Seda por el cruel maltrato contra sus compatriotas indígenas, y luego avecindado en Coro, mas este no tenía nada que ver con el monarca azteca, de quien usurpó el apellido, en lo cual no fue ciertamente el único. De hecho, entre los auténticos descendientes probados de Moctezuma II actuales, ninguno exhibe tal apellido, pues el linaje ha pasado por línea femenina a la actualidad. Los únicos que, mediante privilegio real, conservan por tradición el apellido en primer lugar dentro de su nombre —de acuerdo con los requisitos del mayorazgo— son los Duques de Moctezuma de Tultengo, residentes en España.

    Aparte de la vanidad y la soberbia, adquiere proporciones gigantescas la ignorancia de Chávez, lo cual es perfectamente entendible y perdonable, pues a fin de cuentas era un militar con un origen muy humilde, pero no así sus asesores, supuestamente ilustrados: era imposible que ni aunque fuera “descendiente” de Moctezuma II Xoyocotzin tuviera la plenitud de los derechos dinásticos —que fueron negociados en su momento con su legítima línea de varón— sino, peor aún, que el mal llamado “imperio mexicano” (en realidad era una Triple Alianza de ciudades, con una serie de pueblos tributarios) NUNCA se expandió más al Norte del Bajío, y sólo controló zonas muy específicas del actual México. Algunos guerreros llegaron más al sur, pero jamás establecieron un dominio permanente y estable. Los belicosos tarascos y purépechas de Michoacán, por ejemplo, nunca se sometieron a los aztecas y sus aliados, y los orgullosos tlaxcaltecas tampoco.

    Sus asesores debieron aclararle a Chávez que cuando la soberanía de México alcanzó por el norte hasta la Bahía de San Francisco de California —por las misiones de los religiosos evangelizadores— sólo fue durante el virreinato, como Nueva España, nunca como parte del supuesto “imperio azteca”. Por otro lado, tampoco existió una corona real azteca, pues ni aún el mal llamado “Penacho de Moctezuma” lo fue[3]: el tlatoani portaba como símbolo de su autoridad religiosa, un tocado como banda triangular de oro adornado con turquesas (chalchihuite) llamado xiuhuitzolli, que representaba la eternidad del tiempo.

    Entre sus sueños de gloria egocéntrica y megalomaníaca, Chávez acarició convertirse según esto en “Emperador de México” y por tanto en el legítimo monarca de todas las etnias latinoamericanas, desplazando incluso a un Evo Morales y reclamar a Estados Unidos la “devolución” de los territorios en su momento cedidos por el México ya independiente después de la desastrosa guerra de 1847, y ratificados por Don Benito Juárez después.

    Guillermo Tovar resumió todo este affaire en una frase irónica, aludiendo al disparate de la pretensión de Chávez: es “genealogía-ficción”. Finalmente, los emisarios regresaron a Venezuela y desconozco cómo habrán informado al “tlatoani” carioca el resultado de sus gestiones. Pero después se publicó en Venezuela este asunto por la Sociedad Genealógica “El León de la Cordillera” (ya mencionada), con una encendida polémica que hasta obtuvo una precisa evaluación de la Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía.[4]

    Guillermo y yo sentimos la íntima satisfacción de comprobar que, al menos por esta vez, los menospreciados estudios genealógicos y heráldicos sirvieron para prestarle un servicio práctico a México, evitando quizá un enfrentamiento internacional con un sujeto especialmente dañino y peligroso.

    [1] Es sumamente valioso su ensayo: “La Casa de Moctezuma: la descendencia primogénita del emperador Moctezuma II de Méjico”, Revista de la Academia Costarricense de Ciencias Genealógicas. Nº 38, San José de Costa Rica, Imprenta Nacional, Noviembre del 2000. Pp. 186-257. Se trata de un estudio que no dudo en calificar como definitivo sobre el tema.

    [2] Un primer acercamiento mío al tema es: “Los herederos de Moctezuma”, Boletín Millares Carlo. Instituto Agustín Millares Carlo, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Nº 20, 2001. Pp. 151-158.

    [3] Sobre este asunto he publicado un artículo: “El penacho del México antiguo”, Boletín del Instituto de Investigaciones Bibliográficas, México, UNAM, Vol. XVIII, Nºs 1 y 2, 1er. y 2do. Semestres de 2013. Pp. 219-223.

    [4] Editorial: “La genealogía al servicio de la política”. Boletín de la RAMHG, Año XVII, Nº 62, 1er. trimestre de 2007.

    Alejandro González Acosta es Miembro de Número de la Academia Mexicana de Estudios Heráldicos y Genealógicos y Miembro Correspondiente en México de la Academia de la Historia de Cuba en el Exilio.


              The #1 Ball in Golf: 2017 Wins        

    Titleist is the #1 ball for more players and more champions across the worldwide professional tours. Thus far in 2017, Titleist golf ball players have recorded 124 victories around the world, more than six times the nearest competitor with 20. Since its introduction in 2000, the Pro V1 golf ball franchise has been the golf ball of choice for more than 2,600 champions worldwide.

    Below is a listing of tournaments won by Titleist golf ball players on the major worldwide professional tours in 2017.

    TOUR (wins)    
    PGA TOUR (19)    
    Safeway Open Brendan Steele Pro V1x
    CIMB Classic Justin Thomas Pro V1x
    OHL Classic at Mayakoba Winner Pro V1
    RSM Classic Mackenzie Hughes Pro V1x
    SBS Tournament of Champions Justin Thomas Pro V1x
    Sony Open in Hawaii Justin Thomas Pro V1x
    AT&T Pebble Beach Pro-Am Jordan Spieth Pro V1x
    Honda Classic Rickie Fowler Pro V1
    Puerto Rico Open D.A. Points Pro V1x
    Shell Houston Open Russell Henley Pro V1x
    Zurich Classic of New Orleans Cameron Smith and Jonas Blixt Pro V1x
    Wells Fargo Championship Winner Pro V1x
    AT&T Byron Nelson Championship Billy Horschel Pro V1x
    DEAN & DELUCA Invitational Kevin Kisner Pro V1
    The Memorial Tournament Jason Dufner Pro V1x
    117th U.S. OPEN CHAMPIONSHIP Winner Pro V1x
    Travelers Championship Jordan Spieth Pro V1x
    Quicken Loans National Kyle Stanley Pro V1
    RBC Canadian Open Jhonattan Vegas Pro V1
    EUROPEAN TOUR (17)    
    Alfred Dunhill Championship Brandon Stone Pro V1
    BMW South African Open Graeme Storm Pro V1x
    Abu Dhabi HSBC Championship Tommy Fleetwood Pro V1x
    Commercial Bank Qatar Masters Jeung-hun Wang Pro V1x
    Maybank Championship Fabrizio Zanotti Pro V1
    World Super 6 Perth Brett Rumford Pro V1x
    Joburg Open Darren Fichardt Pro V1x
    Hero Indian Open SSP Chawrasia Pro V1x
    Shenzhen International Bernd Wiesberger Pro V1
    Volvo China Open Alex Levy Pro V1x
    Open de Portugal Matt Wallace Pro V1x
    Nordea Masters Renato Paratore Pro V1x
    Lyoness Open Dylan Frittelli Pro V1
    HNA Open de France Tommy Fleetwood Pro V1x
    AAM Scottish Open Rafa Cabrera-Bello Pro V1x
    THE 146th OPEN CHAMPIONSHIP Jordan Spieth Pro V1x
    Porche European Open Jordan Smith Pro V1
    LPGA TOUR (18)    
    PureSilk LPGA Classic Brittany Lincicome Pro V1 x
    ISPS Handa Women's Australain Open Ha Na Jang Pro V1
    Honda LPGA Thailand Amy Yang Pro V1
    Kia LPGA Classic Mirim Lee Pro V1x
    ANA LPGA Inspiration So Yeon Ryu Pro V1
    LPGA LOTTE Championship Cristie Kerr Pro V1
    Volunteers of America Texas Shootout Haru Nomura Pro V1x
    Lorena Ochoa Match Play Sei Young Kim Pro V1
    LPGA Volvik Championship Shanshan Feng Pro V1x
    ShopRite LPGA Classic In-Kyung Kim Pro V1x
    Manulife LPGA Classic Ariya Jutanugarn Pro V1x
    Meijer LPGA Classic Brooke Henderson Pro V1
    NW Arkansas Championship So Yeon Ryu Pro V1
    KPMG Women's PGA Championship Danielle Kang Pro V1x
    Thornberry Creek LPGA Classic Katherine Kirk Pro V1
    U.S. Women's Open Sung Hyun Park Pro V1x
    Marathon Classic In-Kyung Kim Pro V1x
    Ricoh Women's British Open In-Kyung Kim Pro V1x
    Mitsubishi Electric Championship Bernhard Langer Pro V1
    Allianz Championship Scott McCarron Pro V1
    Tucson Conquistadors Championship Tom Lehman Pro V1x
    Mitsubishi Electric Championship Stephen Ames Pro V1
    Insperity Invitational John Daly Pro V1x
    Regions Tradition Bernhard Langer Pro V1
    KitchenAid Senior PGA Championship Bernhard Langer Pro V1
    U.S. Senior Open Kenny Perry Pro V1
    Constellation Senior Players Championship Scott McCarron Pro V1
    Senior Open Championship Bernhard Langer Pro V1
    3M Championship Paul Goydos Pro V1
    WEB.COM TOUR (15)    
    The Bahamas Great Exuma Classic Kyle Thompson Pro V1x
    The Bahama Great Abaco Classic Andrew Landry Pro V1x
    Club Colombia Championship Ethan Tracy Pro V1x
    Chitimacha Louisiana Open Casey Wittenburg Pro V1
    United Leasing & Finance Championship D.H. Lee Pro V1
    Corales Puntacana Championship Nate Lashley Pro V1x
    BMW Charity Pro-Am Stephen Jaeger Pro V1
    Rex Hospital Open Conrad Shindler Pro V1
    Rust-Oleum Championship Stephen Jaeger Pro V1
    Lincoln Land Charity Championship Adam Schenk Pro V1
    Nashville Golf Open Lanto Griffin Pro V1
    LECOM Health Challenge Chesson Hadley Pro V1x
    Utah Championship Brice Garnett Pro V1
    Digital Ally Open Zecheng Dou Pro V1x
    Ellie Mae Classic Martin Piller Pro V1
    Eye of Africa PGA Championship Erik van Rooyen Pro V1
    Dimension Data Pro-Am Paul Lawrie Pro V1x
    Zimbabwe Open JC Ritchie Pro V1
    Zambia Sugar Open Oliver Bekker Pro V1
    Investec Royal Swazi Open Peter Karmis Pro V1x
    Lombard Insurance Classic Oliver Bekker Pro V1
    Zambia Open Riekus Nortje Pro V1x
    Sun City Challenge Peter Karmis Pro V1x
    ASIAN TOUR (4)    
    Bashundhara Bangladesh Open Jazz Janewattananond Pro V1x
    Yeangder Heritage Shiv Kapur Pro V1x
    Thailand Open Rattanon Wannasricahn Pro V1x
    TAKE Solutions Masters Poom Saksansin Pro V1x
    JAPAN TOUR (7)    
    Leopalace21 Myanmar Open Winner Pro V1x
    Token Homemate Cup Wen-Chong Liang Pro V1x
    Panasonic Open Japan Kenichi Kuboya Pro V1x
    Kansai Open Shugo Imahira Pro V1x
    miz Open Chan Kim Pro V1x
    JGTO Championship Shaun Norris Pro V1x
    Sega Sammy Cup Chan Kim Pro V1x
    Victorian PGA Open Championship Dimi Papadatos Pro V1x
    New Zealand PGA Championship Jarryd Felton Pro V1x
    New Zealand Open Championship Mike Hendry Pro V1x
    Queensland PGA Championship Daniel Pearce Pro V1
    Papua New Guinea Open Winner Pro V1
    WA PGA Championship Dimi Papadatos Pro V1x
    Bayview Place Cardtronics Open Max Rottluff Pro V1
    GolfBC Championship Robby Shelton Pro V1x
    The Players Cup Kramer Hickok Pro V1
    Mackenzie Investements Open Hank Lebioda Pro V1x
    ONEASIA TOUR (2)    
    GS Caltex Maekyung Open Sang Hee Lee Pro V1x
    Kolon Korea Open YiKeun Chang Pro V1x
    KOREAN TOUR (7)    
    SK Telecom Open JinHo Choi Pro V1x
    Caido Dream Open WooHyun Kim Pro V1x
    Descente Korea Munsingwear Matchplay SeungHyuk Kim Pro V1
    Caido Golden V1 Open JungHwan Lee Pro V1x
    KPGA Championship JungGon Hwang Pro V1x
    Gunsan CC Jeonbuk Open HyungJoon Lee Pro V1x
    Caido Male Open KyungNam Kang Pro V1x
    PGA TOUR CHINA (1)    
    Beijing Open Bryden Macpherson Pro V1
    70 Avianca Colombia Open  Winner  Pro V1x
    Molino Canuelas Championship  Winner  Pro V1x
    Guatemala Stella Artois Open  Winner  Pro V1x
    86 Abierto OSDE del Centro  Winner  Pro V1x
    Essential Costa Rica Classic  Winner  Pro V1x


