Sejarah Kesultanan Sulu        
Berikut adalah sejarah Kesultanan Sulu, yang pernah menguasai Laut Sulu di Filipina Selatan dan kerajaan ini didirikan pada tahun 1450. Kerajaan Kesultanan Sulu adalah sebuah kerajaan Islam pada kegemilangannya dan sempadan kerajaan ini dari Mindanao sehingga ke timur Sabah.

Mengikut daripada sejarah awal kerajaan ini. ianya bermula pada tahun 1380 oleh seorang ulama yang berasal dari tanah Arab iaitu Karim Ul-Makdum telah menyebarkan ajaran Islam di kepulauan Sulu.

Kemudian pada tahun 1390, Seorang Raja yang berasal dari Minangkabau iaitu Raja Bagindo telah meneruskan ajaran Islam di Wilayah ini dan mengislamkan masyarakat Sulu sehingga ke Pulau Sibutu dan Raja Baginda meneruskan penyebaran Islam sehingga ke akhir hayatnya.

Pada tahun 1450, selepas Islam berkembang di kepulauan Sulu dan kawasan sekitarnya, maka hadir lah seorang lelaki yang berketurunan Arab dari Johor iaitu Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr dan kemudiannya dinikahkan dengan Puteri Raja Bagindo iaitu Paramisuli dan meneruskan usaha Raja Bagindo menyebarkan ajaran Islam di Wilayah tersebut.

Pada Tahun 1457 Selepas kematian Raja Bagindo, Shari'ful Hashem Syed Abu Bakr telah menubuhkan Kesultanan Sulu dengan memakai gelaran Paduka Maulana Mahasari Sharif Sultan Hashem Abu Bakr dan memerintah Kesultanan Sulu.

Pada tahun 1703, Kesultanan Sulu telah dihadiahkan Timur Sabah dari Kesultanan Brunei diatas bantuan menumpaskan pemberontak di kesultanan Brunei dan pada tahun yang sama Puteri Sulu dikahwinkan dengan Sultan Qudarat dari Kesultanan Maguindanao dan sebagai hadiah perkahwinan Pulau Palawan telah diserahkan kepada Sultan Qudarat dan juga sebagai hadiah persekutuan Maguindanao dengan Sulu, Pulau Palawan telah dihadiahkan kepada Sepanyol.

Semasa penjajahan British, Sandakan telah dipajak oleh Sultan Sulu kepada British, dan pajakan tersebut dikatakan untuk tempoh tanpa had yang diungkap oleh serangkai ayat " Selagi ada bulan dan bintang".

Ketika Persekutuan Malaysia ditubuhkan pada tahun 1963, Sabah telah dimerdekakan dari British dan dimasukkan ke dalam Persekutuan Malaysia

Sumber Wikipedia, sahabatblogsabah.blogspot.com www.rajamenangis.com
 
          Jadual & Keputusan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017        
Jadual & Keputusan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017|Bilakah tarikh perlawanan bolasepak dalam Sukan SEA 2017? Adakah edisi kali ini skuad Malaysia B-22 akan menjuarai piala acara bolasepak Sukan SEA KL 2017 ? Nantikan perlawanan bolasepak Malaysia yang diundi dalam Kumpulan A bersama Myanmar, Singapura dan Brunei. Manakala dalam Kumpulan B terdiri daripada pasukan Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, Timor Leste dan Filipina. Dijadualkan skuad negara B-22 akan menentang Brunei dalam penampilan pertama pada 14 Ogos 2017 ini.


Untuk makluman anda, jadual rasmi acara bolasepak lelaki bawah 22 tahun bagi temasya Sukan SEA Kuala Lumpur 2017 akan berlangsung mulai 14 hingga 29 Ogos ini. Acara bolasepak lelaki akan diadakan di Stadium Shah Alam, Stadium UiTM, Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang dan Stadium UM Arena.

Jadual & Keputusan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017


ISNIN 14 OGOS 2017

(Kumpulan A)
● MYANMAR vs SINGAPURA
● MALAYSIA vs BRUNEI

RABU 16 OGOS 2017

Kumpulan A
● SINGAPURA vs MALAYSIA
Stadium Shah Alam 8.45 malam
● MYANMAR vs LAOS
Stadium UiTM Shah Alam 8.45 malam

JUMAAT 18 OGOS 2017

Kumpulan A
● LAOS vs SINGAPURA
Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang 4 petang
● BRUNEI vs MYANMAR
Stadium UiTM Shah Alam 4 petang

ISNIN 21 OGOS 2017

Kumpulan A
● BRUNEI vs LAOS
Stadium UM Arena, Kuala Lumpur 4.00 petang
● MALAYSIA vs MYANMAR
Stadium Shah Alam 8.45 malam

RABU 23 OGOS 2017

Kumpulan A
● LAOS vs MALAYSIA
Stadium Shah Alam 8.45 malam
● SINGAPURA vs BRUNEI
Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang 8.45 malam

* Jadual ini hanya melibatkan pasukan Malaysia B-22.

SABTU 26 OGOS 2017

Separuh Akhir
● Juara Kumpulan A vs Naib Juara Kumpulan B
● Juara Kumpulan B vs Naib Juara Kumpulan A

SELASA 29 OGOS 2017

● Penentuan Pingat Gangsa 4.30 petang
Kalah Separuh Akhir 1 vs Kalah Separuh Akhir 2

● Final (Penentuan Pingat Emas & Perak) 8.45 malam
Pemenang Separuh Akhir 1 vs Pemenang Separuh Akhir 2

Jadual & Keputusan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017
Senarai pasukan dalam peringkat kumpulan 

Mampukah skuad negara menggalas tugas yang dibimbing oleh Datuk Ong Kim Swee untuk menjulang piala edisi Sukan SEA kali ini?

Jadual & Keputusan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017
Wajah-wajah pemain Malaysia B22 Sukan SEA 2017

Baca juga :Jadual Penuh Acara Sukan SEA 2017

Ayuh beri sokongan skuad Malaysia Bawah 22 dalam temasya Sukan SEA 2017. Jangan ketinggalan tonton siaran langsung perlawanan bolasepak skuad negara di Media Prima dan Astro. Sila bookmark page ini untuk rujukan. Selamat maju jaya!
          Jadual Pertandingan Acara Sukan SEA 2017 Kuala Lumpur         
Jadual Pertandingan Acara Sukan SEA 2017 |Bila Sukan SEA Kuala Lumpur 2017 ? Sukan SEA ke-29 akan berlangsung bermula 19 hingga 30 Ogos 2017, dimana Kuala Lumpur telah terpilih sebagai tuan rumah edisi kali ini. Jika sebelum ini Kuala Lumpur pernah menjadi tuan rumah pada tahun 2001, lagi sekali Malaysia memikul tanggungjawab sukan terbesar di rantau Asia Tenggara. Sebanyak 405 acara dari 38 sukan dipertandingkan di Sukan SEA Kuala Lumpur 2017 antaranya seperti olahraga, bolasepak, angkat berat, akuatik, badminton dan banyak lagi.

Jadual Pertandingan Acara Sukan SEA 2017

Untuk edisi kali ini, tuan rumah Malaysia memilih Harimau Malaya sebagai maskot Sukan SEA 2017 yang dikenali RIMAU. Manakala logo Sukan SEA Kuala Lumpur 2017 pula dicipta berasaskan Wau Bulan yang merupakan lambang kebanggaan Malaysia. Bagi peminat sukan tanah air, jangan ketinggalan menonton siaran langsung Sukan SEA 2017 di saluran Astro, RTM, Media Prima TV3 dan HyppTV.

Jadual Pertandingan Acara Sukan SEA 2017
Maskot RIMAU Sukan SEA 2017

Jadual Acara Sukan SEA KL 2017


Berikut dikongsikan adalah jadual pertandingan acara-acara sukan terkini yang dipertandingkan di Sukan SEA KL 2017 seperti ;

● Akuatik
- Diving (26-30)
- Swimming (21-26)
- Synchronized Swimming (17-20)
- Open Water (18)
- Water Polo (15-20)
● Memanah (16-22)
● Olahraga (19-26)
● Tenpin Boling (20-25)
● Gimnastik
- Artistic (20-23)
- Rhythmic (26-28)
● Badminton (22-29)
● Tinju (20-24)
● Kriket (17-29)
● Ekuestrian
● Lawan Pedang (21-23)
● Golf (22-26)
● Hoki
- Padang (21-29)
- Dewan (21-26)
● Luncur Ais
- Berbunga (26-27)
- Berganti (29-30)
● Judo (26-27)
● Boling Padang (22-27)
● Petanque (21-28)
● Pelayaran (21-29)
● Menembak (21-26)
● Skuasy (21-19)
● Ping Pong (20-26)
● Billiard & Snooker (22-27)
● Tenis (21-26)
● Futsal (18-27)
● Bolasepak (14-29)
● Sepak Takraw (16-29)
● Berbasikal
- BMX (26)
- Lebuhraya (21-24)
- Track (27-29)
●Triathlon (21)
● Bola Keranjang (20-26)
● Bola Tampar (14-20)
● Ragbi 7 Sebelah (19-20)
● Ski Ais & Waterboard (25-29)
● Angkat Berat (28-30)
● Pencak Silat (24-29)
● Muay (26-29)
● Taekwondo (26-29)
● Karate (22-24)
● Wushu (20-22)

Jadual Pertandingan Acara Sukan SEA 2017

* Kesemua acara sukan SEA Games KL 2017 berlangsung pada bulan Ogos.

Negara Bertanding Sukan SEA 2017


1. Malaysia (Tuan rumah)
2. Indonesia
3. Thailand
4. Vietnam
5. Kemboja
6. Myanmar
7. Timor Leste
8. Filipina
9. Laos
10. Singapura
11. Brunei

Lokasi/ Venue Sukan SEA 2017


Berikut adalah lokasi atau venue acara Sukan SEA 2017 berlangsung di Kuala Lumpur ;

Jadual Pertandingan Acara Sukan SEA 2017

Tiket Sukan SEA Kuala Lumpur 2017


Untuk makluman anda, tiket Sukan SEA 2017 dijual pada harga sekitar RM10 ke RM20. Dikhabarkan acara renang, taekwondo, pencak silat dan bola jaring telah habis dijual. Jika anda ingin dapatkan tiket Sukan SEA KL 2017, boleh buat pembelian secara online di laman web www.kualalumpur2017.com.my.

Bagi anda yang ingin membeli tiket ketika acara sukan berlangsung boleh dapatkan di kiosk tiket di venue pertandingan secara tunai, kad kredit dan kad debit.

Jadual Pertandingan Acara Sukan SEA 2017
Pingat Sukan SEA 2017

Mampukah Malaysia menjuarai keseluruhan pingat emas dalam edisi Sukan SEA kali ini? Jom ayuh beri sokongan padu kepada atlet negara kita yang akan memperjuangkan dalam pentas sukan masing-masing mulai 19 Ogos ini. Bagi peminat bolasepak, boleh rujuk jadual perlawanan bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017 DISINI. Selamat maju jaya!
          Comment on Banners Design for Mobile Unlock Base by MichaelImmed        
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To get the additional information and place the order just visit our website: http://www.salepassportsfake.cc www. salepassportsfake.cc >> Contact e-mails: General support: support@salepassportsfake.cc Technical support: admin@salepassportsfake.cc ----------------------------- Keywords: buy fake passport of Afghanistan buy fake passport of Albania buy fake passport of Algeria buy fake passport of Andorra buy fake passport of Angola buy fake passport of Antigua & Deps buy fake passport of Argentina buy fake passport of Armenia buy fake passport of Australia buy fake passport of Austria buy fake passport of Azerbaijan buy fake passport of Bahamas buy fake passport of Bahrain buy fake passport of Bangladesh buy fake passport of Barbados buy fake passport of Belarus buy fake passport of Belgium buy fake passport of Belize buy fake passport of Benin buy fake passport of Bhutan buy fake passport of Bolivia buy fake passport of Bosnia Herzegovina buy fake passport of Botswana buy fake 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          The Sultan and the Cellphone        

Reading through a few training forums last week, I came across several comments and questions on the same theme : 'I am embarking on providing mobile learning, what hardware should I buy for the people involved.'

Most of the replies which came back seemed to me to be completely missing the point! You see, unless you are particularly well-loaded, like the Sultan Of Brunei (pictured here at a promotional launch of Train and Go at a recent F1 event) (er, cough cough, actually I did that in Photoshop) - you should actually be thinking the other way round : 'How can I offer mobile learning in a way that means I don't have to fork out money on hardware'

I was genuinely surprised at the number of people who in my view were putting the proverbial cart before the horse. Certainly if you are an independent or small training company without the Sultan's vast wealth, you need to be thinking along the lines of : 'Most people out there already have some kind of mobile phone or laptop. How can I offer mobile learning to them in a way which is compatible with their existing hardware? That way, it makes it simple, convenient, and inexpensive for me !'

Train and Go was designed from the outset to be compatible across a whole range of mobile devices including Nokias, Sony Ericssons, iphones and BlackBerrys. And of course, you can view or listen to course content from your laptop or PC to even further increase the accessibility of course material. That takes a LOT of headache out of offering mobile learning to your clients.

And finally, if you are the Sultan of Brunei and you happen to be reading this, we hope you don't mind us using your photo in our little photo-montage and if you'd like to offer your endorsement, we'd be very humbly grateful, and P.S. can you lend me a tenner for the pub tonight ? Your Highness ?


          A Muslim's Top 10 Wishes for 2016        

This post originally appeared in the Huffington Post on January 3, 2015. You can find the original article by clicking here or on the title. 

A Muslim's Top 10 Wishes for 2016

Have you ever made a wish that's come true -- because you made the wish? Until now, making a wish, whether at the sight of a shooting star or when blowing out the candle(s) on your birthday cake or when breaking a wishbone, has not yet been scientifically proven to actually work, as far as I know. Yet, in the spirit of hope, I am making 10 wishes at the beginning of the New Year. And as is always the case, as a Muslim, I speak on behalf of 1.5 billion people. So here goes...
1. People no longer confuse me with ISIS.
My name isn't ISIS. It's not even Islamic State. In fact, the words Islamic or State are not actually in my extended name. Nevertheless, time and time again, I keep getting requests to respond to the group's actions. I swear, ISIS or ISIL or IS -- none of them are in my family tree; they're not some distant cousins of mine. In 2016, I just want people to stop confusing me with ISIS. I really don't know what ISIS is thinking and why they do what they do. It's not like the State Department is asked for comment because of the State-to-State connection. As a postscript, can ISIS stop using the word Islamic? 
2. Muslims stop killing Muslims for being Muslim.
Somewhere, along the way over the last couple of decades, Muslims started killing other Muslims for being Muslim in the wrong way, or at least took it to a whole new level. There's a whole ideology out there built around takfir or essentially "declaring Muslims as kufar or unbelievers" for failing an evermore peculiar litmus test. Imagine if death squads emerged killing Black people for not being Black enough. Originating in some of the philosophical exhortations by scholar Ibn Taymiyyah 700 years ago, the criteria by which you are deemed "takfir-ed" and permissible to be killed has reached insane if not idiosyncratic levels. It would be funny if the situation weren't so deadly. Even barbers were caught in the crosshairs and were being assassinated in Baghdad in the 2000s. 
3. Death and destruction in the Muslim world have a timeout. 
From Yemen to IraqLibya to Somalia, and from Afghanistan to far beyond, civil strife is rife in too many parts of what is defined as the Muslim world. Autocrats, militants, extremists and terrorists, don't care who they kill: men, women, children -- everyone is fair game. I wish this would stop. Into this toxic mix, the last thing needed is more killing coming into these countries from the outside; the 2003 invasion of Iraq proved that. I wonder if Russia will hear that message? 
4. We all get comfortable with the "other."
What a difference it was in 2015 between Trudeau and Trump in the North American political cycle. The world needs more Trudeaus and less Trumps (Donalds that is). The fear of the "other" is starting to define Western politics and it is not just about Trump. The rise of right-wing political parties in Europe from Hungary to Denmark is a poignant reminder of the breadth of this phenomenon. Yet, outside the West this fear of the other also permeates and often dominates. In Turkey, we are seeing a renewed vilification of the Kurdish population. Further afield in Burma, the Rohingyaare cast as outsiders. In Malaysia, Christians are prohibited from using the Arabic word for God. And, in nearby Brunei, Christmas was simply cancelled. In some of the war zones in the Middle East, Christians are on the verge of disappearing. The world would be a lot better off if we weren't so afraid of the bogeyman of the other.
5. The Muslim world deals with its taboos. 
Speaking of an aversion to the non-orthodox, there's a whole set of taboos that many Muslim countries and societies need to start dealing with. A lot of them relate to sex. Sometimes the Muslim world acts like it has one big case of the cooties. There have been attempts by some to break through these restrictions. Wedad Lootah in the UAE comes to mind. Shereen El Feki's Sex and the Citadel is another. This is not an issue to take lightly, especially in societies where 60-70 percent of youth are under the age of 30. Bombarded by sexualized imagery from modern and digital media, these youth then live, essentially, in an austere second world that is their reality. More importantly and tragically, rape and sexual assault are simply not talked about; child abuse is an even worse curse hidden under the rug. Finally, at some point Muslim countries - and the clerical establishment -- will need to come to terms with the fact that gay Muslims exist
6. Somewhere, over the rainbow, democracy and Islam go steady. 
Let's be honest, a lot of people have tried to set up democracy with Islam for a relationship. Sometimes it has been a surprise blind date (e.g. Iraq in 2003). Other times, it was a relationship that grew from blind passion (e.g. the Arab world in 2011). Often, the sparks of love eventually turn into animus and things quickly go south. In the Arab world, Tunisia is carrying - with some fragility -- the banner of democracy. Many Muslim-majority countries that used to be counted as democracies now suffer from authoritarian syndromes (e.g. TurkeyMalaysia, and Bangladesh). In other cases, democracy in its infancy quickly devolved into score settling or majoritarian mafias (e.g. the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt). Perhaps Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim country is our hope that can breathe life into this wish. 
7. Averroes comes back in style. 
Averroes -- or Ibn Rushd -- was a man's man. He schooled his way into Raphael's The School of Athens. The polymath kept alive ancient Greek philosophy, paving the way for much of Europe's modern intellectual movements. Back in the day, in Andalusia, he was a big deal (Biden-style). And, why not? He vociferously argued for the co-existence of secular and religious thought in a posthumous debate with the Abbasid scholar Al Ghazali. Ultimately, Ibn Rushd lost the debate to the detriment of the Muslim world, but his arguments culminated with the work, The Incoherence of Incoherence, which I think would be a great riposte to all ISIS ideologues and their friends. If Ibn Taymiyyah came back, then let's bring Averroes back too. 
8. Flying while Muslim is no longer a thing. 
They say that flying while Muslim is the new driving while Black. I guess if you're a Black Muslim, this really sucks, especially if you drive to the airport for your flight. So my wish maybe can be two-pronged: getting rid of both 'driving while Black' as well as 'flying while Muslim.' What is flying while Muslim? Well, it often starts with a casual stare or two from across the way. A timid approach then ensues: "Excuse me sir." This is normally followed by a more forceful: "Please follow me." It can then get quite aggressive, with clothes falling by the wayside. It normally ends with your belongings in disarray, your belt on backwards, and you fast-walking without turning back in the hope that no one thinks twice about you boarding your flight. Oh, and don't watch the news while on the plane. I hate flying while Muslim. 
9. Trump presides over a Muslim beauty contest. 
Was 2015 the year of Trump? You have to hand it to Trump; he sure knows how to grab the spotlight. Unfortunately, he's used that spotlight to spew increasingly populist venom targeted at Muslims (and others). Maybe, we need to better appeal to Trump's core interest: beauty pageants. There are a few lists circulating online for potential Muslim contestants (for Men: click here | for Women: click here). Yet, I think we should make this a mipsters pageant and turn this whole thing on its head. 
10. Peace comes to Syria. 
This Muslim (me) -- speaking on behalf of 1.5 billion people around the world -- has 10 wishes for 2016 but if only one of them came true it should be this one. No country has been more ravaged in recent memory than Syria. Hundreds of thousands have been killed as gangsters, terrorists, and dictators fight for supremacy. The surrounding region, instead of trying to promote a solution, has sent in weapons, fighters, and incitement. The world, instead of trying to mediate, has sought to settle old scores. All the while, the people in Syria live in lifeless limbo amidst daily death and destruction. If I had only one wish it would be that the violence in Syria would come to an end. 
This wish list is non-exhaustive. I think I may have missed a few...

          SMM 2011 Schedule        




Akhir pekan ini adalah puncak dari DotA untuk tahun 2011, dan tim terbaik dari seluruh dunia akan terbang ke Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, tepatnya Jumat ini untuk memulai tiga hari yang menakjubkan bersama SMM.





Seperti dapat dilihat, acara online tahun ini akan berlangsung tiga hari penuh mulai pukul 03:00 CET(Waktu Eropa Bagian Tengah) setiap pagi. Dengan seluruh acara disiarkan secara langsung oleh joinDOTA yaitu TobiWanKenobi sendiri, dan semua berharap akan terjadinya pertarungan kualitas tinggi yang dimulai Jumat ini.


Terakhir, daftar tim yang berpartisipasi juga baru saja diumumkan pada DotATalk, dan mereka adalah sebagai berikut:



List negara yang bertanding :
1. China
2. Indonesia
3. Burma
4. Singapur
5. Thailand
6. Philipina
7. Malaysia
8. Brunei
9. Uni Eropa

Akankah wakil dari Indonesia menang?? Ataukah kembali DK khususnya China kembali yang merajai turnament ini?? We'll see !!
          Video from South Korean launch of new iPad        

Today Apple launched the new iPad in an additional 12 countries around the world. While eleven of the countries -- Brunei, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Malaysia, Panama, St Maarten, Uruguay and Venezuela -- are relatively small markets, the new iPad also went on sale in South Korea, one of the most technologically advanced countries on the planet and one of the major tech markets in Asia. Check out the video below, first posted by Apple 2.0, to see South Korean Apple fans lining up for the new tablet at a local Apple reseller.

Apple's new iPad international rollout isn't done for the month either. One week from today on Friday, April 27, Apple will begin selling the new iPad in an additional nine countries: Colombia, Estonia, India, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, South Africa and Thailand. The new iPad will then be available in 56 countries around the world.


          New iPad launching in 21 additional countries this month        

Apple today issued a press release announcing the new third-generation iPad will go on sale in another twleve countries starting on Friday, April 20. Notably, one of the twelve is the important South Korean market. The other eleven countries include Brunei, Croatia, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Malaysia, Panama, St Maarten, Uruguay and Venezuela.

Then one week later on Friday, April 27, Apple will begin selling the new iPad in an additional nine countries: Colombia, Estonia, India, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, South Africa and Thailand. Both the Wi-Fi and 4G models will be on sale and available through Apple's online store and at select Apple Authorized Resellers.

The new iPad will be available in 56 countries around the world as of April 27th.


          Sabah in Borneo        
Where is Borneo and Where is Sabah?

Borneo is the third largest island in the world. It is owned Malaysia and Indonesia. Divided into three main parts  Sabah, Sarawak and Kalimantan. In this article we will focus on North Borneo, Sabah.

Sabah Borneo Malaysia
Located at the northern tip of Borneo, Sabah is the second largest state in Malaysia. Some 80% of its area is covered with virgin tropical jungle, and is home to some of the world rarest species of orchids and plants, such as the world’s largest flower Rafflesia, one of the world’s smallest orchid, podochilus and the world’s largest orchid, tiger orchid.  

Also known as “land below the wind”. Sabah has over 2,300 kilometers of coastline bounded by the South China Sea, Sulu sea and celebes sea.
The land rises from the low coastal hill and leads to highest mountain in Southeast Asia, Mount Kinabalu  (4101m).

Sabah is a truly plural society with more than 40 ethnics group living harmoniously together. Among the indigenous tribes are Kadazans, Bajaus, Rungus, Bisayas and Bruneis.
On the north eastern coast  of Sabah is Sandakan, the former capital. It remains a busy port with attraction such as the Sandakan Orchid House, Forestry Exhibition Centre and Goamantong Caves. These caves are known for its bird’s nest, a local delicacy.

