Comment on Say Yes to the Dress by Becky        
Dear Carly, I appreciate so much your desire and willingness to donate a wedding gown to the Women’s Recycle Center. Your dress will help them to come even closer to the goal of self-sufficiency. You will not find them on the web as they do not have computers or have many people who can speak English in this impoverished country. There are a few Heaven’s Family ministry directors who make this trip yearly and we will bring the gowns with us and hand deliver them. Our beloved contact, Simeon Muhunga, has been working tirelessly to help over 100 abused women for several years. It is a dream he has had for a long time and it is very slowly coming to pass, and many thanks to you and others, who have a heart of compassion for them. The way to get the gowns to us is to mail them to: Heaven’s Family P.O. Box 12854, Pittsburgh, PA 15241 May the Lord richly bless you for your compassion upon the women in DR Congo and their families. Becky Servant
          Coup de cœur Événement: Au-delà        
Au Musée du Quai Branly du 3 au 14 juin Au Congo-Brazzaville, le chorégraphe, danseur et musicien DeLaVallet Bidiefono, originaire de la Pointe-Noire, fait figure de pionnier de la danse contemporaine. [...]
          FUTEBOL NA GUERRA        

Em tempo de Guerra o futebol teve vez até no front




Pegando o gancho do post anterior sobre centenário, em 2014 também marca um século do início da I Guerra Mundial, conflito sangrento ocorrido principalmente na Europa e que deixou um saldo de milhões e milhões de mortos entre soldados, civis e até animais. 

De um lado os "Aliados", compostos por França, Grã-Bretanha, Rússia, Bélgica, Sérvia, Itália (começou o embate como adversária, mas se aliou em 1915) e Estados Unidos; do outro, Alemanha, Áustria-Hungria, Império Otomano e Bulgária formavam as "Potências Centrais". O confronto bélico se iniciou em 1914 e só veio ter fim em 1918 com a derrota das Potências, a queda dos otomanos e a consequente assinatura do Tratado de Versailles por parte dos alemães em 1919.

Contudo, mesmo em tempos de guerra o futebol continuava a ser praticado - não só nos países com seus campeonatos locais, mas também no campo de batalha. Foram vários relatos, documentos, registros fotográficos e livros tratando do assunto, quando soldados aproveitavam os breves momentos de descanso e/ou cessar fogo não-oficiais para se divertirem com a bola nos pés.

O cartaz acima foi uma motivação para os jovens ingleses ingressarem no front, visto a declaração do jornal germânico "Frankfurter Zeitung" de que os britânicos "não eram de nada". Já a foto é de 25 de dezembro de 1915, num campo próximo à Salonika na Grécia, numa das chamadas "Tréguas de Natal", em que soldados de ambos os lados faziam um cessar fogo para celebrarem os festejos de fim de ano.

O 17º Regimento de Middlesex ficou conhecido como o "Batalhão do Futebol" ou "The Extremers" ("Os Extemados") devido à maioria de seus componentes serem à época jogadores de futebol. Tal ideia partiu de William Joynson-Hicks, membro do Parlamento britânico. O objetivo principal era despertar o nacionalismo através do futebol. Dirigentes dos clubes e árbitros também se alistaram.

O grupo teve como um de seus líderes o escocês Richard McFadden, atacante do Clapton Orient (hoje Leyton Orient) que entre 1911 e 1915 era o ídolo maior do clube e seu maior artilheiro. O jogador morreu durante os confrontos e hoje é reverenciado pelos torcedores do modesto time inglês ao lado de dois colegas de equipe também mortos na guerra, William Jonas e George Scott.

Os jogos nos terrenos castigados pela guerra muitas vezes eram à base do improviso: bolas feitas de lata, entulhos diversos e arames; as traves muitas vezes eram apenas as botas dos soldados alinhadas e os combatentes corriam atrás da vitória mesmo com seus pesados uniformes. 


Ingleses e alemães rivalizavam também nas peladas durante a guerra



O ex-combatente Ernie Williams, em uma entrevista à rede BBC inglesa há alguns anos, recordou uma das partidas mais famosas da época. "Uma bola foi lançada do lado dos alemães e, em poucos instantes, vários soldados começaram a jogar. Havia umas 200 pessoas e todas pareciam estar se divertindo. Ninguém com más intenções entre nós e não havia juiz, nem placar". 

Vários jogadores britânicos, que inclusive atuavam por suas seleções, estiveram no "Batalhão do Futebol" durante as batalhas de Deville Wood e Guillemont  - essas duas na Batalha do Somme - e na Batalha de Arras em 1917. Nomes como o do já citado escocês McFadden, do zagueiro Frank Buckley (Bardford City e Inglaterra), do meiocampista Lyndon Sandoe (Cardiff City e País de Gales) e todo o time do Hearts of Midlothian da Escócia engrossaram as fileiras nas trincheiras da I Guerra Mundial.


Exeter City de 1914: sete dos jogadores que enfrentaram o Brasil foram à guerra



Na postagem anterior  relembramos os 100 anos de história da Seleção Brasileira de futebol. E em sua primeira partida o adversário foi o inglês Exeter City, com vitória brasileira por 2 a 0 no campo da Rua Guanabara, atual Laranjeiras, no Rio de Janeiro. A I Guerra estava em seu começo no dia 21 de julho daquele ano, mas devido às dificuldades de comunicação da época os britânicos ainda não tinham conhecimento do conflito - só ficaram sabendo quando estavam retornando à Europa a bordo do navio Alcântara.

Relatos de alguns dos jogadores deram conta de que com o navio portando uma bandeira inglesa em seu mastro houve o temor da embarcação ser atacada pelas forças inimigas. Porém, felizmente a viagem foi realizada sem transtornos e os únicos tiros ouvidos foram de navios franceses como advertência para o confronto durante a passagem pelo Canal da Mancha.

Aidan Hamilton, autor do livro "Have you ever played Brazil? - The story of Exeter City's 1914 tour to South America" ("Você já jogou contra o Brasil? - A história da turnê de 1914 do Exeter City pela América do Sul", inédito no Brasil), relata que 7 dos 11 jogadores que entraram em campo no histórico jogo contra os brasileiros foram convocados para a guerra: o goleiro Reg Loram, o médio e capitão do time Jimmy Rigby, os zagueiros Jack Fort e Sammy Strettle, e os atacantes Charlie Pratt, Billy Lovett, Fred Goodwin e Fred Whittaker - estes dois últimos integrando o "Batalhão do Futebol". Ainda segundo Hamilton, Goodwin sofreu sérios ferimentos nos confrontos e jamais voltou a atuar. 

Afora estes citados, quatro atletas dos quadros do clube inglês que não estiveram presentes na excursão ao continente americano, também se alistaram: William Kirby, Arthur Evans, Fred Hunt e Kadie White - todos mortos no conflito.


Todo o time do Hearts, da Escócia, participou da I Guerra




O alistamento militar na Grã-Bretanha não era obrigatório até 1916, por isso o governo teve que apelar para o nacionalismo aliado ao futebol, já que era a principal prática esportiva da ilha europeia naquele tempo. Atraídos por esse chamamento patriótico, todos os jogadores do escocês Hearts alistou-se em 1914 no "Batalhão do Futebol" para os combates contra os alemães e seus aliados.

O galês Bertie Felstead, outro ex-combatente da I Guerra, registrou em um relato encontrado após sua sua morte em 2001 que "não era um jogo propriamente dito, eram todos contra todos em que chutávamos a bola sem objetivo. Poderia haver uns 50 de cada lado, eu acho. Eu joguei porque realmente gostava de futebol. Não sei quanto tempo durou. Provavelmente uma meia hora, e ninguém estava contando o placar". 

Ou seja, o futebol serviu como instrumento de integração e paz entre as forças rivais, tal qual como aconteceu em fevereiro de 1969, quando o Santos de Pelé fez uma excursão pela África. Na ocasião o time paulista conseguiu que o Zaire (atual República Democrática do Congo), que vivia um grande conflito interno entre blocos étnicos e políticos, vivesse um dia de cessar fogo para que a população pudesse acompanhar o maior jogador do planeta e seus companheiros em campo.

O "Batalhão do Futebol" foi desmobilizado em 1918, ano do fim da guerra, e contabilizou várias perdas para o esporte britânico. Em 2010 foi erguido o memorial para o 17º Regimento de Middlesex na cidade francesa de Longueval, no norte do país. Placas de granito com nomes dos atletas/combatentes mortos encontram-se no local para que os fãs de diversos clubes possam prestar homenagens aos seus heróis das batalhas nos campos de futebol e de guerra.




Cartaz: Johnson, Riddle & Co., Ltd., de Londres/ING
Foto 1: Getty Images
Foto 2: Chester Chronicle
Fotos 3 e 4: Autor desconhecido


          DO ÁPICE AO FUNDO DO POÇO EM APENAS UMA TEMPORADA        

Flu (1) pode se juntar ao Milan (2) como campeão num ano e rebaixado no outro




O tradicional Fluminense pode entrar num rol nada agradável neste domingo na última rodada do Brasileiro. O tricolor das Laranjeiras pode se tornar o 60º clube da história do futebol a ser rebaixado para a segunda divisão nacional apenas uma temporada após ter sido campeão. 

Dentre os atuais 59 constam times da grandeza de LDU/EQU, Universidad Católica/CHL, Manchester City/ING, Olympique de Marselha/FRA e Milan/ITA. Entretanto, esses dois últimos caíram por motivos extracampo. 

A equipe inglesa caiu após ser campeão de uma forma curiosa na temporada (1937/38): com saldo positivo de gols, marcando 80 vezes - mais até que o então campeão Arsenal. Entretanto o número de derrotas culminou com a ida à segundona.

Já Olympique (1994) e Milan (1980) foram campeões na temporada anterior e rebaixados na seguinte  em suas respectivas ligas devido a escândalos de manipulação de resultados, que custou até a participação dos franceses da decisão do Mundial Interclubes de 1993.

A Juventus de Turim chegou a ser campeã italiana em 2004/2005 e  na temporada seguinte disputar a Serie B. Contudo, o título da Vecchia Signora foi retirado pela Federação Italiana.

A Noruega e a Suécia são os países em que mais esse tipo de situação aconteceu: 4 vezes. Curiosamente a Finlândia e a Dinamarca aparecem logo a seguir com 3 ao lado de mais alguns outros pelo planeta, fazendo até parece que tal situação estranha é uma especialidade nórdica.

Editado (às 21h10 do dia 08/12/2013): O Fluminense tornou-se o 60º clube a ser rebaixado uma temporada depois de ter sido campeão nacional após a última rodada do Campeonato Brasileiro neste domingo.

Abaixo, a lista dos 60 times que foram do céu ao inferno no intervalo de apenas uma temporada. Entre parênteses, na ordem, os anos em que foram campeões e rebaixados logo a seguir. 


* Alemanha

- 1.FC Nürnberg (1968 - 1969)


* Argélia

- Entente Sportive de Sétif (1987 - 1988)
- USM El Harrach (1998 - 1999)


* Andorra

- Constel-lació Esportiva (2000 - 2000)
Obs.: Rebaixado na mesma temporada por envolvimento em irregularidades financeiras.


* Aruba

- San Luis Deportivo (1984 - 1985)


* Áustria

- FC Tirol Innsbruck (2002 - 2002)
Obs.: Rebaixado pela federação por não ter suas contas aprovadas.


* Brasil

- Fluminense (2012 - 2013)


* Bolívia

- Universitario de La Paz (1969 - 1970)
- Jorge Wilstermann (Apertura 2010 - Clausura 2010)


* Camarões

- Aigle Nkongsamba (1994 - 1995)


* Chile

- Universidad Católica (1954 - 1955)


* Costa Rica

- El Carmen FC (1961 - 1961)
Obs.: Rebaixado na mesma temporada após conflitos com outros clubes e a federação, que formularam a disputa de um "playoff" após o campeonato nacional e que terminou com o atual campeão ficando na última colocação.


* Dinamarca

- KB (1950 - 1951)
- Hvidovre (1973 - 1974)
- Herfølge BK (2000 - 2001)


* Equador

- LDU (1999 - 2000)


* Finlândia

- Ilves-Kissat (1950 - 1951)
- TPV (1994 - 1995)
- Haka Valkeakoski (1995 - 1996)


* França

- Olympique Marseille (1993 - 1994)
Obs.: Rebaixado após escândalos de manipulação de resultados.


* Guiné

- AS Kaloum Star (2007 - 2008)
Obs.: Rebaixado após dois WO's no campeonato por problemas contratuais com patrocinadores.


* Guiné-Bissau

- UDIB (2003 - 2004)
Obs.: Rebaixado após WO's nas duas primeiras rodadas da temporada
- Atlético Bissorã (2011 - 2013)
Obs.: Não houve competição em 2012.


* Holanda

- RC Heemstede (1953 - 1954)


* Ilhas Faroe

- B71 (1989 - 1990)


* Indonésia

- PSIS (1999 - 2000)
- Petrokimia Putra (2002 -2003)
- Persebaya (2004 - 2005)
Obs.: Rebaixado após se recusar a disputar a última partida do playoff em 2005.


* Inglaterra

- Manchester City (1937 - 1938)


* Irlanda

- Shelbourne (2006 - 2006)
Obs.: Rebaixado pela federação por não ter as contas aprovadas.


* Israel

- Hapoel Kfar-Saba (1982 - 1983)
- Hapoel Tel-Aviv (1988 - 1989)


* Itália

- Milan (1979 - 1980)
Obs.: Rebaixado após escândalos de manipulação de resultados.


* Jamaica

- Violet Kickers (1996 - 1997)


* Luxemburgo

- Union Luxembourg (1927 - 1928)


* Macau

- Monte Carlo (2008 - 2009)
Obs.: Rebaixado após divergências com a federação e com o Macau FC.


* Malta

- Rabat Ajax (1986 - 1987)


* México

- Marte (1954 - 1955)


* Nigéria

- Stationery Stores (1992 - 1993)
Obs.: Rebaixado após vários WO's nos jogos fora de casa.
- Shooting Stars (1998 - 1999)
- Bayelsa United (2009 - 2010)


* Noruega

- Freidig (1948 - 1949)
- Fram (1950 -1951)
- SK Brann (1963 - 1964)
- Lyn (1968 - 1969)


* País de Gales

- Barry Town (2003 - 2004)
- Rhyl (2009 - 2010)
Obs.: Rebaixado após não conseguir a licença para a disputa da nova liga criada.


* Polônia

- Ogniwo Bytom (1954 - 1955)
Obs: Rebaixado após fundir-se com o Szombierki Bytom e mudar seu nome para Polonia Bytom.


* República do Congo

- Saint Michel de Ouenzé (2010 - 2011)


* República Dominicana

- Deportivo Pantoja (2001 - 2002)
- Baninter/Jarabacoa (2003 - 2005)
Obs.: Não houve competição em 2004.


* Rússia (então União Soviética)

- CDSA Moscou (1951 - 1952)
Obs.: Rebaixado pela federação após a pífia participação soviéticas nas Olimpíadas de 1952, no qual o time era a base da seleção de futebol.


* Santa Lúcia

- Roots Alley Ballers (2009 - 2010)


* San Marino

- La Fiorita (1990 - 1991)


* Suécia

- Helsingborgs IF (1934 - 1935)
- GAIS (1954 - 1955)
- Djurgårdens IF (1959 - 1960)
- IFK Göteborg (1969 - 1970)


* Uzbequistão

- MHSK Tashkent (1997 - 1998)


* Vietnã

- Cang Saigon (2002 - 2003)





Foto 1: André Durão - Globoesporte.com
Foto 2: Autor desconhecido

          Operação Tapa Buraco no Jardim Veneza        
Cornélio Procópio - A Secretaria Municipal de Obras concluiu ontem, o acesso ao bairro Jardim Veneza, às margens da rodovia PR-160, no contorno oeste da cidade. Segundo o Secretário Aílton Dias, Além da Avenida Mário Land, outras vias de acesso ao centro da cidade também serão beneficiadas com a melhoria da malha viária. O secretário de Obras Aílton Dias explicou ainda, que a operação tapa buraco e o recapeamento de Ruas e Avenidas naquela área da cidade será levada para todos os bairros do município e no distrito de Congonhas oportunamente. "A população está aflita e muito ansiosa por estes serviços, mas não se faz nada do dia para a noite. é preciso um pouco mais de paciência porque o prefeito Amin Hannouche quer todas as ruas com problemas devidamente restauradas. Nossa equipe ainda é pequena para um serviço tão grande. Estamos fazendo o possível para atender a esta grande demanda", concluiu Aílton Dias. (Comunicação/Prefeitura)
          Comissão define programação da Semana da Pátria em Cornélio Procópio        
Cornélio Procópio – A Comissão Organizadora das comemorações da “Semana da Pátria” se reuniu nesta segunda-feira para definir a programação oficial do evento e do tradicional desfile de 7 de setembro. A presidente da Comissão Maria Lídia Funari Pimenta informou que este ano, o desfile será realizado na Avenida Minas Gerais a partir da Avenida Santos Dumont até a prefeitura do Município. Também ficou definido que o horário para a concentração das escolas será às 8 horas e início do desfile às 8h30m. Também foi confirmada a realização do Desfile Cívico de 7 de Setembro no Distrito de Congonhas, às 16 horas. A programação da Semana da Pátria começa no dia 1º de setembro, às 9 horas em solenidade prevista para ser realizada na frente do prédio da prefeitura. Haverá missa em Ação de Graças no dia 3 de setembro na Catedral Cristo Rei e Culto Ecumênico no dia 7 de setembro em local ainda ser definido. Participaram da reunião, representantes da Secretaria Municipal de Educação, Núcleo Regional de Educação, Policia Militar, Tiro de Guerra 05/002, Fecop, Secretarias de Cultura e Comunicação da Prefeitura. A programação completa deverá ser divulgada nos próximos dias. (Comunicação/Prefeitura).
          Tragedy in Beni: a crisis foretold?        

In August, at least 42 civilians were hacked to death with machetes in Beni, Eastern DR Congo. It was not the first time such violence has taken place, and it may not be the last. So how can the killing be stopped? Peace Direct has released a briefing on the situation in Congo.

The post Tragedy in Beni: a crisis foretold? appeared first on Peace Direct.


          From the ground up: building just and peaceful communities in DR Congo        

For many living in war-torn DR Congo, access to fast and effective justice is rare. Local disputes over land, farming or marriage can quickly escalate to wider violence that feeds into complex local conflicts. This leaves people without ways of resolving their conflicts peacefully and can entrench dangerous cycles of violence. Here, FOCHI's Peace Courts are having a big impact for people on the ground.

The post From the ground up: building just and peaceful communities in DR Congo appeared first on Peace Direct.


          Exclusive interview: the man who helped rescue 1,500 child soldiers        

During a recent visit to DR Congo, Claire May (Head of Programme Funding) interviewed 30-year-old Blaise, a former combatant who now works for our partner Centre Résolution Conflits (CRC) rescuing and reintegrating soldiers from the bush. Here is his story.

The post Exclusive interview: the man who helped rescue 1,500 child soldiers appeared first on Peace Direct.


          Top Ten Blog Entries of 2012        

Just saw Ray Camden's Most-viewed blog entries of 2012 post and it made me curious about the most-viewed posts on my blog over the last year. A little bit of SQL and some regex query and replace produced this list:

Adobe ColdFusion Developer Week42385
Clojure at cf.Objective()?42187
clojure.java.jdbc 0.2.238794
DI/1 0.3.1 released38191
FW/1 (for Clojure) Updated37331
Clojure 1.4.0, clj-time, congomongo36092
clojure.java.jdbc 0.1.435726
clojure.java.jdbc 0.2.335634
Remote Debugging35543
Clojure & CFML Sitting In A Tree35300

Nice to see that a fairly generic CFML post was the top entry, and that DI/1 has garnered quite a bit of interest. I was actually surprised that the Clojure JDBC library announcements were so popular. Five of those top ten posts are tagged with 'coldfusion' (and often other tags too) so I figured I'd also post the next five most popular CFML-related posts:

Clojure & CFML Sitting In A Tree Down Under32672
Work at World Singles? CFML / Clojure Developer wanted!32237
FW/1 1.2 and Open BlueDragon32201
World Singles is Hiring! Again!31206
Java, CFML and Frameworks29644

Two of my hiring-related posts got a lot of traffic - those old posts refer to positions that are no longer available but if you're still interested in working at World Singles, check out my most recent post about the three positions currently open!


          IL NOSTRO TRADITORE TIPO        


“Qual è la cosa più atroce e tremenda che hai visto nella tua vita? Ovunque tu sia stato. A parte la canna dell’Uzi di un signore della droga puntata in faccia. I bambini con il ventre gonfio e le mani mozze che muoiono di stenti in Congo, che urlano disperati per la fame senza nemmeno la forza di piangere? I padri castrati con il cazzo cacciato in bocca e le orbite piene di mosche? Le donne con le baionette infilate nella fica?”
Luke non aveva mai prestato servizio in Congo, quindi suppose che Hector stesse descrivendo la sua esperienza personale.
“Noi abbiamo il nostro equivalente” osservò.
“Cioè, fammi qualche esempio.”
“Le grandi manovre del governo colombiano. Con l’aiuto degli americani, ovviamente. Villaggi incendiati. Abitanti stuprati in massa dalle bande, torturati, fatti a pezzi. Tutti massacrati eccetto l’unico superstite lasciato in vita per raccontarlo agli altri.”
“Già. Bé, ne abbiamo visto di cose in giro per il mondo” osservò Hector. “Non siamo stati a menarcelo.”
“No.”
“ E i flussi di denaro sporco, i profitti ricavati dalla sofferenza, abbiamo assistito anche a quello. Solo in Colombia, miliardi. L’hai visto con i tuoi occhi.  Lo sa Dio quanto valeva il tuo uomo.” Non aspettò la risposta. “Nel Congo, miliardi. In Afghanistan, miliardi. Cazzo, un ottavo dell’economia mondiale: in nero, nero come l’inferno. Noi lo sappiamo.”
“Sì, lo sappiamo.”
“Denaro di sangue. Ecco cos’è.”
“Sì.”
“Non importa dove. Può essere in una scatola sotto il letto di un signore della guerra in Somalia, come in una banca di Londra vicino alla vecchia zona portuale. Il colore non cambia. Rimane sempre denaro di sangue.”
“Immagino di sì.”
“Non c’è niente di affascinante, non ci sono scuse. I profitti dell’estorsione, dello spaccio di droga, dell’omicidio, dell’intimidazione, degli stupri di massa, della schiavitù: è denaro di sangue. Dimmi se sto esagerando.”
“Non stai esagerando.”
“Ci sono solo quattro modi per fermare tutto ciò. Primo: dai la caccia ai responsabili. Li prendi, li ammazzi o li sbatti dentro. Se ci riesci. Secondo dai la caccia al prodotto. Lo intercetti prima che arrivi sulle strade o nei mercati. Se ci riesci. Terzo: blocchi i profitti, mandi in rovina quei bastardi.”
Una pausa fastidiosa, mentre Hector sembrava riflettere su argomenti non alla portata di Luke. Stava pensando agli spacciatori di eroina che avevano ridotto il figlio a un avanzo di galera e a un tossico? O agli avvoltoi capitalisti?       
“E poi c’è il quarto modo” proseguì Hector. “Davvero orribile, il più sicuro, il più semplice, il più conveniente, il più comune, quello che crea meno difficoltà. Te ne fotti di quelli che sono stati ridotti alla fame, che sono stati stuprati, torturati, dei morti per droga. Al diavolo i costi umani. Il denaro non puzza, se ci appartiene ed è tanto. Soprattutto pensa in grande. Becchi i pesci piccoli ma lasci in giro gli squali. Un tizio ricicla un paio di milioni? E’ un volgare truffatore. Fai intervenire l’autorità, mettilo ai ferri. Ma se ricicla qualche miliardo? Bé allora la faccenda è diversa. I miliardi rientrano nelle statistiche.” Con gli occhi chiusi, immerso nei suoi pensieri, a Luke Hector per un attimo parve una maschera mortuaria. “Non devi per forza essere d’accordo con tutto questo, Lukie” disse gentilmente, ridestandosi dalle sue fantasticherie. “La porta è aperta. Considera la mia reputazione, a questo punto un sacco di gente se ne andrebbe.” (...)

(John le Carré IL NOSTRO TRADITORE TIPO mondadori, Milano 2010)

          LA LEYENDA DE TARZÁN        

Película: La leyenda de Tarzán. Título original: The legend of Tarzan.Dirección: David Yates. País: USAAño: 2016. Duración: 110 min.Género: AcciónaventurasReparto: Alexander SkarsgÃ¥rd, Margot Robbie, Samuel L. Jackson, Christoph Waltz, Djimon Hounsou, John Hurt.Música: Mario Grigorov. Estreno en España: 22 Julio 2016.

Han pasado años desde que el hombre una vez conocido como Tarzán (Alexander SkarsgÃ¥rd) dejara atrás las junglas de África para vivir una vida burguesa como John Clayton III, Lord Greystoke, con su amada esposa Jane (Margot Robbie) a su lado.  Y ahora, le han invitado a volver al Congo para servir como emisario comercial del Parlamento, desconociendo que es un peón en una terrible encrucijada de avaricia y venganza planeada por el capitán belga Leon Rom. Pero quienes se encuentran detrás de la trama homicida no tienen ni idea de lo que están a punto de desencadenar.


Tiene gracia que un russoniano convencido como por fuerza debía de ser Edgar Rice Burroughs se pasase la jubilación de la manera más hobbesiana posible: escribiendo en una guerra como corresponsal. Sus crónicas sobre el ataque japonés a Pearl Harbor contrastan con aquella reedición del mito del buen salvaje que escribió desde el rancho de su hermano en Idaho, tan lejos de la selva que le sirvió para levantar un imperio. Hoy, más de 100 años e infinitas adaptaciones después, un actor sueco (¿hay algo más civilizado que eso?) encarna al hombre criado por monos para continuar aquella tradición pre-revolucionaria en la que el hombre es, por naturaleza, bueno.
La leyenda de Tarzán arranca con el ex vampiro Alexander SkarsgÃ¥rd (True Blood) como un aburguesado John Clayton III, lord inglés que ha recuperado los escudos familiares y ha abrazado el progreso de la Humanidad hasta el punto de no querer ni oír hablar de la jungla. Es su rubísima esposa, Jane (pero una Jane tan de armas tomar como la actriz que la interpreta, Margot Robbie), la que le convence de volver al Congo Belga ante las noticias de esclavismo y sobreexplotación de la naturaleza que les llegan. Tarzán acepta volver a casa pero una vez allí tarda en sustituir los mocasines por el taparrabos y sólo se monta en liana cuando la trampa tendida por el siempre malísimo Christoph Waltz pone en peligro a su familia selvática. Ayudado por un Samuel L. Jackson anti esclavista y pistolero como de western de Tarantino, Tarzán se amolda a esta incursión oscura  –no esperes las charletas de Weissmüller ni las gracias de Chita, aquí los monos de monos tienen poco–, mientras navega por el río Congo como si fuese Conrad en El corazón de las tinieblas. A pesar de ser una película familiar, tiene más de eso La leyenda de Tarzán que de canción de Phil Collins. En definitiva, más de Hobbes que del buen salvaje de Rousseau.(CINEMANIA).


Tarzán vuelve al cine para las nuevas generaciones. Lo cual implica varios cambios y ciertas variaciones para adaptar al personaje a los tiempos que corren, a las nuevas audiencias y a los nuevos y más actuales gustos de las mismas, que hacen que el resultado en sí no tenga el espíritu de los libros, pero quede reflejada como una de las mejores adaptaciones del personaje a la gran pantalla que podemos recordar. Un personaje que no ha sido todo lo bien tratado que debía ser por el cine o la televisión, y que recientemente, al margen de un par de versiones animadas y otras más fallidas que es mejor no recordar, había sido olvidado casi por el medio, relegado a personaje en la memoria. El cine había optado por considerarlo siempre un personaje de serie B, pero en esta ocasión, con 180 millones de dólares, la película goza por fin de la relevancia que se merece, del tipo de presupuesto de serie A que puede elevar una propuesta por encima de la media. El resultado es tremendamente entretenido, con acción y aventuras para toda la familia, pero que dejará a los fans del personaje literario algo desangelados. Ellos buscaban otra cosa......(ACCIÓN DE CINE).

La leyenda de Tarzán' tiene la mala suerte de haber coincidido en este mismo año con la nueva versión de 'El libro de la selva'. Este infortunio se agrava por haberse estrenado algunos meses más tarde. Así que, de entrada, si Ã­bamos faltos de actualización a estos tiempos digitales de célebres aventuras decimonónicas en escenarios selváticos, nuestra hambre ya se sació con creces con la reciente adaptación del clásico de Kipling. Además, la híper-musculada reencarnación del héroe salvaje creado por Edgard Rice Burroughs no está tan bien resuelta como la de Mowgli. Se han pasado de frenada, o mejor dicho de CGI. Y no es que el artificio digital en este caso moleste en la creaciones animales (muy temibles todos los gorilas, por ejemplo), sino en la complexión atlética de Alexander SkarsgÃ¥rd o los paisajes en plano general.
Quizá no da lugar a ponerse quisquilloso ahora con un título cuyo principal objetivo, en eso el film no se esconde, es aliviarnos de los calores del verano con casi dos horas de espectáculo y acción en la jungla. 'La leyenda de Tarzán' quiere ser, y de hecho es, pura evasión. Ahora bien, hay un decalaje un poco torpe entre la manera en la que se plantean los conflictos y la forma en la que se resuelven. La película plantea tramas sobre la esclavitud (en las colonias europeas y hasta en Estados Unidos), sobre la locura más allá del bien y del mal muy “conradiana” o “fitzcarraldiana” (previsible en su acting aunque efectivo Christoph Waltz como Léon Rom), sobre la codicia del primer mundo o sobre el instinto animal del ser humano al margen de la razón que luego soluciona en un pis-pas, como si el guión fuera lo de menos y la demasía estética lo de más. Y es que, seguramente, lo es.(FOTOGRAMAS).

          Greenland and the End of Exploration        

The roving celestial beasts of Lascaux’s Paleolithic hunting scenes and the scurvy-ridden, snow-blinding odyssey of Shackleton’s Antarctic survival may be distant in time and space, but the events and their retelling share a coeval impulse. Remote exploration and extreme risk are palpable vestiges of our intrepid and predatory ways, but that these acts inform our oldest tales about our place in the world seems almost unrecognized today. 

Among the "uses of adventure" in traditional societies--from Greek mythology, the Upanishads and ecstatic shamanism in Siberia to creation myths across the Americas--individual heroism and group survival often recur, followed by revelations of nature's secrets, the cosmos, and our own origins. Adventure is possibly the oldest, most persistent subject matter we share through our stories. This historical pairing of legendary feats and their retelling appears so intrinsic to our being that we're numb to its remarkable peculiarity.

In today's literary marketplace, daunting feats in wild nature hold little appeal. How did this reversal come about? We remain fascinated by secrets, yet contemporary writing (fact and fiction) revels in individual experience, where the inner lives of characters are explored as exotic landscapes, conjured or real. Besides this turn toward inner landscapes, narrative style is emphasized equally if not more than the tale recounted--Salinger, Hemingway, DF Wallace are pioneers of this mannered approach. 

A surfeit of grandiose Everest accounts surely helped dig this grave, but the bulk of adventure writing today is low-brow, unartful or vain, approaching kitsch. Few adventure writers escape the scorn of the high-brow critic--Thesiger, Mathiessen and Gretel Ehrlich are prominent exceptions. A random pick from my Africa shelves reveals Facing the Congo: A Modern-Day Journey into the Heart of Darkness by acclaimed travel writer Jeffrey Tayler. A literary expatriate attempts Conrad's famous voyage, this time in a dugout canoe. Instead he collides with Congo's surreal poverty and extreme destitution, recoils, then finds himself grander for the experience. Self-glorification and the voyeurism of disaster tourism disguised as adventure lit? Little surprise then that the genre feels spent of originality and nuance, resorting instead to spectacle, gimmick or humor. 

I've started a short survey of expedition writing in Greenland, beginning with Knud Rasmussen's canonical Across Arctic America (1924) through to Gretel Ehrlich's lyrical This Cold Heaven (2001). The series comprises an array of accounts that track the genre's high points in the post-Heroic Age of exploration. Epic exploration effectively died in Greenland, which had long served as a staging ground for attempts on the North Pole and elusive Northwest Passage. Once these prizes were claimed, their sponsors and celebrity explorers feted, exploration's Heroic Age ended with Peary's 1909 contested claim to the pole.

Undervalued and invisible to the prize seekers of the former era, in Greenland arose a new vision of exploration and the writing it produced. The new crop of adventurers was void of fame seekers, wealthy patrons seeking new lands in their name, nations stalking glory by funding high-risk/high-return expeditions.

Rasmussen was the first figure to break the lull of this hiatus, famously testing his hypothesis of the continuity of Inuit peoples from Greenland to Siberia over five years of dogsledding, inaugurating a new mode of inquiry and exploration into human origins. Thor Heyerdahl would try a similar approach in the South Pacific (Kon Tiki, 1947), sailing a balsa raft from Peru to Easter Island and demonstrating, he believed, that the culture behind the island's famous monoliths originated not in Polynesia but with Amerindians of South America.

Subsequent Greenland explorers like Jean Malaurie deepened this appreciation of indigenous peoples as terra nova, inspiring similar approaches in the Amazon (Levi-Strauss) and Congo (Colin Turnbull). Other notable Greenland travelers arrived by accident; their nearly fatal encounters with the island rewrote their artistic careers and legacy entirely (Rockwell Kent). More recent adventurers such as TM Kpomassie (An African in Greenland, 1977and Gretel Ehrlich are more lyrical and romantic than outright expeditionary, but chronicle the deep power of remote and hostile locales to ignite our imagination by testing our physical and psychological limits. In Greenland, art and the trials of endurance have a long synergy. The literature around these efforts avoids the clunky kitsch seen elsewhere, Congo and Everest being the two most obvious examples. 

I'll be shopping this one around, so stay tuned for the full article. 

          Magical drinking in Congo        
Like alcohol anywhere, palm wine is a formidable social lubricant but its undercurrent of magical thinking sets it apart. Amos Tutuola, Nigeria’s answer to H.P. Lovecraft, first chronicled the ritualistic, surreal excesses of palm wine in his 1952 novel. I first tasted palm wine ‘in the bush of ghosts’, and rightly so—the phrase figures in the title of Tutuola’s follow-on experimental work.

Read the entirety of this little rumination on palm wine over at Roads & Kingdoms, a newish site I'm quite infatuated with. 

          The miracle of new primates in Congo: another major discovery        
Introduced to modern science in 2012 by John and Terese Hart (and reported here), the Lesula is the second of two major African primate discoveries over the last quarter century. With exponential population growth, armed conflict, demand for bushmeat and lucrative poaching markets across Central Africa’s forests, the discovery is remarkable.

Identified only last month, a third one—‘Inoko’ in local dialects—still seems miraculous. John and Terese offer an amusing account of the surrounding events on their blog. Scientific confirmation is pending, and photographic studies of the animal are still being completed.

Read more on this welcome surprise and the amazing conservationists behind it over at Medium.

          Security Sector as Cause and Solution to DR Congo's Sexual Violence Crisis        
Like any deep malaise, Congo’s rape crisis is but one expression of entrenched, systemic problems. Local witnesses, security analysts and medical professionals who treat survivors present overwhelming evidence that the primary perpetrators are uniformed Congolese security actors. A weak justice system may be responsible for the failure to discipline or punish perpetrators, but the sources of this behavior lie within the security sector itself. Accessing the security elite, Congo’s infamous ‘black box’, is notoriously difficult. As a result, very little analysis exists of the problem from the perpetrators’ perspective: analysis and evidence that deciphers the institutional culture and internal organization of the security sector, or that maps relations between senior officers, politicians and economic actors. By design, opacity reigns supreme.

More on how sexual violence is being abated through Security Sector Reform at Sustainable Security

          DR Congo launches its National Investment Plan for Agriculture. Is anyone listening?         

At around 2.5 per cent of the national budget, DR Congo spends the least on agriculture of all its neighbors, a figure made more minuscule given the great untapped potential of its vast arable lands. For comparison, the Republic of Congo spends close to 14%, Zambia 10% and Ethiopia over 20%.

Following the 2009 Maputo Accords, NEPAD initiated the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (or CAADP), a continent-wide compact to reduce poverty and hunger by increasing state investment in agriculture over a ten-year period, with two basic metrics: raise public ag spending to 10% of GDP and raise ag growth rates to 6% by 2020. Participating countries were encouraged to tailor their growth strategies and investment plans accordingly, and solicit the views of farmers' associations, civil society and the private sector for an inclusive national approach with popular support.

DR Congo announced its National Investment Plan for Agriculture (PNIA) last month in Kinshasa, with great fanfare and expense. A total of $5,730m is budgeted, but only $857m had been committed (93% from donors, 7% from GDRC) by the closing ceremony. So where were the investors? In interviews and public pronouncements, government officials are confident that their chosen path, the PNIA, will attract foreign investment and will modernize and monetize Congo’s vast agricultural potential, thus transforming the lives of the country's rural poor, nearly all of whom are isolated, subsistence farmers.

Outside of government, skepticism regarding the PNIA is high. The primary criticism from donors and the Congolese private sector accuses the GDRC of failing to commit to sweeping infrastructural renovation (communications, transport, electricity, etc) as the foundation of national economic growth, and instead shifting that burden onto the international firms it assumes are lining up to invest. Yet no foreign firm would consent to such a capital outlay given the country’s dismal business environment. Serious investors would expect to see government planning and budgets to this end, yet beyond the PNIA the GDRC has no comprehensive plan to address the country’s deeply eroded infrastructure (piecemeal donor projects are the norm), or resolve its regulatory morass and lack of legal protection for private enterprise.

An even greater deterrent, the current Code Agricole stipulates that any private enterprise would require a 51% ownership stake by the GDRC. These terms are currently being revisited, but the compromise under discussion is 20% national ownership -- still untenable for obvious reasons, particularly given the country's long history of nationalization (viz., Zairianisation), expropriating private businesses, stripping assets and triggering massive capital flight. This legacy is still felt today among potential investors who see Congo as too risky (unpredictable and unstable), and in the Kabila administration's patrimonial, anti-entrepreneurial policies. 

The other main deterrent for foreign investors is the cost of commerce itself which, after the endless hoops and ladders of business registration, is so high that local produce cannot compete with cheap imports. In the country’s urban centers, imported versions of Congo’s basic foodstuffs (palm oil, maize, beans, sugar, rice, and wheat flour) outnumber local varieties, except for cassava.  

This wave of imported commodities began with a policy enacted in Mobutu's final years (1992-96, known as ‘Plan Mobutu’) as colonial infrastructure finally and irretrievably collapsed, interrupting the regular flow of local produce into Kinshasa and causing food prices to soar. Allowing cheap foodstuffs from outside to saturate the market was initially intended as a stopgap measure, but the challenge of infrastructure rehabilitation proved overwhelming and was postponed indefinitely. Now as then, local produce is uncompetitive because high transport costs and extortion rackets deter trade, production and investment. Specific to local farming, the impact of systematic rent-seeking on agricultural production and trade is another crippling deterrent to rural agricultural production and commerce. Detailed studies of these organized rackets abound, but have had no policy impact.


Ambitious in vision and consistent with COMESA and AU policy frameworks, operationally the PNIA is unlikely to succeed. It is hostage to the government's general inability to address the country’s primary obstacles to economic growth—a chaotic business environment (legal protection, banking systems, transparent procedures/absence of corruption, and credit) and a very thin, highly unreliable infrastructure (power, transport, communications, etc). If in fact l'argent n'aime pas le bruit, then Congo's leaders need to concentrate on creating a law-abiding and responsive administration capable of reassuring investors that their entrepreneurism is welcome and respected.

          New monkey species in Congo        
Wonderful news from my friends John and Terese Hart, who've been working on the scientific literature behind this announcement for at least two years, with their own funding. As John points out in this Guardian article, this announcement will also hopefully draw attention to the precarity of all small range creatures in DRC, from the White Rhino (now extinct in the wild) to the Okapi.

The bushmeat trade is widespread and the Congolese state lacks the means and will to combat poaching, whose growing militarization and network of international buyers were recently described in the New York Times (for which the Harts served as key sources).

In the area where the Lesula was identified, the Harts are working with local authorities and villagers to demarcate a protected area, with negotiated access rights for specific uses. This work is hands-on, intensive and very political. Popular support is essential to its success. This work is also privately funded -- and your support is needed.

I wrote a profile of the Harts and their work a couple years ago, back when the Lesula was still a zoological unknown. Their lifelong commitment to conservation in Congo, home of the last uncharted forests in Africa, is unmatched. In our cynical era we're expected to forego idols and heroes, but the Harts are doing incredibly important work in a country where conservation efforts and wildlife are constantly under attack.

Please visit their website to learn more and consider donating. 

                  

Absurd Wars?


To remark on how seamless our online and natural worlds have become is ho-hum these days, but last week as I slurped morning coffee and chatted online with a former Mai Mai rebel (whom I’ll call ‘Dikembe’) in turbulent eastern DR Congo, I found new reason to pause. Exchanging views on our perennial topic—solutions to Congo’s problems—felt as natural as the morning paper, but his statements resisted their usual meaning and tugged at me the rest of day. The part that recycled in my mind went a bit like this:


Dikembe: Things are bad in EDRC, Kabila [the president] can’t manage the situation.
Me: What does he manage? Nothing new there.
D: That’s why we reject him.
[pause]
D: So how many Congolese have to die before the international community pays attention?
Me: The int'l community is impotent, you’ve seen that countless times. You have a government, ask them. You elected Kabila, why did you choose him? Or are you saying the elections were a fraud?
D: Aha, now you understand me perfectly. We are hearing that even his own security forces are moving against him. Only the international community can save us now.


In a previous episode of Congo’s tumult Dikembe and I worked together disarming combatants and reintegrating them into civilian life. Many were minors, Dikembe’s former subordinates from different local militias. Our program offered vocational training and the tools to start new businesses but few ex-combatants took it seriously. Most went along with the programs to kill time, selling the clothes and tools they received for cash. A lesson for us was that the adrenaline of pillage and the instant authority of the gun had become integral to their identity, defining them long after the firing stopped. Many ex-combatants, especially children, remained fiercely loyal to former commanders, rejecting their families and all forms of authority. Psychologically they were listless and volatile, preferring the bustle and relative anonymity of towns to the monotony and awkward familiarity of village life. Dikembe was no hero, but sage enough not to follow the herd. I watched him adapt to civilian life in wartime, a humbling series of privations, as he resisted the lure of easy money and influence through armed crime and extortion.

Read the full post here. 

          How to Write about Congo        
Dancing in the Glory of Monsters. The Collapse of Congo and the Great War of Africa, Jason K. Stearns (Public Affairs: 380pp, 2011)

How best to make sense of Congo’s enduring crisis, a tale of daunting political complexity and extraordinary cruelty? Many writers have tried, for no other African country captivates the western literary imagination as much as Congo. This fascination long precedes Joseph Conrad, who indelibly described King Leopold’s Congo Free State over a century ago. But faithful subjects do not good art make, and most western writing on Congo is unreadable or, at best, unbearable.

The sheer complexity of Congo’s dramatic history is one contributing factor behind all the dreadful writing. Many an author sacrifices compelling narrative for rigorous scholarship, resulting in a turgid swamp of acronyms for all the armed groups, the Security Council Resolutions and the doomed peace deals. Epic chronicles like Africa’s World War (Gérard Prunier) may be valuable to scholars but are so microscopically detailed as to be opaque to non-specialists.

Adventure writing, the other main genre of Congo literature, is equally abundant and can carry a plot, but the stories glorify the exploits of the author and ignore the Congolese. “Watch me as I commune with gentle pygmies, wrestle crocodiles on the great Congo River, escape beheading by a throng of stoned child soldiers”— setting the bar for unbearable reading. Common to both schools is the absence of Congolese voice; for both, Congo is a neutral, muted stage for the author’s performance (scholarship, “survival”). Faced with such output, one thinks, the trampling of Congo just goes on and on.

Jason Stearns shares this lament. A recognized scholar and field analyst with years of human rights reporting from the country’s most remote zones of conflict , he tackles Congo’s complexity head-on, unpeeling the onion of its myriad wars within wars. But Stearns is after larger game than demystifying Congo’s “inscrutable chaos” for a western audience. By capturing the political rationales and individual motives as voiced by key players themselves, abhorrent though they may be, he personalizes Congo’s tumultuous ups and downs. Taming this wooly complexity with character-driven narrative and firsthand experience, the book is ultimately a challenge to the reigning stereotype of Congo as an inchoate mêlée of raw power devouring the meek and innocent. Recalling the reductive lens that framed colonialism’s “civilizing mission” (humanity over barbarism, reason vs. unreason), it’s not hard to discern an unbroken line between western perceptions of Congo in Conrad’s time and our own elitist, arguably racist, comprehension today.

Continue reading this review here.
          Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
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          Delight in Carefree Indulgence at 5-Star Hotel Grand Karavia in Lubumbashi, Congo        
The 5-star Hotel Grand Karavia makes the city of Lubumbashi, second largest in Congo, a more fit destination for discerning travelers pining for sheer comfort.
          Post 'El Chorro de Fornos'        
Autor: Javier y Martín, con fecha 02/05/2017 18:19

<b>15 de abril de 2017</b><br><br>Senda sin dificultades reseñables y escaso desnivel que atraviesa diversos barrancos en medio de una vegetación más o menos densa hasta el vado de Fornos, donde confluyen los ríos Garona e Irués. Una vez cruzado el puente y tras una corta subida sale una senda a la izquierda que sigue el curso del río Irués. La senda discurre por un bonito congosto entre las paredes de Punta Lierga y Cotiella donde el agua se erige en protagonista absoluta: el ruido del río, las abundantes y caudalosas surgencias (entre ellas las Fuentes de Fornos) y el chorro de Fornos, donde la montaña rompe aguas con una fuerza inusitada.<br>De regreso al cruce el sendero sigue el curso del río Garona hasta el puente que lo cruza. A partir de aquí un empinado sendero remonta el bosque hasta encontrar la pista que sube desde Laspuña y Socastiello hasta La Collada. Seguimos la pista en dirección a Laspuña hasta el cruce con el sendero (derecha) que baja hacia Badaín, punto de inicio de la ruta.<br><a href="https://es.wikiloc.com/wikiloc/view.do?id=17251889" class=enlace target=_new rel=nofollow>https://es.wikiloc.com/wikiloc/view.do?id=17251889</a><br> Ver post | Ver más blog
          Post 'Montfalcó-Pasarelas-Congost de Montrebei-Els Altimiris'        
Autor: Javier y Martín, con fecha 24/02/2016 19:51

<b>14 de febrero de 2016</b><br><br>El camino natural de Montfalco al Congosto del Mont-Rebei es una mezcla de senderismo y mini-aventura que combina senderos tradicionales de tierra con pasarelas escalonadas colgadas en la pared de roca, además de dos pasarelas metálicas y un sendero en altura también tallado en la roca sobre las aguas del pantano de Canelles. Esta combinación configura una ruta atractiva en el que la curiosidad por descubrir cada uno de sus alicientes y la precaución requerida en muchos momentos nos mantienen a la expectativa. El camino está perfectamente señalizado y documentado. Nosotros llevamos nuestra curiosidad más allá del recorrido habitual y a la salida del congosto de Mont-Rebei remontamos, por senda también señalizada, hasta el yacimiento de Els Altimiris( <a href="http://www.elmuntanyenc.cat/larqueologia-en-zones-de-muntanya-lexemple-dels-altimiris/" class=enlace target=_new rel=nofollow>http://www.elmuntanyenc.cat/larqueologia-en-zones-de-muntanya-lexemple-dels-altimiris/</a>). Seguimos la ruta circular que desciende por la cara norte del Montsec, atraviesa sendos barrancos y alcanza el camino del congosto en la cola del embalse. Atravesamos la pasarela que conecta con el congosto, cerramos el círculo de este segundo tramo y desandamos camino. Una vez en Montfalcó resta la visita ineludible a la ermita de San Bonifácio y Santa<br>Quiteria donde el nombre del pueblo cobra toda su dimensión. La ermita, de arquitectura tosca y ajustada es un auténtico bastión con resonancias monásticas.<br><br><a href="http://es.wikiloc.com/wikiloc/view.do?id=12277337" class=enlace target=_new rel=nofollow>http://es.wikiloc.com/wikiloc/view.do?id=12277337</a> Ver post | Ver más blog
          Degrading the Amazon harms us        
SUBHEAD: Deforestation of Brazil  and resulting climate change endangers humanity.

By Dahr Jamail on 7 August 2017 for Truth Out -
(http://www.truth-out.org/news/item/41520-deforestation-and-climate-disruption-are-degrading-the-amazon-endangering-our-survival)


Image above: In 2014 Brazil refused to join pledge to end deforestation. Photo by Greenpeace. From (http://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-29338413).

Warwick Manfrinato, the director of Brazil's Department of Protected Areas, has a deep understanding of biological interdependence, as well as its importance.

"If we are of utter service to nature, then we provide the benefits to all other living things on the planet," Manfrinato told Truthout in his office at Brazil's capital city recently. "I have the same value as a human as a jaguar has in nature, and both should be protected, otherwise we all go extinct, no matter what."

Manfrinato, whose department falls within the Secretariat of Biodiversity in Brazil's Ministry of Environment, is working on a variety of projects, including the establishment of a whale sanctuary that will cover the better part of the entire South Atlantic Ocean between Brazil's vast coastal area all the way across to the west coast of Africa. And on June 23, he and his colleagues launched a national "Corridors Program," with the goal of fostering "connectivity and genetic flux."

"We know the flow of genetics in biomes [biological systems] in life is critical," Manfrinato said. "We have to re-establish this, so a jaguar that exists in Mexico should be able to come all the way here without being killed. Physical connectivity allows for genetic connectivity. A monkey should be able to travel from one part of Brazil to another, without having to pass through land that has been cleared, where there is no forest."

Manfrinato's colleague, Everton Lucero, who is Brazil's secretary for Climate Change and Environmental Quality, was blunt with Truthout about what could happen if dramatic action is not taken to address the impacts of anthropogenic climate disruption (ACD).

"The worst-case IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projection] is 4.5C by 2100, but at local levels here we see very different impacts already, and are already even seeing an 8C increase in places," Lucero told Truthout.

Manfrinato echoes this: The crisis, he says, has already arrived.

"Everything that is bad has already happened," he explained. "We've come to terms with who we are, and we are those who destroy the planet. We've already destroyed it."

Because of this, Manfrinato believes we already know what needs to be done.

"If we're going to look for solutions, we have to look for the solution for the complexity, not one individual thing," he said. "If there is no connectivity, there is nothing. And that is why I'm busy with building corridors of biodiversity."

He has his work cut out for him. But he's not alone: Many people are working toward similar goals in the Amazon.

A Giant Water Pump

The Amazon is one of the most critically important ecosystems on Earth, and certainly the most biodiverse. It is the world's single largest rainforest, as it is larger than the next two largest rainforests -- the Congo Basin and Indonesia -- combined.

The Amazon River is by far the world's largest river by volume, and has more than 1,100 tributaries, 17 of which are each longer than 1,000 miles. The Amazonian water system is so massive and complex that it influences rainfall patterns as far away as the US, and 70 percent of South America's gross domestic product is produced in areas that receive precipitation influenced by the Amazon.

Brazil's role in protecting the Amazon is critical, given that two-thirds of the rainforest is located within Brazil's borders.

In order to get a sense of the connections between Amazon protection and water issues, Truthout met with Fabio Eno, the coordinator for the Natural Sciences Unit of UNESCO in Brazil, in his office in the capital.

Eno thinks it is more than timely that Brazil happens to be hosting the World Water Forum in March 2018.

"Water and drought are critical issues here now, which is so ironic since Brazil is hosting this huge event on water next year, and we are facing water crisis in some of the largest cities here," Eno told Truthout. "What we are seeing in Brazil is that climate change has been and continues to be very clearly visible."

He pointed out that in Brasilia, where there used to be very clearly demarcated dry and rainy seasons, they are now imbalanced: The dry season is starting earlier, and there is less rain during the rainy season. This is a reflection of the progression of climate-related changes in the country.

"In the south, well known for rice production, which has high water consumption, they are facing more droughts and this is affecting local farmers," Eno explained. "States in the northeast are now more intensely affected by the dry season, so we see clearly the effects of climate change in all portions of Brazil."

Eno noted that the impacts have been so intense that Brazil has been caught unprepared, and sees this shift in climate as having contributed to a major international health crisis: Zika virus.

"With the major drought recently in Sao Paolo, people were encouraged to store water in basins in their residence, and even in their toilets," he said. "Then, not coincidentally, we have Zika virus outbreaks that came about the same year Sao Paolo was storing so much more water. People were storing water in every way they could after what happened, but weren't taking necessary care for safeguards. This caused a major international health issue."

Manfrinato sees water-related problems as the biggest climate disruption impacts humans have had.

"What differentiates this planet from every other planet is liquid water," he explained. "It has taken Earth millions of years to find the right balance of liquid water, and people don't understand how important that is and are messing it up with their greed and ambition, of which awareness is far more important."

Manfrinato explains that as humans have "fooled around" with temperature, they have shaken the very foundation of biology.

"Fooling around with water is impossible, as that is the tree of the fruit of life," Manfrinato said. "You mess with it, you mess with everything ... and we've already messed with it."

Lucero also underscored the Amazon's critical role in the watery realms, especially regionally. The rainforest, he said, provides "flying rivers" -- massive amounts of air-borne moisture that develop above the canopy and move with the clouds and rainfall patterns across South America.

"If you remove the forest, you will cause extreme drought in other regions," he told Truthout.

But he says that biodiversity is the Amazon's biggest contribution to the world -- and is the most important reason to care for the rainforest.

"The forest itself is suffering from climate change, as are other biomes," he said. "Variability of climate is affecting the forest from increasing flooding and wildfires, which may, in a doomsday scenario, compromise the entire forest."

Manfrinato sees humans as part of the ecosystem, and an integral part at that, but most assuredly not the apex.

"What is required is a shift of awareness of our being part of nature," he said. "The apex is the complexity. Humans are not the apex, and the awareness that comes from this is how dynamic the system is that allows for all of life on Earth.... It'll do this as long as we allow it to do so."

Manfrinato is deeply passionate about his work, and in the discussion, sounds as much like a philosopher for the planet as Brazil's director of protected areas.

"We need to respect complexity in order to survive as a species," he said. "Everybody and everything wins, or everybody and everything loses if we hold onto this lack of awareness that the complexity is the most important thing. Your apex contribution is to be aware of the complexity, and then to protect it."

Brazil's Forest Code

Many people are acutely aware that there is a massive problem with deforestation in the Amazon. Beginning in 2004, however, deforestation started to decline in the Amazon, primarily because of better protection policies in Brazil. However, the last two years have seen a dramatic increase again. Brazil's government has been in crisis, and monitoring and enforcement have been stymied, allowing for a resurgence.

Fabio Feldmann served in Brazil's parliament for 12 years in the 1980s and 1990s. He is famous for helping to bring positive changes to the forest code -- protections for the Amazon -- into Brazil's constitution in 1988.

"The single most important issue facing Brazil is protecting all of the critical biomes," Feldmann told Truthout during an interview at his home in Sao Paolo. "If you destroy the Amazon region in Peru, you have a great impact in Brazil, and vice versa."

He explained that there is currently only weak collaboration between the countries in South America regarding the Amazon, and this is a problem.

"When I was elected, there was a radical change [in consciousness] about environmental areas," he said. "But this design has not been translated into effective public policies, so now our generation must reflect about what our legacy is to be because right now the deforestation rates in the Amazon are unbelievably high, after so many years."

Feldmann said he is optimistic, and cites heightened public awareness about the land today as compared to 30 years ago. However, he asked, "Do we have time to do what must be done?"

Clayton Lino is president of the Biosphere Reserve Association of Brazil and is a member of the advisory committee for UNESCO's Atlantic Forest Biosphere Reserve. Truthout interviewed him at his office in the Biosphere Reserve of the Mata Atlantica rainforest in Sao Paolo, a beautifully forested island in the middle of the sprawling polluted city.

"We are under attack daily, because we have laws in the process of being made that destroy other laws that were there to protect the land," Lino said.

This is important to understand, Lino said, because there is so much international pressure on the Brazilian government to continue deforesting. Cattle ranching accounts for roughly 70 percent of the total deforestation in Brazil, and the demand for Brazilian beef in the US and Europe is driving that ranching.

"While local NGOs are working to protect the Amazon and the Mata Atlantica, we do not see any light now," he explained. "There is no international help, and the culture of corruption has infected many Brazilians now because corruption has come from the top down, so more and more people are starting to not respect basic laws."

He is so concerned because his beloved Mata Atlantica, the second biggest rainforest reserve in Brazil, is the most threatened area of rainforest in the world, second only to the Madagascar rainforest.

"We have more biodiversity here than even in the Amazon," he said while pointing out the window. "The Amazon is far bigger, but in the Mata ... we have more endemism [species that live only in one area] than anywhere else in the world."

Lino explained that fragmentation (isolating sections of the forest) is the primary problem in the Mata.

"There is high biodiversity and fragility, because if you destroy something in one place, it cannot come back in another area of the Mata," he said. "So, fragmenting it causes a very big problem."

Today, only 8 percent of the Mata Atlantica remains.

Caring as Protecting

"Without connectivity for evolutionary movement, it cannot proceed," Manfrinato explained of the natural corridors he is striving to create across his country. "This adaptation process needs north/south corridors, because species in the southern hemisphere need to migrate south, and in the north, they'll need to migrate northwards as global temperatures continue to increase."


Image above: Warwick Manfrinato, Director of Brazil's Department of Protected Areas, is working to reconnect all of the biodiversity corridors across the Amazon. Photo by Dahr Jamail. From original article.

Previous to his current job, Manfrinato was a member of the University of Sao Paolo's Amazon research group, which bore the idea of ecological corridors. This is why he was given the position he has in the government: to implement these ideas on the ground.

"Protection is connection, and vice versa; it has to be both," he said.

Claudio Angelo is the head of communications for Climate Observatory, an NGO. A former journalist, he now runs a news website for a vast network of 41 Brazilian NGOs which produces annual estimates of the country's greenhouse gas emissions.

Angelo explained to Truthout that observable shifts in rainfall patterns are now becoming common across the country, along with a shifting of the timings of the wet and dry seasons. Plus, like much of the world, Brazil is seeing far higher temperatures than ever before. He points to some farming regions that have already seen 6C increases.

"Brazil has warmed faster than the global average, since we are in the tropics," Angelo said. "Since 1961, it is 1C hotter in Brazil, and it took us half the time to warm the same as the rest of the world."

Angelo noted that the Amazon has seen two 100-year drought events (extreme drought events that only happen every 100 years) in a five-year period -- the first in 2005 and then another in 2010.

"The feedback mechanisms that exist between deforestation and climate change are my biggest concerns," he said. "Deforestation was 46 percent of our emissions last year, so our main focus is on mitigation. Hence, we are advocating for zero deforestation in Brazil."

Like Feldmann, Angelo had grown hopeful that his country was finally getting the deforestation of the Amazon under control, until recently.

"Over the last two years we saw this not to be the case, as we had a 60 percent increase in deforestation in just the last two years," he said. "Because of this, Brazil ranks in the top 10 [countries, in terms of] global greenhouse gas emissions."

When trees are chopped down, all the CO2 they sequestered from the atmosphere is released. Angelo pointed out the window and discussed the obvious changes.

"Brazil is still water rationing as we speak, after two record-drought years in a row," he explained. "2015 saw a 45-day heat wave. There is no way you can take off a huge chunk of some part of the planet and think it won't have a major impact on climate change."

As a climate journalist Angelo has reported from the Arctic, Greenland, Antarctica and deep into the Amazon. But right now, he is most struck by what he is seeing in his hometown of Brasilia. When he was a child, he remembers how cold it was in the evenings during the winter, and how summers were not as hot as they are now.

"The number of warm nights, when it is not below 20C, has increased 10 times more than it was 30 years ago," he lamented. "Most of the year here now it's just nasty. It's just hot, and it wasn't like this 20-30 years ago."

Personal experience plays a core role in Manfrinato's motivations, as well. He shared his experience from a recent long hike he'd taken that had a deep effect on his perception of the planet.

"It was in a newly protected area of Brazil and I came out of there feeling part of that place, meaning, that place is mine, and I'm going to protect it," he explained. "And so, we need everyone to start feeling that way about places ... about the planet. You belong to it because it belongs to you. You don't protect it because it belongs to everybody, you protect it because it belongs to you. The land belongs to me, because I belong to the land."

Manfrinato continues his work to reconnect wildlife habitat on the local levels. He aims to move it from local to regional connections, then regional to national, then across borders, then continental.

"We are promoting this internationally," Manfrinato said. "Because without reconnection, we will not survive."
.

          Overcoming Speechlessness: A Poet Encounters the Horror in Rwanda, Eastern Congo, and Palestine/Israel        
Overcoming Speechlessness: A Poet Encounters the Horror in Rwanda, Eastern Congo, and Palestine/Israel
author: Alice Walker
name: Sara
average rating: 3.90
book published: 2009
rating: 3
read at: 2016/05/23
date added: 2016/05/26
shelves: ridiculously-good-non-fiction
review:


          Lady Ponce et Koffi Olomidé : une alliance antichrist        
A gauche tu as koFFi heu pardon... koFFFi (ko666i). Qui fait rimer le 666 avec le 13 (Qui est un nombre aussi mystérieux que le 666), surtout qu'il n'y a pas eu 13 apôtres mais plutôt 12.

A droite tu as Lady Ponce qui INVERSE Matthieu 3:16, elle chasse la colombe loin d'elle à deux reprises.


Et en dessous tu as leur maxi-single qu'ils ont fait ensemble qui s'appelle DEVINE. Vous pensez réellement que les alliances qui se créent dans le showbiz sont le fait du hasard?????

Quand on a le blasphème pour fond de commerce, on ne peut que semer la malédiction autour de soi, et les MAUDITS marchent ensemble c'est tout. Mais les fans (les idolâtres) ont des mécanismes de défense tellement élevés que selon eux, ma place est sans doute dans un asile.
          Koffi Olomidé, 666, la musique congolaise occulte        
J'ai passé beaucoup de temps à parler de la musique américaine et aussi de la musique française dans ce Blog, mais je n'ai pas suffisamment parlé de la musique africaine. Il faut le comprendre une fois pour toutes: La musique de ce monde est un excellent moyen pour glorifier Lucifer. Les artistes de renommée internationale se livrent à une compétition tellement féroce qu'ils sont "obligés" de faire appel à des esprits séducteurs pour avancer dans ce Business. Ne l’appelez plus KoFFi Olomidé, il ne s'appelle plus comme ça, désormais, appelez-le KoFFFi. Pourquoi trois F? Et ben parce que trois F ça fait trois fois la sixième lettre de l'alphabet. Ainsi, FFF = 666.