              HUMAN RIGHTS IN 2010: THE CIRI REPORT        
    In conjunction with Human Rights Day, 2011, the CIRI Human Rights Data Project releases its ratings of government respect for 16 internationally-recognized human rights in almost every country in the world for the year 2010. The CIRI project's data stretch back, annually, to 1981 and can be freely accessed at

    The CIRI data are used by governments, scholars, international organizations, businesses, think tanks, and students the world over for a wide variety of purposes. The project is Co-Directed by Dr. David L. Cingranelli (Binghamton University) and Dr. David L. Richards (University of Connecticut) and assisted by Senior CIRI Associate K. Chad Clay (University of Georgia). Any inquiries may be addressed to

    Below, we present four types of stories from this year's released data:

    THE BEST AND WORST of 2010

    All 14 of CIRI's indicators of particular human rights can be summed into an overall human rights score for each country in the world. The top (best) score a country can receive is 30, while the worst score would be 0. The world average was 18 and the USA scored 26 (tied for 5th place). Below are the best and worst of 2010.

    Top 13 Countries:

    Denmark [30]
    Iceland [30]
    Austria [29]
    New Zealand [29]
    Norway [29]
    Australia [28]
    Belgium [28]
    Finland [28]
    Liechtenstein [28]
    Luxembourg [28]
    Netherlands [28]
    San Marino [28]
    Sweden [28]

    Bottom 10 Countries:

    Burma [2]
    Eritrea [2]
    Iran [2]
    China [3]

    Korea, Democratic People's Republic of [3]
    Yemen [3]
    Zimbabwe [3]
    Saudi Arabia [4]
    Congo, Democratic Republic of [5]
    Nigeria [5]


    On May 20, 2011, the United Nations elected 15 new members of the UN Human Rights Council. Here are their total CIRI human rights scores for 2010, out of a possible 30 points. Six out of the fifteen new members had scores below the world average of 18 for the year 2010. Below are the scores for each new member:

    Austria         [29]
    Benin          [16]
    Botswana     [22]
    Burkina Faso    [20]
    Republic of Congo  [18]  
    Chile             [26]
    Costa Rica     [26]
    Czech Republic   [24]
    India               [10]
    Indonesia        [13]
    Italy               [24]
    Kuwait          [11]
    Peru              [18]
    Philippines     [15]
    Romania        [17]


    The CIRI Index of Physical Integrity Rights measure's a government's overall level of respect for four rights: torture, extrajudicial killing, political imprisonment, disappearance. The index ranges from 0 (no respect for any of these four rights) to 8 (full respect for all four of these rights). In 2008-2009, the world saw an overall average increase in these rights of .047. However, a reversal of this improvement was seen from 2009-2010, with it's overall average decline in respect of -.031. In particular 2009-2010 saw the following dramatic changes:

    Three Countries Lost 3 Points (Violations Increased)


    Seven Countries Gained 2 Points (Violations Decreased)


    The fact that the CIRI data stretch back in time to 1981 allows for longitudinal comparison. For example, the graph below shows how regional averages of respect for physical integrity rights have changed over the years:


    An important part of this overall decline in respect for physical integrity rights comes from a continuing degradation, globally, of respect for the right not to be tortured. For example, 2009-2010 saw 17 countries engage in more torture, while only 8 engaged in less torture. Below is the list of these countries. CIRI's indicator of government respect for torture is as follows: (0) Frequent/systematic torture, (1) Moderate/occasional torture (2) No reported/confirmed episodes of

    Increased Torture, 2009-2010

    Congo, Republic of
    Korea, Republic of
    Kyrgyz Republic
    Marshall Islands
    Sierra Leone

    Decreased Torture, 2009-2010

    Czech Republic       
    Micronesia, Federated States of       

    This trend in the greater use of torture is not a post-9/11 phenomenon, however. The chart below shows the increased use of torture beginning in the early 1980s. The extent of the drop in respect for this right differed by region and is seen to be particularly acute in Africa.

              The Beautiful Butterfly Tree         
    The Amazing Erblichia Tree

    Erblichia odorata
    As the old saying goes, "good things come to those who wait". Fortunately, after waiting for nearly a decade, the amazing Butterfly Tree, Erblichia odorata is becoming more available in the landscape trade. What makes this tree amazing is the combination of bright orange-colored flowers, surprisingly large blooms measuring over 7" across on a mature tree, and a tree size small enough to allow the owner of it to see the blooms without using a telescope. 

    I recall seeing this flower at a Flowering Tree Society meeting a decade ago, and IF seedlings were available, they were quite expensive and were quickly sold. Now that some of those original trees have borne seed, small plants are becoming reasonably priced, and can be obtained without too much trouble, although far from common just yet. The tree grows easily in a sunny spot in the garden, and doesn't get TOO tall, about 30 feet when mature. The flowers are almost unusually large for the tree, and small trees can bloom when just 7 or 8 feet tall. Our trees are only a few years old, and have shown no particular special needs, but do appreciate extra iron in their fertilizer diet every few months, especially in our nutritionally bankrupt limestone "soil". The tree has a modest canopy of narrow leaves similar to an Oleander, but thinner and more susceptible to wind burn or drought conditions. 

    Our plants are growing in a section which gets several hours of direct sun, but afternoon shade; the plants are growing well and we hope for flowers in a year or two. I do not know how cold-hardy this species is, but since it hails from Costa Rica, my feeling is that it won't take much more than a light frost. In a modest amount of space, and with a little judicious pruning, I believe this tree can be a stand-out choice for a residential garden. The only thing standing in the way of this species becoming a major player in the commercial landscape market is its high cost / low availability at the moment. Regarding its cost, one of the important points to remember about this tree is that it is fairly new in cultivation ( compared to many other flowering trees). As with many new introductions, demand exceeds supply for a long time before supply can meet demand.

    Someone had the foresight to introduce the plant into the country, spend years growing the plants, distribute it through plant sales and sales to collectors, hope it grows well enough to make subsequent generations and then declare it a success only after decades of trial. The initial money you spend on the tree is more of an homage to the people who ventured the capital and time to grow it for you. We are fortunate indeed to have adventurous nursery owners who bring in such extraordinary plants to satisfy the requests of skilled collectors and home gardeners.              

    Craig Morell
    Pinecrest Gardens

              A bout last night        

    fight3 Lomachenko Marriaga judge 8-5-17 - Copy (2).JPG

    The floor was sticky with spilled beer. The hall smelled like a bus station where the custodian had quit three days before. The crowd was overdressed, underdressed, expressive and ... unfiltered.

    I'm about as likely to watch a boxing match as I am to attend an NRA convention, but that's where I was last night, at the Microsoft Theater at L.A. Live downtown. I'm editing a biography of a boxer, and although his line of work is not a sport I care for, it is my job to understand it. Besides, it's not fair to diss a sport you've never seen. Except for rhythmic gymnastics.

    Like all major boxing events, several bouts were on the card last night. My boxing-expert companion and I arrived in time to see the last three matches of an event promoted by Top Rank, run by the irrepressible Bob Arum.

    Everything in boxing is irrepressible -- the ginned up rivalries that sell tickets and TV time, and turn fans into profane and sometimes violent participants; the ring girls, circling between rounds, hoisting a card display and shaking their asses out of outfits that look like they shrank in the dryer; the gaudy championship belts issued by so many sanctioning organizations in so many weight divisions that they run out of adjectives to denote them (Note to self: "junior lightweight" does not connote lesser skill or status, simply an unwillingness to explore the English language.).

    The main event featured Vasyl "Hi-Tech" Lomachenko of Ukraine by way of Camarillo versus Miguel "Escorpión" Marriaga of Colombia. Lomachenko, according to the standard irrepressible accounts and measured by fan enthusiasm, is unbeatable. Rumor has it he holds the key to world peace and has a cure for the common cold.

    But first, we watched the oxymoronic super lightweight bout between Arnold Barboza, from South El Monte, and Jonathan "El Carismatico" Chicas from San Francisco. Most boxing matches are staged in an arena where fans sit around the ring -- a concert hall seemed unsuited to the raucous exhortations from the audience. The Chicas partisan sitting behind me, about 10 rows away from the ring, possessed an impressive array of vocal expression. He whistled, he clapped, he yelped. His boy was losing, but he kept yelling, "give him a shoe shine."

    Boxing Expert shrugged his shoulders at that one.

    I turned around and asked the cheerleader what "giving him a shoe shine" meant. "You know," he said, beer in hand, "working him from the bottom up."

    I still have no idea what that means.