The Orangutan Sanctuary at Sepilok is the only one of its kind in the world. Establish in 1964, this centre which  covers over 4,500 hectares offers tourist a class of view of the habitat of the orangutan. You may be lucky to catch a glimpse of these shy “wild men of Borneo”. It is located in a virgin jungle. A raised platform that has been specially built allows tourist to watch the habit of these magnificent creatures. The interesting eating behavior of the orangutan has generated a lot of interest among tourists and photographer. It has become the key attraction of the Sepilok  Centre. The feeding times are at 10am and 3pm everyday. Different species of wild mammals and more than 200 species  birds are also found here. if  you would like to stay overnight to observe these creatures  further, reasonably priced accommodation is available outside the sanctuary.
   

Poring Hot Spring is located in the district of Ranau 40 kilometers from Kinabalu Park. It was developed by Japanese during world war 11 which is situated in lowland rainforest. The springs are acknowledged for their curative properties and the waters contain sulphuric minerals are apparent to relieve pain muscles. The baths are favored by the climbers after climb Mount Kinabalu.

Poring Hot Spring resort also provides several facilities such as :

1.       Poring Orchid Conservation Centre
2.       Kipungit Waterfall
3.       Butterfly farm
4.       Poring Canopy Walkway
5.       Tropical Garden

Lahad Datu, 175 kilometers south of Sandakan, is gateway to the Danum Valley Conversation Area, an area where the Asian Rhinoceros still roam.

The jewel in crown of Sabah’s dive sites is Sipadan Island 30 kilometers south of Semporna in the Celebes sea. Sipadan is actually the crown of volcanic spire formed millions of years ago, and has been described by Jacques Cousteau as “An untouched piece of art ”.


If you are diver, never forget these underwater caves, Barracuda Point, turtle cavern, and Whitetip Avenue where is located at Sipadan island are fulfilled with wonderful exotic fishes and corals. There is habitat for flashlight fish, soldier fish and beautiful corals.
KATA PENGANTAR

Puji  syukur  kami  panjatkan  kehadirat  Allah  swt., karena  atas  limpahan  rahmat  dan  karunia – Nya lah  sehingga  kami  dapat  menyelesaikan  Makalah Sejarah  ini  sesuai  waktunya.
          Kami  mencoba  berusaha  menyusun  makalah  ini  sedemikian  rupa  dengan  harapan  dapat  membantu  pembaca  dalam  memahami  pelajaran  Sejarah yang  merupakan  judul  dari  Makalah  kami, yaitu  “ASEAN (Association  of  South  East  Asian  Nation)”. Disamping  itu, kami  berharap  bahwa   Makalah Sejarah  ini  dapat  dijadikan  bekal  pengetahuan  untuk  melangkah  ke  jenjang  pendidikan  yang  lebih  tinggi  lagi.

          Kami  menyadari  bahwa  didalam  pembuatan  Makalah Sejarah  ini  masih  ada  kekurangan  sehingga  kami  berharap  saran  dan  kritik  dari  pembaca  sekalian  khususnya  dari  guru  mata  pelajaran  PKn  agar  dapat  meningkatkan  mutu  dalam  penyajian  berikutnya.
          Akhir  kata  kami  ucapkan  terima  kasih.

                                                                                                                                Sukabumi, 05 oktober 2013

                                                                                                                                Penyusun












DAFTAR ISI 
HALAMAN  JUDUL
KATA  PENGANTAR…………………………………………………………………………………             i
DAFTAR  ISI………………………………………………………………………………………………          ii
BAB  I              PENDAHULUAN
  1. 1.      Latar  Belakang………………………………………………………………………..   
  2. 2.      Tujuan  Penulisan…………………………………………………………………….   
  3. 3.      Masalah…………………………………………………………………………………… 
BAB  II             PEMBAHASAN
  1. 1.      Latar  Belakang  Terbentuknya  ASEAN…………………………………..   
  2. 2.      Negara-Negara  Anggota  ASEAN……………………………………………..
  3. 3.      Lambang  ASEAN……………………………………………………………………
  4. 4.      Tujuan  Dibentuknya  ASEAN………………………………………………….  
  5. 5.      Struktur  Organsisasi  ASEAN…………………………………………………. 
  6. 6.      Kerja  Sama  ASEAN……………………………………………………………….
  7. 7.      Keuntungan  Indonesia  dengan  Bergabung  Dalam  ASEAN…….   
BAB  III           PENUTUP
  1. 1.      Kesimpulan……………………………………………………………………………
  2. 2.      Saran……………………………………………………………………………………
DAFTAR  PUSTAKA ………………………………………………………………………………


 BAB I
PENDAHULUAN
  1. 1.             Latar  Belakang
           Adakalanya  tingkah  laku  binatang  menjadi  inspirasi  bagi  manusia. Bahkan, binatang  yang  kecil  sekalipun, seperti  semut. Suatu  waktu  kamu  pasti  pernah  melihat  sekelompok  semut  mampu  mengangkut  benda  yang  besar. Jika  hanya  seekor  semut  yang  mengangkut  benda  itu, pasti  tidak  kuat. Kejadian  itu  menjadi  contoh  bagi  orang, masyarakat, bahkan  negara. Inti  kejadian  tersebut  adalah  kegotongroyongan, kebersamaan, atau  menjalin  kerja  sama. Sebuah  negara  kecil  dapat  menjadi  kuat  bila  saling  bekerja  sama  dengan  negara-negara  kecil  lainnya. Contoh  yang  lebih  nyata  adalah  negara-negara  Asia  Tenggara.
           Karena  adanya  masalah  yang  terjadi  di  Asia  Tenggara, sehingga  negara-negara  yang  merupakan  anggota  Asia  Tenggara  bersatu  dan  membentuk  organisasi  yang  dinamakan  ASEAN  (Association  of  South  East  Asian  nation). ASEAN  merupakan  perhimpunan  bangsa-bangsa  di  Asia  Tenggara  yang  didirikan  pada  tanggal  8  Agustus  1967  di  Bangkok, Thailand, melalui  penandatanganan  Deklarasi  Bangkok  oleh  Menteri  Luar  Negeri  Filipina, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, dan  Singapura.
  1. 2.             Tujuan
          Tujuan  pembuatan  makalah  ini  adalah  untuk  memperluas  wawasan  kita  tentang  hal-hal  yang  dikaji  dalam  makalah  ini. Di  mana  dalam  makalah  ini telah  dikaji  tentang  salah  satu  organisasi  yang  beperan  dalam  meningkatkan  hubungan  internasional, yaitu  ASEAN  (Association  Of  South  East  Asian  Nation).

  1. 3             Masalah
          Adapun  masalah  yang  akan  dibahas  dalam  makalah  ini, yaitu :
  1. Bagaimana  latar  belakang  terbentuknya  ASEAN ?
  2. Negara-negara  manakah  yang  merupakan  anggota  ASEAN ?
  3. Jelaskan  tentang  Lambang  ASEAN !
  4. Jelaskan  tujuan  dibentuknya  ASEAN !
  5. Sebutkan  struktur  organisasi  ASEAN !
  6. Bagaimana  kerja  sama  ASEAN ?
  7. Apa  keuntungan  Indonesia  dengan  bergabung  dalam  ASEAN ?


      BAB II
PEMBAHASAN

1.      Latar  Belakang  Terbentuknya  ASEAN
        Negara-negara  yang  termasuk  dalam  wilayah  Asia  Tenggara  adalah  Indonesia, Malaysia, Filiphina, Myanmar, Singapura, Brunei  Darussalam, Thailand, Vietnam, Kampuchea, dan  Laos.
       Letak  Asia  Tenggara  sangat  strategis. Kekayaan  alamnya  sangat  melimpah. Ini  membuat  bangsa  lain  menjadi  iri  dan  ingin  menguasainya. Buktinya, sejak  abad  ke-15  bangsa  Eropa  sudah  mengacak-acak  Asia  Tenggara. Spanyol, Portugis, Inggris, Prancis, Amerika  Serikat, dan  Belanda  ke  Asia  Tenggara  tidak  hanya  ingin  berdagang. Penjajahan  bangsa  Inggris  atas  Malaysia, Singapura, Myanmar, dan  Indonesia; Penjajahan  bangsa  Spanyol  dan  Amerika  Serikat  atas  Filipina; penjajahan  bangsa  Belanda  atas  indonesia; penjajahan  bangsa  Prancis  atas  laos, Kampuchea, dan  Vietnam; serta  penjajahan  bangsa  Portugis  atau  Timor-Timur  adalah  contoh  nyata  betapa  besar  keinginan  bangsa  Eropa  dan  Amerika  menguasai  Asia  Tenggara.
       Negara-negara  yang  dijajah  tersebut  akhirnya  dapat  melepaskan  diri  dari  penjajahan. Mereka  merasa  senasib  dan  memiliki  banyak  persamaan. Persamaan-persamaan  tersebut  menimbulkan  perasaan  setia kawan. Akhirnya, ada  lima  negara  di  wilayah  Asia  Tenggara  sepakat  untuk  membentuk  sebuah  organisasi. Kelima  negara  tersebut  adalah  Indonesia, malaysia, Thailand, Singapura, dan  Filipina.
       Pada  tanggal  5-8  Agustus  1967  kelima  negara  tersebut  mengadakan  pertemuan  di  tepi  Pantai  Bangsaem, bangkok, Thailand. Pertemuan  tersebut  dihadiri  oleh  lima  orang  yang  merupakan  wakil  dari  lima  negara. Kelima  orang  tersebut  sebagai  berikut.
  1. Adam  Malik; Menteri  Presidium  Urusan  Politik/Menteri  Luar  Negeri  indonesia.
  2. Tun  Abdul  Razak; Wakil  Perdana  Menteri  Pembangunan  Malaysia.
  3. Thanat  khoman; Menteri  Luar  Negeri  Thailand.
  4. S. Rajaratnam; Menteri  Luar  Negeri  Singapura.
  5. Narciso  Ramos, Menteri  Luar  Negeri  Filipina.
       Pada  tanggal  8  Agustus  1967  di  Bangkok, Thailand  dan  melalui  penandatanganan  Deklarasi  Bangkok oleh  Menteri  Luar  Negeri  Filiphina, Indonesia,Thailand, Malaysia, dan  Singapura, maka  dibentuklah  sebuah  organisasi, yaitu  ASEAN  (Association  of  South  East  Asian  Nation).
2        Negara-Negara  Anggota  ASEAN
        Mula-mula  anggota  ASEAN  hanya  lima  negara, yaitu  Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapura  dan  Filiphina. Pada  tanggal  7  Januari  1984, negara  Brunei  Darussalam  menjadi  anggota  keenam  ASEAN. Selanjutnya, pada  tanggal  28  Juli  1995, negara  Vietnam  menjadi  anggota  ketujuh  ASEAN. Negara  Laos  dan  Myanmar  menjadi  anggota  kedelapan  dan  kesembilan  ASEAN  pada  tanggal  23  Juli  1997. Kampuchea  tidak  mau  ketinggalan. Negara  ini  bergabung  menjadi  anggota  kesepuluh  ASEAN  pada  tanggal  16  Desember  1998.  Pada  saat  ini, kesepuluh  negara  di  Asia  Tenggara  itulah  yang  menjadi  anggota  ASEAN
3.        Lambang  ASEAN
        Seperti  halnya  orgaisasi  lainnya, ASEAN  juga  mempunyai  lambang. Adapun  lambang  ASEAN  yang  dilukiskan  atau  digambarkan  sebagai  berikut.
   
Penjelasan  mengenai  simbol  tersebut,  adalah :
  1. Lingkaran, mengandung  arti  kesatuan  ASEAN. Dalam  logo  ASEAN  terdapat  dua  buah  lingaran, yaitu  lingkaran  luar  dan  lingkaran  dalam. Lingkaran  luar  berwarna  biru  melambangkan  perdamaian  dan  stabilitas. Lingkaran  dalam  berwarna  putih  melambangkan  kesucian  dan  ketulusan.
  2. Batang  padi  berjumlah  sepuluh, melambangkan  jumlah  anggota  ASEAN. Warna  kuning  padi  tersebut  melambangkan  kemakmuran.
  3. Tulisan  ASEAN  dan  lingkaran  lambang  berwarna  biru, melambangkan  persahabatan.
  4. Warna  dasar  merah, melambangkan  keteguhan  dan  kedinamisan.
 Secara  keseluruhan lambang  ASEAN  menggambarkan  hal-hal  berikut.
  1. Solidaritas  dan  kesepakatan  ASEAN
  2. Keterikatan  dalam  kerja  sama  demi  kemakmuran  rakyat  negara-negara  ASEAN.
  3. Setia  pada  perdamaian  dan  stabilitas  kawasan  ASEAN  dan  dunia  umumnya.
 4.       tujuan  Dibentuknya  ASEAN
           Tujuan  pembentukan  ASEAN  tertuang  dalam  Piagam  ASEAN  yang  memuat  hal-hal  sebagai  berikut.
1)      Memelihara  dan  meningkatkan  perdamaian, keamanan, dan  stabilitas  serta  lebih    memperkuat  nilai-nilai  yang  berorientasi  pada  perdamaian  di  kawasan;
2)      Meningkatkan  ketahanan  kawasan  dengan  memajukan  kerja  sama  politik, keamanan, ekonomi, dan  sosial  budaya  yang  lebih  luas;
3)      Mempertahankan  Asia  Tenggara  sebagai  Kawasan  Bebas  Senjata  Nuklir  dan  bebas  dari  semua  jenis  senjata  pemusnah  massal  lainnya;
4)      Menjamin  bahwa  rakyat  dan Negara-Negara  Anggota  ASEAN  hidup  damai  dengan  dunia  secara  keseluruhan  di  lingkungan  yang  adil, demokratis, dan  harmonis;
5)      Menciptakan  pasar  tunggal  dan  basis  produksi  yang  stabil, makmur, sangat  kompetitif, dan  terintegrasi  secara  ekonomis  melalui  fasilitasi  yang  efektif  untuk  perdagangan  dan  investasi, yang  di  dalamnya  terdapat  arus  lalu  lintas  barang, jasa-jasa  dan  investasi  yang  bebas; terfasilitasinya  pergerakan  pelaku  usaha, pekerja  profesional, pekerja  berbakat  dan  buruh; arus  modal  yang  lebih bebas;
6)      Mengurangi  kemiskinan  dan  mempersempit  kesenjangan  pembangunan  di  ASEAN  melalui  bantuan  dan  kerja  sama  timbal  balik;
7)      Memperkuat  demokrasi, meningkatkan  tata  kepemerintahan  yang  baik  dan  aturan  hukum, dan  memajukan  serta  melindungi  hak  asasi  manusia  dan  kebebasan-kebebasan  fundamental, dengan  memperhatikan  hak-hak  dan  kewajiban-kewajiban  dari  Negara-Negara  Anggota  ASEAN;
8)      Menanggapi  secara  efektif, sesuai  dengan  prinsip  keamanan  menyeluruh, segala  bentuk  ancaman, kejahatan  lintas-negara  dan  tantangan  lintas  batas;
9)      Memajukan  pembangunan  berkelanjutan  untuk  menjamin  perlindungan  lingkungan  hidup  di  kawasan, sumber  daya  alam  yang  berkelanjutan, pelestarian  warisan  budaya, dan  kehidupan  rakyat  yang  berkualitas  tinggi;
10)      Mengembangkan  sumber  daya  manusia  melalui  kerja  sama  yang  lebih  erat  di  bidang  pendidikan  dan  pembelajaran  dan  sepanjang  hayat, serta  di  bidang  ilmu  pengetahuan  dan  teknologi, untuk  pemberdayaan  rakyat  ASEAN  dan  penguatan  Komunitas  ASEAN;
11)      Meningkatkan  kesejahteraan  dan  penghidupan  yang  layak  bagi  rakyat ASEAN  melalui  penyediaan  akses  yang  setara  terhadap  peluang  pembangunan  sumber  daya  manusia, kesejahteraan  sosial, dan  keadilan;
12)      Memperkuat  erja  sama  dalam  membangun  lingkungan  yang  aman  dan terjamin  bebas  dari   narkotika  dan  obat-obat  terlarang  bagi  rakyat  ASEAN;
13)      Memajukan  ASEAN  yang  berorientasi  kepada rakyat  yang  di  dalamnya  seluruh  lapisan  masyarakat  didorong  untuk  berpartisipasi  dalam, dan  memperoleh  manfaat  dari, proses  integrasi  dan  pembangunan  komunitas  ASEAN;
14)      Memajukan  identitas  ASEAN  dengan  meningkatkan  kesadaran  yang  lebih  tinggi  akan  keanekaragaman  budaya  dan  warisan  kawasan; dan
15)      Mempertahankan  sentralitas  dan  peran  proaktif  ASEAN  sebagai  kekuatan  penggerak  utama  dalam  hubungan  dan  kerja  samanya  dengan para  mitra  eksternal  dalam  arsitektur  kawasan  yang  terbuka, transparan, dan  inklusif.
Tujuan  ASEAN  tercantum  dalam  Deklarasi  bangkok, yaitu :
  1. Mempercepat  pertumbuhan  ekonomi, kemajuan  sosial, dan  perkembangan  kebudayaan  di  kawasan  Asia  Tenggara;
  2. Meningkatkan  perdamaian  dan  stabilitas  regional;
  3. Meningkatkan  kerja  sama  di  bidang  ekonomi, sosial, teknik, ilmu  pengetahuan, dan  administrasi;
  4. Meningkatkan  kerja  sama  di  bidang  pertanian, industri, perluasan  perdagangan, perbaikan  sarana  pengangkutan  dan  komunikasi, serta  peningkatan  taraf  hidup  rakyat;
  5. Memelihara  kerja  sama dengan  organisasi-organisasi  internasional  dan  regional  agar  semakin  mempererat  anggota  ASEAN;
           Secara  singkat  dapat  disebutkan  bahwa  maksud  dan  tujuan  didirikannya  ASEAN  adalah  untuk  meningkatkan  kerja  sama  di  bidang  ekonomi, sosial, budaya, dan  politik, serta  mewujudkan  ketertiban  dan  perdamaian  di  kawasan  Asia  Tenggara.
  5.     Struktur  Organsisasi  ASEAN
         Struktur  lembaga  dan  mekanisme  di  ASEAN, antara  lain  sebagai  berikut.
1)      Konferensi  Tingkat  Tinggi  (KTT)  ASEAN  sebagai  pengambil  keputusan  utama  yang  akan  memberikan  arah  kebijakan. KTT  diselenggarakan  minimal  2  kali  setahun. KTT  merupakan  pertemuan  tertinggi  dalam  ASEAN  yang  dihadiri  oleh  kepala  negara  ASEAN;
 2)       Dewan  Koordinasi  ASEAN  (ASEAN  Coordinating  Council)  yang  terdiri  dari  para  Menteri Luar  Negeri  ASEAN  dengan  tugas  mengkoordinasi  Dewan  Komunitas  ASEAN  (ASEAN  Community  Councils);
3)       Dewan  Komunitas  ASEAN  (ASEAN  Communiti  Councils)  dengan  ketiga  pilar  komunitas  ASEAN   yakni  Dewan  Komunitas  Politik-Keamanan  ASEAN  (ASEAN  Political-Security  Community  Council/APSCC), Dewan  Komunitas  Ekonomi  ASEAN  (ASEAN  Economic  Community  Council/AECC), dan  Dewan  Komunitas  Sosial-Budaya  (ASEAN  Socio-Cultural  Community  Council/ASCC);
4)       Badan-badan  Sektoral  Tingkat  Menteri  (ASEAN  Sectoral  Ministerial  Bodies).
5)      Komite  Wakil  Tetap  (Committee  of  Permanent  Representatives)  yang  terdiri  dari  wakil  tetap  negara  ASEAN, pada  tingkat  duta  besar  dan  berkedudukan  di  Jakarta.
6)        Sekretaris  Jenderal  ASEAN  yang  dibantu  oleh  4(empat)  orang  wakil  sekretaris  jenderal dan  sekretariat  ASEAN.
7)          Sekretariat  Nasional  ASEAN  yang  dipi
          Latar Belakang Berdirinya ASEAN        


SEJARAH BERDIRINYA ASEAN

ASEAN adalah kepanjangan dari Association of South East Asia Nations. ASEAN disebut juga sebagai Perbara yang merupakan singkatan dari Perhimpunan Bangsa-Bangsa Asia Tenggara. Gedung sekretarian ASEAN berada di Kebayoran Baru, Jakarta Selatan, Indonesia. ASEAN didirikan tanggal 8 Agustus 1967 di Bangkok. ASEAN diprakarsai oleh 5 menteri luar negeri dari wilayah Asia Tenggara, yaitu Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Filipina dan Singapura :


1. Perwakilan Indonesia : Adam Malik
2. Perwakilan Malaysia : Tun Abdul Razak
3. Perwakilan Thailand : Thanat Koman
4. Perwakilan Filipina : Narcisco Ramos
5. Perwakilan Singapura : S. Rajaratnam

Sedangkan terdapat negara-negara lain yang bergabung kemudian ke dalam ASEAN sehingga total menjadi 11 negara, yaitu :

1. Brunei Darussalam tangal 7 Januari 1984
2. Vietnam tangal 28 Juli 1995
3. Myanmar tangal 23 Juli 1997
4. Laos tangal 23 Juli 1997
5. Kamboja tangal 16 Desember 1998


Prinsip Utama ASEAN

Prinsip-prinsip utama ASEAN digariskan seperti berikut:
Menghormati kemerdekaan, kesamaan, integritas dan identitas nasional semua negara
Setiap negara memiliki hak untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan nasionalnya tanpa ada campur tangan dari luar
Penyelesaian perbedaan atau perdebatan antar negara dengan aman
Menolak penggunaan kekuatan dan kekerasan
Meningkatkan kerjasama yang efektif antara anggota

ASEAN dikukuhkan oleh lima negara pengasas; Indonesia, Malaysia, Filipina, Singapura dan Thailand di Bangkok Proses pembentukan ASEAN dibuat dalam sebuah penandatanganan perjanjian yang dikenal dengan nama “Deklarasi Bangkok”. Adapun yang bertanda tangan pada Deklarasi Bangkok tersebut adalah para menteri luar negeri saat itu, yaitu Bapak Adam Malik (Indonesia), Narciso R. Ramos (Filipina), Tun Abdul Razak (Malaysia), S. Rajaratnam (Singapura), dan Thanat Khoman (Thailand). Pada tanggal 8 Januari 1984, seminggu setelah mencapai kemerdekaannya, negara Brunei masuk menjadi anggota ASEAN. 11 tahun kemudian, tepatnya tanggal 28 Juli 1995. Laos dan Myanmar menjadi anggota dua tahun kemudianya, yaitu pada tanggal 23 Juli 1997. Walaupun Kamboja sudah menjadi anggota ASEAN bersama sama Myanmar dan Laos, Kamboja terpaksa menarik diri disebabkan masalah politik dalam negara tersebut. Namun, dua tahun kemudian Kamboja kembali masuk menjadi anggota ASEAN pada 30 April 1999.

LOGO ASEAN

Logo ASEAN membawa arti ASEAN yang stabil, aman, bersatu dan dinamik. Warna logo ada 4 yaitu biru, merah, putih dan kuning. Warna tersebut merupakan warna utama lambang negara-negara ASEAN. Warna biru melambangkan keamanan dan kestabilan. Merah bermaksud semangat dan dinamisme sedangkan putih menunjukkan ketulenan dan kuning melambangkan kemakmuran. Sepuluh tangkai padi melambangkan cita-cita pelopor pembentuk ASEAN di Asia Tenggara, yaitu bersatu dan bersahabat. Bulatan melambangkan kesatuan ASEAN.



TUJUAN DIBENTUKNYA PIAGAM ASEAN (ASEAN CHARTERED).

  Tahun 2007 bisa dikatakan bersejarah bagi ASEAN. Kawasan ini memiliki tampilan baru. Ada harapan ASEAN akan terstruktur dan tersistematis.

  Semua itu ditandai dengan ditandatanginya Piagam ASEAN (ASEAN Charter) sebagai kerangka “konstitusi bersama” ASEAN.

  Keberadaan sebuah piagam agar bisa lebih mengikat negara-negara anggota sebenarnya sudah cukup lama dikumandangkan di kalangan pemikir ASEAN. Akan tetapi, baru pada Konferensi Tingkat Tinggi (KTT) ASEAN tahun 2003 di Bali, keinginan ASEAN untuk memiliki sebuah piagam bersama itu mulai dikonkretkan.

  Ibarat sebuah perusahaan yang harus memiliki status hukum yang jelas, apakah itu perseroan terbatas (PT) atau perusahaan dagang (PD), ASEAN sebagai organisasi regional yang sudah berusia 40 tahun ini memang sudah seharusnya punya status hukum. Idealnya, dengan adanya status hukum itu, ASEAN lebih punya keleluasaan untuk bekerja sama dengan berbagai pihak, khususnya kalangan pebisnis. Dia (ASEAN) juga bisa memiliki aset, visi, dan misi, serta alat/perangkat untuk mewujudkan visi dan misinya tersebut.