KoFFFi a sorti un nouvel album le 13 Octobre à 13 heures 13, et cet album s'appelle 13ème apotre. Ce qui est embêtant c'est que le chiffre 13 est un chiffre aussi mystique que le 666, certains l'appellent "le chiffre de la malchance". De plus, Jésus a eu 12 apôtres principaux, même s'il en a eu des centaines, mais nous savons tous que Jésus a eu 12 apôtres majeurs. KoFFFi Olomidé lui, ne fait que se moquer de la parole de Dieu.
Voici les noms des douze apôtres. Le premier, Simon appelé Pierre, et André, son frère; Jacques, fils de Zébédée, et Jean, son frère; Philippe, et Barthélemy; Thomas, et Matthieu, le publicain; Jacques, fils d'Alphée, et Thaddée; Simon le Cananite, et Judas l'Iscariot, celui qui livra Jésus. (Matthieu 10:2-4)
Il ne peut donc pas être le treizième apôtre, à moins qu'il parle d'un autre Jésus, et la Bible nous dit clairement qu'il existe d'autres jésus qui n'ont absolument rien à voir avec celui des saintes écritures:
Car je suis jaloux de vous d'une jalousie de Dieu, parce que je vous ai fiancés à un seul époux, pour vous présenter à Christ comme une vierge pure. Toutefois, de même que le serpent séduisit Eve par sa ruse, je crains que vos pensées ne se corrompent et ne se détournent de la simplicité à l'égard de Christ. Car, si quelqu'un vient vous prêcher un autre Jésus que celui que nous avons prêché, ou si vous recevez un autre Esprit que celui que vous avez reçu, ou un autre Evangile que celui que vous avez embrassé, vous le supportez fort bien. (2 Corinthiens 11:2-4)
Vous continuez à adorer ces artistes qui pourtant sont des ennemis de Jésus-Christ, et Jésus a clairement dit:
"Celui qui n'est pas avec moi est contre moi, et celui qui n'assemble pas avec moi disperse." (Matthieu 12:30)
Voici une vidéo qui dénonce le satanisme dans la musique congolaise:



Abandonnez ces musiques sataniques et priez simplement pour ces musiciens afin que Dieu leur accorde la grâce de se repentir.

Que Dieu nous protège!
          Erykah Badu et les rituels magiques en plein air        
Je ne parlerai pas de Erykah Badu longtemps, parce que l'essentiel de sa croyance a déjà été brossé dans le documentaire : Le hip-hop est une religion. Il y a des femmes qui, en quête de pouvoir, partent consulter des sorciers, ces sorciers les mettent en contact avec des puissances des ténèbres, ces puissances des ténèbres demandent à ces dames, par l'intermédiaire de ces sorciers, d'accomplir toute une série de missions, afin qu'elles puissent obtenir ce qu'elles désirent. Ces démons peuvent par exemple demander à ces femmes de pratiquer des incestes au sein de leur famille, ils peuvent aussi demander à ces dames de consommer des aliments pourris, ils peuvent également demander à ces dames de commettre des assassinats, en gros, ces démons demandent toujours à la femme (Ou plutôt à la personne concernée) de pratiquer des choses qui sont totalement contraires à la parole de Dieu, et j'ai entendu dire que plus les pratiques à effectuer sont répugnantes, plus elles génèrent de la puissance satanique. Pratiquer des choses contraires à la parole de Dieu nous met en communion avec de puissants démons, c'est d'ailleurs la raison pour laquelle Dieu a institué sa Sainte Loi, afin que nous sachions nous préserver de l'emprise de ces démons. Les pratiques sataniques permettent à ces démons d'accomplir leur mission sur terre.

Je voudrais juste parler d'un phénomène qui est très connu en Afrique noire, précisément en Afrique centrale, dans les pays comme le Cameroun, le Congo et le Gabon...Ce sont des femmes qui, ayant discuté avec un marabout/sataniste/sorcier, ont reçu par la suite, l'ordre de:

1. Aller dans une place publique
2. Sortir de leur véhicule : Généralement une voiture de luxe.
3. Marcher dans la rue normalement
4. Se déshabiller subitement ou petit à petit
5. Se promener toute nue dans la rue pour provoquer le regard des autres
6. Retourner dans le véhicule
7. Se rhabiller.

C'est un phénomène qui se produit fréquemment, et il y a toujours des imbéciles pour regarder ces choses en riant. Voici quelques photos, toutes prises au Cameroun. On y voit des jeunes demoiselles nues et en public:






Ce phénomène revêt en effet une réalité bien obscure. Ceci me permet d'y voir une similitude avec le morceau Window Seat de Erykah Badu. Je ne sais pas de quoi parle cette musicienne dans son morceau, mais ce que j'ai compris avec le temps, c'est que ces artistes effectuent des rituels sataniques sous nos yeux, cela sous forme de divertissement, par conséquent, cela nous affecte à notre insu. Souvenez-vous de l'ordre dans lequel doit s'effectuer ledit rituel. Les femmes doivent:

1. Aller dans une place publique
2. Sortir de leur véhicule
3. Marcher dans la rue normalement
4. Se déshabiller subitement ou petit à petit
5. Se promener toute nue dans la rue pour provoquer le regard des autres

Voici des photos du clip "Window Seat", les photos sont dans l'ordre chronologique du clip:


1. Aller dans une place publique

2. Sortir du véhicule

3. Marcher dans la rue normalement

4. Se déshabiller petit à petit : Les lunettes d'abord.





Remarquez bien le mot EVOLVING (Evoluant)


Remarquez le mot EVOLVING (Evoluant)


5. Se promener toute nue dans la rue
Le même rituel.

Elle fait ce rituel sous couvert de l’Évolution. Elle prétend être en train d'évoluer par ce biais. Remarquez que toute forme d'évolution nous conduit toujours à rejeter les lois parfaites de l’Éternel, plusieurs personnes se sont d'ailleurs moqué de moi, en me disant toujours que le monde évolue, et qu'il n'est pas question de parler de Dieu encore de nos jours, certains me disent que nous ne sommes pas au moyen-âge. L'évolution, selon Erykah Badu, consiste bel et bien à pactiser avec ces entités spirituelles pour avoir plus de pouvoir. Selon leur conception à eux du monde, ils sont plus évolués que nous, dans la mesure où ils utilisent des puissances invisibles pour parvenir à leurs fins, mais ce qu'ils ignorent c'est que chaque fois que l'homme a décidé d'évoluer, il s'est simplement disqualifié lui-même de la face de Dieu. Il faut retenir une chose une bonne fois pour toute: Le monde spirituel n'évolue pas, et puisque ce monde physique est régi par des lois spirituelles, nous devons nous conformer à ces lois spirituelles et morales. L'évolution ramène toujours la rébellion contre Dieu, l'évolution ramène toujours des démons, la preuve étant que aujourd'hui on a légalisé le mariage homosexuel, l'avortement, l'euthanasie, et beaucoup d'autres saletés nous attendent dans un futur proche. Puis, souvenons-nous qu'il y a un certain Darwin qui avait proposé sa théorie évolutionniste, une théorie qui s'avère être totalement luciférienne, Roger Morneau (Un ancien spirite) nous le revèle dans son témoignage. Ces stars ne sont pas naïves du tout, ils recherchent le pouvoir occulte pour obtenir la gloire de ce monde, ils peuvent donc faire des recherches spirituelles partout ailleurs et même jusqu'en Afrique et  si cela peut leur être profitable. Lorsque j'ai vu ce clip de Erykah Badu, une pièce du puzzle est simplement venue compléter le schéma qui était déjà plutôt clair dans mon esprit. Je vous laisse avec cette vidéo d'une fille qui pratique ce rituel en plain air au Cameroun, ça commence au temps 00:35 (La 35ème seconde de la vidéo). J'expose toutes ces choses parce que j'estime qu'en tant que serviteurs de Dieu, nous devons connaitre ces choses, ça ne sert à rien de fuir la réalité. Les chrétiens doivent exposer les ténèbres par la lumière de la vérité.

Examinez ce qui est agréable au Seigneur; et ne prenez point part aux œuvres infructueuses des ténèbres, mais plutôt condamnez-les. Car il est honteux de dire ce qu'ils font en secret; mais tout ce qui est condamné est manifesté par la lumière, car tout ce qui est manifesté est lumière. (Ephésiens 5:10-13)
Ne les craignez donc point; car il n'y a rien de caché qui ne doive être découvert, ni de secret qui ne doive être connu. (Matthieu 10:26)







Soyons vigilants!
          World: Food Assistance Outlook Brief, August 2017        
Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Afghanistan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

This brief summarizes FEWS NET’s most forward-looking analysis of projected emergency food assistance needs in FEWS NET coverage countries. The projected size of each country’s acutely food insecure population is compared to last year and the recent five-year average. Countries where external emergency food assistance needs are anticipated are identified. Projected lean season months highlighted in red indicate either an early start or an extension to the typical lean season. Additional information is provided for countries with large food insecure populations, an expectation of high severity, or where other key issues warrant additional discussion.


          World: Humanitarian Coordinator Information Products, 31 July 2017        
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, World, Yemen


          South Sudan: South Sudan Refugees Statistics as of 31 July 2017        
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan


          Recoil (Nick Stone, #9)        
Recoil (Nick Stone, #9)
author: Andy McNab
name: Jinx
average rating: 3.86
book published: 2007
rating: 4
read at:
date added: 2012/02/14
shelves:
review:
Very violent, but so is the setting: Former Belgian Congo.

          Film Review: CONGO (1995, Frank Marshall)        
Stars: 3 of 5.
Running Time: 109 minutes.
Notable Cast or Crew: Laura Linney (THE TRUMAN SHOW, TALES OF THE CITY), Dylan Walsh (NIP/TUCK, ARCTIC BLUE), Ernie Hudson (GHOSTBUSTERS, THE CROW), Tim Curry (CLUE, THE ROCKY HORROR PICTURE SHOW), Grant Heslov (TRUE LIES, ENEMY OF THE STATE), Joe Don Baker (CAPE FEAR '91, CHARLEY VARRICK, MITCHELL), Mary Ellen Trainor (DIE HARD, THE GOONIES), James Karen (THE RETURN OF THE LIVING DEAD, MULHOLLAND DR.), John Hawkes (DEADWOOD, FROM DUSK TILL DAWN), Peter Jason (THEY LIVE, PRINCE OF DARKNESS), Bruce Campbell (EVIL DEAD, ARMY OF DARKNESS), Taylor Nichols (METROPOLITAN, BARCELONA), Delroy Lindo (MALCOLM X, CLOCKERS), Joe Pantoliano (MEMENTO, THE MATRIX, THE SOPRANOS), Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje (LOST, OZ), and a special appearance by Jimmy Buffett. Music by Jerry Goldsmith (ALIEN, GREMLINS). Edited by Anne V. Coates (LAWRENCE OF ARABIA, THE ELEPHANT MAN, OUT OF SIGHT). Based on the novel by Michael Crichton (JURASSIC PARK, ER, WESTWORLD). Screenplay by Academy Award and Pulitzer Prize winner John Patrick Shanley (DOUBT, FIVE CORNERS, MOONSTRUCK).
Tag-line: "Where YOU are the endangered species"
Best one-liner: "Are you serving that ape a martini?"

In a familiar, darkened alleyway:

"What are you smiling about?"
–"CONGO, man. CONGO."
"I don't get it."
–"1995 was a magical year. The stars aligned. You see, in 1993, Michael Crichton's JURASSIC PARK was a runaway hit. In 1994, Crichton's ER took television by storm. Also in 1994, THE LION KING became the highest-grossing animated film of all time.  Therefore, a Michael Crichton action-adventure piece, featuring a character named "Dr. Ross" (though here, it's Laura Linney, not George Clooney), involving prehistoric creatures and African wildlife should have been the blockbuster of the year... Yes, indeed, the stars aligned on behalf of CONGO. But they did not create box office gold. No, they aligned to give us a cyborg gorilla named "Amy" who wears a No Fear backpack. And I'm more than okay with that."

"This looks like a tough sell to me."
–"Aren't you always claiming to be an intellectual?"
"I don't really see how that pertains–"
–"Don't you enjoy the dramatic word, courtesy of Academy Award, Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright John Patrick Shanley?"
"Sure, but–"
–"Then buckle up, cause Shanley has brought an advanced toolbox of dialogue-writin' skills, and he's not afraid to use 'em. You like alliteration? You got it, brother.

There were plenty of other ways to put that potted pleasantry, but none had the proper pithy, pompous pizazz."
"Okay, you can stop."
–"They're a regular Tracy and Hepburn over here. 'Are you a pound of sugar?'"

'No, babe, I'm a primatologist.' Are you taking notes?"
"I'll not have you poking fun at a giant of the American stage on my watch."
–"I'm not poking fun. I'm praising him. For instance, only a giant of the American stage could imbue a speech about monkeys in heat with such fluency and pop-culture poetry..."




"What's going on here? Is that Ernie Hudson? What are you trying to do to me?"
–"I'm not trying to do anything. Ernie Hudson, however, is trying his damnedest to save this picture. And, somehow, with his jocular demeanor and that measured twinkle in his eye––he almost succeeds.

As the dashing freelance adventurer 'Munro Kelly,' he uses Cary Grant-inspired over-enunciation and Clark Gable-ish flair to saturate the film with old Hollywood flavor.

Don't you just want to hang out with Ernie Hudson? Maybe he deserves a spin-off film that doesn't traffic in 3-D glasses and cyborg gorillas."

"Tell me there are good action sequences, at least."
–"I think any '90s action-adventure film is defined by its setpieces. Who can forget the storm drain chase from TERMINATOR 2, the hospital climax in HARD BOILED, the Keanu vs. Swayze foot race in POINT BREAK...? Well, in CONGO, who can ever forget the heart-stopping hippo-attack scene?"


"Okay."
–"Or this setpiece, which is almost a shot-for-shot remake of the Xenomorph perimeter attack scene from ALIENS, complete with automated gun turrets that are dangerously low on ammo?"





"So you've amply demonstrated CONGO's mediocrity. So what? I'm fairly certain everyone knew that already. Now you're just slandering John Patrick Shanley and making me feel bad for Ernie Hudson. What's the point of all this?"
–"You know me better than that. You know I devote myself to the subtle beauty of things like... Joe Don Baker screaming 'I NEED THOSE DIAMONDS!'"


"I can see that sort of thing in MITCHELL, JOYSTICKS, or CAPE FEAR '91."
–"But can you see an ape drinking a martini on a transcontinental flight?"
"Uh..."
–"Can you always see a soupçon of well-meaning-but-disappointed James Karen?"

"Well..."
–"Or Joe 'Joey Pants' Pantoliano in a silly, uncredited, Hawaiian shirt-heavy role that essentially paraphrases Hunter S. Thompson?"
"Er..."
–"Or Bruce Campbell being terrorized by a camera-angle, straight out of EVIL DEAD?"

"I must admit, I'm intrigued."
–"Good. Let me raise you one bug-eyed, unbridled Tim Curry."
"My God. Are you ser–"
–"With an inconsistent Romanian accent, no less. Perhaps you'd like to see him eating sesame cake like a boss while an uncredited Delroy Lindo vocally disapproves?"

"This movie is a veritable roller coaster of human emotion."
–"Then you'll simply love this tender moment between Whit Stillman-standby Taylor Nichols and Bruce Campbell just prior to their horrific deaths at the hands of prehistoric albino gorillas."

"I'm speechless. Does this fit into the Stillman-verse? Is it supposed to be post-LAST DAYS OF DISCO?"
–"That'll be a question for the film historians. Finally, how do you feel about journeyman character actor and eventual Oscar nominee John Hawkes showing up for one scene where his only purpose is to wake up and scream 'AHHHH!' before he expires?"

"That's not even an 'under-five,' I don't think."
–"You're darn tootin', it's not. So how do you feel about CONGO now?"
"Eh, honestly, I think I'll just stick with JURASSIC PARK."
–"Alright. I have one last concept for you to wrap your narrow mind around. What about a Laura Linney action-movie one-liner?"
"It'd have to be a pretty good one-liner. Shanley would have to bring his A-game. It'd have to be as morally complex as DOUBT, with the pastoral poignancy of OUTSIDE MULLIGAR, and the quiet desperation of PSYCHOPATHIA SEXUALIS."
–"Sure, sure. What if I told you there was a not only a Linney-zinger worthy of all that, but that it was accompanied by an albino gorilla-blasting laser gun?"
"I'd want to hear it spoken aloud."
–"Okay. So during a climactic moment of quiet desperation, mid-prehistoric-albino-gorilla-onslaught, Laura Linney brandishes a diamond-powered space laser. Ernie Hudson asks her what she intends to do about the prehistoric albino gorilla situation.

And then Linney, with a poetic sensibility worthy of the American stage that brought us Arthur Miller and Eugene O'Neill (or at least Golden Era Schwarzenegger) says:


PEWWWWWWWWWW

Now what do you have to say about that?"
"Fine. You win. We can watch CONGO."
–"That's all I ever wanted. Now how's about a double feature with another great '90s primate flick, MONKEY TROUBLE, with Harvey Keitel and Thora Birch?"
"Don't push your luck, pal."
           Comparative phylogeography of African rain forest trees: a review of genetic signatures of vegetation history in the Guineo-Congolian region         
Hardy, Olivier J., Born, Céline, Budde, Katarina, Daïnou, Kasso, Dauby, Gilles, Duminil, Jérôme, Ewédjé, Eben-Ezer B.K., Gomez, Céline, Heuertz, Myriam, Koffi, Guillaume K., Lowe, Andrew J., Micheneau, Claire, Ndiade-Bourobou, Dyana, Piñeiro, Rosalía, and Poncet, Valérie (2013) Comparative phylogeography of African rain forest trees: a review of genetic signatures of vegetation history in the Guineo-Congolian region. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 345 (7-8). pp. 284-296.
          Bombardier confirms presence of two jets for LABACE 2017        
In its 75th anniversary year, Canada's Bombardier confirms its participation in the largest Latin American business aviation fair - LABACE (Annual Latin American Business Aviation Conference & Exhibition), which will take place from 15 to 17 August at the Congonhas Airport in Sao Paulo, Brazil...
          Yellow fever outbreak reaches DRC        

The World Health Organization (WHO) reported Monday that it has been notified by the National IHR Focal Point of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) of more than 150 cases of yellow fever since the beginning of the year.

The cases are believed to be connected to an outbreak underway in neighboring Angola. Of the 151 reported cases, 21 people have died. The cases have been reported in Bas-Uele, Equateur, Kasai Central and Tshuapa provinces.

WHO officials said they are continuing to investigate the spread of the outbreak and advised against traveling to the Democratic Republic of Congo in the meantime.


          Yellow fever outbreak persists in Angola        

Since Dec. 5, 2015, Luanda, Angola, has been contending with a yellow fever outbreak. 

On Mar. 21, the World Health Organization (WHO) provided information about the progress of the fever, stating that only two of the 18 provinces in Angola are yellow fever-free.

Angola has seen 1,132 cases of yellow fever and 168 deaths since the outbreak began. Luanda is the confirmed source of the outbreak and has the most amount of suspected cases at 818 -- although other provinces may be catching up soon. 

A WHO-supported task force has been sent to Angola to combat the Grade 2 emergency with vaccines and medical treatment as reported by the Emergency Response Framework (ERF).

The WHO also continually tracks the fever to detect its infection patterns and where it may head next. The organization is particularly concerned that yellow fever will be transmitted across the border and become an international problem; there have already been rumors of its transmission to China, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo. 

Consequently, there are more stringent vaccination regulations for those attempting to enter Asia, specifically from Africa or Latin America. Still, the WHO declares that travel to Angola is safe as long as people attempt to prevent mosquito bites and are vaccinated against yellow fever.


          Gorilla Visit Increase in Rwanda        

Mountain gorilla tracking in is hard work up steep slopes, through fascinating and a wide number of Tourists across the world travel to Africa to meet the great apes. Besides, one of the tourist who got in touch with the great apes twice had this to say. Uganda safaris , “Having met the Gorilla family twice I feel as if they are my family so you can imagine my joy when I saw that they had a another child”.

Thus, the recent tourist arrival statistics and reports from the Rwanda Development Board, which is in the office of Rwanda Tourism and conservation has released a report indicating a growth in the number of gorilla safari tourist to Rwanda just in the first quarter of this year.

The Statistics Offer Joel Rudasingwa uganda safari packages noted that it’s because of the improvement in the financial state of the world, which will heal the global financial crisis and later impact positively on its trend towards recovery which led to this increase.

"The great decrease was observed in the first semester of 2009, which can be attributed to the global financial crisis, which put many countries in recession,” masai mara safari packages However, from July to September 2009 which is the high season, gorilla visits surpassed 156 people every day. Meanwhile, official statistics from Rwanda Development Board indicate that in the first quarter of 2010 gorilla visits have generated Rwf1.2 billion with about 4,000 visitors comparing to last year same period. gorilla trekking

Rwanda boasts of almost 280 gorillas in total with Uganda and DR Congo having a good number of the primates since gorillas are very rare species in the world. According to the United Nations Environment Programme, only 700 mountain gorilla tracking are left in the whole world. Above all, Tourism is Rwanda's leading export earner ahead of tea and coffee. The sector contributes about 3.5 percent to the country's Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and it is expected to account for 5.8 percent of the GDP by 2016.

Gorilla trekking generates the highest revenues in visits to Rwanda's three national parks. It is believed that about 85 percent of visitors to the Volcanoes National Park are attracted by gorilla trekking experience. Young rwanda gorillas , from three to six years old, remind human observers of children. Much of their day is spent in play, climbing trees, chasing one another, and swinging from branches. The fun the gorillas shouldn’t be what you can miss in life. houses for sale in kampala uganda

uganda construction companies


                  
The Ugandan Parliament in Kampala decided to give immediate attention to poor infrastructures in the whole of East African Region. ‘The poor infrastructure in the region needed immediate attention and the problem of infrastructure in East Africa is a matter of survival, especially electricity, the roads and railway” uganda safari company said the Uganda president.

He went a head and told Parliament that the UPDF had set up an engineering brigade with capacity to carry out engineering tasks, including building infrastructure.
We shall use them to build the railway. I talked to the army engineers and they said it is okay,” he disclosed.

Museveni emphasized that if the colonialists used rudimentary tools to construct the railway line used in East Africa today, the army was in a better position with better technology. This idea was supported by other East African presidents through which the Railway line passes. Mr. Odinga did not see the need for the study estimated to cost Sh800 million with Kenya’s contributing over Sh600 million. His view was shared by the Uganda minister for Works and Transport John Nasasira.gorilla safaris in uganda “We are not here for fun or mere drama. We know that Kenya is strategically placed to serve as the transport hub for the region.” The Permanent Meeting (PM) called for the delegations from the two countries to show the will and power to undertake the project saying it will help interconnect the Eastern Africa region.


The views from other East African delegates show unity and joint effort towards the rebuilding programmes of the Uganda Railway. gorilla safaris in rwanda

The EALA, led by its speaker, Abdirahin Abdi, is holding the 3rd meeting of the 2nd assembly in Kampala from February 7 to 19.
It is expected to pass resolutions on the East African Community Tourism Bill 2008, the Election Bill 2008 and Lake Victoria Basin Commission Bill 2007.

The opening was attended by Ugandan MPs, who occupied the opposition side of the House as Museveni appealed to the EAC partners to look into the issue of energy as a major factor in the development of the region.
Additionally,gorilla safari rwanda the Uganda president said electricity power generation was so low that it could not sustain development in the region.
He said the US generates 14,000 kilowatts per hour, while African countries generate only 12 kilowatts per hour.
Museveni explained that Uganda faced resistance from developments partners in developing power dams. He, however, assured the country that even without foreign aid; Uganda could build its own power stations.


“We are now aiming at generating about 17,000 megawatts in the next 15 years. This will give us 3,000 kilowatts per hour,” he said. ssese island safari
Museveni reiterated the need to fast-track the East African federation, so that the member states have a position by 2012.
“I am glad that there is compromise on this issue, but more needs to be done to ensure it is implemented.”

He urged member states to facilitate their citizens to process their goods and add value to them before putting them on the expanded regional market that includes Southern Sudan, DR Congo and the south africa safari Central African Republic.
He said Uganda had responded to the increased demand by producing more. “We got a bumper harvest of maize. As a result, prices have now come down,” he said.
“We need to deal with storage and processing of maize, so that the farmers don’t have to sell desperately at the time of plenty. This may force them to exit maize growing,” gorilla trekking uganda yet in the tourism sectors farmers are the major suppliers of agriculture products and if prices of the products are too low, that will lead to low production in Agriculture hence leading to low supply of Agriculture products to the tourism sector.

The ministries of finance and agriculture have devised means of how they can solve the problem in order to ensure constant supply of Agriculture products to the entire country sector. Said the president.
Abdi hailed the political leadership in the region for agreeing on the common market protocol.
He lauded Museveni for the effort to improve household incomes through modern agriculture and education.

More so, there are comments from the public listeners which can add value to the Government proposal of rebuilding the Uganda Railway and also ease travel movements for tourists from one country to the other and from one destination to the other. In terms of railway technology, the government should not go the British way but the French one. The French have the best and most efficient railway transport system in the world.uganda safaris adventures For example in some cities Lyon and Marseille are connected by the TGV (High velocity trains). Marseille which is about 780 km from Paris is only 3hrs. Imagine traveling from Mombasa to Kampala at that speed? So Mr. Government is advised to get the best technology around and not be blinded by colonial fidelity. bwindi gorilla trek The British are "out" when it comes to trains.

This can make travel very easy and it can reduce traffic congestion since there other transport alternatives which move at the same pace like others. Therefore for any person traveling or hopping to visit East Africa, transport shouldn’t be your worry.

Norway to support Eco-Tourism sites Conservation in Uganda trough Tree planting. masai mara safari

It is a surprising fact that Uganda has excellent growing conditions to support commercial tree growth. With good management and the adoption of intensive silvicultural practices, growth rates can match the best in the world and timber plantations can offer a solid return on investment. queen elizabeth safari This is due to the reason that Uganda has substantial areas of land suitable for timber plantations as shown by the silvicultural map of Uganda. This land is either in CFRs or is privately owned land. Long-term leases for tree planting are available in many CFRs: the first licenses for tree planting were issued by the NFA in mid 2005. Potential investors must realize, however, that the areas are more suited to pines than Eucalypts, being in hotter, drier areas. gorilla safaris in bwindi


Additionally, it was estimated that on average in Uganda it will cost around Ushs1.5 M per hectare (US$ 730) to establish a plantation. This cost covers all expected costs up to canopy closure (i.e. when the trees canopies in adjacent rows touch and shade out the ground vegetation) - which is around 3 years with Pinus caribaea, gorilla trekking bwindi 1-2 years with E. grandis. Costs will differ significantly on different sites and also depending on the supervision and level of skills of the labour. Other factors that can influence establishment costs are the scale of the planting, the level of mechanizations and the timing and frequency of key operations especially weeding. Within less than two years private planters learning quickly learning from their mistakes and they have real improved in the tree planting field.

However, due to the Uganda potential of planting trees the Norwegian Private Forest Growers (NORSKOG) has signed a partnership with the Uganda Timber Growers Association (UTGA) to support commercial timber growing with the aim of protecting forests which will conserve the natural beauty of Uganda hence promoting the Uganda’s Tourism Sector as the conservation saying goes “leave nothing, bwindi gorilla tracking safari uganda Touch nothing when you visit a destination.

The partnership was signed by NORSKOG director Arne Rora and the UTGA chairman, Robert Nabanyumya in Mpigi on Friday.
Rora said that the partnership was aimed at developing UTGA for the provision of services to the private and public sectors for sustainable management and utilization of plantation forests.

According to Nabanyumya, the association’s objective is to make quality products that are acceptable on the international market.
He also added on and said the association supplied improved seedlings to its members and lobbied for information, experience on tree growing, and advocacy for better land tenure security.

During the function, Norwegian ambassador Bjorg Leite said Uganda, being part of the global warming regions, needed to encourage more timber growers to protect forests.
“People can use this project to earn some money,” she added.kenya uganda safari

Leite lamented that more than half of Uganda’s forests had been cleared thus affecting climate, tourism and wildlife. There fore, the tourism industry is likely to benefit a lot from this partnership since it promotes conservation for eco-tourism sites like National parks and forest reserves. fishing safari uganda

          SA farmers in Congo 'not desperate'        
The Congo Farmers Association says the farmers who lease land at a farming project in Malolo are not in such a desperate situation that they cannot return to SA.
          DRC Election Candidates Meet in Ethiopia to Discuss Security Concerns        
By Andualem Sisay Representatives of different political parties of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, yesterday (September 26, 2011) to discuss security issues related to the upcoming national election. The meeting which is organized by the African Union and Institute for Peace and Security Studies (IPSS) of the Addis Ababa University […]
          Sammus - "Qualified (ft. Open Mike Eagle and Arch Thompson)" [Hip-Hop]        
Qualified (ft. Open Mike Eagle and Arch Thompson)

- "Qualified (ft. Open Mike Eagle and Arch Thompson)" music video by Sammus
- Added on 10-08-2017
- Genre : Hip-Hop
- Description : Sammus - Qualified (feat. Open Mike Eagle and Arch Thompson) (Official Video) - - From the Sammus record "Pieces In Space" on Don Giovanni Records - - http://www.sammusmusic.com/ - https://www.facebook.com/sammusmusic/ - - - - - Enongo Lumumba-Kasongo (born March 20, 1986), known as Sammus, often stylized as S?MMUS, is an American underground rapper, former teacher, PhD student and record producer. - - SAMMUS is an upstate New York-based rap artist, producer, and PhD student at Cornell University with Congolese and Ivorian family roots. Her production is characterized by her use of uniquely chopped samples, and video game-like synths. Labeled the "rap Aisha Tyler" by MTV Iggy for her intelligent lyrics, Sammus has built a following within the underground hip hop scene and has become one of the faces of black female geeks within the growing nerdcore hip hop movement. - - Since signing on with NuBlack Music Group Sammus has opened for such well respected artists as Raekwon, Open Mike Eagle, Random (Mega Ran), Louis Logic, Listener, Charles Hamilton, Awkwafina, Juiceboxxx, Turquoise Jeep, and Milo of the Hellfyre Club among others. Music that she has produced and been featured on has been showcased on such online publications as Hip Hop DX, XXLmag.com (alongside Random, Donwill and Homeboy Sandman), Women of Hip Hop, Egotripland, OkayAfrica, OkayPlayer, DJ Booth, Joystiq, Destructoid, Afropunk, and Société Perrier. Both of her albums,"PRIME" (2013) and "M'other Brain,"(2012) became bestsellers on Bandcamp within a week of their respective releases. The same can be said for "Nocturnal Cantata," her collaborative Castlevania EP with fellow MC Mega Ran, which charted on Soundscan in June 2013. On October 20th, 2013 she performed at Nerdapalooza in Orlando, Florida, one of MTV Iggy's top 10 best fall music festivals, and that same week was named MTV Iggy's "Artist of the Week." - - Finally as an academic-in-training and very vocal feminist, Sammus has worked tirelessly to highlight the ever-growing presence and power of female producers. This past summer she wrote an article entitled "Beatmakers with Boobs" critiquing mainstream feminism as it relates to issues of race and hip-hop that was featured on feminist blogs. As her Metroid-inspired name reflects, it is her hope that listeners and future fans will be pleasantly surprised by the contrast between the artist society says she should be and the activist and artist she actually is. - -
- Tags : 2017, 10s, Sammus


          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 05-26-2017 with DJ Deep Rawk        
Playlist:

Naomi Shelton The Gospel Queens- Lift My Burdens - What Have You Done My Brother
Lee Dorsey- Get Out Of My Life Woman - Lee Dorsey Selected Hits
Tsuyoshi Tsutsumi Artist Unknown- Etude - Suzuki Cello School Vols 1 2
- voicebreak -
Big Shug- Do What Pays Ya - Never Say Die
Raekwon- Incarcerated Scarfaces - Only Built 4 Cuban Linx
Main Source- Fakin The Funk - Wild Pitch Classics
El Michels Affair- Verbal Intercourse - Return To The 37th Chamber
John Legend The Roots- Our Generation The Hope Of The World feat CL Smooth - Wake Up Deluxe Version
- voicebreak -
Love Unlimited- Walkin In The Rain With The One I Love - The Best Of Love Unlimited
Marcos Valle- So Nice Summer Samba - Samba 68
Gabor Szabo- Stormy - 1969
Cal Tjader Eddie Palmieri- El Sonido Nuevo - El Sonido Nuevo
- voicebreak -
Gary Bartz NTU Troop- Drinking Song - Harlem Bush Music
Kool The Gang- Dujii - Live At PJs
Bernard Purdie- Elect The President - Master Drummers Vol 1
- voicebreak -
Fela Kuti- Sorrow Tears And Blood - Sorrow Tears And Blood
Michael Palmer- Lick Shot - George Phang Power House Selectors Choice Vol 3
Illuminati Congo- Drug War feat Rocker T - Green Is All I Need
Public Enemy- Public Enemy 1 Instrumental - 12
- voicebreak -
Flobots- Pray - Noenemies
Seun Anikulapo Kuti Egypt 80- Higher Consciousness - A Long Way To The Beginning
Ill Bill- Exploding Octopus - The Grimy Awards Deluxe Edition
Hsker D- New Day Rising - New Day Rising
- voicebreak -
Bad Brains- Secret 77 - I Against I
DOA- Lets Wreck The Party - Lets Wreck The Party
Dead Kennedys- Kill The Poor - Fresh Fruit For Rotting Vegetables
Can- Vitamin C - Inherent Vice Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Dombrance- The Witch feat Sourya - Kitsun The Witch feat Sourya
Charles Bradley- I Hope You Find The Good Life - 12
Blackout Love- Just Let Go - I Said I Love You
Polly Scattergood- Machines - Arrows
Yesterdays Ring- Email From Lucie - Diamonds In The Ditch
- voicebreak -
Harleighblue- This Way Love Astro Raw Remix - Shapes Rectangles Compiled By Robert Luis
Little Dragon- The Pop Life - Season High
EMA- Satelites - The Futures Void
WuTang Clan- The MGM - WuTang Forever
Mass Influence- The Science Radio Version - The Science Bw A Yo Atlanta Ya On
- voicebreak -
The Poets Of Rhythm- We - DiscernDefine
Layo And Bushwacka- Love Story Blue States Remix - 10


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2017-05-26
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 01-26-2017         
Playlist:

Pastor T L Barrett And The Youth For Christ Choir- Nobody Knows - Like A ShipWithout A Sail
Timothy McNealy- K C Stomp - Sagittarius Black Collection
William Onyeabor- When The Going Is Smooth Good - Anything You Sow
Tom Tom Club- Genius Of Love - Tom Tom Club
Lokonon Andre Les Volcans- Mi Kple Dogbekpo - African Scream Contest Raw Psychedelic Afro Sounds From Benin Togo 70s
Franco- Bayini Ngai Mpo Na Yo - Roots Of OK Jazz Congo Classics 19551956
Dessoin- Wapi Yo - Roots Of OK Jazz Congo Classics 19551956
Thee Hypnotics- Shakedown - Soul Glitter Sin Remastered
Headgirl- Please Dont Touch - The Collection
Dead Kennedys- Kill The Poor - Fresh Fruit For Rotting Vegetables
Flipper- Exist Or Else - American Grafishy
Dave Berry- Dont Gimme No Lip Child - The Collection
Hole- Violet - Live Through This
Yeah Yeah Yeahs- Tick - Fever To Tell Show Your Bones
The Slits- Typical Girls - Cut
The Coathangers- Down Down - Nosebleed Weekend
Ex Hex- New Kid - Rips
XRay Spex- Oh Bondage Up Yours - Germ Free Adolescents Deluxe Edition
Bags- Survive - Dangerhouse Volume 1
Bush Tetras- Too Many Creeps - Boom In The Night
The Brat- Attitude - The Brat
Vivien Goldman- Private Armies - Resolutionary Songs 19791982
The Raincoats- No Ones Little Girl - The Kitchen Tapes
Merry Clayton- Gimmer Shelter - Gimmer Shelter
Aretha Franklin- Think - 30 Greatest Hits
Marlena Shaw- Woman Of The Ghetto - The Spice Of Life
Alice Coltrane- I Want To See You - Monastic Trio
Emahoy TsegueMaryam Guebrou- The Song Of The Sea - Emahoy Tseguemaryam Guebrou
Minnie Ripperton- Les Fleur - Minnie Ripperton Legends
Various Artists- Argo Gospel Singers Whisper A Prayer - In The Spirit
Lady Wray- Underneath My Feet - Queen Alone
Angel Olsen- Pops - My Woman
Thelma Houston- Dont Leave Me This Way - Disco Gold
Explosions- Hip Drop Pt 1 - Funky Funky New Orleans 3
Evelyn Champagne King- Shame - Platinum Gold Collection Evelyn Champagne King
Twilight 22- Electric Kingdom - Twilight 22
Newcleus- Computer Age Push The Button - Destination Earth The Definitive Newcleus Recordings


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2017-01-26
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 10-17-2016 with DJ Deep Rawk        
Playlist:

Rachelle Clare Goldsmith And Barry Goldsmith- Grass - Relaxation The Key To Life
Mort Garson- Swingin Spathiphyllums - Mother Earths Plantasia
Jamie Cullum- Dont Let Me Be Misunderstood feat Gregory Porter - Interlude
Phil Ranelin- How Do We End All Of This Madness - A Message From The Tribe
Quincy Jones And His Orchestra- I Hear A Symphony - Quincys Got A Brand New Bag
- voicebreak -
RB Greaves- Always Something There To Remind Me - RB Greaves
James Brown- Mind Power Alt Take Edit - 12
Dennis Coffey- Plutonius - Dennis Coffey
The Parris Mitchell Strings With Brass- Goldfinger - Thunderball
- voicebreak -
David Axelrod- David McCallum House Of Mirrors - The Edge
Jimmy Smith- Respect - Respect
Newcleus- Automan - Jam On Revenge
X25 Band- Black Hole Bop - 12
ESG- UFO - The Moody EP
Jerry Goldsmith- The Droid - Alien Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
- voicebreak -
The Souljazz Orchestra- Jericho - Solidarity
Capital Letters- Old Old Owl - Vinyard
The Heptones- Good Life - Good Life
Prince Far I- Anambra Dub - Dubwise
- voicebreak -
De La Soul- Snoopies with David Byrne - And The Anonymous Nobody
Gumbo- Basement Music - Unknown
Poor Righteous Teachers- Each One Teach One - Pure Poverty
Illuminati Congo- Green Is All I Need - Green Is All I Need
Common- Out On Bond feat Vince Staples - Nobodys Smiling Deluxe Version
- voicebreak -
Rubedo- What Is Green - Massa Confusa
RJD2- One Day - Since We Last Spoke
Zola Jesus- Lawless - Taiga
Enduro- Lisbon - 12
Little Dragon- Klapp Klapp Instrumental - 12
- voicebreak -
Kelis- Jerk Ribs - Food
Emeli Sand- Where I Sleep - Our Version Of Events
- voicebreak -
Steve Spacek- Dollar - Gilles Peterson Worldwide A Celebration Of His Snydicated Radio Show
Soulstice- Wind JBoogie Mix - Lovely Single
Got A Girl- Last Stop - I Love You But I Must Drive Off This Cliff Now
Erykah Badu- Cleva - Mamas Gun
Nobody- Mia Doi Todd Autumn Nobody Remix - Revisions Revisions The Remixes
Rockmaster Scott And The Dynamic 3- Request Line - 12
Buckner Garcia- Mousetrap - Pac Man Fever
David Bowie- Fame 90 Queen Latifahs Rap Version - Fame 90 Remixes EP
- voicebreak -
Various Artists- Carl Craig Presents Zoos Of Berlin Looking For Water - Life Beyond Mars
Easy Star AllStars- Thriller feat Mikey General Spragga Benz - Easy Stars Thrillah


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2016-10-17
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 10-11-2016 with DJ Deep Rawk        
Playlist:

X25 Band- Black Hole Bop - 12
Various Artists- Material Dont Lose Control - Disco Not Disco Post Punk Electro
Rockmaster Scott And The Dynamic 3- Request Line - 12
New York Citi Peech Boys- Life Is Something Special - 12
The Devastating Duo- The Real Fly Guys Instrumental - 12
- voicebreak -
XTC- Making Plans For Nigel - Drums And Wires
The Jam- Mr Clean - The Sound Of The Jam
New York Dolls- Who Are The Mystery Girls - In Too Much Too Soon
Kenny Rogers The First Edition- Just Dropped In To See What Condition My Condition Is In - The Big Lebowski Soundtrack From The Motion Picture
Neil Young- Journey Through The Past - Inherent Vice Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Emily Kinney Lauren Cohan- The Parting Glass - The Walking Dead AMC Original Soundtrack Vol 1
- voicebreak -
Bedroom Produkshionz- SELF - 12
Common- Out On Bond feat Vince Staples - Nobodys Smiling Deluxe Version
Public Enemy- Lost At Birth - Apocalypse 91 The Enemy Strikes Back
Poor Righteous Teachers- Each One Teach One - Pure Poverty
- voicebreak -
Joey Bada X Nick Caution- On My Life - Scion Av Pro Era Presents The Shift
Illuminati Congo- Green Is All I Need - Green Is All I Need
Prince Far I- Kaduna Dub - Dubwise
The Upsetters- Domino Game - The Sound Doctor
Capital Letters- Old Old Owl - Vinyard
- voicebreak -
The Souljazz Orchestra- Jericho - Solidarity
El Rego- Zon Dede - El Rego
Tommy McCook Don Drummond- Don De Lion - Music Is My Occupation
Easy Star AllStars- Thriller feat Mikey General Spragga Benz - Easy Stars Thrillah
Dillinger- Five Man Army Send Another Moses feat Trinity Wayne Wade Al Campbell Junior Tamlin - Five Man Army feat Trinity Wayne Wade Al Campbell Junior Tamlin Single
- voicebreak -
Soulstice- The Reason DJ Spinna Mix - Om Lounge Vol 7
Kwes- Lgoyh - Meantime EP
Vikter Duplaix- Can We Be Lovers - International Affairs
Mapei- As 1 - Hey Hey
Maxwell- III - Black Summers Night
- voicebreak -
Cal Tjader- Never Can Say Goodbye - Last Bolero In Berkeley
Funk Inc- Lets Make Peace And Stop The War - Chicken Lickin
Daniel Merriweather- The Children - Love War
Oneness Of JuJu- Space Jungle Funk - Space Jungle Luv
Sharon Jones The DapKings- People Dont Get What They Deserve - Give The People What They Want
The Symbols- Along The Watchtower - Symbolized
- voicebreak -
Cherrystones- Diary Of A Bad Girl - 12
Illum Sphere- One Letter From Death - Ghosts Of Then And Now
Rubedo- What Is Green - Massa Confusa


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2016-10-11
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 08-10-2016 with Dave Blackwood        
Playlist:

Perfecto- The Labrador - You Cant Run From The Rhythm EP
Direct Hit- A Message To Young People - Wasted Mind
Heliotropes- War Isnt Over - Over There That Way
AllahLas- Ferus Gallery - Worship The Sun
- voicebreak -
Matthew E White- Hot Hot Hot - Outer Face EP
River Tiber- Acid Test - Indigo
Shabazz Palaces- Forerunner Foray - Live At Third Man Records
various Artists- Life Is Something Special Peech Boys - Genius Of Time
Betty Davis- Politician Man - The Columbia Years 19681969
Kendra Morris- Le Snitch - Babble
Quantic Presents Flowering Inferno- Spring Tank Fire feat Flowering Inferno - 1000 Watts
Pantha Du Prince- You What Euphoria - The Triad
Aphex Twin- CIRKLON3 Mix - Cheetah EP
Antonio Sanches- Pinta Manta - Space Echo
Cuong Vu Pat Metheny- Not Crazy Just Giddy Upping - Cuong Vu Trio Meets Pat Metheny
Psychedelic Horseshit- Puff - Laced
Kid Congo The Pink Monkey Birds- Su Su - Haunted Head
Car Seat Headrest- Vincent - Teens Of Denial
Dinosaur Jr- Tiny - Give A Glimpse Of What Yer Not
ORB- Iron Mountain - Birth
Thee Oh Sees- The Dream Live - Live In San Francisco
Ranch Ghost- Black Caboose - Lookin
The Gotobeds- Bodies - Blood Sugar Secs Traffic
The Clash- Im So Bored With The USA - The Essential Clash
The Slew- 100 - 100
Kurt Vile- Wakin On A Pretty Day - Wakin On A Pretty Daze
Scatter Gather- Dont Wait Up - Scatter Gather
Deerhoof- Life Is Suffering - The Magic
White Lung- Dead Weight - Paradise
- voicebreak -
Dog Orchestra- Broke - Meow EP


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2016-08-10
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-13-2016 with Dave Blackwood        
Playlist:

Sturgill Simpson- Turtles All The Way Down - Metamodern Sounds In Country Music
The Mickey Finn- Garden Of My Mind - Mojo Presents Paint It Black
King Gizzard The Lizard Wizard- Mr Beat - Nonagon Infinity
John Doe- Get On Board - The Westerner
- voicebreak -
Kamasi Washington- Re Run Home - The Epic
Debo Band- Oromo - Ere Gobez
TOR- Two Suns - Blue Book
DJ Shadow- Depth Charge - The Mountain Will Fall
- voicebreak -
Santana- Yambu - Santana IV
Quantic Presents Flowering Inferno- Ikeys Vibe feat Flowering Inferno - 1000 Watts
Sly Robbie- Drilling For Oil - Strip To The Bone
Sly Robbie- Stormy - Underwater Dub
Congo Natty- Revolution feat Rebel MC Nanci Correia Phoebe Iron Dread Hibbert Ras Buggsy - Jungle Revolution
Matthew Dear- Fighting Is Futile - Beams
A Tribe Called Red- Sisters feat Northern Voice - Nation II Nation
- voicebreak -
The Dan Ryan- Fleeting - The Dan Ryan LP
The Gotobeds- Rope - Blood Sugar Secs Traffic
Parquet Courts- Dust - Human Performance
The Yawpers- Silicone Love - Capon Crusade
Elvis Depressedly- PepsiCoke Suicide - Holo Pleasures California Dreamin
Moonface Siinai- Them Call Themselves Old Punks - My Best Human Face
- voicebreak -
Janko Nilovic- Soul Impressions - Soul Impressions
Audion- Destroyer - Alpha
Perfecto- DJCU - You Cant Run From The Rhythm EP
Sonic Youth- Ambient Guitar Dreamy Theme - Spinhead Sessions
Dub Narcotic Sound System- Robotica - Boot Party
Hamster Theatre- Oye Comatose - Mister PersonalityQuasi Day Room
Still Parade- Seasons - Concrete Vision
AM- Dreamscape - Precious Life
Dylan Group- We Are The Music Makers - Its All About
Sly Robbie- Fatigue Chic - Strip To The Bone


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2016-07-13
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-07-2016 with Mark Doyle        
Playlist:

Land- Limba - Land
Beth Orton- Snow - Kidsticks
Kristi Stassinopoulou Stathis Kalyviotis- Yerevan - Taxidoscopio
Painted Caves- Morse Code - Painted Caves
Psapp- Eating Spiders - The Only Thing I Ever Wanted
- voicebreak -
Jocelyn Pook- Red Song - Untold Things
Agnes Obel- FAMILIAR - Agnes Obel
Sam Beam Jesca Hoop- Chalk It Up To Chi - Love Letter For Fire
Kate Tempest- The Beigeness - The Beigeness Single
Quilt- Tie Up The Tides - Held In Splendor
David Byrne St Vincent- Dinner For Two - Love This Giant
- voicebreak -
Jim White- Bluebird - Drill A Hole In That Substrate Tell Me What
Geoffrey Oryema- Kel Kweyo - Voices Of The Real World
The Legendary Pink Dots- The Chair - 12 Steps Off The Path
DJ Dolores- Catimb - Contraditrio
DVA- Vampira - Nipomo
Curtis Fowlkes Dougie Bowne Erik Sanko Evan Lurie John Lurie Marc Ribot Roy Nathonson The Lounge Lizards- Tarantella - Voice Of Chunk
Various Artists- Adama Yalomba MBora - Globalista ImportExport
Kasai Allstars Lonely Drifter Karen- Hunting On The Moon - TradiMods Vs Rockers Alternative Takes On Congotronics Vol 1 Bonus Track Version
Various Artists- Nie Patrzcie Przez Lupy Trebunie Tutki - Globalista ImportExport
Raven And The Writing Desk- Dirt - ScavengerBonehead
Jesca Hoop- The Kingdom - Hunting My Dress
- voicebreak -
Iva Bittov Gyan Riley Evan Ziporyn- Midnight - Eviyan Nayive
Chimney Choir- Motion - Chimney Choir
Carla Kihlstedt- 50 Miles - 2 Foot Yard
Giovanni Venosta- Ma Chi Slowsky - Le Acrobate
Piney Gir- Purple Heart - Mr Hydes Wild Ride
Iron Wine- House By The Sea - The Shepherds Dog
Deerhoof- Paradise Girls - La Isla Bonita
- voicebreak -
Rhiannon Giddens Michael WardBergeman Reylon Yount Kinan Azmeh Jeffrey Beecher Joseph Gramley Colin Jacobsen Kojiro Umezaki The Silk Road Ensemble YoYo Ma- Wedding - Sing Me Home
Lay Low- Jolene - Live At Home
Marianne Faithfull- The Mystery Of Love - Before The Poison
Beth Orton- Petals - Kidsticks
Ray LaMontagne- Part One The Changing Man - Ouroboros


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2016-07-07
          Exclusif:RDC : « Les Congolais debout », Sindika Dokolo lance un « mouvement citoyen » pour « l’alternance en 2017 »         
L’homme d’affaires congolais et gendre du président angolais José Eduardo dos Santos lance, ce
jeudi, un « mouvement citoyen » pour « sauver la RDC en 2017 ».
Il apparaît sur fond blanc, et avec une musique allant crescendo. Avec une vidéo de deux minutes taillée pour les réseaux sociaux, l’homme d’affaires congolais Sindika Dokolo a lancé ce jeudi 10 août un « mouvement citoyen » baptisé « Les Congolais debout », pour « l’alternance en 2017 ». « Si, comme nous, vous pensez que la RDC souffre d’avoir été trahie par ses dirigeants, devenez un Congolais debout », clame-t-il encore.
« L’objectif est de créer un mouvement non-violent capable de conscientiser les Congolais, explique Cédric Mala, un de ses coordonnateurs, qui apparaît dans la vidéo. À terme, nous organiserons des manifestations pacifiques et des sit-in à Kinshasa. Le mouvement a mis en ligne une plateforme pour recueillir les adhésions. Â« Nous comptons nous appuyer sur notre maîtrise des nouvelles technologies et du marketing en ligne », ajoute Cédric Mala.
Ce mouvement se veut ouvert aux membres de tous les partis politiques et à toutes les organisations de la société civile. Sur la vidéo de lancement, on peut notamment reconnaître le député d’opposition André-Claudel Lubaya ou encore l’abbé Joseph Lukelu.
Sindika Dokolo est, depuis le début de l’année 2017, ouvertement critique envers le président Joseph Kabila, dont le dernier mandat constitutionnel a expiré en décembre 2016, sans que des élections n’aient été organisées pour lui désigner un successeur.

Initiatives citoyennes

Il est également l’époux d’Isabel dos Santos, considérée comme la femme la plus riche d’Afrique. Fille du président angolais José Eduardo dos Santos, elle dirige la société pétrolière d’Etat Sonangol. Mais Sindika Dokolo assure que son militantisme se fait indépendamment de sa famille. Il ne cache pas, en revanche, sa proximité avec l’homme d’affaire et opposant Moïse Katumbi, candidat déclaré à la prochaine élection présidentielle congolaise.
Ce n’est pas la première initiative du genre en RD Congo : les mouvements citoyens Lucha, fondée à Goma, et Filimbi, créé à Kinshasa, tentent déjà de mobiliser les Congolais dans une mouvance non-partisane pour mettre la pression sur le pouvoir. Confronté à la répression des autorités, ils ont pour l’instant eu un succès limité.

Source: Jeune Afrique


          RDC : tentative de coup d'Etat déjoué        
Les putschistes présumés ont été présentés à la presse ce mercredi.
Les autorités congolaises annoncent avoir déjoué une tentative de coup d'Etat.

Kinshasa accuse les adeptes de la secte politico-religieuse ex-Bundu Dia Kongo d'être les auteurs d'une série d'attaques qui serait une tentative de putsch ratée, selon les autorités.
Les putschistes présumés ont été présentés à la presse ce mercredi.
Trente et un putschistes présumés dont trois femmes sont apparus avec des bandeaux rouges sur la tête, comme en portent souvent les adeptes de la secte politico-religieuse ex-Bundu Dia Kongo.
Quelques armes blanches, des fusils de fabrication artisanale et des fétiches ont également été présentées comme preuves à conviction.
Le colonel Pierrot Mwanamputu, porte-parole de la police ce groupe a déclaré que ces personnes avaient pour but de renverser le pouvoir en place en attaquant le siège de la chaine nationale puis l'aéroport.

Pendant près de deux heures, des tirs ont retenti lundi matin dans plusieurs quartiers de la capitale de la RDC.
Le bilan officiel des affrontements de lundi est passé de 14 à 19 morts. Ces chiffres concernent bien sur Kinshasa, la capitale mais aussi la province voisine du Congo central, où des violences similaires ont également éclaté lundi.
Le mouvement ex-Bundu Dia Kongo est dirigé par Ne Mwanda Nsemi, un député en cavale qui s'est échappé de la prison de Kinshasa en mai dernier.
Quelques semaines après son évasion spectaculaire, il avait appelé ses partisans à renverser le pouvoir du président Kabila.
BBC Afrique

          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 04-14-2016 with Joel Davis        
Playlist:

Samiyam- Meditate - Animals Have Feelings
St Germain- Rose Rouge - Tourist
Fela Ransome Kuti His Koola Lobitos- Amaechis Blues - HighlifeJazz And AfroSoul
Brian J- Down By The River - Turntables On The Hudson Vol 10 Uptown Downtown
Red Astaire- Follow Me - Nuggets For The Needy
- voicebreak -
The Heliocentrics- Looking Back - From The Deep
Roots Manuva- Body Hot - Switching Sides
Eleventh Dream Day- Between Here And There LP Version - Beet
Bombino- Timidiwa - Azel
El Rubello- Its Not Unusual - Love From Japur By Batrice Ardisson
Matanza- Existencia Nicola Cruz Remix - Existencia
The English Beat- Mirror In The Bathroom - What Is Beat
- voicebreak -
Dubblestandart- Consumers Addiction - King Size Dub Special
DJ Shadow- Midnight In A Perfect World - Endtroducing
Unloved- After Dinner - Guilty Of Love Deluxe Version
Sola- Tabu Tabu - Sola
Henri Texier- Las Le Bas Bonobo Remix - Las Le Bas bonobo Remix
Zammuto- Too Late To Topologize - Zammuto
Emel Mathlouthi- The Man Who Sold The World - The Man Who Sold The World
- voicebreak -
Anchorsong- Diver - Ceremonial
Mr Lif- A Better Day feat Erica Dee - Dont Look Down
Bob Marley The Wailers- Dream Land - Climb The Ladder
The Yawpers- Jesus Car - Savage Blue
Various Artists- Camino Cortado - Absolute Belter
- voicebreak -
Konono N1- Um Nzonzing - Konono N1 Meets Batida
Lulacruza- Comandante Duke Mushroom Remix - Orcas Remixed Vol 4
Silla And Rise- Starseed Qila - Debut
Tom Waits- Step Right Up - Small Change
- voicebreak -
Weisz- El Vagabundo Jepe Intercontinental Planetary Mix - El Vagabundo
Del The Funky Homosapien- Mistadobalina - I Wish My Brother George Was Here
Funkadelic- Super Stupid - Maggot Brain
The Abigails- Black Hell - Songs Of Love Despair
- voicebreak -
Mister Lies- Flood You - Flood Youmedusa
Dub Gabriel- Bedu Goes To Bluefields feat Kali Bloom - Anarchy Alchemy
Tricky- Come To Me - Mixed Race Bonus Version
Clap Clap- Burbuka - Tayi Bebba
Parov Stelar- Clap Your Hands - The Demon Diaries
Life Without Buildings- The Leanover - Any Other City
REM- Kohoutek Remastered - Fables Of The Reconstruction Deluxe Edition
- voicebreak -
DJ Sun- Mystery - Qingxi
Congo Natty- Jungle Is I And I - Jungle Revolution In Dub
Sociedade Recreativa- Sereia - Sociedade Recreativa
- voicebreak -
Joe Europe- Deep Point - Dope Sampler Ep


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2016-04-14
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 03-24-2016 with Rett Rogers        
Playlist:

The Vibrators- Baby Baby - Pure Mania
A Tom Collins- Jesus - Stick And Poke
Adam Ant- Cool Zombie - Cool Zombie Single
Ramones- Bonzo Goes To Bitburg - Animal Boy
Me First And The Gimme Gimmes- Science Fiction Double Feature - Are A Drag
Eddie The Hot Rods- The Beginning Of The End - The End Of The Beginning The Best Of Eddie The Hot Rods
The Jesus And Mary Chain- The Living End - Psychocandy
Robert Mitchum- The Ballard Of Thunder Road - Big Hits Highlights Of 1958 Vol 15
Kiss- Detroit Rock City - 20th Century Masters The Millennium Collection The Best Of Kiss
William Onyeabor- When The Going Is Smooth Good - Smooth Good
Shannon And The Clams- Ozma - Ozma EP
Hair Cult- Thunderdream - All Bum
Witch- Evil Woman - Lazy Bones
DurDur Band- Dooyo - DurDur Vol 5
Tinariwen- Enseqi Ehad Didagh - Imidiwan Companions
Hossam Ramzy Farid AlAtrash- Khusara Khusara - Samya The Best Of Farid Al Atrash
Verckys LOrchestre Vv- Sex Veve - Verckys LOrchestre Vv Congolose Funk Afrobeat Psychedelic Rumba 19691978
Os Gambuzinos- Aida - Gazumbi
Yusef Lateef- Bishop School - Yusef Lateefs Detroit Latitude 42 30 Longitude 83
Alice Coltrane- A Love Supreme - Huntington Ashram Monastery World Galaxy
Steve Reich Ensemble- Music For 18 Musicians VII Section V - Music For 18 Musicians
Tom Tom Club- Genius Of Love - Tom Tom Club
A Tribe Called Quest- Check The Rhime - The Low End Theory
De La Soul- Ring Ring Ring - Remember Hip Hop
The Jim Carroll Band- People Who Died - Catholic Boy
Dead Boys- Aint It Fun - Night Of The Living Dead Boys
Hunx And His Punx- Rat Bag - Street Punk
The Spits- Bring - The Spits
Hsker D- Something I Learned Today - Zen Arcade
Ted Hawkins- Sorry Youre Sick - Watch Your Step
Gil ScottHeron- Winter In America Single - Winter In America Single
The Velvet Underground- Foggy Notion - VU
Deep Purple- Hush - Shades Of Deep Purple
Alice Cooper- Caught In A Dream - Love It To Death
New York Dolls- Dance Like A Monkey - One Day It Will Please Us To Remember Even This


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2016-03-24
          Algumas kibadas...        
É gurizada... Hoje resolvi fazer um post soh kibando a galera porque assim é mais facil de postar selecionando um conteúdo de ponta pra hoje! :D

Criatividade (Jacaré Banguela):


Clientes babacas e atendentes espertas (Uhull):

Para todos os que têm de tratar com clientes irritantes, ou com pessoas que se acham superiores aos outros, aprenda com a funcionária da GOL.

Destrua um ignorante sendo original, como ela foi…


Uma funcionária da GOL, no aeroporto de Congonhas, São Paulo, deveria
ganhar um prêmio por ter sido esperta, divertida e ter atingido seu objetivo, quando teve que lidar com um passageiro que, provavelmente, merecia voar junto com a bagagem…

Um vôo lotado da GOL foi cancelado. Uma única funcionária atendia e tentava resolver o problema de uma longa fila de passageiros. De repente, um passageiro irritado cortou toda a fila até o balcão, atirou o bilhete e disse:


- Eu tenho que estar neste vôo, e tem que ser na primeira classe!

A funcionária respondeu:
- O senhor desculpe, terei todo o prazer em ajudar, mas tenho que atender estas pessoas primeiro, já que elas também estão aguardando pacientemente na fila. Quando chegar a sua vez, farei tudo para poder satisfazê-lo.
O passageiro ficou irredutível e disse, bastante alto para que todos na fila ouvissem:

- Você faz alguma idéia de quem eu sou ?


Sem hesitar, a funcionária sorriu, pediu um instante e pegou no microfone anunciando:

- Posso ter um minuto da atenção dos senhores, por favor? (a voz ecoou por todo
o terminal).

E continuou:


- Nós temos aqui no balcão um passageiro que não sabe quem é, deve estar perdido… Se alguém é responsável pelo mesmo, ou é parente, ou então puder ajudá-lo a descobrir a sua identidade, favor comparecer aqui no balcão da GOL. Obrigada.

Com as pessoas atrás dele gargalha
ndo histericamente, o homem olhou furiosamente para a funcionária, rangeu os dentes e disse, gritando:

- Eu vou te foder! Sem recuar, ela sorriu e disse:

- Desculpe, meu senhor, mas mesmo para isso, o senhor vai ter que esperar na fila; tem muita gente querendo o mesmo…


Roquenrou Fail! (Hein ?!?):

(clique para ampliar)

Como irritar seu psicólogo (Pura-Maldade):

Se você tá cansado daquele mala te falando o que dizer e insistindo que o Hobbes não existe. Siga essas instruções e incomode-o muito:



Quando for às consultas com seu psicólogo e estiver com vontade de incomodá-lo, use estas técnicas:



1 - Diga que ouve vozes (com uma cara séria). Quando lhe perguntarem o motivo ou quando isso acontece, diga: "Toda vez que eu atendo ao telefone".




2 - Quando for à sua primeira consulta diga que não possui problema algum e que seus amigos fadas e duendes até o aconselharam a nem ir nessa consulta.