    The heavily tattooed guy next to me with the buzz cut had watched Barboza/Chicas intently, and, unlike everyone else, quietly. He focused even harder on the next fight, between Bryan "El Tiquito" Vasquez of Costa Rica and Raymundo "Sugar" Beltran, from Mexico by way of Arizona. Tattoo Guy is a lower-level promoter of boxing and MMA matches at places like the Sportsmen's Lodge in Studio City. Beltran, he told me, was a really great guy who worked out at Wild Card gym in Hollywood as a regular sparring partner of Manny Pacquiao. He was rededicating himself to the sport, Tattoo Guy said, and is just the right kind of fighter to be promoted by Arum, "the Bobfather of boxing."

    Beltran won the match. According to the L.A. Times, his nonimmigrant visa is nearing expiration, so his argument for permanent residency is more persuasive if he can claim "extraordinary ability in professional boxing." His English is excellent, so last night he made a tremendous Trumpian case for himself.

    As usual for the main event, the boxers entered the ring encased in hooded satin robes. Lomachenko generated a boisterous fan welcome, and a member of his posse wielded his WBO championship belt aloft. The Chicas cheerleaders behind me had left, replaced by a group of Brits. Among the evening's nine fights, the boxer geographically closest to their homeland was from Green Bay, Wisconsin -- a girl fighting in only her second bout. Boxing Expert wondered why there were so many Brits at a fight night unrepresented by the motherland.

    pre-fight6 Lomachenko 8-5-17 - Copy.JPG

    Just before the match began, Boxing Expert noticed his wallet was missing from his back pocket. After a frantic 30-second search, Brit Guy sitting behind me retrieved it from the floor and handed it to my relieved companion with a sweet smile. Ten minutes later, he and his bros were screaming epithets at a Yank a few seats over, invoking the "C" word multiple times with the singular passion only a British male can muster to another of his gender.

    Neither Boxing Expert nor I was aware of what started the fan fight. It reminded Boxing Expert of the time he was at a hotel in Vegas that was hosting a prizefight and a similar fan argument had erupted in the lobby. Boxing Expert had departed the premises when he noticed a gun tucked into the waistband of one of the debaters.

    The fight progressed clearly in favor of Lomachenko. Marriaga put up little resistance, and spent most of the bout cowering behind his blue gloves as Lomachenko chased him around the ring, twice knocking him on his keister. The predicable posturing -- Lomachenko taunting his opponent with come-hither gestures, fans yelling for Marriaga to "fight! fight!" -- was insufficient to overcome the considerable separation in boxing skill. As the ring girl was promising an eighth round, Marriaga's corner declined to make him available for it, and the referee threw his hands up, signaling that the fight was over and Lomachenko was the victor by a TKO.

    fight conceded by Marriaga1 8-5-17 - Copy.JPG

    My lesson on boxing and its enablers was completed by 10 p.m., and I walked out of the theater grateful that nobody appeared to have suffered brain damage, and that I had sat far enough away to escape the spray of sweat and blood to which people sitting ringside are vulnerable. I also walked out confirmed in my view that boxing is a difficult sport played by superbly fit, superior athletes, as well as my belief that it is as much a "sweet science" as the Donald Trump administration is a finely tuned machine. They're both carnival sideshows. Only one knows what it is.

    Photos: Ellen Alperstein

              Italia – Costa Rica        
    Tutte le partite dell'ITALIA e del BRASILE su maxischermo. E tutte le partite delle fasi a eliminazione diretta, dagli ottavi alla finale. Venerdì 20 giugno alle 18 Italia-Costarica.
              Con la sarten al hombro        

       Cuando trabajaba en España tenia un plato del que me encargaba. Ese plato requeria de poner al fuego una sarten para marcar unas sardinas. Un dia estaba en la mierda y me estaba volviendo medio loco. Se me habia olvidado poner la sarten . A partir de aquel dia los compañeros me vacilaban cada vez que andaba apurado y me decian que donde estaba la sarten

       Yo siempre decia: - !La sarten está, joder!

    Cuando ya me iba a marchar un dia habalndo de que iba a hacer un blog para el viaje me preguntaron que como iba a llamarle.Y yo dije:

    - Sabes que!!. ya que me habeis dado tanto la chapa con lo de la sarten le voy a llamar "Con la sarten al hombro".

       Y asi surgio.

      Y asi acaba esto, con un homenaje a los momentos en los que he escrito. Al principio me hacia fotos escribiendo sin mas pero unos meses atras pense que asi debia acabar esto. Con un homenaje al blog

      Solo necesitaba una cancion de fuera acorde a lo que las imagenes representaban. Puede llegar  a ser muy complicado querer reflejar 15 meses de viajes en una cancion. Cuando la escucho y veo las imagenes se me ponen los pelos de punta . Es muy fuerte que haya encontrado la cancion perfecta.

      Si  teneis la suerte de poneros unos auriculares habremos viajado juntos en este final  en toda su esencia
    . Imagen y sonido se unen para  despedirse. Ha sido un verdadero placer hacer este blog. Me siento muy realizado

       Muchas  gracias a todos los que me habeis dado la ilusion  de escribir
    Hasta siempre

              Beach at Costa Rican Resort Awarded Top Environmental Honor        

    Tulemar Resort announces it is proud to be one of three beaches in Costa Rica to be awarded three-star Blue Flag Award for 2014. The resort looks to keep the beach's natural beauty while allowing people to enjoy full use of it.

    (PRWeb March 31, 2015)

    Read the full story at

              Game On! Costa Rica Town Enjoys Growth of Sports Tourism        

    Tulemar Resort and the Manuel Antonio area are gearing up to host semi-finals of the Costa Rica National Beach Volleyball Championships. The luxury vacation rental resort is excited about the growing popularity in sports tourism.

    (PRWeb March 27, 2015)

    Read the full story at

              Beer for Trash? Community Organizes Novel Beach Grooming Activity        

    Tulemar Resort, located in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica, is excited to announce The Manuel Antonio Brewing Company’s Pounds for Pints return for its 2nd Annual April beach clean up.

    (PRWeb March 20, 2015)

    Read the full story at

              Costa Rica Resort Offers New Line of Gourmet Chocolate        

    Tulemar Resort pleased to expand Costa Rican Sibu Chocolate line and offer new chocolate bars and flavors to its guests.

    (PRWeb March 13, 2015)

    Read the full story at

              Costa Rica Resort Welcomes Eco-conscious Music Festival        

    Tulemar Resort is excited to have Envision Yoga and Music Festival and its attendees in Costa Rica

    (PRWeb March 06, 2015)

    Read the full story at

              Costa Rican Resort Supports Local Fiestas        

    The town of Quepos in Costa Rica hosts its annual Fiestas to raise money for local causes. Nearby Tulemar Resort supports the fun and charity.

    (PRWeb February 27, 2015)

    Read the full story at

              Guests of Costa Rica Resort Enjoy Exotic Birdwatching        

    Guests of Manuel Antonio’s Tulemar Resort report their top five favorite birds to see in the results of new survey. The resort, abundant in wildlife, shares the results.

    (PRWeb February 13, 2015)

    Read the full story at

              Costa Rica Resort Community Honors Native Heritage        

    Tulemar Resorts takes pride in the Aguirre Canton's name change to Quepos. The luxury resort sees it as a reminder of Manuel Antonio's cultural and historical background.

    (PRWeb February 09, 2015)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Resort Wins TripAdvisor Award for Best Service in Costa Rica        

    Tulemar Resort, located in Costa Rica's popular vacation hot-spot Manuel Antonio, announces it has been named winner of multiple coveted awards from leading social travel site TripAdvisor. The resort is the site's 2015 winner for “Best Service, Costa Rica”, "Best Hotel in Costa Rica for Families​" and "Best Hotel in Central America​ for Families​".

    (PRWeb January 30, 2015)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Vacation Homes Partners with Local Animal Rescue Center to Celebrate International Monkey Day on December 14th        

    Tulemar Luxury Resort in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica will join local animal rescue center, Kids Saving the Rainforest in celebration of International Monkey Day this December 14th.

    (PRWeb December 11, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Luxury Resort's Personal Concierge Staff Undergoes Intensive Preparations for Upcoming Season        

    Tulemar's personal concierge staff prepares for a busy season at their resort in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica, working with area's leading operators.

    (PRWeb December 04, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Award-Winning Luxury Villa in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica Now Offered at a $1,000 Discounted Rate        

    Tulemar Vacation Homes is offering luxury plus flexibility for award-winning Casa Pura Vista; for all rentals in December and January, a $1,000 discount will be applied, space available.

    (PRWeb November 20, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Beach in Luxury Rental Resort Hosts 10 Kilometer Race        

    Tulemar Beach, located in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica’s top-rated resort for luxury vacation rentals, hosted a section of the 10 kilometer route for the second annual “Reto M.A.E,” an extreme beach race that raises funds for children in need.

    (PRWeb November 11, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Vacation Homes Invites Guests to Celebrate Traditional Halloween Masquerades        

    Costa Rica celebrates Halloween with masquerades, resurrecting different characters from folklore in colorful marches through the streets.

    (PRWeb October 31, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Welcomes Homes PRO Rafting Team, Returning With Bronze from World Championships        

    Local PRO Rafting team returns to their hometown in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica from the World Rafting Championships in Foz de Iguaçu City, Brazil.

    (PRWeb October 24, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Adopts Sloth in Celebration of International Sloth Day        

    Pro-wildlife conservation resort Tulemar Vacation Homes in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica celebrates International Sloth Day by adopting a sloth and encouraging social media users to share sloth photos online.

    (PRWeb October 17, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Costa Rica's Tulemar Vacation Homes Celebrates International Coffee Day        

    September 29th marks International Coffee Day, and Tulemar Resort in Costa Rica’s Pacific coastal area of Manuel Antonio encourages guests to experience the country’s award-winning bean that was the source of wealth for the Central American country for many years, and continues to win international recognition for quality.

    (PRWeb September 30, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Vacation Home Rentals Supports Rafting Team in World Championship Bid        

    Tulemar Vacation Home Rentals & Sales in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica supports local rafting team headed to World Whitewater Rafting Championships in Brazil next month.

    (PRWeb September 24, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Humpback Whales Seen from Tulemar Bungalows in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica        

    In recent weeks, humpback whales have been spotted in Tulemar Resort's bay area in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica, during their annual migration period.

    (PRWeb September 19, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Resort Celebrates Independence Day in Costa Rica        

    Tulemar Resort in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica invites guests to celebrate the country’s Independence Day on September 15th.

    (PRWeb September 12, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Vacation Homes is Pro-Wildlife Conservation, Partners with Titi Conservation Alliance to Spread Awareness        

    Tulemar Vacation Homes, Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica’s top rated resort, is taking steps towards creating awareness about the importance of conservation of wildlife in the area.

    (PRWeb September 05, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Vacation Homes Sponsors Benefit Concert to Raise Funds for Local Bodyboarders Heading to World Championships in Chile        

    Tulemar Vacation Homes will sponsor an acoustic benefit concert this weekend to raise money for a local team of bodyboarders who will represent Costa Rica in the World Championships in Chile December 2014.