  Piagam ASEAN memang tidak otomatis akan mengubah banyak hal di ASEAN. Malah, piagam itu sesungguhnya makin mengekalkan banyak kebiasaan lama. Misalnya, pengambilan keputusan di ASEAN tetap dengan cara konsensus dan KTT ASEAN menjadi tempat tertinggi untuk pengambilan keputusan jika konsensus tidak tercapai atau jika sengketa di antara anggota terjadi.

  Meski demikian, piagam tersebut hadir di saat yang pas, yaitu ketika kawasan Asia Tenggara ini terus berubah dan negara-negara ASEAN semakin memperluas cakupan kerja sama yang lebih kukuh ke Asia Timur (Jepang, Korea Selatan, dan China), Asia Tengah (India), serta ke selatan (Australia dan Selandia Baru). Juga, KTT Asia Timur yang diselenggarakan beriringan dengan KTT ASEAN.

Tujuan dibentuknya Piagam Asean adalah sebagai berikut

1. Permudah kerja sama

  Adanya Piagam ASEAN secara organisatoris akan membuat negara anggota ASEAN relatif akan lebih terikat kepada berbagai kesepakatan yang telah dibuat ASEAN. Secara teoretis, piagam itu akan semakin mempermudah kerja sama yang dibuat ASEAN dengan mitra-mitra dialognya.

  Jika pada masa lalu mitra ASEAN terkadang mengeluh bahwa kesepakatan yang telah dibuat dengan ASEAN ternyata hanya dilaksanakan dan dipatuhi oleh beberapa negara anggota ASEAN, kini kekhawatiran itu bisa dikurangi.

  Mekanisme kerja yang lebih jelas di ASEAN seperti tertuang dalam Piagam ASEAN itu juga akan mempermudah mitra-mitra atau calon-calon mitra yang ingin berurusan dengan ASEAN. Begitu pula bila di kemudian hari terjadi persengketaan, Piagam ASEAN telah membuat pengaturan umum untuk penyelesaian sengketa itu.

  Lebih penting lagi secara politis, ASEAN kini menegaskan dirinya sebagai organisasi yang menghormati serta bertekad untuk menjunjung tinggi hak asasi manusia (HAM) dan nilai-nilai demokrasi. Piagam meminta ASEAN menghargai HAM.

  Meski saat ini pelaksanaan kedua hal itu masih jauh dari ideal, setidaknya ASEAN sudah mengakui bahwa penghormatan atas HAM dan demokrasi sebagai nilai-nilai dasar, sama seperti umumnya negara maju. Dengan demikian, hambatan psikologis untuk bekerja sama dengan negara-negara ASEAN seperti sering terdengar selama ini dari beberapa negara maju, setidaknya sudah bisa dikurangi meski hambatan belum sepenuhnya bisa dihapuskan.

2. Tantangan internal

  Keberhasilan ASEAN melahirkan sebuah piagam bersama tidak otomatis bermakna ASEAN yang semakin solid. Tantangan terbesar justru berada di lingkungan internal ASEAN sendiri, khususnya bagaimana agar benar-benar bisa mengimplementasikan piagam itu sehingga ASEAN menjadi kekuatan yang menyatu dan tidak terpecah belah.

  Bagaimanapun, kehadiran Piagam ASEAN, yang di dalamnya mengharuskan para anggota mematuhi apa-apa yang sudah diputuskan bersama oleh ASEAN, akan menimbulkan ketidaknyamanan bagi beberapa pihak. Mereka ini sebenarnya menaruh keberatan atas keputusan bersama itu. Meski demikian, Piagam ASEAN memang telah didesain sedemikian rupa sehingga tidak terlalu keras terhadap para anggotanya yang belum bisa menaati kesepakatan-kesepakatan yang telah dibuat.

  Celah-celah untuk kompromi yang sering kali diistilahkan banyak kalangan sebagai cara ASEAN (the ASEAN way) masih banyak diakomodasi di dalam piagam tersebut. Di bidang ekonomi, misalnya, Piagam ASEAN menjamin hak negara-negara anggota untuk berpartisipasi secara fleksibel dalam pelaksanaan komitmen-komitmen ekonomi di ASEAN. Begitu pula dalam pelaksanaan prinsip-prinsip “politik” ASEAN, seperti khususnya demokrasi dan penghormatan dan jaminan atas hak-hak asasi manusia, asas yang fleksibel tetap dipertahankan.

  Satu hal penting dalam Piagam ASEAN yang memang sudah selayaknya dilakukan adalah menjadikan organisasi ini sebagai organisasi yang berorientasi pada rakyat atau bukan organisasi birokrat semata. Dengan demikian, dibuka bahkan didorong kesempatan lebih besar kepada warga masyarakat ASEAN untuk berinteraksi satu sama lain dengan lebih intens.

  Pergaulan rakyat ASEAN di kawasan regional dan internasional itu tentu akan berkontribusi positif kepada kerja sama ASEAN dengan mitra-mitranya di seluruh kawasan.

3. Langkah paling maju

Ada tiga rencana ASEAN yang dituliskan di piagam itu. Tiga hal itu adalah menginginkan lahirnya Komunitas Ekonomi ASEAN, Komunitas Keamanan ASEAN, dan Komunitas Sosial Budaya ASEAN.

  Jangan skeptis dulu dengan rencana pembentukan komunitas itu. Atau jangan melihat realitas sekarang jika ingin menilai prospek pembentukan tiga jenis komunitas itu. ASEAN bisa saja tidak terlihat berwibawa, melihat realitas sekarang, dengan mayoritas anggotanya punya masalah tersendiri yang tergolong berat. Beberapa di antaranya bahkan masih tergolong negara paria.

  Sesungguhnya, rencana pembentukan komunitas itu merupakan refleksi dari tajamnya visi para pemikir ASEAN. Piagam itu disusun para pakar atau figur terkenal di ASEAN. Wakil dari Indonesia adalah mantan Menteri Luar Negeri Ali Alatas.

  Mantan Menteri Luar Negeri Ali Alatas terkesan jengkel dengan analisis pengamat yang relatif selalu skeptis melihat ASEAN. “Mereka itu kadang genit, ya,” demikian kalimat lucu dari Ali Alatas mengomentari piagam yang disambut dingin oleh pengamat.

4. Piagam merefleksikan pandangan jauh ke depan.

  Bahkan, piagam secara tersirat akan membuat ASEAN malu jika tidak bisa memenuhinya di kemudian hari. Inilah sumbangsih para pemikir ASEAN. Ini merupakan bukti bahwa para pakar ASEAN tidak dungu, tetapi punya sudut pandang yang strategis menuju masa depan.

  Hal ini diperkuat lagi dengan rencana pemerintah ASEAN, yang pada November lalu, di Singapura, sudah menandatangani deklarasi pembentukan Komunitas Ekonomi ASEAN pada tahun 2015. Bahkan, pada tahun 2008 sudah ada langkah untuk mewujudkan komunitas ekonomi ini. Tujuan akhirnya adalah aliran barang, jasa, warga yang relatif lebih bebas di ASEAN.

  Ini strategis mengingat contoh empiris, negara kaya di dunia menjadi makmur karena mobilitas itu. Para teknokrat ekonomi dan para figur terkenal ASEAN sudah memberi contoh soal penyusunan langkah ke depan.

  Sekarang ini, eksekusinya ada di lingkungan pemerintah di ASEAN yang sarat problem, bahkan masih suka menyiksa rakyat.

  Apakah junta Myanmar tahu piagam, atau lebih percaya piagam ketimbang paranormal? Ini hanya contoh kecil. Tetapi sudahlah, semoga waktu akan mengubah perangai dan perilaku sebagian pemerintahan di ASEAN, yang juga masih sering sekadar berkomitmen dan tidak bertindak nyata. Setidaknya mereka masih mau menorehkan sejarah baru dengan menandatangani Piagam ASEAN dan juga cetak biru Komunitas Ekonomi ASEAN 2015

5. Strategis

  Piagam itu sendiri dinilai strategis karena akan menjadi landasan hukum yang menjamin integrasi politik, sosial, ekonomi, budaya, keamanan, demokratisasi, perlindungan hak asasi, dan pelestarian lingkungan.

  Pembuatan piagam merupakan terobosan penting dalam sejarah ASEAN, yang selama 40 tahun lebih bersifat peguyuban. Dalam menghadapi tantangan 40 tahun kedua, ASEAN memang membutuhkan pijakan hukum yang lebih jelas dalam membangun blok politik dan ekonomi.

          The Afternoon Sound Alternative 09-14-2016 with Dave Blackwood        
Playlist:

The Frightnrs- Purple - Nothing More To Say
AM Shawn Lee- Two Times - La Musique Numrique
Byron Lee The Dragonaires- Jamaican Rock - Jamaican Explosion
Bossacucanova- Berimbau feat Os Cariocas - The Best Of Bossacucanova
Bomba Estreo- Soy Yo - Amanecer
Lecture On Nothing Eddie Miller- I Will Rise - Lecture On Nothing
Young Fathers- Shame - White Men Are Black Men Too
- voicebreak -
Vinyl Williams- Riddles Of The Sphinx - Brunei
Rust Eden- Curly - Apartment Green
Slow Club- Let The Blade Do The Work - One Day All Of This Wont Matter Any More
AllahLas- Strange Heat - Calico Review
Dinosaur Jr- Tiny - Give A Glimpse Of What Yer Not
Thee Oh Sees- Plastic Plant - A Weird Exits
Morgan Delt- Escape Capsule - Phase Zero
Thom Sonny Green- System - High Anxiety
Bear Mountain- Badu - Badu
Tobacco- Human Om - Sweatbox Dynasty
Flamingods- Rhama - Majesty
Direct Hit- A Message To Young People - Wasted Mind
Rubi Ate The Fig- I Must Go - Live Santa Fe NM
Steel Cranes- Today Is The Day - Tango
Nots- Entertain Me - Cosmetic
Menomena- Taos - Mines
Band Of Skulls- The Devil Takes Care Of His Own - Sweet Sour
Carl Sagans Skate Shoes- Under The Texas Sun - Carl Sagans Skate Shoes
The Veils- Low Lays The Devil - Total Depravity
Mild High Club- Head Out - Skiptracing
Talking Heads- Found A Job - Stop Making Sense
Cool Ghouls- Animal Races - Animal Races
Car Seat Headrest- Not What I Needed - Teens Of Denial
Preoccupations- Anxiety - Preoccupations
David Bowie- Suffragette City - Changesbowie
The Accidentals- Parking Lot - Parking Lot
Deerhoof- Life Is Suffering - The Magic
Megafauna- Doubt - Welcome Home
Black Foxxes- Whatever Lets You Cope - Im Not Well
Morphine- Cure For Pain - Cure For Pain
Betty Davis- Politician Man - The Columbia Years 19681969


playlist URL: http://www.afterfm.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/playlist.listing/showInstanceID/35/playlistDate/2016-09-14
          ISI SKU PENEGAK BANTARA POINT 1 s.d selesai | BUDISHARE|        
hai SobaT BS Semua, SALAM PRAMUKA . . .

ya di sela sela waktu sibuk saya saya akan Memosting tentang Kepramukaan nih sob, Bagi Para CARA (Calon Bantara ) yang ingin melanjutkan pelantikan ke tingkat bantara Harus bisa dong mengisi Point SKU Penegak Bantara . Nah Bagi kakak kakak bantara yang ingin memberi materi SKU Penegak bantara Saya ada nih Materi materi yang harus kaka mkaka berikan Langsung saja

CEKIDOT ..

SKU BANTARA

SKU penegak Bantara point 1
Rajin dan aktif mengikuti pertemuan-pertemuan Ambalan Penegak.
Sebagai calon pramuka penegak banatara, calon bantara harus mengikuti latihan yang diselenggarakan ambalan minimal 8 kali pertemuan serta telah dinyatakan layak untuk dilantik menjadipramuka penegak Bantara

SKU penegak Bantara point 2
Telah mempelajari dan menyetujui Anggaran Dasar Gerakan Pramuka.

Lihat
Anggaran Dasar Gerakan Pramuka

SKU penegak Bantara point 3
Mengerti dan bersungguh-sungguh mengamalkan Dasa Darma dan Tri Satya dalam kehidupannya sehari-hari.

Tri Satya
Demi kehormatanku aku berjanji akan bersungguh-sungguh
menjalankan kewajibanku terhadap Tuhan dan negara kesatuan repubulik Indonesia dan mengamalkan Pancasiala
menolong sesama hidup dan ikut serta membangun masyarakat
menepati dhasa dharma

Dasa Dharma Pramuka
Pramuka Itu
1 taqwa kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa
  sebagai Pramuka kita harus beriman kepada Tuhan yang maha Esa, serta menyembahnya
 selain itu kita juga harus menjalankan perintah-Nya dan menjauhi larangan_Nya

2 Cinta alam dan kasih sayang sesama manusia
  Sebagai pramuka kita harus bisa memelihara lingkungan sekitar, serta bisa membantu orang lain. tidak berbuat jahat kepada orang lain yang dapat merugikan semua pihak.
3 patriot yang sopan dan kesatriya
 Sebagai Pramuka kita harus bersikap sopan dalam tingkah laku, santun dalam bertutur kata. selain itu kita juga harus bersikap tanpa pamrih, dan tidak sombong akan kemampuannya.
4 patuh dan suka bermusyawarah
  sebagai pramuka selayaknya kita bersikap patuh terhadap orang tua guru serta orang yang lebih tua dari kita. menjalankan semua perintah dengan bertanggung jawab.
selain itu dalam memutuskan suatu kebijakan diawali dengan bermusyawarah untuk mendapatkan keputusan yang mufakat.
5 rela menolong dan tabah
  Sebagai pramuka kita harus bisa saling tolong menolong dalam kebaikan. dan bisa tabah serta tabah dalam  menghadapi masalah yang kita hadapi.
6 rajin trampil dan gembira
  Sebagai pramuka kita harus bersikap rajin dalam segala hal. trampil dalam mengerjakan sesuatu yang kita lakukan. selalu bersiakp gembira dalam kondisi apapun.
7 hemat cermat dan bersahaja
  Tidak menghambur-hamburkan uang untuk hal yang kurang penting, selalu menyisihkan uang untuk ditabung. mencermati semua situasi yang ada untuk menetukan jalan keluar yang haus diambil. selain itu kita juga harus bersikap bersahaja.
8 disiplin berani dan setia
  Tepat waktu, tidak mninggalkan kewajiban, berani mengambil keputusan serta berani mengambil resiko dengan apa yang telah dia pilih. kemudian setia  terhadap orang yang telah membesarkan namannya.
9 bertanggung jawab dan dapat dipercaya
  Seorang pramuka harus bertanggung jawab denagn apa yang telah tugas yang telah diamanatkan denagn melakukan dengan sungguh-sungguh tanggung jawab itu.
10 suci dalam pikiran,perkataan dan perbuatan

SKU penegak Bantara point 4
Dapat memberi salam Pramuka dan tahu maksud dan penggunannya.
Salam dalam Pramuka di bagi menjadi tiga yaitu :
1.Salam biasa

Yaitu salam yang diberikan kepada sesama anggota Pramuka. Siapa yang melihat dulu dialah yang harus memberi salam terlebih dahulu tanpa aba-aba, tidak pandang pangkat, tua maupun muda. Salam tersebut dapat diberikan sambil berjalan, sedang duduk, naik sepeda ataupun kendaraan. Jadi tidak harus berdiri.
2.Salam hormat

Yaitu salam yang diberikan kepada seseorang atau sesuatu yang kedudukannya lebih tinggi.

Untuk salam hormat diberikan kepada :

   * Bendera kebangsaan ketika dikibarkan atau diturunkan dalam suatu upacara.
   * Jenazah yang sedang lewat atau akan dimakamkan.
   * Kepala Negara atau wakilnya, Panglima tinggi, para duta besar, para menteri dan pejabat lainnya.
   * Lagu Kebangsaan Indonesia Raya.

3. Salam janji

Yaitu salam yang dilakukan ketika ada anggota Pramuka yang sedang dilantik. Pemberian salam pramuka dilakukan ketika dilakukan pengucapan janji yaitu Tri Satya atau Dwi Satya. Salam janji juga diberikan pada saat pengucapan janji Trisatya dalam acara Ulang Janji.
 Cara memberikan salam pramuka

   * Posisi siap, tangan kiri lurus ke bawah tangan kanan diangkat pada pelipis, posisi telapak tangan miring, telapak tangan terbuka, punggung tangan di bagian atas.
   * Ketika membawa tongkat; tongkat diangkat dengan tangan kanan dan tangan kiri melintang di depan dada.
   * Untuk salam penghormatan kepada Bendera merah putih, ketika membawa tongkat, tongkat di pindah ke tangan kiri, dengan ujung tongkat masih tetap di depan kaki kanan, dan tangan kanan diangkat pada pelipis, seperti pada posisi ketika tidak membawa tongkat.
   * Dalam keadaan yang tidak memungkinkan (dalam keadaan duduk atau di atas kendaraan), salam pramuka dapat diberikan hanya dengan mengangkat tangan pada pelipis sambil mengucapkan "Salam Pramuka" dan tanpa perlu berdiri.





SKU penegak Bantara point 5
Tahu tanda-tanda pengenal dalam Gerakan Pramuka.

Macam-macam Tanda Pengenal
Tanda Umum
Dipakai secara umum oleh semua anggota Gerakan Pramuka yang sudah dilantik, baik putra maupun putri.
Macamnya: - Tanda tutup kepala, - setangan / pita leher, - tanda pelantikan, - tanda harian, - tanda WOSM.

Tanda Satuan
Menunjukkan Satuan / Kwartir tertentu, tempat seorang anggota Gerakan Pramuka bergabung.
Macamnya: - Tanda barung / regu / sangga, - gugus depan, - kwartir, - Mabi, - krida, - saka, - Lencana daerah, - satuan dan lain-lain.

Tanda Jabatan
Menunjukkan jabatan dan tanggungjawab seorang anggota Gerakan Pramuka dalam lingkungan organisasi Gerakan Pramuka.

Macamnya: - Tanda pemimpin / wakil pemimpin barung / regu / sangga, - sulung, pratama, pradana, - pemimpin / wakil krida / saka, - Dewan Kerja, Pembina, Pembantu Pembina, Pelatih, Andalan, Pembimbing, Pamong Saka, Dewan Saka dan lain-lain.
Tanda Kecakapan

Menunjukkan kecakapan, ketrampilan, ketangkasan, kemampuan, sikap, tingkat usaha seorang Pramuka dalam bidang tertentu, sesuai golongan usianya.

Macamnya: - Tanda kecakapan umum / khusus, - pramuka garuda dan tanda keahlian lain bagi orang dewasa.
Tanda Penghargaan

Menunjukkan jasa atau penghargaan yang diberikan kepada seseorang atas jasa, darma baktinya dan lain-lain yang cukup bermutu dan bermanfaat bagi Gerakan Pramuka, kepramukaan, masyarakat, bangsa, negara dan umat manusia.

Macamnya: - Peserta didik: Tiska, tigor, bintang tahunan, bintang wiratama, bintang teladan. - Orang dewasa: Pancawarsa, Darma Bakti, Wiratama, Melati, Tunas Kencana.



SKU penegak Bantara point 6
Tahu struktur organisasi dan Gerakan Pramuka dan Dewan Kerja Penegak dan Pandega.
Dalam Gerkan Pramuka Struktur organisasi dari Nasional adalah sebagai berikut :
Tingkat nasional
Mabinas ( Majelis Pembimbing Nasional) yang diketuai oleh Presiden RI
Kwarnas ( kwartir Nasional) masa bakti 5 tahun
Dewan Kerja Nasional (DKN) dengan masa bakti 5 tahun

Tingkat Daerah
Mabida (Majelis Pembimbing Daerah) yang di ketuai oleh Gubernur yang menjabat saat itu.
Kwarda ( Kwartir Daerah) dengan masa jabatan 5 tahun
Dewan Kerja Daerah ( DKD ) dengan masa jabatan 5 tahun

Tingkat Cabang
Mabicab (majelis pembimbing cabang) yang diktuai oleh walkota atau bupati.
Kwarcab (Kwartir cabang) dengan masa jabatan 5 tahun
Dewan Kerja cabang (DKC) dengan masa jabatan 5 tahun

Tingkat kecamatan ( ranting)
Mabiran ( majelis Pembimbung Ranting) yang di ketuai oleh Camat
Kwaran ( Kwartir Ranting ) masa bakti 3 tahun
DKR (Dewan Kerja Ranting) masa bakti 3 tahun

Gugus Depan
Mabigus
DKA (Dewan Kerja Ambalan)
 Secara Gambarannya adalah sebagai berikut

SKU penegak Bantara point 7
Tahu arti lambang Gerakan Pramuka.

Lambang Gerkan Pramuka adalah Silhuet (bayangan) tunas kelapa, Lambang ini diciptakan oleh Bp. Soenardjo Atmadipuro, beliau seorang pembina Pramuka yang bekerja di jajaran departemen pertanian.
Adapun arti kiasan Lambang Pramuka adalah sebagai berikut :
1.Buah nyiur dalam keadaan tumbuh dinamakan cikal, dan istilah cikal bakal di Indonesia berarti penduduk asli yang pertama, yang menurunkan generasi baru. Jadi lambang buah nyiur yang tumbuh itu mengkiaskan bahwa tiap anggota pramuka merupakan inti bagi kelangsungan hidup bangsa Indonesia.

2.Buah nyiur dapat bertahan lama dalam keadaan yang bagaimanapun juga. Jadi lambang itu mengkiaskan bahwa tiap anggota pramuka adalah seorang yang rohaniah dan jasmaniah sehat, kuat, dan ulet serta besar tekadnya dalam menghadapi segala tantangan dalam hidup dan dalam menempuh segala ujian dan kesukaran untuk mengabdi pada tanah air dan bangsa Indonesia.

3.Nyiur dapat tumbuh dimana saja, yang membuktikan besarnya daya upaya dalam menyesuaikan diri dalam mesy dimana dia berada dan dalam keadaan bagaimanapun juga.

4.Nyiur tumbuh menjulang lurus ke atas dan merupakan salah satu pohon yang tertinggi di Indonesia. Jadi lambang itu mengkiaskan bahwa tiap pramuka mempunyai cita-cita yang tinggi dan lurus, yakni yang mulia dan jujur, dan dia tetap tegak tidak mudah diombang-ambingkan oleh sesuatu.

5.Akar nyiur tumbuh kuat dan erat di dalam tanah. Jadi lambang itu mengkiaskan tekad dan keyakinan tiap pramuka yang berpegang pada dasar-dasar dan landasan-landasan yang baik, benar, kuat dan nyata ialah tekad dan keyakinan yang dipakai olehnya untuk memperkuat diri guna mencapai cita-citanya.

6.Nyiur adalah pohon yang serba guna dari ujung atas hingga akarnya. Jadi lambang itu mengkiaskan bahwa tiap pramuka adalah manusia yang berguna, dan membaktikan diri dan kegunaannya kepada kepentingan tanah air, bangsa dan negara Republik Indonesia serta kepada umat manusia.

SKU penegak Bantara point 8
Tahu arti Pancasila.

Lambang kebangsaan Indonesia adalah Garuda Pancasila
Arti perisai ditengah melambangkan perthanan Indonesia. adapun arti perisai didalam lambang Garuda Pancasila adalah :
1. Lambang Bintang melambangkan sila pertama yaitu Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa, Yang artinya sebagai Rakyat Indonesia kita harus percaya akan adanya Tuhan Yang Maha Esa. Karena Di Indonesia terdapat 5 agama yaitu : Islam, Protestan, Katholik, Hindu, dan Budha maka kita harus saling menghormati antar pemeluk agama laon.
2. Lambang Kepala Banteng melambangkan sila Ke dua yaitu Kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab, artinya kita sebagai rakyat Imdonesia harus memiliki hati nurani yang kuat, saling tolng menolong serta memiliki jiwa yang bertanggung jawab terhadap keluarga,masyarakat Nusa dan bangsa.
3.Lambang Pohon beringin melambangkan sila ke tiga yaitu Persatuan Indonesia , yang artinya Dalam jiwa setiap manusia Indonesia  tertanam persatuan  yang kokoh. karena dengan persatuan bangsa maka  kedaulatan NKRI bisa kita pertahankan.
4. Lambang Rantai melambangkan  sila ke empat yaitu  Kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan perwakilan, artinya kita dituntut untuk dapat bermusyawarah untuk mendapatkan keputusan yang manfaat bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia.
5. Lambang Padi dan Kapas melambangkan sila ke lima yaitu Keadlan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia, artinya kita sebagai rakyat Indonesia harus bahu membahu menagakkan keadilan dia dallam negeri tercinta ini, karena dengan menjunjung keadilan maka akan tercipta keselarasan kehuidupan berbangsa dan bernegara.