3 - Após solucionar um caso e encontrarem uma solução, diga que agora está tudo bem, então vire-se para o lado e diga: "Tudo resolvido, certo Frank?". Insista que esta pessoa existe.



4 - Diga que vê pessoas mortas, caso pedirem-lhe um exemplo , diga: "Ontem por exemplo, quando fui ao enterro do meu tio avô Ernesto". (tia, tia avó, primo, quem você quiser matar.)



5 - Invente palavras malucas e ao conversar com seu psicólogo, use-as em vez de seu vocabulário normal. Exemplo: "Ontem eu estava tão gnork que splotrok".



6 - Caso você for adolescente, diga estar achando virar um alienígena, porque pontinhos verdes aparecem do nada em seu rosto.



7 - Com feição de paranóico e assustado diga coisas do tipo: "Ele virá me pegar". Quando lhe perguntarem quem, diga: "Meu pai depois da consulta". (Se quiser coloque as frases no plural).



8 - Tire fotos fingindo estar abraçando alguém ou fingindo que está com alguém e mostre as fotos ao seu psicólogo, dizendo os nomes dos seus amigos "invisíveis".



9 - Diga que pode prever as coisas, diga que pode ver em sua mente tudo o que irá acontecer no dia de ontem, e insista.




10 - Dependendo da hora de sua consulta, coloque seu celular para tocar no meio dela, antes do celular tocar diga que prevê as coisas e diga que seu celular irá tocar em "por exemplo, 1 minuto" ou "por exemplo, às duas da tarde".




11 - Quando seu psicólogo estiver tratando de algo sério, faça caretas estranhas e diga que espíritos estão tentando entrar em contato com você.




12 - Quando lhe pedirem atenção ou dirigirem-se à você, diga: "(O seu nome, "João") não está mais entre nós, agora eu (invente um nome estranho, "Zitron") estou no comando de seu corpo". Ou Ele está fora de área, tente novamente mais tarde ou deixe seu recado após o sinal". Faça o barulho do sinal e após isso diga: "Gravando mensagem".





Bom é isso! Have Fun! :)
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 06-18-2015 with 99        
Playlist:

Andrew Bird- Far From Any Road Be My Hand - Things Are Really Great Here Sort Of
Great Lake Swimmers- With Every Departure - A Forest Of Arms
Clap Your Hands Say Yeah- Clap Your Hands - Clap Your Hands Say Yeah 10th Anniversary Edition
Pascale Comelade Les Liminanas- Dick Dale Netait Pas De Bompas - Traite De Guitarres Triolectiques
Father John Misty- I Love You Honeybear - I Love You Honeybear
Pardon Kimura- SnowCovered Volcano - Frozen Hawaii
Spanglish Fly- New York Soul - Latin Soul Y Bugal EP
- voicebreak -
A Tribe Called Red- Suplex feat Northern Voice - Suplex EP
The Specials- Enjoy Yourself Its Later Than You Think 2002 Remastered Version - More Specials
Phil Pratt- African Communication - Star Wars Dub
Rabbit Rabbit- Swallow Me Whole - Rabbit Rabbit Radio Vol 2 Swallow Me Whole
First Aid Kit- Heavy Storm - The Big Black The Blue
Fort Knox Five- Mission To The Sitars - Pressurize The Cabin
Compilation- Go Cart - Globalista Radio Sensual Sonores
Mr Scruff- Where Am I - Friendly Bacteria
Dengue Fever- Ghost Voice - The Deepest Lake
Chui Wan- Beijing Is Sinking - Chui Wan
- voicebreak -
Mandeng Eletrik- CyberFula - Mandeng Eletrik
Daym Arocena- Madres - Nueva Era
Sun Ra- Have You Heard The Latest News From Neptune - Marshall Allen Presents Sun Ra And His Arkestra In The Orbit Of Ra
- voicebreak -
Bonobo- Brace Brace - Black Sands Remixed
Various Artists- Land Of Nowhere - Dub Out Of Poland Vol2
- voicebreak -
People Like Us- Happy Lost Songs - Welcome Abroad
Meat Puppets- Up On The Sun - Up On The Sun
King Missile- Cheesecake Truck - Mystical Shit Fluting On The Hump
Bomba Estreo- Amanecer - Amanecer
James Brown- Super Bad remix By Cornelius - Ultimate Remixes
- voicebreak -
Henry Threadgill Zooid- In For A Penny In For A Pound Opening - In For A Penny In For A Pound
Jaga Jazzist- Going Down - A Living Room Hush
- Rock n Robot By Kim And Buran - Russkie Wigout Demented Surfelectroexotica From Behind The Iron Curtain
- voicebreak -
Dom La Nena- Volto J - Soyo
Various Artists- Andres Landero Y Su Conjunto La Pava Congono - Beginners Guide To Cumbia
Dave Lombardo DJ Spooky- BSide Wins Again Acappella Version - BSide Wins Again EP


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2015-06-18
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 04-14-2015 with Barry Roark        
Playlist:

Port OBrien- I Woke Up Today - The Wind And The Swell
Peter Bjorn John- May Seem Macabre - Gimme Some
Beardyman- You Only Like What You Know - Distractions
The Bug- Dirty feat Flowdan - Angels Devils
Robert Wyatt- Chelsa - 68
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Spain- Untitled 1 - The Blue Moods Of Spain
Nick Waterhouse- Aint There Something That Money Cant Buy - Holly
The Waterboys- I Can See Elvis - Modern Blues
THEESatisfaction- Post Black Anyway - EarthEE
Pinback- Offcell - Offcell
Dubmatix- Liberation feat Longfingah - Rebel Massive
Real Estate- Younger Than Yesterday - Days
The Jones Girls- Will You Be There - Funk Soul Brothers Sisters Ghetto Funk Classics Southern Fried Soul Killers
Tomas Pagan Motta- Up And Away - Tomas Pagan Motta
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QUESTION MARK MYSTERIAN- Beachcomber - More Action
Verckys LOrchestre Vv- Sex Veve - Verckys LOrchestre Vv Congolose Funk Afrobeat Psychedelic Rumba 19691978
Various Artists- Radio City Feat Bajka The Hop - HVW8 Presents Music Is My Art
Via Tania- Moonbow - Via Tania And The Tomorrow Music Orchestra
The Real Tuesday Weld- The Show Must Go On - I Lucifer
The Radio Dept- On Your Side - Passive Aggressive Singles 20022010
The Omens- John Fonte Blues - Destroy The E S P
Various Artists- Pretty 50s - Mulholland Drive
Sky Cries Mary- We Will Fall - A Return To The Inner Experience
Sometymes Why- You Little Trustmaker - Superhits Of The Superstrs
Robyn Hitchcock- When I Was A Kid - Gravy Deco
The Sonics- Save The Planet - This Is The Sonics
Tom Tom Club- Happiness Cant Buy Money - The Good The Bad And The Funky
Happy Mondays- Do It Better - Bummed
The Pinker Tones- Maybe Next Saturday - The Million Colour Revolution
Steve Wynn Linda Pitmon- Jack Candy - Got No Chains The Songs Of The Walkabouts
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Calexico- Follow The River - Edge Of The Sun
Sufjan Stevens- Should Have Known Better - Carrie Lowell
Jos Gonzlez- Leaf Off The Cave - Vestiges Claws


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2015-04-14
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 03-16-2015 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

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Gary Clark Jr- Third Stone From The Sun If You Love Me Like You Say Live - Gary Clark Jr Live
Les Ambassadeurs- Mali Denou - Les Ambassadeurs Du Motel De Bamako Vol 2
Machuca Cumbia- Staying Alive - The Afrosound Of Colombia Vol 2
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Verckys LOrchestre Vv- Bassala Hot - Verckys LOrchestre Vv Congolose Funk Afrobeat Psychedelic Rumba 19691978
Tweedy- New Moon - Sukierae
Flying Lotus- Moment Of Hesitation - Youre Dead
Caribou- Back Home - Our Love
Bonobo- Flashlight - Flashlight Single
Panda Bear- Mr Noah - Panda Bear Meets The Grim Reaper
Ali Shaheed Muhammad Souls Of Mischief- Time Stopped - There Is Only Now Remix feat Snoop Dogg William Hart
MC Frontalot- Shudders feat Kid Koala The Protomen - Question Bedtime
Dilated Peoples- Good As Gone - Directors Of Photography
Sly The Family Stone- Trip To Your Heart - Higher
The Flaming Lips- Lucy In The Sky With Diamonds feat Miley Cyrus Moby - With A Little Help From My Fwends
STEEL PULSE- Roller Skates remix - Earth Crisis
Juliana Hatfield- My Sister - Gold Stars 1992 2002
The Blake Babies- Picture Perfect - God Bless The Blake Babies
Sallie Ford- Workin The Job - Slap Back
Janelle Mone- Givin Em What They Love feat Prince - The Electric Lady
Juno What- You Cant Stop It - Shameless
Snake Rattle Rattle Snake- Hiding In The Pale Walls - Totem
Ark Life- What You Want To - The Dream Of You Me
Kenny Rogers The First Edition- Tulsa Turnaround - Country Funk Volume II 19671974
Johnny Cash- Im Movin On with Waylon Jennings - Out Among The Stars
Foxygen- Cosmic Vibrations - And Star Power
Foxygen- How Can You Really - And Star Power
Tennis- Never Work For Free - Ritual In Repeat
Sturgill Simpson- Turtles All The Way Down - Metamodern Sounds In Country Music
Two Gallants- Fools Like Us - We Are Undone
Delicate Steve- Positive Force - Positive Force
Pete Rock CL Smooth CL Smooth Pete Rock- The Creator - All Souled Out EP


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2015-03-16
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 01-29-2015 with Jahsonic        
Playlist:

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Thievery Corporation- Liberation Front - The Richest Man In Babylon
Ed Sheeran- No Diggity Thrift Shop - Single
Balkan Beat Box Featuring Dana Leong- Sunday Arak - Balkan Beat Box
Sucre- Young And Free - Loner EP
Foxfeather- Math Problems - Foul Moon EP
Emancipator- Soon It Will Be Cold Enough To Build Fires - Soon It Will Be Cold Enough
The Wind And The Wave- Raising Hands Raising Hell Raise em High - From The Wreckage
The Black Keys- Oceans Streams - Attack Release
BRNS- Past Lives - Candy EP
Mr Little Jeans- Good Mistake - Pocketknife
Stevie Wonder C2C- Superstition - Single
Odesza- Say My Name feat Zyra - In Return
Micah Shemaiah- Dread At The Control feat Hempress Sativa Tj Infinite - Dread At The Control Single
Dirtwire- Damn Rooster - The Carrier
ODeath- Bugs - Outside
Pegboard Nerds- Badboi - Monstercat 019 Endeavour
JD McPherson- North Side Gal - Signs Signifiers
Smoke Season- Badlands - Hot Coals Cold Souls EP
Oliver Heldens Becky Hill- Gecko Overdrive Radio Edit - Gecko Overdrive Radio Edit Single
Jurassic 5- Whats Golden - Power In Numbers
Congorock Stereo Massive- Bless Di Nation feat Sean Paul - Bless Di Nation feat Sean Paul Remixes EP
AronChupa- Im An Albatraoz - Im An Albatraoz Single
Minus The Bear- Pachuca Sunrise - Menos El Oso
Hollie Cook- Milk Honey - Hollie Cook
Tycho Kendrick- Vibe Walk - Single
David Starfire- Ya Habibi feat Natacha Atlas - Ascend
Calvin Harris- Slow Acid - Motion
Basenectar Beats Antique- So Butterfly - Single
Zella Day- Sweet Ophelia - Zella Day EP
Kreeps- Pennsylvania Boarded Up House Blues - Belly Full Of Razor Blades
Elle King- Aint Gonna Drown - Love Stuff
Ryan Scroggins And The Trenchtown Texans- The Alligator - The Trenchtown Texans
Son Little- The River - Single
Tycho- Coastal Brake - Coastal Brake EP
Mr FijiWiji Direct- Entropy - Monstercat 019 Endeavour
MO- Dark Night - Single
Zed Bias- Shizam My Nu Leng Remix feat Stylo G Scrufizzer - Shizam feat Stylo G Scrufizzer EP
Desperate Journalist- Distance - Desperate Journalist
Tut Tut Child- Breathe feat Danyka Nadeau - Monstercat 020 Altitude
Thievery Corporation- The Time We Lost Our Way feat Loulou - The Cosmic Game
M- XXX 88 feat Diplo - Bikini Daze EP
Fickle Friends- Swim - Swim Single
David Starfire- Shiva Lives feat Knowa Knowone And Rik Sharaj - Ascend


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2015-01-29
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 01-21-2015 with Stephen Whitehead        
Playlist:

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Yo La Tengo- Little Eyes - Summer Sun
Mr Gnome- Rise Shine - The Heart Of A Dark Star
Tom Hagerman- Useless Wooden Toys - Idle Creatures
Devendra Banhart- Chinese Children - Cripple Crow
Baka Beyond- Call Of The Forest - Rhythm Tree
The Bad Plus- Flim - Blunt Object
AkronFamily- Creatures - Set Em Wild Set Em Free
Tu Fawning- Diamond In The Forest - Hearts On Hold
Shakey Graves- Only Son - And The War Came
Elephant Revival- Sing To The Mountain - Elephant Revival
Caribou- Boreal Forest Opper - Yeti EP
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Djosos Krost- Creation feat Jah Bobby - No Sign Of Bad
Slick Rick- Its A Boy - The Rulers Back
Jake Schepps The Expedition Quartet- For Children BB 53 Vol 4 No 14 Romance I Know A Little Forest - An Evening In The Village The Music Of Bla Bartk
Vetiver- At Forest Edge - Tight Knit
David Byrne St Vincent- The Forest Awakes - Love This Giant
Devo- I Cant Get No Satisfaction - Q Are We Not Men A We Are Devo Deluxe Version Remastered
Birdy Nam Nam- New Birth - Birdy Nam Nam
Simon Garfunkel- Baby Driver - Bridge Over Troubled Water
Guided By Voices- I Am A Tree - Mag Earwhig
Burgstaller Martignon 4 Joe Burgstaller Hector Martignon Hans Glawischnig John Ferrari- Childrens Song No 7 - Mozarts Blue Dreams Other Crossover Fantasies
Delta Spirit- Children - Ode To Sunshine
Nick Moss- Privileged At Birth - Privileged
Four Tet- A Joy - Everything Ecstatic
Kabanjak- I Am A Tree - Tree Of Mystery
Nouvelle Vague- A Forest - Nouvelle Vague
Nostalgia 77 Prince Fatty- Little Steps Dub - In The Kingdom Of Dub
Amon Tobin- Wooden Toy - Isam Bonus Track Version
El Ten Eleven- Birth - Transitions
MC Yogi- Born To Fly - Pilgrimage Bonus Track Version
Bombay Dub Orchestra Feat Kartik Sirishkumar- Flame Of The Forest - Samaya A Benefit Album For Cheb I Sabbah
Kasai Allstars- As They Walked Into The Forest On A Sunday They Encountered Apes Dressed As Humans - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
The Dynamics- The Creator Has A Masterplan - Version Excursions
The Beatles- Hey Jude - Past Masters Vols 1 2


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2015-01-21
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 01-08-2015 with Joel Davis        
Playlist:

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Aesop Rock- Bug Zapper - Cat Food EP
Russo Passapusso- Autodidata - Paraso Da Miragem
Vakula Planet Lindela- Are You Coming With Us feat Temi Oyedele - Ten Cities
The Polish Ambassador- Let The Rhythm Just feat Mr Lif Ayla Nereo - Pushing Through The Pavement
Wax Tailor- Already Begun Skit - In The Mood For Life
Wax Tailor- BBoy On Wax - In The Mood For Life
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The Shaolin Afronauts- Boogie Back Accra - Follow The Path
Serengeti- Parkour - Kenny Dennis III
Dengue Fever- Deepest Lake On The Planet - The Deepest Lake
Swamp Dogg- If That Aint The Blues Nothing Is - The White Man Made Me Do It
Mahmoud Ahmed- Etu Gela - thiopiques Vol 19 Mahmoud Ahmed 1974
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The Go Team- Back Like 8 Track - Rolling Blackouts
LCD Soundsystem- All My Friends John Cales Version - All My Friends
Bostich Fussible- Blue Pill - Motel Baja
Nicolette- Soulfully Unguent Waves Open Demonstrations Of Affection As Natural As Breathing - Life Loves Us
Suns Of The Earth- Ancestors - Ancestors EP EP
Pitch Black- Rude Mechanicals feat KP - Rhythm Sound And Movement
Various Artists- Bob Marley Mr Brown Remix - DJ Spooky Creation Rebel
Ticklah- El Dia De Suerte - Ya Lleg EP
Helado Negro- I Krill You - Double Youth
MC YOGI- Sea Of Stars feat Ocean Pleasant - Only Love Is Real
Junip- In Every Direction - Fields
Mexican Dubwiser- Bicicleta Lindo Monterrey feat El Gran Silencio - Electric City
Amon Tobin- Verbal feat MC Decimal R - Out From Out Where
The Blank Tapes- O Distractions - Hwy 9
Antonio Sanchez- The Anxious Battle For Sanity - Birdman Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Simo Lagnawi- Bolami - The Gnawa Berber
Various Artists- Matt Cook James Joyce - United States Of Poetry
Charleston Okafor- America - America
Verckys LOrchestre Vv- Nakomi Paralise - Verckys LOrchestre Vv Congolose Funk Afrobeat Psychedelic Rumba 19691978
The Clash Vs Michael Jackson- Should I Black Or Should I White - Radio Transmissions Vol 23
El Remolon- Bosques Via Temperley feat Kumbha Kethu - ZZK Estilo Hip Hop
Pat Satchmo- A Handful Of Friends - A Handful Of Friends Single
MIKE WATT- Chinese Firedrill - BALL HOG OR TUGBOAT
Deadbeat- 7th 33rd - Adventures In Hyper Reality
Eno Hyde- Return - High Life
Yo La Tengo- Ohm - Fade
Randy Weston- Blue Moses - The Spirits Of Our Ancestors


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2015-01-08
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 12-15-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

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Whitefield Brothers- Sem Yelesh - Beyond Addis Contemporary Jazz Funk Inspired By Ethiopian Sounds From The 70s
JJ Cale- Cajun Moon - Country Funk Volume II 19671974
Sly The Family Stone- Stand - Higher
Lee Fields The Explorers- Aint It Funky Now - The Soul Fire Box Set
Crow- Evil Woman - Mojo Presents Heavy Nuggets III
Dubmatix- Shes In Love feat URoy Cornell Campbell - Rebel Massive
Dubmatix- Give A Helping Hand feat The Mighty Diamonds - System Shakedown
Batida- Ta Doce feat A F Diaphra - Batida
Gary Clark Jr- Bright Lights Live - Gary Clark Jr Live
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Machuca Cumbia- Staying Alive - The Afrosound Of Colombia Vol 2
Toumani Diabat Sidiki Diabat- Bansang - Toumani Sidiki
Seun Kuti Egypt 80- African Smoke - A Long Way To The Beginning
Fema Kuti The FELA Band- Colonial Mentality Live At The New Afrika Shrine - Finding Fela Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Mbongeni Ngema- Lizobuya - Amandla
Kris Kristofferson Gillian Welch David Rawlings- The Ballad Of Ira Hayes - Look Again To The Wind Johnny Cashs Bitter Tears Revisited
Thao The Get Down Stay Down- Nobody Wants A Lonely Heart - Master Mix Red Hot Arthur Russell
Bobby Bland- I Pity The Fool - Bowie Heard Them Here First
Thepporn Petchubon- Pa Gun Tor - The Sound Of Siam Vol 2 Molam Luk Thung Isan From NorthEast Thailand 19701982
The Flaming Lips- Lovely Rita feat Tegan And Sara Stardeath And White Dwarfs - With A Little Help From My Fwends
Bossacucanova- Balana No Pode Parar - Six Degrees Of Brazil Vol 2
tienne Daho Dominique A- En Surface En Duo - Le Pop 8
Galactic- Out In The Street Feat Cyril And Ivan Neville - Carnivale Electricos
Kasai Allstars- The Chiefs Enthronement Oyaye - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
Dilated Peoples- Good As Gone - Directors Of Photography
Adrian Younge Souls Of Mischief- There Is Only Now feat Snoop Dogg - There Is Only Now
MC Frontalot- Shudders feat Kid Koala The Protomen - Question Bedtime
ItchyO- Jaywalker - Burn The Navigator
Sin Fang- Young Boys - Made In Iceland VII
Justin Townes Earle- Single Mothers - Single Mothers
Shakey Graves- Big Time Nashville Star feat Esm Patterson - And The War Came
Nikki Lane- Sleep With A Stranger - All Or Nothin
Sylvan Esso- Coffee - Sylvan Esso
Jolie Holland- On And On - Wine Dark Sea


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-12-15
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 12-11-2014 with Joel Davis        
Playlist:

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Anahata Sacred Sound Current- Wisdom Of The Ages - Vimanas Project Vol 1
AES- ATMA - ATMA Single
Thomas Blondet- Tu Va Partir feat Leyla Chatti Zeb Remix - Futureworld Remixed
Deerhoof- Paradise Girls - La Isla Bonita
Kidkanevil- Rainstorm Pt 3 - Problems And Solutions
Kottarashky- Lament - Demo
Sheckys Jazzy Tofu- Butterfly - Tall Black Guy Presents Tempo Dreams Vol 1
James Reese And The Progressions- Jodys Freeze - The Funky 16 Corners
Stevie Wonder- Soul Train The Vibe Conductors Afrobeat Blues For Don - Vibe Conductor Vol 1
Hot Chip- Sexual Healing - Remixes Rarities
Johnny Roxx Doobious- Pull Up feat Miss Str8 - Pull Up feat Miss Str8 Single
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dunkelbunt Alix- Egal Radio Edit - Egal Single
Led Zeppelin- Bron Y Aur Stomp Hong Kong Ping Pong Remix - Icons Ghetto Funk Remixes Vol 2
Culture- Black Starliner Must Come - Two Sevens Clash
Verckys LOrchestre Vv- Bassala Hot - Verckys LOrchestre Vv Congolose Funk Afrobeat Psychedelic Rumba 19691978
Charleston Okafor- Revelations Under The Sun - America
The Very Best Ewau Mwamwaya Radioclit- Dinosaur On The Ark - The Very Best Mixtape
Mysterious Traveller- Serengheti - Mysterious Traveller Afroart
Serengeti- No Beginner - Kenny Dennis III
Stars- From The Night A Tribe Called Red Remix - No One Is Lost Tour EP
NIGHTMARES ON WAX- Nights Introlude - Bleep Selects 25 Years Of Warp
Yo La Tengo- Double Dare - Painful
Fantasma- Shesha Span Hell Yeah feat Ross McDonald - Eye Of The Sun EP
The Flying Lizards- Money - The Flying Lizards
Gaudi- Theremystical - Bass Sweat Tears
Ensamble Polifnico Vallenato Sexteto La Constelacin De Colombia- Chandeath - Fiesta Que Viva La
Ian Kamau- Heading Home feat Georgia Anne Muldrow - Heading Home Georgia Anne Muldrow Remix EP Single
Vakula Planet Lindela- Choborops feat Hannes Teichmann - Ten Cities
Moreno- Polaroids - Polaroids
Another Fine Day- Walk Tall - Waypoint
The Doobie Brothers- Long Train Runnin Kaminanda Remix - Kaminanda Soundcloud
The Soul Rebels- Get Lucky feat Big Freedia Gypsyphonic Remix - Get Lucky Single
Neguedmundo- Toca A Buguinha Remix - Kafund Vol 1
DJ Vadim Sabira Jade- Hope feat Rio Hemopo - Dubcatcher
Saqi- Puja feat Aima The Dreamer Robin Jackson - The Well
Mashrou Leila- ImBimBillilah - Mashrou Leila
Bonobo- Pelican - Flashlight Single
Eighty Mile Beach- Red Helicopters - Inclement Weather
Slimkid Dj Numark- What Are Words For - Slimkid Dj Numark
Tony Allen- Moving On - Film Of Life
The OJays- Love Train - Back Stabbers
Asha Bhosle Kronos Quartet- Piya Tu Ab To Aaja Lover Come To Me Now - Youve Stolen My Heart Songs From RD Burmans Bollywood
Mysterious Traveller- Smile Reggae - Mysterious Traveller Afroart


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2014-12-11
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 12-05-2014 with 99 & Barry        
Playlist:

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Larry Wald- Superman - Sensacional Soul Vol 3
Spanglish Fly- Let My People Bugal Clay Holley Jeff Dynamite Remix Bonus Track - Rough Guide To Latin Rare Groove Vol 1
Tony Allen- Moving On - Film Of Life Deluxe Edition
Jon Batiste Chad Smith Bill Laswell- The Drift - The Process
Andre Williams The Sadies- America You Say A Change Is Gonna Come - Night Day
The Budos Band- Black Hills - Burnt Offering
SWAT- Cops Are The Only Real People Left - Deep Inside A Cops Mind
The Clash- Police On My Back - Sandinista
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MarchFourth Marching Band- Cowbell - Magnificent Beast
Bullet- The Orchestrator - Mojo Presents Heavy Nuggets III
Ceramic Dog- Lies My Body Told Me - Your Turn
Ensamble Polifnico Vallenato- Chandeath - Fiesta Que Viva La
Moondog- Bumbo - Rare Material
Officer- Some - Ossification
Rahsaan Roland Kirk- Clickety Clack - Bright Moments
Rahsaan Roland KIrk- Volunteered Slavery - Volunteered Slavery
Rabbit Rabbit- Tiny Invasion - Rabbit Rabbit Radio Vol 2 Swallow Me Whole
The Residents- Lizard Lady - Duck Stab
And The Native Hipsters- Flowers R Machines As Well - Songs To Protest About
Aquaserge- Serge Singe - A Lamiti
Lord Cry Cry- Blind Lightnin Floor - Live At The CPU
John Zorn- Evocation Of Baphomet - Templars In Sacred Blood feat Mike Patton John Medeski Trevor Dunn Joey Baron
The Shaolin Afronauts- Caravan To Tao Ceti - Follow The Path
Pan Ron- Kom Veacha Tha Sneha Knom - Rough Guide To Psychedelic Cambodia
Johnny Bowtie Barstow- Santa Claus Is Coming To Town - A Bowtie Christmas And More
Los Yorks- Cielo - Los Nuggetz 60s Punk Pop And Psychedelic From Latin America
Verckys LOrchestre Vv- Bassala Hot - Verckys LOrchestre Vv Congolose Funk Afrobeat Psychedelic Rumba 19691978
Super Eagles- Loves A Real Thing - World Psychedelic Classics 3 Loves A Real Thing The Funky Fuzzy Sounds Of West Africa
Neu Abdominaux Dangereux- The Shopper - Dangereuxorcisms
Felicita- Wish - Frenemies
Pelican Daughters- No Place Like Homer - Fishbones Wishbones
FaltyDL- Nine - In The Wild
Susumu Yokota- Subconscious Globe - Dreamer
Drexel- Do Not Mess With Oprah - Sexual Pancakes
Stratman- ZaikoDance Thrace - Demotic Remix greeks Indians Vol 1
Xenia Rubinos- Ultima - Magic Trix
The Gaslamp Killer- Shattering Inner Journeys feat Computer Jay Mike Burnham - Death Gate EP


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-12-05
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 11-21-2014 with DJ Segue        
Playlist:

Daniel Higgs- a3 - Devotional Songs Of Daniel Higgs
DJ Food- Extract From Stolen Moments - One Mans Weird Is Another Mans World
Ken Nordine- The Vidiot - Beat Generation Music Poetry
Paul White- I Call You - Running On A Rainy Day
Krokodil- 08 Raga 1971 - The Psychedelic Tapes
Oneness Of Juju- Bootsies Lament - Space Jungle Luv
Karl Hector the Malcouns- Mhammad - Unstraight Ahead
Flying Lotus- Eyes Above - Youre Dead
Brock Berrigan- A Strange Predicament - Four Walls and an Amplifier
Cut Chemist- Bunkys Pick - The Litmus Test
Cookin Soul x Gil Scott Heron- A sign of the ages - The Revolution is being televised tribute
Onra- Welcome To Vietnam - Chinoiseries
Onra- Chop Your Hands - Chinoiseries
Paul White- Sleep Clapping - The Strange Dreams Of Paul White
Fumaa Preta- Perdidos - Fumaa Preta
Shawn Lees Ping Pong Orchestra- Hey Ya - Rewind Vol6
Guts- Come Alive feat Lorine Chia - Hip Hop After All
Deela- Maria Death Squad - Fantastic Freeriding 4 Now
DJ Shadow- Ghost Town - The Liquid Amber EP
Clap Clap- Kuj Yato - Tayi Bebba
Brock Berrigan- Four Walls and an Amplifier - Four Walls and an Amplifier
llmind- Straight Ahead Produced by llmind M31RK - BFKW llmind Beats For Kanye West EP
Jaro Milko The Cubalkanics- Cumbia Orientale - Cigarros Explosivos
- 101 The Anambra Bests -
Brock Berrigan- Thats All - Four Walls and an Amplifier
Denaun Porter- mOnTeZ tHeMe - Porter Chops Glasper
Onra- Hope - Chinoiseries
The Electric Peanut Butter Company- Backstreet Wall - TransAtlantic Psych Classics Vol2
Lefties Soul Connection- Skit A - Akathisia
Can- Halleluwah - Tago Mago
Lou Jimmy- Walk On The Spinning Wheel J Rocc Edit - Flaunt Edwards
The Beatstalkers- Edgelactic - Pyramid Funk Dynamite Reggae
Gramatik- Doin It - SB1
- 03 Babo -
VA Near East Psych- Degmen Benim Gamli Yasli Gnlme - Ince Ince Bir Kar Yagar
DJ Dolores- Alcool Bolero Filosofico - Banda Sonora Musica para Filmes
M Ashraf feat Nahid Akhtar- Dilbar Dilbara - The Sound Of Wonder
Lack of Afro- Freedom The Gene Dudley Group Remix Instrumental feat Jack Tyson Charles - Freedom
VA Near East Psych- Niye Cattin Kaslarini - Ince Ince Bir Kar Yagar
Baris Manco- Lambaya Pf De - Daglar Daglar
Swindle- Summer Fruits - Walters Call
Slugabed- 1 Badman - Activia Frenz Vol 1
Chinese Man- pandi groove - The Groove Sessions
Brock Berrigan- Scotch on a Yacht - Four Walls and an Amplifier
The Survivors- Rawhide - Scratchy Sounds Ska Dub Roots Reggae Nuggets Disc 2
Pyramid Blue- African Jungle - Dis Is Good For You Tropical Grooves and Afrofunk International
Pete Rodriguez- I Like It Like That - Chef Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Butch Clancy- Ratchet Anthem - A Beautiful Mind LP
Roses Gabor- Rush Instrumental - Rush
Krts- Hold On Glenn Astro Remix - Hold On LP
Gorgon Sound vs Dubkasm- Dub Mirror - The Versions
Hi Tech Roots Dynamics- MSG Dub - New York Dub
Hoodz- Bad Mind - Bad Mind Digi12
The Spy From Cairo- Gypsy Stepper - The Wonderwheel Spins 2013
80s Casual- Likkle Sound - In Dub
1000names- Paper Trip - Invisible Architect
Clap Clap- Sahkii Xirhuu - Tayi Bebba
AfroMassive- Por Ejemplo - Fill the Void
Helado Negro- Triangulate - Double Youth
Paul White- Where You Gonna Go - Shaker Notes
Skalpel- Theme From Behind The Curtain - Skalpel
DJ Shepdog- Bigger Than Jamrock - Greatest Licks vol 1
Taiwan Mc- Roll It Up featuring Plex Rock - Heavy This Year EP
Mikael- Smiling Face - Smiling Face
Anouk Aiata Taiwan MC- One Last Dub - One Last Dance
Dennis Brown- Dub Around The World - Dennis Brown In Dub
Lennie Hibbert- Chinese Beauty - More Creation
Mos Dub- Shroud The Stars instrumental - Mos Dub
Kalbata Mixmonster- Major Mackerel When the Congo Hit the Drum - Congo Beat the Drum
- 09 Vision Quest 2 -
- 03 Scratch To Win -
ElP- Twin Back Hype - Run The Jewels Instrumentals
Run The Jewels- Twin Hype Back Clean - Run The Jewels
Run The Jewels- Oh My Darling Dont Cry Inst - RTJ2
Run The Jewels- Oh My Darling Dont Cry Clean - RTJ2
Taku- Clik Clak - RE TWERK
Taku- Kendrick Lamar Swimming Pools Taku Remix - RE TWERK
Taku- Electronic Relaxation - RETWERK VOLII
Taku- Cosmos Midnight The Dofflin Taku Remix - RETWERK VOLII
Taku- Shimmy Shimmy - RETWERK VOLII
Hucci- The Fall - Rose Gold
Taku- Closet Drake Fans - DRIZZY REWORKS
Sub Swara- Traffic Jam Sub Swara Refix -
The Beta Club- Brassa Nova - Paris Djs Soundsystem Presents Killas Thrillas Chillas Foot Stompers Freaky Soul Vol1


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-11-21
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 11-14-2014 with 99 & Barry        
Playlist:

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Andre Williams- Country Western Song - Silky
Gary Lucas- Casino Royale - Cinefantastique
Rabbit Rabbit- Tiny Invasion - Rabbit Rabbit Radio Vol 2 Swallow Me Whole
Fumaa Preta- Amor Tece Dor - Fumaa Preta
Various Artists- The Right Profile - Sevilla Calling
Aquaserge- Je Viens - A Lamiti
Cambodian Space Project- House Of The Rising Sun - Rough Guide To Psychedelic Cambodia
Orlando Julius- Love Thy Neighbour - Jaiyede Afro with The Heliocentrics
La Misa Negra- Cumbia Milagrosa - Misa De Medianoche
- Nem Kaldi - Istanbul 70 Psych Disco Folk Classics
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Novox- Maggot Brain - Over The Honeymoon
Heliocentrics Melvin Van Peebles- Chapter 08 Telepathic Routine - The Last Transmission
John Zorn- Metapsychomagia - Psychomagia
Secret Chiefs 3 Ishraqiyun- The 15 - Perichoresis
Panzerpappa- Satam - Astromalist
African Head Charge- Timpanya - Voodoo Of The Godsent Bonus Track Version
Flako Dirg Gerner- I Want You - Gilles Peterson Presents Brownswood Bubblers Five
Enrico Caruso- Tu C Nun Chiagne Remastered - The Voice And The Legend 245 Original Recordings Remastered
Various Artists- The Time Of The Singing Of The Birds - Otis Fodders 365 Days Project UBUCOM
Neu Abdominaux Dangereux- Sweengo - Dangereuxorcisms
The Ed Palermo Big Band- Chungas Revenge - Oh No Not Jazz
Trevor Dunn Marc Ribot Tyshawn Sorey- The Voynich Mandala Enigma Eight - Valentines Day
Christine Owman- One Of The Folks - Little Beast
Eyvind Kang- Variel - Alastor The Book Of Angels Vol 21
Norman Paris His Orchestra The David Carter Singers- Were Gonna Have Shoes - The Wonderful World Of Chemistry
- Bamboo Zither I - Music From The Mountain Provinces
Tradisyon Ka- Ansanm Pou Dmen feat Henri Louis - Soul Jazz Records Presents Gwo Ka Music Of Guadeloupe West Indies
Laraaji- Lotus Collage - Celestial Music 1978 2011
Kasai Allstars Juana Molina- Hoy Supe Que Viajas - TradiMods Vs Rockers Alternative Takes On Congotronics Vol 1 Bonus Track Version
FaltyDL- New Haven - In The Wild
Matmos- Aetheric Vehicle - The Marriage Of True Minds Bonus Track Version
3 Mice- TseTse - Send Me A Postcard
Tino Contreras- Santo - El Jazz Mexicano De Tino Contreras
Telegraph Avenue- Sungaligali - Peru Bravo Funk Soul Psych From Perus Radical Decade


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-11-14
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 10-24-2014 with 99 & Barry        
Playlist:

- voicebreak -
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Orlando Julius- Omo Oba Blues - Jaiyede Afro with The Heliocentrics
Kronos Quartet Kyp Malone Stuart Bogie Tunde Adebimpe- Sorrow Tears Blood - Red Hot Fela
Rabbit Rabbit- Swallow Me Whole - Rabbit Rabbit Radio Vol 2 Swallow Me Whole
Secret Chiefs 3 Ishraqiyun- The 7 - Perichoresis
- voicebreak -
Primus- I Want It Now - Primus The Chocolate Factory With The Fungi Ensemble
Mike Watt- Black Gang Coffee - Contemplating The Engine Room
- voicebreak -
Tom Waits- Lucinda - Orphans Brawlers Bawlers Bastards
Medeski Scofield Martin Wood- Light My Fire - Juice
The Zverstvo- Naked - Cant Eat This Song
Marc Ribots Ceramic Dog- Masters Of The Internet - Your Turn
Heliocentrics Melvin Van Peebles- Chapter 09 The Dance - The Last Transmission
Burnt Sugar- Round AboutAt Midnight - Fubractive Since Antiquity Suite
African Head Charge- Treatment For A Septic Horn - Vision Of A Psychedelic Africa
Zoom Tochka Ra- ZoomraZoom In - Art De Mixage
Dot Wiggin Band- Boo Hoo - Ready Get Go
Various Artists- Toc Mai Soi Van Soi Dai Long Uneven Hair - Saigon Rock Soul Vietnamese Classics 19681974
Los Iracundos- El Hombre Del Brazo Oro - Los Nuggetz 60s Punk Pop And Psychedelic From Latin America
Screamin Jay Hawkins- She Put The Wamee On Me - Voodoo Man
Fanfara Tirana Transglobal Underground- Flowers Lament - Kabatronics Bonus Track Version
Cyro Baptista- Olivia Step On The Roach - Love The Donkey
Eno Hyde- Moulded Life - High Life
Hailu Mergia The Walias- Musicawi Silt - Tche Belew
Birdy Nam Nam- Jazz It At Home - Birdy Nam Nam
Jaap Blonk- Schele Schoft - Braaxtaal
The George Garabedian Singers- Spanish Flea - The Tijuana Brass Sound
Little Fyodor- I Dont Know What To Do - Idiots Are Closer To God
Miriam Garca Alicia Solans- Pintar El Sol Chancha Via Circuito Remix - Ro Arriba
Aquaserge- Travelling - A Lamiti
Andrew Bird Konono N1 Sobanza Mimanisa- OhnonoKiwembo - TradiMods Vs Rockers Alternative Takes On Congotronics Vol 1 Bonus Track Version
Neu Abdominaux Dangereux- Akawana The Godfather - Dangereuxorcisms
Real Fish- Junk - When The World Was Young
The Bug- Mi Lost feat Miss Red - Angels Devils


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-10-24
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 10-20-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

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- Tulsa Turnaround - Country Funk Volume II 19671974
Gasoline Lollipops- Me And Your Ghost - Death
Gasoline Lollipops- Death - Death
- voicebreak -
Gasoline Lollipops- Longest Night - Dawn
Gasoline Lollipops- Fast Train - Death
Gasoline Lollipops- Nashville - Death
Gary Clark Jr- Bright Lights Live - Gary Clark Jr Live
- Balana No Pode Parar - Six Degrees Of Brazil Vol 2
- voicebreak -
- Zombie - Finding Fela Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Kasai Allstars- As They Walked Into The Forest On A Sunday They Encountered Apes Dressed As Humans - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
Toumani Diabat Sidiki Diabat- Hamadoun Toure - Toumani Sidiki
- Sokosondou - Psychedelic Planet
Hippie Sabotage- Sunny - The Sunny Album Deluxe Edition
Lay Low- Talking About The Weather - Talking About The Weather
St Vincent- Birth In Reverse - St Vincent
Nostalgia 77 Prince Fatty- Seven Nation Army Dub feat Dennis Alcapone - In The Kingdom Of Dub
Dubmatix- Pull Up Selector ft EekAMouse Leroy Horsemouth Wallace - Rebel Massive
The Budos Band- The Sticks - Burnt Offering
Old Crow Medicine Show- Brushy Mountain Conjugal Trailer - Remedy
Jason D Williams- Hillbillies And Holy Rollers - Hillbillies And Holy Rollers
Justin Townes Earle- Single Mothers - Single Mothers
Tennis- Solar On The Rise - Ritual In Repeat
MC Frontalot- Shudders feat Kid Koala The Protomen - Question Bedtime
The Black Keys- Weight Of Love - Turn Blue
TuneYards- Time Of Dark - Nikki Nack
Sylvan Esso- Coffee - Sylvan Esso
The Modern Lovers Jonathan Richman- Roadrunner - The Modern Lovers
Dilated Peoples- Good As Gone - Directors Of Photography
Adrian Younge Souls Of Mischief- There Is Only Now feat Snoop Dogg - There Is Only Now
Greensky Bluegrass- A Letter To Seymour - If Sorrows Swim
JD McPherson- North Side Gal - Signs Signifiers
Snake Rattle Rattle Snake- Evil Eye - Totem
Nikki Lane- Good Man - All Or Nothin


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-10-20
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 10-17-2014 with DJ Segue        
Playlist:

Lord Newborn and the Magic Skulls- Astro Blue - Lord Newborn and the Magic Skulls
Sorry Bamba- Porry - World Psychedelic Classics 3 Loves a Real Thing The Funky Fuzzy Sounds of West Africa
Flying Lotus- Fat Boy Face - Tracks
The Gaslamp Killer- Spectre Arkham FRK020 Chris Harwood Wooden Ships FKR005 Susan Christie Paint A Lady FKR007 JeanJacques Dexter Be Quite FKR020 - All Killer Finders Keepers Records 120
Super Hi Fi- Single Payer Victor Rice Remix - For Whom The Cowbell Tolls
- 13 A DAY IN THE LIFE WAR -
DJ Sun- Ten feat Jessica Zweback - One Hundred
Os Magrelos- Luz Negra - For Whom The Cowbell Tolls
toKio le deux- Me The Devil NYC Orchestral version vs Original reedit by Gil Scott Heron - Gil Scott Heron mashup
Coultrain- Streams Rivers - Jungle Mumbo Jumbo
The Electric Peanut Butter Company- El Prudence - TransAtlantic Psych Classics Vol2
- 10 RETURN FROM ASHES JOHN DANKWORTH -
Beats Antique- The Approach - A Thousand Faces Act I
DJ Shadow Cut Chemist- Dennis Coffey A whole lot of love - Product Placement Breaks
Purple Penguin- Western Interlude - Question
Scientist- Rootical Dubber - All Hail The Dub Head
- 18 Blackish White -
The Cyril X Diaz His Orchestra- Tabu 1958 - Looking Back The Jamaican Chart Hits Of 1958 1959
Cymande- Genevieve - The Message CD1 Second Time Around 1973
VA- I Been Watching You - Ultimate Breaks And Beats Vol 25 LP
VA- Handclapping Song - Ultimate Breaks And Beats Vol 13 LP
- 07 SUPER SNATCH FLASH FEARLESS -
Sub Obskuru- Track 35 - DITC rare breaks 2 original
LOrange- The Mourning - Old Soul
Taku- Clap for Me - Bricks Mortar
UHT- Uht Jazz Club - Electro Swing Fever
Sub- Charlie - Webdigga WB 35 Rare groove and beats vol35
Cook Classics- Shades - Cook Classics Vs NowAgain
dbruit- Mezd - i Srpriz EP
Flako- Inside - Beatnicks Vol2
Dan The Automator- Fists Of Curry - Bombay The Hard Way Guns Cars Sitars
Jon Kennedy- Flux - 14 WEB
Lil Hardin Armstrong and Her Orchestra- Oriental Swing - White Mink Black Cotton Vol 3 Electro Swing vs Speakeasy Jazz
ManJah- La Cumbia De Los Cielos - Cumbiadelica EP
LOrange- Broken Clocks inst - After The Flowers EP
Chinese Man- Once Upon a Time Hugo Kant Remix - Once Upon a Time
DOC Mastermind- Emc Go Yama Reedit - 1985
Ernest Gonzales- Aquarius - Chasing the Sun
KenoSobi- mos def - Fela BeatTape KenoSobi X Ranmecca
The Budos Band- Crimson Skies - The Budos Band III
- 03 Signify 3 -
- 06 Track 06 -
- 7 Audio Track -
Bas Lexter Ensample- No Te Meta - Tres Greatful Amigos
Kalbata Mixmonster- Out a Road Instrumental Version - Congo Beat the Drum
UBQTS- The Beat Tape -
Sjob Movement- You Only Live Once -
Skills Instrumentalz- Together Just Me You - Blues Soul Samples Edition Pt1
The Duals- Stick Shift - The London American Story 1961 Disc2
Tobin Amon- Defocus - Bricolage
- Track 10 - Music to Watch Girls Cry
Adrian Younge Presents the Delfonics- Stop and Look - Adrian Younge Presents the Delfonics
Fusioon- Tocata Y Fug - Absolute Belter
Karl Hector and The Malcouns- Girmas Lament - Unstraight Ahead
Brown Sabbath feat David Jimenez- Planet Caravan - Brownout Presents Brown Sabbath
Kill Emil- Fridays Child - Lights Shadows
Lord Newborn The Magic Skulls- Astro Blue - Lord Newborn The Magic Skulls
- Porry - World Psychedelic Classics 3 Loves A Real Thing The Funky Fuzzy Sounds Of West Africa
Beats Antique- The Approach - A Thousand Faces Act 1
Brownout Presents Brown Sabbath- Planet Caravan feat David Jimenez - Brownout Presents Brown Sabbath


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-10-17
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 10-06-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

Gary Clark Jr- Third Stone From The Sun If You Love Me Like You Say Live - Gary Clark Jr Live
- Origin Of Man - Beyond Addis Contemporary Jazz Funk Inspired By Ethiopian Sounds From The 70s
Eddie Cotton- Here I Come - Here I Come
Greensky Bluegrass- Worried About The Weather - If Sorrows Swim
- voicebreak -
Tim Easton- Lickety Split - Not Cool
- Pa Gun Tor Lets Break Up - The Sound Of Siam Vol 2 Molam Luk Thung Isan From NorthEast Thailand 19701982
Hippie Sabotage- Sunny - The Sunny Album Deluxe Edition
Toumani Diabat Sidiki Diabat- Bansang - Toumani Sidiki
Dubmatix- Pull Up Selector ft EekAMouse Leroy Horsemouth Wallace - Rebel Massive
Kasai Allstars- The Chiefs Enthronement Oyaye - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
William Oneyabor- Heaven And Hell Javelin Remix - What Willieam Oneyabor Remixed
- voicebreak -
Jack White- Just One Drink - Lazaretto
- Teacher Dont Teach Me Nonsense - Finding Fela Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
- voicebreak -
- Pay Day Give Away - Country Funk Volume II 19671974
- Alkher Illa Doffor - Psychedelic Planet
MC Frontalot- Shudders feat Kid Koala The Protomen - Question Bedtime
- Young Boys - Made In Iceland VII
Lay Low- Talking About The Weather - Talking About The Weather
Hollie Cook- 99 - Twice
- Nunca Mais DJ Patife Remix - Six Degrees Of Brazil Vol 2
Danielle Ate The Sandwich- Letter To The President - Like A King
Danielle Ate The Sandwich- What You Were - Like A King
- Hound Dog - Dues Paid The Bluestime Story
Adrian Younge Souls Of Mischief- There Is Only Now feat Snoop Dogg - There Is Only Now
Dilated Peoples- Good As Gone - Directors Of Photography
Seun Kuti Egypt 80- African Airways - A Long Way To The Beginning
- voicebreak -
Bahamas- Stronger Than That - Bahamas Is Afie
Old Crow Medicine Show- 8 Dogs 8 Banjos - Remedy
St Vincent- Digital Witness - St Vincent


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-10-06
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-26-2014 with 99 & Barry        
Playlist:

Kasai Allstars- Beware The Fetish - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
Zebrina- Breath Of Life - Hamidbar Medaber
Medeski Scofield Martin Wood- Sunshine Of Your Love - Juice
- voicebreak -
DNA- Egomaniacs Kiss - No New York
Suicidal Tendencies- Institutionalized - Prime Cuts
Buraka Som Sistema- Sound Of Kuduro - Sound Of Kuduro feat DJ Znobia MIA Saborosa Puto Prata EP
Novox- The Juice - Over The Honeymoon
Rabbit Rabbit- Cross The River - Rabbit Rabbit Radio Vol 2 Swallow Me Whole
Jaimina Johnston- Out There - So Little Time
Eyvind Kang- Rachiel - Alastor The Book Of Angels Vol 21
Death Ambient- Dead Zone - Drunken Forest
Damon Albarn- Everyday Robots - Everyday Robots
Officer- Dynamite - Ossification
Officer- Anagrams - Ossification
- voicebreak -
Oy- My Name Is Happy - No Problem Saloon
Buck 65- Brace Yourself - Strong Arm
Anton Fier- Being And Time - Dreamspeed
Yuka Honda- Schwaltz - Memories Are My Only Witness
Thinking Plague- The Gyre - Decline And Fall
- voicebreak -
Orlando Julius- Buje Buje - Jaiyede Afro with The Heliocentrics
The Hot 8 Brass Band- Shot Gun Joe - Tombstone
BOOM PAM- Weijl - Boom Pam
Baloji Lorchestre De La Katuba- Buy Africa feat Kuku - Red Hot Fela
Warren Cuccurullo Ustad Sultan Khan- Mirror Margana - The Master
JeanMichel Jarre- Diva - Zoolook
The Bug- Fat Mac feat Flowdan - Angels Devils
The Bran Flakes- Mr And Mrs Footsie - I Have Hands
Wing- In The Ghetto - Wing Sings Elvis
Kink Gong- Baozoo Khen - Voices


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-09-26
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-15-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

Conor Oberst- I Dont Want To Die in The Hospital - Conor Oberst
Sly Robbie- Stormy - Underwater Dub
Quantic- Magnetica - Magnetica
Tycho- Awake - Awake
Toumani Diabat Sidiki Diabat- Hamadoun Toure - Toumani Sidiki
The Souljazz Orchestra- Agoya - Inner Fire
- voicebreak -
William Oneyabor- Heaven And Hell Javelin Remix - What Willieam Oneyabor Remixed
- Bring Back The Love Shrift Mix - Six Degrees Of Brazil Vol 2
Seun Kuti Egypt 80- African Airways - A Long Way To The Beginning
Kasai Allstars- As They Walked Into The Forest On A Sunday They Encountered Apes Dressed As Humans - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
Eddie Cotton- Here I Come - Here I Come
- voicebreak -
Courtney Barnett- Out Of The Woodwork - The Double EP A Sea Of Split Peas
Compilation- La Muerte - The Original Sound Of Cumbia The History Of Colombian Cumbia Porro
Compilation- Cumbia Del Puerto - The Original Sound Of Cumbia The History Of Colombian Cumbia Porro
Casey James Prestwood The Burning Angels- Out Of Beer - Honky Tonk Bastard World
Chatham County Line- The Traveler - Tightrope
- Our Conversations - Made In Iceland VII
- Losers Can Win - Made In Iceland VII
- voicebreak -
- Pay Day Give Away - Country Funk Volume II 19671974
Amos Lee- Stranger - Mountains Of Sorrow Rivers Of Song Deluxe
- Lets Break Up - The Sound Of Siam Vol 2 Molam Luk Thung Isan From NorthEast Thailand 19701982
The Plates- Boom Boom Rockers - Punky Reggae
Mungos Hi Fi Prince Fatty- Scrub A Dub Style Prince Fatty Mix feat Sugar Minott - Prince Fatty Versus Mungos HiFi
Pretty Lights- Around The Block Datsik Remix feat Talib Kweli - A Color Map Of The Sun Remixes
- voicebreak -
Dilated Peoples- Show Me The Way Feat Aloe Blacc - Directors Of Photography
Grieves- Astronauts feat Slug - Winter The Wolves
Sylvan Esso- Coffee - Sylvan Esso
Blockhead- Tricky Turtle - The Music Scene
Jack White- Just One Drink - Lazaretto
Buckwheat Zydeco- Why Does Love Got To Be So Sad - The Best Of Buckwheat ZydecoMillennium Collection
- voicebreak -
The Flaming Lips- Cant Get You Out Of My Head - Fight Test
The National- Trophy Wife - Sad Songs For Dirty Lovers
Weezer- Say It Aint So original Album Mix - Weezer
Jolie Holland- On And On - Wine Dark Sea


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-09-15
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-12-2014 with 99 & Barry        
Playlist:

- Maria Teresa - Saoco Vol 2 Bomba Plena The Roots Of Salsa In Puerto Rico
Neung Phak Mono Pause- Cheer - Neung Phak mono Pause
- The Mighty Tom Cats - Rare Funk Vol 4 Soundtrack Edition
Various Artists- Mehrpouya Soul Raga - Pomegranates
Kenneth Deal- Go Go Jumbo - Go Go Jumbo
- voicebreak -
Count Basie And His Orchestra Eddie Lockjaw Davis- Goldfinger - Basie Meets Bond
Zebrina- The Desert Speaks - Hamidbar Medaber
Ennio Morricone- Ric Happening - Crime And Dissonance
The Orb- Police Thieves - The Orbserver In The Star House feat Lee Scratch Perry
Timber Timbre- Woman - Creep On Creepin On
The Residents- The Baby King 1 - Cubee
The Residents- Dontt Be Cruel - The King And I
Elisabeth Waldo And Her Concert Orthestra- Ritual Of The Human Sacrifice - Rites Of The Pagan Mystic Realm Of The Ancient Americas
- voicebreak -
John Coltrane- Africa - The Complete AfricaBrass Sessions
Eyvind Kang- Hakha - Alastor The Book Of Angels Vol 21
Mr Bungle- Golem II The Bionic Vapour Boy - California
Farthest South- Mother War Gives Birth - Neurim
Something Something Laserblade- The Human Munt Shaftow Everything New 2 - The Golden Hour
- voicebreak -
- Vuestra Mundo - Sensacional Soul Vol 3
- Spring Wind Kisses My Face - Singaporeagogo
Rick Powell- I Walk The Line - SwitchedOnCountry
Chicha Libre- The Ride Of The Valkyries - Canabalismo
Malik Adouane- Shaft - Shaft Orientale Version EP
Kasai Allstars- Salute To Kalombo - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
The Bug- Save Me feat Gonjasufi - Angels Devils
Lulacruza- Montanita - Circular Tejido
OOIOO- Atatawa - Gamel
The Clash- The Call Up - Sandinista
- voicebreak -
- Ive Been Everywhere - Dim Lights Thick Smoke And Hillbilly Music 1962
TBone Walker Joe Turner Otis Spann- Here I Am Broken Hearted - Super Black Blues
Werner Pirchner- Mein Gewissen Erlaubt Mir Nicht - DUDA
Joseph Racaille Toupidek Limonade- Chief Yellow Calf - Veterans Of The French Underground Meet La JeuneGarde
Meridian Brothers- Jefe Indio Vengar - Salvadora Robot
Up Bustle Out- Trago Bula - Urban Evacuation
Sacri Cuori- Steamer - Rosario


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-09-12
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-11-2014 with Jahsonic        
Playlist:

Bob Marley The Wailers- Misty Morning - Kaya Remastered
Duke Ellington- Dont Mean A Thing - DJ Yodas How To Cut And Paste The Thirties Edition
Ursula 1000- Beatbox Cha Cha - Kinda Kinky
The Spy From Cairo- Marseilles Noir - Arabadub
Dirtwire- Last Call - The Carrier
Thievery Corporation- Liberation Front - The Richest Man In Babylon
Jucifer- Black Satin White Ice - Single
I Monster- Dinner Jazz - Rare
Desmond Williams- Cadence - Gardens
Knossos- Unknown To The Sea - Dark Light In The Wake Of Silence
Mr Little Jeans- Good Mistake - Pocketknife
Gotan Project- Diferente - Lunatico
Banks- Beggin For Thread - Goddess Deluxe Version
Prince Fatty- For Me You Are feat Hollie Cook Horseman - Prince Fatty Versus The Drunken Gambler
Dirtwire- Damn Rooster - The Carrier
Bird Of Prey Iguana- Xenomorphic - Dreamcatcher EP
Beats Antique- Snarl Axel - Elektrafone
Dirtwire- Only One - The Carrier
Hollie Cook- Desdemona - Twice
April March- Laisse Tomber Les Filles - Paris In April
PEREZ PRADO- Patricia - Mondo Mambo
Boozoo Bajou- Night Over Manaus - Satta
DePhazz- Between 2 Thieves - Detunized Gravity
Dirtwire- Thunderbird - The Carrier
Ratatat- Swisha - Classics
Federico Aubele- Esta Noche - Gran Hotel Buenos Aires
Kalya Scintilla- Way Of The Tarot - Dance The Spiral Never Ending
Dirtwire- Yunan - The Carrier
Congorock Stereo Massive- Bless Di Nation feat Sean Paul - Bless Di Nation feat Sean Paul Remixes EP
Wayko Bill Brosnan- Cancion Del Mariachi - Cancion Del Mariachi
Disclosure- Latch feat Sam Smith - Settle
Cut Chemist- The Garden - The Audiences Listening
Dillon Francis DJ Snake- Get Low - Money Sucks Friends Rule
KiloWatts- Azure - Clipping Paths
Spine Road- Mas Y Menos - First Flight


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/50/playlistDate/2014-09-11
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 08-18-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

- Keep On - Mojo Presents Heavy Nuggets III
The Good The Bad And The Queen- Three Changes - The Good The Bad And The Queen
Amos Lee- Tricksters Hucksters And Scamps - Mountains Of Sorrow Rivers Of Song Deluxe
- Miam Maikan - Putumayo Presents Native America
Seun Kuti Egypt 80- African Smoke - A Long Way To The Beginning
Toumani Diabat Sidiki Diabat- Bansang - Toumani Sidiki
- voicebreak -
- California Women - Country Funk 19671974
- Dont Let Me Down - Country Funk 19671974
Kasai Allstars- As They Walked Into The Forest On A Sunday They Encountered Apes Dressed As Humans - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
Luther Dickinson- Vandalize - Rock n Roll Blues
Mungos Hi Fi Prince Fatty- Scrub A Dub Style Prince Fatty Mix feat Sugar Minott - Prince Fatty Versus Mungos HiFi
- Pa Gun Tor - The Sound Of Siam Vol 2 Molam Luk Thung Isan From NorthEast Thailand 19701982
- Bury The Heart In Vientiane - The Sound Of Siam Vol 2 Molam Luk Thung Isan From NorthEast Thailand 19701982
Robert Cray Band- Nobodys Fault But Mine - In My Soul
Neil Young- Down By The River Live At The Cellar Door - Live At The Cellar Door
Chatham County Line- The Traveler - Tightrope
Richard Buckner- Gauzy Dress In The Sun - Bloomed Remastered
Courtney Barnett- Avant Gardener - The Double EP A Sea Of Split Peas
Dave Alvin Phil Alvin- Key To The Highway - Common Ground Dave Alvin Phil Alvin Play And Sing The Songs Of Big Bill Broonzy
- voicebreak -
Shovels Rope- Coping Mechanism - Swimmin Time Deluxe Version
- Hound Dog - Dues Paid The Bluestime Story
- Im The Man - The Soul Fire Box Set
TuneYards- Wait For A Minute - Nikki Nack
Sylvan Esso- Coffee - Sylvan Esso
Cornmeal- Swingtown - Summer Camp Music Festival
William Onyeabor- Body And Soul Scientist Remix - What
Beck- I Just Started Hating Some People Today - I Just Started Hating Some People Today Single
- voicebreak -
Jolie Holland- Route 30 - Wine Dark Sea
Jack White- Just One Drink - Lazaretto
The Black Keys- Gotta Get Away - Turn Blue
- voicebreak -
Nikki Lane- Sleep With A Stranger - All Or Nothin
The Plates- Boombox Vibin - Punky Reggae
Nathaniel Rateliff- Nothing To Show For - Falling Faster Than You Can Run
Ark Life- Rock Roll Take It Easy - The Dream Of You Me
St Vincent- Severed Crossed Fingers - St Vincent


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-08-18
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 08-12-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

TuneYards- Time Of Dark - Nikki Nack
The Black Angels- The Occurance At 4507 South Third Street - Clear Lake Forest
- Killing Time - Made In Iceland VII
Courtney Barnett- Out Of The Woodwork - The Double EP A Sea Of Split Peas
William Oneyabor- Body Soul David Terranova Remix - What Willieam Oneyabor Remixed
- voicebreak -
Chatham County Line- Final Reward - Tightrope
The Souljazz Orchestra- One Life To Live - Inner Fire
The Plates- Boom Boom Rockers - Punky Reggae
Mungos Hi Fi Prince Fatty- Herbalist Prince Fatty Mix feat Top Cat - Prince Fatty Versus Mungos HiFi
Kasai Allstars- The Chiefs Enthronement Oyaye - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
William Oneyabor- Do You Want A Man The Vaccines Remix - What Willieam Oneyabor Remixed
- voicebreak -
Toumani Diabat Sidiki Diabat- Hamadoun Toure - Toumani Sidiki
Tedeschi Trucks Band- All That I Need - Made Up Mind
Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Rich But Poor - Libation
- Unbelievable - A Tribute To Bob Dylan In The 80s Volume One
- Balana No Pode Parar - Six Degrees Of Brazil Vol 2
- So Much To Say - Small Faces Friends
- voicebreak -
Herbie Hancock- Cantaloupe Island - Cantaloupe Island
Old Crow Medicine Show- 8 Dogs 8 Banjos - Remedy
Shovels Rope- Coping Mechanism - Swimmin Time Deluxe Version
Bob Marley The Wailers- Exodus Pretty Lights Remix - Legend Remixed
Neil Young- Cinnamon Girl Live At The Cellar Door - Live At The Cellar Door
- River Queen - PDX Pop Now 2014 Compilation
- voicebreak -
String Cheese Incident- Hey Pocky Way - Carnival 99
St Vincent- Digital Witness - St Vincent
Grieves- Astronauts feat Slug - Winter The Wolves
The Black Keys- Turn Blue - Turn Blue
Black Lips- Dandelion Dust - Underneath The Rainbow
Nikki Lane- Loves On Fire - All Or Nothin
- voicebreak -
Deer Tick- The Dreams In The Ditch - Negativity
Sylvan Esso- Play It Right - Sylvan Esso
The Head And The Heart- Summertime - Lets Be Still
Jolie Holland- On And On - Wine Dark Sea


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2014-08-12
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-25-2014 with 99 & Barry        
Playlist:

- Chenag Le Blues - 1970s Algerian Folk And Pop
Willie Nelson- How Long Is Forever - Countryman
Hugh Masekela- Tepo feat Baranta Miatta Fahinbulleh - Presents The Chissa Years 19651975 Rare And Unreleased
- Watermelon Man - Brazilectro Latin Flavoured Club Tunes Session 8
- Happy Lunar New Year - Singaporeagogo
David Krakauer- Tradition From Fiddler On The Roof - The Big Picture
- voicebreak -
TuneYards- SinkO - Nikki Nack
- Doogoo Dub - Invasion Of The Mysteron Killer Sounds
TV Movie Lounge Club Band- Rockford Files - Alltime Classic TV Shows Vol 1
Mable Scott- Fool Burro - Jukebox Mambo
Gil ScottHeron Jamie Xx- My Cloud - Were New Here
Petra Haden- A Fistful Of Dollars Theme from A Fistful Of Dollars - Petra Goes To The Movies
Toupidek Limonade- Imaginer Sa Conception - Il Y A Des Vies Qui Dvient
Sainkho Namtchylak Lao Kouyate- Music Mail To Tuva - Who Stole The Sky
- voicebreak -
Quantic Nidia Gngora- Muvelo Negro - Magnetica
Miriam Makeba- Pata Pata - Pata Pata
Seun Kuti Egypt 80- Kalakuta Boy - A Long Way To The Beginning
Wesley Willis- The Chicken Cow - Greatest Hits
- voicebreak -
The Better Beatles- Hello Goodbye - Mercy Beat
Sherrif The Ravels- Shombolar - The Roots Of The Cramps
BoDeans- The Trumpeting Toad - Leather Donut
The Residents Renaldo And The Loaf- The Show Salesman - Title In Limbo
The City Of Prague Philharmonic Orchestra James Fitzpatrick- The Knight Bus From Harry Potter And The Prisoner Of Azkaban - The Complete Harry Potter Film Music Collection
Calibro 35- Any Resemblance To Actual Facts Is Purely Coincidental - Any Resemblance To Real Persons Or Actual Facts Is Purely Coincidental
Compilation- I Just Dont Know What To Do With Myself - The Very Best Of Dusty Springfield Polygram
Uri Caine Ensemble Uri Caine Joey Baron Aaron Bensoussan Dave Binney Danny Blume Dean Bowman Don Byron Dave Douglas Mark Feldman Michael Formanek Larry Gold Arto Lindsay DJ Olive Josh Roseman- Symphony No 5 Funeral March - Mahler Urlicht Primal Light
Diamanda Galas- I Put A Spell On You Live - The Singer
- voicebreak -
- Themselves - Neighborhood Rhythms
Meridian Brothers- De Mi Caballo Como Su Carne - Salvadora Robot
Kasai Allstars- Yangye The Evil Leopard - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
Bill Laswell- Bagana Sub Figura X - Means Of Deliverance
Roberto Musci Giovanni Venosta- Vientiane - Messages Portraits
- voicebreak -
Nels Cline Singers- Respira - Macroscope
John Coltrane Quartet- Softly As In A Morning Sunrise - Live At The Village Vanguard


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2014-07-25
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-23-2014 with Dave Blackwood        
Playlist:

SPECIALS- Simmer Down - TODAYS SPECIALS
Sly Robbie- Stormy - Underwater Dub
Rodriguez- Sugar Man - Cold Fact
Bettye LaVette- Dont Let Me Be Misunderstood - Interpretations The British Rock Songbook
Gringo Star- In The Heat - Floating Out To See
Courtney Barnett- Canned Tomatoes Whole - The Double EP A Sea Of Split Peas
Mac Demarco- Salad Days - Salad Days
The Black Angels- Sunday Evening - Clear Lake Forest
Guided By Voices- Authoritarian Zoo - Cool Planet
Archie Bronson Outfit- Two Doves On A Lake - Wild Crush
Parquet Courts- Black And White - Sunbathing Animal
Tijuana Panthers- Torpedo - Wayne Interest
Chad VanGaalen- Monster - Shrink Dust
TOBACCO- Good Complexion - Ultima II Massage
Meridian Brothers- De Mi Caballo Como Su Carne - Salvadora Robot
Kasai Allstars- Beware The Fetish - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
Eccodek- In Confidence featuring Onkar Singh - Singing In Tongues
Srikalogy- CEst La Nourriture - New Paradigm
The Bombay Royale- The Island Of Dr Electrico - The Island Of Dr Electrico
- voicebreak -
Mr Scruff- Friendly Bacteria - Friendly Bacteria
Howie B- Run Always - Down With The Dawn
- Acid Life - Hyperdub 101
SeeI- King Of The Road - Knowledge Shine Bright
The Psychedelic Aliens- Gbomei Adesai - Psycho African Beat
William Onyeabor- Why Go To War feat Optimo - What
St Vincent- Rattlesnake - St Vincent
Reptile Youth- Speeddance - Reptile Youth
Oy- Tortoise And Hunter - No Problem Saloon
Ibibio Sound Machine- The Talking Fish - Ibibio Sound Machine
Shawn Lee- Head Up - Synthesizers In Space
The GOASTT- Moth To A Flame - Midnight Sun
Black Lips- DriveBy Buddy - Underneath The Rainbow
- Circles - Small Faces Friends
Death- Restlessness - III
Mogwai- Simon Ferocious - Rave Tapes


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2014-07-23
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-21-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

- Every Day I Have The Blues - Dues Paid The Bluestime Story
Mungos Hi Fi Prince Fatty- Scrub A Dub Style Prince Fatty Mix feat Sugar Minott - Prince Fatty Versus Mungos HiFi
Afro Fiesta- Jah Guide - Fire Down Babylon
- Get Up In Your Hot Pants - The Soul Fire Box Set
- Rock Me Baby - Delmark 60 Years Of Blues
- voicebreak -
Mogwai- Remurdered - Rave Tapes
The Plates- Boom Boom Rockers - Punky Reggae
- Unbelievable - A Tribute To Bob Dylan In The 80s Volume One
St Vincent- Digital Witness - St Vincent
- So Much To Say - Small Faces Friends
Dave Alvin Phil Alvin- Key To The Highway - Common Ground Dave Alvin Phil Alvin Play And Sing The Songs Of Big Bill Broonzy
Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Ghana Baby - Libation
The Railsplitters- Boarding Pass Thats The Way It Is - The Railsplitters
Leon Russell- Come On In My Kitchen - Life Journey
Sylvan Esso- Coffee - Sylvan Esso
- voicebreak -
Johnny Winter- Bright Lights Big City - Roots
Johnny Winter- Gangster Of Love - A Lone Star Kind Of Day
TuneYards- Time Of Dark - Nikki Nack
The Black Keys- Turn Blue - Turn Blue
Arctic Monkeys- Arabella - AM
Ha Ha Tonka- Arabella - Lessons
Rodrigo Y Gabriela- The Russian Messenger - 9 Dead Alive
Esme Patterson- Valentine - Woman To Woman
Jolie Holland- On And On - Wine Dark Sea
Courtney Barnett- Avant Gardener - The Double EP A Sea Of Split Peas
Atmosphere- Puppets - When Life Gives You Lemons You Paint That Shit Gold
Pretty Lights- Around The Block Datsik Remix feat Talib Kweli - A Color Map Of The Sun Remixes
Blitzen Trapper- Feel The Chill - VII
Jason Isbell- Super 8 - Southeastern
- voicebreak -
Nikki Lane- Sleep With A Stranger - All Or Nothin
William Onyeabor- Body And Soul Scientist Remix - What
Jurassic 5- Thin Line - Power In Numbers
- voicebreak -
Grieves- Astronauts feat Slug - Winter The Wolves
Chatham County Line- The Traveler - Tightrope
Neil Young- After The Gold Rush Live At The Cellar Door - Live At The Cellar Door
Kasai Allstars- The Chiefs Enthronement Oyaye - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-07-21
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 07-07-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

Ginger Baker- Footprints - Why
Preservation Hall Jazz Band- Dear Lord Give Me The Strength - Thats It
Rebirth Brass Band- Texas Pete feat Javon Carter - Move Your Body
Dirty Dozen Brass Band- Big Chief Pt 2 - New Orleans Funk 3
- Soul Dynamite - The Soul Fire Box Set
- voicebreak -
Richard Buckner- Blue And Wonder - Bloomed Remastered
Richard Buckner- Surprise AZ - Bloomed Remastered
- Losers Can Win - Made In Iceland VII
Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Ghana Baby - Libation
Kasai Allstars- As They Walked Into The Forest On A Sunday They Encountered Apes Dressed As Humans - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
Seun Kuti Egypt 80- African Smoke - A Long Way To The Beginning
- voicebreak -
William Onyeabor- Body And Soul - What
The Plates- Boombox Vibin - Punky Reggae
Quantic- Descarga Cantica feat Fruko Michi Sarmiento - Magnetica
Rodrigo Y Gabriela- Somnium - 9 Dead Alive
King Sunny Ade- Adena Ike - The Best Of The Classic Years
- voicebreak -
The Railsplitters- Room At The Top Of The Stairs - The Railsplitters
Chatham County Line- Final Reward - Tightrope
Musketeer Gripweed- End Of The Day - Floods And Fires
Greg Brown- Brand New Angel - Hymns To What Is Left
Ani DiFranco- Shameless - Dilate Remastered
Randy Newman- You Can Leave Your Hat On - The Best Of Randy Newman
- voicebreak -
The Budos Band- Rite Of The Ancients - The Budos Band III
TuneYards- Time Of Dark - Nikki Nack
Nathaniel Rateliff- Falling Faster Than You Can Run - Falling Faster Than You Can Run
Arctic Monkeys- R U Mine - AM
Beck- Blue Moon - Morning Phase
The Black Keys- Gotta Get Away - Turn Blue
Nikki Lane- Loves On Fire - All Or Nothin
Johnny Cash- Im Movin On with Waylon Jennings - Out Among The Stars
Jolie Holland- On And On - Wine Dark Sea
Sylvan Esso- Coffee - Sylvan Esso
Esme Patterson- Valentine - Woman To Woman
Amos Lee- Stranger - Mountains Of Sorrow Rivers Of Song Deluxe


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-07-07
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 06-30-2014 with Adam Taylor        
Playlist:

The War On Drugs- Red Eyes - Lost In The Dream
Mogwai- Rano Pano - Hardcore Will Never Die But You Will
- voicebreak -
- Jokerman - A Tribute To Bob Dylan In The 80s Volume One
- Im The Man - The Soul Fire Box Set
Esme Patterson- Valentine - Woman To Woman
Quantic- You Will Return feat Alice Russell - Magnetica
Son Palenque- El Tigre - AfroColombian Sound Modernizers
- voicebreak -
Arctic Monkeys- Whyd You Only Call Me When Youre High - AM
Rodrigo Y Gabriela- The Russian Messenger - 9 Dead Alive
Luther Dickinson- Rock n Roll Blues - Rock n Roll Blues
- Our Conversations - Made In Iceland VII
The Black Angels- The Occurance At 4507 South Third Street - Clear Lake Forest
- voicebreak -
The Railsplitters- Longs Peak - The Railsplitters
Richard Buckner- The Last Ride - Bloomed Remastered
Richard Buckner- Rainsquall - Bloomed Remastered
Leon Russell- Down In Dixieland - Life Journey
The Souljazz Orchestra- One Life To Live - Inner Fire
Sierra Leones Refugee All Stars- Cant Make Me Lonely - Libation
Kasai Allstars- The Chiefs Enthronement Oyaye - Beware The Fetish Congotronics 5
- voicebreak -
Robert Cray Band- Nobodys Fault But Mine - In My Soul
- Shes A Good Un - Delmark 60 Years Of Blues
Magic Sam- Dont Want No Woman - Live At The Avant Garde
- Here Come The Nice French EP Version - Small Faces Friends
- So Much To Say - Small Faces Friends
Courtney Barnett- Avant Gardener - The Double EP A Sea Of Split Peas
The Plates- Boom Boom Rockers - Punky Reggae
Rebirth Brass Band- Your Mama Dont Dance - Move Your Body
The Budos Band- Black Venom - The Budos Band III
- voicebreak -
TuneYards- Wait For A Minute - Nikki Nack
Black Lips- Dandelion Dust - Underneath The Rainbow
Dave Alvin Phil Alvin- Key To The Highway - Common Ground Dave Alvin Phil Alvin Play And Sing The Songs Of Big Bill Broonzy
- voicebreak -
Beck- Blackbird Chain - Morning Phase
Nathaniel Rateliff- Nothing To Show For - Falling Faster Than You Can Run
Nikki Lane- Sleep With A Stranger - All Or Nothin
Nikki Lane- Sleep With A Stranger - All Or Nothin


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-06-30
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 04-28-2014 with Barry Roark        
Playlist:

Wax Tailor- Magic Numbers feat ASM Mattic - Dusty Rainbow From The Dark
Luka Bloom- The Hungry Ghost - Salty Heaven
Gringo Star- In The Sun - Floating Out To See
The Beau Brummels- Just A Little - 20 Best Of Rockin 60s Original Artist ReRecording
The Ghost Of A Saber Tooth Tiger- Moth To A Flame - Midnight Sun
Digital Underground- Kiss You Back - Sons Of The P
Talking Heads- And She Was Early Version - Little Creatures Remastered
Nacao Zumbi- Carimbo - Radio SAMBA
David Lynch- Noahs Ark - Crazy Clown Time Deluxe Edition
Sound Iration- Melody Roots Pt 1 - In Dub Pt 2
Should- Amends - The Great Pretend
Dimitri From Paris- Get Ready For The Power Of Disco - Paris Is Sleeping Respect Is Burning
DJ Food- Giant feat Matt Johnson - The Search Engine
Pixies- Magdalena 318 - Indie Cindy Deluxe
- voicebreak -
SLIM CESSNAS AUTO CLUB- Pine Box - Always Say Please And Thank You
Cat Power- Lord - Jukebox
The Byrds- You Dont Miss Your Water - Sweetheart Of The Rodeo
Low- Nowhere Man - This Bird Has Flown A 40th Anniversary Tribute To Rubber Soul
The Out Crowd- Eyes Of Blue - Then I Saw The Holy City
The New Year- Gasoline - Newness Ends
Green On Red- Two Lovers Waitin To Die - Scapegoat
The Stranglers- Blue Sister - Feline
The Waterboys- Buckets Of Rain - Fishermans Box
Special Request- Deflowered Hieroglyphic Being Remix - Soul Music
Replicant Rumba Rockers- Congo featuring Lisa Carbon - Replicant Rumba Rockers
Travis- Up The Junction - Livenite
KC The Sunshine Band- I Get Lifted - KC The Sunshine Band 25th Anniversary Collection
The Kinks- Naggin Woman - Kinda Kinks
Slowdive- Altogether - Souvlaki
Hansimoto- Kaltgold feat Knackeboul - Mixtape Vol 1


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-04-28
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 01-27-2014 with Nat        
Playlist:

Filistine- No Lock No Key Electromecca Remix - Extra Dirty Bomb
Dead Prez- Police State - Lets Get Free
Mano Negra- Peligro - Best 0f 2005
The Gladiators- Looks Are Deceiving - Trenchtown MixUp
The Viceroys- Ya Ho - The Viceroys Brethern And Sisters
The Congos- Fisherman - Heart Of The Congos
Soom T- Boom Shiva - Ode 2 A Carrot
The Upsetters- Drum Rock - Trojan Dub Massive Chapter 2
- Master Plan - The Legendary Studio One Records
MICHAEL ROSE- Warrior Dub - Warrior Dub
- voicebreak -
Compilation- Linda Muequita - The Roots Of Chicha
La Colectiva- Llora Tu - Gente Morena
Princesa Ft Rancho MC- Con La Misma Moneda - Beginners Guide To Cumbia Disk 3
Various Artists- Blanquito Man Cumbia Sobre El Rio - Babel
- voicebreak -
La Colectiva- Cumbia De Tu Patria - Gente Morena
Compilation- Cariito - The Roots Of Chicha
Sonido Gallo Negro- Bocanegra - Cumbia Salvaje
- voicebreak -
Compilation- Moanin The Blues - Hank Williams 40 Greatest Hits
Halden Wofford And The HiBeams- Invocation - Sinners Saints
Halden Wofford And The HiBeams- Tear It Down - Sinners Saints
Elephant Revival- Birds And Stars - These Changing Skies
Anas Mitchell Justin Vernon- Wedding Song feat Justin Vernon - Hadestown
Paper Bird- Slow Slow Sinking To The Bottom Of The Lake Break UpDeath Montage Scene Mix By Kids On Stilts - Carry On Rmxd
- voicebreak -
Juana Molina- Eras - Wed 21
Plaid- Tender Hooks - Scintilli
Ten And Tracer- Wentzl Rumi - Youll Be A Hero Soon Speaker
Boy Robot- Loving You Makes Me Nervous - Glamorizing Corporate Lifestyle
Lusine- Get The Message - The Waiting Room
Schneider TM- The Light 3000 - 6 Peace EP
Radiohead- The National Anthem - Kid A
Neutral Milk Hotel- Gardenhead Leave Me Alone - On Avery Island
Pixies- Break My Body - Surfer Rosa
Big Star- Try Again - 1 Record Radio City Bonus Track Version
Sparklehorse- Gold Day - Its A Wonderful Life
Marianna Sadovska- Cycle Of Spring Calling Songs From Polissia - Songs I Learned In Ukraine
Drudkh- Tears Of Gods - Songs Of Grief And Solitude


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/5/playlistDate/2014-01-27
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 01-22-2014 with Dave Blackwood        
Playlist:

The Mighty Shamrocks- Cowgirls - Paddy
Don Cavalli- Temperamental - Temperamental
Daddy Long Legs- Black Beauty - Horse
- voicebreak -
The Low Frequency In Stereo- White Echo - Pop Obskura
Damien Jurado- Silver Timothy - Brothers And Sisters Of The Eternal Son
Mogwai- Remurdered - Rave Tapes
Nashaz- Andalus - Nashaz
- voicebreak -
Balkan Beat Box- Gross - Balkan Beat Box
Omar Souleyman- Warni Warni - Wenu Wenu
Congo Natty- Revolution feat Rebel MC Nanci Correia Phoebe Iron Dread Hibbert Ras Buggsy - Jungle Revolution
William Onyeabor- Fantastic Man - World Psychedelic Classics 5 Who Is William Onyeabor
Amanaz- Nsunka Lwendo - Africa
Fat Freddys Drop- Blackbird - Blackbird
The Cactus Channel- Who Is Walt Druce - Wooden Boy
The Meters- LookKa Py Py - LookKa Py Py
The Poets Of Rhythm- Serengeti Stroke - The Anthology 19922003
Can- Millionenspiel - Lost Tapes Box Set
Camper Van Beethoven- Tusk - Tusk
Lumerians- Smokies Tangle - The High Frontier
Beats Antique- The Approach - A Thousand Faces Act 1
John Wizards- Tek Lef Schrempf - John Wizards
Fort Knox Five- The Brazilian Hipster - 10 Years Of Fort Knox Five Remixed
Shaheed DJ Supreme- Liberation Of The Spirit - Knowledge Rhythm And Understanding
Elvis Costello And The Roots- Walk Us Uptown Antibalas Rework Chico Mann Edit - Wise Up Thought Remixes Reworks 2013
Herrmutt Lobby- Computer Club - Haters Gonna Hate EP
Parquet Courts- You Got Me Wondering Now - Tally All The Things That You Broke
Sebadoh- Cant Depend - Defend Yourself
The Liminanas- My Black Sabbath - Costa Blanca
Robert Pollard- I Have To Drink - Honey Locust Honky Tonk
Phosphorescent- Ride On Right On - Muchacho
Pinkunoizu- Tin Can Valley - The Drop
Deerhoof- The Tears Of Music And Love - Offend Maggie


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2014-01-22
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 01-15-2014 with Dave Blackwood        
Playlist:

Miles Davis- Pharaohs Dance - Bitches Brew Legacy Edition
MINDELIXIR- Eat Grapes - Lunology
The Whitefield Brothers- Rampage - In The Raw
Karl Hector The Malcouns- Sahara Swing - Sahara Swing
William Onyeabor- Something You Will Never Forget - World Psychedelic Classics 5 Who Is William Onyeabor
- Kana Soro - Afrobeat Airways 2
Congo Natty- Micro Chip Say No feat Kaya Fyah Phoebe Iron Dread Hibbert Rebel MC - Jungle Revolution
MC Zulu- Outlaw Speakerbox feat Maga Bo - Outlaw Speakerbox Anthology
Ratatat- Bilar - LP4
Brian Eno With Rick Holland- The Real - Drums Between The Bells
Chandrika Krishnamurthy Tandon- Maand - Soul March
The Phoenix Foundation- Supernatural - Fandango
Ty Segall- Sleeper - Sleeper
Captain Beefheart- The Clouds Are Full Of Wine not Whiskey Or Rye - Lick My Decals Off Baby
- voicebreak -
Howlin Wolf- Do The Do - The London Howlin Wolf Sessions
Gringo Star- Going Way Out - Floating Out To See
Dr Dog- The Truth - BRoom
Lumerians- Koman Tong - The High Frontier
Shawn Lee- AJs Mood - Synthesizers In Space
AM Shawn Lee- Two Times - La Musique Numrique
Diane Coffee- Never Lonely - My Friend Fish
Beats Antique- Pandoras Box - A Thousand Faces Act 1
Igor Boxx- Alarm - Breslau
The Black Angels- Black Isnt Black - Indigo Meadow
Crystal Stilts- Future Folklore - Nature Noir
King Khan The Shrines- Born To Die - Idle No More
The Clash- Somebody Got Murdered - Hits Back
Thriftstore Masterpiece- The Railroad feat Isaac Brock - Trouble Is A Lonesome Town
Cave- Sweaty Fingers - Threace
Menomena- Taos - Mines
Kurt Vile- Wakin On A Pretty Day - Wakin On A Pretty Daze


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2014-01-15
          Thug Life: TV Preacher Pat Robertson Hangs With A Bad Crowd        
Joseph L. Conn
The Charles Taylor episode, of course, isn’t Pat Robertson’s only dalliance with despicable dictators

Former Liberian President Charles Taylor was found guilty of crimes against humanity yesterday for his involvement in a civil war in neighboring Sierra Leone. I wonder if Taylor’s former business partner Pat Robertson will visit him in jail.

Taylor was convicted by a UN-backed special court on 11 counts of aiding murder, rape, terror and conscription of child soldiers and sex slaves. He supported vicious rebels in Sierra Leone during that country’s 1991-2002 civil war, and in return, received blood diamonds.

While the media focused on the verdict, less attention was paid to Taylor’s relationship with Robertson, head of the Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) and founder of the Christian Coalition.

Robertson signed an agreement with Taylor in 1999 to allow the televangelist’s for-profit Freedom Gold Ltd. to mine for gold in Liberia. If any gold was found, 10 percent would go to the Liberian government, and in effect, into the pockets of the loathsome Taylor.

On the stand during his trial, the Liberian leader said Robertson promised to argue for the Liberian government with officials in Washington, and he claimed the TV preacher personally intervened with President George W. Bush.

Taylor was grateful for Robertson’s help. In 2002, he even appeared at a three-day “Liberia for Jesus” rally sponsored by CBN. When the Bush administration pressured Taylor to resign in 2003, Robertson sprang to the dictator’s defense.

On his Christian Broadcasting Network’s “700 Club” program, Robertson said, “We're undermining a Christian, Baptist president to bring in Muslim rebels to take over the country.”

Added Robertson, “And how dare the president of the United States say to the duly elected president of another country, ‘You've got to step down.’… He doesn’t work for us.”

Alas for Robertson, his frantic appeals went nowhere, and as far as we know, he found no gold in troubled Liberia. He told The Washington Post that he has "written off in my own mind" the $8 million investment – chump change for the fabulously wealthy broadcaster.

The Taylor episode, of course, isn’t Pat’s only dalliance with despicable dictators.

Robertson cozied up to thuggish strongman Mobutu Sese Seko in Zaire (now the Republic of the Congo) to mine for diamonds in that desperate country in 1994. He even used his tax-exempt Operation Blessing relief planes to assist with the business project when the aircraft were supposed to be helping the poor.

And then there’s Efrain Rios Montt, a former Guatemalan general and dictator heading for trial for war crimes committed during that nation’s civil war. Rios Montt seized power in a coup in 1982, and he stands accused of wanton brutality, with hundreds killed during his 17-month reign. But because he is a Pentecostal Christian, he received staunch support from Robertson, the late Jerry Falwell and other Religious Right figures.

In 1990, long after it was common knowledge that Rios Montt was a monster, Robertson was still singing his praises. He commended the dictator for his "enlightened leadership" and said people danced in the street when Rios Montt seized power “literally fulfilling the words of Solomon who said, 'When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice.'"

Robertson no longer heads the Christian Coalition, but he still keeps a heavy hand in Religious Right politics, using his “700 Club” program and “CBN News” to tout favored political figures and his right-wing agenda.

For example, earlier this month, House Budget Chairman U.S. Rep. Paul Ryan (R-Wisc.) did an interview with CBN to claim that his budget plan – which critics say would disproportionately hurt the poor – is supported by Catholic social teaching. (Ninety faculty members and priests at Georgetown University, a Jesuit school in Washington, D.C., disagreed this week, calling Ryan’s claim a “misuse of Catholic teaching.” They said his approach “decimates food programs for struggling families, radically weakens protections for the elderly and sick, and gives more tax breaks to the wealthiest few.”)

With Robertson’s record of greed, extremism and all-around bad judgment, you have to wonder why anyone chooses to associate with him at all.

 


          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 01-08-2014 with Dave Blackwood        
Playlist:

Miles Davis- Bitches Brew - Bitches Brew Legacy Edition
Mogwai- Remurdered - Rave Tapes
Matthew E White- Hot Hot Hot - Outer Face EP
Fleet Foxes- Ragged Wood - Fleet Foxes
Cults Percussion Ensemble- Irish Washerwoman - Cults Percussion Ensemble
Enoch Light- Hernandos Hideaway - Persuasive Percussion 19601961
Sound Defects- Angels - Sound Defects
- voicebreak -
The Cactus Channel- Wooden Boy Part 1 - Wooden Boy
Menahan Street Band- Keep Coming Back - The Crossing
Meridian Brothers- Sostengan Al Angel Entusiasta - Devocion Works 20052011
Mexican Institute Of Sound- Drume Negrita - Mejico Maxico
Juana Molina- Eras - Wed 21
Herrmutt Lobby- Computer Club - Haters Gonna Hate EP
Omar Souleyman- Wenu Wenu - Wenu Wenu
Lord Newborn The Magic Skulls- Revenge Of The Fillet OFish - Lord Newborn The Magic Skulls
William Onyeabor- Why Go To War - World Psychedelic Classics 5 Who Is William Onyeabor
Shaun Atwal- Jawani Get Loose Remix - Soundcloud Release
Pinkunoizu- Tin Can Valley - The Drop
Lumerians- Life Without Skin - The High Frontier
Trentemller- Gravity feat Jana Hunter - Lost
David Bowie- Ill Take You There - The Next Day
The Clash- The Magnificent Seven - Hits Back
King Khan The Shrines- Born To Die - Idle No More
Kid Congo The Pink Monkey Birds- The Rad Lords Return - Haunted Head
Hunx And His Punx- Born Blonde - Street Punk
Nina Simone- Sinnerman original - Sinnerman
Beats Antique- Charons Crossing - A Thousand Faces Act 1
- voicebreak -
Herbie Hancock- Cantaloupe Island - The Complete Columbia Album Collection 19721988
Dr Dog- The Truth - BRoom
The Loomis Fargo Gang- Hazy Lazy Blue - The Prettiest Shade Of Blue


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2014-01-08
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 12-25-2013 with Dave Blackwood        
Playlist:

Joe Satriani- Heavy Metal Christmas excerpt - Heavy Metal Christmas
The Larks- All I Want For Christmas - Christmas DooWop Collection Two
Marvin Johnny- Its Christmas Time - Christmas Doo Wop Pop Vol 4
The DelVetts- I Want A Boy For Christmas - Christmas Doo Wop Pop Vol 4
- voicebreak -
Roy Orbison- Pretty Paper - The Very Best Of Roy Orbison
The Ventures- Snowflakes - Christmas With
William S Burroughs- The Junkys Christmas - Spare Ass Annie And Other Tales
Booker T The MGs- Blue Christmas - In The Christmas Spirit
- voicebreak -
Compilation- What Will Santa Clause Say When He Finds Everybody Swingin - Capitol Collectors Series Louis Prima
Mark Andrews- Christmas Fantasy Pt1 - Pipe Organ 1920s
Sgt Barry Sadler- I Wont Be Home This Christmas - I Wont Be Home This Christmas
Private Charles Bowens The Gentlemen From Tigerland- Christmas In Vietnam - The Rojac Story The Best Of Rojac TaySter
Derrick Roberts- There Wont Be Any Snow Christmas In The Jungle - Next Stop Is Viet Nam
Becky Lamb- Little Beckys Christmas Wish - Little Beckys Christmas Wish
Toni Wine- My Boyfriends Coming Home For Christmas - My Boyfriends Coming Home For Christmas
Rev Oris May- Another Christmas Without My Son - Another Christmas Without My Son
Soul Searchers- Christmas In Viet Nam - Christmas In Viet Nam
Marvin Gaye- I Want To Come Home For Christmas - The Ultimate Motown Christmas Collection
Johnny And Jon- Christmas In Viet Nam - Christmas In Viet Nam
Loretta Lynn- Christmas Without Daddy - Christmas Without Daddy
Kid Congo The Pink Monkey Birds- Kris Kringle Ju Ju - Dracula Boots
James Brown- Santa Claus Go Straight To The Ghetto - James Browns Funky Christmas
Electric Jungle- Funky Funky Christmas - Funky Funky Christmas
Various Artists- Funk Machine Soul Santa - In The Christmas Groove
Mark Anthony- Mamas Twistin With Santa Claus - Santas Vintage Xmas Holiday Playlist
Jimmy Jules Nuclear Soul System- Xmas Done Got Funky - Santas Funk Soul Christmas Party
- Santa Claus Is Black - Reggae Christmas From Studio One
EekAMouse- ChristmasACome - Christmasacome
MACKA B- Christmas Cancelled - Global Messenger
Red Sovine- Billys Christmas Wish Original Gusto Recording - Christmas With Red Sovine Original Gusto Recordings
Slade- Merry Xmas Everybody - Greatest Hits
The Kinks- Father Christmas - Come Dancing With The Kinks The Best Of The Kinks 19771986 Remastered Remastered 2004
Frank Sinatra- Have Yourself A Merry Little Christmas - Christmas Songs By Sinatra


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2013-12-25
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 10-16-2013 with Stephen Whitehead        
Playlist:

Atoms For Peace- Before Your Very Eyes - Amok
Tunng- Embers - Turbines
- We Are All This Way - PDX Pop Now 2013 Compilation
- voicebreak -
Golden Suits- Dearly Beloved - Golden Suits
Cults Percussion Ensemble- Erlangen Polka - Cults Percussion Ensemble
- Viene De Mi - Future Sounds Of Buenos Aires
San Cisco- Fred Astaire - San Cisco
- voicebreak -
The Flaming Lips- Always ThereIn Our Hearts Individual ShuffleReady Version - The Terror Deluxe Version
Victoria Vox- Out The Back Door - Key
Portugal The Man- Sea Of Air - Evil Friends
Cayucas- Cayucos - Bigfoot
- voicebreak -
- voicebreak -
Chimney Choir- Poor Boy - Compass
T Hardy Morris- Audition Tapes - Audition Tapes
Bombino- Imuhar - Nomad
Prince Fatty- Got Your Money feat Horseman Hollie Cook George Dekker - Prince Fatty Versus The Drunken Gambler
- voicebreak -
Typhoon- The Lake - White Lighter
Lady Lamb The Beekeeper- Regarding Ascending The Stairs - Ripely Pine
Pat Metheny- Mastema - Tap John Zorns Book Of Angels Vol 20
- voicebreak -
Paper Bird- As I Am - Rooms
No Age- Defector Ed - An Object
Don Cavalli- Me And My Baby - Temperamental
Petra Haden- Carlottas Gallop from 8 12 - Petra Goes To The Movies
Summer Cannibals- Take Me Out - No Makeup
- voicebreak -
Congo Natty- Jah Warriors feat Rebel MC Nanci Correia YT Junior Congo Yosief Tafari - Jungle Revolution
A Tribe Called Red- Red Riddom Feat Eastern Eagle - Nation II Nation
- voicebreak -
Suuns- 2020 - Images Du Futur


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2013-10-16
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 10-08-2013 with Barry Roark        
Playlist:

The Waterboys- Killing My Heart Alternative - Fishermans Blues
Morcheeba- To Be - Head Up High
Special Request- Mindwash Anthony Shakir Remix - Soul Music
Eleanor Friedberger- Tomorrow Tomorrow - Personal Record
Richard Buckner- Surrounded - Surrounded
Belle And Sebastian- Meat And Potatoes - The Third Eye Centre
Daughn Gibson- You Dont Fade - Me Moan
Blitzen Trapper- Dont Be A Stranger - VII
- Bender - PDX Pop Now 2013 Compilation
The Clash- Straight To Hell - Hits Back
Bombino- Tamiditine - Nomad
- voicebreak -
Jimi Hendrix- Easy Blues - People Hell And Angels
The Waterboys- Some Of My Best Friends Are Trains - A Pagan Place
The Waterboys- The Faerys Last Song - An Appointment With Mr Yeats
Television- Call Mr Lee - Television
Wisdom- Breathe - Full Spectrum
Linda Thompson- Mr Tams feat Susan McKeown Dave Swarbrick Martin Carthy Eliza Carthy - Wont Be Long Now
- voicebreak -
Cayucas- Cayucos - Bigfoot
Helado Negro- Arboles - Invisible Life
Longboat- Maybe Rabies - Unpopular Songs For Unpopular People
- Slippery People - 20 Feet From Stardom Music From The Motion Picture
- Please Mr Kennedy - Inside Llewyn Davis Original Soundtrack Recording
IMPACT ALL STARS- Just Another Dub - Forward The Bassdub Fromrandys 19721975
The Walkabouts- Rebecca Wild - Devils Road
The Cactus Channel- Black Flag And Lady Bountiful - Wooden Boy
Kid Koala- Slew Test 2Mosquito Vs Water BuffaloSlew Test 3 - Your Moms Favorite DJ
The Waterboys- Bring Em All In - Karma To Burn
Dr Dog- Nellie - BRoom
- voicebreak -
Last Poets- Black Strong Homesick - Black Strong
The Waterboys- Savage Earth Heart Live - The Secret Life Of The Waterboys 8185
Jake Shimabukuro- While My Guitar Gently Weeps - Gently Weeps
Kid Congo The Pink Monkey Birds- Lamonts Requiem - Haunted Head


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/20/playlistDate/2013-10-08
          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 08-30-2013 with Joe King        
Playlist:

Bob James- Take Me To The Mardi Gras - Two
Alaska In Winter- Berlin - Berlin Remix Single
Billie Holiday- My Man - Verve Remixed The First Ladies
Shigeto- First Saturn Return - No Better Time Than Now
- Dos Guitarras - Latinamericarpet Exploring The Vinyl Warp Of Latin American Psychedelia Vol 1
Major Lazer- Jessica feat Ezra Koenig - Free The Universe
Vampire Weekend- Step - Modern Vampires Of The City
The Orb- Making Love In Dub - More Tales From The Orbservatory feat Lee Scratch Perry
Cults Percussion Ensemble- Percussion Suite 3rd Movement - Cults Percussion Ensemble
Andre Penazzi- Mulata Assanhada - Orgao Samba Percussao
Grace Jones- Ive Seen That Face Before Libertango - Nightclubbing
Devecly Bitte- Line Fingers In The Noise Remix - Purple Line
- voicebreak -
Various Artists- Alton Ellis The Flames Life Is Down In Denver - Great Crates Presents Dj Jesus Supreme vol 6
Congo Natty- Get Ready feat Rebel MC Tenor Fly Daddy Freddy Nanci Correia - Jungle Revolution
Atropolis- Together - Transitions
Tycho- Ascension Rob Garza Of Thievery Corporation Remix - Dive Deluxe Version
Nancy Brace- Serenade Well Tempered Clavier - Reflections
Odetta- Mama Told Me Not To Come - Odetta
Los Sospechos- Amigo De La Muerte - Postales Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Stine J- You Are My Sunshine Mr And Mrs Smith Version - You Are My Sunshine Mr And Mrs Smith Version Single
Johnny Cash- Wo Ist Zuhause Mama - Johnny Cash
Shahram- Woman - Shahram
Hollywood Mon Amour- Call Me feat Skye - Hollywood Mon Amour
Slum Village- Tainted - Trinity Past Present And Future
Saroos- Tsalal Nights - Return
Mr Anonymous- Great One - Bus Sounds
- voicebreak -
Pluto Shervington- Your Honour - Best Of Pluto Shervington
- Filthy McNasty - Mirror To The Soul Music Culture And Identity In The Caribbean 1920 72
Karl Hector The Malcouns- Cant Stand The Pressure - Ngunga Yeti Fofa EP
The Slits- I Heard It Through The Grapevine - Cut
Marvin Gaye- I Heard It Through The Grapevine - Motown 1s
- The Hippie Girl feat Zooey Deschanel Eric Early Ben Gibbard - PDX Pop Now 2013 Compilation
Mapstation- New Direction - New Direction EP feat Ras Donovan
Reyes De Cancion- Te Ves Buena As Made Famous By El General - Drews Famous 1 Latin Karaoke Hits Reggaeton Hits Vol 3
Ambassadeurs- Feist The Water Ambassadeurs Reconstruction - Ambassadeurs
The Fray- Mahna Mahna - Muppets The Green Album
Onuinu- Happy Home - Mirror Gazer
- Beatles Mash Up Medley - Goodblimeycom
Ghost BC- Here Comes The Sun - Ghost BC
Glass Candy- Computer Love - BEATBOX


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/65/playlistDate/2013-08-30
          Le Tour du Monde des Garages et des Ménestrels (7) : Kenya        
Après plus de deux années de pause, le Tour du Monde des Garages et des Ménestrels reprend sa route. Le périple, qui nous a fait partir du Japon, puis traverser la Chine, l'Indonésie, l'Inde, la Turquie, le Yémen et l'Éthiopie aborde aujourd'hui le Kenya. Mille remerciements au Docteur Nikki Mod, éminent africaniste qui a une fois de plus apporté sa contribution à la rédaction de l'article.



Daudi Kabaka

Musicien emblématique de la jeune nation kenyane, Daudi Kabaka naquit pourtant en Ouganda, en 1939, année au cours de laquelle s'éteignait Daudi Cwa II, «Kabaka» de Buganda, c'est-à-dire souverain du royaume. C'est en hommage au défunt roi que notre homme prit pour nom de scène Daudi Kabaka

Suivant son père à Nairobi, il entra en 1959 chez East African Records, label-groupe-studio qui prendra par la suite le nom d'Equator Sound. Réunissant plusieurs des meilleurs musiciens d'Afrique de l'est, cette structure enregistra plusieurs succès avec Daudi Kabaka à la guitare, développant un style chaloupé que l'on ne tarda pas à qualifier de «Twist africain». Chanté par Peter Tsotsi et Nashil Pichen (tous deux d'origine zambienne), le très joli «Pole Musa» donne une idée de ce qui pouvait faire danser Nairobi dans les années 60.

Le «tube» de Daudi Kabaka reste cependant «Harambee Harambee», composé avec Fadhili William. Faisant écho au slogan lancé en 1963 par Jomo Kenyatta, premier ministre de la toute jeune nation kenyane («Harambee» se traduisant grossièrement par «Joignons nos forces»), Kabaka signa un véritable hymne national diffusé inlassablement sur Voice of Kenya, la radio nationale. Pour l'anecdote, le chanteur répète plusieurs fois «Hakuna Matata», dicton popularisé par le dessin animé du Roi Lion. Car oui, sachez-le, il s'agit-là d'une expression swahilie signifiant «Il n'y a pas de problème» ; ce qui permet de déduire l'origine kenyane de Simba, Timon, Pumbaa et de tout le bestiaire du célèbre film d'animation.




Kakai Kilonzo et les Kilimambogo (Brothers)

Originaire de la tribu des Kamba, Kakai Kilonzo naquit en 1954 au pied du mont Kilimambogo (aussi appelé Ol Donyo Sabuk), montagne sacrée sur laquelle les dieux venaient séjourner lorsqu'ils n'étaient pas sur le Mont Kenya. Du moins y vivaient-ils jusqu'à l'arrivée du célèbre Sir Lord William Northrup Macmillan (1872-1925), ancien soldat américain anobli par la reine d'Angleterre. Attiré par la chasse aux grands fauves et proche ami de Theodore Roosevelt (qu'il accueillit deux fois pour lui faire découvrir les joies du safari), Macmillan entreprit l'exploitation des terres sauvages qui s'étendaient autour de la montagne sacrée, ouvrant la voie aux cultures d'ananas qui font aujourd'hui la réputation de la région.

Tour à tour berger puis travailleur agricole dans ces plantations d'ananas, Kakai Kilonzo apprit à jouer sur des guitares monocordes qu'il fabriquait lui-même à partir de boîtes en étain. Sa virtuosité n'ayant pas son pareil pour faire danser les foules, il put enregistrer un premier simple en 1974 («Kaylo kyakwa na Mary»), disque qui rencontra un succès immédiat.

Kakai et ses Kilimambogo Brothers jouirent d'une immense notoriété dans tout le Kenya, dès lors qu'ils adoptèrent le kiswahili (langue nationale) pour leurs chansons (le kamba, leur langue maternelle, étant moins usité). La population aimait en effet à entendre ses paroles empreintes d'humour, qui n'hésitaient pas toutefois à aborder des sujets politiques. Kakai composa ainsi en 1978 un hymne à la gloire du nouveau président Daniel Arap Moi («Fuata Nyayo» / «Suivez mes pas»), puis un hymne patriotique («Kenya inchi yangu») avant de dénoncer la tentative de coup d'état de 1982. L'adoption du kiswahili souligne quoi qu'il en soit la fibre nationaliste de Kakai Kilonzo et sa volonté de se faire la voix du Kenya plutôt que celle des seuls Kamba (certaines de ces chansons étant par ailleurs interprétées dans d'autres langues kenyanes telles que le dholuo ou le gikuyu). Cet élément n'était pas anodin dans un pays qui venait seulement d'acquérir son indépendance (en 1963) et qui devait encore construire son identité nationale.

L'idole de la musique populaire kenyane s'éteignit malheureusement assez jeune, de maladie, en 1987, laissant une kyrielle de chansons enjouées et exécutées avec maestria.
 


Le Victoria Jazz Band

Musicalement parlant, Kakai Kilonzo et ses Kilimambogo Brothers apparaissent comme les figures de proue de la Pop Kamba qui elle même s'apparente au Benga, style kenyan né du croisement entre la danse cubaine, la rumba congolaise et la musique jouée par différente tribus kenyanes (en particulier les Luo). Le Benga se caractérise pas des lignes ultra-rapides de guitare, aigües et entraînantes, posées sur une basse puissante, chargée de faire danser les foules.

L'apparition de ce style musial chez les Luo n'est pas un hasard : tribu située la plus à l'ouest du Kenya, sur les bords du lac Victoria, elle a été directement au contact de la foisonnante musique d'Afrique centrale (notamment congolaise). Mais tout ceci fera l'objet d'un prochain article.

Emmené par Ochieng Nelly Mengo et Collela Mazee, le Victoria Jazz Band fit partie des principaux représentants du Benga dans les années 70. Ses musiciens, comme beaucoup, apprirent à jouer sur des instruments qu'ils avaient eux-mêmes confectionnés, parfois en cachette. Collela Mazee expliquait ainsi qu'il était mal vu de jouer de la musique dans son entourage et qu'après avoir joué avec ses amis sur le chemin de l'école, il lui fallait dissimuler son instrument pour ne pas se faire punir par ses parents. La mauvaise qualité du son sur le morceau «Dominic Kasera» ne rend malheureusement pas justice au talent du groupe.



Les Kalambya Sisters

Autres représentants du Benga, les Kalambya Boys (emmenés par Onesmus Musyoki) jouaient soit seuls, soit en support des Kalambya Sisters. Ces dernières connurent un grand succès avec «Katelina», morceau sorti en 1983 sur un label allemand (Zensor) et qui eut droit à quelques écoutes sur des radios européennes.







Sukuma Bin Ongaro

Terminons notre sélection par un musicien originaire de la tribu des Luyha, à l'ouest du pays : Sukuma Bin Ongaro et son jeu de guitare proprement stupéfiant. Difficile de ne pas remuer les pieds et les épaules, entraîné que l'on est par ces grappes de notes sautillantes.

♫ Sukuma Bin Ongaro - Mukamba leya
(morceau numérisé par l'auteur du blog Likembe)


Cet article ne prétend évidemment pas brosser un portrait fidèle de ce qu'est la musique kenyane dans toute sa diversité et sa richesse. Premièrement, car il évoque essentiellement le Twist africain et le Benga, deux styles qui ne sauraient couvrir le spectre complet de la production nationale. Et même s'il est toujours en vogue, le Benga doit composer aujourd'hui avec la concurrence du R'n'B, très populaire parmi les jeunes générations. Deuxièmement, et il s'agit-là d'un poncif, la musique kenyane ne peut s'appréhender véritablement qu'en concert, et en étant au Kenya. Son but premier étant de faire danser le public dans les clubs ou dans les fêtes, nous ne saurions la comprendre sans en partager l'atmosphère.

Ce caractère récréatif ne doit cependant pas occulter l'importance des messages politiques et sociaux véhiculés ces dernières décennies par ces véritables «ménestrels» modernes. Dans un pays traversé depuis 50 ans par des tensions violentes ou couvées, la musique a pu être, à certaines périodes, l'un des rares supports permettant d'exprimer des messages politiques à l'encontre du pouvoir en place ou des élites.

Ces messages prenaient parfois un caractère imagé, sous forme de récits attachés au quotidien et au vécu des musiciens (conflits familiaux, relations hommes / femmes, dangers de la grande ville, attachement à sa région d'origine et à ses coutumes, etc.). Certains musiciens n'hésitaient toutefois pas à véhiculer des messages plus explicites par le biais de chroniques relatant les élections ou les différents soubresauts politiques du pays (coup d'état, assassinat, etc.).

Un Européen ne peut donc saisir toutes les subtilités de la musique kenyane ; à moins d'avoir vécu au pays, de connaître son histoire et d'en parler les différentes langues. Mais, rassurez-vous, il n'est pas nécessaire d'être africaniste ou africain pour pouvoir l'apprécier.





          Breaking News: Lou Nuer wants Gov. Koang Gatkuoth Kerjiok, the newly appointed Governor of Bieh State of the Lou Nuer is rejected by the Lou Nuer        
August 6, 2017 sources who wanted not to be named says that Lou Nuer are outraged by the appointment of deputy Governor Koang Rambang Chol to take over from Governor Koang Gatkuoth Kerjiok who just came from Congo as a part of special forces who saved the live of Dr. Riek Machar. There is outcry...
          Premonición.        


 
-¿Entonces ha ido todo bien en la revisión?-

-Que si mama por favor no seas pesada. Ya te he dicho seis veces, que todo ha ido de maravilla.- suspiró resignada. Su madre era un cielo y la quería muchísimo. Pero cuando se lo proponía también podía ser pero que muy repetitiva.

-Mujer tampoco es para ponerse así. ¡Seis veces¡ Seguro que no han sido tantas.- la oyó protestar con vehemencia.

-Vale de acuerdo tú ganas solo han sido cinco.- concedió -Pero la respuesta no cambia, la revisión ha ido de lujo. Me siento perfectamente.

-Bueno está bien no te enojes conmigo. Entiéndelo es que me sabe mal haberme marchado estos días. Tú padre y tú hermano no han parado de ir de aquí para allá. La verdad no sé por que tú padre se empeño tanto en que les acompañara.

-Mama¡¡ Por Dios de verdad eres increíble. Sabes cuanto han trabajado Papa y Miguel en ese proyecto y lo que les costó conseguirlo. Para ellos ha sido un gran logro, que les eligieran para encargarse de la remodelación total de ese complejo vacacional. Es normal que quieran que les acompañes a la inauguración.- argumentó en tono convincente - Lo que me hubiera gustado a mí poder ir con vosotros. Si no hubiera sido por el dichoso avión.- añadió resignada.

-Entiendo hija, todo eso está muy bien y me alegro de verles tan felices. Pero que quieres que te diga, creo que tendría que estar ahí contigo. No sabes las ganas que tengo de volver.- insistió su madre. Aunque ahora su tono parecía algo más resignado.

-Ya no queda nada. Quince horas menos de un día y estaréis de vuelta. Ya verás. La pediatra dice que todo está perfecto y tu nieta sale la mar de mona en la ecografía. Prepárate, por que mañana cuando la veas se te va a caer la baba.- aseguró persuasiva. Al tiempo que le pareció escuchar una especie de sollozo. –¿Mama? Por Dios¡¡ ¿No te habrás puesto a llorar?- inquirió desconcertada. Los sollozos se tornaron claramente identificables. Antes de ser remplazados por la voz de Miguel, que tras hacerse con el teléfono. Empezó a reprender a su madre.

-Por favor mama me habías prometido que no montarías ningún numerito. Marta ya te ha dicho que todo está bien. Mañana estaremos de vuelta. No hay necesidad de presionarla.- protestó Miguel en tono resignado. –Lo siento Marta pero ya sabes como es. Habéis hablado esta mañana. Pero estaba empeñada, tenía que volver a llamarte por encima de todo.- se disculpó su hermano.

-Está bien no pasa nada, era de esperar.

-Ya bueno. Eso si, me parece que ya tiene hechas las maletas. Si nos descuidamos, esta noche acabamos en el aeropuerto, montando guardia para esperar la salida del avión.- bromeó haciéndola reír de buena gana.

-Pero mira que eres trasto.- le reprendió ella divertida.

-Si, si trasto y lo que tú quieras. Pero no me digas que te extrañaría.

-En absoluto.

-Pues eso ya veremos como salimos de esta.

-Seguro que va a quedar todo perfecto, habéis echo un gran trabajo. Venga ahora id a poneros guapos, dentro de nada tenéis la inauguración. Quiero que hagas muchas fotos.

-Tranquila pienso hacer un reportaje. Para que no te pierdas detalle.

Ocurrió de improviso, ni siquiera llegó a darse cuenta de cómo ni por que. Pero de pronto aquella sensación le saltó a la mente. Mientras su hermano empezaba a despedirse antes de que su madre pudiera volver a coger el teléfono. Ella sintió como las palabras acudieron a su boca, sin que pudiera evitarlo.

-Ea pues eso que mañana a mediodía estamos ahí. Un beso.- estaba diciendo Miguel.

-Mañana al salir no hagas caso de las prisas de mama. Llevad cuidado tenéis tiempo de sobra.- le interrumpió ella abruptamente con un hilo de voz. Cortando la comunicación justo antes de que el pudiera añadir algo más. Ofuscada se arrepintió al instante por no haber podido controlarse. Aunque conociendo a Miguel tampoco es que el fuera a darle muchas vueltas al tema. Eso en el caso de que hubiera llegado a escucharla. Se dijo tratando de restarle importancia. Pero sabiendo que era tarde, ya estaba hecho. Una vez más se había dejado llevar, traicionada por las dudas. Dudas que en su fuero interno, ahora mismo era consciente de que no tenían fundamento. Asumió molesta, resoplando por lo bajo. Mientras que en su interior Martita súbitamente agitada, se revolvía inquieta causándole una desagradable sensación que la hizo contraerse de dolor.

-Bien¡¡ Ya me extrañaba que te resistieras- gruñó el de improviso. Haciéndola dar un sobresaltado respingo. Al que como no, Martita respondió de inmediato con un par de furiosas patadas.

-Joder, joder- masculló ella con un bufido. Clavando con fuerza los dedos en los reposabrazos del sillón. ¡Dios¡ La niña parecía frenética, pensó angustiada. Si no se calmaba iba a hacerla vomitar.-Por todos los santos no hagas eso. Me asustas y ella se pone histérica.- protestó furiosa. Encarándole con expresión dolorida.

-Ya claro ahora resulta que soy yo el que pone nerviosa a la niña. La verdad me encantaría que me explicaras como puedo ser responsable de eso.- resopló con desdén –Aunque la verdad preferiría que fueras capaz de controlar esa dichosa manía tuya. Que es, como bien sabes lo que realmente la irrita. O me dirás que no te estás arrepintiendo de haber vuelto a hablar más de la cuenta. La llevas dentro, ella vive tus más leves cambios de ánimo.

-Por Dios otra vez no. No vuelvas a empezar con de nuevo con lo mismo.

-¿Empezar? Lo siento querida, creo que ya es un poco tarde para eso.- la interrumpió el con acritud. Yendo a colocarse frente a ella que se esforzó por mantenerle la mirada.-Fuiste tú quien lo empezaste. ¿Recuerdas?- la espetó. Con aquel tono dolido pero desafiante, que ahora siempre acababa utilizando en cada conversación.

-Bueno está bien, lo siento. Se que no tendría que haberlo dicho. He de controlarme lo sé.- aceptó ella.- Tienes razón, Se que he metido la pata. Pero es que no he podido evitarlo. Es algo que me surge de improvisto.- se defendió con gesto hastiado. Notó que había empezado a sudar y le extrañó no estar sintiendo las primeras arcadas. Martita seguía revolviéndose, oprimiéndole el vientre. Se sentía muy mal. No quería discutir otra vez. Pero fue inútil, el volvía a estar furioso, no quería dejarlo.

-De veras¡¡ Así que no has podido evitarlo. ¿Por qué no me extraña? Acaso has controlado alguna vez un presentimiento, una visión o alguno de esos extraños palpitos.- enumeró. Con un desagradable tono desabrido. -Por que si lo has hecho sería toda una sorpresa.- remachó furioso. Ignorando el gesto de dolor que cruzó el rostro de ella cuando la niña propinó otra furiosa patada.

-Ya, ya, por Dios déjalo ya. En serio no me apetece discutir. Otra vez no, ya te he dicho que lo siento.- se defendió con gesto suplicante. No quería volver a enfrentarse con el. Pero con su insistencia empezaba a hacerla sentir cada vez más molesta.

-Sé que lo sientes. Pero para mi cada vez que vuelves a hacerlo es como recordarlo todo de nuevo. Tus dichosas manías sin sentido están siempre al acecho.- insistió belicoso. Vertiendo la gota que colmaba el vaso.

-¡Estupendo¡ Ahora son mis manías sin sentido.- explotó finalmente ella. Encarándole con gesto desafiante.-Una vez más volvemos a estar con lo mismo. Mis manías tienen la culpa de todo. Por Dios ya no puedo seguir con la misma historia. ¿Cuanto más va a durar esta cantinela?- protestó furiosa. Haciendo un esfuerzo para controlarse y no alzar la voz.

-Bueno querida obviamente. Para mi durará siempre- interrumpió el arrastrando las palabras. Su expresión desafiante había desaparecido. Parecía haberse dado cuenta de que una vez más había vuelto a ir demasiado lejos. Pero ella se revolvió furiosa.

-Siempre¡¡ Pues lo siento pero estoy harta, no puedo más. Yo también tendré que cargar con ello. Tú piensas que llevaste la peor parte, pero te aseguro que la mía no es ninguna maravilla.

-No se como te atreves a comparar.- masculló el furioso.

-Comparar¡¡ Dios no lo hago¡¡ Se que es imposible. Como imposible parece que tú te des cuenta de que son únicamente tus actos los que nos llevaron a esto. Con esa historia de mis manías me cargas con la responsabilidad. Pero no es justo. Sabes que no es más que una burda excusa. Mis presentimientos son algo que jamás tuviste en cuenta. Solo te servían para burlarte y meterte conmigo. Según el caso te daba por considerar que eran mis “cosillas”, mis antojos o directamente mis chorradas.- barboró tomando aire. El pareció querer decir algo pero ella no le dejó meter baza. –Durante una temporada en la universidad. Al principio de enterarte de todo. Incluso empezaste a llamarlas las Martadas. Las graciosas y ocurrentes Martadas de la “rarita” de Marta. La de ocasiones en que me tomaste el pelo con el tema.- recordó. Lanzándole una mirada furiosa que el rehulló. Tal vez temiendo lo que ella acabó añadiendo a continuación. -Una Martada, no podía impedirte darte el dichoso capricho. Pese a que te pedí, te rogué y supliqué, que no lo hicieras. Como ibas tú a renunciar a darte el gustazo de comprarte el capricho que tanto deseabas. Menuda gilipollez tener que preocuparse por una simple “Martada”.- zanjó furiosa. Mientras gruesas lágrimas le inundaban los ojos y empezaban a deslizarse por sus mejillas. Y su cuerpo se agitaba levemente por incontrolables sollozos. Martita seguramente desconcertada por la reacción emocional. Había dejado de agitarse, dándole un respiro. Que ella aprovechó para empezar a susurrarle dulcemente colocando sus manos sobre la prominente barriga.-Tranquila cariño no ha sido nada. Mama y Papa no querían molestarte. Relájate bonita. Así muy bien buena chica. Vas a ser un solete. Mama está deseando tenerte y poder abrazar a su princesita.- aseguró. En tono cariñoso. Notando como poco a poco el vientre se le relajaba. La crisis había pasado Martita se movió suavemente, buscando seguramente una posición más cómoda para dormir. Pensó con un suspiro alcanzando un pañuelo para enjuagarse las lágrimas.

-Soy un idiota.- le oyó murmurar en tono contrito. Como queriendo darle espacio. El se había retirado hacía una esquina del despacho. Desde donde la miró cabizbajo y con gesto arrepentido. El acceso de furia había pasado. Aquella era sin duda la pura imagen de la desolación. Comprendió ella sintiéndose embargada por una profunda congoja. Tenía ganas de poder decirle algo. Cada día que pasaba era más obvio que no podían seguir como hasta ahora. ¿Pero como iban a hacerlo? Ella no sabía que podía decir, no encontraba las palabras. Pensó sintiéndose profundamente frustrada. Mientras sus miradas se encontraban como ya hacia tiempo que no ocurría. De improviso fue el quien habló.

-Esto es insoportable.- empezó a decir arrastrando las palabras.-Supongo que si fuera posible me volvería loco. No sé, quizás la locura sería una forma de escapar de esto. O por lo menos de no ser consciente.- añadió. En un tono que delataba una honda melancolía. Mientras sus miradas enlazadas seguían prolongando aquel sentido momento de intima unión. -La mayor parte del tiempo quiero pensar en que esto pueda acabar de algún modo. Dar con la manera de ponerle fin Pero al mismo tiempo llegado el momento no sé si aunque supiera como hacerlo. Sería capaz de renunciar a poder estar cerca de vosotras aún que sea así de doloroso.- confesó amargamente. Dejando ir sus sentimientos. Sin que asomara ni rastro de toda aquella rabia y frustración, con la que tantos meses llevaban chocando entre ellos. Aquella muestra de sinceridad podía ser sin duda la mano tendida que se habían estado negando hasta ahora. Comprendió ella apenada, forzándose a tragar el nudo que se le había formado en la garganta.

-No puedo ni imaginar lo que debe ser todo esto. Dudo que alguien pudiera siquiera pensar en ello.- empezó a decir ella. Poniendo mucho cuidado en elegir las palabras.-En cuanto a lo de marcharte entiendo lo que quieres decir. Pero también a mí me ha dado por pensar. Que de entre toda esta locura. Tal vez el que estés aquí sea lo más lógico- explicó. En un arranque de sinceridad del que de inmediato empezó a arrepentirse. Al ver que el parecía reaccionar.

-Lógico¡¡ No entiendo, no se...- masculló desconcertado.

-No. No me pidas que te de una explicación lógica. No se si la habrá. Y te aseguro que yo tampoco sabría si aceptarla como tal.- se apresuró a intervenir. Deseosa de restablecer aquel frágil punto de entendimiento que parecía apunto de volver a romperse.- Confieso. Aunque se que no te va a gustar que lo diga. Que es una especie de sensación que llevo sintiendo algún tiempo. Una sensación con la que tú hija curiosamente no se muestra inquieta.- rebeló con una expresión resignada. Que el respaldó espontáneamente, esbozando un amago de sonrisa.

-Ahí está otra vez uno de tus palpitos.- murmuró. Alzando las manos con ademán apaciguador cuando ella pareció inquietarse.- Tranquila. No pretendo empezar a discutir otra vez. Es solo que después de todo ocurrido. Me supera lo irónico que acabaría resultando.

-Irónico¡¡ Bueno es una forma en la que a mí no se me hubiera ocurrido catalogarlo. Claro que todo esto resulta tan demencial. Que creo que sería bueno empezar a tratar de asimilar las cosas según vengan.

-Cierto. Una vez más supongo que tienes razón.- aceptó encogiéndose de hombros – Hay que empezar aceptarlo no nos queda otra. Así que siendo justo reconozco que te debo una disculpa. Se que todo este tiempo he sido muy injusto culpándote.- reconoció el.

-No podíamos saber como se sucederían las cosas. Ni a mí se me hubiera ocurrido creer que algo así pudiera llegar a ocurrir.- atajó ella. -No le demos más vueltas.

-Esta bien pero aún así tengo que decirlo. Perdóname- musitó el finalmente volviendo a acercarse.

-Está bien, tranquilo ya pasó.-aceptó ella. En tono conciliador mientras seguía acariciándose el vientre

-¿Seguro? ¿Y ella?- inquirió dubitativo. Bajando la mirada hacia la prominente barriga.

-Ella también está bien. No te preocupes. Solo ha sido un berrinche, no ha sido nada.- le aseguró con gesto cansado. Recostándose en el sillón e intentando relajar un poco las piernas. Mientras terminaba de secarse los ojos.

-Soy un entupido. No hago más que molestarte cuando tendrías que descansar.- se disculpó compungido. -Pero me alegro de que está vez las cosas hayan ido mejor. Me gustaría poder hablar así siempre. Es solo que resulta tan complicado.

-Habláremos. Ya veras como encontraremos la forma de llevarlo adelante. No será fácil, pero lo haremos. Te lo aseguro. Pero no ahora. No hasta que nazca.

-De acuerdo, tienes razón.- aceptó el. Antes de que les interrumpiera el zumbido del interfono. Al que ella se apresuró a responder.

-Dime Inés.

-Disculpe Doña Marta. Acaban de traernos documentación complementaría. Para el estudio de la póliza de Mecanizados Urbidea. Además me pidió que la avisara a las cinco y cuarto.- dijo la voz de su secretaria. Con su habitual tono pausado y eficiente que siempre parecía transmitir confianza.