    (PRWeb August 29, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Prepares to Celebrate Costa Rica’s National Parks Day        

    Every 24th of August, Tulemar participates in the celebration of the National Parks Day that has been held in Costa Rica since 1984. The holiday was established as a reminder of the importance of preservation of wild areas, and to allow everyone an opportunity to experience the parks at no cost.

    (PRWeb August 20, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Welcomes an Increase in Local Guests at the Resort Over Mother’s Day Weekend        

    Mother’s day is one of Costa Rica’s most important holidays, when banks and small businesses are closed, and locals travel to the coast to celebrate the three-day weekend.

    (PRWeb August 15, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Vacation Homes Supports Plans to Improve Infrastructure in Costa Rica’s Protected Areas        

    The National System of Conservation Areas (SINAC-MINAE) plans to increase investment to improve existing infrastructure in protected areas throughout Costa Rica. An increase in park admissions prices will contribute to the project’s budget.

    (PRWeb July 30, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Renting a Car in Costa Rica: Tulemar Resort Shares Tips for an Easier Transaction        

    According to the popular TripAdvisor forums, to rent or not to rent a car is one of the top questions posed by tourists planning a vacation to Costa Rica. Dave Houck, spokesperson for Tulemar Resort in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica, shares tips for an easier transaction.

    (PRWeb July 23, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Resort and Sibu Chocolate Announce Partnership Expansion        

    Tulemar Resort in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica and Sibu Chocolate, the country’s award-winning producer of organic, fair-trade chocolate products, are expanding their exclusive distribution relationship to include Sibu’s new culinary line.

    (PRWeb July 18, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Resort Welcomes Craft Breweries to First Beer Festival        

    Eleven Costa Rican craft breweries gathered at the Marina Pez Vela near popular vacation destination, Manuel Antonio last Saturday for the area's first beer festival. The event featured food, live music, and more than thirty-five beer varieties.

    (PRWeb July 10, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Guest Survey Drives Private Chefs at Tulemar to Integrate More Costa Rican Flavor in their Menus        

    The results of Tulemar Resort's survey of guest preferences reveal increasing demand for the traditional and diverse mix of ingredients used to create gourmet dishes.

    (PRWeb July 04, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Vacation Homes Rentals & Sales Introduces Award-Winning Casa Pura Vista to Their Selection of Luxurious Rental Homes in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica        

    Tulemar is happy to announce the addition of Casa Pura Vista to their portfolio of vacation properties in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica; a fitting new addition to the area’s most lavish vacation rentals.

    (PRWeb June 24, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Travelers to Costa Rica Get Authentic Cultural Experience With "Gallina Criolla" Festival        

    Tulemar Resort, located in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica, announces a unique opportunity for travelers to go off the beaten path this week with a visit to the annual “La Gallina Criolla Festival” in the rural town of Silencio. The event is designed to promote rural tourism in the area and celebrate traditional Costa Rican cuisines and customs.

    (PRWeb June 17, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Guests at Tulemar Resort Help Rescue Abandoned Baby Sloth        

    Guests staying at Tulemar Resort in Manuel Antonio aided in the rescue of a baby sloth found abandoned on the hotel property in the Costa Rican rainforest.

    (PRWeb June 10, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Vacation Home Rentals Announces Summer Discounts on Private Vacation Villas        

    The recent economic upturn has the luxury vacation rental market heating up worldwide. Tulemar Vacation Homes, located in Costa Rica's popular Manuel Antonio area, is poised to edge out competitors with discounted stays on privately owned villas during the peak North American summer travel season.

    (PRWeb June 06, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Tulemar Resort Applauds Costa Rica’s Whitewater Rafting Cup Winners        

    The local Manuel Antonio team has won the 2014 Teva Cup. As Costa Rican National Champions, the team qualifies for the international competition to be held later this year in Brazil.

    (PRWeb June 03, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Sea Turtle Nestings Draw Tourists to Costa Rica        

    In honor of the 14th annual World Turtle Day, Tulemar Resort in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica, provides useful information on the best times and locations to see nesting sea turtles in Costa Rica.

    (PRWeb May 24, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              Manuel Antonio National Park Expands Operating Hours        

    Tulemar Resort, located in Manuel Antonio, Costa Rica, is happy to announce an expansion to the operating hours of the Manuel Antonio National Park. During the peak tourist season which runs from December 1st to June 30th each year, the park will open to the public seven days a week.

    (PRWeb May 20, 2014)

    Read the full story at

              DINOmania 1993-1994 in Romania (and other dino- foibles of the past and present)        

    DINOMANIA actually started for me and others in Romania with the bogus of popular science, cryptozoology, paleoastronautics/ufology and lost civilizations 80s bestsellers of Dan Apostol. This literature was the most precious fodder for our brains. It was complementing the TELEENCICLOPEDIA series of Saturday evening science&nature&health&ancient civilization&arts program from 1965 till now. TELEENCICLOPEDIA is clearly another total Z A C A M A N T! Dan Apostol's books were on par with the most outrageous parts of the TELEENCICLOPEDIE in discussing cyclopic monuments of the past, Egyptian ancient technology and megalithic remains. Hugeness had a big role to play, so "unkonwn" or "mysterious" Pre-columbian civilizations were always central to this historical initiation ritual.
    The Mayan, Olmec, Toltec, Aztec, Zapotec, Inca, Moche were all discussed with reverence and a lot more centrality that they got in the school curriculum. Basically we knew all about Mezoamerican city-states and their mythology, about the treacherous and criminal Conquistadores, about hematite mirrors and colossal Olmec heads and were glad to miss out on the drumming of "classical civilization" that with got in school. Otherwise in school we had endless Latinist or Dacian paeans to the Romanian ethno-genesis(a mainly pseudoscientific word much loved in that era meaning the formation of the Romanian ethnic group) or historical narratives of fighting off invaders and evil Empires, the grand narratives of Unification and Independence and some bloody Peasant Revolts amongst the obsessions of the day.
    Only with the help of books like "Still... mysterious"(1986), "From the secrets of Nature"(1987) and "Unknown nature"(1988) was there enough supply with multivitamins keeping us interested in the iconoclastic areas of science, nature and history. It was enough to get you hooked, to instill in our young minds that there was more over there, waiting for our endless curiosity and our unsatisfied hunger for universal knowledge.

    Teleenciclpedia supplied the tele-visual archive of objects, cities, manuscripts, jungles, infinitely varied life forms to put meat on the bones of our reading, and shape the visions of our youth and geeky adolescence.
    I remember my oldest (lost?!!) book with dinosaurs that i had. It was full of illustrations and it was in Russian Cyrillic alphabet! My parents could read cyrillic but couldn't understand a word of it. Only later i had access to the txt with the Perestroika and after getting familiar with Bulgarian language. But it was since my earliest memories of it (even before the ATLAS ZOOLOGIC - another favorite book of my childhood) one of the most impressive and unforgettable books i had access to.
    This natural history book in Russian had drawings (sort of watercolor illustrations) with ancient creatures both in sea, on land and in the sky. It featured mythical battles between Mesozoic monsters like the snake-necked Plesiosaur or the fishlike sort of crocodilian Ichtyosaur. I was quite scared imagining them in those ancient seas.
    I also remember some huge sauropods. They were depicted in the "old" way - standing in deep water, with only their tiny head sticking out. Such immense creatures were not supposed to have bodies that could be supported on land, that is why they were drawn as living in a Laguna-type or marshy environment. I still remembered them vividly walking with their colossal feet on the bottom of the sea.
    Ravages of sleeping with it, or sleeping on it, or carrying and trough it left deeps scars i remember, and it was naturally torn apart, its covers finally falling off.

    I recently read Stephen Jay Gould writing about DINOMANIA, a text published during that particular era (1993-1994) and published in his collection "Dinosaurs in a Haystack: Reflections in Natural History"(1995). After Dan Apostol and Carl Sagan, SJ Gould became my all-time favorite popular science writer, humanist and historian of science. I joined him into vast incursions about Geological Catastrophism; the subtlety of Charles Darwin's(and Wallace's!) Natural Selection; Developmental Biologies conundrums; New Evolutionary Metaphors; Cambrian Explosions; Conchology(science of shells Gould's own domain); naturalist misrepresented by schoolbook manuals; the first critical and informed condemnation of Rasist theories/Eugenic thinking/IQ tests i ever read. From Gould i also read for the first time about Dr Kinsey and the Kinsey Reports and about the fact that initially Kinsey was an entomologist specializing in the sexual life of parasitic Gall(Cynipidae) wasps.
    For many many others Gould has been a constant delight (and will be for the next generations) with his care of reconsidering the complexity of life and evolution, of sudden transformation (revolution?) and his steady critique against anthropocentric and supremacist models of evolution(ascending ladders, cones of increasing diversity, man-on-top branch and that sort of thing).
    In his The Glory of Museums chapter Dinomania - is a small essay about the hollywoodian ills of dumbing down Michael Crichton's book(a joint Spielberg-Crichton enterprise as he sees it). He traces the unpredictable future of paleontology and its impact on the commercial world and mass culture of the 90s. Who would have believed and predicted that we would witness such a craze and a hype in Dinosaur shows, exhibitions, CGI, projects, documentaries with completely merchandised monsters? Well dino's where always around(buried in Hateg?!) ready to snap.
    Also a big JP logo-related blunder - the T-rex is not a Jurassic dino, it lived during the last part of dinosaur reign, the Cretaceous period. But, hey, as Gould remarks, T-rex has to be there and Cretacic Park is not really it.

    He not only identified a shift between his childhood and the new generation of dinomaniacs, but also acutely recognized in the new depiction and representation a dinosaur emblem of the capitalist neo-liberal ideal.
    As if this ideal had to search in the deep past for worthy predecessors, Velociraptors came in handy for just this purpose. Gould was concerned about the incoming infotainment totalitarian mood, that was getting stronger and stronger, with museum shops, kitschy toys and useless junk being poured all over the world in the wake of Jurassic Park.
    For him it was a real battle not between monsters of ancient eras, but about the role of the Natural History Museums and the new and much stronger and gargantuan world of the Theme-parks as exemplified by JP title. But after 1989 in the East we already had a theme-park of sorts, with every manner of new enterprise enjoying the sudden overkill of incapacitated industrial and agricultural giants.
    Capitalism in Romania was turbo capitalism of the worst kind, it was a sort of stampede of the free economy. From the beginning on it was akin to a mass extinction time - everybody who cannot show fitness, economic worth, instant utility or political expertise inside the new system is thrown out, picked apart, privatized and shown in a public display as unfit and generally unadaptable. The big Romanian heavy industry was the BIG DINOSAUR of the time, fighting a loosing battle and being relegated to a catastrophic past in his complete incapacity to downsize. But as Gould observed the Velociraptor was reinvented as the new model employ and team-building expert. The name of VELOCIRAPTOR - veloci-, veloc-, velo- means quick, swift, fast, dynamic in Latin and raptor means bird of prey, a seizer. The quick seizer seizes the opportunity of prey, because this is how he can become the winner of the day.