Arti Jumlah Bulu Pada Lambang Garuda Pancasila :
1. Jumlah bulu pada masing masing sayap berjumlah 17 melambangkan tanggal kemerdekaan Indonesia
2. Jumlah bulu pada ekor berjumlah 8 buah melambangkan bulan Agustus yaitu bulan kemerdekaan Indonesia
3. Jumlah bulu pada pangkal ekor berjumlah 19 dan jumlah bulu pada leher berjumlah 45 melambangkan tahun kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Arti warna pada Lambang Garuda Pancasila
Warna emas yang melambangkan kejayaan
warna merah artinya berani
warna putih artinya suci

Semboyan Bhineka tTunggal Ika yang berarti walau berbeda-beda tapi tetap satu jua

SKU penegak Bantara point 9
Tahu sejarah dan arti kiasan warna-warna bendera kebangsaan Indonesia, serta dapat mengibarkan dan menurunkannya dalam upacara.

SEJARAH
Warna merah-putih bendera negara diambil dari warna Kerajaan Majapahit. Sebenarnya tidak hanya kerajaan Majapahit saja yang memakai bendera merah putih sebagai lambang kebesaran. Sebelum Majapahit, kerajaan Kediri telah memakai panji-panji merah putih. Selain itu, bendera perang Sisingamangaraja IX dari tanah Batak pun memakai warna merah putih sebagai warna benderanya , bergambar pedang kembar warna putih dengan dasar merah menyala dan putih. Warna merah dan putih ini adalah bendera perang Sisingamangaraja XII. Dua pedang kembar melambangkan piso gaja dompak, pusaka raja-raja Sisingamangaraja I-XII. Ketika terjadi perang di Aceh, pejuang – pejuang Aceh telah menggunakan bendera perang berupa umbul-umbul dengan warna merah dan putih, di bagian belakang diaplikasikan gambar pedang, bulan sabit, matahari, dan bintang serta beberapa ayat suci Al Quran.Di zaman kerajaan Bugis Bone,Sulawesi Selatan sebelum Arung Palakka, bendera Merah Putih, adalah simbol kekuasaan dan kebesaran kerajaan Bone.Bendera Bone itu dikenal dengan nama Woromporang.Pada waktu perang Jawa (1825-1830 M) Pangeran Diponegoro memakai panji-panji berwarna merah putih dalam perjuangannya melawan Belanda. Kemudian, warna-warna yang dihidupkan kembali oleh para mahasiswa dan kemudian nasionalis di awal abad 20 sebagai ekspresi nasionalisme terhadap Belanda. Bendera merah putih digunakan untuk pertama kalinya di Jawa pada tahun 1928. Di bawah pemerintahan kolonialisme, bendera itu dilarang digunakan. Sistem ini diadopsi sebagai bendera nasional pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, ketika kemerdekaan diumumkan dan telah digunakan sejak saat itu pula.


ARTI WARNA BENDERA NEGARA
warna bendera merah putih
warna merah artinya berani
warna putih artinya suci

Ukuran bendera merah putih
  1. 200 cm x 300 cm untuk penggunaan di lapangan istana kepresidenan;
  2. 120 cm x 180 cm untuk penggunaan di lapangan umum;
  3. 100 cm x 150 cm untuk penggunaan di ruangan;
  4. 36 cm x 54 cm untuk penggunaan di mobil Presiden dan Wakil Presiden;
  5. 30 cm x 45 cm untuk penggunaan di mobil pejabat negara;
  6. 20 cm x 30 cm untuk penggunaan di kendaraan umum;
  7. 100 cm x 150 cm untuk penggunaan di kapal;
  8. 100 cm x 150 cm untuk penggunaan di kereta api;
  9. 30 cm x 45 cm untuk penggunaan di pesawat udara;dan
 10. 10 cm x 15 cm untuk penggunaan di meja.

SKU penegak Bantara point 10
Dapat dengan hafal menyanyikan lagu kebangsaan Indonesia Raya bait pertama di muka orang banyak, dan tahu sikap yang harus dilakukan jika lagu kebangsaan diperdengarkan atau           dinyanyikan pada suatu upacara.


Indonesia Raya
ciptaan Wage Rudolf Supratman

bait I
Indonesia Tanah Airku,
Tanah Tumpah Darahku,
Disanalah Aku Berdiri
Jadi Pandu Ibuku,
Indonesia, Kebangsaanku,
Bangsa Dan Tanah Airku,
Marilah Kita Berseru,
Indonesia Bersatu!
Hiduplah Tanahku,
Hiduplah Negriku,
Bangsaku, Rakyatku semuanya!
Bangunlah Jiwanya,
Bangunlah Badannya,
Untuk Indonesia Raya!

bait II
Indonesia, Tanah Yang Mulia,
Tanah Kita Yang Kaya,
Disanalah Aku Berdiri,
Untuk Slama-lamanya,
Indonesia Tanah Pusaka,
Pusaka Kita Semuanya,
Marilah Kita Mendoa
Indonesia Bahagia!
Suburlah Tanahnya,
Suburlah Jiwanya,
Bangsanya, Rakyatnya, Semuanya!
Sadarlah Hatinya,
Sadarlah Budinya,
Untuk Indonesia Raya!

bait III
Indonesia, Tanah Yang Suci,
Tanah Kita Yang Sakti,
Disanalah Aku Berdiri,
Menjaga Ibu Sejati,
Indonesia Tanah Berseri,
Tanah Yang Aku Sayangi,
Marilah Kita Berjanji,
Indonesia Abadi!
Slamatlah Rakyatnya,
Slamatlah Putranya,
Pulaunya, Lautnya, Semuanya!
Majulah Negrinya,
Majulah Pandunya,
Untuk Indonesia Raya!

reff:
Indonesia Raya, Merdeka, Merdeka,
Tanahku, Negriku Yang Kucinta,
Indonesia Raya, Merdeka, Merdeka,
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya!
Indonesia Raya, Merdeka, Merdeka,
Tanahku, Negriku Yang Kucinta,
Indonesia Raya, Merdeka, Merdeka,
Hiduplah Indonesia Raya!


Sikap yang harus kita lakukan adalah
1. mengakkan pandangan hal ini berarti bahwa kta memiliki semangat nasionalisme yang kuat
2. Sikap tegas hal ini memaknai bahwa perjuangan untuk mendapatkan kemerdekaan indonesia sangatlah sulit dan penuh perjuangan.

Kongres Pemuda II
Gagasan penyelenggaraan Kongres Pemuda Kedua berasal dari Perhimpunan Pelajar Pelajar Indonesia (PPPI), sebuah organisasi pemuda yang beranggota pelajar dari seluruh Indonesia. Atas inisiatif PPPI, kongres dilaksanakan di tiga gedung yang berbeda dan dibagi dalam tiga kali rapat.

Rapat pertama, Sabtu, 27 Oktober 1928, di Gedung Katholieke Jongenlingen Bond (KJB), Waterlooplein (sekarang Lapangan Banteng). Dalam sambutannya, ketua PPI Sugondo Djojopuspito berharap kongres ini dapat memperkuat semangat persatuan dalam sanubari para pemuda. Acara dilanjutkan dengan uraian Moehammad Yamin tentang arti dan hubungan persatuan dengan pemuda. Menurutnya, ada lima faktor yang bisa memperkuat persatuan Indonesia yaitu sejarah, bahasa, hukum adat, pendidikan, dan kemauan

Rapat kedua, Minggu, 28 Oktober 1928, di Gedung Oost-Java Bioscoop, membahas masalah pendidikan. Kedua pembicara, Poernomowoelan dan Sarmidi Mangoensarkoro, berpendapat bahwa anak harus mendapat pendidikan kebangsaan, harus pula ada keseimbangan antara pendidikan di sekolah dan di rumah. Anak juga harus dididik secara demokratis.

Pada rapat penutup, di gedung Indonesische Clubgebouw di Jalan Kramat Raya 106, Sunario menjelaskan pentingnya nasionalisme dan demokrasi selain gerakan kepanduan. Sedangkan Ramelan mengemukakan, gerakan kepanduan tidak bisa dipisahkan dari pergerakan nasional. Gerakan kepanduan sejak dini mendidik anak-anak disiplin dan mandiri, hal-hal yang dibutuhkan dalam perjuangan.

Sebelum kongres ditutup diperdengarkan lagu "Indonesia Raya" karya Wage Rudolf Supratman yang dimainkan dengan biola saja tanpa syair, atas saran Sugondo kepada Supratman. Lagu tersebut disambut dengan sangat meriah oleh peserta kongres. Kongres ditutup dengan mengumumkan rumusan hasil kongres. Oleh para pemuda yang hadir, rumusan itu diucapkan sebagai Sumpah Setia.
Peserta

Para peserta Kongres Pemuda II ini berasal dari berbagai wakil organisasi pemuda yang ada pada waktu itu, seperti Jong Java, Jong Ambon, Jong Celebes, Jong Batak, Jong Sumatranen Bond, Jong Islamieten Bond, PPPI, Pemuda Kaum Betawi, dll. Di antara mereka hadir pula beberapa orang pemuda Tionghoa sebagai pengamat, yaitu Oey Kay Siang, John Lauw Tjoan Hok dan Tjio Djien Kwie serta Kwee Thiam Hiong sebagai seorang wakil dari Jong Sumatranen Bond. Diprakarsai oleh AR Baswedan pemuda keturunan arab di Indonesia mengadakan kongres di Semarang dan mengumandangkan Sumpah Pemuda Keturunan Arab.
71 Pengikrar Sumpah Pemuda

Sugondo Djojopuspito, Poernomowoelan, Sarmidi Mangoensarkoro, Moehammad Yamin, Sunario,
Johanna Masdani Tumbuan

Johanna Masdani Tumbuan termasuk di antara 71 pemuda yang hadir dalam Kongres Pemuda Kedua, Oktober 1928 dan turut serta mengikrarkan Sumpah Pemuda yang berlangsung di sebuah gedung yang terletak di Jalan Kramat Raya no. 106 Jakarta Pusat.

Selain itu, Jo -- demikian ia biasa dipanggil -- juga menjadi seorang saksi sejarah detik-detik Proklamasi Indonesia yang dilakukan oleh Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta pada 17 Agustus 1945. Johanna Masdani Tumbuan juga ikut serta menyusun konsep pembangunan Tugu Proklamasi yang sederhana di depan rumah Bung Karno di Jl. Pegangsaan Timur (kini Jl. Proklamasi) no. 56, Jakarta. Tugu ini kemudian dibongkar oleh Bung Karno, namun dibangun kembali pada tahun 1980-an. Baca juga pada Sejarah Perjuangan Pemuda Indonesia dan Sumpah Pemuda oleh David DS Lumoindong.

Arti Isi Sumpah Pemuda
Pertama
   Kami putra dan putri Indonesia, mengaku bertumpah darah yang satu, tanah air Indonesia.
Artinya sebagai pemuda pemudi generasi penerus bangsa kita harus menyadari bahwa kita satu darah satu keturunan yang berasal dari keturunan Indonesia untuk itu jangan sampai ada pertumpahan darah diantara bangsa sendiri.
Kedua
   Kami putra dan putri Indonesia, mengaku berbangsa yang satu, bangsa Indonesia.
artinya generasi penerus bangsa harus mengakui bahwa kita adalah bangsa indonesia kta tidak boleh bersikap sukuisme yang dapat memecah persatuan dan kesatuan bangsa.
Ketiga
   Kami putra dan putri Indonesia, menjunjung tinggi bahasa persatuan, bahasa Indonesia.
artinya kita sebagai generasi muda selalu menjunjung timggi bahasa Indonesia, harus bangga terhadap bahasa Indonesia.

SKU penegak Bantara point 11
Tahu arti lambang Negara Republik Indonesia.
Lambang kebangsaan Indonesia adalah Garuda Pancasila
Arti perisai ditengah melambangkan perthanan Indonesia. adapun arti perisai didalam lambang Garuda Pancasila adalah :
1. Lambang Bintang melambangkan sila pertama yaitu Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa, Yang artinya sebagai Rakyat Indonesia kita harus percaya akan adanya Tuhan Yang Maha Esa. Karena Di Indonesia terdapat 5 agama yaitu : Islam, Protestan, Katholik, Hindu, dan Budha maka kita harus saling menghormati antar pemeluk agama laon.
2. Lambang Kepala Banteng melambangkan sila Ke dua yaitu Kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab, artinya kita sebagai rakyat Imdonesia harus memiliki hati nurani yang kuat, saling tolng menolong serta memiliki jiwa yang bertanggung jawab terhadap keluarga,masyarakat Nusa dan bangsa.
3.Lambang Pohon beringin melambangkan sila ke tiga yaitu Persatuan Indonesia , yang artinya Dalam jiwa setiap manusia Indonesia tertanam persatuan yang kokoh. karena dengan persatuan bangsa maka kedaulatan NKRI bisa kita pertahankan.
4. Lambang Rantai melambangkan sila ke empat yaitu Kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan perwakilan, artinya kita dituntut untuk dapat bermusyawarah untuk mendapatkan keputusan yang manfaat bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia.
5. Lambang Padi dan Kapas melambangkan sila ke lima yaitu Keadlan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia, artinya kita sebagai rakyat Indonesia harus bahu membahu menagakkan keadilan dia dallam negeri tercinta ini, karena dengan menjunjung keadilan maka akan tercipta keselarasan kehuidupan berbangsa dan bernegara.

Arti Jumlah Bulu Pada Lambang Garuda Pancasila :
1. Jumlah bulu pada masing masing sayap berjumlah 17 melambangkan tanggal kemerdekaan Indonesia
2. Jumlah bulu pada ekor berjumlah 8 buah melambangkan bulan Agustus yaitu bulan kemerdekaan Indonesia
3. Jumlah bulu pada pangkal ekor berjumlah 19 dan jumlah bulu pada leher berjumlah 45 melambangkan tahun kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Arti warna pada Lambang Garuda Pancasila
Warna emas yang melambangkan kejayaan
warna merah artinya berani
warna putih artinya suci

Semboyan Bhineka tTunggal Ika yang berarti walau berbeda-beda tapi tetap satu jua

SKU penegak Bantara point 12
Biasa berbahasa Indonesia di waktu mengikuti pertemuan-pertemuan Penegak.



Dalam setiap pertemuan dalam musyawarah sebagai calon penegak Bantara hrus bisa membiasakan diri untuk memakai bahasa persatuan , bahasa Indonesia.

SKU penegak Bantara point 13
Tahu arti dan sejarah Sumpah Pemuda.

Sumpah Pemuda versi orisinal:

   Pertama
   Kami poetera dan poeteri Indonesia, mengakoe bertoempah darah jang satoe, tanah Indonesia.
   Kedoea
   Kami poetera dan poeteri Indonesia, mengakoe berbangsa jang satoe, bangsa Indonesia.
   Ketiga
   Kami poetera dan poeteri Indonesia, mendjoendjoeng bahasa persatoean, bahasa Indonesia.

Sumpah Pemuda versi Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan:

   Pertama
   Kami putra dan putri Indonesia, mengaku bertumpah darah yang satu, tanah air Indonesia.
   Kedua
   Kami putra dan putri Indonesia, mengaku berbangsa yang satu, bangsa Indonesia.
   Ketiga
   Kami putra dan putri Indonesia, menjunjung tinggi bahasa persatuan, bahasa Indonesia.

Kongres Pemuda II

Gagasan penyelenggaraan Kongres Pemuda Kedua berasal dari Perhimpunan Pelajar Pelajar Indonesia (PPPI), sebuah organisasi pemuda yang beranggota pelajar dari seluruh Indonesia. Atas inisiatif PPPI, kongres dilaksanakan di tiga gedung yang berbeda dan dibagi dalam tiga kali rapat.

Rapat pertama, Sabtu, 27 Oktober 1928, di Gedung Katholieke Jongenlingen Bond (KJB), Waterlooplein (sekarang Lapangan Banteng). Dalam sambutannya, ketua PPI Sugondo Djojopuspito berharap kongres ini dapat memperkuat semangat persatuan dalam sanubari para pemuda. Acara dilanjutkan dengan uraian Moehammad Yamin tentang arti dan hubungan persatuan dengan pemuda. Menurutnya, ada lima faktor yang bisa memperkuat persatuan Indonesia yaitu sejarah, bahasa, hukum adat, pendidikan, dan kemauan

Rapat kedua, Minggu, 28 Oktober 1928, di Gedung Oost-Java Bioscoop, membahas masalah pendidikan. Kedua pembicara, Poernomowoelan dan Sarmidi Mangoensarkoro, berpendapat bahwa anak harus mendapat pendidikan kebangsaan, harus pula ada keseimbangan antara pendidikan di sekolah dan di rumah. Anak juga harus dididik secara demokratis.

Pada rapat penutup, di gedung Indonesische Clubgebouw di Jalan Kramat Raya 106, Sunario menjelaskan pentingnya nasionalisme dan demokrasi selain gerakan kepanduan. Sedangkan Ramelan mengemukakan, gerakan kepanduan tidak bisa dipisahkan dari pergerakan nasional. Gerakan kepanduan sejak dini mendidik anak-anak disiplin dan mandiri, hal-hal yang dibutuhkan dalam perjuangan.

Sebelum kongres ditutup diperdengarkan lagu "Indonesia Raya" karya Wage Rudolf Supratman yang dimainkan dengan biola saja tanpa syair, atas saran Sugondo kepada Supratman. Lagu tersebut disambut dengan sangat meriah oleh peserta kongres. Kongres ditutup dengan mengumumkan rumusan hasil kongres. Oleh para pemuda yang hadir, rumusan itu diucapkan sebagai Sumpah Setia.
Peserta

Para peserta Kongres Pemuda II ini berasal dari berbagai wakil organisasi pemuda yang ada pada waktu itu, seperti Jong Java, Jong Ambon, Jong Celebes, Jong Batak, Jong Sumatranen Bond, Jong Islamieten Bond, PPPI, Pemuda Kaum Betawi, dll. Di antara mereka hadir pula beberapa orang pemuda Tionghoa sebagai pengamat, yaitu Oey Kay Siang, John Lauw Tjoan Hok dan Tjio Djien Kwie serta Kwee Thiam Hiong sebagai seorang wakil dari Jong Sumatranen Bond. Diprakarsai oleh AR Baswedan pemuda keturunan arab di Indonesia mengadakan kongres di Semarang dan mengumandangkan Sumpah Pemuda Keturunan Arab.
71 Pengikrar Sumpah Pemuda

Sugondo Djojopuspito, Poernomowoelan, Sarmidi Mangoensarkoro, Moehammad Yamin, Sunario,
Johanna Masdani Tumbuan

Johanna Masdani Tumbuan termasuk di antara 71 pemuda yang hadir dalam Kongres Pemuda Kedua, Oktober 1928 dan turut serta mengikrarkan Sumpah Pemuda yang berlangsung di sebuah gedung yang terletak di Jalan Kramat Raya no. 106 Jakarta Pusat.

Selain itu, Jo -- demikian ia biasa dipanggil -- juga menjadi seorang saksi sejarah detik-detik Proklamasi Indonesia yang dilakukan oleh Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta pada 17 Agustus 1945. Johanna Masdani Tumbuan juga ikut serta menyusun konsep pembangunan Tugu Proklamasi yang sederhana di depan rumah Bung Karno di Jl. Pegangsaan Timur (kini Jl. Proklamasi) no. 56, Jakarta. Tugu ini kemudian dibongkar oleh Bung Karno, namun dibangun kembali pada tahun 1980-an. Baca juga pada Sejarah Perjuangan Pemuda Indonesia dan Sumpah Pemuda oleh David DS Lumoindong.


Arti Isi Sumpah Pemuda
Pertama
   Kami putra dan putri Indonesia, mengaku bertumpah darah yang satu, tanah air Indonesia.
Artinya sebagai pemuda pemudi generasi penerus bangsa kita harus menyadari bahwa kita satu darah satu keturunan yang berasal dari keturunan Indonesia untuk itu jangan sampai ada pertumpahan darah diantara bangsa sendiri.
Kedua
   Kami putra dan putri Indonesia, mengaku berbangsa yang satu, bangsa Indonesia.
artinya generasi penerus bangsa harus mengakui bahwa kita adalah bangsa indonesia kta tidak boleh bersikap sukuisme yang dapat memecah persatuan dan kesatuan bangsa.
Ketiga
   Kami putra dan putri Indonesia, menjunjung tinggi bahasa persatuan, bahasa Indonesia.
artinya kita sebagai generasi muda selalu menjunjung timggi bahasa Indonesia, harus bangga terhadap bahasa Indonesia.

SKU penegak Bantara point 14
Tahu perjuangan bangsa Indonesia dan rencana pembangunan Pemerintah.

Kolonisasi VOC
Mulai tahun 1602 Belanda secara perlahan-lahan menjadi penguasa wilayah yang kini adalah Indonesia, dengan memanfaatkan perpecahan di antara kerajaan-kerajaan kecil yang telah menggantikan Majapahit. Satu-satunya yang tidak terpengaruh adalah Timor Portugis, yang tetap dikuasai Portugal hingga 1975 ketika berintegrasi menjadi provinsi Indonesia bernama Timor Timur. Belanda menguasai Indonesia selama hampir 350 tahun, kecuali untuk suatu masa pendek di mana sebagian kecil dari Indonesia dikuasai Britania setelah Perang Jawa Britania-Belanda dan masa penjajahan Jepang pada masa Perang Dunia II. Sewaktu menjajah Indonesia, Belanda mengembangkan Hindia-Belanda menjadi salah satu kekuasaan kolonial terkaya di dunia. 350 tahun penjajahan Belanda bagi sebagian orang adalah mitos belaka karena wilayah Aceh baru ditaklukkan kemudian setelah Belanda mendekati kebangkrutannya.


Pada abad ke-17 dan 18 Hindia-Belanda tidak dikuasai secara langsung oleh pemerintah Belanda namun oleh perusahaan dagang bernama Perusahaan Hindia Timur Belanda (bahasa Belanda: Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie atau VOC). VOC telah diberikan hak monopoli terhadap perdagangan dan aktivitas kolonial di wilayah tersebut oleh Parlemen Belanda pada tahun 1602. Markasnya berada di Batavia, yang kini bernama Jakarta.

Tujuan utama VOC adalah mempertahankan monopolinya terhadap perdagangan rempah-rempah di Nusantara. Hal ini dilakukan melalui penggunaan dan ancaman kekerasan terhadap penduduk di kepulauan-kepulauan penghasil rempah-rempah, dan terhadap orang-orang non-Belanda yang mencoba berdagang dengan para penduduk tersebut. Contohnya, ketika penduduk Kepulauan Banda terus menjual biji pala kepada pedagang Inggris, pasukan Belanda membunuh atau mendeportasi hampir seluruh populasi dan kemudian mempopulasikan pulau-pulau tersebut dengan pembantu-pembantu atau budak-budak yang bekerja di perkebunan pala.

VOC menjadi terlibat dalam politik internal Jawa pada masa ini, dan bertempur dalam beberapa peperangan yang melibatkan pemimpin Mataram dan Banten.
Kolonisasi pemerintah Belanda


Setelah VOC jatuh bangkrut pada akhir abad ke-18 dan setelah kekuasaan Britania yang pendek di bawah Thomas Stamford Raffles, pemerintah Belanda mengambil alih kepemilikan VOC pada tahun 1816. Sebuah pemberontakan di Jawa berhasil ditumpas dalam Perang Diponegoro pada tahun 1825-1830. Setelah tahun 1830 sistem tanam paksa yang dikenal sebagai cultuurstelsel dalam bahasa Belanda mulai diterapkan. Dalam sistem ini, para penduduk dipaksa menanam hasil-hasil perkebunan yang menjadi permintaan pasar dunia pada saat itu, seperti teh, kopi dll. Hasil tanaman itu kemudian diekspor ke mancanegara. Sistem ini membawa kekayaan yang besar kepada para pelaksananya - baik yang Belanda maupun yang Indonesia. Sistem tanam paksa ini adalah monopoli pemerintah dan dihapuskan pada masa yang lebih bebas setelah 1870.