-Gracias, por favor prepara esa documentación junto con la póliza del Sr Gómez. Me encuentro un poco cansada así que me voy a ir ya a casa. Me lo llevaré todo, para esta noche echarle un vistazo tranquilamente.- pidió. Empezando a cerrar las diversas carpetas que tenía ante si. –Tengo que irme.- se disculpó. Mientras alcanzaba su bolso y se levantaba trabajosamente.-Adiós- musitó maquinalmente. Deteniéndose a mirarle durante unos segundos antes de ir hacia la puerta.

 

Como era de esperar, de pié frente a su mesa Inés la aguardaba con expresión cariacontecida.

-¿Se encuentra bien necesita algo?- inquirió en tono preocupado. Apenas la vio salir del despacho.

-Tranquila no es nada solo cansancio. Anda no te preocupes y pásame esas carpetas.

-Si quiere puedo...

-Tranquila estoy bien. Esto no son más que los gajes de estar embarazada.- añadió en tono desenfadado. Señalándose los ojos y las mejillas enrojecidos por el llanto. Que Inés no dejaba de mirar con gesto preocupado. -Además ya tienes suficiente trabajo ocupándote de mantener todo esto en marcha. ¿Por cierto con que estás ahora?- se interesó. Tratando de cambiar de tema.

-Noticia. Por fin he terminado con las correcciones que indicó en las pólizas de la urbanización.- proclamó Inés. Con más que evidente satisfacción.

-Vaya¡¡ Enhorabuena si que es toda una noticia. Permite que una vez más que me disculpe por haberte dejado todo ese lío a ti sola. La verdad es que ha sido una faena. Lo siento.

-Pues deje que le diga una vez más, que no tiene por que disculparse. Usted ya ha estado muy liada. Además ha resultado toda una experiencia y he aprendido muchísimo.

-Si tengo que reconocer que desde luego has hecho un gran trabajo. Cada vez me resulta más difícil imaginar como podría arreglármelas sin ti.

-Gracias pero por favor déjelo ya. Me va a sacar los colores.

-Solo constato una realidad.- aseguró convencida -Prácticamente eres tú quien me va indicando a cada momento cual es el siguiente asunto en el que centrarse. Dime, hay algo más de lo que necesariamente debamos ocuparnos hoy. Apuesto a que ya tenías prevista la tarea con la que ponerte ahora.- comentó con una sonrisa.

-Ahora bueno.. Si.- confesó Inés. En tono de niña pillada en falta.- La verdad es que tenía pensado empezar a preparar la documentación, de las pólizas que vencen el mes que viene. Con vistas a adelantar ese trabajo y dejarlo apunto. El lunes a penas si tiene un par de citas en la agenda. Así que igual usted podría repasarlo todo tranquilamente. Luego solo tendría que indicarme cuando empezar a concertar citas.

-Lo ves eres un sol. Pero sabes que te digo. Que el lunes ya habrá tiempo para eso. Ea está decidido. Creo que por hoy las tres hemos cumplido de sobra, nos merecemos un descanso.- decidió. Acariciándose el vientre con una media sonrisa. –Por favor recoge las cartas de mi mesa y échalas al correo. Asegúrate de que no he dejado nada por el medio. Luego puedes conectar el contestador y cerrar. Nos vemos el lunes.- se despidió camino de la puerta.

-Gracias, que tenga un buen fin de semana- le deseó Inés. Gratamente complacida de poder salir antes. El inesperado tiempo extra le iba a venir de perlas. Se dijo, mientras veía salir a la jefa Le tenía echado el ojo a un vestido que había visto en una tienda cercana. Así que al salir esta tarde, había pensado acercarse para probárselo. Algo le decía que le iba a sentar divinamente. Si finalmente era así, ahora con el tiempo extra incluso puede que tuviera ocasión de buscarse unos zapatos para completar el conjunto. Pensó satisfecha levantándose rápidamente y entrando en el despacho.

Sobre la mesa un par de carpetas eran lo único que quedaba por guardar, comprobó colocándolas en el archivador. El ordenador estaba apagado y la papelera vacía así que no había nada más. Esta mañana la jefa había vuelto muy contenta de su visita a la ginecóloga. Pero al regresar después de comer la había encontrado bastante apagada. Pese a que Inés le había insistido, ella ni siquiera había querido tomarse su habitual infusión de media tarde. Por lo que tenía entendido no era raro que las embarazadas sufrieran ciertos vaivenes emocionales. Y más teniendo en cuenta las circunstancias. Últimamente era bastante habitual verla salir de allí triste y con signos de haber estado llorando. En más de una ocasión hasta la propia Inés se notaba como invadida por una extraña e inexplicable desazón. Que la había hecho pensar en si ella misma no estaría sufriendo algún tipo de estrés postraumático. Como le había insinuado su prima Estela, muy dada a ejercer como la psicóloga de la familia De hecho hacia un rato hubiera jurado que le había parecido oír a la jefa discutiendo con su marido. No era la primera vez que estando sentada trabajando en su mesa. Tenía la impresión de haber oído algo en el despacho contiguo. Precisamente aquel en el que se encontraba ahora mismo. Y que recorrió atentamente con la mirada constatando que evidentemente estaba todo en orden. Tenía que dejar de escuchar los pseudo diagnósticos de su prima o acabaría paranoica. Concluyó con un resignado suspiro. Alcanzando las cartas que perfectamente preparadas estaban en el sitio habitual. Junto al marco de plata que enmarcaba la foto del pobre Señor Román. Sobre la que sus ojos fueron a detenerse un segundo. Una vez más, como siempre le ocurría al verla. Volvió a notar una punzada de nostalgia. Que cruel puede ser la vida, era una historia tan triste. Pensó Inés forzándose a apartar la mirada de aquella imagen. Aún que era tarde, el recuerdo de aquellos días había acudido a su mente una vez más. La odiosa discusión había estallado en aquel mismo despacho. La puerta estaba cerrada. Pero aun así los gritos fueron subiendo tanto de tono. Que desde su mesa ella había acabado escuchando prácticamente todo. Doña Marta había acabado por descubrir que finalmente el señor Román había comprado la moto. Es más al parecer la tenía ya desde hacía más de una semana. Inés que lo había sabido por casualidad al tener que pasarle a su jefe un recado del concesionario. Casi se alegró de que la cosa se descubriera le había prometido al señor Román guardar el secreto. Pero no le gustaba ocultarle algo así a doña Marta. La trifulca que se había montado hacía obvio lo fundado de sus temores. En los casi cuatro años que llevaba trabajando con ellos jamás los había visto discutir. Y no digamos una pelea como aquella. Había resultado bastante desagradable. El señor Román estaba furioso pero era la jefa quien realmente parecía fuera de si. Tras casi media hora de discusión ambos se marcharon cada uno por su lado dejándola de lo más preocupada. Pasaron unos días muy tensos en los que ella parecía ser el único vínculo por el que el matrimonio podía comunicarse. Hasta que de pronto una mañana ambos entraron juntos charlando de forma muy relajada. Las cosas parecían haberse calmado, la pelea había tocado a su fin. Había pensado ella encantada de que así fuera. El golpe había llegado la tarde del día siguiente. Nada más ver la cara del hermano de doña Marta, cuando este entró preguntando por ella Inés supo que se trataba de algo grabe. Desgraciadamente ni siquiera podía imaginar cuanto. A menos de doscientos metros de allí en la rotonda de entrada de la avenida. El señor Román se había caído con su moto una camión que venía tras el lo había arroyado.

Después de todo lo ocurrido doña Marta estaba siendo muy fuerte. Su decisión inamovible de trabajar y sacar adelante el despacho. Habiendo perdido tan bruscamente a su marido. Apenas unas semanas después de saber que estaba embarazada. No era algo que nadie hubiera esperado. A su alrededor todo el mundo se había volcado con ella y seguro que lo harían aún más cuando naciera la niña. Aún así era evidente que lo estaba pasando muy mal. Con el paso de los meses su ánimo y determinación habían ido creciendo de forma evidente. Pero también había días en los que como hoy. Su estado anímico parecía caer de pronto en picado sin más. Trataba de disimularlo, pero había días en los que a Inés le parecía notarla ostensiblemente nerviosa y alterada. Tan alterada como solo recordaba haberla visto el día de la pelea con su marido. Cuando ella le repetía una y otra vez que la devolviera. Que esta vez estaba segura de que algo malo iba a ocurrir. La discusión por la dichosa moto aún parecía resonar en las paredes del despacho. Especialmente las últimas palabras de el, al salir echo una furia.

-Visiones y presentimientos anda que menuda herencia familiar que le había ido a dejar su abuela.- gritó ofuscado dando un portazo. Eso era en lo que doña Marta había estado insistiendo durante toda la pelea estaba segura de que algo malo acabaría ocurriendo. Lo presentía e intuía. Estaba segura, lo sabía repetía una y otra vez con la voz desgarrada. El tenía que comprender que no era cosa de broma. Inés no podía quitarse aquello del pensamiento. Pese a que le había dado muchas vueltas. Aquel día la determinación y rotundidad de las palabras de doña Marta evidenciaban que hablaba totalmente en serio. Ella lo presentía. Inés no creía en visiones y esas cosas. Se dijo una vez más. O mejor dicho no quería creer. Pero de ser cierto no quería ni pensar en lo horrible que sería para la jefa tener que vivir con algo así.

 

 

          RDC : Orange rachète TIGO        

Moins de trois mois après avoir signé un accord avec le groupe Millicom (propriétaire de Tigo), Orange  annonce aujourd’hui avoir réalisé l’acquisition de la totalité de l’opérateur mobile Tigo en République démocratique du Congo (RDC)   Le marché mobile en RDC connaît une croissance significative. Il est actuellement le plus grand marché mobile d’Afrique Centrale […]

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          Bénin : Apprendre de l’expérience du régulateur télécom congolais        

Le Directeur de l’Agence de Régulation des Postes et des Communication Electroniques du Congo (ARPCE), Yves Castanou, a accueilli Etienne Kossi, ministre béninois de la Communication et des Technologies de l’Information, la semaine dernière. Le ministre Etienne Kossi est venu acquérir des compétences complémentaires au niveau du régulateur congolais pour la bonne gestion du marché […]

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          Congo: MTN récompensée pour son excellence        

Le FOTEEC a décerné à la société MTN Congo, le Trophée de l’Excellence des Entreprises Congolaises dans le secteur des Télécommunications. Organisée par la Direction Générale de l’Economie et l’Association Idée, la première édition du Forum et Trophées d’Excellence des Entreprises Congolaises (FOTEEC) s’est tenue à Brazzaville du  sous le patronage du ministre du Plan […]

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          Caterpillar forme des techniciens pour l’Afrique        

Caterpillar, le groupe industriel américain spécialisé dans la fabrication de machines pour les domaines de la construction, des mines et de la forêt, a annoncé le lancement d’une plateforme d’e-learning destinée à tous ceux qui veulent devenir technicien en équipement au Nigeria, au Mozambique et en République démocratique du Congo. Le projet baptisé « technicien […]

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          Congo : Baisse des prix chez MTN et Airtel        

 Suite à une décision de l’Agence de régulation des postes et communications électroniques (ARPCE) du Congo, fixant les prix plafonds des communications téléphoniques off-net Voix et SMS pour les opérateurs télécoms dans le pays, les opérateurs MTN et Airtel ont revu leurs tarifs à la baisse. Cette baisse fera économiser aux usagers de la téléphonie […]

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          RDC: un satellite bientôt dans l’espace        

La République populaire de Chine, à travers la société d’Etat China Aerospace & Technology Corporation (CASC) a signé un contrat commercial avec la République démocratique du Congo, représentée par le Réseau national des télécommunications par satellite (Renatelsat). Le partenariat conclut le 17 novembre 2012 porte sur le lancement par le CASC d’un satellite de communications […]

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          Congo : Djibril Ouattara, nouveau directeur de MTN        

Dans un communiqué, la société MTN Congo S.A, filiale du Groupe MTN,  a annoncé la nomination et l’installation de son nouveau Directeur Général, Monsieur Djibril OUATTARA. L’homme était à la tête d’Airtel au Niger après un passage chez Moov au Togo, avant d’arriver chez MTN au Congo. Il est de nationalité ivoirienne. Ce nouveau directeur […]

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          L’UA fait installer un douzième point d’échange internet sur le continent        

La Commission de l’Union Africaine vient de mettre en place un point d’échange internet sur l’ile Maurice. Il s’agit du douzième point d’échange que la commission contribue à mettre sur pied sur le continent. D’autres points d’échange Internet  ont été mis en place au Bénin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Gambie, Liberia, Namibie, […]

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          RDC : Airtel offre un mois d’appels gratuits à des sinistrés        

  Airtel veut compatir avec les sinistrés de feux de brousse en République Démocratique du Congo. Airtel a décidé de leur offrir un mois de gratuité de communication sur son réseau afin que ceux –ci puissent rester en communication permanente avec leurs familles et connaissances. Sont concernés, tous les abonnés d’Abimba et Wamaza dans la […]

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          L’usine VMK du Congo vient de produire ses premiers téléphones        

« L’usine de #VMK à #Brazzaville…. Les premiers téléphones sont sortis d’Usine hier… Je suis l’homme le plus heureux du monde… un grand merci à tous nos soutiens et aux ouvriers en (core) formation. » a déclaré Verone MANKOU via un post Facebook L’entreprise VMK qu’il dirige vient ainsi de produire les premiers téléphones sortis d’une usine […]

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          Congo : MTN et Airtel revoient à la baisse leurs tarifs        

Les opérateurs de téléphonie mobile MTN et Airtel ont réduit le tarif de leurs services télécoms en début d’année 2015. Cette réduction fait suite à la décision de l’Agence de régulation des postes et communications électroniques (ARPCE) fixant les prix plafonds des communications téléphoniques off-net Voix et SMS pour ces deux opérateurs dominants. Le directeur […]

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          How Artificial Intelligence Helped Us Predict Forest Loss in the Democratic Republic of the Congo        

How Artificial Intelligence Helped Us Predict Forest Loss in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Compared with the planet's other large tracts of tropical forests, the forests in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) have remained relatively intact — though that may soon be changing. Driven by factors such as shifting cultivation (slash-and-burn agriculture), fuelwood demand, logging, mining, infrastructure development, population growth and migration, rates of forest loss in the African country have doubled over the past 15 years.

New WRI spatial modeling research sheds light on the uncertain future of the DRC's forests. Based on an application of machine learning, the study focuses on a specific set of the DRC's most intact forested areas identified as containing critical biodiversity habitat; it predicts that without intervention, at least 332,200 hectares (820,884 acres) of these critical forests could be lost by 2025. The collective size of this predicted forest loss — an area the size of Luxembourg within a country the size of Western Europe — may be small, yet millions of people rely on these forests for food, shelter and medicine. This underscores an urgent need to use this study to inform smart land-use decisions in the DRC.

The Study: Where and How

Within the DRC, our research focuses on the landscapes prioritized by the Central Africa Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE), a U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded program implemented by WRI and other partners. As the program was established to maintain the forests and biodiversity of the Congo Basin, its six DRC landscapes were chosen because they contain forests that are important for biodiversity, as well as the livelihoods of millions of people. They also include a range of land-use types such as settlements, zones for extracting timber and minerals, areas of subsistence agriculture and protected areas.

This study used spatial modeling software and an artificial neural network architecture, based on the functions of a human brain, to map the links between past forest loss and its drivers in these landscapes, whether tied to biophysical factors (elevation, slope and precipitation), accessibility (distance from roads, settlements, rivers, conflict and shifting cultivation) or land management (forest concession and protected areas). As it's fed data on how landscapes have changed over the past, the model 'learns' and adapts until it arrives at the most accurate linkages between past loss and drivers. The model then ranks the influence of various forest loss drivers in the CARPE landscapes and produces a map showing areas at high risk for forest loss.

What Major Factors Influenced Forest Loss?

Model results show that human presence has had a significant influence on forest loss in the landscapes. Presence of shifting cultivation — a common land-use practice in the region, as most people rely on subsistence farming to feed their families — had the highest influence on predicting forest loss. Distance from roads was also significant, allowing access into forests that would otherwise be too remote and difficult to traverse for fuelwood and timber extraction. Average precipitation levels had an important influence on forest loss as well, likely due to their effect on agriculture and the probability of forest fires.

<p>Area cleared for agriculture near Yangambi, DRC. Flickr/CIFOR</p>

Area cleared for agriculture near Yangambi, DRC. Flickr/CIFOR

The majority of loss is expected to occur in the Ituri-Epulu-Aru (34 percent) and Lac-Télé-Lac Tumba (25 percent) landscapes, with loss concentrating near farmland, along roads and near settlements in all landscapes. In some landscapes, protected areas are particularly vulnerable; for example, protected areas within Salonga-Lukenie-Sankuru and Lac Télé-Lac Tumba landscapes are projected to lose 11,700 hectares (28,911 acres) of forest.

How We Can Use Spatial Modeling

The government of the DRC is currently pursuing an ambitious program of land use planning reform as part of its national REDD+ process. The country has also made important commitments in the forest sector to set aside 17 percent of forest area as protected, reduce deforestation and restore 8 million hectares of forest land (19.8 million acres). With information about the drivers of deforestation in hand, authorities can proactively make land-use decisions that shift development pressure away from high-value forests and identify opportunities to restore degraded land to address the food and energy needs of a growing population.

By revealing where future forest loss is most likely to occur, our research can inform land-use decisions and prioritize conservation efforts. The impact of future roads, settlements or other infrastructure changes can be assessed to reduce forest loss, particularly in protected or other high-value areas. And by seeing where pressure on forests is likely to shift due to increased protection in one area, decision-makers can also better understand the implications of conservation efforts such as increased law enforcement, new protected areas or expanding community forest management.

In the DRC, WRI is working with the government, NGOs and civil society partners to ensure that development of new land-use policies and plans integrate high-quality information on forests and biodiversity, including spatial models and scenarios. As part of these efforts, we will continue to build capacity of decision-makers, including provincial authorities and park managers, to understand and implement the findings of this study. Its results should inform a decision-making framework that ensures that land is developed in a way that considers economic, social and environmental impacts. Spatial data and scenario planning must be integrated with land-use decisions — and donors must support the creation of the spatial data infrastructure needed to make this possible.

The Central Africa Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE) is administered by the U.S. Agency for International Development. CARPE is a US Government long-term effort to sustain the ecological integrity of the second largest tropical humid forest ecosystem in the world – The Congo Basin. CARPE has a rich network of implementing partners, including WWF, WCS, WRI, AWF, regional institutions such as COMIFAC, local NGOs, universities and federal agencies including the Department of Interior, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (U.S. Forest Service and the Foreign Agricultural Service), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).


          Congo election update        
StrategyPage has an update on what is going on there.

the peacekeepers are trying but only partially sucessful.


 The UN, western donor nations and African nations bordering Congo are concerned that another great Congolese civil war (1996-2003) will erupt if Kabila clings to power. They want to avoid that disaster in which three to five million people died. The high death toll includes people killed in the fighting and "excess mortality" related to the fighting, such as displaced people dying of exposure. A key part of the political settlement ending it was limiting the president to two terms in office. The fighting didn't completely stop in 2003. Bitter fighting continued, much of it ethnic-related. However, UN peacekeepers prevented another outright civil war. An estimated 200,000 more people died in the post-civil war combat and chaos that continued for over a decade (2003-2013). Again, that figure includes "excess mortality." The post-war death toll is debatable, but in 2013 there were still over two million internally displaced people in eastern Congo. (Austin Bay)

Sigh.  another day, another massacre.
          In our prayers        
A report  of using "witchcraft" to brainwash children into murdering in the Congo.

Congolese refugees told the authors of a UN report that they believed the Kamuina Nsapu militia had magical powers, and militia members believed their magic - including young girls drinking the blood of decapitated victims - would make them invincible."This generalised belief about the powers of Kamuina Nsapu and the fear it triggers among segments of the population in the Kasais may partly explain why a poorly-armed militia, composed to a large extent of children, has been able to resist offensives by a trained national army for over a year."

This dis not, alas limited to Africa: The murders of ISIS is witchcraft (even though they claim it is for Allah( and of course, the Mexican drug lords worship "Saint death", a demon, to get rich.

Death and love of money and egotism and desire of power and of course deception/lies are satanic.

As for the USA and western Europe: They are too civilized to do such things. They only promote killing babies in the womb to empower women, while looking the other way when doctors kill grandmom so their kids don't have to take care of them.

reminds me of when I was in Africa: Our German sisters lamented some of the terrible atrocities by the "freedom fighters" who would torture or beat their enemies to death.

I answered: Yes. The Germans did it more nicely: they just gathered up the Jews and disposed of them quietly.

and then there is the problem of male rape.

one of the reasons Africans are horrified with the west's push to legalize "gay" rights: it is seen as giving an okay to the rapist...

And this, too, is ignored by the west.

Hey, even the Pope said "who am I to judge" (which was interpreted as being pro gay rights)... well, considering all the pedophilia in the church, maybe this is why a lot of us are unhappy with his lack of judgement against sinners.

Except of course those who criticize him. I hear an editor of a Catholic media organization in Colombia was just excommunicated fir this. Priorities I guess...




          dictator vs bishop's peace plan in the Congo        
StrategyPage has a summary what is going on there.

The local bishops tried to make a peace plan, but evil is still there.

. That was key element in the December Accord, the agreement mediated by Catholic bishops and reached on December 31, 2016. The agreement also specified that Kabila would not to alter the constitution and his government would free all political prisoners. The bishops belonged to the National Episcopal Conference of Congo (CENCO), which gave the agreement its backing. Yet in March CENCO said that continuing negotiations with Kabila had collapsed. Why does Kabila want to hold on to power? One obvious reason: Corruption in the government Kabila controls has made his family and associates rich.

          African immigrants and refugees        
Most of the controversy is about the Somalis who might bring in terror.



AlJ laments man made famine in Somalia. Want to fix it? Kill the bad guys who are intimidating aid workers and stealing food.

Somalia has been policed since the early 1990's by the UN (as is the Congo civil war). Including well trained soldiers from Kenya trying to keep the peace. The trouble is that peacekeepers keep the peace, they don't kill bad guys.

on the other hand, this explains the little noticed phone call Trumpieboy made to Kenya's president a couple days ago.

Kenya is having trouble with these "refugees" from Somalia, and deporting a lot of them

so the question is, of course, why they can't be settled in these nearby countries, where there are already a lot of Somalian workers. The answer: these countries don't want them because they cause crime and terrorism.

from my main blog. I think refugees need to be helped, and the best way to do this is pacify their countries.

But who will risk invading and doing this (as Britain did in India and was the excuse for colonialism in Africa).

Resettling refugees is good, but does have problems, the main one being you can't resettle all of them, the second is that the problem of assimilation takes three generations. (at least it did for the Irish, Italians, and Jewish immigrants into the  USA).

about ten perdcent of Zimbabwean population has emigrated to find jobs, mostly to South Africa or the UK. Wikipedia article.

There are various conflicting unofficial figures about the number of Zimbabweans in the US. The RAND Corporation estimated in 2000 that there were 100,000 in the state of New York alone.[12] 
it's hard to find later statistics.  Indeed it is hard to find exactly how many Zimbabweans are working or emigrating abroad.

Rough estimates vary from place to place:

However, tacit agreement among nongovernmental organisations is that the Zimbabwe diaspora is spread out mainly in South Africa, Botswana, the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, New Zealand and Australia. South Africa is estimated to have the bulk of Zimbabwe’s diaspora community, with an estimated two million to three million Zimbabwean nationals living in that country.
Second to South Africa as a destination of permanent settlement for Zimbabweans is the UK. Community-based organisations estimate the total number of Zimbabweans living legally in the UK to be 200 000, but say it is about 500 000 if one includes undocumented immigrants. 

not many go to the USA: Only 45,000 is the estimate in this article. (2008).

this article states that since 1980 immigrants from Sub Sahara Africa number 1.8 million. into the USA. But few are from Zimbabwe.

and this video frrom the US Library of Congress discusses recent African immigration into the USA.




          The Congo peace accord backstory        
Awhile back, the Catholic bishops in the Congo backed a peace accord.

 StrategyPage has a summary on the story and what is going on there.


 February 6, 2017: Many Congolese are not convinced the president Kabila will ever comply with the December 31, 2016 agreement brokered by the Catholic Church. That deal (“the December accord”) was made between the political opposition and several senior members of Kabila’s government. However, Kabila himself was not personally a party to the agreement. The agreement stipulated that Kabila could remain in power until national elections are held near the end of 2017.... 

so why does he want to stay in power? follow the money:

Kabila and his family are wealthy and that fortune could be lost or severely depleted if a reform-minded new government decides to recover billions stolen by corrupt politicians. The Kabila clan has extensive mineral interests (including gold, cobalt, diamonds and copper). Many of these family interests are in Katanga province. Corruption in the government Kabila controls has made his family and associates wealthier. It’s an old and wretched story. (Austin Bay)

 read the whole thing.

AlJ has an article on the M23 rebels.


International human rights groups say M23 fighters have been responsible for widespread war crimes, including summary executions, rapes, and the forced recruitment of children. In March 2013, following infighting between two M23 factions, Ntaganda turned himself in to the United States embassy in Rwanda and was extradited to The Hague.
Why the rebellion?The rebels say they started their rebellion because they were not happy with the pay and conditions in the Congolese army. But Congolese government officials and analysts say the mutiny began when the government came under pressure to arrest Ntaganda and hand him over to the ICC.
Given the fact that M23 is a ragtag army, and the vast 1136km distance between Goma and Kinshasa, it is highly unlikely that the rebels can topple the government. But they have continued to fight, sometimes emerging victorious after battles with poorly trained and ill-equipped soldiers. Many say the rebellion is fuelled by the presence of vast mineral resources in eastern DR Congo, claiming the rebels want to win control of them.
again follow the money.
          the Congo imitates Mugabe        
StrategyPage has an article on the Congo and includes some items about Mugabe as poster child for corrupt "presidents for life".


His opponents are pointing to Kabila’s recent visit to Zimbabwe. He met with Zimbabwean dictator Robert Mugabe who is basically Zimbabwe’s president for life. Opponents claim Kabila is seeking Mugabe’s help. Zimbabwe maintained a military force in the Congo during the Great Congo War (1998-2003). The opposition views that meeting with Mugabe as an indication that Kabila might use military and police force to remain in power. That is what Mugabe does. 



          The Photo Bin - March 2017        

Yes, you read the title correctly. Here we are, a week into June, and I'm just getting around to a March photo bin. For quite some time the bins have been carrying the load around here and now I can't even be counted on to do them in a timely manner. Sad. But the good news is that a part of the issue is that I've been busy. Fishing, no less. That can only be good.

Let's go back a bit and catch up, then, starting with an escape to the islands (South Andros, to be exact), the only really significant photo op of the month. And I'll make up for the lack of expediency with quantity.


There's something inspiring about an image framed by an overhead wing, especially when it's taken on your way in. Small aircraft and remote fishing destinations get my blood pumping, especially as the clouds clear and I see miles and miles of salt flats, just waiting to be waded.


And the airports these small planes frequent beat the heck out of the hustle and bustle of the internationals. Here, Jeff struggles through the crowd at the main entrance of Congo Town's busy airport. You can feel the tension.


Our ultimate destination? The Andros South Lodge. Bonefishing. Mighty fine bonefishing.


And we wasted no time getting on the water. Here Steve stands ready, despite a stiff breeze. If you're not ready to deal with the wind, stay off the flats. It's not a question of whether it will blow or not. It's a question of how much. Day 1 the answer was a lot. Damn permit. (Inside joke. Sorry.)


Day 2, and most of the days that followed, started with a run up the Little Creek narrows. As good a wake-me-up routine as there could possibly be. Put it on plane and blow out the cobwebs.

Side note, I'm proud to have this image (along with a couple of others in the bin below) included in The Flyfish Journal's terrific photo essay BahamaCon 17, a fun compilation of the photography, words, and video from our week in the islands, mostly shot by the uber-talented Copi Vojta. If you haven't seen it yet, it's definitely worth the time.


Mr. Barracuda didn't have such a good day, though, fooled by a big, ugly popper. Jason probably saved a few bonefish's days bringing this rascal to dock.


And speaking of coming to dock, at the end of every fishing day as we came off the water, we (and every other South Andros angler) stepped out of the skiff and into (or around) The New Ocean View, the focal point and gathering place of all manner of South Andros social life. Good times, outside and in.


Andrew and Kyle (our hosts at the South Andros Lodge) and Steve and Copi get their first post-fishing beers.


Kyle and Copi retire inside, out of the sun for a bit.


I've come to the conclusion that the best way to chase bonefish is to wade for them. Maybe not the most productive approach, numbers wise, but for sheer immersion in the world of the flats, it can't be beat. Here, Jason and Torrie scope out a promising piece of water from behind mangrove cover. See any tails? Nervous water? Stirred up mud?

And speaking of mud, we walked away from some of the fishiest looking flats imaginable because Torrie shook his head and "too clean." His club (and his incredible fish-finding style) ain't called The Dirty South for nuthin'.


And it's all about these guys. This poor fella slunk away with a sore lip, but he'd get over it before too long.


Perhaps one of the most iconic images of Bahamian bonefishing is the beached skiff out behind the South Andros Lodge, used by legions of anglers to polish up their casting strokes in preparation for the real thing. Painted rocks at 12:00. Moving slow.


After a full day and great dinner, we typically spent more than a fair share of our afterhours here, at the beach fridge, and bar, behind the lodge. A story or two were told. A dark-and-stormy or three were consumed.


And sober, dark-and-stormy, or whatever, this ring swing baffled me. The contest was How many hookups can you get in ten tosses? I played it like How many tens of tosses does it take to get a hookup? Sorta like my bonefishing, now that I think about it.


And the wee hours, back at the lodge. A few kahlik-clad dead soldiers stand guard on the tables, some boots dry before an early departure.


The next morning's breakfast gets planned.


Perhaps my favorite image of the week. The morning after. To steal someone else's line (and if I could remember who's it was I'd acknowledge it, but, with such a crew full of such wonderful writers, it could have been anyone's observation), a caveman theater.


A final look off the bow, the sun rising on our fly out day. The rocks still tailing at 12:00.


A less inspiring aerial view as we return to the continent. Fort Lauderdale sprawl doesn't hold a candle to Andros flats, but it does mean that home's just one more jump away. That's always a good thing.

That'll do for now. Sorry for the delay. But it was fun for me to go back and enjoy the trip, so all is not lost. The April bin should follow shortly with May's shortly thereafter.

So many pictures. So little time.


          La Bella Molinera y la pérdida del amor y del absoluto        

En el libro de Jorge Aguilar Mora encontramos el ‘elogio’ a la pérdida del amor y del absoluto; del absoluto del objeto amado y a su irreparable pérdida. Hay una navegación por la belleza de lo perdido transformada en hermosura por medio del verso bello, que es la molinera, y por la música del adiós que viaja por cada poema de este épico y sustantivo libro y a la vez intenso, que nos lleva en tensión desde el primer verso hasta el último como si se tratara de una cuerda de guitarra o violín tensadas al máximo por el poeta que las arpegia. Hay un gran arte en estos poemas en que se combinan la música del adiós -como en la Canción del adiós de Gustav Mahler basada en los poemas de Rückert, cantada por la sublime voz de Katlheen Ferrier- en la forma en que el poeta conduce la evolución de su maestra obra en cada verso, estrofa, pausa, congoja; en cómo él, Creador, se conduce en la totalidad del poema y en la coda final: Ruinas. El único poema, de los 19, que lleva título, como si de darle nombre a lo muerto se tratase. 

Nos da aire el poeta y nos deja sin aliento mientras vamos caminando entre ellos y el significado que vamos aprehendiendo al ir integrándonos en su lectura y a la vez en el reconocimiento de que la belleza tiene más de algo que decir en nuestra vida; en el cómo sentimos y entendemos el habla múltiple de un poeta que entra como sin saber en el nadir de su sentimiento poético; es decir, en su amor perdido; en este caso, en la poesía en que se pueda ver la relación que hay entre la glorificación de la vida (por medio de lo amoroso) y la penuria que es llegar a saber que no hay nada más después de ese absoluto. Sólo nos queda, como lectores, la soledad de un flaneur caminando en sí mismo; que está casi sin salida, sin llegada, sin la voz que se le perdió al caer la tarde en los senderos de La bella molinera.

Para que haya resurrección se escribe, escribimos. Escribe en las cinco líneas el compositor, buscando el equilibrio adentro de los cuatro espacios, fuera del Mi y del mí, dejando fuera de sí el confort del encierro, de la vida que pueda haber entre las líneas y el vacío acotado del pentagrama, es decir de su poema. Pero no la hay; porque la armonía ya dejó de ser también la búsqueda y no hay nada que mitigue el desarraigo que se expande desde su cuerpo a solas como las cuerdas descubiertas por la ciencia. En lo del amor no hay ciencia que valga; después de él hay una dispersión de los elementos que lo fecundan. He ahí el arte de estos poemas; son actuales y, a la vez, son pasado que desaparece como la harina que sube al cielo desde algún molino: el real y el que sale de nuestra angustia.

Al final, nos queda la búsqueda, el entender el ubi sunt, sin locus amenus; porque a ciencia cierta el poeta sabe, o lo presiente, que no hay vuelta: el absoluto –en su caso– no tiene salida, por más que lo busque al calor de sus poemas que lo ayudan a ‘bien vivir, o bien morir'. No tiene sentido el seguir indagando por las causas que lo llevaron a un camino sin salida en su acto de amar, de desamar, de querer estar aquí y allá, porque era el presente lo que estaba en juego entre los amados que se distanciaban a la velocidad de la luz; aunque sin saberlo. Y, cuando llegó la hora de la verdad,  era tarde para remediar lo irremediable. He ahí el poema; la razón de ser de La bella molinera, de este gran poema de amor.

Hay que leer los poemas de La bella molinera para entrar en el sentido de éstos; en la pérdida y a la vez en la alabanza de la razón de amar y del Amor que hay en ellos y en nosotros, los que vivimos así la vida y sus circunstancias. Por medio del amor, o su perdición, sin remedio, perdidos también, un poco, y a la vez gozosos, entramos al molino de ‘la bella molinera’ para desde su Pan, desde su música, tal vez vivir la catarsis que nos espera en los versos sublimes y a la vez luminosos del poeta en su cántico a su amor desaparecido… perdido irremediablemente, como todo ‘gran’ amor.

José Ben-Kotel



          BRUNO CANAAN encara papel triplo em peça de teatro        
"As Mulheres Preferem o Amor Frenético" é a nova peça de teatro na qual o modelo e ator mineiro terá o desafio de interpretar três papéis. A peça é uma comédia romântica e musicada, em que três mulheres saem para cumprir uma missão, levar as cinzas da adorada Tia Lili para o Rio de Janeiro, junta-las ás cinzas do amor da tia e deixá-los eternamente nas ondas do mar da praia de Copacabana. Durante o percurso, muita aventura, encontros amorosos, algumas decepções e muita gargalhada, tudo embalado pelas músicas das Frenéticas. Esta comédia escrita por Renato Millani, tem a direção do Christiano Junqueira, o CJ da 98 FM e vai fazer você se divertir, cantar e sonhar. O espetáculo tem duração de 60 minutos. Venha se divertir conosco, quem sabe o amor frenético não te espera durante essa nossa viagem? No elenco além o gato de Minas contracenará com Breno Gagliard, Bruno Alexsander e Renato Millani. Sobre os personagens que Bruno interpretará, vamos ver com qual deles você gosta mais:

WANDERLEY: Mecânico,de Congonhas. Um rapaz simples, honesto, trabalhador e quer encontrar o amor verdadeiro. Wanderley sonha com uma moça  que possa corresponder aos seus anseios de casamento, filhos, enfim um lar feliz. Alguma moça gostaria de fazer feliz esse mecânico bonitão?


OTÁVIO: Professor do estado, mora em juiz de Fora. Homem sério, com um jeito de desprotegido, forte, mas que tem uma leve gagueira. Ele é culto e manteve um relacionamento durante muitos anos com a Dora. Ele está cansado de esperar por ela e quer se envolver em um novo relacionamento. Alguma professora que tem um tempo para o intelectual charmoso?


LUIZ: Carioca, surfista. Está sozinho até o momento. Gosta de correr e se exercitar na orla da praia de Copacabana. Apesar de todo o seu estilo, no fundo Luiz quer um amor que o faça feliz. Alguma mulher interessada em fazer o coração deste homem bater no compasso mais forte?



A FAZENDA....SERÁ?
O belo mais uma vez tem seu nome cotado em vários sites e blogs para estar no elenco da nova edição do reality A FAZENDA que contará com "ex-fazendeiros" e também ex participantes de reality show de qualquer emissora. Para quem não lembra Bruno foi o vencedor em 2006 do JOGO DA SEDUÇÃO exibido na BAND. O prêmio deste ano será de $ 2 milhões de reais. Vamos torcer para desta vez podermos ver todo dia esse muso mineiro de medidas perfeitas!... Bora cruzar os dedinhos....




          Tate Triennial 2009 Prologue 3: Carsten Höller - Kinshasa Rumba Brazzaville        
Stemming from his recent travels in the Congo Belgian artist Carsten Höller presents a slide lecture in conversation with Gulbenkian Curator of Contemporary Art, Nicolas Bourriaud.
          A formação do homem do Contestado no espaço livre Origens – O luso-brasileiro – Os indígenas – O negro – O caboclo pardo        
A formação do homem do Contestado no espaço livre
Origens – O luso-brasileiro – Os indígenas – O negro – O caboclo pardo

2. 1 As Civilizações Primitivas do Contestado

Em períodos entre vinte e dez mil anos atrás, o ser humano “moderno”, descendente do homo sapiens, chegou ao continente americano, em levas sucessivas originárias de outros continentes, principalmente da Ásia e, possivelmente, da Austrália. Pelos Andes, fizeram a rota Norte-Sul e em seguida adentraram na floresta amazônica, no chaco-pantanal e no planalto brasileiro.

O homem teria adentrado à área que hoje corresponde ao Sul do Brasil por volta de seis a oito mil anos antes de Cristo, após o último degelo conhecido da crosta terrestre, quando a conformação geológica se revelou bastante parecida com a atual.

Nossos estudos em antropologia e arqueologia induzem-nos a crer que os primeiros humanos a alcançar o Território Contestado aqui chegaram entre 8.000 aC e 6.000 aC. Eles seriam integrantes da civilização da idade-da-pedra conhecida por Tiwanaku, muito anterior aos Incas, originária do altiplano da Cordilheira dos Antes, quando povoavam as proximidades do Lago Titikaka, hoje Bolívia. Teriam aberto o “Caminho de Peabirú-Sudeste”, para alcançar as terras baixas orientais e o Oceano Atlântico, na altura da Ilha de São Francisco do Sul. Deixaram seus vestígios de pedra nos morros do Timbó, na Serra do Espigão, no centro do Contestado.

Depois, o Contestado foi habitado por outras quatro importantes civilizações conhecidas também em outras partes do Cone Sul; as pré-ceramistas Umbú e Itararé ou Humaitá (pedras lascada e polida), e as ceramistas Taquara e Guarani (cerâmica lisa e decorada). Entre 5.000 aC e o tempo próximo ao Descobrimento do Brasil, deixaram seus vestígios em galerias subterrâneas, casas subterrâneas, sepultamentos, e locais-oficinas.

Todos estes grupos humanos primitivos teriam desaparecido completamente. Porém, existem correntes que entendem que parte dos índios conhecidos seriam descendentes de algumas dessas civilizações



2. 2 O Homem no Contestado a partir do Tempo do Descobrimento



Inserido na Floresta da Araucária, nas regiões de matas e de campos, o Contestado era território indígena dos Gê, representados pelos Kaingang e Xokleng, tradicionais rivais dos Guarani que se localizavam mais a Ocidente, em terras espanholas, e dos Carijó, habitantes do Litoral. Conheciam-nos apenas os bandeirantes paulistas que os encontravam nas suas expedições para o Sul. Gradativamente, primeiro às centenas e, em seguida, em alguns milhares, estes paulistas penetradores, na maioria mamelucos, passaram a habitar também o Território Contestado. Parte deles manteve contato com o índio domesticado, o Kaigang. Simultaneamente, gaúchos dos pampas também misturaram-se com os Guarani e com os Kaigang, vindo a conhecer, no Século XIX, o Território Contestado.

Então, foi desta forma que portugueses, paulistas-mamelucos, espanhóis-castelhanos, gaúchos-mamelucos e índios, além de negros, mulatos, cafuzos e alguns imigrantes europeus, constituíram a primeira grande população do Planalto Central Catarinense, compondo um quadro étnico que só veio a sofrer substancial modificação após a Guerra do Contestado, no advento da colonização com novos imigrantes europeus e seus descendentes.

Interessa-nos saber algo sobre a formação do homem do Contestado, a partir das suas origens e dos seus grupos étnicos formadores.



2. 3 A contribuição do homem branco luso-brasileiro



Desde a época da Governadoria-Geral do Brasil, os portugueses aproveitaram para se consolidar na costa brasileira e avançar para o Oeste, utilizando o sistema agrário das sesmarias, uma herança do tempo das capitanias hereditárias. A atividade pastoril, forma inicial do povoamento do sertão brasileiro, realizou-se por meio de concessões de terras em sesmarias e sua distribuição foi motivada pela necessidade da criação extensiva de gado. Eram “datas” de enormes proporções, geralmente muito maiores que as sesmarias do litoral, o que se justificava diante da necessidade de amplas áreas de pastagens. A pecuária representou uma das mais importantes atividades para a ocupação e o desbravamento das diversas regiões do Brasil.


O BRANCO NO CONTESTADO MERIDIONAL

A abertura de um “caminho real”, para ligar a Colônia do Sacramento (antiga possessão portuguesa no Extremo-Sudoeste do Uruguai) e os Campos de Viamão, a São Paulo, pelo interior do continente, foi o marco referencial do início do desbravamento e da ocupação do Planalto de Santa Catarina.

Esta “Estrada Real”, ligando o Extremo-Sul ao Sudeste do Brasil pelo interior, representou o início da prosperidade para algumas regiões ao longo da sua extensão. Durante cerca de cem anos, esta Estrada Real registrou intenso movimento de tropeiros que passaram a adquiri-los de estanceiros que por lá se estabeleceram, justamente para a exploração das reses. E quando a disponibilidade de muares e de gado diminuiu no Viamão, no Jacuí e em Vacaria, restando em abundância nas bandas do Rio Uruguai, foi preciso aos tropeiros buscá-los na região então conhecida como Missões. A mudança de local da fonte abastecedora provocou a abertura de outros caminhos, mais a Oeste da Estrada Real. Com isso, o movimento em sua extensão foi reduzindo gradativamente, provocando o declínio da até então prosperidade nos povoados à sua margem.

Ao assumir a Capitania de São Paulo, Morgado de Mateus planejou consolidar a presença dos portugueses no Extremo-Sul da sua jurisdição, também no ponto que alcançava o Rio Pelotas. Em 1766, confiou ao sertanista, Guarda-Mor Antonio Correa Pinto de Macedo, a tarefa de fundar uma povoação nas chapadas da Vaccaria, na parte Sul dos campos das Lagens, onde ele já tinha fazendas, persuadindo-o a convocar moradores e índios destas paragens para se fixarem nas margens do Rio Pelotas ou do Rio Canoas.

Foi na condição de posseiros que se estabeleceram alguns tropeiros e fazendeiros, uns portugueses e outros luso-brasileiros, nesta área bem ao Sul dos “Sertões de Curitiba”, nos ainda pouco habitados Campos de Lages. Na caravana de Correa Pinto, estavam muitos luso-brasileiros e mamelucos (estes também chamados de “brasilíndios”). A fundação oficial da vila aconteceu a 22 de maio de 1771, quando possuía cerca de 400 habitantes, já abertas algumas ruas e construídas casas.

Historicamente, luso-brasileiro é considerado aquele homem nascido no Brasil, que tenha ascendência portuguesa. Consta nas informações do sistema wikipédia (web), que os portugueses constituíram a parte da população mais significativa na criação do Brasil. Devido à falta de organização das organizações luso-brasileiros, não há estimativas sobre o número de descendentes de imigrantes portugueses no Brasil disponíveis. É notório, porém, que há mais de 25 milhões de luso-brasileiros descendentes dos cerca de 1,5 milhão de portugueses que chegaram ao Brasil após 1850. Muitos outros milhões de brasileiros possuem origens portuguesas que remontam aos centenas de milhares de colonos vindos de Portugal que se fixaram no País desde o Século XVI, asm, estes últimos, em sua grande maioria, sabem muito pouco sobre suas origens.

A Revolução Farroupilha complicou a vida no Planalto Serrano Catarinense logo depois de 1835, quando a bandeira dos revoltosos foi desfraldada no Rio Grande do Sul, fazendo com que a Província de São Paulo praticamente fechasse as fronteiras com o Estado sulino, proibindo em boa parte o transporte de gado bovino e eqüino da Província do Rio Grande do Sul pela Estrada das Tropas, assim impedindo os rendosos negócios dos tropeiros que demandavam a Sorocaba. A medida provocou impacto tal que, imediatamente, verificou-se a decadência do movimento comercial na Vila de Lages, nos povoados, nos pousos e nos currais ao longo da Estrada das Tropas.

Como a economia rural predominava sobre os destinos do Planalto Serrano Catarinense, na segunda metade do Século XIX outro acontecimento veio a prejudicar os negócios ao longo da Estrada das Tropas, da Estrada das Missões e de suas Veredas, atingindo em cheio os campos de Lages, Curitibanos e Campos Novos. Ocorreu no Rio Grande do Sul que a indústria do charque passou a se expandir e a absorver intensamente a produção de gado bovino das suas estâncias. Os fazendeiros gaúchos deixaram de criar cavalos e mulas e, desinteressaram-se pelo tropeirismo, concentrando suas atividades só na mais lucrativa criação de gado, para fornecimento às charqueadas, na maioria, localizadas no Sul e Sudeste do Estado sulino, de onde a carne salgada era exportada. O reflexo em Santa Catarina foi imediato. Nossos criatórios, distantes das maiores charqueadas e dos portos de embarque - também em Laguna - tinham dificuldade nas vendas, pois, com o transporte, seus custos eram mais elevados, tanto para o gado em pé como para o charque. O movimento no trecho catarinense, entre os registros dos rios Pelotas ou Uruguai e dos rios Negro ou Iguaçu, caiu consideravelmente. Anos depois – entre 1870 e 1880 – foi a vez da estrada-de-ferro acabar com a até então concorrida Feira de Sorocaba, para onde convergiam os negócios dos tropeiros


O BRANCO NO CONTESTADO SETENTRIONAL


O setor setentrional do Território Contestado, compreendendo os cursos dos rios Paciência e Timbó, afluentes da margem esquerda do Rio Iguaçu, bem como as terras altas da Serra do Espigão, onde estão suas nascentes, foram explorados oficialmente pela primeira vez em 1768, época em que esta parte do Sul do Brasil constituía a Capitania de São Paulo.

Curiosamente, estas terras da margem esquerda dos rios Negro e Iguaçu, aproximadamente entre o afluente Rio São João (atual divisa Mafra-Três Barras) e o afluente Rio Timbó (atual divisa Irineópolis-Porto União), entrecortadas por dezenas de afluentes menores, com as nascentes nos contrafortes da Serra Geral, da Serra do Espigão e da Serra da Taquara Verde, constituíram a última das fronteiras rasgadas no setor Setentrional da Região do Contestado, tendo permanecido praticamente desabitadas até o romper do Século XX. O território era dominado pelos ameaçadores botocudos, como os Xokleng, eles que, ao contrário dos índios Kaigang – que foram aldeados mais cedo – ofereciam resistência a qualquer tentativa de contato do elemento branco. Sem campos para a criação de gado bovino, principal atividade dos paranaenses no interior, naquela época, a única atração que a esquerda do Vale do Médio Iguaçu exercia eram os ervais, estes localizados no interior da floresta, habitat indígena. Ali, qualquer incursão era uma arriscada aventura.

As explorações ao Médio Vale do Iguaçu, associadas a posterior ocupação dos Campos de Guarapuava e dos Campos de Palmas, merecem especial registro, pois vieram a constituir uma das estruturas do desbravamento paranaense e catarinense, possibilitando a abertura de novos caminhos pelo Território Contestado, como a rota direta entre Palmas e União da Vitória, e outras circundantes à Região do Contestado, como a ligação entre Palmas e Campos Novos.

O ponto de partida para a fundação de um povoado, na margem esquerda do Rio Iguaçu, onde o Paraná criaria a Vila de Porto União da Vitória, data de 1842, quando um dos conquistadores dos Campos de Palmas, procurou e achou o vau neste ponto do rio. O passo viria a possibilitar maior facilidade para o transporte de sal e de gado entre Palmeira, nos Campos Gerais, e os Campos de Palmas. E entre o vau, que ficou conhecido como Porto da União, e a Vila de Palmas, foi aberta uma estrada em 1846, encurtando as distâncias.

A navegação a vapor, entre Porto Amazonas e Porto da União, trouxe considerável progresso, tanto para Porto União da Vitória como para Palmas. Entretanto, o roteiro da antiga estrada entre Palmas e União da Vitória, com 140 km, passando o Rio Jangada, representava dificuldades para o transporte. A solução encontrada pelo governo da Província do Paraná foi a abertura de uma nova estrada, que começou a ser construída em 1884. as obras prosseguiram até ser, finalmente, aberta em 1907, depois que nela se estabeleceu serviço regular de transporte de cargas e de passageiros por diligências.



2. 4 A contribuição indígena



Antes da vinda do “homem branco”, o Contestado, como espaço livre (mas não vazio), era habitado por dezenas de tribos indígenas, classificadas em variados troncos lingüísticos. Os silvícolas da tradição Guarani ocupavam as terras mais baixas dos vales dos rios Iguaçu, ao Norte e, Uruguai, ao Sul, enquanto que os índios do primitivo tronco Guainá ou Tapuia, do grupo Gê, distribuíam-se pelas terras mais altas do planalto. Assim, os campos e as florestas do Contestado eram de domínio dos Gê, índios que, conforme as derivações lingüísticas ou características culturais, a critério dos estudiosos eram chamados de Kaigang, Xokleng, Xócren, Patachô, Botocudo, Cren, Bugre, Bituruna, etc.

Indomaveis e nomades ao ultimo extremo, a isso levados pela continua guerra que lhes têm feito os brancos, habitam, estes selvagens, uma facha de sertão cercada por todos os lados de povos, villas e cidades, conservando, entretanto, no coração d’essas matas, quasi virgens, seus habitos primitivos (OURIQUE, 1887, p.24).

Durante todo o tempo da ocupação "branca" da Região do Contestado, de 1800 para cá, praticamente não se conheceu os Guarani ou grupos deste tronco, que foram vítimas das bandeiras paulistas escravagistas. A área, no decorrer do século XIX, era território sob domínio absoluto dos Kaigang e dos Xokleng que, genericamente, eram chamados pelos camponeses, sertanejos e fazendeiros de "bugres" ou de "botocudos". E só mais recentemente foi que se separaram os Kaigang (Coroados) dos Xokleng (Botocudos). A nação dominante na Região do Contestado, nos dois últimos séculos, era a Kaigang, da qual derivou o grupo Xokleng. Com dialeto pouco diferenciado dos Kaigang, o que prova sua filiação ao tronco Gê, os índios Xokleng eram grupos arredios de caçadores, coletores e pouco agricultores. Semi-nômades, dependiam quase que totalmente da caça e da coleta. Eram os típicos habitantes das matas, constituindo-se nos selvagens que mais resistiram às tentativas de aproximação com os grupos brancos.

Quando da construção da Estrada de Ferro São Paulo-Rio Grande e da deflagração da Guerra do Contestado, havia vários tipos de “bugres” conhecidos na região: os Xokleng puros, ainda em estado selvagem, isolados em porções das matas fechadas da Floresta da Araucária; os Kaigang puros, já aldeados com alguns Guarani, estes também chamados de Coroado, nas regiões de campos e em fase de catequização; os cafusos, confinados no Toldo do Quati; e os mamelucos, em processo de aculturação e convivendo com os caboclos.

Os Xokleng do Contestado não queriam aproximação. Sentindo-se ameaçados, em bandos, atacavam fazendas e casas isoladas, para assaltar, matar e roubar utensílios e ferramentas. Eles eram muito atraídos pelos machados e facões trazidos pelos brancos. Foram rotulados de selvagens, destemidos, bárbaros, violentos, arredios e, comparados a bichos-do-mato, quando o “homem civilizado” aqui chegou e formou grupos de bugreiros para caçá-los, aprisioná-los e matá-los brutal e impiedosamente.

Durante a segunda metade do século XIX e nos primeiros anos do século XX, em Santa Catarina, ficaram famosos os grupos de “pedestres” e de “batedores-de-mato”, ou então, de "afugentadores de bugres", como também eram conhecidos, organizados para, num primeiro momento, contatar, aldear, pacificar e catequizar os índios. Entretanto, suas ações logo se caracterizavam como de "bugreiros" - a antítese de "bugres" - por afugentar, caçar, dispersar e matar os índios. A ordem final era: exterminar.

As tropas de bugreiros compunham-se, em regra, com 8 a 15 homens. A maioria deles era aparentada entre si. Atuavam sob o comando de um líder. A quase totalidade dos integrantes desses grupos eram ‘caboclos’, que tinham grande conhecimento sobre a vida no sertão. Atacavam os índios em seus acampamentos, de surpresa. Às vítimas poucas possibilidades havia de fuga (SANTOS, 1997, p. 27).

As frentes expansionistas paulistas e curitibanas que alcançaram o Contestado adentraram no espaço livre dos indígenas. No começo, os índios resistiram às penetrações brancas, mas não constituíram forte empecilho, apesar de seus constantes ataques às expedições exploratórias, aos tropeiros e às povoações. E aqueles que não se aldearam, simplesmente foram caçados e mortos.

Os Kaigang

A parte Setentrional e Ocidental do Território Contestado era, historicamente, ocupada pelos Kaigang, cujos domínios alcançavam também os Campos de Guarapuava e, ainda, as regiões Centro, Norte, Nordeste e Noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul.

A nação Kaigang - descendente dos Guaianá - que era respeitada pelas tribos dos Guarani desde os tempos do Descobrimento e, pelos bandeirantes paulistas escravagistas dos anos 1600, resistiu bravamente às investidas do homem "branco" até a virada do Século XVIII para o Século XIX, impedindo a ocupação e o povoamento do seu território pelos "civilizados", ao contrário do que ocorreu nos Tapes e nas Missões do Rio Grande do Sul, com a destruição das reduções jesuítas.

As frentes expansionistas paulista-curitibanas, após contatos iniciais com os Kaigang em Guarapuava, conseguiram domesticar alguns grupos, como os chefiados pelos caciques Viri e Condá, o primeiro, apaziguado em Guarapuava e, o segundo, que por volta de 1840 estava assentado nos Campos de Palmas-de-Baixo, mais precisamente na Campina do Irani, junto às cabeceiras do Rio Irani. Ambos foram importantes para a pacificação e o aldeamento dos silvícolas, principalmente Condá, que foi usado para o contato com seus irmãos do Rio Grande do Sul.

Os Xokleng

As terras mais altas, frias e úmidas do Contestado, na Serra Geral, incluindo a densa mata de araucárias da Serra do Espigão, constituiam parte do habitat dos Xokleng, como se nelas tivessem buscado refúgio para escapar dos também ferozes co-irmãos Kaigang, estes que preferiam viver nas áreas mais abertas dos campos. Mesmo pertencendo a um só tronco, o Macro Gê, as culturas dos dois grupos apresentavam sensíveis diferenças culturais. Assim, era no abrigo da escuridão dos pinhais, que os Xokleng construíam suas habitações. Conhecidos simplesmente por “bugres” ou apenas “botocudos”, estes nativos camuflavam-se na vegetação de tal sorte que era muito difícil percebê-los.

Os Xokleng viviam em grupos, separados uns dos outros, que volta e meia lutavam entre si, disputando espaço, sem contar que, permanentemente, lutavam contra os Kaigang, inclusive para roubar-lhes as mulheres, e atacavam impiedosamente os brancos das frentes pioneiras que avançavam sobre seus territórios. Suas armas de guerra e de caça eram: o arco, a flecha, a lança e a borduna. Viviam percorrendo as florestas em busca de alimentação, dividindo com os companheiros o que conseguiam caçar ou coletar, como raízes, frutos silvestres, pinhões, mel e larvas. Faziam uma bebida fermentada à base de mel, água e xaxim. O fogo era obtido pela fricção de pedras. Comiam carne assada na brasa e também preparavam o barreado. A base de alimentação entre março e junho era o pinhão, que retiravam das pinhas; também armazenavam as pinhas em cestos, que eram mergulhados das águas frias de córregos no interior da floresta, para alimentação nos meses seguintes.

Perambulando pelas matas, costumavam acampar ao relento, sob as copas das árvores. Algumas vezes, faziam pequenos ranchos de varas finas, com teto em forma de abóboda, coberto de folhas de coqueiros, palmeiras ou xaxins. Quando acampavam, construíam choças maiores, para uso coletivo. Obtinham vasilhames de troncos escavados em forma de cochos. Fabricavam cestos de vários tamanhos e para variados fins. Tornavam alguns balaios impermeáveis forrando-os com cera de abelha. Com técnica pouco refinada, faziam vasos de cerâmica e, as panelas, de barro e carvão amassados, que depois de moldadas e secas, eram queimadas para se obter consistência e durabilidade.

As tribos dos botocudos, também descendentes dos antigos Guaianá - entre elas se destacando os Xokleng, eram muito arredios, permaneceram internados nas matas, vivendo em estado pré-histórico até os primeiros anos do século XX. Dominando as partes altas das serras da Taquara Verde, Espigão e Geral, escaparam de todas as tentativas de pacificação, de catequese ou de aldeamento. Às vezes, atacavam os tropeiros ou casas isoladas, para matar os brancos; noutras, para roubar ferramentas, utensílios, facas e alimentos. Por serem vingativos ao extremo, até os Kaigang os respeitavam.

Descendência indígena

Ao longo dos caminhos abertos no Sul do Brasil, gradativamente, se foram instalando muitas famílias mamelucas, com os homens trabalhando, tanto nas tropas como nas fazendas, na condição de peões ou agregados. Sem fácil acesso a títulos de propriedade de terras, o caboclo logo passou a ocupar terras devolutas e inexploradas na condição de “posseiro” e, em poucos anos, dividiu o espaço com os “bugres” – os Kaigang e os Xokleng – ou os matando ou com eles realizando mútuo processo de aculturação. Esta geração cabocla aprendeu a conviver com a natureza proporcionada pela Floresta da Araucária e com os nativos, tanto nas partes de campos, como nas de matas fechadas. Não poucos indígenas sobreviventes do etnocídio promovido pelos bugreiros - que na sua maioria também eram caboclos - no Planalto Catarinense, vieram a mesclar-se com o “homem branco” na Região do Contestado. Pelo que conseguimos apurar em nossas pesquisas de campo, esta mistura étnica deu-se do caboclo homem com a mulher índia, fruto de estupros violentos e de relações por elas consentidas quando se sentindo vítimas de inferioridade.

Os novos mamelucos catarinenses, que denominamos de “geração do caboclo-pardo”, também herdaram traços dos Kaigang e dos Xokleng, tanto características físicas (pele de cor parda, poucos pelos, cabelos pretos, feição mongolóide primitiva e estatura mediana), como também antigas tradições, linguagem, hábitos, crenças, usos e costumes. De 1994 a 1997, pesquisamos as origens e as etnias de diversos grupos de estudantes, na faixa de 18 a 24 anos, escolhidos dentre os calouros nos cursos superiores mantidos pela Universidade do Contestado em Caçador e em Fraiburgo. Sem surpresa, num universo de 200 alunos pesquisados, encontramos 16, que nos declararam ter seus genitores - pais ou mães - ascendência do índio regional em nível de terceira ou quarta geração. Ora, ao mesmo tempo em que nenhum dos entrevistados assumia, antes da pesquisa, esta ascendência, o trabalho nos deu o índice de 12,5%, em pleno final do Século XX.



2. 5 A contribuição do negro


Desde quando da abertura dos caminhos dos tropeiros, da instalação das fazendas de criação e das primeiras explorações de ervais nativos, o negro participou da formação do homem do Contestado. Se considerarmos a presença, aqui, de pessoas desta raça, na forma pura, sua influência neste processo seria insignificante, pois poucos foram os africanos que se estabeleceram no Contestado. Entretanto, observamos que a maior parte dos caboclos da Região do Contestado, do tempo da Guerra do Contestado, era constituída por miscigenados de brancos com negros (mamelucos), tanto vindos de São Paulo nas entradas para ocupação das terras, na condição de escravos, como de trabalhadores livres oriundos de outras partes do país para a construção da ferrovia. Alguns dos principais líderes do movimento rebelde de 1913-1916, considerados “comandantes-de-briga”, eram negros, como Olegário Ramos, Joaquim Germano, Benevenuto Lima e Adeodato Manoel Ramos.

No Planalto Catarinense, o sistema escravocrata era um pouco diferente de outras partes do Brasil: havia muito mais liberdade, o tratamento era mais humano, os negros participavam dos trabalhos gerais das fazendas, a ponto de, antes da Lei Abolicionista de 1888, a maior parte dos escravos já ser livre por iniciativa dos próprios fazendeiros.

No início do Século XX, entre 1908 e 1910, houve uma rápida corrente imigratória de negros e mulatos para a Região do Contestado, que vieram da Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro e São Paulo, na condição de trabalhadores contratados para a abertura da Estrada de Ferro São Paulo-Rio Grande, no trecho de União da Vitória (PR) a Marcelino Ramos (RS). O contingente recrutado pela Brazil Railway Company para trabalhos braçais em nossa região chegou a cerca de oito mil pessoas, parte delas a seguir e até 1916 sendo aproveitada para a implantação dos trilhos no Ramal de São Francisco, trecho entre Mafra/Rio Negro e Porto União/União da Vitória, na direção do porto de São Francisco. Concluída a construção, já na segunda década do século XX uma parcela destes elementos não regressou à origem, optando por se estabelecer nas terras marginais da ferrovia e assim se inseriram na sociedade regional, trazendo suas tradições, usos e costumes.

Os historiadores de Santa Catarina são unânimes ao afirmarem que a participação do negro da formação da sociedade catarinense não foi significativa, devido ao pequeno número de africanos introduzidos.