    The photos are of handmade (marker-drawn) t-shirts I made during that period while in senior high school. One of them has the DINOmania letters and a Velociraptor(what else!). Another t-shirt has an anatomical drawing (lifted off some National Geographic issue with dino's) displays the highly modified second digit with the famous sickle-shaped claw (for delivering the fatal blow). As a true JP fan i also had the JP book the original JP t-shirt, button and key-chain!
    On the back of one shirt you can see a kid and a small Protoceratops dinosaur guide shaking paw-to-hand in DINOTOPIA (1993) by (National Geographic) illustrator James Gourney another venture riding high on the Dinomaniac wave of the day. Dinotopia was more utopian-fourierist sort of world. A green utopian island world were dinosaurs and people lived in, hum well... "utopian" harmony on earth. It functioned as an antithesis to the Costa Rican island hell of Jurassic Park, but it was also a complete imperial and colonial dream-world. Historicist eclectic architecture, Orientalist/North African French and British plein-air painters fantasy welcomes the resurrected ecosystem of the ecologic-minded Mesozoic. Well, one might say the Mesozoic and Dinosaurs were invented in the 19th century (or at least named by Sir Richard Owen in 1842) in the heyday of Victorian Imperialism. But is was also the time for Utopian Socialism in the vein of Robert Owen and his New Harmony experiment: "Design for a Community of 2000 Person founded upon a principle Commended by Plato, Lord Bacon and Sir Thomas More."
    I will end with a very peculiar code of the Dinotopian world (every utopia has a code no?) published in the first Dinotopia book (1993). Yet, i was always smug in my knowledge that this small code owed more to Kropotkin and his "MUTUAL AID: A factor in Evolution"(1914) than to T. H. Huxley's "The Struggle for Existence". The last sentence is a small measure of interspecies hygienic discrimination of haha dinosaurs being hygienically appalled by humans nonetheless! Hm or is it angry swimming pool teachers... Don't mind the naive mnemonic device based on a agricultural & slightly eugenic babble(?!) SOW GOOD SEED:

    Survival of all or none.
    One raindrop raises the sea.
    Weapons are enemies, even to their owners.

    Give more, take less.
    Others first, self last.
    Observe, listen and learn.
    Do one thing at a time.

    Sing every day.
    Exercise imagination.
    Eat to live, don't live to eat.
    Don't p... (don't pee in the bath)

    A clear case of Z A C A M A N T!
              Dayana, 33 ans, enceinte de 4 mois, offerte pour faire...        
    Dayana, femme mariée de 33 ans, est originaire du Costa Rica. Enceinte de 4 mois elle a les hormones en ébullition et son mari en profite pour la convaincre de se laisser défoncer par d'autres hommes... On soupçonne un mari plutôt candauliste sur les bords ;-)
              Upscale Panamanian property in need of revaluation        
    Panamanian property in some upscale areas is in desperate need of revaluation. Finance Minister Frank De Lima told Newsroom Panama that in certain locations, this hasn't been performed in decades, despite the fact the government is now trying to standardise the tax process in the country and is reevaluating the price of real estate nationwide.

    The current programme of revaluation conducted by the Ministry of Economy and Finance has been going on for two years, but some factions in Panama are against the process, the news provider explained. What's more, Panamanians have just 15 days to appeal the outcome of a revaluation, which could cause their taxes to rise. Despite resistance, Mr De Lima stressed that the process will now be performed in specific neighbourhoods in Panama City and Colon - most of which will be areas classed as prime.

    As Panama tries to grow its economy, lots of focus has been placed on transforming the property market. The country is set to make changes to its tax code to stimulate greater investment activity. Newsroom Panama revealed the government has given the OK to amend the code that creates a tax incentive for real estate investment companies. The National Assembly will receive the changes from the minister of the economy and finance and when passed, the way real estate investment is approached will be altered.

    Under the reforms, property in the country will be submitted to a similar tax regime as that employed in the US, Spain and Costa Rica. The news provider explained that this will give all types of investors equal direct exposure to the housing market. This means buyers of all capacities will be able to benefit from good liquidity and transparency.

    To achieve this, a vehicle will be created to help investors purchase property on a scale that may have normally been out of their reach. Newsroom Panama recounted how this is expected to lead to new alternatives for funding, moving away from the bank loan culture of investment.
    Article by + on behalf of
              Panama tax code changes hoped to improve housing market        
    Panama is to make changes to its tax code in a bid to stimulate housing market activity. A new cabinet report revealed the government has given the OK to a bill that will amend the code that creates a tax incentive for real estate investment companies, Newsroom Panama reported. The minister of the economy and finance will now submit the changes to the National Assembly in a bid to address the way real estate investment is treated in the country.

    Should the proposals be made law, the reforms will see Panama property be subject to a similar tax regime to that used in countries like the US, Spain and Costa Rica, the news provider explained. This will give all investors equal direct exposure to the housing market, offering good liquidity and transparency. A vehicle will be established to help buyers invest in property on a scale that normally would have been out of their reach. Simultaneously, according to Newsroom Panama, this will help to generate a new wave of alternatives for fundraising for real estate activities. Currently, investment largely relies on bank loans.

    The changes to the tax code will be welcomed as Panama's economy continues to expand. Indeed, the country is on an upwards growth trajectory, making it an attractive spot for investors. The holiday-let sector is also set to become more robust as the government works to improve its tourism figures. Currently around 2.1 million tourists arrive in Panama and ten per cent growth in expected for the year. This is part of a larger trend and the country is improving its holiday infrastructure to cope with rising overseas demand. STR Global reported that since 1997 the number of hotel rooms in Panama City alone increased from 1,400 to more than 15,000.

    Investing in property for let can give landlords access to yields as high as 8.4 per cent, according to the Global Property Guide. However, Reuters reported, that are still risks in the economy that buyers need to aware of over the long-term. Panama has felt the effects of the Colombian and Venezuelan dispute as a trading partner of both nations.
    Article by + on behalf of
              Global EMBA en INCAE de Costa Rica        
    Los objetivos del Global EMBA son: Actualizar a sus participantes en temas de gerencia, empresarialismo y análisis del entorno, facilitándoles cumplir sus responsabilidades con la vocación de un líder. Desarrollar habilidades para el trabajo en equipo con el fin de enfrentar oportunidades  y situaciones complejas. Brindar herramientas que faciliten la identificación de oportunidades y el […]
                            Declaración de Costa Rica 2017   Reunidos y reunidas en San José de Costa Rica, los días 17 y 18 de julio
    Read More
              IFSW Latin American & Caribbean and African Regional Conferences        
    Last week the IFSW Regional Latin American conference was held in Costa Rica with the theme:‘Social Work: Resistances and Proposals in the Face of Economic, Social and Political Inequalities. More
    Read More
              Columna San Cadilla Mural - 09 Agosto 2017        


    La versión oficialista señala que en la reunión del Comité de Desarrollo Deportivo de la FMF, los dueños de clubes de la Liga MX se portaron muy decentes y cordiales con Guillermo Cantú y Necio de María en la evaluación del proceso de Juan Carlos Osorio al frente de la Selección.

    Peeeero, en realidad las aguas no están tan calmadas, de ahí que ninguno de los directivos en la reunión del lunes en Toluca quisiera opinar del tema. Nada más dieron a conocer que los dueños le habían dejado a Cantú una lista de recomendaciones que el secretario general del organismo, a su vez, le haría llegar al colombiano.

    Aunque los federativos se empeñan en proteger a "Libretitas" a toda costa y vender las cosas positivas de su proceso -como que el Tri está cerca de llegar al Mundial de Rusia-, algunos nomás no la compran.

    En un momento de la reunión hubo regaño para Cantú y De Maria precisamente por su discurso de que todo es maravilloso en el Tricolor, porque ante los ojos de otros el equipo no camina bien.

    Después de las observaciones, los dueños -principalmente los pachucos- exigieron que Osorio haga cambios en su forma de trabajo si quiere mantenerse en la Selección. O sea, se trató de un ultimátum velado.

    El mes que viene el colombiano tiene dos oportunidades para mostrar que le cayó el veinte y que hará caso a las recomendaciones.

    La cosa está clara: si en los juegos eliminatorios frente a Panamá y Costa Rica el Tri hace otro papelón -o sea, perder- por alguna de las ocurrencias de Osorio, llamarán a una reunión extraordinaria para entonces sí hablar de modelos de guillotina.

    Bajo advertencia...


    Y hablando de cabezas, la que está en la mira es la del español Imanol Ibarrondo, el coach de la Selección.

    Es muy claro que el trabajo de este personaje ha ayudado al equipo... pero a echar porras y cebollazos que hacen que los pateabalones se sientan todavía más intocables, aun después de los fracasos en Confederaciones y Copa Oro.

    Además, el protagonismo del ibérico en la cancha no tiene muy contento a Osorio, porque en algunas ocasiones se le escucha más que al técnico, por aquello de que le gusta gritar para mantener a los futbolistas motivados. Su chamba, pues.

    Pero eso es lo de menos, porque algunos de los dueños de clubes -y cualquiera que lea los mensajes de Twitter de los seleccionados- se han dado cuenta de que no hay una diferencia en la actitud o comportamiento del grupo desde que llegó, en octubre del año pasado.

    La incorporación de Ibarrondo, quien había trabajado en Selecciones menores y femeniles, es otra de las iniciativas de Cantú.

    Si el coach le vendió la idea de que los futbolistas se convertirían en seres de luz en la cancha, el panorama está igual o más oscuro que antes.


    Tras debutar en el Apertura 2015 con reflectores porque logró vencer al cáncer, Ángel Gaspar, canterano del Atlas, se perdió gacho en su paso por el Atlante en la Dimensión Desconocida.

    En la Liga apenas jugó 4 partidos y regularmente aparecía en la gloriosa Copa MX; por eso, el "Chatito" no entró en planes los Potros y en el
    Atlas no había lugar para él.

    Así, el mediocampista pidió que lo dejaran entrenar en la Segunda División rojinegra, con la intención de mantenerse en ritmo, pero tómala que en una de esas lo vio el técnico José Guadalupe Cruz y lo llamó al primer equipo.

    Una victoria más para la tenacidad del "Chatito".


    Con la inminente llegada de Carlos Vela a Los Ángeles en enero, para jugar con la franquicia de expansión de la MLS, LAFC, estará completo el combo de amigos con Giovani y Jonathan dos Santos -del LA Galaxy- en la ciudad californiana. Por eso, los antros de Sunset Boulevard se alistan para recibir a este trío que, si de algo sabe, es de gozar de la vida y sus placeres.