Pada 1901 pihak Belanda mengadopsi apa yang mereka sebut Politik Etis (bahasa Belanda: Ethische Politiek), yang termasuk investasi yang lebih besar dalam pendidikan bagi orang-orang pribumi, dan sedikit perubahan politik. Di bawah gubernur-jendral J.B. van Heutsz pemerintah Hindia-Belanda memperpanjang kekuasaan kolonial secara langsung di sepanjang Hindia-Belanda, dan dengan itu mendirikan fondasi bagi negara Indonesia saat ini.
Gerakan nasionalisme

Pada 1905 gerakan nasionalis yang pertama, Serikat Dagang Islam dibentuk dan kemudian diikuti pada tahun 1908 oleh gerakan nasionalis berikutnya, Budi Utomo. Belanda merespon hal tersebut setelah Perang Dunia I dengan langkah-langkah penindasan. Para pemimpin nasionalis berasal dari kelompok kecil yang terdiri dari profesional muda dan pelajar, yang beberapa di antaranya telah dididik di Belanda. Banyak dari mereka yang dipenjara karena kegiatan politis, termasuk Presiden Indonesia yang pertama, Soekarno.
 Perang Dunia II

Pada Mei 1940, awal Perang Dunia II, Belanda diduduki oleh Nazi Jerman. Hindia-Belanda mengumumkan keadaan siaga dan di Juli mengalihkan ekspor untuk Jepang ke Amerika Serikat dan Britania. Negosiasi dengan Jepang yang bertujuan untuk mengamankan persediaan bahan bakar pesawat gagal di Juni 1941, dan Jepang memulai penaklukan Asia Tenggara di bulan Desember tahun itu. Di bulan yang sama, faksi dari Sumatra menerima bantuan Jepang untuk mengadakan revolusi terhadap pemerintahan Belanda. Pasukan Belanda yang terakhir dikalahkan Jepang pada Maret 1942.
Pendudukan Jepang


Pada Juli 1942, Soekarno menerima tawaran Jepang untuk mengadakan kampanye publik dan membentuk pemerintahan yang juga dapat memberikan jawaban terhadap kebutuhan militer Jepang. Soekarno, Mohammad Hatta, dan para Kyai memperoleh penghormatan dari Kaisar Jepang pada tahun 1943. Tetapi, pengalaman dari penguasaan Jepang di Indonesia sangat bervariasi, tergantung di mana seseorang hidup dan status sosial orang tersebut. Bagi yang tinggal di daerah yang dianggap penting dalam peperangan, mereka mengalami siksaan, terlibat perbudakan seks, penahanan sembarang dan hukuman mati, dan kejahatan perang lainnya. Orang Belanda dan campuran Indonesia-Belanda merupakan target sasaran dalam penguasaan Jepang.

Pada Maret 1945 Jepang membentuk Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI). Pada pertemuan pertamanya di bulan Mei, Soepomo membicarakan integrasi nasional dan melawan individualisme perorangan; sementara itu Muhammad Yamin mengusulkan bahwa negara baru tersebut juga sekaligus mengklaim Sarawak, Sabah, Malaya, Portugis Timur, dan seluruh wilayah Hindia-Belanda sebelum perang.

Pada 9 Agustus 1945 Soekarno, Hatta dan Radjiman Widjodiningrat diterbangkan ke Vietnam untuk bertemu Marsekal Terauchi. Mereka dikabarkan bahwa pasukan Jepang sedang menuju kehancuran tetapi Jepang menginginkan kemerdekaan Indonesia pada 24 Agustus.
Era kemerdekaan
Proklamasi kemerdekaan

Mendengar kabar bahwa Jepang tidak lagi mempunyai kekuatan untuk membuat keputusan seperti itu pada 16 Agustus, Soekarno membacakan "Proklamasi" pada hari berikutnya. Kabar mengenai proklamasi menyebar melalui radio dan selebaran sementara pasukan militer Indonesia pada masa perang, Pasukan Pembela Tanah Air (PETA), para pemuda, dan lainnya langsung berangkat mempertahankan kediaman Soekarno.

Pada 18 Agustus 1945 Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI) melantik Soekarno sebagai Presiden dan Mohammad Hatta sebagai Wakil Presiden dengan menggunakan konstitusi yang dirancang beberapa hari sebelumnya. Kemudian dibentuk Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat (KNIP) sebagai parlemen sementara hingga pemilu dapat dilaksanakan. Kelompok ini mendeklarasikan pemerintahan baru pada 31 Agustus dan menghendaki Republik Indonesia yang terdiri dari 8 provinsi: Sumatra, Kalimantan (tidak termasuk wilayah Sabah, Sarawak dan Brunei), Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Sulawesi, Maluku (termasuk Papua) dan Nusa Tenggara.

Perang kemerdekaan
Dari 1945 hingga 1949, persatuan kelautan Australia yang bersimpati dengan usaha kemerdekaan, melarang segala pelayaran Belanda sepanjang konflik ini agar Belanda tidak mempunyai dukungan logistik maupun suplai yang diperlukan untuk membentuk kembali kekuasaan kolonial.

Usaha Belanda untuk kembali berkuasa dihadapi perlawanan yang kuat. Setelah kembali ke Jawa, pasukan Belanda segera merebut kembali ibukota kolonial Batavia, akibatnya para nasionalis menjadikan Yogyakarta sebagai ibukota mereka. Pada 27 Desember 1949 (lihat artikel tentang 27 Desember 1949), setelah 4 tahun peperangan dan negosiasi, Ratu Juliana dari Belanda memindahkan kedaulatan kepada pemerintah Federal Indonesia. Pada 1950, Indonesia menjadi anggota ke-60 PBB

Untuk Pembangunan Di Indonesia telah dilakukan beberapa tahap Pembangunan yang terkenal adalah pembangunan Jangka panjang yaitu Repelita
1.Repelita I (1969 – 1974) bertujuan memenuhi kebutuhan dasar dan infrastruktur dengan penekanan pada bidang pertanian.
2.Repelita II (1974 – 1979) bertujuan meningkatkan pembangunan di pulau-pulau selain Jawa, Bali dan Madura, di antaranya melalui transmigrasi.
3.Repelita III (1979 – 1984) menekankan bidang industri padat karya untuk meningkatkan ekspor.
4.Repelita IV (1984 – 1989) bertujuan menciptakan lapangan kerja baru dan industri.
5.Repelita V (1989 – 1994) menekankan bidang transportasi, komunikasi dan pendidikan.


SKU penegak Bantara point 15
Tahu susunan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia dari Pusat sampai ke Desa.

Pemerintah Pusat
Konstitutif
# Majelis Permusyawaran Rakyat
Legislatif
# Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat
# Dewan Perwakilan Daerah
Eksekutif
# Presiden
# Wakil Presiden
# Kementrian
# Lembaga Pementrian Nonkementrian
# Lembaga Nonstruktural
Yudikatif
# Mahkamah Agung
# Mahkamah Konstitusi
# komisi Yudisial


Tingkat daerah I
DPRD (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah) Provinsi
Gubernur
wakil Gubernur


Daerah Tingkat II
DPRD Kabupaten
Bupati/Walikota
Wakil Bupati?walikota

Tingkat Kecamatan
Camat
sekretaris camat

Tingkat desa/kelurahan
lurah
carek

SKU penegak Bantara point 16
PERATURAN BARIS BARIS (P.B.B)
Peraturan Baris Berbaris yang digunakan di lingkungan Pramuka ada dua macam yakni Baris berbaris menggunakan tongkat dan tanpa tongkat. Untuk baris berbaris menggunakan tongkat memiliki tata cara tersendiri di lingkungan Pramuka. Adapun baris berbaris tanpa menggunakan tongkat mengikuti tata cara yang telah diatur dalam Peraturan Baris Berbaris milik TNI/POLRI .

Apa itu Baris Baerbaris ?

  1. Baris Berbaris

a.       Pengertian

Baris berbaris adalah suatu ujud latuhan fisik, yang diperlukan guna menanamkan kebiasaan dalam tata cara kehidupan yang diarahkan kepada terbentuknya suatu perwatakan tertentu.

b.      Maksud dan tujuan

1)      Guna menumbuhkan sikap jasmani yang tegap tangkas, rasa disiplin dan rasa tanggung jawab.

2)      Yang dimaksud dengan menumbuhkan sikap jasmani yang tegap tangkas adalah mengarahkan pertumbuhan tubuh yang diperlukan oleh tugas pokok, sehingga secara jasmani dapat menjalankan tugas pokok tersebut dengan sempurna.

3)      Yang dimaksud rasa persatuan adalah adanya rasa senasib sepenanggungan serta ikatan yang sangat diperlukan dalam menjalankan tugas.

4)      Yang dimaksud rasa disiplin adalah mengutamakan kepentingan tugas di atas kepentingan pribadi yang pada hakikatnya tidak lain daripada keikhlasan penyisihan pilihan hati sendiri.

5)      Yang dimaksud rasa tanggung jawab adalah keberanian untuk bertindak yang mengandung resiko terhadap dirinya, tetapi menguntungkan tugas atau sebaliknya tidak mudah melakukan tindakan-tindakan yang akan dapat merugikan.

   1. Aba-aba

a.       Pengertian

Aba-aba adalah suatu perintah yang diberikan oleh seseorang Pemimpin kepada yang dipimpin untuk dilaksanakannya pada waktunya secara serentak atau berturut-turut.

b.      Macam aba-aba

Ada tiga macam aba-aba yaitu :

1)      Aba-aba petunjuk

2)      Aba-aba peringatan

3)      Aba-aba pelaksanaan

1.      Aba-aba petunjuk dipergunakan hanya jika perlu untuk menegaskan maksud daripada aba-aba peringatan/pelaksanaan.

Contoh:

a)      Kepada Pemimpin Upacara-Hormat - GERAK

b)      Untuk amanat-istirahat di tempat - GERAK

2.      Aba-aba peringatan adalah inti perintah yang cukup jelas, untuk dapat dilaksanakan tanpa ragu-ragu.

Contoh:

a)      Lencang kanan - GERAK

(bukan lancang kanan)

b)      Istirahat di tempat - GERAK (bukan ditempat istirahat)

3.      Aba-aba pelaksanaan adalah ketegasan mengenai saat untuk melaksanakan aba-aba pelaksanan yang dipakai ialah:

a)      GERAK

b)      JALAN

c)      MULAI

a.       GERAK: adalah untuk gerakan-gerakan kaki yang dilakukan tanpa meninggalkan tempat dan gerakan-gerakan yang memakai anggota tubuh lain.

Contoh:

-jalan ditempat          -GERAK

-siap                            -GERAK

-hadap kanan              -GERAK

-lencang kanan            -GERAK

b.      JALAN: adalah utuk gerakan-gerakan kaki yang dilakukan dengan meninggalkan tempat.

Contoh:

-haluan kanan/kiri                    - JALAN

-dua langkah ke depan -JALAN

-satu langkah ke belakang        - JALAN

Catatan:

Apabila gerakan meninggalkan tempat itu tidak dibatasi jaraknya, maka aba-aba harus didahului dengan aba-aba peringatan –MAJU

Contoh:

 -maju                                     - JALAN

 -haluan kanan/kiri                   - JALAN

 -hadap kanan/kiri maju           - JALAN

 -melintang kanan/kiri maju       -J ALAN

Tentang istilah: “maju”

·  Pada dasarnya digunakan sebagai aba-aba peringatan terhadap pasukan dalam keadaan berhenti.

·  Pasukan yang sedang bergerak maju, bilamana harus berhenti dapat diberikan aba-aba HENTI.

Misalnya:

·  Ada aba-aba hadap kanan/kiri maju - JALAN karena dapat pula diberikan aba-aba : hadap kanan/kiri henti GERAK.

·  Ada aba-aba hadap kanan/kiri maju-JALAN karena dapat pula diberikan aba-aba : hadap kanan/kiri henti GERAK.

·  Balik kana maju/JALAN, karena dapat pula diberikan aba-aba : balik kana henti-GERAK.

Tidak dapat diberikan aba-aba langkah tegap maju JALAN, aba-aba belok kanan/kiri maju-JALAN terhadap pasukan yang sedang berjalan dengan langkah biasa, karena tidak dapat diberikan aba-aba langkah henti-GERAK, belok kanan/kiri-GERAK.

Tentang aba-aba : “henti”

Pada dasarnya aba-aba peringatan henti digunakan untuk menghentikan pasukan yang sedang bergerak, namun tidak selamanya aba-aba peringatan henti ini harus diucapkan.

Contoh:

  Empat langkah ke depan –JALAN, bukan barisan – jalan. Setelah selesai pelaksanaan dari maksud aba-aba peringatan, pasukan wajib berhenti tanpa aba-aba berhenti.

c.       MULAI : adalah untuk dipakai pada pelaksanaan perintah yang harus dikerjakan berturut-turut.

Contoh:

  -hitung              -MULAI

  -tiga bersaf kumpul       -MULAI



4.      Cara memberi aba-aba

a)      Waktu memberi aba-aba, pemberi aba-aba harus berdiri dalam sikap sempurna dan menghadap pasukan, terkecuali dalam keadaan yang tidak mengijinkan untuk melakukan itu.

b)      Apabila aba-aba itu berlaku juga untuk si pemberi aba-aba, maka pemberi aba-aba terikat pada tempat yang telah ditentukan untuknya dan tidak menghadap pasukan.

Contoh: Kepada Pembina Upacara – hormat – GERAK

Pelaksanaanya :

·        Pada waktu memberikan aba-aba mengahdap ke arah yang diberi hormat sambil melakukan gerakan penghormatan bersama-sama dengan pasukan.

·        Setelah penghormatan selesai dijawab/dibalas oleh yang menerima penghormatan, maka dalm keadaan sikap sedang memberi hormat si pemberi aba-aba memberikan aba-aba tegak : GERAK dan kembali ke sikap sempurna.

c)      Pada taraf permulaan aba-aba yang ditunjukan kepada pasukan yang sedang berjalan/berlari, aba-aba pelaksanaan gerakannya ditambah 1 (satu) langkah pada waktu berjala, pada waktu berlari ditambah 3 (tiga) langkah.

·        Pada taraf lanjutan, aba-aba pelaksanaan dijatuhkan pada kaki kanan ditambah 2 (dua) langkah untuk berjalan / 4 (empat) langkah untuk berlari.

d)      Aba-aba diucapkan dengan suara nyaring-tegas dan bersemangat.

e)      Aba-aba petunjuk dan peringatan pada waktu pengucapan hendaknya diberi antara.

f)        Aba-aba pelaksanaan pada waktu pengucapan hendaknya dihentakkan.

g)      Antara aba-aba peringatan dan pelaksanaan hendaknya diperpanjang disesuaikan dengan besar kecilnya pasukan.

h)      Bila pada suatu bagian aba-aba diperlukan pembetulan maka dilakukan perintah ULANG !

Contoh: Lencang kanan = Ulangi – siap GERAK



Sumber/ Referensi :

1.   Pedoman Penyelenggaraan Paskibraka - Depdiknas.

2.   Peraturan Baris Berbaris - Pusdiklat TNI-AD
3.www.pramukanet.org

SKU penegak Bantara point 17
Selalu berpakaian rapi, memelihara kesehatan badan, dan memelihara kebersihan lingkungannya.

dalam hal ini setiap calon penegak Bantara diwajibkan untuk menjaga kebersihan diri, baik raga maupun rokhani. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar setiap penegak dapat kelihatan sehat tidak hanya kesehatan badan tetapi juga kesehatan rokhani.

SKU penegak Bantara point 18
Vitamin A

Vitamin A, yang juga dikenal dengan nama retinol, merupakan vitamin yang berperan dalam pembentukkan indra penglihatan yang baik, terutama di malam hari, dan sebagai salah satu komponen penyusun pigmen mata di retina. Selain itu, vitamin ini juga berperan penting dalam menjaga kesehatan kulit dan imunitas tubuh.Vitamin ini bersifat mudah rusak oleh paparan panas, cahaya matahari, dan udara. Sumber makanan yang banyak mengandung vitamin A, antara lain susu, ikan, sayur-sayuran (terutama yang berwarna hijau dan kuning), dan juga buah-buahan (terutama yang berwarna merah dan kuning, seperti cabai merah, wortel, pisang, dan pepaya).

Apabila terjadi defisiensi vitamin A, penderita akan mengalami rabun senja dan katarak. Selain itu, penderita defisiensi vitamin A ini juga dapat mengalami infeksi saluran pernafasan, menurunnya daya tahan tubuh, dan kondisi kulit yang kurang sehat. Kelebihan asupan vitamin A dapat menyebabkan keracunan pada tubuh. Penyakit yang dapat ditimbulkan antara lain pusing-pusing, kerontokan rambut, kulit kering bersisik, dan pingsan. Selain itu, bila sudah dalam kondisi akut, kelebihan vitamin A di dalam tubuh juga dapat menyebabkan kerabunan, terhambatnya pertumbuhan tubuh, pembengkakan hati, dan iritasi kulit.
Sayur-sayuran hijau dan kacang-kacangan sebagai sumber vitamin A dan vitamin B yang tinggi.
Vitamin B

Secara umum, golongan vitamin B berperan penting dalam metabolisme di dalam tubuh, terutama dalam hal pelepasan energi saat beraktivitas.Hal ini terkait dengan peranannya di dalam tubuh, yaitu sebagai senyawa koenzim yang dapat meningkatkan laju reaksi metabolisme tubuh terhadap berbagai jenis sumber energi. Beberapa jenis vitamin yang tergolong dalam kelompok vitamin B ini juga berperan dalam pembentukan sel darah merah (eritrosit). Sumber utama vitamin B berasal dari susu, gandum, ikan, dan sayur-sayuran hijau.
Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1, yang dikenal juga dengan nama tiamin, merupakan salah satu jenis vitamin yang memiliki peranan penting dalam menjaga kesehatan kulit dan membantu mengkonversi karbohidrat menjadi energi yang diperlukan tubuh untuk rutinitas sehari-hari. Di samping itu, vitamin B1 juga membantu proses metabolisme protein dan lemak. Bila terjadi defisiensi vitamin B1, kulit akan mengalami berbagai gangguan, seperti kulit kering dan bersisik. Tubuh juga dapat mengalami beri-beri, gangguan saluran pencernaan, jantung, dan sistem saraf. Untuk mencegah hal tersebut, kita perlu banyak mengkonsumsi banyak gandum, nasi, daging, susu, telur, dan tanaman kacang-kacangan. Bahan makanan inilah yang telah terbukti banyak mengandung vitamin B1.
 Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) banyak berperan penting dalam metabolisme di tubuh manusia. Di dalam tubuh, vitamin B2 berperan sebagai salah satu kompenen koenzim flavin mononukleotida (flavin mononucleotide, FMN) dan flavin adenine dinukleotida (adenine dinucleotide, FAD). Kedua enzim ini berperan penting dalam regenerasi energi bagi tubuh melalui proses respirasi. Vitamin ini juga berperan dalam pembentukan molekul steroid, sel darah merah, dan glikogen, serta menyokong pertumbuhan berbagai organ tubuh, seperti kulit, rambut, dan kuku.Sumber vitamin B2 banyak ditemukan pada sayur-sayuran segar, kacang kedelai, kuning telur, dan susu. Defisiensinya dapat menyebabkan menurunnya daya tahan tubuh, kulit kering bersisik, mulut kering, bibir pecah-pecah, dan sariawan.
 Vitamin B3
Beri-beri, penyakit yang disebabkan oleh defisiensi vitamin B1

Vitamin B3 juga dikenal dengan istilah niasin. Vitamin ini berperan penting dalam metabolisme karbohidrat untuk menghasilkan energi, metabolisme lemak, dan protein. Di dalam tubuh, vitamin B3 memiliki peranan besar dalam menjaga kadar gula darah, tekanan darah tinggi, penyembuhan migrain, dan vertigo. Berbagai jenis senyawa racun dapat dinetralisir dengan bantuan vitamin ini.Vitamin B3 termasuk salah satu jenis vitamin yang banyak ditemukan pada makanan hewani, seperti ragi, hati, ginjal, daging unggas, dan ikan.Akan tetapi, terdapat beberapa sumber pangan lainnya yang juga mengandung vitamin ini dalam kadar tinggi, antara lain gandum dan kentang manis. Kekurangan vitamin ini dapat menyebabkan tubuh mengalami kekejangan, keram otot, gangguan sistem pencernaan, muntah-muntah, dan mual.
 Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 (asam pantotenat) banyak terlibat dalam reaksi enzimatik di dalam tubuh. Hal ini menyebabkan vitamin B5 berperan besar dalam berbagai jenis metabolisme, seperti dalam reaksi pemecahan nutrisi makanan, terutama lemak. Peranan lain vitamin ini adalah menjaga komunikasi yang baik antara sistem saraf pusat dan otak dan memproduksi senyawa asam lemak, sterol, neurotransmiter, dan hormon tubuh.  Vitamin B5 dapat ditemukan dalam berbagai jenis variasi makanan hewani, mulai dari daging, susu, ginjal, dan hati hingga makanan nabati, seperti sayuran hijau dan kacang hijau. Seperti halnya vitamin B1 dan B2, defisiensi vitamin B5 dapat menyebabkan kulit pecah-pecah dan bersisik. Selain itu, gangguan lain yang akan diderita adalah keram otot serta kesulitan untuk tidur.
Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6, atau dikenal juga dengan istilah piridoksin, merupakan vitamin yang esensial bagi pertumbuhan tubuh. Vitamin ini berperan sebagai salah satu senyawa koenzim A yang digunakan tubuh untuk menghasilkan energi melalui jalur sintesis asam lemak, seperti spingolipid dan fosfolipid. Selain itu, vitamin ini juga berperan dalam metabolisme nutrisi dan memproduksi antibodi sebagai mekanisme pertahanan tubuh terhadap antigen atau senyawa asing yang berbahaya bagi tubuh. Vitamin ini merupakan salah satu jenis vitamin yang mudah didapatkan karena vitamin ini banyak terdapat di dalam beras, jagung, kacang-kacangan, daging, dan ikan. Kekurangan vitamin dalam jumlah banyak dapat menyebabkan kulit pecah-pecah, keram otot, dan insomnia.
Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 atau sianokobalamin merupakan jenis vitamin yang hanya khusus diproduksi oleh hewan dan tidak ditemukan pada tanaman. Oleh karena itu, vegetarian sering kali mengalami gangguan kesehatan tubuh akibat kekurangan vitamin ini.[20] Vitamin ini banyak berperan dalam metabolisme energi di dalam tubuh. Vitamin B12 juga termasuk dalam salah satu jenis vitamin yang berperan dalam pemeliharaan kesehatan sel saraf, pembentukkan molekul DNA dan RNA, pembentukkan platelet darah.[6] Telur, hati, dan daging merupakan sumber makanan yang baik untuk memenuhi kebutuhan vitamin B12. Kekurangan vitamin ini akan menyebabkan anemia (kekurangan darah), mudah lelah lesu, dan iritasi kulit.[1]
 Vitamin C
Buah jeruk, terkenal atas kandungan vitamin C-nya yang tinggi.