Em Santa Catarina mesmo, o elemento africano nunca constituiu forte população; adensando-se mais no litoral, zona de lavouras, entretanto e em vista da colonização alemã e italiana, iniciada aí em 1828, conservou-se em baixa porcentagem. Em 1810, de uma população total de 31 mil habitantes havia apenas 7 mil escravos negros. Em 1872, a sua porcentagem era de 8,9%. Quando abolida a escravidão, em 1888, o número de escravos em Santa Catarina atingia apenas a 8 mil; nesta época a população total era de 200 mil habitantes. Um tão fraco contingente negro em Santa Catarina, especialmente no planalto, muito pouco influiu na gênese da sua população (LUZ, 1952, p. 41).

Também existe unanimidade entre os historiadores catarinenses e regionais do Contestado, nas afirmativas de que o negro pouco influenciou a formação da sociedade serrana catarinense, por seu pequeno número em relação à população, aqui reproduzindo os índices obtidos para essa então província. “É verdade que, das fundações do planalto, somente Lages teve pelourinho, cuja corrente de ferro entrou no inventário de Correia Pinto e ficou depois abandonada no sótão da casa de seu sucessor” (COSTA, Octacílio. Apud LEMOS, 1977, p. 67).

O negro entrou na formação da população serrana em uma escala muito pequena. Isto porque a pecuária, por longo tempo única ocupação do homem do Planalto, não necessitava muitos escravos. O negro só aparecia onde era exigido um serviço braçal penoso: na lavoura e na mineração. O pastoreio, de execução fácil e agradável, era de bom grado feito pelos “peões” mamelucos. Não tendo, portanto, havido nenhuma mineração. Nem lavoura intensiva no planalto, aí o negro escasseou (LUZ, 1952, p. 41).

Não há dados numéricos confiáveis nem registros específicos. Mesmo assim, é possível presumir-se que alguns negros tenham habitado pousos, currais ou invernadas na Serra Catarinense no tempo do auge da Estrada das Tropas Viamão-Sorocaba.

A Bandeira que acompanhou Correa Pinto na viagem de mudança para as “Lagens” – presume-se – era composta de umas oito ou nove famílias. A elas vieram juntar-se no primeiro lustro da fundação algumas outras, formando uma população inicial de mais de uma centena de habitantes. A estes deverão ser acrescentados os escravos de cada família. Quantos eram? Não há levantamento oficial, mas não será exagero dar para cada núcleo familiar a média de três escravos. E assim teriam vindo para Lages, de 1766 a 1770, uns cinqüenta escravos [...]. Em 1801, conforme estatística levantada pelo Padre Manoel Simões, vigário da Vila, vivam em Lages 78 escravos e 58 escravas [...]. Considerando sua extensão territorial, Lages não foi um município de grande população escrava. É explicável pelo fato de ser, naquela época, um centro de atividades quase exclusivamente pastoris e o negro não ter sido, nunca, um grande entusiasta das lides do campo. Era mais um homem para a lavoura e atividades correlatas, assim como a mulher se adaptava mais facilmente aos trabalhos caseiros. O que não quer dizer que com o correr do tempo um grande número deles não se afeiçoasse à via nas fazendas de gado, dando mesmo excelentes peões (COSTA, 1982, p. 178-182).

Quando da Revolução Farroupilha, conflito que se estendeu ao longo de dez anos, entre 1835 e 1845, no Rio Grande do Sul e parte de Santa Catarina, o escravo que servia ao exército revoltoso era considerado como liberto, igual ao exército Imperial, pois os livres não aceitavam combater ao lado de cativos. Durante o Brasil Colônia, os escravos serviam o Exército, mas seus senhores eram quem recebiam os soldos. Já na época do Império, os escravos que sentassem praça eram considerados libertos. Então, “os farroupilhas apenas imitaram ao Brasil, ao estenderem ao escravo-soldado os mesmos direitos que possuíam no exército Imperial”. (FLORES, 1980, p. 20).

Também por ocasião da Guerra do Paraguai, com a criação dos corpos de “Voluntários de Pátria” em 2 de outubro de 1867, o negro do Contestado teve um forte motivo para escapulir do regime da escravidão. O negro ganhava a liberdade definitiva quando se alistava ao Exército Brasileiro, garantindo-a mesmo que não passasse na inspeção de saúde e por isso fosse dispensado.

A Invernada de São João dos Pobres

Em meados da metade do Século XIX, o rico fazendeiro da família Carneiro, de nome Possidônio de Paula Carneiro, originário de Guarapuava, Estado do Paraná, numa iniciativa humanitária, resolveu doar a um grupo de escravos negros de quem era dono e que muito bem o serviam, enquanto lhes dava a liberdade, uma área de terras de campos, de “invernada”, localizada no Município de Porto União da Vitória, na região mais alta da “Serra do Espigão”, situada em direção Sul entre a “Serra de São Miguel” e os “Campos de São João de Cima”, tudo na época território administrado pelo Paraná. Deixando terras, prata, animais e escravos, ele faleceu na sua fazenda, em São João, a 28 de dezembro de 1878 e, conforme seu testamento, em inventário realizado em Palmas a 13 de outubro do ano seguinte, os escravos obtiveram a liberdade e parte das terras da fazenda.

Diversos grupos familiares de ex-escravos, agora libertos, fixaram-se na área que receberam em doação – uma “invernada” – formando um ajuntamento de casebres, que logo ficou conhecido como “Povoado de São João dos Pobres”, projetando-se também porque nas proximidades, passava a “Estrada Estratégica”, construída em 1885 pelo Império, para ligar o Porto União da Vitória com Palmas, daí demandando à fronteira com a Argentina.

Em 1906, quando os agrimensores da Companhia Estrada de ferro São Paulo Rio-Grande, depois de mudar o projetado traçado original da linha permanente, que atravessaria o Território Contestado (antes prevista para se estender pelos Campos de Palmas-de-Baixo, Campos de São João do Irani e Estreitinho do Rio Uruguai), ao locar o sub-trecho na área de transposição da Serra do Espigão, em direção Sul às nascentes do Rio do Peixe, localizadas próximas aos Campos de São Roque (hoje cidade de Calmon), contataram esta comunidade no topo da serra, bem onde planejaram construir uma parada-de-trem, ou seja, uma estação ferroviária, esta que, inaugurada em 1909, foi denominada de “Estação São João” (berço do centro da hoje cidade de Matos Costa). Este “ajuntamento”, então tido como de pobres, negros, ex-escravos, já estava bastante diluído, em função da miscigenação de seus membros com uma comunidade indígena vizinha, situada nas margens do Rio do Pardos, distante poucos quilômetros. Parte dos índios botocudos, do grupo Xokleng, conhecidos por “bugres”, aldeados no “Toldo do Quati”, misturaram-se com os negros e vieram a ser o primeiro grupo identificado de cafuzos formado em Santa Catarina.

Desta forma, quando da inauguração da Estrada de Ferro, no final do ano de 1910, em São João dos Pobres e no Toldo do Quati residiam negros, índios e cafuzos, em perfeita convivência entre si e, inclusive com famílias caboclas (estas descendentes de mamelucos), que já se espalhavam pelo Contestado. Neste tempo, a região também recebeu outros novos moradores – inclusive negros e mestiços – contingentes de ex-trabalhadores da construção da ferrovia, que, vindo de longe, naquele tempo internaram-se pelo sertão, optando por não regressar a seus lugares de origem, a maioria do Sudeste do país.

A maioria dos negros, originários das alforrias do fazendeiro Carneiro, já não existia mais, quando seus descendentes – os cafuzos – acompanhando os nativos Xokleng, foram levados para mais ao Leste do Estado, descendo a Serra Geral, onde passaram a compor os agrupamentos indígenas do aldeamento reserva indígena do Plate e Alto Vale do Itajaí do Norte, em Ibirama, onde o SPI estabeleceu o Posto Indígena Duque de Caxias (depois Posto Indígena Ibirama), para aldear os Xokleng da Serra Geral e da Serra do Mar. Esta, a verdadeira origem dos conhecidos “cafuzos de Ibirama”. Quando da deflagração da Guerra do Contestado, o povoado de São João dos Pobres foi atacado por um piquete de caboclos (a 6 de setembro de 1914), incendiando-se todas as casas do lugar, com o que os sobreviventes da antiga população, temerosos, bateram em retirada.

A Invernada dos Negros em Campos Novos

Com a abertura das veredas das Missões, o tráfego vertical dos tropeiros de muares e bovinos deslocou-se do eixo da Estrada Real, num primeiro momento para o eixo Cruz Alta-Passo Fundo-Campos Novos-Curitibanos-Rio Negro-Lapa e, depois, para o traçado Passo Fundo-Clevelândia-Guarapuava-Palmeira ou Passo Fundo-Palmas-União da Vitória-Palmeira. No setor Meridional da Região do Contestado, se Curitibanos foi um dos pioneiros pousos de tropeiros na Estrada da Mata, Campos Novos foi um dos primeiros na Vereda das Missões, como está registrado:

Filho de família de fazendeiros em Lages, descendentes de tropeiros que se estabeleceram no Planalto Catarinense no Século XVIII, o cidadão Major Matheus José de Souza e Oliveira veio a se fixar nos Campos Novos como fazendeiro, ali recebendo em sesmaria a propriedade da Fazenda São João ainda antes da vigência da Lei das Terras, imóvel que foi significativamente ampliado em 1875 por compra de área adjacente. Adoentado, em 1877 este fazendeiro lavrou testamento, doando uma parte das suas terras – uma invernada – a escravos e ex-escravos das suas relações.

No final de 1877, em seguida ao falecimento de Matheus José de Souza e Oliveira, foi aberto o testamento e procedeu-se o inventário, concluído por sentença judicial a 18 de dezembro do mesmo ano, resultando na partilha da antiga “Fazenda São João” entre a viúva, como meeira e cessionária do seu sogro, Joaquim Antunes de Oliveira, e os 11 negros ex-escravos. O próprio fazendeiro, neste documento público, afirmava estar doando uma área de campos e matos (uma “invernada”) a escravos aos quais já havia dado alforria, e mais, a outros negros, ainda escravos, que serviam a ele e à sua esposa, estes que vieram a obter a liberdade logo após seu falecimento e, assim, também obtiveram direito à mesma doação.

Ainda na primeira década do Século XX, foi proposta uma ação judicial de divisão da Fazenda São João, para dela ser destacada a área correspondente à “Invernada”. Um acórdão do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado de Santa Catarina, de 15 de setembro de 1911, confirmou em parte a sentença proferida por acórdão anterior, estabelecendo uma linha reta como divisa da referida fazenda e as terras legadas aos ex-escravos para separá-las. Já em 1928, os herdeiros dos escravos decidiram realizar partilha do imóvel. Em 1939, realizada a divisão judicial, configurou-se o imóvel não mais como condomínio de herdeiros. A propriedade foi constituída em 33 quinhões, sendo um correspondente à metade da área, que ficou para o advogado em pagamento de honorários, e o restante veio a constituir 32 quinhões, estes titulados separadamente para os grupos familiares de descendentes e sucessores dos quatro ex-escravos. A seguir, a maior parte das glebas for vendida para imigrantes, seguindo os planos de colonização da época.




2. 6 Caboclo-pardo, o homem do Contestado



Por ocasião da Guerra do Contestado, estimamos que 90% da população desta região era formada por caboclos natos e acaboclados e, que a metade desta percentagem devia-se a um tipo especial de caboclo. Este sub-tipo, ou “tipo especial”, que encontramos espalhado pela região ainda no final do Século XX, entre os sobreviventes da Guerra do Contestado e remanescentes dos primeiros povoadores e, agora, com numerosa descendência, apesar da cor da pele igual e, mesmo com traços e complexos culturais idênticos a de todos os outros caboclos regionais, revelou-nos possuir uma condição social inferior e de ter elementos culturais que os outros caboclos não tinham. Uma originalidade, então, ficou evidente e não tivemos dúvidas: estávamos diante do “homem do Contestado”.

Surgiu aos nossos olhos, assim, o “caboclo pardo”, como a mais original de todas as designações para os “homens do Contestado”. Ele reúne todas as características étnico-raciais do “caboclo” nacional e regional, mas vai além por revelar ser possuidor de um bom número de traços e complexos culturais típicos, encontrados no Planalto Catarinense, muitos deles não existentes fora daqui. Escolhemos a expressão “pardo”, pois esta era (e ainda é) a cor da pele do “nosso” caboclo.

No Brasil, não podemos esquecer a presença do negro no processo de mestiçagem, logo após a introdução de escravos africanos. Não só ele, mas variados grupos étnicos se ajustaram, adaptando-se uns aos outros, em todo o território. Os angolas ou congos eram os negros oriundos da África; “crioulos” e “moleques”, por terem nascido no Brasil. Para eles, os brancos nascidos na Metrópole eram chamados “reinóis”; os que nasciam no Brasil eram conhecidos por “mazombos”.

Aos tipos resultantes dos cruzamentos em que entrou o sangue africano, denominaram-se, seqüencialmente: “mulato” (branco e negro), “caboré” (índio e negro), “xibáro” (caboré e negro) e “curibóca” (índio e caboré). “Do ponto de vista intelectual e social, porém, o mais notável tipo mestiço do Negro é o Mulato, como fora o Mameluco entre os mestiços de índio” (MARTINS, [s.d.], p. 130).

Além do branco, do índio e do negro, foi no Século XIX que despontaram no Paraná e nesta parte, hoje catarinense, do Território do Contestado, também os tipos humanos advindos do mulato, do cafuzo e do mameluco, e também do xibaro e do curiboca, genericamente denominados na Antropologia de “caboclo”, que nós classificamos como entre os formadores do “homem do Contestado primitivo”, para diferenciá-lo do “homem do Contestado contemporâneo”, este último surgido após o processo de colonização de terras devolutas por imigrantes egressos de outras colônias sulinas.

Assim, portugueses, luso-brasileiros, castelhanos, negros, índios, mamelucos, mulatos e cafuzos, ao longo do Século XIX, formaram o nosso “homem do Contestado primitivo”. Vermelhos nativos da terra, negros trazidos da África, brancos oriundos de São Paulo, do Paraná e do Rio Grande do Sul, mestiços com a pele cor-de-cuia ou cor-de-pinhão e imigrantes da Europa, constituíam os biotipos no Território do Contestado. É a este “tipo humano” que atribuímos a denominação de “caboclo”, sem nenhuma sombra de dúvida, também com sangue indígena nas veias, seja puro, seja mestiço.

O tipo humano mais original da Região do Contestado é o caboclo surgido como segunda ou terceira geração da miscigenação racial branco-vermelha: filho do curiboca com o mameluco, herdeiro da cultura dos descobridores e da cultura autóctone. Além de preservar traços da cultura indígena, o nosso caboclo pardo mais primitivo era marcado pelos traços das tradições de origem ibérica, do tradicionalismo dos bandeirantes paulistas, do conservadorismo dos curitibanos e do comportamento dos gaúchos dos pampas, com o adicional de ser um especialista em vida selvagem.
Postado por Nilson Thomé às Sábado, Fevereiro 14, 2009
          Atividades econômicas no Contestado antigo Tropeirismo – Pastoreio - Extrativismo        
Atividades econômicas no Contestado antigo
Tropeirismo – Pastoreio - Extrativismo

4. 1 Tropeirismo

Estabelecendo-se no Território do Contestado no início do Século XIX, o homem veio a praticar o tropeirismo nas jornadas que se deslocavam a partir desta zona, em direção aos Campos Gerais do Paraná, à Região Missioneira Gaúcha ou ao Litoral Catarinense, para a compra de mantimentos e utensílios, o que se fazia lá com o produto da venda de muares e bovinos criados nas fazendas.

As tropas xucras percorreram verticalmente o sertão catarinense por quase duzentos anos, conduzindo muares dos pampas aos muladeiros do vale do Paraíba, onde eram comercializados. As jornadas do Sul ao Norte duravam muitos meses, ao ritmo de três léguas (18 km) por dia. Depois das mulas, os tropeiros passaram ao tropeirismo de carga e ao transporte do gado, igualmente recolhido nos campos sulinos e levados para o norte. Nas invernadas, durante os descansos das tropas, a paisagem natural da Região do Contestado reteve muitos tropeiros paulistas e paranaenses, que aqui se estabeleceram. Ao longo dos caminhos, os pousos foram dando origem a currais, fazendas e povoados. A atividade do tropeirismo revelou uma soma de traços culturais que influenciaram a herança cultural do caboclo, influindo nos hábitos alimentares, na indumentária, no lazer, na linguagem, na medicina e, no folclore das histórias, lendas e mitos.

As origens do tropeirismo estão intimamente ligadas às necessidades de transporte de cargas no Sudeste do País, principalmente na ligação da costa com as minas do interior. Quando dos descobrimentos auríferos no Brasil no final do Século XVII e início do XVIII, atraídos pela cobiça, milhares de recém-chegados foram buscar a riqueza no interior. Enquanto cresciam as necessidades por transporte, até que fosse intensificada a importação de negros, os paulistas arrebanhavam e vendiam índios, suprindo a falta de gente para todos os tipos de trabalhos braçais. Os bandeirantes, ao caçar índios Guarani nas reduções jesuíticas do Rio Grande do Sul, encontraram nas savanas sulistas milhões de cabeças de gado bovino, caprino e muar.

Com a abertura da Estrada Real, numerosas manadas xucras, arrebanhadas nas campinas do Prata, passaram a ser encaminhadas para São Paulo e, daí, escoadas para outras direções, principalmente às minas, onde os muares se impuseram como cargueiros ideais devido as suas qualidades inatas para este serviço. Este escoamento veio a criar no Sul do Brasil o intenso tráfego de muares cargueiros em tropas. Tanto, que logo a Estrada Real passou a ser chamada de Estrada das Tropas. E as tropas fizeram surgir o tropeirismo, evidenciando a figura dos seus condutores: os tropeiros.

Se as tropas eram uma só, os tropeiros eram diversos. Havia os comerciantes de muares, que iam pessoalmente às fontes buscar animais e os conduziam para vendê-los nas feiras paulistas; os empregados das fazendas, que dirigiam as manadas vendidas a mando do patrão; os que eram proprietários das manadas e alugavam seus serviços, ou seja, vendiam a capacidade de carga de seus animais. Uma prática dos tropeiros do Extremo-Sul era reservar alguns lotes de animais (de sete a onze bestas cada lote) após a venda da manada, aproveitando-os para o transporte de mercadorias no retorno, para si, para o patrão, ou para atender encomendas de bodegueiros de animais. Em comum, tinham os tropeiros o fato de serem os condutores das tropas.

Ao longo dos caminhos, em locais de terras devolutas previamente escolhidas e geralmente em campo aberto, com pasto suculento e boa aguada, os tropeiros levantavam choças, de pau-a-pique, sem paredes e cobertas de palha, para servirem de “encosto”. Logo, surgiram aqueles que tomavam posse destes locais de paradas, cercavam-nos como campos fechados (potreiros), substituíam a palhoça por um rancho rústico, para alugá-los aos tropeiros e, assim, transformavam os encostos em “pousos”.

Na medida em que os encostos se transformavam em pousos, o local atraia para suas proximidades outro posseiro, concorrente, que também construía seu rancho e fazia surgir novo pouso. A abertura da venda, ou bodega, era o sinal de que aquele pouso prometia ser bom. E aí, vinha um terceiro homem, e os ranchos cresciam, passando a ser chamados estalagens. Encostos, pousos, hospedarias, bodegas, fazendolas, com potreiros ou currais, eram as atrações aos tropeiros viajantes, alguns dos quais vieram a escolher nossa região para nova moradia. Fixando-se, promoviam o aparecimento de núcleos populacionais e, assim, no decorrer do tempo, fizeram surgir as primeiras povoações, mais tarde vilas, no Território do Contestado.

A par de fazendeiros mais antigos que, na condição de sesmeiros, ocuparam desde cedo as terras de campos, no Rio Grande do Sul e mesmo nos Campos de Lages, muitos tropeiros paulistas e paranaenses enriqueceram rapidamente e, no início, sem abandonar a atividade, voltavam aos caminhos, escolhiam as melhores porções de terras-sem-dono nos seus percursos e as requeriam como sesmarias, ou delas se apossavam. Erguiam os currais e logo faziam ali surgir uma estância, geralmente suas futuras moradas. Nos campos e campinas, assim nasciam as fazendas de criação.

Muitos dos ex-tropeiros, agora novos-fazendeiros, seguindo tradições familiares, lançaram-se à criação de gado bovino, oportunizando emprego para outros tipos de homens: o peão, especializado nas lidas campeiras com o gado vacum; o mateiro, profundo conhecedor das matas e explorador dos ervais; e, o roceiro, o plantador de cereais e criador de porcos e galinhas; e, ainda, para novos tropeiros, pois a atividade era mantida. Também, por arrendamento, permitiam o surgimento de mais pousos nos rincões e cantões das propriedades. Para este conjunto todo, acorriam os profissionais de ofícios – seleiros e ferreiros, por exemplo – e a população aumentava.

No final do Século XIX e na entrada dos anos 1900, o tropeirismo enraizou-se em locais cada vez mais internos da Região do Contestado, usando as primeiras estradas abertas pelo pisotear dos animais sobre antigos caminhos, além do percursos da Estrada Real e das veredas das Missões, como nos traçados que se observam em velhos mapas.

O tropeirismo cargueiro foi também importantíssimo para o desenvolvimento da indústria do mate no interior dos três estados do Sul, promovendo o transporte desde os armazéns, em que os ervateiros depositavam o produto da extração, ou desde os rudimentares barbaquás, aos engenhos nas vilas, com destaque para Curitiba e Joinville e, destas para embarque nos portos oceânicos. Temos assim, a atividade do tropeirismo e a figura do tropeiro, com raízes na cultura dos paranaenses, presentes nos primórdios da História do Contestado, responsáveis pelo surgimento dos primitivos pousos e das invernadas de Curitibanos e de Campos Novos, em Santa Catarina, e de Porto União da Vitória e de Rio Negro, no Paraná. Também foi a responsável pelas entradas no sertão, ligando posses, fazendas, povoados e vilas entre si e, estas, com outras regiões, promovendo processos de aculturação recíproca entre os tropeiros e os fazendeiros, os peões e os ervateiros, nos ciclos econômicos do muar, do gado bovino, do couro e da erva-mate, que perduraram durante cerca de 200 anos.

4. 2 Pastoreio

As frentes expansionistas paulistas atingiram os Campos de Curitiba, daí as margens dos rios Negro e Iguaçu, os Campos de Guarapuava e de Palmas, e os criatórios naturais de muares e bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul. Com a abertura do “Caminho dos Tropeiros”, esta frente paulista irrompeu no setor Leste do Território Contestado, promovendo a fundação da Vila de Lages que, por sua vez, abriu novas frentes, possibilitando a ocupação de Curitibanos, Campos Novos e outros, fazendo surgir os primeiros “pousos”, “currais” e “registros” e, a seguir, proporcionando o nascimento das primeiras fazendas de criação de gado no Planalto Catarinense.

No Sul, dependendo da área, havia várias denominações para os imóveis rurais, como estância, fazenda, fazendola, cabanha, chácara, granja, quinta, etc. Em Santa Catarina, os latifúndios do Planalto eram conhecidos mais como “fazendas”, daí porque usaremos apenas este termo, mesmo nos referindo às grandes e às pequenas propriedades

Nas sedes das fazendas maiores, posicionadas em ponto estratégico das propriedades, em lugares mais altos, eram construídas as edificações, geralmente de madeira lascada e cobertas com tabuinhas, compreendendo: a casa do fazendeiro, um sobrado bem repartido e com varanda; próxima a esta, a casa do capataz, menor, mas não menos primorosa; a casa dos peões, com as dependências para a peonada; e o galpão, abrigo para homens, animais, feno, equipamentos, etc. e onde os peões se reuniam ao redor do fogo para contar seus causos, sorver o mate amargo, trovar e cantar.

As propriedades não eram cercadas, como vieram a ser, depois, com arame farpado. Usava-se muito a cerca de ripas na sede, troncos partidos ou tábuas lascadas para as mangueiras e currais e a cerca de taipa-de-pedra para demarcar alguns setores. Os fazendeiros erguiam outras determinadas instalações que também eram indispensáveis para as atividades cotidianas e com o gado, como as porteiras, tronqueiras e cancelas, as peras, os bretes, os troncos, os palanques, as baias, os banheiros, as estrebarias e os chiqueiros. No interior das fazendas, havia, ainda, os piquetes próximos às sedes (pastagem com bebedouro, cocho e arvoredo), as invernadas (de bom pasto e boa aguada para a engorda dos animais) e os potreiros, áreas maiores (usados para os rodeios e controles de pastagens e de reprodução do gado).

De modo geral, o estancieiro, criador ou fazendeiro, residiam na sua propriedade, mas, não raro, construíam casas nas vilas para suas famílias. Os empregados de uma fazenda eram contratados conforme o tamanho da fazenda e as necessidades diárias para mantê-la. O capataz era o gerente-geral, ou o administrador, competindo-lhe a direção dos empregados, a distribuição dos serviços, sempre com participação ativa no campo. Os peões tinham o trabalho direto com o gado. Também eram considerados peões: o caseiro, o galponeiro, o tropeiro, o posteiro, o tropeiro, o cozinheiro, o carpinteiro, o seleiro, o ferreiro e outros artesãos.

Muito conhecidas nas fazendas eram as figuras do arrendatário e do invernador. O arrendatário era quem alugava uma parte da fazenda, ou até toda ela, nesta condição, substituindo a figura do fazendeiro, agindo como se o fosse. O invernador apenas arrendava o campo do fazendeiro para engordar seu próprio gado. Havia ainda o agregado, a quem o dono da fazenda arrendava uma parte das terras, nas extremidades mais distantes, onde ele agia como posteiro e como roceiro, dividindo (geralmente “às meias” ou “às terças”) o produto do cultivo de milho, do feijão, da batata, da mandioca e até da pequena criação de porcos e galinhas.

Especificamente no Centro-Oeste Catarinense, há de se considerar a existência de dois tipos de fazendas: as de criação e as de cultura, se bem que elas mantinham praticamente ambas as atividades, mas a diferenciação se faz sobre a predominância da produção. As propriedades em terras mais de campos, seguiam o modelo rio-grandense, enquanto que aquelas com mais mato do que pastagens e, devido ao maior número de acentuados desníveis, mantinham lavouras como atividade principal, da roça de milho à plantação de fumo. Não fosse o sal e o açúcar, peças de ferro e aço, louças e quinquilharias, as fazendas teriam total subsistência própria, pois nelas eram produzidos não só os alimentos, como o material para o trabalho. O fornecimento de mercadorias em falta era feito nas vendas, bodegas ou armazéns das vilas próximas.



4. 3 Extrativismo



ERVA-MATE

Assim como a Região do Contestado assistiu o processo da integração na indústria madeireira na primeira metade do Século XX, reunindo o extrativismo (corte das árvores na mata), o aproveitamento (para lenha, carvão, madeiras) o primeiro transporte (toras puxadas por bois ou em carroções), a industrialização básica primária (em tábuas, nas serrarias), a transformação (pasta mecânica, celulose e papel), o segundo transporte (pela estrada de ferro), o comércio (vendas internas e exportações), a indústria ervateira aqui também sempre funcionou de forma integrada, somando: a extração (poda das erveiras), o primeiro transporte (nas costas dos mateiros ou em lombo de burros), o aproveitamento (para chimarrão), a preparação primária (secagem em carijos ou barbaquás), a industrialização básica (etapa do cancheamento), a transformação (em pó nos engenhos), o segundo transporte (por carroças e ferrovia), e o comércio (para os mercados interno e externo). E, assim, para os caboclos do sertão catarinense, como a tábua de pinho passava por longo processo antes de servir à sua moradia, a erva-mate igualmente passava por diversas fases até se constituir como seu produto alimentar.

Tradicionalmente, a extração da erva-mate é efetuada no interior das florestas, junto aos pinhais, representando uma das rendas mais significativas da região. O produto é obtido das folhas da árvore (Ilex paraguaiensis) e posteriormente beneficiado nas ervateiras, daí seguindo, ou para consumo como “chimarrão”, hábito largamente difundido no sul do Brasil, ou para a transformação em “chá queimado”.

As atividades da erva-mate eram tradicionais no Planalto de Santa Catarina, sempre ligadas à exploração dos ervais naturais no Oeste Catarinense, também quando da existência da Colônia Militar de Chapecó, instalada no ano de 1882 na Campina de Xanxerê, em região próxima à principal Vereda das Missões.O sucesso da colônia teve como principal baluarte a abundância da erva-mate na região, de tal forma que os colonos que recebiam as terras tinham no seu corte e venda a única maneira de conseguir dinheiro. A formação de lavouras respondia apenas à necessidade de subsistência, em função da inexistência de mercado e de condições para o transporte dos produtos a outras regiões, para comercialização. Enquanto perdurou a exportação da erva-mate e seu preço se manteve alto, mantiveram-se boas as condições de vida dos seus habitantes (POLI, 1995, p. 83-84).

Na mata, os ervateiros faziam todo o processo empírico do preparo da erva-mate, iniciando pelo corte a facão, o sapeco preliminar para a retirada da umidade das folhas, a secagem final nos carijos, deixando as fases finais para os engenhos. “A erva-mate trouxe prosperidade à nossa terra por mais de meio século, mobilizando a mão-de-obra necessária à sua industrialização” (ALMEIDA, 1975, p. 112).

Cada ano, de julho a setembro, o caboclo, de facão afiado na mão, mete-se pelos matos onde abunda a ilex, e de herval em herval anda à procura das árvores que não foram podadas na safra anterior. E assim vai de árvore em árvore, desbastando-as, golpeando-lhes os galhos de baixo para cima e amontoando os ramos de espaço em espaço; como o cauchêro, caminha assim quasi o dia todo, percorrendo grandes distâncias. Depois reune todos os ramos cortados no local escolhido para a primeira fase de beneficiamento: a sapéca. Acêsa aí uma fogueira, vai passando galho por galho, ligeiramente sôbre as chamas; as folhas murcham crepitando. Québra então os galhos maiores e os vai colocando num cercado de páus, o raído, de modo a formar um fardo de forma cúbica que é amarrado com cipós (LUZ, 1952, p. 52).

Desde o tempo mais antigo, o ponto-de-partida da indústria do mate está no extrativismo vegetal, ou seja, no corte da árvore na floresta. A indústria ervateira tem seu primeiro referencial no corte (poda) das erveiras à foice ou facão. A atividade é considerada extrativista rural até a fase do “cancheamento”, depois de passar pelo “sapeco”, da segunda secagem em “carijos” ou em “barbaquás” e da “trituração” das folhas em engenhos. A etapa da industrialização do mate corresponde ao beneficiamento, que nada mais é do que uma fase complementar de preparo, de trituração da erva cancheada, dando-lhe melhor apresentação na embalagem e na rotulagem do produto para o consumidor final.

O Chimarrão na Cultura do Contestado

O mais antigo uso conhecido da erva-mate prende-se aos índios peruanos Quíchua, à qual pertencia à dinastia Inca. O próprio vocábulo peruano “mati”, hoje “mate” é originário dos Quíchua. O primitivo hábito indígena de tomar o mate em cuia foi constatado pelos conquistadores espanhóis quando o produto alimentar foi encontrado nos túmulos pré-colombianos de Ancon, próximo a Lima, onde a palavra “máti” siginificava “cuia”, “cabaça” ou “porongo”. Os grupos indígenas primitivos de Nazca também usavam o mate. “Esse nome passou do recipiente ao seu conteúdo, isto é, a bebida feita da infusão das folhas de Herva tomada em Mate (cuia). Adoptaram-no com essa mesma significação todos os povos sul-americanos, e assim se fixou e universalizou” (MARTINS, 1926, p. 13).

Os ervais nativos concentrados, entretanto, não se localizavam no Peru, mas, ao Sul e na parte Oriental da Cordilheira dos Andes, onde os Quíchua e, certamente, também outros aborígenes andinos vinham fazer a coleta anual. Talvez aí esteja uma das justificativas para a presença de vestígios dos Inca em alguns locais das fronteiras Oeste, Sudoeste e Sul do Brasil. Quando estudamos os índios do cone Sul-Americano e do Sul-Brasileiro, vimos que no Brasil do tempo do Descobrimento a Região do Contestado era o espaço natural dos Gê, descendentes dos Guaianá (inimigos dos Guarani). Os ervais nativos existiam, assim, num amplo território, em parte habitado pelos Gê e em parte pelos Guarani. A erva-mate tornou-se conhecida dos brancos, de um lado, quando os espanhóis tiveram contato com os Inca no Peru e, de outro, quando contataram os Guarani no Paraguai, mas isso não significa que os Gê desconheciam a erva. Em 1500, os sucessores dos Guaianá, integrantes do tronco lingüístico grupo Macro-Gê - os Kaigang - já conheciam a erva-mate, já preparavam a erva e já eram adeptos da sua infusão, tanto quanto os Guarani. O “beber mate” fazia-se pela obtenção do chá, ao natural, ou seja do líquido resultante do contato direto das folhas da planta com a água.

Os gaúchos espanhóis chamavam os animais que se criavam soltos, de forma selvagem, como os cachorros, os muares, os cavalos e o gado bovino, de “cimarrón”, palavra castelhana que queria dizer: xucro, selvagem, amargo, bárbaro, bruto. Etimologicamente, a palavra “cima” referia-se às regiões altas e pouco acessíveis, onde a gadaria e cavalhada se escondiam dos captores. Tomando contato com a erva-mate pura, amarga, rude, a ela também vieram a se referir com este nome. Assim, o chá da erva-mate teria sido denominado de “cimarrón” . Quando os colonizadores portugueses adentraram o Prata, aportuguesaram o vocábulo, que virou “chimarrão”.

A bebida, que originalmente era “máti” para os peruanos Quíchua, “kukuai” para os botocudos Héta, “caá-í” para os Guarani, “congõn” para os Gê, “cóquín” para os Kaigang, depois conhecida como “la provechosa” e “yerba” para os espanhóis, “tererê” (com água fria) ou “cimarrón” (com água quente) para os castelhanos, “congonha” para os portugueses e “chimarrão” para os brasileiros, mantém, assim, vínculo milenar com os povos da América do Sul. Lembramos que, da mesma forma como o índio Guarani, o castelhano, o português, o luso-brasileiro e sua mestiçagem nos pampas foram os que, basicamente, originaram o gaúcho no Rio Grande do Sul, o índio Gê, mais o português, o luso-brasileiro e sua mestiçagem originaram o curitibano nos interiores do Paraná. Ambos, gaúchos e curitibanos – formadores do caboclos do Território Contestado - antes de virem para esta região - terra dos Gê - conheciam a erva e tomavam mate, dando continuidade ao mesmo hábito já propagado entre todos os aborígenes, habitantes mais antigos que os entecederam aqui.

No Brasil, se o Rio Grande do Sul nunca apareceu na liderança da produção de erva-mate (por possuir poucos ervais), jamais perdeu o título de maior consumidor do produto, pois neste Estado é, historicamente, onde mais se toma chimarrão. “[...] O uso dessa bebida é geral aqui. Tomasse-o ao levantar da cama e, depois, várias vezes ao dia. A chaleira d’água quente está sempre ao fogo e, logo que um estranho entra na casa, se lhe oferece o mate” (SAINT’HILAIRE, 1935, p. 110). Mesmo assim, Paraná e Santa Catarina não ficavam muito para trás do Rio Grande do Sul em termos de consumo.

Mate, mate e mais mate! Essa a senha do planalto, a senha nas terras baixas, na floresta e no campo. Distritos inteiros, aliás, províncias inteiras, onde a gente desperta com o mate, madraceia o dia com o mate e com o mate adormece. As mulheres entram em trabalho de parto e passam o tempo de resguardo sorvendo mate e o último olhar do moribundo cai certamente sobre o mate. É o mate a saudação da chegada, o símbolo da hospitalidade, o sinal da reconciliação. Tudo o que em nossa civilização se compreende como amor, amizade, estima e sacrifício, tudo o que é elevado e profundo e bom impulso da alma humana, do coração, tudo está entretecido e entrelaçado com o ato de preparar o mate, servil-o e tomá-lo em comum. A veneração do café e o perfumado fetichismo do chá nada são, sem sequer uma idéia da profunda significação do mate, na América do Sul, que não se pode descrever com palavras, nem cantar, nem dizer, nem pintar, nem insculpir em mármore. (AVÉ-LALLEMANT, 1953, p. 251-252).

Antes mesmo de ser aberta a Estrada das Tropas, o Porto de Paranaguá exportava para a Colônia do Sacramento, além da cal e da madeira, alguma congonha fabricada no alto da Serra. Pela mesma época parece que se difundiu inclusive em São Paulo o costume de beber mate.

Ao se espalharem as fazendas de gado ao longo e para fora da Estrada das Tropas, a erva começou a ser colhida nas matas vizinhas e preparada mais para atender as necessidades locais do que para venda. Os fazendeiros permitiam aos agregados e peões prover-se com a planta por acaso encontrada dentro da propriedade ou nas vizinhanças, à qual não atribuíam maior valor (QUEIROZ 1981, p. 31-32).

Discorrendo sobre a hospitalidade do “caboclo” da região serrana, creditada ao tempo da Guerra do Contestado, LUZ lembrou que “[...] mesmo nas moradas as mais humildes e desconfortáveis cultua-se a hospitalidade: mal entra um viajante extranho ou conhecido, logo vem a infalível chícara de café ou a cuia de chimarrão” (1952, p. 47).

A erva-mate foi, inicialmente, o grande fator de atração. Por muito tempo, quase foi a única atividade dos canoinhenses. Preços compensadores, erva-mate, representava riqueza, prosperidade. Sua influência na população é marcada: criou hábitos, que jamais desaparecerão. Em tôrno da cuia e por causa da cuia, grandes negócios se têm realizado. O hábito do chimarrão é um infatigável criador de amizades, de contactos pessoais, de solidariedade. Ele ensina a meditar, ser paciente, refletir. A cuia e a bomba constituem preocupação importante na vida diária. Como a hora do almôsso e do jantar, existe também a horinha do chimarrão” (SILVA, 1941, p. 20).

O complexo econômico-cultural da erva-mate, que perdura na Região do Contestado há mais de duzentos anos, compreende os seguintes traços: neste território existiam imensos ervais naturais; os primitivos indígenas tomavam a erva antes da chegada dos brancos; os primeiros caboclos extraíam a erva das matas e sabiam produzir rusticamente o mate; antes da abertura da Estrada Real, os caboclos catarinenses já estavam habituados ao uso do chimarrão; na metade do Século XIX, já se produzia erva-mate nos sertões do Território do Contestado; e, a erva-mate era importante produto de exportação e fonte de receitas para todos os envolvidos no ciclo produtivo. De quebra, esta riqueza do Planalto ensejou a formação do primeiro truste econômico do mate no Litoral de Santa Catarina.

Ratificamos o realce do que a erva-mate significava para a subsistência do caboclo pardo. Como boa parte dos ervais nativos localizava-se em terras devolutas, dependia-se de licenças especiais dos Estados para a extração, que eram concedidas sob apadrinhamento para os “coronéis-de-roça” ou para os “chefetes-de-aldeia”, só estes que conseguiam arrendar as árvores junto aos poderes públicos. Até o primeiro terço do Século XX, eram os grandes fazendeiros, comerciantes e industriais, portanto, que faziam suas fortunas às custas dos caboclos contratados para o trabalho braçal nas matas, da mesma forma como se fazia com os peões contratados para a lida com o gado nos campos.
Postado por Nilson Thomé às Sábado, Fevereiro 14, 2009
          READING COMPREHENSION        

1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.

  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE


            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?

6. Authoritarian regime


            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?

7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?


10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
                                        1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.


  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?
6. Authoritarian regime

            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?
7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?
  
10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
        
              1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.






1.HATES CRIMES

The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.
Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes
The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.





1.    How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
2.    How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
3.    Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
4.    How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
5.    How many hate groups are there nationwide?
6.    What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
7.    How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
8.    Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
9.    What was the increase in hate groups last year?
10.    Who is Hillary Shelton?   


2.PILOT  ACCUSED

Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .
 Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"
Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.
Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"
1.    When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
2.    How long has he been held in jail?
3.    Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
4.    What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
5.    What did he hide in 1993?
6.    Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
7.    What are the conditions of his bail?
8.    What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
9.    Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?



3.BOSNIA INJURIES

On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .
NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.
In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"
 And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".


1.    How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
2.    Where were the two American soldiers inured?
3.    Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
4.    Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
5.    How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
6.    Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
7.    What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
8.    Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
9.    Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
10.    Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4.CLONE SYSTEM

Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?
Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid .
as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .
After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.
A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.


1.    What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
2.    What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
3.    What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
4.    Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
5.    What is the main problem of cloning system?
6.    What does Australian scientist claim?
7.    What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
8.    For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
9.    What is the specific with mitochondria??
10.    Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?
5.    ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.
The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 
 The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.
The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.
The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.
 The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.
1.    When did the car stolen?
2.    What was the lost property?
3.    What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.    What was the demand of political party?
5.    What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.    What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.    How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.    En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.    What was the monitor action on the scene?
10. what action did the local police take ?

    

6.    Authoritarian regime

President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.
"We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.
It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 
The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.
The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.
    The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.
      Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

1.    Which countries are called golden triangle country?
2.    Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
3.    What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
4.    Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
5.    What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
6.    Where is the international court of Justice located?
7.    why were the thousands of people jailed ?
8.    What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
9.    How many political prisoners were jailed?
 10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?


7.  GAMBLE

November 27, 2001
Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.
Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested  one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports . And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.
 Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.
 The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.
The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved. 
1.    How may gang members arrested?
2.    What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.    Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.    How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.    How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.    What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.    What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.    What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.    What were weapons confiscated.
        10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?


8.  EBOLA

Sunday, December 9, 2001
An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in
France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.    What did government request to Media?
2.    Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.    Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.    When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.    What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.    What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.    How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.    What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.    Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    

9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

    US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .
    There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country .
    It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.    Who is Taras?

10. THE UNITED NATION

The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states.
    After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs

1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat

                                        1. International court of justice.

    The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

    America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

    Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


11.  UN FAILURE IN BOSNIA

    A long -awaited report into the failure of a Dutch UN peacekeeping force to prevent the murder of thousands of Muslims in the Bosnian town of Brebrenica will be published on Wednesday. The Netherlands is bracing itself for the results of the inquiry in to the worst massacre in Europe since world War second. The
    BBC's Europe correspondent says Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for their part in event leading up to the 1995 slaughter. In July 1995, Srebrenica was being protected by 110 Dutch troops who were supposed to ensure the safety of the town's mainly Muslim population against surrounding Bosnian Serb forces. The United Nations had declared it a safe area but when it  was attacked, the town fill with out the Dutch UN troops firings shot . Up to 8000 Muslim men and boys were then murdered.

Five years of research

                  While the Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for letting the town fall without a fight , fault is also set to be found with the over all UN commander for failing to order air strikes to protect the enclave. The report is also understood to criticize the Dutch government for showing lack of political will. The 7000-pages report by the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation is the official Dutch history of events in Srebrenica. It has taken more than five years to produce. In a 1999 report, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan blamed the international community for its failure to protect the enclave but insisted that it was impossible " to say whether a more decisive action by the Dutch would have saved lives" .A report two weeks ago by the Interchurch Peace Council ( IKV) in the Netherlands condemned Dutch troops, generals and politicians for failing to evacuate and protect the Muslims.

Scenes from hell

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague has ruled that the massacre was genocide. Last August it sentenced Bosnian Serb General Radisav Krstic, considered a key commander in the episode, to 46 years in prison. The judge in the case said the massacre was characterized by " scenes from hell, written on the darkest pages of human history" Survivors' reports, aerial photography and grisly evidence exhumed from mass graves indicate the most victims in the massacre were summarily executed ,Dutch MPs may now call for a public inquiry. Seven military commanders of Royal Dutch army have been sentenced to seven years jail . Ten army personnel have been fired from the service and 20 have been restricted from the promotion as per the report of the criminal tribunal.   The BBC's correspondent Mr. Havel Eastward has been facilitated by the Dutch Government as a friends of mankind . After the massacre in the Srebrenica the Dutch government begs pardon with the Bosnian people and saying that her troops could not do any thing to save the life of the people and she is responsible to the accident.


1. How many Dutch troops were protecting Srebrenica?
2. What ethnic group were the people of Srebrenica?
3. Why the Dutch government begs pardon with the people of Bosnia ?
4. How many people were killed in Srebrenica?
5. How many army personnel were punished?
6. Who is criticized in the report?
7. Where is the International Criminal Tribunal based?
8. Would more positive action by the Dutch troops have saved lives?
9    What sentence was General Krstic given?
10    Who was facilitated by the Dutch government and why?


12.  SWARM ATTACK

    Six people were hospitalized after they were attacked by a swarm of bees in Singapore, a news report said on Tuesday. The bees attacked contractors who were trying to remove a beehive in the tropical city-state .Two police officers who were on the scene to keep back the public, were among those attacked and hospitalized. Police public affairs officers could not immediately be contacted to confirm the report. The incident occurred at approximately 12:30PM on Tuesday afternoon. Two of the people who were injured in the attack were still in the hospital on Tuesday night at 10:00 PM; however they were in good condition. Such incidents are rare in heavily urbanized Singapore. But two years ago , a 51 years old taxi driver died after he was stung by a swarm bees .The driver was changing his back left tire and he removed the deflated tire , a beehive was in the wheel well . Witnesses said that the swarm covered the man's face and hands and repeatedly sting him as he cried out in pain .He died later that night while being hospitalized. Singapore is a very small country covered by the see in the east of Asia and known as a well industrialized country.
    The big industry installations have many nooks and corners where the swarm bees get shelters. firstly people do not care about it because it seems harmless and small in the beginning but after  a year it  appeared in large scale and bees become escort free so they undermine their stung so they try to destroy their hives and got stung and the result  become very adverse. The same accident happened in The US in 1990 when a farmer had gone to his farmhouse to clean the room , he saw that there is a bee hive in the ceiling of the room he thought it was full of honey , unfortunately it was poisonous  swarm bee's hive.  He collected his two sons and a black servant to take the honey . In the mean time when they lit a fire to fly the bees , the swarm bees started stung them . The younger son who was in the door side escaped from the room after having a look at the victims and called the police . The house got in to the gutter by the fire and three injured had been hospitalize in the city centre . The house owner Mr. Kally died during the medical treatment and two had been discharged after 2 weeks with swollen face and bruises for the whole life.  The same accident happened in Nepal too on 23 September 2002. The Raute , who are famous for honey hunter ,had tried to collect honey from the very steep hill near Manang District. they made rope ladder to climb the hill and with the aid of fire they started collecting the honey .
    It was a documentary program filmed by Scottish Director visualized to broadcast in Britain  by BBC. Al together there were 15 men. When the honey hunter was climbing down from the steep hill after the successful visualization of the film. Unfortunately, one of the hunters touched the bees hive. Due to the finished job, they did not prepare for next attack and they all were on very thin cloths and without cloves . Three among five hunters fall down from the cliff and died. Two were severely bitten by the bees were died on the way to hospital and ten crew members of the visualization  were admitted in the hospital and discharged after 2 weeks .  It is said that the bees seems so calm if they are not hurt and if anyone hurt their queen , they become so terrifying and take revenge from the hunter . The queen is the most powerful among the bees. if the queen of the bees  safely removed from the hive it will be so easy to get the honey from the hive   which is considered as medicine  in eastern countries . The working bees always follow the queen bee , if she abandon the hive silently , all the bees left the hive with out revenge. so if you want to get honey remove the queen tactically and calmly.
         
1.    How many people had been killed according to the passage.?
2.    How many people had been injured according to the passage?
3.    Where was the bees's hive in the taxi?
4.    Who was the authentic person to provide informations about injured police officers according to the passage.
5.    What had happened to the two Americans who escaped from the death?
6.    What is the ideal idea to get honey?
7.    What did the team doing in Manning District?
8.    How did the taxi driver killed?
9.    Where was the bees's hive in the room?
10.    Who is the most powerful in the hive?

13.  ARAFAT POLITICS
    Arafat is not the point. As Israelis and Palestinians use ever more lethal means against each other's civilians, the question being asked in Israel and the US is not how to end the occupation, but whether or not to end the career, or even the life, of Arafat. At the time of writing this coverage trend in early February 2002, in a further escalation Israeli tanks have confined Arafat in an area of 200m square in Ram Allah. And have destroyed the remainder of his helicopter fleet that it began to destroy on the attack of his compound on 3 December 2001.
    If Israel killed Arafat or sent in to exile, nothing would change. It seems almost absurd to have to point out that forcing millions of people to live for decades under hostile military rule with no end on sight inevitably produces violent resistance. Only a mind -set that steadfastly refuses to recognize this can become captivated by a lone figure who's real and imagined failings became a smoke screen that obscures the machinery that actually drives the conflict.
    If Israel truly seeks the moral high ground it invokes in the international arena, it should stop seeking a relative high ground whose only elevation stems from the weakness and failing of its historical enemies. Rather Israel should address the most obvious things it dies to perpetuate the conflict.
    The bottom line is that the single most identifiable factor that perpetuates the Israeli- Palestinian conflict in all its forms, both legitimate, is the Israeli military occupation that exists to protect the continuing Israeli colonization of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, including Jerusalem.
    Comparisons of Arafat with Bin Laden serve to legitimize Israel's continuing repression of the Palestinians and bear no reality to the dynamics that this particular conflicts, dynamics that Israel has played no small part in creating.
    Israel's killing of civilians is a form of terrorism. The United States  tacit support of Israel's so called retaliation in US support of terrorism .Although Israeli officials are occasionally note don record " apologizing" for the latest " accidental" death of a child , there comes a point -- after a year in which one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed were children and 50 percent of these children were killed for away from clashes- that it becomes imperative to note that Israel could always simply stop killing children , instead of merely apologizing for it.
    Israel's nightly shelling of Palestinian neighborhoods has accounted for one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed during the first year of the Second Intifada .  Israel's regular killing of innocent civilians including children as a "by product " of its ironically titled" targeted killings " of Palestinian activists most commonly with rockets fired from combat helicopters at these leader's vehicles while in cit streets offer more examples of the indiscriminate violence that characterizes 'terrorism' as most people understand the word.
    Following a series of suicide bomb attacks in February / March 1996, then Israeli President Weizmann bluntly described Israel's practice of using closure to turn Palestinian towns in to prisons for the entire population: "Sometimes, when you are searching for a needle in a haystack, you have to burn the haystack".
    Israel has been encouraged to carry out similar "retaliation" as in the case of the December 2001bombing, by the knowledge that the United States would not condemn it. America must refrain from "understanding" Israel's violence. This can only have the effect of encouraging the continued Israeli killing of innocent Palestinian civilians.

1.    How many Palestinian children have been killed this year?
2.    How many Palestinians have been killed during nightly shelling?
3.    Are children targeted by the Israelis?
4.    Who is Arafat compared to and why?
5.    Where is Arafat confined, and what size of area?
6.    How many people live under hostile military rule in Palestine?
7.    What is the question being asked in Israel and the US?
8.    Why is Israel not afraid to carry out retaliation attacks on Palestinians?
9.    What happened in 1996?
10.    What dies Israel do when it is faced with suicide bomb attacks?








14.  BUS LOOTED
    A bus, which started off in Kathmandu , at 5:30 PM , traveling to Biratnagar , was looted by some Indian dacoits, which had crossed the boarder in order to escape the authorities there. They had been in Nepal for at least a month and had been regularly stopping night buses and robbing the passengers of all their belongings as well as money.
    When the bus number Ba Ga 3987, first started off from Gongabu Bus Park there was a total of 30 passengers. Just near Thankot 3 more passengers got on. The journey was uneventful until they reached Muggling, where they stopped for dinner. Here, the bus conductor managed to find 4 more people wanting to travel to Biratnagar . After about half an hour stop for dinner, they set off again. At Bharatpur 2 of the passengers got off as they had only booked up to this point. The bus had to wait for about one hour as the engine had trouble and the driver had to fix it .After this they started  of again and had a short tea break at Hetauda where another 2 people got off and one got on.
    At about 2:00 PM in the morning, when most of the passengers were asleep, the driver suddenly stopped as there was a tree across the main road. The passengers all wake up as the bus had come to a sudden stop, and were all looking out of the windows. Two Indian men dressed in black were behind the fallen tree with country made rifles; at the same time 2 also came from the back and two on each side of the bus. At once they told all the passengers to come out of the bus and line up in front of the bus, even though it as a moonlight night, no body could make out the faces of the dacoits, and could tell only by the way they spoke that they were from India. Everybody was told to remove their watches, jewelries and to empty out their pockets and moneybags. One of the men colleted all this while the others told all the passengers to lie down with their faces facing down. During this time the dacoits all disappeared, as nobody wanted to follow them as they might get shot

1.    How many passengers were on the bus when it was robbed?

2.    How many dacoits were there in total?

3.    How long did they stop for dinner?

4.    Why did they stop a second time before the robbery?

5.    How did the passengers know that the dacoits were not Nepali?

5.    Where did the bus start first?

6.    How many got in the Baratpur?

7.    Why did the bus have to stop suddenly?

8.    How many we on the bus at Muggling?

9.    Although it was night time how could the passengers make out how many dacoits there were?  
15.    KOSOVO POLICE

    On Monday 17 March 2003 , at 0745 hours , two Kosovo Police Officers were on patrol duty in a police vehicle when they observed a white van type vehicle , license 496KS858 driving very fast. The officers stopped the white van type vehicle for questioning using their blue flash lights. When the driver stopped, the patrol team stopped five meters behind his vehicle, however the van did not turn off its engine. As the officers exited their vehicle, the drivers of the white van type vehicle sped away very quickly. The officers ran back to their vehicle and chased the white vehicle .They were driving on the road to the airport. The police vehicle was driving at almost 120 km/hour but was unable to catch up to the van. Suddenly, the van turned north on to an unpaved roadway. The officers continued the pursuit. The van drove for approximately a hundred meters more. There was a big hole by the side of the road which the van fell into as the driver had lost control of the van, then it rolled upside down into a deep ditch on the south side of the roadway at grid reference 184-846. The officers stopped their vehicle on the opposite side of the roadway and proceeded cautiously toward the offender's vehicle. When they were approximately two meters away form the white van type vehicle they could see that the offender was still in his vehicle but was not moving. There were no sign of blood or injury  to the offender .As the officers got closer they could see three bundles, approximately 35 cm by 20cm by 25cm in the rare cargo area of the vehicle . One of the bundles was ripped open and a dark green plant material was showing, the officers assumed that it was marijuana. The first officer proceeded to the front of the vehicle to check the physical condition to the driver. The offender was breathing but didn't respond to any of the officer's verbal commands.  The officer radioed for an ambulance and the offender was taken to the local hospital. The second officer searched the offender's vehicle and found another bundle under the front seat with a knife. The Knife was 20 cm long with old blood stains. There were no papers or registration found in the vehicle. All material were seized as evidence and taken to police station.

1.    What were the 2 officers doing at 0745 Hrs?
2.    Why did they ask the van to stop?
3.    What was their reason for stopping the van?
4.    At what distance behind did the police stop?
5.    How many bundles were seen?
6.    Approximately what speed was the van traveling when in pursuit?
7.    What did the officers assume it to be?
8.    Was the knife found before or after the suspect was taken to hospital?
9.    What distance did the van travel on the dirt road?
10.    How did the man crash the vehicle?
16.    GERMANY SOOTING

Germany was in shock yesterday after 19 years old, masked gunman shot 17 people, including two female students, before killing himself in a school massacre in the eastern city of Erfurt.
The black -clad gunman a recently - expelled student of the Gutenberg secondary school, burst into a classroom during an exam yesterday morning around 11 AM and started shooting with a pump action rifle mounted on his back. "He passed us in the corridor with out paying any attention and walked straight into the secretary's office and started shooting." He said. Witnesses said the gunman walked through the building, opening classroom doors and targeting staff, killing nine male teachers, four female teachers, a secretary and two female students all within minutes. Caretakers heard the shots and notified the local police. Two officers arrived on the scene and discovered two dead bodies in the entrance hall. Moments later the gunman appeared and opened fire, shooting dead one of the policemen. A special commando unit immediately surrounded the school, which has nearly 700 students. As the shooting continued, around 180 students were still trapped in the building. Commandos stormed the building shortly before noon and came upon what was described as terrible scenes. 'Bodies lay in the halls, in bathrooms and classrooms' said Mr.Rainer Grube, a police spokesman. The gunman, who had barricaded himself into a room, shot himself as officers approached. 'The gunman killed himself when he saw that there was no way out for him' said Mr., Grube.
    For the students trapped inside the building, their ordeals ended nearly three hours later when they were led, pale and shaking, out of the school to worried parents at the gate. They were all receiving counseling yesterday evening, while four people injured in the attack were brought to hospital. Police were last night still investigating students reports that there was a second gunman. They had no motive for the shootings yesterday evening. Friends of the as yet unidentified gunman described him as an intelligent student who was ' full of life' and often spoke of his wish to become famous. The massacre is one of the most violent attacks in German post -war history, and ranks alongside the 1996 school shooting in Dunblane and the 1999 massacre in Columbine , Arkansas. Yesterday evening Erfurt residents were in shock and German politicians speechless .
'We are stunned at this horrific crime. No explanation we could give would go far enough right now ' said the Chancellor, Mr. Gerhard Schroeder, expressing his sympathy for the families of the victims and the students who witnessed the attack. He ordered the German flag on the Reichstag in Berlin to flown to be flown at half mast. 'We are all in one room .One teacher is dead, we are crying.



1.    Which two other massacres are mentioned?
2.    How many people were injured in the attack?
3.    What time did the shooting start?
4.    What weapons were used?
5.    How many teachers were killed?
6.    Did the gunman target students?
7.     Who notified the police about the shooting?
8.    Who stormed the building and when?
9.    How many police men entered the building initially?
10.    How long it take to gunman to kill the people and was there only one gunman?



17.  DEAD BODY FOUND

Mr. John Edwards lives alone in his cottage in the southern part of Cambridge, UK. He was a retired officer who previously worked for the finance office which was based in London. He had been retired for 5 years now and spent most of his time in Cambridge. He had worked for 34 years and during that time lived in London. By the sides of his cottage, there was a husband and wife living who used to work for Mr. Edwards. The woman would cook his meals and the man would attend to the garden. Mr. Edwards had no close family or friends who would come to visit him regularly .On December 15 , 2002 ,Mr. Edwards was found dead in his study at 0700 hrs. His body was fund by the woman who did his cooking. She had informed the police when she had seen him lying on his desk at 0700hrs. All the doors were closed from the inside so the woman thought in quite suspicious so she looked through the window. This is when she saw Mr. Edwards at his desk. When the police arrived at 0730 hrs. They broke open the door and checked the body. Mr. Edwards was confirmed dead and his body sent for post mortem. By the side of the table there was a bottle and a letter which said that he was taking his life as he was fed up and didn't see any future in continuing. All these materials were sent to the police lab for the necessary testing. The reports all confirmed that Mr. Edwards did take the poison, traces of which were found in his blood and on his lips. On the latter, apart from Mr. Edward's finger prints, there were other prints found as well. When the police checked up they found that it belonged to the husband the woman who cooked for Mr. Edwards. The police found this very suspicious as the husband had said that he never came into the study at any time. The police brought the man in for questioning and under interrogation he at first denied that he had gone to the house ant any time. After 2 hours, he changed his story and said that he
          Congo School Lunch - Fufu and Caterpillars        
Country: Congo (The American School of Kinshasa)
Contents: Fufu, Caterpillars, greens
Source: C.C.
Notes: Insects are a very common source of proteins outside of the USA and Western Europe.

          Cameroon to face Ivory Coast after winning African Nations group        
Cameroon defeated DR Congo 3-1 on Monday to advance to the African Nations Championship quarterfinals as Group B winners. Yazid Atouba opened the scoring for Cameroon five minutes before the break, only for Jean-Marc Makusu to equalise for DR Congo, who had already advanced, three minutes after play resumed. But Cameroon were soon back on top through Moumi Ngamaleu and a third goal from Samuel Nlend sealed the result. Cameroon will face Ivory Coast in the quarterfinals on Saturday, while DR Congo...
          ANC: DR Congo through to knockout stage after beating Angola         
DR Congo advanced to the knockout stage of the African Nations Championship by beating Angola 4-2 on Thursday for their second straight win. Nelson Munganga scored the opener for DR Congo just eight minutes into the game, and Elia Meschak doubled the advantage 10 minutes later. The points were well in hand when Jonathan Bolingi added a third first-half goal, and though Angola scored through Gelson after the break, Merveille Bokadi quickly restored the three-goal lead. A late own-goal capped the scoring...
          Martha Nussbaum on Alexander Hamilton        

Hercules.jpg Martha Nussbaum, Professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago talks with EconTalk host Russ Roberts about Alexander Hamilton. Nussbaum talks about the tension between acquiring power and living a life of virtue. Topics discussed include Hamilton's relationship with Aaron Burr, Burr's complicated historical legacy, and the role of the humanities in our lives.

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0:33

Intro. [Recording date: June 20, 2017.]

Russ Roberts: Our topic for today is Alexander Hamilton--the man, and especially the musical and the ideas in that musical based on an essay that Martha Nussbaum wrote, "Hamilton's Choice," that appeared in the Boston Review.... Before we begin, I want to remind listeners that there may be some spoilers ahead about the musical, Hamilton's life. If you don't know what happens to him at the end of his life, you might want to miss this one until you've seen the show or read the Chernow biography. But, most of you probably have an idea what's happening.
[Econlib Editor's Note: Throughout these typed Highlights below, I will try to indicate references to Hamilton-the-musical, by Lin-Manuel Miranda, with italics. References to Hamilton-the-person will be in ordinary text and unitalicized. Occasional other references such as to Ron Chernow's biography, Alexander Hamilton, or writings attributed to Hamilton in The Federalist will be clarified as they arise. Feel free to email errors or suggested corrections to me at webmaster@econlib.org.]

1:25

Russ Roberts: Now, Martha, you frame your essay around what you call Hamilton's choice--tying Hamilton to a classic story that the Stoics would tell about Hercules. Explain.

Martha Nussbaum: Okay. So, in the ancient philosophical world, they had to appeal to young people and tell them why they should go in for thinking hard, studying hard, doing philosophy. And so they told this myth that the great hero, Hercules, is faced with a choice. And there are two goddesses who appear to him. And one of them is called Virtue; and she says, 'Do good deeds and pursue justice, and that will be a great life.' And the other one, in the original myth, was called Pleasure, and it just says, 'Wow, drink and have sex and be merry,' and so on. And so, that one, the Stoics rewrote a little bit, because obviously that version is and obvious loser. And so it turned into the life of fame, the life of positional pre-eminence--like, 'Try to be the person that everyone is talking about; try to be the one who is on the inside of whatever is going on.' And so, then, the young person is supposed to make a choice between those two paths. And in the end, of course, you are supposed to see that the life of virtue and creation is the better life.