    Artículo Enciclopedia encarta:


    Constitución (ciencia política), ley fundamental, escrita o no, de un Estado soberano, establecida o aceptada como guía para su gobernación. La constitución fija los límites y define las relaciones entre los poderes legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial del Estado, estableciendo así las bases para su gobierno. También garantiza al pueblo determinados derechos. La mayoría de los países tienen una constitución escrita. La de Gran Bretaña, encarnada en numerosos documentos (por ejemplo, la Carta Magna) y el derecho consuetudinario que definen las relaciones de los ciudadanos con la Corona, el Parlamento y los tribunales, no está escrita, pese a que, en muchas ocasiones, se ha postulado su redacción para que Gran Bretaña disponga de un texto análogo al de la gran mayoría de estados.

    Las constituciones pueden clasificarse mediante varios criterios: si están protegidas contra enmiendas (constituciones blindadas), si presentan una clara separación de poderes, si las disposiciones pueden ponerse en vigor mediante revisión de la actuación del ejecutivo o del legislativo, si establecen un Estado unitario o federado, etc. Las constituciones escritas están asociadas históricamente al liberalismo político y a la Ilustración. Tal es el caso de la historia del constitucionalismo español. Muchos estados autoritarios y totalitarios poseen unas elaboradas constituciones, pero, en la práctica, no tienen vigor para ser respetadas por el gobierno en el poder, que siempre puede no acatarlas, suspenderlas o invalidarlas.

    Constituciones en el mundo
    Constituciones vigentes en el mundo

    1. Afganistán: 1987 .suspendía tras el golpe fundamentalista al gobierno marxista en 1992
    2. Albania : 39 de abril de 1991
    3. Alemania: ley fundamental. promulgada en 1949
    4. Andorra : 1983
    5. Angola: noviembre de 1975. modifica en 1976,1980,1991
    6. antigua y barbuda: noviembre de 1981
    7. Arabia saudita: desde el 1 de marzo de 1992 , el gobierno monárquico absolutista se rige por intermedio del sistema básico gubernamental
    8. Argelia : febrero de 1989
    9. argentina : 1853. modificada en 1860,1866,1898y 1994
    10. Armenia: en 1993 entro en vigencia una nueva constitución
    11. Australia : 1 de enero de 1901
    12. Austria:1920 .enmendada en 1929
    13. Azerbaiján: se prepara una constitución dentro del sistema autoritario que impera en el es país islámico
    Bahamas : 10 de julio de 1973.
    14. Bahrein : 1973, bajo la monarquía absolutista
    15. Bangla Desh: es enmendada e 1973,74,75,77,79,81.88.89 y 91
    16. barbados : 30 de noviembre de 1966
    17. belarus: se redacta una nueva constitución
    18. Bélgica: 1831.enmendada varias veces y revisadas en 1949 y 1971
    19. Belice: 21 de septiembre de 1981
    20. Benín: el dictador Kereskou al abandonar el marxismo establece una constitución el 2 de diciembre de 1990 .propiciando el multipartidismo por primera vez
    21. bhutan : 1953
    22. Bolivia 1967
    23. bophuthatswana : se rige por la constitución de Sudáfrica
    24. Bosnia-Herzegovina: 1974.Modifica en 1989,90,91
    25. Botswana: 30 de septiembre de 1966.En una de las pocas democracias del África
    26. brasil: 5 de octubre de primera constitución , en un gobierno civil en 24 años
    27. Brunei darussalam :1959. algunos preceptos fueron suspendidos en 1962 , por el reino absolutista mas rico del mundo
    28. Bulgaria :13 de junio de 1991 , ante la caída del viejo régimen marxista pro soviético y la instauración del pluripartidismo
    29. burkina faso: con el establecimiento del multipartidismo se consolida una nueva constitución el 11 de junio de 1991
    30. Burundi : 13 de marzo de 1992.suspendida por el golpe militar de 1993 que derroco al primer presidente civil .Melchior Ndadaye en plena vigencia
    31. cabo verde : 7 de septiembre de 1980 modificada en septiembre de 1990
    32. Camboya : 27 de junio de 1981. modificada por el régimen pro soviético de Samrin en 1989
    33. Camerún : aprobada en 1996
    34. canada : acta constitucional de 1982
    35. ciskei : suspendida por el nuevo régimen militar en 1990
    36. Colombia : 6 de julio de 1991
    37. congo: al establecerse e nuevo sistema multipartidista , se redacto una nueva constitución en 1992
    38. corea del norte : la constitución del 27 de diciembre de 1972
    39. corea del sur: 25 de febrero de 1988
    40. costa rica : 7 de noviembre 1949
    41. cote d” Ivoire: (antes costa de marfil ) 31 de octubre de 1960. modificada por el presidente vitalicio Houphoner
    43.Croacia: Diciembre de 1990
    44. Cuba: 1976
    45. Chad: Aprobada en 1996
    46. Chile: 1980, Enmendada en 1989
    47. Chipre Septentrional: 5 de mayo de 1985, aprobada por referéndum
    48. Chipre, 16 de Agosto de 1960
    49. Dinamarca, 5 de junio de 1953
    50. Djibouti, 1991 y 1984. Leyes constitucionales realizadas pro la dictadura de Aptidón.
    51. Dominica: 3 de noviembre de 1978
    52. Ecuador: 10 de Agosto de 1978
    53. Egipto: 11 de Septiembre de 1971
    54. El Salvador: 20 de Diciembre de 1983, modificada en 1991.
    55. Emiratos Árabes unidos: Siembre de 1971, en provisional establecido por la monarquía absolutista.
    56. Eritrea: El país más joven de la tierra esta redactando su primera constitución bajo el gobierno provisional de Osaías Afwerki, Ex líder de la guerrilla del Frente de Liberación popular de la Eritrea (FLPE).
    57. Eslovaquia: El país más joven de Europa se rige bajo la misma constitución de la Republica Checa creada el primero de enero de 1993, ambos estados pertenecían a la antigua Checoslovaquia
    58. Eslovenia, Diciembre de 1991
    59. España, 29 de diciembre de 1978
    60. Estado Vaticano, no hay constitución,(Ley fundamental) 2001
    61. Estados unidos, 1787, tiene 26 enmiendas
    62. Estonia, una nueva constitución fue sometida a referéndum el 28 de junio de 1992, el país Báltico fue uno de los primeros en independizarse y establecer el sistema multipartidista.
    63. Etiopía, promulgada en 1994
    64. Fiji: 25 de julio de 1990
    65. filipinas: El régimen democrática Corazón Aquino estableció una nueva constitución el 2 de febrero de 1987, que fue sometida a referéndum.
    66. Finlandia: 17 de Julio de 1979
    67. Francia: 6 de octubre de 1958
    68. Gabón: 21 de febrero de 1961, modificada por Omar Gongo, uno de los dictadores mas antiguos del mundo en 1967-1975-1981-1986-1990.
    69. Gambia: 24 de abril de 1990 , enmendada en 1982 por el régimen democrático de Dawda K. Jawara.
    70. Georgia: Aprobada en 1995
    71. Ghana: Marzo de 1992, el nuevo régimen democrático somete a referéndum la nueva constitución.
    72. Granada: 1974 fue suspendida por el golpe marxista de 1979 y reestablecida en 1984, luego de la invasión norteamericana.
    73. Grecia: Válida desde 1986
    74.Guatemala: 14 de enero de 1985
    75. Guinea Bissau: 16 de mayo de 1984, bajo la dictadura izquierdista de Luis Cabral y modificada en 1991 por su seguidor Joao Vieira.
    76. Guinea Ecuatorial: Obiang Nguema establece una nueva constitución en noviembre de 1991 y es sometida a consulta popular.
    77. Guinea: 23 de diciembre de 1991
    78. Guyana: El régimen izquierdista de Forbes Burham establece una nueva constitución el 6 de octubre de 1980 y modificada en 1988 por sucesor Desmond Hoyte
    79. Haiti. 1987
    80. Honduras: Noviembre de 1982,
    81. Hungría: 18 de Agosto de 1989. Modificada en 1972, 1983, 1989.
    82. India: 26 de Enero de 1950, Modificada en 1975, 1977, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1988, 1992 en la democracia más grande del mundo.
    83. Indonesia, agosto de 1945, modificada en 1969 por régimen autoritario más antiguo del mundo del dictador Suharto.
    84. Irak: 22 de septiembre de 1968, enmendada en 1969,1970, 1973, y 1974 de manera provisional.
    85. Iran: Creada por el gobierno fundamentalista islámico del desaparecido Ayatollah Khomeini en diciembre de 1979, enmendada en 1989.
    86. Irlanda del Sur: 29 de Diciembre de 1937
    87. Islandia: 17 de junio de 1944
    88. Islas Camoras: 7 de junio 1992
    89. Islas Marianas del norte: 1986
    90. Islas Marshall: 1 de mayo de 1979
    91. Islas Micronesia: 10 de mayo de 1979
    92. Islas Palau: 1 de enero de 1981
    93. Islas Salomón: 7 de julio de 1978
    94. Israel: No existe constitución política como tal sino un conjunto de leyes; desde 1950 se han incorporado durante un periodo no específico.
    95. Italia: 1 de enero de 1948
    96. Jamaica: 6 de Agosto de 1962, conjuntamente con la independencia nacional
    97. Japón: 3 de noviembre de 1946. En vigor en mayo de 1947.
    98. Jordania: 1 de enero de 1952, enmendada en 1974, 1976 y 1984.
    99. Katar: 2 de abril de 1970, creada por la monarquía Absolutista con carácter provisional.
    100. Kazajstán: Aprobada en 1995
    101. Kenya : 12 de diciembre de 1963, enmendada en 1982, 1986, 1991 durante los gobiernos autoritarios de Jommo Kenyata y Danieal Arap Moi.

    Las 10 Constituciones mas jóvenes del mundo

    1) Chad: 1996
    2) Camerún: 1996
    3) Sudáfrica: 1996
    4) Georgia: 1995
    5) Armenia: 1995
    6) Kazajstan:1995
    7) Malwi:1994
    8) Bielorusia:1994
    9) Lusemburgo: 1994
    10) Rusia: 1993

    No Existen constituciones en los siguientes países

    1) Israel
    2) Nueva Zelanda
    3) Reino Unido (Escocia, Inglaterra, Gales, Irlanda del Norte)
    4) San Marino
    5) Vaticano
    6) Bhutan
    7) Omán
    8) Somalia

    Se han suspendido las funciones de la Constitución en los siguientes países

    1) Afganistán: Tras el derrumbe del gobierno marxista en 1992.
    2) Togo: El régimen autoritario de Eyadema la suspendió en 1991, tras los disturbios políticos que reclaman mayor para el multipartidismo al igual que otros países africanos.
    3) Sudán: El nuevo régimen fundamentalista, que llegó vía golpe militar en 1989, suspendió la constitución de 1985 y ahora se rige a base de leyes coránicas.
    4) Venda: El nuevo régimen castrense de 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la constitución.
    5) Ciskei: Los golpistas militares que asumieron el gobierno en 1990 con apoyo de Sudáfrica suspendieron la Constitución.
    6) Myanmar: El régimen castrense que asumió el poder en 1998 prohibió la constitución de 1974.
    7) Burundi: Los golpistas que llegaron al poder a finales de 1993 y derrocaron la primera democracia del país, suspendieron la constitución de marzo de 1992
    8) Transkei: Los golpistas encabezados por el general Bantu Holomisa suspendieron la constitución de 1987.
              Machine Learning in Clojure - part 2        
    I am trying to implement the material from the Machine Learning course on Coursera in Clojure.