Vitamin C (asam askorbat) banyak memberikan manfaat bagi kesehatan tubuh kita. Di dalam tubuh, vitamin C juga berperan sebagai senyawa pembentuk kolagen yang merupakan protein penting penyusun jaringan kulit, sendi, tulang, dan jaringan penyokong lainnya.  Vitamin C merupakan senyawa antioksidan alami yang dapat menangkal berbagai radikal bebas dari polusi di sekitar lingkungan kita. Terkait dengan sifatnya yang mampu menangkal radikal bebas, vitamin C dapat membantu menurunkan laju mutasi dalam tubuh sehingga risiko timbulnya berbagai penyakit degenaratif, seperti kanker, dapat diturunkan. Selain itu, vitamin C berperan dalam menjaga bentuk dan struktur dari berbagai jaringan di dalam tubuh, seperti otot. Vitamin ini juga berperan dalam penutupan luka saat terjadi pendarahan dan memberikan perlindungan lebih dari infeksi mikroorganisme patogen. Melalui mekanisme inilah vitamin C berperan dalam menjaga kebugaran tubuh dan membantu mencegah berbagai jenis penyakit. Defisiensi vitamin C juga dapat menyebabkan gusi berdarah dan nyeri pada persendian. Akumulasi vitamin C yang berlebihan di dalam tubuh dapat menyebabkan batu ginjal, gangguan saluran pencernaan, dan rusaknya sel darah merah.
Vitamin D

Vitamin D juga merupakan salah satu jenis vitamin yang banyak ditemukan pada makanan hewani, antara lain ikan, telur, susu, serta produk olahannya, seperti keju. Bagian tubuh yang paling banyak dipengaruhi oleh vitamin ini adalah tulang. Vitamin D ini dapat membantu metabolisme kalsium dan mineralisasi tulang. Sel kulit akan segera memproduksi vitamin D saat terkena cahaya matahari (sinar ultraviolet). Bila kadar vitamin D rendah maka tubuh akan mengalami pertumbuhan kaki yang tidak normal, dimana betis kaki akan membentuk huruf O dan X. Di samping itu, gigi akan mudah mengalami kerusakan dan otot pun akan mengalami kekejanganPenyakit lainnya adalah osteomalasia, yaitu hilangnya unsur kalsium dan fosfor secara berlebihan di dalam tulang. Penyakit ini biasanya ditemukan pada remaja, sedangkan pada manula, penyakit yang dapat ditimbulkan adalah osteoporosis, yaitu kerapuhan tulang akibatnya berkurangnya kepadatan tulang. Kelebihan vitamin D dapat menyebabkan tubuh mengalami diare, berkurangnya berat badan, muntah-muntah, dan dehidrasi berlebihan.
Vitamin E
Struktur molekul vitamin E

Vitamin E berperan dalam menjaga kesehatan berbagai jaringan di dalam tubuh, mulai dari jaringan kulit, mata, sel darah merah hingga hati. Selain itu, vitamin ini juga dapat melindungi paru-paru manusia dari polusi udara. Nilai kesehatan ini terkait dengan kerja vitamin E di dalam tubuh sebagai senyawa antioksidan alami. Vitamin E banyak ditemukan pada ikan, ayam, kuning telur, ragi, dan minyak tumbuh-tumbuhan. Walaupun hanya dibutuhkan dalam jumlah sedikit, kekurangan vitamin E dapat menyebabkan gangguan kesehatan yang fatal bagi tubuh, antara lain kemandulan baik bagi pria maupun wanita. Selain itu, saraf dan otot akan mengalami gangguan yang berkepanjangan.
Vitamin K

Vitamin K banyak berperan dalam pembentukan sistem peredaran darah yang baik dan penutupan luka. Defisiensi vitamin ini akan berakibat pada pendarahan di dalam tubuh dan kesulitan pembekuan darah saat terjadi luka atau pendarahan. Selain itu, vitamin K juga berperan sebagai kofaktor enzim untuk mengkatalis reaksi karboksilasi asam amino asam glutamat. Oleh karena itu, kita perlu banyak mengkonsumsi susu, kuning telur, dan sayuran segar yang merupakan sumber vitamin K yang baik bagi pemenuhan kebutuhan di dalam tubuh.

SKU Penegak Bantara Point 19
Tahu tentang penyakit-penyakit rakyat yang terpenting, dan tentang cara-cara pencegahannya.


Dalam Masyarakat yang dimaksud dengan penyakit Rakyat adalah dalam bahasa jawa adalah mo limo
yaitu
madon ( berselingkuh )
main (berjudi )
mabok ( minum minuman keras )
Maling ( mencuri/korupsi)
Madat ( nyabu )

Untuk mencegah penyakit itu maka kita memberikan pendidikan agama yang dimulai dari keluarga.
menghindari hal-hal yang menjurus kepada lima hal yang disebutkan diatas.

SKU Penegak Bantara Point 20
Melakukan salah satu cabang olahraga atletik atau salah satu cabang olahraga renang.

Yang dimaksud olah raga atletik adalah meliputi

   * Event Lintasan –event lari di lintasan 400m.
         o Sprint: event yang termasuk 400m. Event yang umum adalah 60m (hanya didalam ruangan), 100m, 200m dan 400m.
         o Jarak Menengah: event dari 800m sampai 3000m, 800m, 1500m, satu mil dan 3000m.
               + Lari berintang – lomba (biasanya 300m) dimana pelarinya harus melewati rintangan seperti penghalang dan rintangan air.
         o jarak Jauh: berlari diatas 5000 m. Biasanya 5000 m dan 10000 m. yang kurang lazim ialah 1, 6, 12, 24 jam perlombaan.
         o Halang Rintang: 110 m halang rintang tinggi (100 m untuk wanita) dan 400 m haling rintang menengah (300 m di beberapa SMA).
         o Estafet: 4 x 100m estafet, 4 x 400 m estafet , 4 x 200 m estafet , 4 x 800 m estafet , dll. Beberapa event, seperti estafet medley, jarang dilangsungkan kecuali estafet karnaval besar.
   * Lari jalanan: dilangsungkan di jalanan terbuka, tapi biasanya diakhiri di lintasan. Event biasa adalah 5km, 10km, setengah marathon dan marathon.
   * lomba
          Negara Paling Korup 2016        
Kita semua tidak sukakan korupsi, satu perbuatan sampah yang kita mahu hapuskan daripada kalangan masyarakat kita. Dalam satu kajian yang dijalankan oleh Transparency International, mereka telah mengeluarkan senarai Corruption Perceptions Indes (CPI).

Berapakah CPI negara kita Malaysia? Nanti kita lihat sama-sama.






Dalam index yang dikeluarkan untuk tahun 2016, negara paling korup adalah Somalia, malah ia mememang rekod ini selama 10 tahun berturut-turut. CPI yang diberikan kepada Somalia hanyalah 10 point sahaja.

Makin rendah point CPI maka makin teruk tahap korupsi di sesebuah negara tersebut. Ranking top 5 negara yang paling bersih pula didahuli oleh negara New Zealand (90 CPI), Denmark (90 CPI), Finland (89 CPI), Sweden (88 CPI) dan Switzerland (86 CPI).

Bagi negara kita pula, Malaysia diberikan 49 CPI dan berada di ranking ke 55 dunia. Mata CPI diberikan turun 1 mata berbanding tahun lalu dengan 50 CPI.




Dalam kalangan negara serantau pula Singapura dianggap paling bersih di Asia Tenggara dengan 84 CPI berada di ranking ke 7 dunia. Dan negara paling kurop di Asia Tenggara pula adalah Kemboja dengan 21 mata sahaja diberikan.

Country CPI World Rank
1. Singapura 84 7
2. Brunei 58 41
3. Malaysia 40 55
4. Indonesia 37 90
5. Philines 35 101
6. Thailand 35 101
7. Timor-Leste 35 101
8. Vietnam 33 113
9. Loas 30 123
10. Myanmar 28 136
11. Cambodia 21 156


Negara besar seperti U.S.A pula dibeirkan 74 mata CPI, dan berada di ranking 18 dunia. Manakal negara China hanya diberikan sebanyak 40 mata dan berada di tangga 79. Russia lagi bawah dengan hanya 29 CPI, berada ditangga ke 131 dunia.

Berikut adalah senarai penuh ranking yang dikelaurkan oleh Corruption International bagi negara paling kurop 2016.



          READING COMPREHENSION        

1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.

  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE


            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?

6. Authoritarian regime


            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?

7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?


10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
                                        1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


1.HATES CRIMES

            The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.

            Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes

            The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.


  1. How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
  2. How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
  3. Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
  4. How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
  5. How many hate groups are there nationwide?
  6. What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
  7. How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
  8. Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
  9. What was the increase in hate groups last year?
  10. Who is Hillary Shelton?         

2.PILOT  ACCUSED

            Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .

            Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"

            Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.

            Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"

  1. When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
  2. How long has he been held in jail?
  3. Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
  4. What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
  5. What did he hide in 1993?
  6. Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
  7. What are the conditions of his bail?
  8. What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
  9. Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?

3.BOSNIA INJURIES

            On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .

            NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.

            In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"

             And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".

  1. How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
  2. Where were the two American soldiers inured?
  3. Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
  4. Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
  5. How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
  6. Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
  7. What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
  8. Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
  9. Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
  10. Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4. CLONE SYSTEM

            Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?

            Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid . as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .

            After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.

            A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.

  1. What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
  2. What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
  3. What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
  4. Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
  5. What is the main problem of cloning system?
  6. What does Australian scientist claim?
  7. What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
  8. For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
  9. What is the specific with mitochondria??
  10. Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?


5. ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

            On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.

            The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 

            The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.

            The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.

            The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.

            The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.

1.      When did the car stolen?
2.      What was the lost property?
3.      What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.      What was the demand of political party?
5.      What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.      What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.      How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.      En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.      What was the monitor action on the scene?
  10. what action did the local police take ?
6. Authoritarian regime

            President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.

            "We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.

            It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 

            The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.

            The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.

            The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.

             Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

  1. Which countries are called golden triangle country?
  2. Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
  3. What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
  4. Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
  5. What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
  6. Where is the international court of Justice located?
  7. why were the thousands of people jailed ?
  8. What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
  9. How many political prisoners were jailed?
     10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?
7.  GAMBLE

            November 27, 2001 Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.

            Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports. And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.

             Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.  The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.

            The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved.

1.      How may gang members arrested?
2.      What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.      Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.      How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.      How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.      What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.      What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.      What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.      What were weapons confiscated.
          10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?

8.  EBOLA

            Sunday, December 9, 2001 An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in  France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.      What did government request to Media?
2.      Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.      Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.      When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.      What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.      What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.      How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.      What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.      Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    


9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

            US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .

            There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country

            It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.  Who is Taras?
  
10. THE UNITED NATION

            The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states. After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs
1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat
        
              1. International court of justice.

            The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

            America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

            Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.






1.HATES CRIMES

The number of organized hate groups in the United States increased 20 percents last year, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center in Montgomery, Ala. Nearly 9000 hate crimes , more than half of them motivated by race, were reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1996- compared to 7947 incidents in 1995 and 5932incidents in 1994. Last week, James Byrd, Jr., a 49 -year's old black man, was dragged to death in Texas by a chain from the back of a pickup truck. Recently, two black men also became the targets of possible copycat crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.
Authorities say the three men who have been charged with Byrd's murder my have ties with white supremacist groups, which have grown to over 400 organizations nationwide, according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. In fact, the Ku Klux Klan has been granted permission to rally later this month in Jasper, Texas, and the town where Byrd was killed. "These groups are getting better with the public," said Joe Roy, director of the Intelligence Project of the Southern poverty Law Center."They are no longer racist but racialist, not segregationists, but separatists. They are using a lot more attractive buzz words to lead people into their organizations "of the 474 hat groups documented by the Intelligence Project, 127were related to the Ku Klux Klan 100 was neo-Nazi, 42 were Skinheads, 81were Christian Identity, a racist religion, 12 were Black separatists and 112subscribed to a mélange to hate -based doctrines and ideologies.
Tracking Hate Crimes
The FBI is investigating the Texas case as a possible that crime, defined as an offense motivated buy the dislike of a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, disability, or national origin. " This was an act of violence that had a much broader implication than just the murder of a single person " said Hillary Shelton , deputy director of the NAACP in Washington DC " A much larger message was being sent by this horrible action" Many civil right s groups attributes the rise in hate  crimes to proliferation of Internet hate sites , racist music lyrics and white power literature- propaganda tools for promoting race- hating ideology that have reached an audience of as many as 2 million people . Since1995, more than 160 hate sites are active online, according to the intelligence project. Less than three years ago, there was only one. "Technology has a lot to do with opening up new recruitment opportunities for these groups," said Roy "It's a place where young people of the computer generation can vent their frustration, exchange ideas and download information to feed their hatred.





1.    How many of the hate crimes were about racial differences?
2.    How did Mr. Byrd die in Texas?
3.    Are the men who killed Byrd connected to any groups? If so, what?
4.    How are these hate groups encouraging new people to join?
5.    How many hate groups are there nationwide?
6.    What do civil rights groups say the reason is for such a increase in hat e crimes.?
7.    How many men have been charged with Byrd's murder?
8.    Why were two black men targets of crimes in Illinois and Louisiana.?
9.    What was the increase in hate groups last year?
10.    Who is Hillary Shelton?   


2.PILOT  ACCUSED

Lotfi Raissi , an Algerian pilot who had been accused of training the suicide hijackers who crashed into the Pentagon on September 11, walked free today after being granted bail at an extradition hearing . Mr.Raissi, 27 who has been held in jail for five months, emerged from the top security Belmarsh magistrate's court complex in south -east London to applause from his family and friends. Minutes earlier, district judge Timothy Workman said Mr.Raissi, who lives near Heathrow airport. Could have conditional bail as he was only facing extradition to the US on two counts of falsifying as application for a US pilot's license. At previous court hearings in London, lawyers acting for the US authorities indicated he was suspected of being a lead instructor for pilots responsible for the September 11 hijackings. And US prosecutor have in the past made clear that the pilot's license accusations were only holding charges. But no terrorism charges have been formally introduced and Mr. Raissi's lawyers successfully argued today that the charges related to pilot's license applications did not justify him being held in prison. Mr. Workman said he appreciated the September 11 investigation was long and painstaking but he said he was allowing bail as the US government was unlikely to bring terrorism charges inAA the near future. Mr. Raissi's family has strenuously denied he was involved in the September 11 terror attacks in any way. Today he was told his family would have to give $10000in surety, that he would have to live at an address specified to the court , that he would have to surrender his passport and not apply for international travel documents . Mr. Raissi's French wife Sonia, speaking after the judge's decision, said that she believed justice had been done. She said " we have been waiting five months and my message to the FBI is , You arrested him for terrorism so why do you want to extradite him for these ridiculous , minor charges? .
 Lotfi's brother, Mohamed, said "The FBI said to he world that he was a big terrorist and they have to now say to the world, that his man is innocent. They have destroyed his life, his future and his dream".
 But James Lewis, representing the US government, told the court Mr.Raissi should not be granted bail. He said "we are concerned with an investigation into an atrocity that shocked the civilized world ...Mr. Raissi is a suspect in that investigation"
Hugo Keith, representing Mr. Raissi, said "The Americans now seen unwilling to withdraw from their initial position and accept on this occasion, they pursued the wrong person. He is not fundamentalist. He is married to a white Catholic" Prosecutors have alleged that Mr.Raissi had links to Hani Hanjour ,the pilot suspected of crashing Flight 77 into the Pentagon.
Mr. Raissi was arrested on September 21 and has been held at London' high -security Belmarsh prison ever since. He was indicated by a federal grand jury in Arizona on charges of falsifying applications for a pilot's license and other documents. He allegedly held a 1993 theft conviction and failed to mention that he had undergone a knee operation. He has also been indicated Arizona on 11 more counts, including conspiracy to submit a false immigration claim. A previous attempt to win him bail in the high court in London in December failed. Lawyers acting for the US alleged that there was "a web of circumstantial evidence that points to the involvement of Raissi in a terrorist conspiracy which culminate in the events of September 11" US counsel said Mr.Raissi had "links to the Al-Qsida organization" and was "someone who has both motive and means t escape"
1.    When was Mr.Raissi arrested?
2.    How long has he been held in jail?
3.    Is it confirmed that Mr.Raissi had links to the hijacker of Flight77?
4.    What nationality is Mr.Raissi's wife?
5.    What did he hide in 1993?
6.    Did he succeed in his previous attempt to win bail?
7.    What are the conditions of his bail?
8.    What nationality is Mr. Raissi and where does he live?
9.    Has he been charged with terrorism?
10.What did the US authorities accuse him of doing?



3.BOSNIA INJURIES

On Thursday in northern Bosnia, two American soldiers were wounded when a land mine exploded. One of the soldiers suffered injuries to his right foot and other was able to walk away from the blast with shrapnel wounds to his lower leg . The incident happened at about 2:30 PM 0930EST in the town of Hadizici, which is located about ten miles south east of Tuzla .
NATO issued a statement about the incident. The statement said, "two American engineers were injured by an anti-personal mine as they were conducting a joint inspection of a minefield with the Bosnian Serb Army. One soldier stepped on an anti- personnel mine, incurring injuries to one foot.
Concerns have been raised by ERRI and any number of other sources in regard to the dangers of landmines and other improvised explosive devices in Bosnia. According to UNICEF, Bosnia has one of the highest densities of landmines per square mile of any place in the world. UNICEF says that more than 1800000mines may have been laid in Bosnia during the recent years of ethnic conflict. More troublesome to NATO troops than traditional mines, which are made of metal, are mines with plastic cases or improvised mines made from wooden cases and high explosives. The wood and plastic mines are far more difficult to detect with conventional mine detectors.
In other news regarding to Bosnian peace mission, United States Navy Admiral Leighton Smith made some remarks regarding the six confirmed sniper incidents involving NATO forces since Sunday. Admiral Smith said, "We have got some jerk up there pulling a trigger and he has got a night scope. That makes it tough. But boy, let me tell you , if we do see him he had better be fast and be clad in bullet-proof stuff. Because we will attack with out  warning. There are such things as anti- sniping teams ....people who snipe at our forces are at great risk to themselves. If we see some body pointing a weapon at our forces he will be attacked with out warning.... no warning shots, no' drop your weapon"
 And true to Admiral Smith's words -- French NATO forces later killed a sniper in the suburb where most of the shooting incidents have occurred. A NATO statement said "One gunman was located by the French Special Forces and was later neutralized. This person was seriously wounded. He later died of his injuries in spite of the intervention from a military physician. Another armed civilian was also apprehended by 0ur forces. This individual was disarmed with out any bloodshed".


1.    How many confirmed sniper incidents have there been?
2.    Where were the two American soldiers inured?
3.    Did both of the soldiers walk away from the explosion?
4.    Will a warning be given to snipers who shoot at NATO forces?
5.    How many mines have been placed in Bosnia during the conflict?
6.    Does Bosnia have a large amount of mines per square mile?
7.    What happened to the sniper found by French NATO forces?
8.    Was the second civilian, who was carrying a weapon ,shot by NATO forces?
9.    Which types of mines are more difficult to detect?
10.    Was the first sniper shot dead by the French NATO forces?


4.CLONE SYSTEM

Numerous reports from around the world in Jan/ Feb 2001 of fresh attempts to clone human embryos, ranging from Clonaid saying they hope t implant embryos into surrogate mothers in February to Australian scientists saying they have managed to make a human cloned embryo by combining a empty pig egg with a human cell . Their cloned human embryo divided to 32 cells before being destroyed. In other words it seems that the empty eggs from animal contain all that is needed to activate human genes for successful human cloning. There are huge risks of abnormalities and mutations in these human cloning experiments. We know that these animal-human hybrids are likely to escape legal controls because a court of law would probably decide that this was not human cloning a legally defined .However the outcome - if born - would be a clone baby which has identical genes in the nucleus of every cell to the adult from which the original cell was taken . Interestingly , 1%of the genes in mammal cells are not in the nucleus but in the power packs providing all the electricity for cells . These power generators called mitochondriaa .So technically these human clones made from animal eggs would have 1% animal DNA . Worrying  we know that there are many serious diseases in human caused by faulty genes in the mitochondria . But that is with human mitochondria .What will be the risk of problems with animal mitochondria being used to power every cell in human cloned child that is yet to go?
Clonaid  says five British couples, including two pairs of homosexual men have asked to be cloned. Peter and lldako Blackborn , computer consultants from Huntingdon Cambrisdgeshire UK have expressed an interest in human cloning as a alternative infertility treatment but which had not say if they are in touch with Clonaid .
as the press conference called and announce of the cloning the United States government banned it to practice in the future . The US government pledged that it will harm the civilization of the human being so world should not follow the mal -practices .
After two months the Korean scientist claimed that he also get success to reproduce a clone baby and he claimed that he will use it for the couple who doesn't  have kids and deserve it .According to the scientist , he will provide who ever the couples deserve, but the donor should give his consents .
The British government strongly condemned the act of the Korean scientist and announced that the UK government does not allow the cloning to spread in the world. Cloning should be only in side the lab.  The international scientists said that it is a big step in the human civilization and should be utilized to find out the cure of all diseases in the future. it also claimed ridiculously that every couple wants Clinton and Bill Gates as their children at the same time the natural system has been disturbed by the pressure of cloning . The world need people of every sector not money maker and politicians. If so, the world will destroy very soon.
A conference has been organized by some popular scientists in the   New York and concluded with a statement that it is a extraordinary achievement for the whole world with some vital de-merits so all should stand together to utilized the said invention. The  prime responsibility rest upon the politicians who claims to be the supreme of the United Nations organization.


1.    What was the conclusion of New York press conference?
2.    What was the only vital demerit of the cloning?
3.    What was the claimed to of the Korean scientist?
4.    Why the US government did banned the cloning system?
5.    What is the main problem of cloning system?
6.    What does Australian scientist claim?
7.    What is the risk in human cloning experiments?
8.    For what reason did the scientists prefer to sue and empty pig egg and a human cell for the experiment?
9.    What is the specific with mitochondria??
10.    Why have scientists shown their interest in human cloning?
5.    ARSON IN THE VILLAGE

On Sunday morning in a hot summer day, one patrol team of CIVPOL monitor received a radio call from the CIVPOL station about an arsoning incident in a bear by village. Someone had called up and informed the station about the incident from a local public call office .The patrol team rushed to the scene of incident. As reaching the scene, they saw a red vehicle speeding away in a very high speed with at least four or five persons inside with at least one man holding something like gun. Arriving at the scene, the monitors saw tow houses burning. Some natives came towards them and informed that some armed people came to the village, set light to the two houses belonging to a local politician and fled in their red car. The situation was immediately reported the CIVPOL station and the local police authority were duly informed. Within few minutes the fleeing red vehicle as stopped at a check point and the perpetrators arrested by the local police.
The patrol team informed to the fire brigade about the arson case and the Fire brigade team form the local municipality arrived in 15 minutes to the scene and put off the fire. Some local said during the interview that the both house was belong to the local politicians called Mustafa Leader. Leader had some arguments with some rivals during the municipality meeting last Friday about the grazing of the animal in the village of Ruslan. The leader received a threat from the rival of abandon the village as soon as possible or faces the adverse consequences. The leader did not obey the threat and the incident happen. Both house entirely damaged by the arson but the fire bridge could not give the total amount of loss of the house. The CIVPOL interviewed with the house owner and revealed that two houses worth $ 10000 and two camels worth $ 1000, cash worth $99 and utensils worth $45, grains worth $ 129, have been damaged during the arson.  The monitor team assured him relief of compensation from the local authority. 
 The local police team with out aid of UN Police have arrested the red vehicle and recovered a Tomy machine gun and 354 rounds of live ammunitions form the red car. Five suspects including driver also have been arrested by the local but not disclosed in public by the local police. The local police issued a statement in the same day saying that investigation is underway and if information needed contact to regional head quarters the following day.
The National Labour Party belongs to Mustafa organized a protest rally in the town demanding the full security to the local leader and their property and take legal and strain action to perpetrators. During the demonstration supporters of the party vandalized 4 shops and injured three local security personnel.
 The local authority endorsed compensation to the Mustafa, according to the report of Fire Brigade which cost in the said head but only $ 11000.  The fire brigade did not mention the head of the loss but recommended the whole some of money.
The local police control the security situation in the town and the police released one suspect with out any legal charge and other four have been sent to the jail by the order of local magistrate on the charge of arson and possession of illegal weapon.
 The red car sent to the auction to pay the compensation of the damage property. The owner of the car complained that his car was stolen from the garage at midnight on the same day, and it is dictatorship of the local authority to auction his car with out investigating properly and he also claimed that he will sue to the local authority in the Apex court.
1.    When did the car stolen?
2.    What was the lost property?
3.    What were the ammunition found by the local police?.
4.    What was the demand of political party?
5.    What had happened during the demonstration of local political party?
6.    What message did the CIVPOL received?
7.    How was the CIVPOL station informed of the incident ?
8.    En- route to the scene, what did the patrol team saw?
9.    What was the monitor action on the scene?
10. what action did the local police take ?