Russ Roberts: I couldn't help but think of our mutual friend, Adam Smith, who, in The Theory of Moral Sentiments--and Smith, of course, was influenced by the Stoics--he says--this is a quote:

Two different roads are presented to us, equally leading to the attainment of this so much desired object [meaning to be loved and people paying attention to you--RR]; the one, by the study of wisdom and the practice of virtue; the other, by the acquisition of wealth and greatness. Two different characters are presented to our emulation; the one, of proud ambition and ostentatious avidity, the other, of humble modesty and equitable justice. Two different models, two different pictures, are held out to us, according to which we may fashion our own character and behaviour; the one more gaudy and glittering in its colouring; the other more correct and more exquisitely beautiful in its outline.
And that really is the same choice, right.

Martha Nussbaum: Yeah; I had forgotten that passage. That's wonderful. And of course when you think about Smith himself, it becomes even more interesting, because he was a very severe professor of philosophical; then he went into politics and he actually didn't have much of a capacity for politics. He worked for the customs office. But, because he was a hypochondriac and he was always sick, and he lived with his mother all his life and was kind of a weakling and mama's boy, he really didn't do very well in the life of politics. So, I think he always envied all those very dashing, strong figures. So, he really did have--he was a little bit torn himself about which life was better--the dashing life or the studious and serious life.

Russ Roberts: I think you are being a little tough on him. I think he's--in The Theory of Moral Sentiments he's extremely disdainful of the rich and powerful. And in particular, I think calling him a pol--living in the world of policy because he held a bureaucratic job, I think might be a bit of a stretch. What I do think is right and where I do agree with you is that he held himself out: He took the less-glittering path. He was quiet, and a philosopher, as you say; and an author, a teacher and a tutor. And yet he became world-famous, and his wealth in terms of fame and greatness is quite large. So, he got the best of both worlds.

Martha Nussbaum: Well--yes. I mean, but I think I'm not talking about worship of the rich, which of course he didn't have. But he does love, and really describes in loving detail, certain heroic, dashing figures, such as the Native Americans, who he forms a strange fascination with and he likes to imagine how they lived and how they died, being tortured--

Russ Roberts: Yes, that's true--

Martha Nussbaum: but nonetheless, they are very courageous--

Russ Roberts: have a stoic nature.

Martha Nussbaum: So, that was what I was thinking about. And of course he doesn't like the rich. But he does like another kind of obvious bodily kind of heroism.

Russ Roberts: That's for sure. That's his stoic side--the ability of native people, I think he uses more than one example, to endure pain and to do it with grace. But I don't think--my only point was he really did not care for the aristocracy--

Martha Nussbaum: No, certainly not--

Russ Roberts: or for powerfulness necessarily.

6:00

Russ Roberts: So, what is this choice, that we all face, between fame and money on one side, and virtue and wisdom on the other? To some extent we all face it. What does that have to do with Hamilton?

Martha Nussbaum: Okay. So, there are lots of careers that people can go into where this choice comes up, because you have to choose, as a scholar whether you just focus on doing what you think the truth is and pursuing truth, or whether you have to do politics in the scholarly world--trying to get ahead of other people or get a job when 10 people are applying for it. And, you know, even in the world of scholarship, which is relatively pure of that kind of bad competition, you've got to compete. Or else you don't get the job. And so you have to learn how to compete. I train my graduate students how to go on the job market, how to do a good job interview, and all that stuff. Now, if you are, maybe, a poet, you have to do less of that. Like, in an era where women could never compete, because no one wanted to have them around, Emily Dickenson could write the wonderful poetry she did just sitting in her room. And lots of other cases of that same thing. Once you get the paper and the pencil, then nothing stops you, so long as you have enough to eat and place to write. But there are some careers where this choice is much more complicated--and I think politics is perhaps the most complicated--where, yeah, you go into politics wanting to serve humanity, wanting to create something that's lasting, wanting to do what's right and just. But, given that it's politics--and especially democratic politics, right? Because if you are in a monarchy you might just get to do it by being born in the right family. But in democracy you have to compete. And you have to please people; and you have to seek votes; and so on. So, I think Hamilton is all about these two aspects of a political career, and how they are in a very difficult kind of tension with each other. Now, Hamilton's main interest, as the musical presents him but I think it's true in real life, is to create--he says, "I want to build something that's going to outlive me." And the musical presents that, I think, very, very well. But, in order to do that, he has to get powerful friends. So, he has to befriend George Washington, who becomes his kind of surrogate father. He has to later try to win some elections. And so, he can't avoid playing that game. And, on the other side is Aaron Burr. Who, in real life, as in the musical, didn't really stand for anything; didn't have anything that he particularly wanted to create. But, he was a consummate insider, always trying to position himself. And, the great song in the musical that defines him is "The Room Where It Happens." He just wants to be an insider, to be in the room where it happens.

Russ Roberts: to be a player--

Martha Nussbaum: To be a player. And, of course, if that's what you want, then it's better, perhaps, not to have any firm convictions. So, Burr says to Hamilton, 'Don't let them know what you are against or what you are for.' To which, Hamilton replies, 'You can't be serious!' Right. So, that's the choice. So, the difficult thing about the choice is that in this society, where American society was full of honor-culture, a lot of ranking of people as to their honor, you have to play the game of competition and honor in order to get to the position. Where you can really create. And so, here we get to the topic of dueling. Which is a motif that runs all the way through the musical, just as it ran through everyone's life. So, people fought duels to establish that they were honorable people. And there was this elaborate culture, where if you were assaulted, your honor was called into question, then you had to challenge the person to a duel. You couldn't get an apology; then you had to fight the duel. And maybe sometimes you tried not to shoot to kill, but sometimes you did. In any case, Hamilton, by the time we get to actual challenge of Burr, he does not want to fight duels. He's been convinced that, on religious grounds and on human grounds, it's immoral. His son was killed in a duel, and that's probably a main reason why he comes to that conclusion. But, he also knows that if he doesn't accept the challenge to a duel, that's an ungentlemanly thing to do. And it would force it--his public role in American politics. And so he has a very profound dilemma, in real life. That is absolutely the way he saw it. And so he thinks that Burr is actually correct. He--Burr says Hamilton has insulted him. And Hamilton sort of says, he says,

Hey, I've not been shy.
I'm just a guy in the public eye,
trying to do the best for our Republic.
I don't want to fight,
but I won't apologize for doing what's right.
[lyrics from the Broadway show Hamilton in song "Your Obedient Servant"--Econlib Ed.]
So, that's what he says to Burr. He says
Burr, your grievance is legitimate
I stand by what I said, every bit of it.
You stand only for yourself.
It's what you do.
I can't apologize because it's true.
[lyrics from the Broadway show Hamilton--Econlib Ed.]
So, then, the question is: What to do? And the effect is that Hamilton in real life wrote a very poignant letter--it was a kind of a public statement describing his reasons for accepting Burr's challenge despite the fact that he didn't agree with dueling. So, let me just read you a bit of this letter, because I think it's very moving.
... all the considerations, which constitute what men of the world denominate honor, impressed on me as I thought a peculiar necessity not to decline the call. The ability to be in future useful, whether in resisting mischief or affecting good in those crises of our public affairs which seem likely to happen, would probably be inseparable from a conformity with public prejudice in this particular.
So, that's a quote from the historical letter. It's not exactly that way in the musical, but the sentiments are the same. So, he's realized--he doesn't want to play this game of one-upsmanship and being in the room and so on. But he's got to play it, or else no one will listen to him when he tries to do something important and good. So, then he goes out to New Jersey--which was the land of lawlessness, where everyone fought the duels thinking they wouldn't be arrested. And, of course, Burr shoots to kill. And he is killed. So, that's the tragedy of Hamilton's ambitions.

12:59

Russ Roberts: There are really two moments in the musical--they mirror what happened in real life--where Hamilton has a choice to respond to a crisis: The one you just mentioned--and he clearly refuses to reduce the tension or lower the flame with Burr. He could have said, 'Yahh, I was just kidding.' That seems like a personal, a piece of personal integrity. The letter, you are writing, suggests he wanted to be a player. Like you said--he wanted to be useful; he wanted to create; he wanted to have an impact on the world. And he knew he'd reduce his ability to do that if he didn't abide by the norms, even though those norms were illegal--as you alluded to. The other moment is when he is accused of infidelity. And, it looks like his infidelity is a form of corruption. It looks like he's been funneling money off to himself--which he'd really been doing--he's paying blackmail to the woman he was unfaithful with and her husband. And, it's an interesting thing there, as well, the way it's at least portrayed in the musical: That, he's not going to lie; he's not going to spin. He comes across with a lot of dignity. He's made a terrible mistake. He's betrayed his wife--which, of course, is a huge theme of the second act of the musical. He's betrayed his wife; he's betrayed his own principles. Here, again, with the duel--he doesn't want to do it. He thinks it's wrong. But he feels he has to--he's wearing a straitjacket of honor and virtue, as you allude to. And he gets punished terribly for both of those pieces of virtue. He is, by admitting his infidelity, he really has a huge negative impact on his political career. And, of course, the duel kills him.

Martha Nussbaum: Yeah. That's very well put. And I think the motif of the sexual infidelity is also a very interesting thickening of the polarity between Hamilton and Burr. Because, Hamilton is a creep toward his wife. He was called by Martha Washington, a tomcat--or she named her favorite tomcat 'Hamilton' to indicate that he was just a very--he was a real womanizer, and after he got married, maybe for a while he settled down, but not for too long. And he had this affair. And, even though the musical does portray the relationship with his wife as quite a deep one--I don't how accurate that actually is.

Russ Roberts: Sure.

Martha Nussbaum: So, he was a creep in that realm. Whereas, Burr is pretty interesting, in that respect. He marries a woman that's 15 years older than he is, Theodosia. He does appear to love her. And indeed the musical creates a song about love:

Love doesn't discriminate between the sinners and the saints
It takes and it takes and it takes
[lyrics, Hamilton]
is assigned to Burr in [?] Hamilton. Then, Theodosia dies very quickly. But they have a daughter, first, who is also named Theodosia. And that Theodosia was the apple of Burr's eye. He made her the hostess of all her dinner parties. He taught her Latin and Greek. He taught her how to hunt and shoot. He really was a feminist. And not just by accident. Because he kept a portrait of the feminist philosopher Mary Wollstonecraft on the wall in the study in his room. That's not in the musical, but it was true in real life. And also, in real life, he introduced the first Bill for women to have the vote in the New York State Legislature; and it's like the first we know about anywhere. Because it wasn't until, like 150 years later, that women really started getting the vote. And we know that in England, John Stuart Mill introduced a motion for women to have the vote in 1872. But here, we're talking 1790. And Burr is already in favor of women having the vote. So, he was, in that area, he was complicated and deep and somewhat heroic. He adored Theodosia, the daughter, who unfortunately died at sea: the ship capsized at sea. And then the rest of his life was kind of aimless, with women, and so on. But he really did love that daughter. And so, the musical is great because it doesn't make the choice easy. And so, in this other area, you are quite right: that Hamilton is truthful; he has a lot of integrity; but, before that, he was a real creep. I mean, this woman--he was a player, and she was just a--lured him into a casual liaison and then blackmailed him--so it wasn't like it was a deep love of any kind. And he was just--

Russ Roberts: Flawed--

Martha Nussbaum: interested in womanizing. Yeah. So, it was very interesting. And there's also the possibility that he just liked the sound of his own voice too much. That's mentioned in the musical, as in real life: That Hamilton always said twice as much on any issue as any other person. So, like, any speech he made in the Assembly was a couple of hours long. And anything he wrote was just--he kind a kind of verbal flow that was excessive. And some people did think that that pamphlet he wrote confessing his own adultery was an example of that--that he just loved to dramatize his own life. It's almost like the days of the Internet were anticipated, where people love to sensationalize their own lives by publicizing everything they do sexually. And there was a little bit of that in Hamilton.

Russ Roberts: Yeah. Human nature hasn't changed since the 18th century. I always like to remind myself of that. It's very important.

18:44

Russ Roberts: As you point out, Burr's character is complex and rich. And he has many admirable things about him. Which makes the musical and real-life story more powerful, because he's not just a cardboard villain who kills Hamilton in a fit, or in anger. He feels his honor has been harmed. And he has many redeeming moments throughout the show. Without going to the ones that you just mentioned. Of course, what's interesting is his shot kills two people, really. It kills Hamilton, and it kills himself. And I think there's--I can't remember the line, but there's a moment of awareness there that--you know, Burr, after that, after martyring Hamilton, essentially, he becomes a cardboard character. He's irredeemable by history. And then, Miranda is really--

Martha Nussbaum: I don't really agree[?]. I mean, if you read Gore Vidal's novel, Burr, he doesn't like that one event does him in. It's rather that he goes on, for of course, another long time. He doesn't die until almost the age of 90. And he leads this strange rebellion in some of the Western Territories trying to establish a separate republic. But it's like the same thing is in his character that made him behave badly with Hamilton, make him a traitor to his country in that other incident. And so it's not so much that that incident did him in, but it was part of a--I think, a lifelong pattern: That he didn't have a sense of honor, true honor. That he didn't have a sense of integrity. And he was willing to do things that aggrandized himself. But, not totally dumb things. Like, this rebellion, if it had succeeded, then there would have been another country and Burr would have been likely King of that country. So, it was a fantasy that wasn't totally ridiculous, that he got taken in by.

Russ Roberts: I'm just suggesting it didn't turn out so well for him.

Martha Nussbaum: Well, it did not. Sure enough. I mean--but, but, in the meantime, he was received by everyone, after the brouhaha about the duel [?], he was received in American society and in European society. He met all kinds of fancy people in England. He talked to the founder of utilitarianism, Jeremy Bentham, and they formed quite a friendship.

Russ Roberts: Interesting.

Martha Nussbaum: So, he had a pretty complicated and interesting life after that. And I think Gore Vidal's novel, Burr, is very good, because it's told mostly from the point of view of Burr. And so what's so interesting is to see how the personality of Burr is sort of like a yellow stain spreading over everything. This enviousness changes the way the recounts all the episodes that we know about from history. So, Washington comes off as a real dummy, and dupe of Hamilton. Of course, Hamilton comes off very badly. So, I really do think that novel is a great example of what in literary discourse is called the 'unreliable narrator'--where you [?] see how different the world looks from Burr's eyes. But he--you know, if you think about whether a Burr could ever succeed, and how far could a Burr succeed, it's an interesting question. I think, you know, when we think about people who have had spectacular falls from grace, someone like Richard Nixon, for example--I don't think that he is a Burr, actually. I think he had a lot more of Hamilton in him. And really had grand ideas about the opening to China. And, so it's not surprising that John Adam's great opera, Nixon in China shows us a Hamiltonian Nixon, if you will--like a Nixon with big ideas and true love of what he was doing. I think that part was real. And then the other part was there, too. So, Nixon is the example of where the, kind of the envy/honor part ended up doing in the good part. And maybe Burr just didn't have the honor part at all. But he certainly got pretty far.

23:03

Russ Roberts: I want to come back to the envy--and we'll go into that in some detail. But I want to digress for a second on something you said a few minutes ago that's haunting me. Listeners to this program know that I'm not a big fan--there are a lot of politicians I don't like, and my general attitude toward politics is: A pox on both their houses. But it's interesting that you made the point that, to be a player--certainly in the United States, democracy, you have to do some things: you have to break a few eggs to make an omelet, to get into power, to do things. Even if your intentions are good. Which is where you started--that the people who go into politics to try to make the world a better place--you conceded that people, of course, to get there often have to do things that are not so virtuous. And certainly Adam Smith was very aware of this and talked about it a lot. And he also saw that the case in business as well--I think that was more true in his time, perhaps than ours, but maybe not. But my point is that--I never thought about this--you said, unless you get to be a monarch, in which case you don't have to do those things to get into power because you've already got it already through heredity, or whatever. And yet, I think most monarchs are remarkably more despicable than most democratic leaders, because of that competition. So, I keep thinking back to one of my favorite EconTalk episodes of all time with Bruce Bueno de Mesquita, where he mentioned that King Leopold was revered in Belgium and despised in the Congo. In the Congo he was an absolute emperor: he could do whatever he wanted. In Belgium, he was constrained by Parliament. And, he did some progressive things in Belgium that a lot of people liked. In the Congo, he was a murderer, and a thief. And a looter. So, it's interesting. We can bemoan the half-empty glass of democracy and its political ugliness; but, compared to the alternatives it's not so bad.

Martha Nussbaum: Well, I think that's a great point. Of course, with monarchs, they also just--there's this lottery aspect that people of absolutely no ability at all end up being monarchs because they [?] were the first, the oldest son. And you see this in Shakespeare's history plays where people like Richard II and Henry VI are perfectly fine people, but they should never have been running anything. And they couldn't really run anything. And Henry VI probably should have gone and become a priest, or whatever he thinks he wants to be. So, there's that aspect. But I do think you are right, that democracy constrains people in certain ways. Absolutely right. But it also means that you've got to be willing to really play the game of getting people on your side, if you are going to do anything fine in democracy. But let's take the contrast between Lyndon Johnson and Jimmy Carter, okay?

Russ Roberts: Ohhh, I was just thinking about Lyndon Johnson. I love Lyndon Johnson's portrait in the--

Martha Nussbaum: He was an honorable person, but he couldn't get anything done. He had no ability to play that game of compromise and putting together a group of people, etc. With Johnson--I've been through all the volumes of Robert Caro's wonderful biography--

Russ Roberts: Incredible book--

Martha Nussbaum: and he certainly in some ways a very despicable person, with very little marital honor, little personal honor. But, when he wanted to get the Civil Rights Act passed, he knew how to wheel and deal; he knew how to use whatever he had on people to get them to vote for it and to make some package that they could support. So, you know, I'm glad that we had Johnson at that time in our nation's history. I think if we had had Jimmy Carter at that time, we'd never have gotten the Civil Rights Act.

Russ Roberts: You're glad we had him because you weren't married to him. Although, you know, there were a lot of people who he crushed ruthlessly on his way, to be able to do that. And I will never forget--I encourage somebody out there listening to find the page--it's in the 2nd volume if I remember correctly of the Caro biography--where LBJ (Lyndon Baines Johnson) needs the endorsement of a racist. I think the guy's got a music show. I can't remember the exact details. And Johnson doesn't want this guy's endorsement because--he's a wicked man. And, within the span of about 15 minutes or so in the book--it's a page--he talks himself into why it's a good thing to get it. Because, he's going to do all this good once he gets into the Senate and into power. It's a very slippery slope, and a lot of people, of course, unconstrained by democracy climb over a lot of bodies to get into that power and then just use it mainly to help themselves.

Martha Nussbaum: Yeahhh. But when I think about which big political leaders I really like and I would love to meet and be friends with, and so on, it turns out that they are usually people who didn't come up through the rough-and-tumble of democracy. I'm thinking particularly of India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru. Now, Nehru was elevated because he was already a Kashmiri Brahmin; he was aristocratic to the core. If you listen to recordings of his speeches on Indian independence, he sounds like he's from the most upper-crust British school. I mean, he's just not an Indian democrat. Gandhi was much more a man of the people. But, Nehru was a very introspective person, of beautiful character, I think, who loved his family--his wife, his daughter--loved his friends; and was very, very honorable. But he never could have been elevated in today's India, which is a pure, much more a pure democracy. Because then he would have had to have had traits of pure competitiveness and party politics that he just didn't have. So, you know, it's very complicated, I think. Maybe what it teaches us is we might want something that combines the rough-and-tumble of democratic politics with the respect for ideas, with the respect for the leadership of--I don't know--thoughtful people. Which, right now, I think we don't have so much in our country.

29:32

Russ Roberts: Let's go back to envy. You say--this is a quote:

A society that rejects fixed orders and destinies in favor of mobility and competition opens the door wide to envy the positional achievements of others. If envy is sufficiently widespread, it can eventually threaten political order, particularly when a society has committed itself to "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."
How does envy play out in Hamilton, and how do you see it playing out in America today?

Martha Nussbaum: Okay. Well, let me just talk a little about the emotion itself, because there is a lot of stuff written about envy. John Rawls, the great political philosopher, devoted a long discussion to envy in The Theory of Justice. So what is it, what is it like, and how is it different from jealousy? So, envy is a painful emotion that focuses on the fact that other people are enjoying good things and you are not. So, the difference from jealousy that people usually identify is that jealousy is all about competition for a preferred rival; and it's about insecurity that the person feels he's a very particular person, or particular rival. And jealousy can be satisfied, because you might just come to the conclusion that your spouse really loves you; your spouse is not unfaithful. And unless you are a rather pathological character like Othello or like the character in Proust's novel where jealousy is never satisfied, then jealousy is not going to destroy you, in most human situations. But, thinking about envy, it's really Iago, not Othello, who is the envy person. Because, what he wants is position. He wants the good things of life. And when he sees a person enjoying it and he doesn't, there's a kind of bottomless pit that opens up, this feeling of hopelessness towards the good things in life: that you see someone else as being on top, and you're not. So, what John Rawls does is to then ask, 'Okay, clearly that could destabilize democracy. So, what can we say about under what conditions would envy not be such a destabilizing factor in democracy?' And what he says, I think, is really, really interesting. Namely, what we first of all have to do is arrange to show people that their efforts can bear fruit. There is some good thing they can achieve, just by being the people they are. They are not going to be cut out entirely. And, while we can do this by having good employment opportunities, having a good social safety net, and things of this sort, we can also do it by kind of narrowing the gap between the top and the bottom. Because, what is happening with Iago is, the general is very different from his aide-de-camp. And he just knows he's not going to get to be the general. So, if we have a society like that, where there's a few people who are on top and everyone else is kind of in the outer darkness, that's not so good. Because then there could be a real rebellion of envy. And so what we have to do is to kind of narrow the gap between the bottom and the top. And show that there are lots of things that you can do to get yourself into a good position. And then, what I would add to this--and I guess I do it in the piece by thinking about a high school, which I think is a veritable cauldron of envy--well, I think I don't do it actually in the published version of the piece--

Russ Roberts: Yeah, I don't think it's in there. But yeah. It certainly is a culture of envy. That's for sure.

Martha Nussbaum: It's a good way of thinking about it. What can a high school do, to not be a culture of envy? Well. So, one thing is to focus on lots of different things that people can do to achieve. So, if you can have sports stars, fine. And they are going to be the popular kids, fine. You could also encourage achievement in the arts. You can encourage achievement in--heaven help us--even scholarship. And, you know, my daughter went to a school where they had an Arts Olympics alongside the Sports Olympics. And that was really good for her, because she hated sports and wasn't very good in sports. So, you know, these are the things that you can do: just a number of different paths to a kind of positional achievement. And so, these are thoughts that I think we have to have in American society, be they probably--there are several paths to pre-eminence, but not enough, because there's the cult of celebrity; there's the cult of sports stars; and then there's politics. All of these revolving around fame. And all of those things create a lot of envy. But, I think it would be a good thing for our society to do much more to honor school teaching, to honor people who serve in various ways--you know, various service jobs--nursing, taking care of aging people. If the society could recognize those achievements and give them pre-eminence, that would be an extremely good thing to do. But also, I think we need to narrow the gap and have more of a social safety net, because then people, whatever their feeling they lack, at least they have basic wherewithal of security and a basically flourishing life. And I think in Europe, you often achieve that kind of sense of security.

Russ Roberts: Well, we could devote an entire show to that issue, to this issue. And I don't want to talk too long in response. I just want to say two things, trying to be brief. One is: It's such a corrosive emotion. I can think of few things I wish more for my children than to not feel envy at the success of others and to rejoice in the success of others instead. And, I wonder if our politics in catering to it is making two mistakes: First of all, for all you know, in the last 8 years, we really changed the incomes at the top. And in fact, the gap has gotten smaller. But you only know that--and you can perceive it in a high school, the gap. But you can't perceive it in a country. The only way you perceive it in a country is through data. The data are often flawed. But if the data were different, the idea that somehow that would be compensation or make you feel better or less envious, if you were told that the top CEO (Chief Executive Officer) only made x times instead of 2x times or 10x times more than the average person--it feels like a really bad political strategy to cater to that emotion, and to then allow people to market it. Which is what we have now, on both sides of the political fence. And I think it's incredibly destructive. So, I don't see that as the way to solve the problem. I do think we should create capabilities. You and I agree on that: that we can give people a chance to transform themselves personally. But to always be worrying about the gap between me and someone else--I think it is the road to unhappiness at the individual level; and it's the road to tyranny at the national level.

Martha Nussbaum: Well. I think, you know, there are a lot of things to say. I think we need ultimately to talk about the nature of media today, because, on the one hand, the Internet creates many openings. You would think it helps us get rid of envy, because now anyone can be famous. If you write your blog and put it out there, you don't have to, like, go through the usual channels of getting a publisher to publish your works. So, it's done some good things for envy. But, unfortunately, I think what's happened more often is it's ratcheted up the focus on celebrity. How many people are citing you? How many Likes does a post have? And, you know, all that stuff. Now, I'm not expert on this because I don't actually belong to Facebook and I don't actually belong to Twitter. I like the old style of just writing an email to my friends. But, in any case, I think people are preoccupied by citations, by others. So, even before that, there were citation indexes--

Russ Roberts: Yep--

Martha Nussbaum: and the whole idea that you promote somebody because their work is cited always seemed to me pretty silly, because it might be cited as bad, or as an example of some error. And no one even bothers to ask that. But, in any case, that was still not as bad as this social media thing, where it's just the--the [?] and celebrity of some brief remark that you make that gives you your title to status. And so I think: What can we do about that? Well, I guess I don't know how to use social media for those ends. So, what I personally would focus on is more like, let's reinforce in the classroom and in our local community discussion groups and in fora like our local public libraries, which are wonderful centers now of adult education and public discussion--let's reinforce this discussion. Let's re-discover the joy of coming together and actually talking together about an issue, where we are not worried about who is famous, but what we are worried about is what's true. And we can encourage that. And I do feel, people are hungry for real discussion. People flock to book stores, public libraries, and so on, whenever they can. This is more of an urban phenomenon right now because that's where it's possible. But, you know, it should, we should do much more to encourage that. To have discussions surrounding museums, galleries, musical events of all kinds. And, of course, popular media--like the musical, Hamilton. So, I guess to encourage real discussion is what I think would help counteract this cult of evanescent celebrity. What do you think about that?

39:49

Russ Roberts: Well, I think it's really a--you know, it's a part of life that we've lost a handle on, which is character development; the role that religion used to play. It still does, but it's a much smaller role. For all that public education used to play. But it's a much smaller role, trying to help us cope with our own shortcomings, our own weaknesses. You know, my kids want to spend less time on Facebook. But it's hard for them. I want to spend less time on Twitter. But it's hard for me. So, how do we control our urges, impulses, etc., and lead a dignified life, is--well, that's part of what we're doing, I hope. It's part of what you do, teaching philosophy. I want to come back to that. It's part of what I try to do a little bit of here at EconTalk. But, your point about public conversation, certainly and I [hold/hope?] at EconTalk in public--a lot of people just want to see human beings. Listening is wonderful. You can't be face-to-face with many people in your life at any one time. But now and then you want a human being. You want to interact with a human being. You want to look in their eyes. You want to smile at them. It's a human thing that we're losing a little bit of. I wonder if there would be some sort of backlash. We'll see.

Martha Nussbaum: Well, let's see. I do feel like what we do know--and I did just finish a book on aging, coming out shortly, coming out with a colleague. So, one of the things we talk about is the search for meaning, as people are aging; and the fact that increasingly people are seeking out this forum for discussion. Seeking out humanities courses in adult education. All kinds of places where you can really search for virtue, in terms of the old myth. And, you know, that's partly because they've lived a life of competitive me-first-ism. And then suddenly that doesn't seem to be about, what would you give your life its meaning. And then you start thinking more like Hamilton: What shall I create that's going to outlive me? So, the search for meaning, I think that's bringing people back, if they live long enough. And if they have some leisure--to the real discussion and real reading, real pursuit of important, good things. And I think that's great. I think it would be good if people have that started when they are undergraduates. And one reason I'm such a big defender of humanities courses for all undergraduates is that I think then, when they are much younger, they learn what it is to search for truth and to search for meaning. Of course, they should learn it also in the sciences, because science, really deep science, not just applied money-oriented science but deep, theoretical science, that's also search for truth and meaning. So, as undergraduates, they learn to search for meaning. Then they have to go out and do a job that may not seem to be very meaningful to them. But if they can keep that love going, outside their work, or come back to it after they retire, or in place of retiring have a second career or something--that, I think is very, very important. I also think--and this isn't for everyone's taste--I think religion is very important as a way of keeping the search for truth and the search for meaning going, all the way through human life. When I go to synagogue, I do feel that we are all coming together to talk about real things. And, you know, sometimes, maybe people are as envious in the synagogue--one thing to be the president of the Board or whatever, as they would be anyplace else. But, on the whole, you know, life is focused on meaning. And that's why I keep [?] come there--come there for the meaning, and the music, and so on. And so these are areas in life in America. Is it the arts, and humanities? And then religion? Which, seem to me, less prone to turn people envious and more prone to turning them kind of in the direction of virtues. So, if we can just remember that and encourage that, I think that's helpful.

Russ Roberts: I want to say something on behalf of religion which I think is often misunderstood by people who don't have a role for religion in their life. I'm religious, as my listeners know. I'm a religious Jew. So, I also sit in synagogue, as you do, and I think people who are not religious assume that religious people thereby know all the answers: everything is taken care of; there are no doubts any more and you don't have to worry about anything. And it's all taken care of. When, in fact for me, religion is really the way that I process and consume and think about the mystery of life and the puzzle of suffering and the tragedy and bittersweetness of a finite existence, in such a crazy place called 'our lives.' So, I want to echo that.

Martha Nussbaum: That's very nicely put. And I would add, the Jewish tradition anyway is all about continuing the argument and taking responsibility for your choices. And, as a Reform Jew, I think, well, the text tradition in history is something you should know about; but we should really be committed to is following the moral law and making it real in your life and in other people's lives. So, it's about that kind of search. And so, it's not that different--on a smaller and more local scale from Hamilton's search for political virtue.

45:15

Russ Roberts: A good segue. But I want to say one more thing about the Humanities; and then I want to ask you a question about philosophy in the Humanities. I've been reading Leisure, by Josef Pieper, which is a very strange and interesting book--a book of philosophy written, I think, in 1952--where he complains about our emphasis on work and that leisure is only to recharge your batteries to do more work. And he tries to make the case for a different kind of leisure. It happens to be in a religious context, but that's not necessary--I don't think. He claims it is. I don't think it is. But let's put that to the side. Certainly he makes the claim that there should be leisure that is devoid of usefulness. Not, idleness, but rather exploring philosophy, exploring the meaning of life, exploring the transcendent. And, that's a remarkably unpopular view in 2017. And it's been unpopular in America, even among young people, now, for, it seems, a while. The Humanities are taking a pounding. So, I'd like to hear you say something in defense of them. In particular, my middle son is thinking of being a philosophy major. And, I think that's a great idea. I think most people would say, 'What a waste that is!' So, I disagree. And I'd like to hear your view.

Martha Nussbaum: Well, of course, I disagree. I wanted to stop, though, for a minute, with this word 'transcendent.' Now, sometimes that means the focus should be the other world. As a Reform Jew, I--

Russ Roberts: Not what I mean--that's not what I mean--

Martha Nussbaum: --don't believe that. [?] It could just mean going further, going deeper, going better. And that's what I think it means. For me, in general transcending our laziness, our selfishness, and trying, particularly, to do something good for other people. Okay. So, the Humanities--I actually am not as much of a pessimist as you seem to be, because I've just done a new edition of my book, Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities. And, for that, I looked at a lot of data. And, in fact, in our country, where in fact crucial, that we have a liberal arts system, so people study humanities sometimes as Humanities majors, but even if not, they'll study it in their required general education courses. There's actually a pretty robust increase in Humanities enrollments: particularly in community colleges enrollments in the Humanities are way up. And, as I mentioned, in adult continuing education, huge upward surge. So, I am not such a pessimist. I think people need--they feel a thirst for meaning. And it's a very important thing that you don't have to make that your whole life. You could say, 'I'm going to major in computer science because that's where I think the jobs are.' Although, not entirely true: I think there are actually more unemployed computer science majors than unemployed English majors. But anyway, you can do what you want to do. And, still prepare yourself for the whole of life by taking Humanities courses. And we are so lucky that we have this system. Our country, Scotland, Canada, South Korea--those are the only countries that have that liberal arts system. In most countries of the world, like all of Europe, basically, except for Scotland; and in all of Asia, you have to choose, when you enter university, one subject. And then you do only that. So, it's either all Philosophy, or no philosophy; all Literature, or no literature. And so, in that context, it's not surprising that parents and kids are scared. And they think: 'Well, what am I going to do, if I do 3 years of nothing but Philosophy? What am I equipped for?' Well, I don't think they should have to make that choice. Now, there are pockets to resistance to that in the rest of the world. So, for example, all the Jesuit universities in Latin America and elsewhere are basically on the Liberal Arts model. But I really think that's the right way for all universities to be. Because, university education has a two-fold purpose. It prepares you for a career; but it also prepares you for being a good citizen and having a complete, meaningful life. And those are both important purposes. But, we are lucky, anyway, that our university system does preserve that sense. And I believe that this is something that, although there are some politicians who like to beat up on the Humanities, by and large, when I actually go to places and interact with the community, people from the community love to turn out to Humanities lectures. They support the Humanities. And often, they support it with their money as well as their presence.

Russ Roberts: Do you think majoring in Philosophy makes you a better person?

Martha Nussbaum: I think it makes you a person who is better at detecting inconsistences and flaws in your own reasoning and the reasoning of other people. And I think that is one part of being a good person, because often, there's a lot of hypocrisy in society. And so, people can kind of mask some bad program by making a specious argument for it. So, learning to detect this kind of falsity and unmask it--that's part of being a good person. But, of course, I mean, look at the Socratic Dialogues of Plato. Socrates did think that he was doing something valuable and morally good. But that assumed that people had basically good intentions. So, what they lacked was the ability to put that all together into a coherent program. And then they got led astray by people who said, 'Oh, we'll go in this direction. That direction' because they really weren't fully clear about what they were doing. But, if they didn't--if they were vicious people to begin with, then, you know, it isn't going to help them. So, you've got to hope that before people get into Philosophy, they've learned a lot of other things, first: I mean, that they've had a good upbringing in their family, and in their community. That their parents have told them about respect and love for other people. That their schools have taught them about bigotry and bullying and so on. And I think, you know, by and large we do know how to do that. We don't always do that. But, a friend of mine is an actress in a children's' theater, and she acts in front of hundreds of children every week. And the teachers bring the kids in. And right now they've got a new play about--it's based on the "Ugly Duckling," but interestingly, they don't want to make it like beauty is the be-all and end-all, so they turned it into the duckling who is different. Right? It's kind of--

Russ Roberts: Let's water it down. It's--

Martha Nussbaum: Well, I mean, it's not the original. Most fairy tales are morally bad. So, anyhow, this duckling with his blue cuffs[?] rather than green is bullied and made fun of. And then they sing a song--be an upstander, not a bystander. Which apparently is a very common slogan now in elementary schools: about, you see something bad going on, say something; don't just let it happen. So, these kids are learning, through theater and through their teachers and so on, the rudiments of being a good person. And then, at some point, when they are older and more sophisticated, they can do Philosophy over that basis. And I think that would supply something important. But it's not--of course, it's not sufficient by itself.

Russ Roberts: I'm just going to add one thing, I think I hadn't really thought of before. I'm not a big fan of majoring in Psychology. I'm biased against it. My father has a Master's in Psychology, and he told me never to study it. And so, I never studied it in college. But I've become a fan of many psychologists through this program, as listeners know. And it seems to me that there's a piece of psychology--an important piece, and it's part of philosophy as well--you can kind of stretch and say it's part of economics, certainly the moral philosophy part of economics that comes from Adam Smith. And that's self-awareness. I think--I think none of these things make you a good person. But they give you the potential to be a good person. And I would argue that without self-awareness it's going to be extremely difficult to do anything good. It also could help you be--if you want to be a wicked person, being self-aware is probably effective, too. But, for those of us who like to think of ourselves as wanting to be good, being self-aware--which is, to me, a lifetime challenge--is something we don't really teach very well. And it would be a good thing if we did. I think--we do a little bit of it here at EconTalk. We talk about confirmation bias, which is a huge thing. But I think it's a big part of life that we don't think about very systematically.

Martha Nussbaum: Yeah. I agree entirely. And I do agree that Socrates didn't get the whole thing right. I have a very strong interest in psychoanalysis. And I had a wonderful discussion recently with my colleague and friend Jonathan Lear, a propos of his new book, Wisdom Won From Illness. But we had a kind of public forum together in Hyde Park, where we talked about how philosophy needs to learn from psychoanalysis. And how psychoanalysis needs to learn from philosophy. I think they both have things to learn from each other. But certainly, philosophy that doesn't care about the unconscious, about the deep inner life of the person's emotions and so on--that's not going to be enough. And so we need[?] more than one type of understanding. And then, the question is, of course, how do you do that? And I ended up asking Jonathan--who does in fact see psychoanalytic citations[?] on a regular basis as well as writing and teaching--'You know, what else can we do if we are interested in that kind of understanding but we are not actually practicing analysts? What do we do to make it real?' And I struggle with that. And I try to do it by writing about the emotions, and writing in a way that shows that kind of understanding. But, I'm aware that the nature of the communication that I have with my own students and my own readers is in some ways only skin deep. I mean, I'm not an analyst. And so, then, that other part, that goes beneath their skin, someone like Jonathan, has to do that part.

55:50

Russ Roberts: Yeah. That's--um--a complicated thing, the human psyche, consciousness, what we really want. All those things are part of leading a good life and understanding them, and understanding yourself. I want to finish with a point that was made by one of the critics of your essay, Boston Review, for people to respond to--we'll put up links to the whole forum--had an interesting approach. She said, and I'm [not?] quoting[?] her, 'The focus on being in the room where it happens, the focus on being--' I'm now, belatedly bringing us back to Hamilton: that the focus on being an insider, to be at the levers of power, is not the only way that we can make the world a better place. And of course, we do that in many, many ways in the sm

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Sia Tolno- Toumah Toumah - My Life


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/83/playlistDate/2014-06-14
          "Los defectos del lenguaje en Galicia y en la provincia de León" (1870, 1909) de Emilio Álvarez Giménez ou como nos aproximarmos indirectamente da oralidade galega de finais do século XIX        
por Xosé Manuel Sánchez Rei, no Terra e Tempo:

O galego de finais do século XIX e dos inicios da centuria seguinte daba mostras de estar menos interferido pola lingua foránea.

As persoas que estudan da mudanza lingüística e a historia da lingua teñen normalmente de traballar con informacións escritas que digan respecto a como era o estado do idioma noutras épocas. Esas fontes, tan cuestionadas como úteis por seren as únicas mostras, poden ser literarias, tabeliónicas ou gramaticais (caso existisen, neste último suposto, obras especializadas para unha determinada lingua). As circunstancias polas cales atravesou o galego fixeron que a tal información lingüística, isto é, a recollida en tratados gramaticais, non aparecese, salvando os datos que achegan os ilustrados setecentistas Sarmiento (1695-1772) e Sobreira (1745-1805), até aos anos finais do século XIX, da man da rigorosa Gramática gallega de J. A. Saco Arce, publicada en 1868, e doutros traballos tamén aparecidos na altura, moito embora de menor validade científica (Compendio de gramática gallega-castellana, de F. Mirás, 1864; El habla gallega, de J. Cuveiro Piñol, 1868; “Tratado sobre el modo de hablar y escribir con propiedad el dialecto gallego”, de M. Martínez González, 1883; Elementos de gramática gallega, de M. Valladares, redixidos en 1892; etc.).
Por iso, calquera referencia, por mínima que puider parecer, en que se conteñan informacións de certo rigor sobre como era a oralidade galega doutras épocas deben ser analizadas devagar e tidas na súa xusta consideración. Unha desas ferramentas é aquela que nos achega datos indirectos, quere dicir, a que é capaz de sinalar influencias do galego no español falado polas galegas e galegos da altura, para nós, desde a actualidade, podermos intuír a vitalidade de determinados fenómenos lexicais e morfosintácticos partindo dunha simple premisa: se unha característica gramatical ou un trazo vocabular tiña a capacidade de penetrar no español usado na Galiza e de merecer unha subsecuente fiscalización por parte de certos cenáculos eruditos, talvez tivese unha vitalidade merecente de nota na lingua de partida, ou sexa, o galego. Xustamente, de criticar esas influencias é que se ocupa o traballo de E. Álvarez Giménez intitulado Los defectos del lenguaje en Galicia y en la provincia de León. Estudio gramatical basado en la doctrina de la academia y en e uso de los buenos escritores, que chegou a ter tres edicións revistas, a primeira en 1870 e a derradeira en 1909. O autor (Póboa da Seabra, 1830 – Pontevedra, 1911) é un dos devanceiros de vultos da cultura e historia galega contemporáneas, tales como Xosé María Álvarez Blázquez (1915-1985) ou Alexandre Bóveda (1903-1936), e cultivou a escrita en galego (nomeadamante no xénero dramático: véxanse as edicións póstumas A Casamenteira ou María Castaña) e tamén en español.
O texto que brevemente imos comentar aquí, analizado xunto con outros de parecida natureza por B. Fernández Salgado nun artigo publicado nas Actas do VII Congreso Internacional de Estudos Galegos (2007), ten o seu interese porque vai criticando non unicamente popularismos e vulgarismos no español, mais tamén moitas influencias do galego no castelán da época, o que serve para repararmos, indirectamente, en certas fenomenoloxías gramaticais e lexicais comúns na lingua propia do país que conseguían perpasar o español, moitas delas hoxe nunha situación de atestación ben escasa a respecto do que aparentemente permiten presupor as anotacións de Álvarez Giménez. Quizais non estea de máis lembrarmos aquí como dato sociolingüístico de partida que se calcula que en finais do século XIX a percentaxe estimada de persoas monolingües en galego andaba á volta de 90%. E, de vez, se ben que as interferencias do español resulta(ro)n máis daniñas e numerosas no galego do que á inversa, xa que na actualidade ameazan até a mesma sobrevivencia do idioma, certas interferencias do galego no español debían de ter tamén a súa consistencia e notábel documentación para seren comentadas por este autor.

Na primeira sección de que consta o libro, “I. Palabras impuras é impropias” (p. 13-43), podemos asistir a como o pobo galego que tentaba exprimirse en español non vía totalmente cumpridas as súas vontades polo elevado uso de voces tiradas da lingua propia, tales como abalar (grafado avalar), billa, cascuda, congostra, faiado (escrito fayado), fritir, imitar co valor de ‘parecerse fisicamente’, parrulo, póla (recollido como pola), raxo (grafado rajo), sella, tobo, balor (escrito valor) etc. Lamentabelmente, nada se nos di a respecto da frecuencia de tales influencias, nin se aborda a cuestión de seren palabras máis detectadas nunhas rexións do que noutras, nin de se correspondían a trazos da linguaxe masculina ou feminina, nin tampouco se estamos diante de variábeis relacionadas coa idade. O valor que teñen estas fiscalizacións, con todo, é documentaren como certo léxico galego era máis ou menos empregado na oralidade pretendidamente castelá durante o Rexurdimento e nos primordios do século XX.
A segunda das seccións, intitulada “II. Defectos por alteración en lo material de las palabras” (p. 44-47), desenvolve fundamentalmente modificacións fonéticas e derivacionais de certo léxico (uso de certar, lagosta, madrasta, padrasto etc. en vez de acertar, langosta, madrastra, padrastro, etc.). O resto de capítulos (“III. Defectos por alteración en los accidentes gramaticales”, “IV. Defectos por faltar á las reglas de Sintáxis” ou aínda “V. De otras locuciones viciosas”, p. 47-81), dado que se ocupa de aspectos gramaticais, merécenos máis atención, de modo que imos sinalar aquí algúns dos fenómenos a noso ver de maior interese. En primeiro lugar, o xénero, categoría inherente aos nomes substantivos, non coincide, como é sabido, na adscrición de palabras ao masculino ou ao feminino se confrontarmos a tradición galego-portuguesa coa española. Así como hoxe, por causa da influencia desta lingua, se poden ouvir no galego popular secuencias como *a mel, *a sal, *o ponte ou *o viaxe, en finais do século XIX algunhas palabras que presentaban no castelán unha adscrición xenérica diferente da do galego recibían, segundo o sinalado polo autor (p. 48-50), os trazos morfolóxico-semánticos desta lingua, de modo que se podían atestar grupos nominais, segundo recolle Álvarez Giménez, como la coraje, la pasaje, la potaje, la ramaje, el costumbre, el leche, el nariz ou el sangre.
O réxime preposicional dalgúns verbos demanda tamén unhas palabras. En galego, como é sabido, igual que na variedade brasileira do idioma, o verbo ir pode facerse acompañar dun complemento locativo-direccional en expresións do tipo Vai no cinema, Van na facultade etc. Esta construción, dotada dunha grande dose de autenticidade lingüística, tamén se detecta actualmente no español falado na Galiza e, a teor da súa constatación no opúsculo de Álvarez Giménez, posuía unha certa atestación no decembrar do século XIX: nas súas propias palabras, “cometen los naturales de Galicia y León graves faltas que vamos á estudiar, á fin de que se eviten cuidadosamente”, e, referíndose á estrutura ir en, non tivo reparos en subliñar que este “mal uso es sin duda efecto de continuarse dando á la preposición en la idea que antiguamente tenía de denotar el término de la acción de un verbo”. Sen saírmos das rexencias preposicionais, temos de notar como o autor criticou o emprego de determinados nexos provenientes da sintaxe (popular) galega. O español non coñece a diferenza entre o uso intencional con maior accionalidade de tirar con (Tirou cos libros) e o emprego non necesariamente intencionado (Tirou os libros ao entrar); transportada esa construción para o castelán, o polígrafo indicou que non “deberá decirse Tire usted con el libro”, nin “Tiró con la llave al jardín”.
Vexamos que acontece con algúns usos das formas pronominais. En galego existe unha utilización do dativo que serve para identificar e marcar o interlocutor na conversa, sen que tal pronome teña ningún tipo de función sintáctica, mais pragmática. No galego de finais do século XIX, como continúa aínda a acontecer presentemente, gozaba dunha grande vitalidade de utilización, segundo demostra o demorado comentario de Saco Arce (Gramática gallega, 1868). E, proba desa forte presenza, tamén se empregaba no castelán da época usado na Galiza, como na actualidade; por iso o noso autor non dubidou en identificar tales construcións como estrañas a esa lingua e, subsecuentemente, tampouco hesitou en as criticar: “En el dialecto gallego se usan pleonásticamente algunos pronombres para dar suavidad á la frase, y á veces cierta dulzura ó cariño. Traduciendo este uso al castellano se falta á la pureza, pues el pleonasmo de que hablamos no está admitido en el idioma como podemos ver por los siguientes ejemplos: No te vine con tal intención; te se marchó sin despedirse; le estuvo en un tris que naufragase el buque; le estoy convencido de sobra; te está muy entretenido. Claro es que en castellano deben suprimirse esos pronombres, diciendo: No vine con tal intención; Se marchó sin despedirse; Estuvo en un tris, etc.”

Tamén os verbos inspiraron a Álvarez Giménez bastantes comentarios. Uns deles son os centrados no infinitivo flexionado (IF), trazo típico do sistema lingüístico galego-portugués, cuxo uso denota, ao mesmo tempo que unha grande enxebreza idiomática, unha vontade de estilo na propedéutica dunha lingua de calidade. Hoxe en día, á marxe da súa iregular detección espontánea en xente de certa idade, áchase en crise pola interferencia do español, sobre todo entre certas faixas de falantes, mais parece claro que no século XIX debía de ter unha grande presenza na fala: para alén dos testemuños dos gramáticos como Saco Arce, contamos coas anotacións que nos proporciona sobre este particular Emilio Álvarez Giménez, o cal critica o seu emprego no español polos galegos e galegas do Rexurdimento; se realmente tiña aínda capacidade para penetrar no castelán oral da Galiza, non podía ser, consecuentemente, unha forma verbal marxinal ou secundaria no tocante á súa rendibilidade na lingua: citando literalmente o exposto na súa obra, hai “algunos, aunque muy pocos, que después de las preposiciones para, con, por, y otras dan al verbo la desinencia personal, según el tiempo y la persona, al objeto de expresar la idea del infinitivo, diciendo por ejemplo: Para seren buenos; Con teneres tú casa” etc. O recollido por este autor resulta harmónico no fundamental co sinalado por Manuel Murguía (Historia de Galicia, 1865-1913); o erudito historiador e patriarca da cultura galega, expondo como cantares tradicionais españois eran parcialmente adaptados ás singularidades gramaticais da lingua, ilustra precisamente ese tipo de conversións e de hibridizacións coa P6 do infinitivo flexionado a través dos versos Los frailes con seren buenos / también andan a pedir.

Outrosí, a correcta utilización das perífrases fixo o escritor reparar noutras construcións inexistentes na lingua foránea, mais totalmente naturais na propia. Como é coñecido, as estruturas verbais perifrásticas aspectuais imperfectivas Estou lendo, Andan a pedir etc., posúen unha variante totalmente sinónima nas fórmula con infinitivo xerundial Estou a ler, Andan a pedir etc. Estas últimas foron detectadas no español oitocentista por Álvarez Giménez, que afirmou que non se poden utilizar “para dar al verbo la idea de gerundio”. Notemos que na actualidade, no galego culto ou marcadamente formal, talvez polo seu carácter diferencial a respecto do castelán, goza de moita proxección a estrutura co infintivo xerundial en tales casos.
Non nos querendo alongar de máis neste contributo, convén citarmos algunhas das expresións e modismos do galego que chegaron a se adaptar á precaria oralidade xeral das persoas que tencionaban falar español. Entre ese conxunto de mostras, o atento ouvido do polígrafo da Seabra salientou mismo como fórmula enfática, as expresións más nada, más nadie ou más algo, echar de pierda, una llena de, ¿Y luego? como fórmula de interacción verbal, estar mallada/o (recollido no texto como estar mayado), de cabo, por mor de etc.

Como conclusións finais de todo o exposto, podemos apuntar que a escasa información sobre a gramática e o léxico galegos que hai no século XIX aconsella ir procurala tamén a fontes indirectas, como é o opúsculo de Emilio Álvarez Giménez, en que se sancionan trazos do galego utilizados no español empregado na Galiza. Neste sentido, aínda que de certo habería varios niveis de hibridación dependendo do hábitat (aldeas, vilas, zonas periurbanas, cidades), o galego de finais do século XIX e dos inicios da centuria seguinte daba mostras de estar menos interferido pola lingua foránea, sobre todo a termos en conta como moitos trazos considerados actualmente xenuínos do idioma (certas rexencias preposicionais, uso do IF, determinadas fraseoloxías etc.) parecían ter a capacidade de se utilizaren até no castelán oral das galegas e galegos da altura. Pensemos, finalmente, que moitos deses usos típicos do galego que conseguían penetrar no español constitúen hoxe en día exemplos dunha consciente praxe lingüística de calidade naquel idioma, aínda que algúns deles parezan actualmente non gozaren da mesma frecuencia de uso do que no Rexurdimeno.

                  
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CANÁRIOS DE COR
3,0 mm Todos os canários de cor. 

CANÁRIOS DE CANTO
3,0 mm Todos os canários de canto 

CANÁRIOS DE PORTE
2,7 mm Raça espanhola, Fife Fancy e Hoso Japonês.
3,0 mm Bossu Belga, Scoth Fancy, Muchener, Fiorino, Giboso, Gibber Italicus, Gloster, Topete Alemão e Lizard.
3,2 mm Border, Bernois, Frisado do Sul, Frisado do Norte e Frisado Suiço.
3,5 mm Frisado Parisiense, Padovano, Crest, Crest Bred, Lancashire, Yorkshire e Norwich. 

HÍBRIDOS COM CANÁRIOS
2,7 mm Híbridos de Pintassilgo 

PERIQUITOS ONDULADOS AUSTRALIANOS
4,0 mm Periquitos Ondulados Australianos Comum.
4,2 mm Periquitos Ondulados Australianos Padrão Inglês. 

EXÓTICOS
2,0 mm Laranjinha, Picotê, Orange, Bico de Lacre, Zoosterops, Pequeno Cantor de Cuba.
2,2 mm Astrilda Perdiz, Amarante, Peito Celeste, Bichenow, Bico de Prata Africano, Bico de Prata Indiano, CordonBleu, Cauda de Vinagre e Freirinhas.
2,5 mm Manon, Mandarim, Sparrow, Aurora, Star Finch, Freirão, Twin Spot, Damier, Diamante de Gould, Modesto,Capuchino Cabeça Branca, Capuchino Cabeça Preta, Capuchino Tricolor, Bicolor, Tricolor, Quadricolor,Degolado, Forbes, Phaton, Cuperlê, Peale, Donacole Comum, Donacole Peito Castanho, Grande Cantor deCuba, Granatina Púrpura, Granatina Violeta, Canário de Moçambique, Bavet Cauda Curta, Bavet CaudaLonga, Bavet Masqué, Peito Celeste de Cabeça Azul.
2,7 mm (*) Manom padrão maior, (*) Mandarim padrão maior, (*) Sparrow padrão maior, Melba, Emblema Picta.(*) Diâmetro permitido desde que o tamanho da ave esteja compatível, caso contrário a ave será desclassificada.
3,0 mm Amandine, Rouxinol do Japão, Rouxinol Messias, Calafate do Timor.
3,2 mm Calafate, Don Pfaff.
3,5 mm Rolinha Diamante, Rolinha Máscara de Ferro, Cardeal da Virginia, Bulbul, Melro, Melro Shama.
3,7 mm Codorna Chinesa, Melro Monjolo.
4,0 mm Melro Metálico, Melro Ametista, Rolinha Zebrinha, Rolinha Cruziana, Pomba Tamborim.
4,5 mm Pomba Puchellus.
5,0 mm Perdiz da California, Perdiz da Virginia, Galo da Serra, Pica-Paus Médio, Pomba Asa Verde, Pomba CabeçaBranca, Pomba Superbus, Pomba de Cabeça Acinzentada.
5,5 mm Pomba Peruana.
6,0 mm Pomba de Colar, Pomba Orange, Pica-Paus Grande, Pomba Apunhalada.
6,5 mm Pomba Perlatus.
7,0 mm Pomba Holofote, Pomba Tortuga.
7,5 mm Pomba da Guiné. 

Obs. ANILHAMENTO DOS HÍBRIDOS ENTRE EXÓTICOS:
1 - Cruzamento entre exóticos que utilizam o mesmo diâmetro de anél, prevalece o mesmo diâmetro para o híbridoresultante.
2 - Para cruzamento entre exóticos que utilizam anéis com diâmetro diferentes, será permitido utilizar anéis até o diâmetromaior do cruzamento, desde que o tamanho do híbrido resultante esteja compatível com o tamanho do anél,caso contrário a ave será desclassificada. 

PSITACÍDEOS
3,7 mm Tuins ( F. xanthopterygius, F. Coelestis, F. conspicillatus, F. sclateri, F. cyanopygius, F. passerinus).
4,0 mm Neophemas (Bourke, Tourquasine, Esplendido, Elegante), Periquito Aymara.
4,5 mm Tuin xanthops, Catarina, Red Rumped, Kakariki testa laranja, Hooded, Blue bonet, Swift, Multicolor, Reimascarado, Loriquetes.
5,0 mm Cabeça de ameixa, Rosela Stanley, Kakariki testa vermelha, Alexandrinos.
5,5 mm Calopsita, Rosela eximius, Rosela adscitus, Príncipe de Gales, Red capped.
6,0 mm Rosela pennant, Rosela Adelaide, Loris Stela.
6,5 mm Barnard, Port Lincoln, Cloncurry, Barraband Mustache.
7,0 mm Ring Neck
7,5 mm Loris Striato, Loris Bornéo, Loris Duyvenbode
8,5 mm Ararinha da Patagônia, Grande Alexandre.
9,5 mm Cacatua Golfin, Cacatua Ducorps.
10,0 mm Cacatuas pequenas.
11,0 mm Grande Ecletus, Papagaio do Congo.
12,0 mm Cacatua Galeria, Cacatua Alba.
13,0 mm Cacatua Moluca. 

AGAPORNIS
3,5 mm Cana
4,0 mm Liliane, Nigrigenis, Pullaria.
4,5 mm Fischer, Personata, Roseicollis, Taranta. 

SILVESTRES
(Para que o pássaro seja legalizado, é necessário também que possua anel IBAMA)
2,0 mm Bico de Lacre, Beija Flores pequenos.
2,2 mm Caboclinho, Caboclinho do Norte, Caboclinho de papo branco, Caboclinho de peito branco, Tiziu, Mariposa,Pipras.
2,5 mm Pintassilgos, Coleirinha, Bigodinho, Sai bico fino, Sebinho, Tangarazinho Militar, Bandeirinha, Beija Floresgrandes.
2,7 mm Papativa, Brejal, Coleira do brejo, Canário da Terra Amazonas, Cigarinha, Canário Tipio, Gaturamos, Alcaide,Saíra Tucano.
3,0 mm Pichochó, Canário da Terra, Tico Tico Rei, Cravina, Tico Tico, Tico Tico da Mata, Tiê Galo, Tangará Bezerra,Saíras Curió.
3,2 mm Galo da Campina, Azulão, Tiê preto, Azulinho, Sanhaçuira, Sai Andorinha, Tangará chifrudo, Tangará comum,Verdilhão, Bicudo, Tiê Fogo.
3,5 mm Bem te vi, Garibaldi, Chupim, Sanhaço fogo, Polícia Inglesa, Vianna, sabiás.
3,7 mm Rouxinol do Rio Negro, Capitão, Cardeal, Trinca Ferro, Tuins.
4,0 mm Surucuá, Corrupião, João Pinto, Bico de Pimenta, Cardeal Amarelo, Tirivas pequenas.
4,5 mm Xexéu, Guaxe, Irituá, Pica Pau Benedito, Pica Pau do Norte, Graúna, Phyrruras.
5,0 mm Iraúna, Gralhas, Galo da Serra, Araponga, Pica Paus médios, Cuiu Cuiu, Sabiá Cica, Marianinha de CabeçaAmarela, Marianinha de Cabeça Preta.
6,0 mm Japus, Pica Paus Grandes, Araçaris, Jandaia, Príncipe Negro, Caturritas, Curica Roxa, Curica Cabeça azul.
7,5 mm Pionus, Caiques, Grandes Pombas.
8,0 mm Jaó, Prediz, Nhambu-açu, Chorão, Tucanos, Tururi, Ararajuba, Ararinhas, Papagaios Pequenos, Pombas Grandes.
10,0 mm Jacus, Aracuan, Papagaios.
11,0 mm Papagaios grandes.
12,0 mm Jacutinga, Cajubi, Jacu-açu, Macuco, Araras.
13,0 mm Araras Grandes.
15,0 mm Mutum. 

COMO ANILHAR 
A anilha é um anel metálico inviolável fornecido pela FOB aos criadores através dos clubes filiados.
Ela é a identificação da ave e é fornecida mediante rigoroso controle pelos clubes e pela FOB, portanto não pode apresentar qualquer sinal de adulteração.  

Nela estão gravados: sigla da federação, código do clube, número de registro do criador no clube,número da ave e o ano de seu nascimento. 

Para colocação da anilha, segurar a ave com a mão esquerda e com a direita a anilha, deixar o dedo posterior no sentido da perna, a seguir introduzir os dedos dianteiros na anilha, fazendo com que a mesma passe para a perna com leve movimento giratório; após, liberta-se o dedo posterior.
Esta colocação deve ser efetuada entre o 5º e o 8º dia de vida da ave, dependendo do seu desenvolvimento.
Apesar de aparentemente simples, recomenda-se o máximo de cuidado para evitar traumatismo à ave. 


          Killing us softly         

A recent public outcry in China, sparked by a damning documentary about air pollution, was based on well-founded fear:

Of the 100 million people who viewed the film on the first day of its online release, 172,000 are likely to die each year from air pollution-related diseases, according to regional trends.* 

Worldwide, pollution kills twice as many people each year as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined,** but aid policy has consistently neglected it as a health risk, donors and experts say. 

Air pollution alone killed seven million people in 2012, according to World Health Organization (WHO) figures released last year, most of them in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) in the Asia Pacific region.*** 

In a self-critical report released late last month the World Bank acknowledged that it had treated air pollution as an afterthought, resulting in a dearth of analysis of the problem and spending on solutions. 

“We now need to step up our game and adopt a more comprehensive approach to fixing air quality,” the authors wrote in Clean Air and Healthy Lungs. “If left unaddressed, these problems are expected to grow worse over time, as the world continues to urbanise at an unprecedented and challenging speed.”

A second report released last month by several organisations – including the Global Alliance on Health and Pollution, an international consortium of UN organisations, governments, development banks, NGOs and academics – also called for more funding towards reducing pollution. 

“Rich countries, multilateral agencies and organisations have forgotten the crippling impacts of pollution and fail to make it a priority in their foreign assistance,” the authors wrote. 

Housebound in China 

A dense haze obstructs visibility more often than not across China’s northern Hua Bei plain and two of its major river deltas. Less than one percent of the 500 largest cities in China meet WHO’s air quality guidelines. Anger over air pollution is a hot topic among China’s increasingly outspoken citizenry.  

“Half of the days in 2014, I had to confine my daughter to my home like a prisoner because the air quality in Beijing was so poor,” China’s well-known journalist Chai Jing said in Under the Dome, the independent documentary she released last month, which investigated the causes of China’s air pollution.

The film was shared on the Chinese social media portal Weibo more than 580,000 times before officials ordered websites to delete it. 

Beyond the silo

Traditionally left to environmental experts to tackle, the fight against pollution is increasingly recognised as requiring attention from health and development specialists too. 

“Air pollution is the top environmental health risk and among the top modifiable health risks in the world,” said Professor Michael Brauer, a public health expert at the University of British Columbia in Canada and a member of the scientific advisory panel for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition, a consortium of governments and the UN Environment Programme. “Air pollution has been under-funded and its health impacts under-appreciated.”