    My last post was about doing linear regression with 1 variable. This post will show that the same process works for multiple variables, and then explain why we represent the problem with matrices.

    The only code in this post is calling the functions introduced in the last one. I also use the same examples, so post this will make a lot more sense if you read that one first.

    For reference, here is the linear regression function:

    (defn linear-regression [x Y a i]
    (let [m (first (cl/size Y))
    X (add-ones x)]
    (loop [Theta (cl/zeros 1 (second (cl/size X))) i i]
    (if (zero? i)
    (let [ans (cl/* X (cl/t Theta))
    diffs (cl/- ans Y)
    dx (cl/* (cl/t diffs) X)
    adjust-x (cl/* dx (/ a m))]
    (recur (cl/- Theta adjust-x)
    (dec i)))))))

    Because the regression function works with matrices, it does not need any changes to run a regression over multiple variables.

    Some Examples

    In the English Premier League, a team gets 3 points for a win, and 1 point for a draw. Trying to find a relationship between wins and points gets close to the answer.

    (->> (get-matrices [:win] :pts)
    (print-results "wins->points"))

    ** wins->points **
    A 1x2 matrix
    1.24e+01 2.82e+00

    When we add a second variable, the number of draws, we get close enough to ascribe the difference to rounding error.

    (->> (get-matrices [:win :draw] :pts)
    (print-results "wins+draws->points"))

    ** wins+draws->points **
    A 1x3 matrix
    -2.72e-01 3.01e+00 1.01e+00

    In the last post, I asserted that scoring goals was the key to success in soccer.

    (->> (get-matrices [:for] :pts)
    (print-results "for->points"))

    ** for->points **
    A 1x2 matrix
    2.73e+00 9.81e-01

    If you saw Costa Rica in the World Cup, you know that defense counts for a lot too. Looking at both goals for and against can give a broader picture.

    (->> (get-matrices [:for :against] :pts)
    (print-results "for-against->pts"))

    ** for-against->pts **
    A 1x3 matrix
    3.83e+01 7.66e-01 -4.97e-01

    The league tables contain 20 fields of data, and the code works for any number of variables. Will adding more features (variables) make for a better model?

    We can expand the model to include whether the goals were scored at home or away.

    (->> (get-matrices [:for-h :for-a :against-h :against-a] :pts)
    (print-results "forh-fora-againsth-againsta->pts"))

    ** forh-fora-againsth-againsta->pts **
    A 1x5 matrix
    3.81e+01 7.22e-01 8.26e-01 -5.99e-01 -4.17e-01

    The statistical relationship we have found suggests that that goals scored on the road are with .1 points more than those scored at home. The difference in goals allowed is even greater; they cost .6 points at home and only .4 on the road.

    Wins and draws are worth the same number of points, no matter where the game takes place, so what is going on?

    In many sports there is a “home field advantage”, and this is certainly true in soccer. A team that is strong on the road is probably a really strong team, so the relationship we have found may indeed be accurate.

    Adding more features indiscriminately can lead to confusion.

    (->> (get-matrices [:for :against :played :gd :for-h :for-a] :pts)
    (map *)
    (print-results "kitchen sink”))

    ** kitchen sink **
    (0.03515239958218979 0.17500425607459014 -0.22696465757628984 1.3357911841232217 0.4019689136508527 0.014497060396707949 0.1605071956778842)

    When I printed out this result the first time, the parameter representing the number of games played displayed as a decimal point with no digit before or after. Multiplying each term by 1 got the numbers to appear. Weird.

    The :gd stands for “goal difference” it is the difference between the number of goals that a team scores and the number they give up. Because we are also pulling for and against, this is a redundant piece of information. Pulling home and away goals for makes the combined goals-for column redundant as well.

    All of the teams in the sample played the same number of games, so that variable should not have influenced the model. Looking at the values, our model says that playing a game is worth 1.3 points, and this is more important than all of the other factors combined. Adding that piece of data removed information.

    Let’s look at one more model with redundant data. Lets look at goals for, against and the goal difference, which is just the difference of the two.

    (->> (get-matrices [:for :against :gd] :pts)
    (print-results "for-against-gd->pts"))

    ** for-against-gd->pts **
    A 1x4 matrix
    3.83e+01 3.45e-01 -7.57e-02 4.21e-01

    points = 38.3 + 0.345 * goals-for - 0.0757 * goals-against + 0.421 * goal-difference

    The first term, Theta[0] is right around 38. If a team neither scores nor allows any goals during a season, they will draw all of their matches, earning 38 points. I didn’t notice that the leading term was 38 in all of the cases that included both goals for and against until I wrote this model without the exponents.

    Is this model better or worse than the one that looks at goals for and goals against, without goal difference. I can’t decide.

    Why Matrices?

    Each of our training examples have a series of X values, and one corresponding Y value. Our dataset contains 380 examples (20 teams * 19 seasons).
    Our process is to make a guess as to the proper value for each parameter to multiply the X values by and compare the results in each case to the Y value. We use the differences between the product of our guesses, and the real life values to improve our guesses.

    This could be done with a loop. With m examples and n features we could do something like

    for i = 1 to m 
    guess = 0
    for j = 1 to n
    guess = guess + X[i, j] * Theta[j]
    end for j
    difference[i] = guess - Y
    end for i

    We would need another loop to calculate the new values for Theta.

    Matrices have operations defined that replace the above loops. When we multiply the X matrix by the Theta vector, for each row of X, we multiply each element by the corresponding element in Theta, and add the products together to get the first element of the result.

    Matrix subtraction requires two matrices that are the same size. The result of subtraction is a new matrix that is the same size, where each element is the difference of the corresponding elements in the original matrices.

    Using these two operations, we can replace the loops above with

    Guess = X * Theta
    Difference = Guess - Y

    Clearly the notation is shorter. The other advantage is that there are matrix libraries that are able to do these operations much more efficiently than can be done with loops.

    There are two more operations that our needed in the linear regression calculations. One is multiplying matrices by a single number, called a scalar. When multiplying a matrix by a number, multiply each element by that number. [1 2 3] * 3 = [3 6 9].

    The other operation we perform is called a transpose. Transposing a matrix turns all of its rows into columns, and its columns into rows. In our examples, the size of X is m by n, and the size of Theta is 1 x n. We don’t have any way to multiply an m by n matrix and a 1 by n matrix, but we can multiply a m by n matrix and an n by 1 matrix. The product will be an m by 1 matrix.

    In the regression function there are a couple of transposes to make the dimensions line up. That is the meaning of the cl/t expression. cl is an alias for the Clatrix matrix library.

    Even though we replaced a couple of calculations that could have been done in loops with matrix calculations, we are still performing these calculations in a series of iterations. There is a technique for calculating linear regression without the iterative process called Normal Equation.

    I am not going to discuss normal equation for two reasons. First, I don’t understand the mathematics. Second the process we use, Gradient Descent, can be used with other types of machine learning techniques, and normal equation cannot.

              Andres Oppenheimer: ¡Basta de historias!        
    El bicentenario de la independencia de varios países latinoamericanos ha desatado una oleada de necrofilia: varias naciones están literalmente desenterrando los restos de sus próceres de la independencia en medio de una creciente obsesión con el pasado.

    ¿Se trata de una manera saludable de promover el orgullo y la unidad nacional? ¿O esta obsesión con la historia --que se manifiesta en todos los órdenes, desde los últimos best-sellers hasta los debates en los programas periodísticos de televisión-- es algo que está distrayendo a los países de la urgente tarea de concentrarse en el futuro, para hacerse más competitivos y reducir la pobreza?

    En las últimas semanas, varios jefes de Estado han presidido solemnes ceremonias de exhumación de los restos de los héroes de la independencia de sus países.

    En Venezuela, el presidente Hugo Chávez paralizó el país para desenterrar los restos del libertador Simón Bolívar en una ceremonia televisada a nivel nacional, tras la cual anunció conmovido que había encontrado dentro del ataúd una bota y "la perfecta dentadura'' del prócer de la independencia.

    La broma que circuló en círculos opositores venezolanos tras la trasmisión de la exhumación de los restos de Bolívar era que "Chávez no le mostró a Venezuela los restos de Bolívar, sino que le mostró a Bolívar los restos de Venezuela''.

    Chávez ordenó la exhumación para investigar las causas de la muerte de Bolívar, que según el se habría producido "en circunstancias misteriosas'' y podría haber sido un asesinato perpetrado por "la oligarquía''. Bolívar murió el 17 de diciembre de 1830 en la ciudad colombiana de Santa Marta, y prácticamente todos los historiadores coinciden en que murió de tuberculosis.

    Tras desenterrar los restos de Bolívar, el gobierno venezolano anunció el 29 de agosto que --como parte de la misma investigación-- se exhumarían los restos de dos hermanas de Bolívar. El vicepresidente Elías Jaua dijo que los médicos forenses extraerían un diente de cada una de las hermanas, para examinar su ADN y asegurarse que todos los restos de la familia Bolívar eran auténticos.

    Chávez ha ido mas lejos que otros mandatarios en su obsesión con el pasado: le habla al país a diario ante una enorme imagen de Bolívar, utiliza escritos de Bolívar --por lo general sacados de contexto-- para justificar sus medidas de gobierno, ha pedido que se reemplacen los juguetes de Superman y Batman por muñecos de Bolívar, y hasta le ha cambiado el nombre al país por el de "República Bolívariana de Venezuela''.

    Sin embargo, Chávez esta lejos de ser el único que esta desenterrando muertos.

    * En México, el presidente Felipe Calderón encabezó recientemente un desfile militar en la Avenida de la Reforma de Ciudad de México, para trasladar las urnas de Miguel Hidalgo, José María Morelos y otros diez héroes de la independencia desde las tumbas en la que habían descansado desde 1925 hasta un laboratorio científico en el Museo Nacional de Historia.

    Un grupo de científicos examinarán los restos de los próceres y se asegurarán de que estén bien preservados, antes de trasladarlos al Palacio Nacional, "para que los mexicanos, todos, les brindemos homenaje en este año de la patria'', declaró Calderón.

    * En América Central, varios presidentes se están disputando los restos del héroe de la independencia regional Francisco Morazán, que descansan en El Salvador. El año pasado, el ex presidente hondureño Manuel Zelaya le pidió a su homólogo salvadoreño que entregara los restos a Honduras, para ser sepultados en Tegucigalpa, la capital hondureña.

    El Salvador rechazó la idea con indignación, mientras crecía la especulación de que también Costa Rica pediría los restos de Morazán. El problema es que el general Morazán nació en Honduras en 1792, fue ejecutado en 1842 en Costa Rica y, según su última voluntad, fue sepultado en El Salvador, explicaron los historiadores.