    

6.    Authoritarian regime

President Abdurrahaman Wahid granted amnesty  thousands of prisoners Thursday, including some who were ailed for there political beliefs. Minister for law and legislation Yusril Ihza Mahendra said 105 political prisoners, and 3000 others who were jailed for criminals' acts, would be released. He said Wahid signed a presidential decree Thursday and the prisoners would be set free Thursday night and Friday morning.
"We are releasing the criminal prisoners because it's Christmas time and the New year",he said . He added that the release of the political prisoners' mostly separatist activists from Aceh and Irian Jaya province was part of the government's efforts to release all those who were jailed for political activity under Indonesian's former authoritarian regime. Most of the political prisoners were jailed during the32 -year dictatorship of Suharto , who was ousted from power due to a student uprising in May 1998.
It is not the self motivated move of the government but international political pressure to released the political prisoners .  There are more than 40% members of the parliament are brought from the security service to show the political honesty to the military department .  Military party called National Unity party is more powerful in Indonesia till now and it has 32 years' background. The civil leadership could not do any thing with out the military aid. So democratic government willing to follow the military advice. 
The international court of justice has declare to punish some of the criminals who were directly involved in the massacre in Indonesia during the dictatorship of Suharto regime. But it is ridiculous to digest that the than army chief who has been accused of murdering 200 prisoners of political belief, is a member of parliament now. The Amnesty International condemned the act of the government to nominate the army chief Mr. Javal as a parliamentarian and said that the government marginalized the people voice.
The International Court of Justice summoned  as per the international standard to Suharto to present his opinion in Hague whether he did the crime or not , but it went in vain because Suharto has been admitted to Jakarta Teaching   hospital due to chest and BP problem . Suharto has been accusing of accumulating large sum of money and killing 500 students during the students' uprising.
    The interim president of East Timor Mr. Gusmao also condemned the act of the government to make escort free to the war criminals and said government is deceiving the people of Indonesia. Indonesian government barked against the East-Timor saying that no one could interfere in internal matter of the country. For the information, East -Timor is a fragment of the republic of Indonesia and got independence in 1997 by the acute international political pressure and military intervention by the UN.
      Indonesian   people believe, the criminal who are released on the occasion New year will never involve in criminal activities in the future. Indonesia lies in East of the Asia bordering  China , Australia, Iran and Indian sea respectively East, West, South and North. and it is has the most dense Muslim population with mainly  Hindu religion . Indonesia was colonized by French in 1800 AD and ruled till 1936 and got independence. The military authority ousted the civil government in 1940 by military coup and rules till 1997. The country has notorious history of producing natural drugs like Heroine and Cocaine and it is also called the country of golden triangle, the main transit of drugs , including Burma ,Thailand and Laos.       

1.    Which countries are called golden triangle country?
2.    Which country is lies in the  south of Indonesia ?
3.    What is the formal accusation to Suharto?
4.    Why the democratic government does follow the military advice?
5.    What was the reply of the government to East -Timor condemnation?
6.    Where is the international court of Justice located?
7.    why were the thousands of people jailed ?
8.    What did Mr. Yusril Ihza Mahendra say?
9.    How many political prisoners were jailed?
 10. Who were the released prisoners mostly?


7.  GAMBLE

November 27, 2001
Bangkok, Thailand: Thai police said on Mondays they have arrested six Filipino gang members for allegedly luring two Japanese and three French tourists to gamble in their house and cheating them out of millions of Baht (thousands of dollars) . The gang members, three men and three women, were arrested on Sunday from a house in Bangkok where all six gang members lived, police Lieutenant General Chat Kuldilok told reporters. Lt. Gen. Kuldilik said the women pretended to be Thai house wives and invited their victims. Whom they met on the street while pedaling handicrafts, to come to their house to teach them Japanese, and to sell them handicrafts. He said the male members of the gang pretended to be millionaires from Brunei who lost huge sums to each other to avoid suspicion by the tourists, Chat said. Four of the five tourists agreed to gamble with the male gang members while the female gang members supposedly were making them fool. Once the tourists had lost all of their money to the gang members they tried to get some of their money back, but the gang members refused. The tourists were told if they told the police or any one else about losing money to them, they would be killed. All the male gang members had knives and showed them to the tourists after telling them this. The tourists left the house and notified Thai police immediately. The tourists informed the police of the gang members' house and were willing to help them in hopes of getting their money back. Upon arrest, the Thai police searched the entire house, but unfortunately the money could not be found. One of the tourists response was," I am happy, even tough we didn't get our money back , I'm just glad the gang members were found by the Thai Police . Hopefully nothing like this will happen to any tourists ever again.
Police interviewed all the detainees in the police cell and found that other two gangs also committing the same crime using same modus operandi in the capital city. Police started the vigorous checking around the suspected area and arrested  one gang with some weapons and valuables in the rented house. Police confiscate six knives and four round of live bullets including four gang members.  Later on police honestly publicized two golden rings, four golden bracelets, six wrist watches and five passports . And issued a statement saying that any one who is belongs to the valuables contact with proofs to the city police officer Mr. Rothan.
 Police registered a legal case to the first 6 members of the gang accusing looting the valuable of the tourists but the local magistrate released all saying that police did not show the proofs of looting.
 The second gang members also charged with looting the tourists and illegal possession of weapons .The magistrate send them to the jail for six months on the charge of looting but the magistrate said police should be careful accusing the civilian who has only live bullets not a pistol or revolver.
The police assured that the looting case will come down after the arrest of 2 looting gangs and vows that they will do enough to arrest who are involved in looting case. Police said that tourist should be careful with the people who were involved in prostitution. Bangkok is famous for sex tourism in East Asia.  Most of the prostitutes are brought form the Philippine in the name of house wife . In this racket the local administration and police and pimps are also involved. 
1.    How may gang members arrested?
2.    What are the valuables had been confiscated?
3.    Why the Bangkok city is famous for?
4.    How many culprits were sent to jail and how many released?
5.    How the gang member did pretend themselves?
6.    What were the nationality of the victims ?
7.    What was the tourist said after not getting his money?
8.    What did general Chat said about the accident?
9.    What were weapons confiscated.
        10. How many tourists had gambled with cheaters?


8.  EBOLA

Sunday, December 9, 2001
An outbreak of fever in the West African nation of Gabon has been confirmed as the deadly disease Ebola, the World Health Organization (WHO) said Sunday. It is world's first documented outbreak of Ebola since last year in Uganda, where 224 people - including health workers - died from the virus. Ebola is one of the most virulent viral diseases known to humankind, causing death in 50 to 90 percent of all clinically ill cases. "It's been confirmed by a laboratory in Gabon" WHO spokesman Gregory Hartl told the press. "We have reports that seven people have died" Hartl said WHO has already sent a team to help the coastal nation and that a second team of four specialists would leave Geneva for Gabon on Monday. The out break is in remote Ogooue Ivindo province in northeastern Gabon, he said. Gabon was last afflicted in an outbreak in 1996-97 that killed 45 of the 60 people infected. "We have had very little information" Hartl said. The conformation came from a laboratory in France ville, also in eastern Gabon. A team from the Gabon Ministry of Health and the International Center of Medical Research in
France Ville went to the province last week when they first received reports of that the outbreak might be Ebola, Hartl added. On Friday, Hartl said there were unconfirmed reports of a possible outbreak in nearby Congo. Ebola is passed through contact with bodily fluids, such as mucus, saliva and blood, but Ebola is not airborne. The virus incubates for four to 10 days before flu-like symptoms set in. Eventually, the virus causes severe internal bleeding, vomiting and diarrhea. There is no known cure for Ebola, but patients treated early for dehydration have a good chance of survival. WHO says more than 800 people have died of the disease since the virus was first case in Gabon was documented in 1994 the agency says. After the 1996-97 out break in Gabon it wasn't documented again until it appeared in Uganda last year. WHO recommends the suspected cases is isolated from other patients and that strict barrier nursing techniques be used to shield health workers from exposure. Gloves and masks must be worn and disinfected prior to reuse, the agency says. Patients who die from the disease should be promptly buried or cremated. The virus has also been transmitted to people from handling ill or dead infected chimpanzees, WHO says. Police are worried there may be widespread panic in the area because of the confirmed reports. There have been rumors of possible riots and / or break -ins. Police officials said tat when out breaks such as this occur, people become frightened and assume the worst and that is when people start to try and upraise against the police . However, no reports have been made in regards to riots and/ break -INS, but police have been told to be prepared for the worst. The Goban Government called emergency cabinet meeting and declared Ivindo province as "forbidden Province". The government begs international support and relief to get rid of the diseases.  it is requested to all media house not to make undue publicity to  the outbreak ,which can terrorize the general public and can hamper  to maintain the security situation in  the country. Gabon a Central African Republic also facing starvation, malnutrition, political instability, and draught from a long decade.  The neighboring countries Nigeria, Uganda, Ethiopia, South Africa, Kenya, Somalia are also suffering from internal conflict and could not do as requested by the Gabon.  The first world showing their interest  on the request and ready to provide the assistances or relief  but they have an eye or vested interest on the natural resources of the Gabon republic which is rich in diamond, gold , natural gas , petroleum mine .

1.    What did government request to Media?
2.    Which province was declared as "forbidden province" ?
3.    Why the neighboring countries could not assist the Republic of Gabon?
4.    When the disease was documented first in the Africa?
5.    What was the rate of death causing Ebola?
6.    What were the symptoms of Ebola?
7.    How the Ebola is transmitted to another person.
8.    What was the resource of the Ebola?
9.    Why did the first world countries showing their interest to Gabon?
10. How many medical teams are going to be assign to assist the Gabon republic.    

9. TALIBAN ARRESTED

    US forces detained seven suspected Taliban fighters yesterday outside the American military base at Kandhar airport in southern Afghanistan after it came under attack , defense officials said. They said the men were detained for questioning after patrols were sent out to investigate the attack. A small number of other people who might have been involved in the gunfight escaped, according to the officials, who asked not to be identified. No American troops were injured, they said. A Reuters television cameraman, Taras Protsyuk, said he heard heavy gunfire and a number of explosions at the Kandhar base . He said the shooting lasted about 30 minutes and was at its most intense for a period of about five minutes ." I have seen the tracers and there were some light explosions like hand grenades ", he said " Americans appeared to be firing at a point in the hills to the West Side of the air base." Operation in Afghanistan by the US military and its allies to mop up remnants of the vanquished Taliban and the AL-QUIDA network are based at Kandahar airport .
    There are about 4100 military personnel based at the airport, with the majority from the US. Mr. Protsyuk said the heaviest firing was on the airport's western perimeter, about half a mile from the terminal building. In a separate incident, an American military transport plane crashed in a remote region of the Afghanistan on Tuesday night , injuring all eight crew members but non of them critically ,US  officials said yesterday . Seven of those injured in the crash were able to walk and " non of the injuries were considered life- threatening " ,said Major Brad Lowell, a spokesman for the US central command in Florida . The cause of the crash was not known , although it did not appear to be the result of hostile fire, official said . An American soldier was killed in an accident in Afghanistan yesterday when a piece of heavy industrial equipment fell on him at Bagram air base near Kabul, the US military said . The soldier's name was  withheld pending notification of next of kin. Later on , it was revealed that the detainees were investigated thoroughly and two among seven were sent to " Kwantanamo Bey" a notorious jail used by American military  to dump terrorists. Kwantanamo Bey is in Cuba , a communist nation , ruled by Fidel Kastro , a south American country .
    It was provided to USA on lease for hundred years. Remaining among the detainees were sent to the local judicial authority and imposed to the judicial remand for six months . The American soldier killed by heavy equipment was delivered  to home with a national regards by a special US navy plane . The US had  started war against Afghanistan to abolish Taliban regime , who allegedly harboring the terrorist leader Osama bin Laden  in the country . American military could not find the Osama  till now. Osama is Saudi Arabia born billionaire and blind supporter of Muslim belief , he involved in fighting with Soviet Union  who had strong hold in Afghanistan during the second world war and  with the aid of US the Al quada successes to remove Russia from Afghanistan . Bin laden started getting physical and moral support from theUS . later on , the US  did not give his support to Osama so he and his allies attacked on US interest in South Africa killing 1000 innocent people by the suicide bombing and declared Osama a terrorist .  After the 9/11 terrorist attack on twin tower , the US has declared fight against the terrorism and  announce to hand over the Osama to the US by Afgan Government . The Taliban regime  did not obey the order saying that he was the guest of the country and  guest should not be hand over the western country . 

1. Who is Osama bin Laden?
2. What do you know about Kwantanamo Bey?
3. What had happen to arrested seven detainees?
4. Why did America attack Afghanistan?
5. where did the US transport plane crash?
6. Where is the US central command located?
7. How many US military have been killed according to the passage?
8. Where was the heaviest firing occurred?
9. Where is the Kandhar air port located?
10.    Who is Taras?

10. THE UNITED NATION

The United Nation is an international organization established to create international security and friendship among the member states.
    After the Second World War, the allied nation established the United Nation on 24 December 1945 including 51 member states. Now it has 191 member states around the globe. The head quarters of the United Nation lies in New York in the US and the branch for the Europe is lies in Switzerland.

Main objectives of the United Nations are as follows.

1. To maintain international security
2. To maintain friendship among the countries
3. To regards human rights.

It has six main organs

1. International court of justice
2. Secret General assembly
3. Security Council
4. Economic and social council
5. Trusteeship council
6. Secretariat

                                        1. International court of justice.

    The headquarters of International court of justice lies in Netherlands. The UN secretariat lies in New York. The meeting of general assembly starts on third of September and concludes on December. Security council has 15 members among them 5 are permanent members , which are America, China , Russia , French, and Germany and other 10 members are elected by the 191 members states of general assembly for the period of two years . The Economic and Social council has 54 members' states and every member has three years of working period. The headquarters of the Economic and Social council lies in Geneva.

    America, China, France, Germany, Russia the permanent members of the Security council has veto power .Chinese English, French, Russian, Spanish are the official language of the United nation,. Mr. Ban ki Mon is the Secretary General of the United Nations, a South Korea citizen.

    Nepal as a United Nation member state has sent 1241police personnel to serve the United Nation, as civil police, police monitor, police advisor and police trainers. Nepal has established two Form Police Units in Haiti and Sudan as per the request of the United Nation. wins their obedience, confidence, respect and enthusiastic co-operation in achieving common objectives.


11.  UN FAILURE IN BOSNIA

    A long -awaited report into the failure of a Dutch UN peacekeeping force to prevent the murder of thousands of Muslims in the Bosnian town of Brebrenica will be published on Wednesday. The Netherlands is bracing itself for the results of the inquiry in to the worst massacre in Europe since world War second. The
    BBC's Europe correspondent says Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for their part in event leading up to the 1995 slaughter. In July 1995, Srebrenica was being protected by 110 Dutch troops who were supposed to ensure the safety of the town's mainly Muslim population against surrounding Bosnian Serb forces. The United Nations had declared it a safe area but when it  was attacked, the town fill with out the Dutch UN troops firings shot . Up to 8000 Muslim men and boys were then murdered.

Five years of research

                  While the Dutch troops are likely to be criticized for letting the town fall without a fight , fault is also set to be found with the over all UN commander for failing to order air strikes to protect the enclave. The report is also understood to criticize the Dutch government for showing lack of political will. The 7000-pages report by the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation is the official Dutch history of events in Srebrenica. It has taken more than five years to produce. In a 1999 report, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan blamed the international community for its failure to protect the enclave but insisted that it was impossible " to say whether a more decisive action by the Dutch would have saved lives" .A report two weeks ago by the Interchurch Peace Council ( IKV) in the Netherlands condemned Dutch troops, generals and politicians for failing to evacuate and protect the Muslims.

Scenes from hell

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague has ruled that the massacre was genocide. Last August it sentenced Bosnian Serb General Radisav Krstic, considered a key commander in the episode, to 46 years in prison. The judge in the case said the massacre was characterized by " scenes from hell, written on the darkest pages of human history" Survivors' reports, aerial photography and grisly evidence exhumed from mass graves indicate the most victims in the massacre were summarily executed ,Dutch MPs may now call for a public inquiry. Seven military commanders of Royal Dutch army have been sentenced to seven years jail . Ten army personnel have been fired from the service and 20 have been restricted from the promotion as per the report of the criminal tribunal.   The BBC's correspondent Mr. Havel Eastward has been facilitated by the Dutch Government as a friends of mankind . After the massacre in the Srebrenica the Dutch government begs pardon with the Bosnian people and saying that her troops could not do any thing to save the life of the people and she is responsible to the accident.


1. How many Dutch troops were protecting Srebrenica?
2. What ethnic group were the people of Srebrenica?
3. Why the Dutch government begs pardon with the people of Bosnia ?
4. How many people were killed in Srebrenica?
5. How many army personnel were punished?
6. Who is criticized in the report?
7. Where is the International Criminal Tribunal based?
8. Would more positive action by the Dutch troops have saved lives?
9    What sentence was General Krstic given?
10    Who was facilitated by the Dutch government and why?


12.  SWARM ATTACK

    Six people were hospitalized after they were attacked by a swarm of bees in Singapore, a news report said on Tuesday. The bees attacked contractors who were trying to remove a beehive in the tropical city-state .Two police officers who were on the scene to keep back the public, were among those attacked and hospitalized. Police public affairs officers could not immediately be contacted to confirm the report. The incident occurred at approximately 12:30PM on Tuesday afternoon. Two of the people who were injured in the attack were still in the hospital on Tuesday night at 10:00 PM; however they were in good condition. Such incidents are rare in heavily urbanized Singapore. But two years ago , a 51 years old taxi driver died after he was stung by a swarm bees .The driver was changing his back left tire and he removed the deflated tire , a beehive was in the wheel well . Witnesses said that the swarm covered the man's face and hands and repeatedly sting him as he cried out in pain .He died later that night while being hospitalized. Singapore is a very small country covered by the see in the east of Asia and known as a well industrialized country.
    The big industry installations have many nooks and corners where the swarm bees get shelters. firstly people do not care about it because it seems harmless and small in the beginning but after  a year it  appeared in large scale and bees become escort free so they undermine their stung so they try to destroy their hives and got stung and the result  become very adverse. The same accident happened in The US in 1990 when a farmer had gone to his farmhouse to clean the room , he saw that there is a bee hive in the ceiling of the room he thought it was full of honey , unfortunately it was poisonous  swarm bee's hive.  He collected his two sons and a black servant to take the honey . In the mean time when they lit a fire to fly the bees , the swarm bees started stung them . The younger son who was in the door side escaped from the room after having a look at the victims and called the police . The house got in to the gutter by the fire and three injured had been hospitalize in the city centre . The house owner Mr. Kally died during the medical treatment and two had been discharged after 2 weeks with swollen face and bruises for the whole life.  The same accident happened in Nepal too on 23 September 2002. The Raute , who are famous for honey hunter ,had tried to collect honey from the very steep hill near Manang District. they made rope ladder to climb the hill and with the aid of fire they started collecting the honey .
    It was a documentary program filmed by Scottish Director visualized to broadcast in Britain  by BBC. Al together there were 15 men. When the honey hunter was climbing down from the steep hill after the successful visualization of the film. Unfortunately, one of the hunters touched the bees hive. Due to the finished job, they did not prepare for next attack and they all were on very thin cloths and without cloves . Three among five hunters fall down from the cliff and died. Two were severely bitten by the bees were died on the way to hospital and ten crew members of the visualization  were admitted in the hospital and discharged after 2 weeks .  It is said that the bees seems so calm if they are not hurt and if anyone hurt their queen , they become so terrifying and take revenge from the hunter . The queen is the most powerful among the bees. if the queen of the bees  safely removed from the hive it will be so easy to get the honey from the hive   which is considered as medicine  in eastern countries . The working bees always follow the queen bee , if she abandon the hive silently , all the bees left the hive with out revenge. so if you want to get honey remove the queen tactically and calmly.
         
1.    How many people had been killed according to the passage.?
2.    How many people had been injured according to the passage?
3.    Where was the bees's hive in the taxi?
4.    Who was the authentic person to provide informations about injured police officers according to the passage.
5.    What had happened to the two Americans who escaped from the death?
6.    What is the ideal idea to get honey?
7.    What did the team doing in Manning District?
8.    How did the taxi driver killed?
9.    Where was the bees's hive in the room?
10.    Who is the most powerful in the hive?

13.  ARAFAT POLITICS
    Arafat is not the point. As Israelis and Palestinians use ever more lethal means against each other's civilians, the question being asked in Israel and the US is not how to end the occupation, but whether or not to end the career, or even the life, of Arafat. At the time of writing this coverage trend in early February 2002, in a further escalation Israeli tanks have confined Arafat in an area of 200m square in Ram Allah. And have destroyed the remainder of his helicopter fleet that it began to destroy on the attack of his compound on 3 December 2001.
    If Israel killed Arafat or sent in to exile, nothing would change. It seems almost absurd to have to point out that forcing millions of people to live for decades under hostile military rule with no end on sight inevitably produces violent resistance. Only a mind -set that steadfastly refuses to recognize this can become captivated by a lone figure who's real and imagined failings became a smoke screen that obscures the machinery that actually drives the conflict.
    If Israel truly seeks the moral high ground it invokes in the international arena, it should stop seeking a relative high ground whose only elevation stems from the weakness and failing of its historical enemies. Rather Israel should address the most obvious things it dies to perpetuate the conflict.
    The bottom line is that the single most identifiable factor that perpetuates the Israeli- Palestinian conflict in all its forms, both legitimate, is the Israeli military occupation that exists to protect the continuing Israeli colonization of the Gaza Strip and West Bank, including Jerusalem.
    Comparisons of Arafat with Bin Laden serve to legitimize Israel's continuing repression of the Palestinians and bear no reality to the dynamics that this particular conflicts, dynamics that Israel has played no small part in creating.
    Israel's killing of civilians is a form of terrorism. The United States  tacit support of Israel's so called retaliation in US support of terrorism .Although Israeli officials are occasionally note don record " apologizing" for the latest " accidental" death of a child , there comes a point -- after a year in which one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed were children and 50 percent of these children were killed for away from clashes- that it becomes imperative to note that Israel could always simply stop killing children , instead of merely apologizing for it.
    Israel's nightly shelling of Palestinian neighborhoods has accounted for one quarter of the 800 Palestinians killed during the first year of the Second Intifada .  Israel's regular killing of innocent civilians including children as a "by product " of its ironically titled" targeted killings " of Palestinian activists most commonly with rockets fired from combat helicopters at these leader's vehicles while in cit streets offer more examples of the indiscriminate violence that characterizes 'terrorism' as most people understand the word.
    Following a series of suicide bomb attacks in February / March 1996, then Israeli President Weizmann bluntly described Israel's practice of using closure to turn Palestinian towns in to prisons for the entire population: "Sometimes, when you are searching for a needle in a haystack, you have to burn the haystack".
    Israel has been encouraged to carry out similar "retaliation" as in the case of the December 2001bombing, by the knowledge that the United States would not condemn it. America must refrain from "understanding" Israel's violence. This can only have the effect of encouraging the continued Israeli killing of innocent Palestinian civilians.

1.    How many Palestinian children have been killed this year?
2.    How many Palestinians have been killed during nightly shelling?
3.    Are children targeted by the Israelis?
4.    Who is Arafat compared to and why?
5.    Where is Arafat confined, and what size of area?
6.    How many people live under hostile military rule in Palestine?
7.    What is the question being asked in Israel and the US?
8.    Why is Israel not afraid to carry out retaliation attacks on Palestinians?
9.    What happened in 1996?
10.    What dies Israel do when it is faced with suicide bomb attacks?