Pollution – especially outdoor or “ambient” air pollution – is also a major drag on economic performance and limits the opportunities of the poor, according to Ilmi Granoff, an environmental policy expert at the Overseas Development Institute, a London-based think tank. It causes premature death, illness, lost earnings and medical costs – all of which take their toll on both individual and national productivity.

“Donors need to get out of the siloed thinking of pollution as an environmental problem distinct from economic development and poverty reduction,” Granoff said. 

Pollution cleanup is indeed underfunded, he added, but pollution prevention is even more poorly prioritised: “It’s underfunded in much of the developed world, in aid, and in developing country priorities, so this isn’t just an aid problem.”

Mounting evidence 

Pollution kills in a variety of ways, according to relatively recent studies; air pollution is by far the most lethal form compared to soil and water pollution. 
 

Microscopic particulate matter (PM) suspended in polluted air is the chief culprit in these deaths: the smaller the particles’ size, the deeper they are able to penetrate into the lungs.  Particles of less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter (PM2.5) are small enough to reach the alveoli, the deepest part of the lungs, and to enter the blood stream.  

From there, PM2.5 causes inflammation and changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and blood clotting processes - the precursors to fatal stroke and heart disease.  PM2.5 irritates and corrodes the alveoli, which impairs lung function - a major precursor to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It also acts as a carcinogen.

Most research looks at long-term exposure to PM2.5 but even studies looking at the hours immediately following bursts of especially high ambient PM2.5 (in developed countries) show a corresponding spike in life-threatening heart attacks, heart arrhythmias and stroke.

Asia worst affected

The overwhelming majority - 70 percent - of global air pollution deaths occur in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions.  South Asia has eight of the top 10 and 33 of the top 50 cities with the worst PM concentrations in the world.  

 

WHO says a city’s average annual PM levels should be 20 micrograms per cubic meter.  But cities such as Karachi, Gaborone, and Delhi have yearly PM averages above 200 micrograms per cubic meter. 

The main source of PM2.5 in indoor air, or household air, is burning solid fuels for cooking and heating, using wood, coal, dung or crop leftovers - a common practice in rural areas of low and middle-income countries that lack electricity.  

Almost three billion people live this way, the majority in the densely populated Asia Pacific region: India and China each hold about one quarter of all people who rely on solid fuels. For these people, the daily average dose of PM2.5 is often in the hundreds of micrograms per cubic meter. 

Filling the gaps

Unlike many other health risks air pollution is very cost-effective to address, Brauer said. Analysis of air quality interventions in the US suggests a return on investment of up to $30 for every dollar spent. 

“We already know how to reduce these risks, as we have done exactly that in high income countries, so this is not a matter of searching for a cure - we know what works,” he said.

But the World Bank report said that unless it starts gathering better data on local air quality in LMICs, the amounts and sources of air pollution and the full gamut of its health impacts, “it is not possible to appropriately target interventions in a cost-effective manner.”

Granoff said there are also gaps in government capacity to monitor, regulate and enforce pollution policy. 

Beijing hopes to bring PM2.5 concentrations down to safe levels by 2030, and has said it will fine big polluters. 

The World Bank report said China is also charging all enterprises fees for the pollutants they discharge; establishing a nationwide PM2.5 monitoring network; instituting pollution control measures on motor vehicles; and controlling urban dust pollution.

But enforcing environmental protections has been a longstanding problem in China.

“Pollution policy will only succeed if citizens are aware of the harm, able to organise their concern [through advocacy campaigns], and have a responsive government that prioritises public welfare over the narrower interests of polluting sectors,” Granoff said. 

While more people die from household air pollution than from ambient air pollution, the latter – through vehicles, smokestacks and open burning – still accounted for 3.7 million deaths in 2012, according to the WHO. 

A change in the air

Kaye Patdu, an air quality expert at Clean Air Asia, a Manila-based think tank - and the secretariat for the UN-backed Clean Air Asia Partnership, comprising more than 250 government, civil, academic, business and development organisations - said the aid community is finally starting to recognise the importance of tackling air pollution.  

• Last year’s inaugural UN Environment Assembly adopted a resolution calling for strengthened action on air pollution.  
• WHO Member States are planning to adopt a resolution on health and air quality at the upcoming World Health Assembly in May. 
• The proposed Sustainable Development Goals, which will set the post-2015 international development agenda, address city air quality and air, soil and water pollution. 

None of the experts IRIN contacted could provide a breakdown of total aid spending on all forms of toxic pollution (air, water and soil pollution that is harmful to human health).  So IRIN asked each of the major global donors for their figures.  

Three responded.  

A back-of-envelope calculation of all reported spending on toxic pollution by USAID, the European Commission and the World Bank suggests that between them they committed about US$10 billion over 10 years. This does not include aid spending on the diseases that pollution causes. The World Bank’s spending figures eclipsed those of other the other donors. 

By very rough comparison, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis, with half the death toll of air pollution, received $28 billion via public sector commitments to the Global Fund – the world’s largest financier of programs that tackle these diseases – over the same period, a fraction of total spending on these diseases. 

gh/ha/bp

*Based on WHO statistics for per capita mortality rates in the Western Pacific region in 2012. 

**The mortality figures for air pollution come from 2012 statistics and were released by WHO in 2014, while the figures for the infectious diseases come from 2013 statistics and were released by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation in 2014 (the Global Burden of Disease study).

***Includes deaths from both household air pollution (4.3 million) and ambient air pollution (3.7 million): the combined death toll is less than the sum of the parts because many people are exposed to both. 

For more: 

The relationship between household air pollution and disease

Ambient air pollution and the risk of acute ischemic stroke 

Cardiovascular effects of exposure to ambient air pollution 

Particulate air pollution and lung function  

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: Results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE Project  

OECD's The Cost of Air Pollution report
 

101285 200901271.jpg Analysis Health Killing us softly Gabrielle Babbington IRIN HONG KONG Congo, Republic of Djibouti DRC Eritrea Ethiopia Kenya Rwanda Somalia Sudan Tanzania Uganda Angola Botswana Lesotho Madagascar Malawi Mauritius Mozambique Namibia Seychelles South Africa Swaziland Zambia Zimbabwe Benin Burkina Faso Cameroon Cape Verde Chad Côte d’Ivoire Equatorial Guinea Gabon Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Mauritania Niger Nigeria Sao Tome and Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Colombia Haiti United States Bangladesh Cambodia Indonesia Iran Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lao Peoples Democratic Republic Myanmar Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Sri Lanka Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Uzbekistan Vanuatu Vietnam
          The big (unsustainable) export trade of wild pygeum bark from Cameroon        

The commercial supply of pygeum bark, obtained mainly from wild Prunus africana trees, is a product of African biodiversity. Pygeum trees occur in Burundi, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and United Republic of Tanzania, among other African co


          Embah Kyai Marzuki Romli, Giriloyo Imogiri.by hasnan habib kota depok        
Giriloyo adalah sebuah dusun di bawah kaki perbukitan Imogiri. Masyarakat sekitar mengenal dengan nama Pajimatan, suatu bukit yang terkenal di daerah kawasan selatan Yogyakarta karena disanalah raja-raja Kerajaan Mataram Islam dimakamkan. Daerah Giriloyo ini sebenarnya tidak terlalu jauh dari pusat pemerintahan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (jaraknya hanya sekitar 15 km). Namun karena daerah ini terpencil dan berada di kaki bukit. Sasana khas pedesaan yang sepi dan sunyi namun penuh dengan kebersamaan dan kedamaian sangat mewarnai daerah tersebut. Suasana sepi yang mewarnai Giriloyo itu pada pertengahan abad ke-18 M sedikit demi sedikit berubah dengan munculnya kelompok pengajian yang diasuh oleh KH. Romli, seorang ulama yang menjadi Mursyid Tarekat Syathariyah. Seluruh murid-muridnya diberi ijazah tarekat tersebut dengan maksud agar mereka memiliki amalan-amalan harian yang pada akhirnya bisa lebih mendekatkan diri pada Allah SWT.
Keseriusan dan ketekunan dalam pengelolaan pengajian, membuat KH. Romli seakan melupakan sunnah rasul yang lain, yaitu melangsungkan pernikahan. Maka ketika dirasa jama'ah pengajian yang dibinanya itu semakin lama semakin menunjukkan peningkatan, beliau segera melaksanakan pernikahan dengan putri dari Kiai Ali. Dari pernikahan dengan putri Kiai Ali ini lahir 5 orang putra yang salah satunya adalah bernama Ahmad Marzuqi. KH. Ahmad Marzuqi lahir pada tahun 1901 M di desa tempat ayahnya tinggal yaitu di Giriloyo Wukirsari Imogiri Bantul sebagai putra bungsu. Kiai Romli sangat berkeinginan kelak si bungsu apabila sudah besar dapat menggantikan perjuangan yang telah dirintisnya, mendidik orang-orang untuk lebih dekat pada Allah. Untuk mewujudkan cita-citanya tersebut, sangat wajar apabila KH Marzuqi ketika baru berumur 4 tahun sudah dididik dengan konsentrasi penuh. Pada tahun 1905 oleh Kiai Romli, Ahmad Marzuqi di-pondok-kan di Pondok Pesantren Kanggotan Pleret Bantul di bawah bimbingan KH. Zaini. Karena masih kecil, maka pada waktu itu beliau hanya diajari kitab-kitab ubudiyah seperti Safinatun Najah, Fathul Qorib dan lain-lain. Di pondok Kanggotan ini beliau belajar sampai tahun 1910 M. Setelah lima tahun belajar di Kanggotan, Ahmad Marzuqi kemudian pindah pondok. Pondok yang dituju kali ini adalah Pondok Pesantren Termas yang berada di Pacitan Jawa Timur. pada saat itu pondok Termas berada di bawah bimbingan KH. Hafidz Dimyati, beliau belajar berbagai ilmu agama, seperti syara’, tasawuf, dan lain-lain. Di pondok ini beliau belajar selama 4 tahun, dari tahun 1910 sampai tahun 1914 M. Ahmad Marzuki melanjutkan ngangsu kaweruh di ponok pesantren Watucongol Muntilan Magelang, tahun 1915 sampai tahun 1918. Kehausan Ahmad Marzuki dengan ilmu-ilmu keislmaan terobati di bawah bimbingan KH. Dimyati. Sepulang dari Watucongol, Ahmad Marzuqi kemudian meneruskan di Pondok Pesantren Somolangu Kebumen Jawa Tengah. Dibawah bimbingan KH. Abdurrauf, beliau mendapat kepercayaan untuk mengajar santri (badal: sebagai pengganti kyai) apabila kiai sedang berhalangan atau sakit. Kepercayaan itu diemban dengan tekun dan ikhlas sehingga tidak heran jika beliau semakin lama semakin menguasai ilmu-ilmu yang sudah dipelajari di pondok-pondok yang terdahulu. Di Somolangu ini berlangsung antara tahun 1919 sampai tahun 1922. Tahun 1922 sepulang dari Pondok Somolangu sampai tahun 1925, beliau melanjutkan pendidikannya di Pondok Pesantren Lirap Kebumen Jawa Tengah. Walaupun sudah mahir membaca kitab, namun beliau tidak jemu untuk lebih mendalami kitab-kitab yang telah dikajinya terdahulu. Hanya dua tahun lebih sedikit Ahmad Marzuqi menempat di Lirap Kebumen, pada tahun 1926 sampai tahun 1927 beliau pindah ke Pondok Pesantren Jamsaren yang ada di Solo Jawa Tengah. Pondok Jamsaren pada saat itu berada di bawah bimbingan KH. Idris. Sepulang dari Pondok Jamsaren ini beliau menunaikan ibadah haji untuk yang pertama kali dalam hidupnya. Pada tahun 1927 (selepas menunaikan ibadah haji) sampai tahun 1931 beliau melanjutkan pendidikannya di Pondok Pesantren Krapyak Yogyakarta. Dibawah bimbingan KH. Munawwir ini beliau mewujudkan cita-citanya yang sudah lama terpendam ketika masih mengaji di Watucongol dahulu, yaitu keinginannya untuk menghafal Al-Qur’an 30 juz. Keinginan itu menjadi kenyataan bahkan untuk melanggengkannya beliau baca ayat-ayat suci itu sampai khatam yaitu pada bulan Ramadlan saat sholat tarwih. Diceritakan, bahwa selama bulan ramadlan apabila badannya sehat, beliau khatamkan dalam satu bulan itu tiga kali khataman. Sepuluh hari pertama khatam untuk yang pertama, sepuluh hari kedua digunakan untuk mengkhatamkan bacaannya yang kedua dan sepuluh hari ketiga untuk yang ketiga kalinya. KH. Ahmad Marzuqi Mulai Berda’wah Sepulang dari ngangsu kaweruh di berbagai pondok pesantren, sekitar tahun 1931, KH. Ahmad Marzuqi mulai melakukan pengajian-pengajian di berbagai tempat terutama di desa-desa di Gunungkidul. Perjalanan untuk mencapai daerah-daerah di Gunungkidul yang melewati hutan belantara memakan waktu berhari-hari itu beliau lakukan dengan berjalan kaki. Dalam melakukan Dakwah di Gunungkidul, KH. Ahmad Marzuqi atau Mbah Marzuqi bisa disebut sebagai pembuka jalan bagi keberadaan Islam di daerah tersebut. Ketika beliau membuka jamaah pengajian yang baru di desa-desa, beliau islamkan terlebih dahulu orang-orang yang akan ikut dalam pengajian tersebut. Sehingga ketika semakin hari semakin bertambah jumlah jamaahnya berarti semakin banyak pula orang Islam yang ada di desa itu. Perjalanan dalam berdakwah itu bukan berarti tanpa mendapatkan rintangan. Rintangan itu datang dalam perjalanan maupun oleh orang yang tidak suka dengan dakwah yang beliau lakukan. Diceritakan, ketika dalam suatu perjalanan menuju salah satu desa di daerah Gunungkidul harus melewati sebuah sungai yang lebar dan dalam. Seseorang harus berenang untuk sampai di seberang karena tidak ada getek (perahu dari bambu). KH. Habib yang pada waktu itu diajak untuk menemani, tidak berani turun ke sungai karena melihat ada seekor ular besar sedang menunggu. Melihat ular di sungai yang siap untuk menyerangnya KH. Habib berteriak “Pak, ada ular !” Teriakannya tidak dijawab oleh Mbah Marzuqi. Beliau hanya menusukkan jari manisnya di pinggang KH. Habib. Seketika itu juga KH. Habib sudah berada di seberang sungai. Untuk mempersatukan jama’ah pengajian, Mbah Marzuqi mendirikan masjid atau musholla di desa-desa. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar para jamaah bisa berkumpul dalam satu tempat dalam melaksanakan kegiatan. Pendirian masjid dan musholla ini juga dimaksudkan agar masyarakat di desa itu apabila sholat tidak dilakukan sendiri-sendiri di rumah, tetapi dilakukan di masjid atau musholla dengan berjama'ah. Untuk melengkapi pembangunan masjid, beliau mendirikan sekolah-sekolah formal yang tentunya hal ini bertujuan agar generasi mudanya bisa mendapatkan pendidikan formal. Tercatat ada 130 buah untuk tingkat taman kanak-kanak, 53 buah untuk tingkat Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, 12 sekolah untuk tingkat MTs dan SMP, 8 sekolah untuk tingkat MA dan SMU. Aktivitas dakwah ini masih terus berlangsung ketika beliau dipercaya memimpin pesantren yang didirikan oleh sang ayah, KH. Romli, pada tahun 1935. Pondok itu dipimpin oleh beliau berlangsung sampai dengan tahun 1955. Bahkan selama memimpin pondok pesantren tersebut, beliau mendapatkan sambutan yang semakin hangat dari masyarakat. Hal ini bisa dilihat dari terus berkembangnya pondok tersebut yang semakin hari semakin banyak orang yang ikut mengaji. Selepas Kemerdekaan RI 1945, bumi nusantara ternyata masih disenangi oleh Belanda sehingga wajar apabila pada bulan-bulan setelah Agustus itu Belanda masih banyak yang berseliweran di Indonesia. Orang-orang pribumi yang melihat tingkah Belanda itu merasa tidak senang sehingga di banyak tempat dikumpulkan para pemuda untuk digembleng menjadi prajurit yang tangguh. Mereka diberi ijazah dan amalan serta olah-kanuragan. Salah satu tempat yang digunakan sebagai markas itu adalah pesantren yang dipimpin oleh KH. Ahmad Marzuqi. Mbah Marzuqi yang semenjak kecil suka dengan kehidupan sederhana, suka menolong orang lain dan tidak suka hidup mewah, mempunyai pandangan hidup bahwa seluruh jiwa dan raganya semata-mata dicurahkan untuk beribadah dan mendekatkan diri kepada Allah SWT. Prinsip hidup ini beliau wujudkan dengan melakukan dakwah dari satu desa ke desa yang lainnya tanpa pernah mengharapkan imbalan. Dakwah ini beliau lakukan dengan ikhlas dan semata-mata hanya untuk mengharapkan ridla dari Allah. Kiai memang dalam berdakwah tidak pernah mengharapkan imbalan bahkan beliau serahkan seluruh harta bendanya pada mereka yang membutuhkan. Diceritakan, bahwa beliau mempunyai sawah yang luasnya mencapai 7 hektar dan sapi yang jumlahnya mencapai sekitar 150 ekor. Harta miliknya itu seluruhnya beliau serahkan pada masyarakat yang kurang mampu dengan sistem bagi hasil (tidak ada informasi yang menceritakan berapa bagian untuk beliau dan orang yang diserahi). Pemberian dengan sistem tersebut semata-mata hanya untuk meringankan beban yang ada pada masyarakat. Pertolongan yang beliau berikan disamping secara materi juga dengan memberikan pengobatan kepada siapa saja yang memerlukannya. Bahkan dengan memberikan pengobatan ini, aktivitas dan pengikut dalam jama'ahnya semakin besar sehingga sangat memudahkan beliau apabila berkeinginan membuka daerah binaan yang baru. Ilmu ketabiban ini beliau dapatkan disamping dari ayahnya, KH. Romli juga beliau dapatkan dari semenjak beliau mondok di pesantren-pesantren. Menurut KH. Habib Marzuqi, salah seorang putranya bahwa ilmu ketabiban itu beliau peroleh dari KH. Dalhar Watucongol, KH. Ma’ruf, KH. Kholil Bangkalan, KH. Dimyati Termas, KH. Dimyati Kebumen dan KH. Abdurrahman. Pemberian pertolongan ini juga beliau imaksudkan sebagai sarana berda’wah. Membina Rumah Tangga Sebagai putra bungsu dari lima bersaudara, KH. Ahmad Marzuqi mendapatkan tongkat estafet dari KH. Romli untuk meneruskan perjuangannya. Untuk membantu perjuangannya KH. Ahmad Marzuqi melangsungkan pernikahan dengan putri dari KH. Arifin yaitu Ny. Dasinah. Dari pernikahan ini menurunkan dua orang putra yaitu KH. Asyhari Marzuqi (Kotagede) dan KH. Habib Marzuqi (Wates Kulonprogo). Setelah berpisah dengan Ny. Dasinah, pada tahun 1949 KH. Ahmad Marzuqi melangsungkan pernikahan untuk yang kedua kalinya yaitu dengan putri KH. Abdullah, Ny. Zuhroh. Dari pernikahan ini menurunkan dua putra yaitu KH. Masyhudi dan KH. Ahmad Zabidi dan seorang putri yaitu Hj. Siti Hannah. Akhir Hayatnya KH. Ahmad Marzuqi sewaktu hidupnya pernah melarang tentang 3 (tiga) hal. Tiga hal itu adalah pertama, beliau melarang dan mengharamkan adanya kebijakan pemerintah mengenai diberlakukannya Keluarga Berencana (KB) bagi masyarakat Indonesia. Kedua, beliau melarang dan mengharamkan adanya praktek dunia perbankan. Ketiga, beliau melarang keras adanya anggapan bahwa semua agama di Indonesia adalah baik dan benar. Larangan ini sekitar awal tahun 80-an beliau tanamkan kembali pada setiap tamu yang berkunjung ke rumahnya di Giriloyo. Tidak peduli apakah tamu itu laki-laki atau perempuan, kecil atau besar, pegawai biasa maupun pejabat. Semua dilarang untuk melaksanakan tiga hal tersebut diatas. Begitulah semua itu berlangsung sampai pada tahun 1991 disaat beliau akan menghembuskan nafasnya yang terakhir. Innalillahi wainna ilaihi rajiuun. Tanggal 9 Jumadil Akhir 1411 H atau tanggal 14 Desember 1991 M pada hari Sabtu malam Ahad adalah hari beliau menghembuskan nafasnya yang terakhir. Seluruh putranya dan masyarakat sekitar sudah berkumpul. Disaat itulah beliau berwasiat kepada putra-putra dan seluruh kaum muslimin untuk membaca do’a Nekto Dinulu. Do’a itu bacaannya adalah sebagai berikut: Allahumma Nekto Dinulu ahub-ahub ing Allah Laa ilaaha illa Allah Muhammad rasulullah shalla Allah alaihi wasallam Allahumma Roh amadep ing Nurullah Somad-somad kelawan roh idlofi Jisim rupaku amadep ing cahaya Ning roh angadep uripku ing cahyane Allah Ya Allah Ya Rahman Ya Rahim Ya Ghaffar Ya Aziz Ya Quddus Ya ‘Alim Ya Karim Ya Arhamarrahimin. Pagi harinya, ribuan orang datang dari berbagai daerah untuk memberikan penghormatan yang terakhir (melayat). Tidak sedikit dari para pelayat itu mengetahui meninggalnya KH. Ahmad Marzuqi lewat mimpi. Diceritakan, pada malam hari (malam Ahad) seorang haji di daerah Prembun Kebumen bermimpi kedatangan Mbah Marzuqi. Dalam mimpi itu Mbah Marzuqi menyuruhnya untuk pergi ke Giriloyo dan jangan lupa membawa bakmi. Hari Ahad pagi, sambil membawakan bakmi pesanan Mbah Marzuqi pak haji dari kebumen itu meluncur menuju Giriloyo. Sebelum memasuki Giriloyo, haji itu singgah terlebih dahulu di masjid Pondok Ar-Ramli Wukirsari karena dilihatnya ada ribuan orang berkumpul. Kemudian pak haji dari kebumen itu bertanya “Ada apa kok suasananya ramai sekali?” Orang yang ditanya oleh pak haji itu menjawab bahwa Mbah Marzuqi meninggal. Pak haji tidak percaya karena tadi malam beliau bermimpi bertemu Mbah Marzuqi dan disuruh ke Giriloyo. Namun setelah mengetahui peristiwa yang sebenarnya terjadi, pak haji dari Kebumen itupun lemas. Begitulah banyak dari para hadirin yang datang karena mendapatkan mimpi “disuruh ke Giriloyo oleh Mbah Marzuqi”. Semua masyarakat yang ditinggalkan merasa kehilangan dengan kepergiannya. Namun apa mau dikata, kita tidak bisa melawan takdir yang telah ditetapkan oleh Allah. Begitulah KH. Ahmad Marzuqi telah mendahului kita dengan menanamkan pijakan yang mantap dan kokoh pada masyarakat yang ditinggalkan. Semoga amal baik beliau diterima disisi-Nya dan kita yang ditinggalkan bisa meneruskan apa yang menjadi cita-citanya. Amin.

          Wildlife Trafficking Is Big Business For Criminals, Even Here At Home        

While agents from U.S. Fish and Wildlife lured a smuggler to a storage facility in the Bronx with the promise of $400,000 worth of illegal rhino horn as part of a sting operation, Sheldon Jordan readied his team to raid the man's warehouse in Canada.

The smuggling ring's Richmond, British Columbia headquarters was posing as an antique auction house, where police found piles of illegal ivory, rhino horn and coral. Animal parts were stored next to 50,000 tablets of ecstasy, bags of marijuana and cocaine.

THAILAND-IVORY/

Wildlife trafficking is a global phenomenon. Most people think of shark fins and elephant tusks on black markets in East Asia, but Jordan, director general of Wildlife Enforcement at Environment Canada, says it's much closer to home. He's is in charge of rooting it out across the country.

Jordan recovered a laptop during the sting that mapped out an illegal network of suppliers and buyers stretching across borders, proof of Canada's connection to a global animal trafficking market that's also tied to guns and drugs.

Black-market prices have skyrocketed to meet growing demand in recent years, leading to a surge in trafficking of everything from exotic timber to the scaly pangolin, the world's most poached animal. Conservative estimates value the industry at US$91 billion annually.

With lax international regulation and the promise of huge profits, criminal networks have been quick to capitalize.

Seizure Of Illegal Pangolins In Medan

"Animals and plants are just another low-risk, high-reward commodity for transnational organized crime," explains Kelvin Alie, executive vice president of the International Fund for Animal Welfare.

While the world focuses on the usual suspects in Africa and Asia, Canada has quietly become both a destination and a source country. Turtles, lizards and birds are smuggled here for collectors. Polar bear hides and narwhal tusks, prized as trophies, and bear gall bladders and wild ginseng valued for medicinal purposes, are illegally exported.

Often seen as victimless, wildlife crime struggles to capture the attention it deserves.

Beyond the destruction of ecosystems and devastation of animal populations, it can spark violence and unrest, creating the conditions for poverty, hunger and draught, leading to human casualties, explains Jordan.

Governments should focus on criminals and corruption to dismantle the trading networks that breed violent crime.

Media — and the U.S. State Department — tend to pay attention to environmental crime only when it's connected to terrorism. The Lord's Resistance Army in the Congo trades ivory for arms and Al-Shabbab's insurgency in Somalia is financed partly by illegal coal mining.

Polar Bear Skin

Alie says the connection to terrorism is overblown. Instead, governments should focus on criminals and corruption to dismantle the trading networks that breed violent crime.

That is exactly what Environment Canada is doing with a pilot project launched last year to crack down on the polar bear trade.

Using microchips to track animals, enforcement officers follow the supply chain to ensure polar bears are hunted and purchased legally. Jordan hopes to share this tactic and technology with other nations to help safeguard their animal populations.

"This is a problem that grew very quickly, like a grassfire," says Jordan.

He says Canadians need to understand that wildlife trafficking isn't confined to faraway jungles. It's big business for major criminal networks, and it's happening right here in Canada.

Craig and Marc Kielburger are the co-founders of the WE movement, which includes WE Charity, ME to WE Social Enterprise and WE Day. For more dispatches from WE, check out WE Stories.

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          Crisis In Congo's Kasaï Region Has Destroyed Childhoods        
Tshinyama Primary School is one of four schools plundered during the conflict between Kamuina Nsapu movement rebels and the police in March 2017.

There is life before the crisis, and life since the crisis. A small spark ignited a wave of conflict. The Kasaï region has become a synonym for unbelievable atrocities and immeasurable violence.

Most people have probably never heard of the Kasaï and would probably struggle to locate it a map. But now militias, mystical attacks, mysterious rituals, magic sticks and mass graves have put an international spotlight on the region.

And after all this violence, we have 1.4 million people who've been displaced, who've had to leave their homes and flee for their lives. Everything has gone up in smoke: schools, health centres, and public buildings.

Tens of thousands of people, including many children, found themselves in the middle of a conflict that has nothing to do with them. Thousands of children are now orphans, unaccompanied or separated from their families. The children of the Kasaï region are the main victims of the crisis: they're on the front line of clashes, they are attacked, injured or killed and they no longer have access to education or healthcare. A child should remain a child but since the start of this crisis, there has been no normal childhood for children in Kasaï region.

Demobilized child soldiers from the militia of the traditional chief Kamuina Nsapu are studying in a Transit and Orientation Centre run by the local NGO BNCE (Children Catholic National Bureau) , supported by the UNICEF, in Kananga, capital of the Western Kasai province of the Democratic Republic of Congo.- Des enfants soldats d�mobilis�s, issus de la milice du chef traditionnel Kamuina Nsapu, �tudient au Centre de Transit et d'Orientation de l'association congolaise BNCE (Bureau National Catholique pour l'Enfance), soutenu par l'UNICEF, � Kananga, capitale du Kasa� Occidental, en R�publique D�mocratique du Congo.In August 2016, fighting broke out in one of the DemocraticRepublic of Congo�s (DRC) poorest regions - Kasai - after atraditional leader was killed in clashes with security forces. Thesituation deteriorated in 2017, unleashing a wave of violence thathas now engulfed nine of the country�s 26 provinces.

For me personally, there is also a life before the crisis and a life since. Violence in the region has had a big impact on my work and on my family. I never thought that we would go from stability to violence so suddenly. It feels like overnight we went from a development program to full-blown crisis and we've had to adapt quickly.

You have to find new ways of working in a crisis. I knew that I needed to play an important role in the coordination as a child protection officer. Every moment of every day, children are our priority.

In a crisis situation, information is really essential. Forums, meetings with partners and conference calls have become vital parts of my day. I quickly established a network to get daily alerts from areas affected by the conflict. Verification, triangulation and validation, every day.

Once information has been validated, it is shared with all our colleagues in the Kananga office and also in Kinshasa. The information that I validated, the data that is part of a child's story, I help get that information out to the world so people know what is going on here.

Broken bridges, muddy roads and a mobile population of displaced people in need; these are just some of the challenges that UNICEF and its partners face in responding to the Kasai crisis. A UNICEF vehicle fords a stream next to the rusted remains of a bridge as families collect water for their daily needs.

This documentation has brought the Kasaï crisis to the attention of the world, helping people understand what's happening here. Because of this outpouring of global support, humanitarian actors have mobilized and children are getting the help they need. The Kasaï region is attracting the attention of the world but accurate information is the key. It is impossible to remain indifferent once you know what is happening here.

The crisis follows me everywhere. I feel like I no longer have any time for myself. My professional and private lives have become one singular mission: to protect as many children as possible. The acts of violence that I hear about, they don't stay at the office, they come home with me in my thoughts and in my nightmares. When I get home, family members, neighbours and friends bombard me with questions about the security situation, the clashes and the latest news.

My telephone rings day and night, without letting up. How can I not think about the stories coming from colleagues on the ground, or the interviews with victims of the conflict? The killings, the kidnappings, the rapes and the violence are all in my head. Little by little, I am beginning to realize that I am living with the crisis, that the crisis is inside me.

These children have seen so much horror and I worry about how we can help them recover.

My family aren't immune to this either, so we do what we can to cope or we seek refuge in prayer. We all pray for this crisis to be over as soon as possible. My family and I encourage everyone to stay positive, to help each other and not to sink into despair.

Too many children are being used in militias. Adults deceived them into thinking they were invincible and promised them a better future. Thousands of children are unaccompanied and defenceless, and some are deeply disturbed by the violence they have witnessed. Children tell us they have been tortured and many girls say they were raped repeatedly. Others tell of being present during the rape of their mothers and sisters, or how they had to witness the murder of their relatives or loved ones. These children have seen so much horror and I worry about how we can help them recover.

We must help children to erase these memories so that they can live a better future. We need to act quickly because a whole generation is under threat. Let's protect our children in the Kasaï region, and defend and uphold their right to a childhood.

Alphonse Kalonji Tshikala is a child protection officer in the Kasaï region in the Democratic Republic of Congo. He helps coordinate the response for children who've been exposed to extreme violence in conflict.

More than one million people have been forced from their homes by waves of violent conflict in the Greater Kasaï region of the Democratic Republic of Congo, and UNICEF is gravely concerned for their welfare. Help UNICEF respond.

Also on HuffPost:


          Kidd Wrek's Crazycast        
itunes pic
Back on the scene, Kidd Wrek brings you the most craziest mix ever, containing 1 hour of full EDM/ Electro House followed by a full hour of pure rockin house music to blow your mind! So get ready for a full ILL-Matic 2 hour Crazycast to get your adrenaline pumping non stop! Playlist: EDM SIDE: Keep on Dancing-The Bloody Beetroots feat Drop The Lime/Hands In The Air (accapella) Bouncer- Showtek & Ookay/Get On Up (accapella) Freak- Steve Aoki, Diplo, & Deorro ft Steve Bays Rage the Night Away- Steve Aoki feat Waka Flocka Flame Bang- 3LAU/Where's Your Head At (accapella) Spicebomb- Ralvero, Nicci/Put Em Up (accapella) Amen- Merk amp Kremont/Everybody Go Up & Down (accapella) Anubi- Dannic, Merk, Kremont Synthemilk- Daddy's Groove, Congorock Dance Apocalyptic- Janelle Monae/Dark Beat (accapella) The Buzz- New World Sound Timmy Trumpet Feedback- Steve Aoki & Autoerotique vs Dimitri Vegas & Like Mike/Bang Those Drums (accapella) Everybody In The Place- Hardwell/Shake It Up (accapella) Sushi Of God- Nom De Strip, Nezzo/Come On Let's Work (accapella) Panty Dropper- Twinz Beatz, Henrix Bangla- Mercer & Bare/Shake & The New Hip House (accapella) Rock & Rave- Sick Individuals Lights, Thunder feat Krewella- Deorro Remix Derp- Bassjackers, Makj/Electro Freaks (accapella) Addicted To You- Avicii No ID Countdown- Hardwell, Makj HOUSE SIDE: Arms Around Me- Hard Rock Sofa & Skidka/House Tribute (accapella) In The Mixx- Tavo Dreaming- Hoxton Whores, Martin Villeneuve, Jerome Robins People Need Sunshine- Soul Avengers I Am Ready- Hoxton Whores, Jay C Phunkin Again- Olav Basoski, Alex Van Alff Big Fun- Inner City, Kevin Saunders/Take It Back (accapella) Phreaky Deaky 2014- DJ Dan, Rescue, Terry Mullen/Freak You (accapella) Body To Body Boogie- Orlando Riva Sound Shake It- Afterman Disco Slice- DJ Dan, Simon Doty/Pump It Up (accapella) Werk It- Johnny Fiasco Thrill Me- Junior Jack/The Funk (accapella) Music Is My Life- Louie Corrales YEAH- Coyu & Ramiro Lopez/Shake Your Booty (accapella) Desert Storm- Marc Vedo La Verite- The Cube Guys Conjunction Funktion- DJ Dan Engine No. 9- DJ Dan, WhiteNoize Gravy- Muzzaik/Rockin Music (accapella) Helium- Chris Lake feat Jareth Out Of My Head- Dez Milito & Michael Murica Got To Be Good- Peter Gelderblom, Randy Colle/Universal Sound (accapella) Knight Time- Don Diablo/The First Time (accapella) Connect with me online! www.kiddwrek.com | www.twitter.com/KiddWrek | www.instagram.com/Kidd_Wrek | www.facebook.com/KiddWrek
          Carte de l Angola        

Etat de la côte sud-occidentale de l’Afrique – voir carte de l’Angola -, cette république est délimité au nord par la république démocratique du Congo, à l’Est par la Zambie, à l’Ouest par l’océan Atlantique et au Sud par la Namibie. . Le littoral est plutôt brumeux et désertique tandis que les plateaux, couverts de […]

Cet article Carte de l Angola est apparu en premier sur Voyages - Cartes.


          Human Rights Activist Amit Singh Conferred the REX Karmaveer Global Fellowship        
Reading Time: 2 minutesHuman rights researcher and activist Amit Singh has received the REX Karmaveer Global Fellowship and Karmaveer Chakra for his commendable work for the society. A report. According to a press release, he has received the fellowship on Sunday (Nov. 27), in Gurgaon, at the exclusive awards function, which is a part of “iCongo’s Rex Conclave, organised on Nov. 25, […]
          Book-to-Film        
Along with being a writer I’m also a huge movie fan. Most of my blogs in one way or another have some connection to movies. So I figured why not write about book-to-film adaptations.

Now, there are hundreds, heck, thousands of books that have been turned into films. In most cases the books were better than the movies. I have always wondered why that is. Books have the capacity to evoke emotion, make us feel like we are right in the action, and even scare the daylights out of us. So they would easily translate into movies, right? Wrong.

There are many factors at play. When an author writes a book it is solely his/her vision. They are, in essence, the actors, the directors, the scriptwriters; they are everything they need to be to tell a story. What they are not are producers, this title will be placed on the publishers. On the other hand, in a movie there are actual actors, a director, one or several scriptwriters, and producers. What happens is that when a book is adapted an author’s story is then passed through several people: the scriptwriters, the actors, the director, and even the producers. That one person’s vision gets filtered through that many people and becomes something else entirely.

There are also other reasons why a great novel turns into a terrible movie: the scriptwriters may not understand the novel, the actors may not be suited for the parts, the director may be inept, and the producers may only be concerned with the budget. This process can be very frustrating for the authors. For this reason authors rarely are hired to write the screenplay of their works.

Writing a book is like giving birth, it’s a long and painful process, but in the end the results are often beautiful. So to go back and change your ‘baby’ is something that most cannot do. It is better to write your book and then let someone else make their movie.

There is a great quote from Ernest Hemingway about Hollywood: "Let me tell you about writing for films. You finish your book. Now, you know where the California state line is? Well, you drive right up to that line, take your manuscript and pitch it across. No, on second thought, don't pitch it across. First. Let them toss the money over. Then you throw it over, pick up the money, and get the hell out of there."

There are many books I’ve enjoyed reading but loathed the movie versions. My favourite author, Michael Crichton, his books never turned into good or great movies. While the movies based on his books were successful (see Jurassic Park) they never came close to what the books were. Whenever I read a Crichton book I always felt like I was watching a movie in my head, but unfortunately, what was written on the page never converted well onto the screen (see Congo, Timeline, Rising Sun).

Below are five titles (in no particular order) that I have enjoyed both the novels and their respective movies.

DO ANDROIDS DREAM OF ELECTRIC SHEEP?/BLADE RUNNER

Deckard, a blade runner, has to track down andterminate 4 replicants who hijacked a ship in space andhave returned to earth seeking their maker. (courtesy of IMDB)




SILENCE OF THE LAMBS

A young FBI cadet must confide in an incarcerated and manipulative killer to receive his help on catching another serial killer who skins his victims. (courtesy of IMDB)




THE HUNT FOR RED OCTOBER

In 1984, the USSR's best submarine captain in their newest sub violates orders and heads for the USA. Is he trying to defect, or to start a war? (courtesy of IMDB)





THE GODFATHER

The aging patriarch of an organized crime dynasty transfers control of his clandestine empire to his reluctant son. (courtesy of IMDB)





FIGHT CLUB

An office employee and a soap salesman build a global organization to help vent male aggression. (courtesy of IMDB)


          Headline Paradox when it comes to African Lives        
K. Annan was visiting the IHT's offices yesterday. He spoke, inter alia, of the need to keep up development money for Africa in times of economic crisis.

I wonder what he would make of the comparative treatment, most notably the headlines used and the length, of these two stories in today's IHT.

One concerns a black congregation church being burnt on U.S election night. That is described as 'an act of horror'(as well as being, further to my earlier post on the Spanish Royal story, two weeks behind the news curve).

A time of hope, marred by an act of horror
http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/11/17/america/17land.php

A six-year-old boy being killed and his body dismembered in the east African state of Burundi, the latest in a series of attacks in the region on albinos, whose bodies are prized by witchdoctors, is headlined:

Albino boy killed and body dismembered in Burundi
http://www.iht.com/articles/reuters/2008/11/17/africa/OUKWD-UK-TANZANIA-BURUNDI-ALBINOS.php

Which is an act of 'horror' seems pretty self-evident from where I'm sitting, if we don't want semantic devaluation to run wild, and I'll leave you to calculate the respective word count and news hole play.

However, in fairness, Mr. Gettleman in Nairobi did write about this 'horrific' problem back in June of this year (Albinos in Tanzania face deadly threat
By Jeffrey Gettleman (The New York Times) SUNDAY, JUNE 8, 2008) but there is something about the headlines that jars.


Don't get me wrong: burning a black church in America on the night Obama was elected is very troubling, deeply worrying, upsetting, racist and all the rest. But it's the relatively frivolous use of the word 'horror' in one story and the neutral, unemotive headline ascribed to the latest in a long line of truly 'horrific' child murders for the other story, that I don't care for.

If a murder of that nature took place in Detroit, I think we'd have an adjective, let alone an abstract noun, in the headline.

Horror is the Congo, horror is life in Iraq, horror is lots of things.

Horror/terror are words you just don't want to chuck around.


READ AN ALTERNATIVE IHT DAILY NARRATIVE AT
A PLACE IN THE AUVERGNE

LOOKING FOR A CHRISTMAS BOOK GIFT TO BUY?
"Books about cosmopolitan urbanites discovering the joys of country life are two a penny, but this one is worth a second glance. Walthew's vivid description of the moral stress induced by his job as a high-flying executive with the International Herald Tribune newspaper is worth the cover price alone…. Highly recommended."
The Oxford Times

Amazon.co.uk
A PLACE IN MY COUNTRY
by
Ian Walthew


'I read
A Place in My Country with absolute unalloyed delight. A glorious book.'
Jeremy Irons (actor)

‘Ian Walthew was a newspaper executive with a career that took him round the world, who one day did a mad thing. He saw a for-sale sign on a cottage in the Cotswolds, bought it, resigned and moved in. For the first few weeks he just lay on the grass in a daze. Then he started talking to his neighbours and digging into the rich history of this beautiful part of England. Out of his inquiries grew this affecting and inspiring memoir.What sets it apart from others of its ilk is the author’s enviable immunity to cliché and his determination to love his homeland better than he used to. His elegiac account of relearning how to be an Englishman should be required reading for anyone who claims to know or love this country.’ Financial Times


Amazon.com

A PLACE IN MY COUNTRY
By
Ian Walthew


For more reviews visit
ianwalthew.com

          A Royal Pain for IHT Readers - repeat stories, way behind the news curve.        
I'm becoming increasingly frustrated by the IHT running NYT pieces, on stories that IHT editors (alert, on the ball, all good) had already picked up weeks earlier.

To give an example from today's paper, compare and contrast the following:

A royal pain for the Spanish monarchy
By Victoria Burnett
Monday, November 17, 2008
MADRID: When the English monarch in Alan Bennett's novella "The Uncommon Reader" decides to write her memoirs, she takes the prudent step of abdicating first. Queen Sofia of Spain may be wondering whether she, too, should have waited for her husband, King Juan Carlos, to leave office before granting a Spanish journalist a series of uncharacteristically candid interviews.
The resulting book, "The Queen Up Close," has provided Spaniards an uncomfortably close look at their queen's conservative views. Her comments on homosexuality, gay marriage, euthanasia and religious education have outraged liberal Spaniards and tarnished an image of discretion that she had carefully tended for decades.
In the most notorious gaffe in the book, the queen said that she respected people's different sexual tendencies but did not understand why "they should feel proud to be gay."
"That they get up on floats and parade in the streets? If all of us who are not gay were to parade in the streets, we'd halt the traffic in every city," she said. She then added that while gay people had a right to unions, they should not be permitted to call them marriages.
As well as homosexuality, the queen takes several forays into politically tricky territory, saying that she does not support euthanasia - an issue being hotly debated in Spain - and that she believes schoolchildren should be taught the origins of man from a creationist point of view.
The book is also peppered with personal tidbits about world leaders and royal travels. At one point, Sofia congratulates herself on persuading the Cuban leader, Fidel Castro, to wear a suit and tie, instead of his "shapeless" military garb. The late King Hassan of Morocco drove her "crazy" with his mania about food, she says, bringing a retinue of cooks and his own supplies when he visited Spain because "he didn't trust us." Former President Jimmy Carter was a good enough sort, but "behaved really badly toward the Shah of Iran" when he refused him asylum, she said.
The controversy is one of a series of incidents that have revealed cracks in the cocoon of respect that envelops the Spanish royal family. Recent attempts to stifle embarrassing cartoons or claim privacy from the news media have challenged the balance between protecting free speech and protecting Spain's royals.
"I don't think many people would be surprised to learn these were the queen's views," said Juan Díez-Nicolás, a professor of sociology whose organization, ASEP, polls the Spanish public about the monarchy. They are routinely voted the most respected public figures in the country.
"What surprises them is that she would say such things for publication," he said. And moreover, "not offering a view that is widely shared by Spaniards."
Born Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark in November 1938, the queen converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Catholicism when she married Juan Carlos, then the future king, in 1962. Elegant, circumspect and fluent in several languages, she became popular in part because of her role in helping to steer Spain toward democracy after the death of Franco in 1975.
Long considered a paragon of royal reserve, the queen emerges from the book as the 70-year-old observant Catholic that she is, rather than the sweet, demure figure that the Spanish public apparently wants her to be, people who follow the monarchy said.
Her comments on gay pride and marriage provoked indignation from the gay community, which won the right to marry in 2005, and prompted a swift apology from the royal household. In a statement read to the press late last month, a spokesman for the royal family said the queen "deeply regrets that the inaccuracy of the comments attributed to her may have caused discomfort or offense."
The statement claimed that the queen had been quoted "inexactly" and suggested that the interviewer, the journalist Pilar Urbano, had published comments intended to be private. Urbano denied this and said galleys of the book had been reviewed by the queen's office, which approved them for publication.
In an interview by telephone, Urbano said she had interviewed Sofia several times, though she did not use a tape recorder. Journalists who closely follow the royal family said that the king was incensed by the book and that those responsible for giving the green light may yet be fired.
Antonio Poveda, president of the Spanish Federation of Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals and Transsexuals, said his organization accepted the palace's apology but that "there's definitely still some bad feeling among the gay community."
"The monarch has always been at pains not to comment on social or political issues," he said. "It seems they have broken with this tradition."
The publication of the book, "The Queen Up Close," follows a rash of setbacks for members of the royal family and Spanish aristocracy looking for greater protection from the press that have contributed to a sense that they are no longer untouchable. A court this month ruled against the Duchess of Alba, who was seeking to have copies of a satirical magazine whose cover featured her lying naked in pile of money removed from news stands.
Telma Ortiz, sister of Queen Sofia's daughter-in-law Princess Letizia, this month lost a court battle to obtain restraining orders against dozens of media outlets, which she accuses of hounding her and her family. The court ruled that Ortiz, an aid worker, is in the limelight by dint of her relationship with her sister and ordered her to pay around €45,000, or about $57,000, in costs, according to press reports.
While Díez, the sociology professor, said the ruckus over the book would blow over and have no impact on Sofia's popularity, other analysts said the dents in the Spanish royal family's image were part of a wider trend away from monarchy in Europe.
"Monarchy is old-fashioned by nature, and Europe is modern in its self-esteem," said Geoffrey Hindley, a historian who has written on European monarchy. "The ethos of republicanism is the style of the majority in Europe."
http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/11/17/europe/sofia.php

Over two weeks ago, the IHT ran the piece below on www.iht.com and an edited version in the paper.

I imagine the NYT didn't but their global edition did and it's not evident to me that two weeks later Victoria Burnett (was she on holiday at the time?) has added all that much value.

And if you're an IHT reader in Spain, you must be yawning over breakfast.


Spanish book quotes queen's disapproval of gay marriage
The Associated Press
Friday, October 31, 2008
MADRID: A Spanish journalist on Friday defended the accuracy of her book that quotes Queen Sofia criticizing gay marriage.
The book has irked the Royal Palace.
The Spanish king and queen are largely respected as figurehead representatives of the state, and rarely speak out on political or social issues.
The veteran journalist, Pilar Urbano, released the book - "La Reina muy de cerca," or "The Queen, very close up," - this week to mark the queen's 70th birthday Sunday. The journalist said it was based on 15 interviews with Queen Sofia, and that the Royal Palace approved the book's galley proofs before it was published, according to news agency Efe.
"What the queen said is what my book says," Urbano said.
The Royal Palace has challenged the comments attributed to the monarch, however, saying in a statement they "do not correspond exactly" with what she said. The palace also said the book also fails to reflect the queen's traditional neutrality on public affairs or respect for people who suffer discrimination, like homosexuals.
"I do not answer to the queen or king, or the Royal Palace. I answer to the truth," Urbano told Efe.
In the book, the queen is quoted as addressing a wide range of issues and saying she opposes abortion and euthanasia. Spain allows the former under restricted circumstances, and outlaws the latter. But the queen's alleged remarks on same-sex marriage are the main source of friction and have angered gay rights groups.
Spain legalized gay marriage in 2005, becoming one of the few countries in the world to recognize same-sex couples as having the same rights as heterosexual ones, including the right to adopt children.
"If those persons want to live together, dress up as bride and groom and get married, they can do so, but that should not be called marriage because it is not," the queen is quoted as saying in Urbano's book.
The conservative newspaper El Mundo said the queen erred by breaking with her tradition of quiet neutrality.
"As human as this burst of royal sincerity might be, certainly there were better ways to make Queen Sofia's birthday a new tool for bringing society closer to the throne," the newspaper said in an editorial.

http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/10/31/europe/01spain-fw-360944.php


REVISED: WEDNESDAY 19TH NOVEMBER, 2008

Just so you know I'm not imagining this problem as being regular, as opposed to infrequent, compare and contrast today's story about fighting in the Congo threatening gorillas (by Gettleman) with the same story from Reuters run in the IHT and on www.iht.com on November 10th, 2008, on the same subject.

Once again, wire service well ahead of the curve, and not a hell of a lot of added value from the NYT correspondent.

It's this type of absurd allocation of precious foreign correspondent resource which is why newspapers seem so damn irrelevant and it seems their own memories of what they've already run are really pretty poor.






READ AN ALTERNATIVE IHT DAILY NARRATIVE AT
A PLACE IN THE AUVERGNE


LOOKING FOR A CHRISTMAS BOOK GIFT TO BUY?
"Books about cosmopolitan urbanites discovering the joys of country life are two a penny, but this one is worth a second glance. Walthew's vivid description of the moral stress induced by his job as a high-flying executive with the International Herald Tribune newspaper is worth the cover price alone…. Highly recommended."
The Oxford Times
Amazon.co.uk
A PLACE IN MY COUNTRY
by
Ian Walthew


'I read
A Place in My Country with absolute unalloyed delight. A glorious book.'
Jeremy Irons (actor)

‘Ian Walthew was a newspaper executive with a career that took him round the world, who one day did a mad thing. He saw a for-sale sign on a cottage in the Cotswolds, bought it, resigned and moved in. For the first few weeks he just lay on the grass in a daze. Then he started talking to his neighbours and digging into the rich history of this beautiful part of England. Out of his inquiries grew this affecting and inspiring memoir.What sets it apart from others of its ilk is the author’s enviable immunity to cliché and his determination to love his homeland better than he used to.
His elegiac account of relearning how to be an Englishman should be required reading for anyone who claims to know or love this country.’ Financial Times


Amazon.com

A PLACE IN MY COUNTRY
By
Ian Walthew


For more reviews visit
ianwalthew.com

          Comment on Congo Street Green Initiative by Crimson Allen        
Here's a link to view Greenguard school furniture on our website: https://www.worthingtondirect.com/greenguard-certified-ecofriendly-furniture/miscellaneous-green-furniture.htm
          What the U.S Elections Told Us About MSM        


First-off, print is alive and well. The NYT had increased print runs (35% more copies election Wednesday than usual, an increase of about 150,000. It then added another 75,000) and ran a full-page advert on Thursday offering readers an election result day copy of the paper for a staggering $14.95. Despite the fact that if you check EBay the going rate is $200!

What a bloody shambles, what a chronic sign of miscalculation on their print runs. Only a 35% extra print run? You're kidding me right? They had people queing round the block on Wednesday to buy their paper!!!
Kiosks ran dry, they didn't even believe themselves how many copies they could sell. Absolutely staggering and a sign that not even the NYT's own circulation department believes any longer in the power of print.

The anti-newspaper blogosphere was laughing its head off.

Wednesday, Nov 05
Obama Sells Out Dead Tree Editions of Local Newspapers

We've noticed a number of people twittering and facebooking today that they couldn't find a copy of various papers this morning. Turns out they weren't imagining it! The Daily News sold out of even the extra printed copies of their regular morning edition and planned on printing and distributing an updated second edition. The New York Times reported that the New York Post had also sold-out (in our non-scientifically based experience it is always the first to go) along with the Times.

The [Times] printed 35 percent more papers in the 'single copy' print run, which supplies newsstands. Still, by morning, company officials found that papers were "selling out all across the metropolitan area" and decided to print 50,000 more copies for sale in the New York area.This isn't a New York-based phenomenon, either.

Apparently the Washington Post also sold-out of newsstand copies and the Chicago Tribune was experiencing very long lines. Now if Barack Obama could just do something historic and momentous every single day for the next four years he could feasibly save the entire print journalism industry!



Secondly, Palin: She got a free ride. Not only that but I didn't see a MSM outlet explore this possibility, which happens to be my own personal opinion:

Did the Republican Party of George W. Bush want to win this election? I wonder.

With many of its moderate senators and congressmen unseated, that party still exists and it's not evident it belongs to Senator John McCain.

But either way, this was a hospital pass election if ever there was one. Perhaps either McCain, or the GOP grandees, came to the conclusion that this wasn't a ball they wanted to receive, that only a Democrat administration could wipe clean the slate for the GOP or at least begin to. Were I a Republican party grandee, I'd be quite happy to let the Democrats pick up the check for the last 8 years and try and pay it off, because the chances are they'll end up having to wash dishes in the kitchen to sort this mess out.

McCain began his primary campaign well before the financial meltdown, before the war in Afghanistan was lost, before Mexico began the final journey to becoming a narco state (a government plane crashed on the day of the election, an accident we are told, at least for now, but a fine time for a cartel to murder the U.S.A.'s southern neigbbour's Interior Minister); before Bhutto's assasination and a nuclear Pakistan possibly falling to the Taliban, before the escalation of Iran's nuclear capabalities; beforethe Congo, before India degenerating into ethnic chaos, before global recession/depresssion, before Obama won the democractic primary. Surely he must have realised that the presidency was a poisoned chalice.

Chosing Palin, someone so clearly incompetent and in the very midst of an ethics investigation, a person who who stood a 1 in 8 chance of becoming President, given all the variables, was the equivalent of scuttling his campaign.

McCain may have started out wanting to become President of the U.S.A but by the time it looked like he might actually have a chance, he bailed.Palin moved the undecided and previous moderate republicans firmly to Obama. Race relations in the U.S.A are so appalling that only such a fine W. mess could possibly have allowed a black man to be elected, even a half white one who has spent his entire adult life less than 12 miles from an elite American university campus.

Berlusconi's tasteless remarks about Obama being young, handsome and even tanned pretty much summed up what type of black man is 'in'. Gays on the other hand are still very much 'out' as judged by the large number of anti-gay marriage ballot successes.

Nevertheless there was a photo from the campaign trail of a confederate flag with the slogan "Even Rednecks Have Had Enough". Perhaps so had McCain.

I'll leave someone more eloquent than I to explain this Palin Oversight by papers such as the NYT but MSM failing to nail Palin, as they could and should have done, is cited below as a reason why MSM is imploding:


Andrew Sullivan: The Daily Dish 06 Nov 2008 11:51 am
The Civic Responsibility Of Carl Cameron
Look: I understand that information given strictly off the record cannot be used. I am a stickler for that myself and there's stuff I know that I cannot tell Dish readers because of those rules. But at the same time, my commitment to you is never to bullshit my opinion that reflects that information. And the reporting of Palin fell into that category at times. I became convinced very early - just from public information - that she was obviously a disastrous choice, made on a whim, and obviously not ready for prime time. On August 30, I posted the
following quotes from serious leaders in Alaska who knew Palin:
"She's not prepared to be governor. How can she be prepared to be vice president or president?" said Green, a Republican from Palin's hometown of Wasilla. "Look at what she's done to this state. What would she do to the nation?"
And this:
Anchorage Democratic state Sen. Hollis French said it's a huge mistake by McCain and "reflects very, very badly on his judgment." French said Palin's experience running the state for less than two years hasn't prepared her for this.
But actual reporters were soon finding this out for themselves - and not even conveying the gist of that to their viewers and readers. Why not?
They kept taking Palin seriously as a veep candidate when she didn't come close to even minimal standards for passing a citizenship test. I'm sorry but I think this is a terrible failing, and it is a reason the mainstream media are imploding.
They let the rules of the game over-rule their duty to tell the American people the truth as they began to discover it. The truth is that Sarah Palin had no business whatever being on a national ticket. It was an insanely reckless choice. She could never adequately perform the job of president at a moment's notice, and the McCain campaign and their media enablers were putting this country and the world at serious risk by perpetuating this farce.
It was a farce. And it was a potential threat to national security if anything happened to McCain in office. But they couldn't admit a mistake because it would have killed their campaign, destroying our impression of McCain's judgment and management skills. So they kept this farce alive for two months, putting the country at potentially great risk to massage their own careers. Now they are doing all they can to dump on her. But the dumpage goes both ways. The McCain camp picked Palin and stuck with her far longer than any people who put country first would have. Every reason why she should not have been picked is a reason why McCain should never have been president.



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          A Journey of the Mind: Asking Animals How We Became Human        
Thursday, April 11, 2013 - 7:00pm
The City Library - 210 East 400 South, Salt Lake City, Utah

Nature of Things Lecture featuring

Dr. Brian Hare
Evolutionary Anthropologist

Click Here for the Podcast of Dr. Brian Hare's Lecture

Location: The City Library, 210 East 400 South, Salt Lake City
View Google Map
Free event -- tickets are not required

The only way to understand what it is to be human is to know what it is like to be not human.  Evolutionary anthropologist Dr. Brian Hare will share research comparing the human mind to that of the bonobo and chimpanzee, as well as the minds of our more distant relatives, like the dog.  Revealing the secrets of these species’ inner lives helps us understand exactly what it is about our species that is truly unique.  It also helps us understand how the human mind came to be.  Join Dr. Hare on a journey exploring the evolution of the human mind that will take you from the dense tropical forests of the Congo Basin to the steppes of Siberia. At the journey’s end, we’ll confront the question: are humans really as different as we think?

Dr. Brian Hare is associate professor of evolutionary anthropology at Duke University in North Carolina and a member of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, which is a division of the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard University, founded the Hominoid Psychology Research Group while at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and subsequently founded the Duke Canine Cognition Center when arriving at Duke University.

He recently published The Genius of Dogs: How Dogs Are Smarter Than You Think with his wife Vanessa Woods.  He is also the founder and Chief Scientific Officer of the citizen science company Dognition.com.  Dr. Hare has shared his research in several NOVA episodes on animal intelligence and in the PBS series “The Human Spark.”

Complete Nature of Things 2013 Series Information

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Nature of Things Founding Underwriter:  R. Harold Burton Foundation

Presenting Partner:  JPMorgan Chase

Gold Sponsor: Rio Tinto | Kennecott Utah Copper

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          Projek Oven        
Salam 1 Ramadan...

Bersempena hari baik lagi mulia ni, dengan ini aku secara rasminya melancarkan Projek Oven!





Ya..ya.. aku tau lah bulan puasa mana ada orang makan. Tapi waktu malam boleh makan kan?kan? kan? hehehe.. tak pun, kot la korang da mula fikir-fikir nak bawak manisan apa yang untuk balik kampung raya nanti (dah fikir nak raya!)..haaa.. boleh la start order ngan kita.

Aku memang ambil masa lama sebelum berani nak lancarkan projek ni. Ya, aku perlu berekperimen dulu dengan pelbagai jenis resepi. Aku sangat pentingkan kualiti rasa. Kalau aku rasa tak sedap, aku tak nak jual. Memang banyak kali jugak la aku buat ni sampailah dapat yang betul-betul menepati citarasa aku dan InsyaAllah citarasa korang jugak.

Aku juga perlu bereksperimen dengan masa sebab aku buat ni secara part-time iaitu lepas balik kerja so kena ambil kira juga kekangan masa yang ada dengan jumlah order. Masa tu penting sebab aku masih perlu beri fokus utama pada pekerjaan hakiki.

Setakat ni aku fokus kepada 3 projek ini saja :
  • Brownies kedut with melted choc inside
  • Choc n cheese moist cake with melted cheese inside
  • Congo bar
Brownies kedut tu korang boleh request nak topping apa. Nutella, almond, kitkat, strawberries etc..pun boleh.

Ok, bolehlah like instagram kita : Projek Oven


Hahaha..maap ye buat korang terliur di kala puasa ini..


          New Addiction        
Assalamualaikum dan haii...

Lama dah tak update blog. Ni baru balik daripada interview HLP. Letih kot tapi rasa lega sangat la semua da setel. Tunggu result je la. Kalau ada rezeki, Alhamdulillah. Amin.. So sementara nak warm up sebelum sambung buat kerja, marilah kita update blog kejap.

Saje je nak cerita my new addiction. Orang lain kot addict nak collect handbag ke, collect kasut ke.. tapi aku plak dok addict buat kek je sekarang. Haha.. sungguh mak-mak hobi ini.

Actually aku memang suka baking tapi da lama stop sebab kedudukan plug oven yang tak sesuai. Alasan sangat kan.haha.. aku memang gitu, kalau benda tu da tak menepati piawaian aku, aku da terus rasa malas nak buat.

Baru-baru ni, encik suami da menyelesaikan masalah plug oven tu. Pasang extension je pun. Tapi kalau kemalasan didahulukan, memang takkan terpasang la extension tu sampai bila-bila. So plug da ok, so dah takde alasan untuk aku bermalas-malasan membaking.

So sebab aku suka makan brownies, maka aku pun rasmikan semula oven tu dengan membuat brownies. Bahan senang aje cuma mahal sket la tang chocolate tu. Sebab yang menjamin kesedapan brownies tu adalah penggunaan coklat yang berkualiti.

Actually aku takde lah nak share resepi bagai sebab aku cuma nak cerita hobi aku sekarang kan. hahaha.. resepi aku google ja. So inilah beberapa hasilnya.

My first brownies kedut.. nikmat dunia yang tak boleh dinafikan..  rasa chocolate tu heaven sangat.

 Potong-potong bawak ke opis. Licin. haha..

Try buat congo bar. Aku tak pernah makan congo bar so tak tau rasa sebenar macam mana n xtau la jadik ke tak sebenarnya congo bar aku buat ni. Hahaha.. bawak pi opis, licin dengan alas loyang bawah tu lenyap sekali. haha..

Baked macaroni cheese! Adik aku sibuk la suh buat masa dia ngan mak aku datang. So aku buat la. Feveret gak nih.

Ni chocmoist cake yang aku buat untuk bagi budak-budak masa sambutan Hari Guru kat tadika Saif hari tu. Sedap gak. Pandai aku buat.hahaha.. ni Saif ada tolong tabur-tabur hiasan atas tu. Tapi ni versi kukus.

Ni yang semalam buat brownies kedut lagi, test resepi lain. try buat piping. Kira ok la kan. Tang potong bergerigi tu sakit skit mata aku tengok. Tapi aku da beli cutter baru. hope cantik la kejadiannya lepas ni.

 Pasni nak try buat cake decoration plak. La ni asal pegang hp or bukak youtube asyik la dok tengok tutorial kek ja. Hahaha