    Según la prensa salvadoreña, los gobiernos de los tres países centroamericanos consideraron seriamente la posibilidad de prestarse mutuamente los restos de Morazán por períodos de varios meses. La propuesta --que algunos calificaron de turismo funerario-- suscitó intensas objeciones de intelectuales salvadoreños.

    * En Ecuador, el presidente Rafael Correa ya había empleado buena parte de su tiempo al comienzo de su presidencia en una campaña nacional para trasladar los restos del héroe de la independencia Eloy Alfaro desde Guayaquil a un nuevo mausoleo que el presidente mandó a construir en la ciudad de Montecristi. Pero los descendientes de Alfaro objetaron el traslado, generando un debate nacional. Finalmente, se llegó a una decisión salomónica: parte de las cenizas de Alfaro permanecerían en Guayaquil, y la otra parte sería trasladada a Montecristi. "Esto acabará con los enfrentamientos'', anunció triunfalmente Correa.

    * En Argentina, el ex presidente Néstor Kirchner había ordenado previamente el traslado de los restos del ex mandatario Juan Domingo Perón, quien murió en 1974, a un nuevo mausoleo a 45 kilómetros de Buenos Aires.

    La caravana oficial que llevaba el ataúd con los restos de Perón terminó en un pandemonio cuando varias facciones peronistas se enfrentaron a golpes.

    Muchos historiadores argumentan, con razón, que los países latinoamericanos son repúblicas jóvenes que necesitan consolidar su carácter nacional, y que celebrar su historia es una buena forma de hacerlo. Pero quizás muchos presidentes latinoamericanos están exagerado la nota, porque también es cierto que los escritos de los próceres del siglo XIX no siempre pueden ser usados textualmente para los programas de gobierno del siglo XXI.

    Estamos viviendo en un mundo diferente. Bolívar murió en 1830. Eso fue 40 años antes de la invención del teléfono, y 150 años antes de la aparición de la internet.

    Sin olvidar --ni dejar de homenajear-- a sus grandes hombres, los países latinoamericanos deberían mirar más lo que están haciendo China, India, y otras potencias emergentes que están totalmente concentradas en el futuro.

    En vez de invertir tanto tiempo debatiendo sobre dónde deberían descansar sus próceres, los presidentes latinoamericanos deberían dedicar más tiempo a debatir por qué los jóvenes de sus países están entre los últimos lugares en los exámenes anuales internacionales PISA de matemáticas, ciencias y lenguaje; o por qué no hay ninguna universidad latinoamericana entre las 100 mejores del mundo del ranking del Suplemento de Educación Superior del Times de Londres; o por qué apenas el 2 por ciento de toda la inversión mundial en investigación y desarrollo va a Latinoamérica; o por qué según cifras de las Naciones Unidas la pequeña nación asiática de Corea del Sur registra 80,000 patentes anualmente en el resto del mundo, mientras que todos los países latinoamericanos juntos registran menos de 1,200.

    Es hora de que Latinoamérica mire un poco menos hacia atrás, y un poco más hacia adelante. Y que sus presidentes cuenten menos historias, y se dediquen mas a mejorar la calidad de la educación, la ciencia y la tecnología.

    Articulo extraido del diario El Nuevo Herald


              COSTA RICA: Consumo de quinua incentiva creación de un mercado nacional        

    Se le conoce como un “superalimento” por ser fuente de proteínas de calidad, fibra dietética, grasas poliinsaturadas y minerales. Originaria del América del Sur, la quinua ( quinoa, en inglés) es un grano que llegó a Costa Rica hace menos de dos años y ha generado un dinamismo constante entre los comercios y consumidores en poco tiempo.

    Se puede consumir como una harina en sustituto del arroz, mezclada con leguminosas o como cereal, entre otros usos.

    En la lengua quechua, a la quinua se le llama chisiya , que significa “grano madre”.

    La importación de este grano a Costa Rica se registró por primera vez en el 2012, pero en cuestión de un año, la cifra se triplicó y para el 2013 se invirtieron $48.400 en su compra.

    Juan José Porras, comprador de Categoría de Automercado, confirmó que durante los últimos seis meses, las ventas de quinua han crecido un 93% en valor y un 109% en unidades.

    Aunque su consumo está aumentando, todavía no es tan fácil de obtener como el arroz o los frijoles. Automercado, Grupo Jinca, Andean Valley y Green Center son distribuidores del grano, que proviene en su mayoría de Perú y una parte de España.

    Eliana Cabra, encargada de la parte comercial y comercio exterior en Grupo Jinca, comentó que comercializan quinua desde hace un año y es un producto demandado por deportistas, personas en dieta, intolerantes al gluten, vegetarianas o simplemente aquellos que quieren comer saludable y están anuentes a buscar otras alternativas.

    Nacidos para la quinua

    La empresa internacional Andean Valley ingresó a Costa Rica hace diez meses con el único objetivo de comercializar quinua.

    María José Pereira, gerente general, detalló que venden tres tipos de quinua, todas orgánicas, provenientes de Bolivia, único lugar donde se produce la variedad llamada Real.

    Desde que iniciaron, las ventas se han mantenido en crecimiento y confían que este 2014 permanezcan iguales.

    Entre sus clientes se incluyen consumidores independientes, hoteles y restaurantes de alta gama como Inka Grill, la Divina Comida, Chancay y Saga.

    Uno de los factores que ha influenciado en este ritmo acelerado de ventas es que durante el 2013 se realizó el Año Internacional de la Quinua, establecido por la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Alimentación y la Agricultura (FAO), lo que dio a conocer mundialmente el grano y sus propiedades.

    Pereira estimó que la presencia en Costa Rica de turistas estadounidenses y europeos también ha incidido en el aumento de la demanda, pues son países acostumbrados a consumirlo.

    “Es un alimento que llegó para quedarse, no creo que sea estacional; en otros países llevan 30 años consumiéndolo”, añadió Pereira.

    América consume el grano desde hace muchísimos años, pues constituyó uno de los principales cultivos alimentarios de las culturas precolombinas.

    Otros “superalimentos”

    La llegada de la quinua a Costa Rica viene de la mano con el ingreso reciente de otros “superalimentos”, tales como la chía y el cuscús, originarios de Mesoamérica y Oriente Medio, respectivamente.

    La chía es una planta herbácea de la cual se aprovechan las semillas. Contiene altos niveles de Omega 3 y se puede consumir sola o como un ingrediente de panadería, entre otros usos.

    Fernanda Pía, gerente de comunicaciones de Green Center, confirmó que las ventas de chía han sido tan dinámicas como las de la quinua. Este local lo comercializa desde hace año y medio.

    En cuanto al cuscús, se trata más bien de un alimento ya preparado, popular en la dieta mediterránea. Se fabrica a base de sémola de trigo duro y a veces de cebada o de trigo verde.

    Con frecuencia se utiliza como sustituto de arroz, pero no es tan rico en vitaminas y minerales como otros granos enteros.

    POR LETICIA VINDAS QUIRÓS / / 02 FEB 2014, 12:10 AM

              Comment on Concrete buffet and I keep gettin’ a little teary eyed… by Maya        
    You're my hero and I'm on the boat to Costa Rica with you. You think they'd have us with our zoo in tow?
              five years!         

    Five years!  Five years ago, Patrick and I quit our jobs to travel around the world. 

    Last year was the year of staying still.  But, this year, we've found our traveling feet again, learning --- albeit slowly --- how to travel with a baby/toddler. 

    Costa Rica
    Costa Rica chips Cheese in Costa Rica
    Sloth at Manuel Antonio Costa Rica monkey
    Costa Rica hiking with a baby Costa Rica with Akila

    Highlights from our trip to Costa Rica

    Costa Rica:  Our first international trip with Amara was to Costa Rica.  The people in that country embrace pura vida and were so welcoming and accommodating of us, as we learned how (not) to travel with a baby.  We didn't pack enough clothes for her so we were constantly doing laundry.  We didn't realize that the time change would affect her so significantly so that by 7:00 p.m., she couldn't stay awake another moment longer.  We didn't count on how heavy a 14 pound baby can get on a four hour hike. 

    Despite the hiccups, we learned how to see the world through her eyes.  We spent leisurely afternoons, playing with plastic water bottles and meandering through butterfly gardens and jungles in Costa Rica.  We gorged on maduros and panela cheese.  We drank coconut water in the shade.  We pointed out sloths and monkeys to our baby. 

    We traveled and loved it.  Yes, our baby was a traveler and we were going to love traveling with her.

     Airavatesvara Temple
     Puducherry  hotel  Sai temple
    India with my family India

    Highlights from India

    India:  Then, we headed to India for a month.  Chennai is not picturesque, charming, or particularly interesting.  Rather, its main attraction is the love that envelops us as soon as we enter that city.  I have over 150 relatives in Chennai, who, despite not seeing us for years or years, welcome us every time with open arms, gifts, and (what I appreciate the most) platters of food.

    And, this time around, we brought Amara with us, who quickly endeared herself to everyone.  She was pampered in Chennai and so were we.  There were always ten other hands who wanted to hold, feed, rock, and carry her.  Amara woke us up at 5:00 in the morning when the sun rose and the temple bells started clanging, and we handed her over to my uncle, aunt, and grandmother, and she happily played with them until we arose.  My cousins bought toys and beautiful silk pavadais for her.  My great-aunt made her fresh homemade yogurt each day.  And, when we walked from temple to temple, someone was always ready to pray for her.

    We left Chennai for a week and a half to explore other parts of Tamil Nadu.  We swam in the mostly empty pool at our (very reasonably priced) resort in Puducherry and walked the deserted beaches.  We drove to Tanjore and Kumbakonam to visit the stunning Chola Temples, which surprised me with their gorgeous carvings, rivaling those we saw in Angkor Wat.

    And, did I mention that we ate?  Oh, yes, we ate so much that we all gained several pounds by our return.  Highlights included the banana flower curries prepared by my aunt, the stunning assortment of food at the Chennai fresh market, and the thin, crisp dosas filled with masala in Puducherry.

    . . . keep reading five years! after the jump


              the atlanta food & wine festival 2014 recap        

    Peach sliders at the Atlanta Food & Wine Festival 2014

    Peach sliders from Revolution Donuts

    Recently, I was telling a friend about how I was at Ben & Jerry's on a press trip and heading to the Atlanta Food & Wine Festival for media coverage.  They laughed and said that it didn't sound like "work." 

    It is work.  It's just that I happen to have a great job.

    Every now and again, I pinch myself to make sure that this is real.

    Andouille sausage with polenta Crab benedict
    Peach and ricotta dumplings
    Pancakes Empire breakfast at AF&WF

    Empire Breakfast at Atlanta Food & Wine Festival

    I landed head-first into this whole writing thing, because a passion for food, travel, and writing came together on this personal pet project, and people liked what I had to say.

    Passion rules the world, yes?  And, when, we are passionate, we produce great things.  It's the story of humanity. 

    And, it's the story I heard over and over again at the Atlanta Food & Wine Festival.