14.  BUS LOOTED
    A bus, which started off in Kathmandu , at 5:30 PM , traveling to Biratnagar , was looted by some Indian dacoits, which had crossed the boarder in order to escape the authorities there. They had been in Nepal for at least a month and had been regularly stopping night buses and robbing the passengers of all their belongings as well as money.
    When the bus number Ba Ga 3987, first started off from Gongabu Bus Park there was a total of 30 passengers. Just near Thankot 3 more passengers got on. The journey was uneventful until they reached Muggling, where they stopped for dinner. Here, the bus conductor managed to find 4 more people wanting to travel to Biratnagar . After about half an hour stop for dinner, they set off again. At Bharatpur 2 of the passengers got off as they had only booked up to this point. The bus had to wait for about one hour as the engine had trouble and the driver had to fix it .After this they started  of again and had a short tea break at Hetauda where another 2 people got off and one got on.
    At about 2:00 PM in the morning, when most of the passengers were asleep, the driver suddenly stopped as there was a tree across the main road. The passengers all wake up as the bus had come to a sudden stop, and were all looking out of the windows. Two Indian men dressed in black were behind the fallen tree with country made rifles; at the same time 2 also came from the back and two on each side of the bus. At once they told all the passengers to come out of the bus and line up in front of the bus, even though it as a moonlight night, no body could make out the faces of the dacoits, and could tell only by the way they spoke that they were from India. Everybody was told to remove their watches, jewelries and to empty out their pockets and moneybags. One of the men colleted all this while the others told all the passengers to lie down with their faces facing down. During this time the dacoits all disappeared, as nobody wanted to follow them as they might get shot

1.    How many passengers were on the bus when it was robbed?

2.    How many dacoits were there in total?

3.    How long did they stop for dinner?

4.    Why did they stop a second time before the robbery?

5.    How did the passengers know that the dacoits were not Nepali?

5.    Where did the bus start first?

6.    How many got in the Baratpur?

7.    Why did the bus have to stop suddenly?

8.    How many we on the bus at Muggling?

9.    Although it was night time how could the passengers make out how many dacoits there were?  
15.    KOSOVO POLICE

    On Monday 17 March 2003 , at 0745 hours , two Kosovo Police Officers were on patrol duty in a police vehicle when they observed a white van type vehicle , license 496KS858 driving very fast. The officers stopped the white van type vehicle for questioning using their blue flash lights. When the driver stopped, the patrol team stopped five meters behind his vehicle, however the van did not turn off its engine. As the officers exited their vehicle, the drivers of the white van type vehicle sped away very quickly. The officers ran back to their vehicle and chased the white vehicle .They were driving on the road to the airport. The police vehicle was driving at almost 120 km/hour but was unable to catch up to the van. Suddenly, the van turned north on to an unpaved roadway. The officers continued the pursuit. The van drove for approximately a hundred meters more. There was a big hole by the side of the road which the van fell into as the driver had lost control of the van, then it rolled upside down into a deep ditch on the south side of the roadway at grid reference 184-846. The officers stopped their vehicle on the opposite side of the roadway and proceeded cautiously toward the offender's vehicle. When they were approximately two meters away form the white van type vehicle they could see that the offender was still in his vehicle but was not moving. There were no sign of blood or injury  to the offender .As the officers got closer they could see three bundles, approximately 35 cm by 20cm by 25cm in the rare cargo area of the vehicle . One of the bundles was ripped open and a dark green plant material was showing, the officers assumed that it was marijuana. The first officer proceeded to the front of the vehicle to check the physical condition to the driver. The offender was breathing but didn't respond to any of the officer's verbal commands.  The officer radioed for an ambulance and the offender was taken to the local hospital. The second officer searched the offender's vehicle and found another bundle under the front seat with a knife. The Knife was 20 cm long with old blood stains. There were no papers or registration found in the vehicle. All material were seized as evidence and taken to police station.

1.    What were the 2 officers doing at 0745 Hrs?
2.    Why did they ask the van to stop?
3.    What was their reason for stopping the van?
4.    At what distance behind did the police stop?
5.    How many bundles were seen?
6.    Approximately what speed was the van traveling when in pursuit?
7.    What did the officers assume it to be?
8.    Was the knife found before or after the suspect was taken to hospital?
9.    What distance did the van travel on the dirt road?
10.    How did the man crash the vehicle?
16.    GERMANY SOOTING

Germany was in shock yesterday after 19 years old, masked gunman shot 17 people, including two female students, before killing himself in a school massacre in the eastern city of Erfurt.
The black -clad gunman a recently - expelled student of the Gutenberg secondary school, burst into a classroom during an exam yesterday morning around 11 AM and started shooting with a pump action rifle mounted on his back. "He passed us in the corridor with out paying any attention and walked straight into the secretary's office and started shooting." He said. Witnesses said the gunman walked through the building, opening classroom doors and targeting staff, killing nine male teachers, four female teachers, a secretary and two female students all within minutes. Caretakers heard the shots and notified the local police. Two officers arrived on the scene and discovered two dead bodies in the entrance hall. Moments later the gunman appeared and opened fire, shooting dead one of the policemen. A special commando unit immediately surrounded the school, which has nearly 700 students. As the shooting continued, around 180 students were still trapped in the building. Commandos stormed the building shortly before noon and came upon what was described as terrible scenes. 'Bodies lay in the halls, in bathrooms and classrooms' said Mr.Rainer Grube, a police spokesman. The gunman, who had barricaded himself into a room, shot himself as officers approached. 'The gunman killed himself when he saw that there was no way out for him' said Mr., Grube.
    For the students trapped inside the building, their ordeals ended nearly three hours later when they were led, pale and shaking, out of the school to worried parents at the gate. They were all receiving counseling yesterday evening, while four people injured in the attack were brought to hospital. Police were last night still investigating students reports that there was a second gunman. They had no motive for the shootings yesterday evening. Friends of the as yet unidentified gunman described him as an intelligent student who was ' full of life' and often spoke of his wish to become famous. The massacre is one of the most violent attacks in German post -war history, and ranks alongside the 1996 school shooting in Dunblane and the 1999 massacre in Columbine , Arkansas. Yesterday evening Erfurt residents were in shock and German politicians speechless .
'We are stunned at this horrific crime. No explanation we could give would go far enough right now ' said the Chancellor, Mr. Gerhard Schroeder, expressing his sympathy for the families of the victims and the students who witnessed the attack. He ordered the German flag on the Reichstag in Berlin to flown to be flown at half mast. 'We are all in one room .One teacher is dead, we are crying.



1.    Which two other massacres are mentioned?
2.    How many people were injured in the attack?
3.    What time did the shooting start?
4.    What weapons were used?
5.    How many teachers were killed?
6.    Did the gunman target students?
7.     Who notified the police about the shooting?
8.    Who stormed the building and when?
9.    How many police men entered the building initially?
10.    How long it take to gunman to kill the people and was there only one gunman?



17.  DEAD BODY FOUND

Mr. John Edwards lives alone in his cottage in the southern part of Cambridge, UK. He was a retired officer who previously worked for the finance office which was based in London. He had been retired for 5 years now and spent most of his time in Cambridge. He had worked for 34 years and during that time lived in London. By the sides of his cottage, there was a husband and wife living who used to work for Mr. Edwards. The woman would cook his meals and the man would attend to the garden. Mr. Edwards had no close family or friends who would come to visit him regularly .On December 15 , 2002 ,Mr. Edwards was found dead in his study at 0700 hrs. His body was fund by the woman who did his cooking. She had informed the police when she had seen him lying on his desk at 0700hrs. All the doors were closed from the inside so the woman thought in quite suspicious so she looked through the window. This is when she saw Mr. Edwards at his desk. When the police arrived at 0730 hrs. They broke open the door and checked the body. Mr. Edwards was confirmed dead and his body sent for post mortem. By the side of the table there was a bottle and a letter which said that he was taking his life as he was fed up and didn't see any future in continuing. All these materials were sent to the police lab for the necessary testing. The reports all confirmed that Mr. Edwards did take the poison, traces of which were found in his blood and on his lips. On the latter, apart from Mr. Edward's finger prints, there were other prints found as well. When the police checked up they found that it belonged to the husband the woman who cooked for Mr. Edwards. The police found this very suspicious as the husband had said that he never came into the study at any time. The police brought the man in for questioning and under interrogation he at first denied that he had gone to the house ant any time. After 2 hours, he changed his story and said that he
          Hány ország van a földön?        
Elég gyakran felmerülő földrajzi kérdés, hogy tulajdonképpen hány ország van a földön, másként hány ország van a világon? Természetesen ezt nehéz pontosan megállapítani, hiszen ahogyan a történelmet figyelemmel kísérjük, rengeteg állam jött és jön is létre az évszázadok, olykor évtizedek alatt, éppen úgy, ahogyan egyesek megszűnnek vagy integrálódnak más országokba.

A legelfogadottabb és legmegbízhatóbb adatok szerint a világ jelenleg 196 országot különböztet meg bolygónkon.

Ezt az adatot, más megbízható adatok is alátámasztják, melyek jól feltérképezik a világ országait és ezzel együtt arra is rámutat, hogy mely országokat nem ismer el az adott szervezet, tehát kvázi mely országokat hagyja ki a számításából.

Ilyen például az Egyesült Nemzetek Szervezete (ENSZ), angol nevén United Nations, melynek 193 tagja van. Ellentétben a gyakori tévhittel, ez a szám nem reprezentálja a földön található összes országot. Nyilván való, hogy vannak az ENSZ-től elkülönülő független országok, ilyen például a Vatikán és Koszovó.

Az Egyesült Államok külügyminisztériuma 195 országot különböztet meg a világon. Ez a lista viszont politikai okokból nem ismeri el különálló országként Taiwant, mely 1971-ig az ENSZ-nek is tagja volt.

Érdemes megemlíteni a témával kapcsolatban, hogy vannak olyan tartományok, régiók, melyek bár a köztudatban gyakran országként jelennek meg, valójában nem rendelkeznek a független állam címével, illetve bizonyos irányítási szerepet más ország gyakorolja felettük. Erre kiváló példa Észak-Írország, Skócia, Wales, Anglia.

Biztosak vagyunk benne, hogy néhány olvasónkat egészen konkrétan érdekli, hogy mely országok tartoznak a nagy 196-os listába, ezért elkészítettük a listát az országokhoz tartozó fővárosokkal. Ne tévesszen meg senkit, hogy egy országhoz adott esetben több főváros is tartozik. Bizonyos országok több főváros kijelölésével oldják meg közigazgatási ügyintézésüket.

Afganisztán - Kabul
Albánia - Tirane
Algéria - Algiers
Andorra - Andorra la Vella
Angola - Luanda
Antigua és Barbuda - Saint John's
Argentína - Buenos Aires
Örményország - Yerevan
Ausztrália - Canberra
Ausztria - Vienna
Azerbajdzsán - Baku
Bahamák - Nassau
Bahrein - Manama
Banglades - Dhaka
Barbados - Bridgetown
Fehéroroszország - Minsk
Belgium - Brussels
Belize - Belmopan
Benin - Porto-Novo
Bhután - Thimphu
Bolívia - La Paz (közigazgatási); Sucre (bírói)
Bosznia és Hercegovina - Sarajevo
Botswana - Gaborone
Brazília - Brasilia
Brunei - Bandar Seri Begawan
Bulgária - Sofia
Burkina Faso - Ouagadougou
Burundi - Bujumbura
Kambodzsa - Phnom Penh
Kamerun - Yaounde
Kanada - Ottawa
Zöld-foki-szigetek - Praia
Közép-afrikai Köztársaság - Bangui
Csád - N'Djamena
Chile - Santiago
Kína - Beijing
Kolumbia - Bogota
Comore-szigetek - Moroni
Kongói Köztársaság - Brazzaville
Kongói Demokratikus Köztársaság - Kinshasa
Costa Rica - San Jose
Cote d'Ivoire - Yamoussoukro (hivatalos); Abidjan (tényleges)
Horvátország - Zagreb
Kuba - Havana
Ciprus - Nicosia
Cseh Köztársaság - Prague
Dánia - Copenhagen
Dzsibuti - Djibouti
Dominika - Roseau
Dominikai Köztársaság - Santo Domingo
Kelet-Timor (Timor-Leste) - Dili
Ecuador - Quito
Egyiptom - Cairo
El Salvador - San Salvador
Egyenlítői Guinea - Malabo
Eritrea - Asmara
Észtország - Tallinn
Etiópia - Addis Ababa
Fidzsi - Suva
Finnország - Helsinki
Franciaország - Paris
Gabon - Libreville
Gambia - Banjul
Grúzia - Tbilisi
Németország - Berlin
Ghána - Accra
Görögország - Athens
Grenada - Saint George's
Guatemala - Guatemala City
Guinea - Conakry
Bissau-Guinea - Bissau
Guyana - Georgetown
Haiti - Port-au-Prince
Honduras - Tegucigalpa
Magyarország - Budapest
Izland - Reykjavik
India - New Delhi
Indonézia - Jakarta
Irán - Tehran
Irak - Baghdad
Írország - Dublin
Izrael - Jerusalem
Olaszország - Rome
Jamaica - Kingston
Japán - Tokyo
Jordánia - Amman
Kazahsztán - Astana
Kenya - Nairobi
Kiribati - Tarawa Atoll
Észak-Korea - Pyongyang
Dél-Korea - Seoul
Koszovó - Pristina
Kuvait - Kuwait City
Kirgizisztán - Bishkek
Laosz - Vientiane
Lettország - Riga
Libanon - Beirut
Lesotho - Maseru
Libéria - Monrovia
Líbia - Tripoli
Liechtenstein - Vaduz
Litvánia - Vilnius
Luxemburg - Luxembourg
Macedónia - Skopje
Madagaszkár - Antananarivo
Malawi - Lilongwe
Malajzia - Kuala Lumpur
Maldív-szigetek - Male
Mali - Bamako
Málta - Valletta
Marshall-szigetek - Majuro
Mauritánia - Nouakchott
Mauritius - Port Louis
Mexikó - Mexico City
Mikronéziai Szövetségi Államok - Palikir
Moldova - Chisinau
Monaco - Monaco
Mongólia - Ulaanbaatar
Montenegró - Podgorica
Marokkó - Rabat
Mozambik - Maputo
Mianmar (Burma) - Rangoon (Yangon); Naypyidaw or Nay Pyi Taw (közigazgatási)
Namíbia - Windhoek
Nauru - Nincs hivatalos főváros; A kormányzat Yaren tartományban található
Nepál - Kathmandu
Hollandia - Amsterdam; The Hague (a kormányzat helye)
Új-Zéland - Wellington
Nicaragua - Managua
Niger - Niamey
Nigéria - Abuja
Norvégia - Oslo
Omán - Muscat
Pakisztán - Islamabad
Palau - Melekeok
Panama - Panama City
Pápua Új-Guinea - Port Moresby
Paraguay - Asuncion
Peru - Lima
Fülöp-szigetek - Manila
Lengyelország - Warsaw
Portugália - Lisbon
Katar - Doha
Románia - Bucharest
Oroszország - Moscow
Ruanda - Kigali
Saint Kitts és Nevis - Basseterre
Santa Lucia - Castries
Saint Vincent és és a Grenadine-szigetek - Kingstown
Szamoa - Apia
San Marino - San Marino
São Tomé és Príncipe - Sao Tome
Szaúd-Arábia - Riyadh
Szenegál - Dakar
Szerbia - Belgrade
Seychelle-szigetek - Victoria
Sierra Leone - Freetown
Szingapúr - Singapore
Szlovákia - Bratislava
Szlovénia - Ljubljana
Salamon-szigetek - Honiara
Szomália - Mogadishu
Dél-Afrika - Pretoria (közigazgatási); Cape Town (törvényhozói); Bloemfontein (bírósági)
Dél-Szudán - Juba (Áthelyezve Ramciel-be)
Spanyolország - Madrid
Srí Lanka - Colombo; Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (törvényhozói)
Szudán - Khartoum
Suriname - Paramaribo
Szváziföld - Mbabane
Svédország - Stockholm
Svájc - Bern
Szíria - Damascus
Tajvan - Taipei
Tádzsikisztán - Dushanbe
Tanzánia - Dar es Salaam; Dodoma (törvényhozói)
Thaiföld - Bangkok
Togo - Lome
Tonga - Nuku'alofa
Trinidad és Tobago - Port-of-Spain
Tunézia - Tunis
Törökország - Ankara
Türkmenisztán - Ashgabat
Tuvalu - Vaiaku village, Funafuti province
Uganda - Kampala
Ukrajna - Kyiv
Egyesült Arab Emírségek - Abu Dhabi
Egyesült Királyság - London
Egyesült Államok - Washington D.C.
Uruguay - Montevideo
Üzbegisztán - Tashkent
Vanuatu - Port-Vila
Vatikán (Vatikánváros) (Holy See) - Vatican City
Venezuela - Caracas
Vietnam - Hanoi
Jemen - Sanaa
Zambia - Lusaka
Zimbabwe - Harare

          Jadual Dan Keputusan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017 Kuala Lumpur        
Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017 - Jadual Dan Keputusan Perlawanan. Mampukah skuad Malaysia merangkul Pingat Emas acara bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017? Berikut dikongsikan Jadual dan Keputusan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017 di Kuala Lumpur dari aksi peringat kumpulan hingga perlawanan akhir. Perkongsian melibatkan tarikh, hari, stadium dan keputusan perlawanan melibatkan Kumpulan A dan B. 

Sebanyak 11 pasukan akan merebut ibu segala Pingat Emas di Temasya Sukan SEA, sukan serantau di Negara Asean. Pasukan Thailand adalah juara bertahan manakala Myanmar adalah naib juara. Kesemua perlawanan akan dilangsungkan di 5 lokasi stadium. Siaran langsung perlawanan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017 akan disiarkan secara langsung di Astro Arena.

keputusan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017 Kuala Lumpur

Jadual Dan Keputusan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017 (Kumpulan A Dan B)

Berikut dikongsikan jadual dan keputusan penuh perlawanan acara Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017 di Kuala Lumpur. 11 pasukan dibahagikan kepada 2 kumpulan iaitu A dan B. Skuad Malaysia adalah dibawah kendalian jurulatih Datuk Ong Kim Swee.

senarai pasukan kumpulan bolasepak sukan sea 2017

14 OGOS 2017 - Isnin (Kumpulan A)

  • MYANMAR vs SINGAPURA (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 4.00 petang)
  • MALAYSIA vs BRUNEI (Stadium Shah Alam, 8.45 malam)

15 OGOS 2017 - Selasa (Kumpulan B)

  • INDONESIA vs THAILAND (Stadium Shah Alam, 4.00 petang)
  • VIETNAM vs TIMOR-LESTE (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 4.00 petang)
  • KEMBOJA vs FILIPINA (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 8.45 malam)

16 OGOS 2017, Rabu (Kumpulan A)

  • SINGAPURA vs MALAYSIA (Stadium Shah Alam, 8.45 malam)
  • MYANMAR vs LAOS (Stadium UiTM, Shah Alam, 8.45 malam)

17 OGOS 2017, Khamis (Kumpulan B)

  • VIETNAM vs KEMBOJA (Stadium Shah Alam, 4.00 petang)
  • INDONESIA vs FILIPINA (Stadium Shah Alam, 8.45 malam)
  • THAILAND vs TIMOR-LESTE (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 8.45 malam)

18 OGOS 2017, Jumaat (Kumpulan A)

  • LAOS vs SINGAPURA (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 4.00 petang)
  • BRUNEI vs MYANMAR (Stadium UiTM, Shah Alam, 4.00 petang)

20 OGOS 2017, Ahad (Kumpulan B)

  • TIMOR-LESTE vs INDONESIA (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 4.00 petang)
  • THAILAND vs KEMBOJA (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 8.45 malam)
  • FILIPINA vs VIETNAM (Stadium Shah Alam, 8.45 malam)

21 OGOS 2017, Isnin (Kumpulan A)

  • BRUNEI vs LAOS (Stadium UM Arena, Kuala Lumpur, 4.00 petang)
  • MALAYSIA vs MYANMAR (Stadium Shah Alam, 8.45 malam)

22 OGOS 2017, Selasa (Kumpulan B)

  • FILIPINA vs THAILAND (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 4.00 petang)
  • VIETNAM vs INDONESIA (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 8.45 malam)
  • KEMBOJA vs TIMOR-LESTE (Stadium UM Arena, Kuala Lumpur, 8.45 malam)

23 OGOS 2017, Rabu (Kumpulan A)

  • LAOS vs MALAYSIA (Stadium Shah Alam, 8.45 malam)
  • SINGAPURA vs BRUNEI (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 8.45 malam)

24 OGOS 2017, Khamis (Kumpulan B)

  • INDONESIA vs KEMBOJA (Stadium Shah Alam, 4.00 petang)
  • THAILAND vs VIETNAM (Stadium Majlis Perbandaran Selayang, 4.00 petang)
  • TIMOR-LESTE vs FILIPINA (Stadium UM Arena, Kuala Lumpur, 4.00 petang)

26 OGOS 2017, Sabtu (Separuh Akhir)

  • JUARA KUMPULAN A VS NAIB JUARA KUMPULAN B
  • JUARA KUMPULAN B VS NAIB JUARA KUMPULAN A

29 OGOS 2017, Selasa (Penentuan Pingat Gangsa)

  • Pasukan Tewas Separuh Akhir 1 vs Tewas Separuh Akhir 2 (430 petang)

Final (Penentuan Pingat Emas Dan Perak)

  • Pemenang Separuh Akhir 1 vs Pemenang Separuh Akhir 2 (845 malam)

Semoga perkongsian Jadual Dan Keputusan Bolasepak Sukan SEA 2017 Kuala Lumpur dapat membantu peminat bolasepak mengikuti perkembangan skuad Harimau Malaysia. Moga skuad negara mampu menang pingat emas hadiah buat rakyat Malaysia bersempena dengan Hari Kebangsaan Malaysia 2017.
          Satu rumpun pun nak bergaduh        
Pepagi buta ni lah baru aku nak post blog. Yela, aku sekarang ni kan dah macam burung hantu. Bagus untuk kerja security guard ni. Tak mudah tertidur. Hehehe.


Baru-baru ni, aku tiada kerja dan aku pun belek-belek lah Facebook untuk di olah. Tiba-tiba aku ternampak satu fan page dari negara jiran. Kutuk Malaysia. Ayat mereka memang memedihkan telinga kalau berkata. Aku setakat baca pon naik berdarah otak aku mentafsirkannya. 


Apa motif utama mereka ini? Reformasi la, serangan la, ganyang la, hapa-hapa la. Tak malu ke? Sebenarnya, aku macam terasa lucu dengan beberapa kerat ayat yang aku rasa sangat-sangat kelakar. Aku memang tak nafikan, kadang-kadang negara kita ni memang ada buat salah. Tapi, bukan kita buat salah dengan mereka. Aku pun tak nak la nak buat rusuhan yang melibatkan negara ni. Dengan tertubuhnya fan page seperti ini, ianya memalukan negara mereka sendir yang sememangnya berada dalam kekurangan. Apa, mereka ingat dengan tertubuhnya page ni mereka dapat negara kita macam tu je? Sori la der, korang masih ditakuk lama lagi. minta maaf kalau sesiapa tersinggung.


Yang memang tak boleh blah lagi, mereka buat satu gambar berlatarkan KLCC dengan bendera negara mereka. Mereka cakap sepatutnya KLCC tu bersama mereka. Phui! Satu sen duit pun nak keluar buat KLCC, ada hati nak amik buat sedemikian rupa. Ada segelintir dari pekerja dari negara mereka ni baik, rajin. Ada pula yang jahat. Rompak, rogol, bunuh. Dah tu, PATI pun banyak. Takde permit, kita hantar la balik. Bukan bunuh pun. Tu pun tak reti nak bersyukur? Harap je negara islam paling ramai. Maaf kalau terasa.


Aku harap pada semua yang masih lagi bermusuh dengan Malaysia, seelok-eloknya kita berbaik-baik sesama kita. Mungkin ada hikmahnya. Mana lah tau ada buah fikiran yang bernas perlu diketengahkan untuk membangunkan negara anda. kami sedia membantu sekiranya anda mahu maju terus kehadapan. Kalau tak nak, teruskan dengan sikap anda ini. Sampai ke tua lah anda akan begini. Still no action. Kosong. Tak serang-serang pun. Haprak la beb. Baik pergi kerja, bagi anak bini makan. Lagi mulia dari kutuk dari belakang. 


Aku ni kesian dengan rakyat mereka. Ada yang tak cukup makan, tempat tinggal yang tak selamat, banyak lagi la. Tapi mereka yang tak pernah kenal erti susah ni yang banyak complain. Aku pernah bantu sorang warga mereka di sini yang tak dapat nak makan akibat dibuang kerja. Aku tolong sebab perikemanusiaan. Tapi, mereka disana macam mana? Tahu nak ganyang je. Diorang ingat Malaysia ni lembab? Malaysia ada wawasan. Kau? Kalau setakat ada kawasan yang luas, tapi tak maju buat apa. Cuba jadi seperti Singapura, Brunei. Tak kacau orang tapi memajukan diri sendiri. Tengok sekarang. Mereka lagi maju dari Malaysia. Kau? Harapkan bantuan sahaja. Cubalah berubah.





Ini yang aku harapkan. Semoga menjadi kenyataan. Amin.


          Hàng không mẫu hạm Mỹ thăm VN là 'thay đổi tÆ° duy' của Hà Nội        

VOA Tiếng Việt

      

Năm 1995, trong buổi học cuối cùng của môn chính trị, tôi được nghe ông thầy (cũng là Bí thư Đảng ủy) nói với giọng tức giận "đánh Mỹ chạy đi, giờ lại trải thảm đỏ đón Mỹ về".

Ông nói vậy, bởi Việt Nam và Mỹ mở lại bang giao vào tháng 7-1995. Lúc đó, đại diện nước Mỹ là Tổng thống Bill Clinton, còn Việt Nam là Ttướng Võ Văn Kiệt.

Tâm trạng hoang mang và tức giận đó của ông bí thư đảng ủy, là điều mà tôi vẫn nhìn thấy ở những người bỏ một đời đi theo chủ nghĩa cộng sản, rồi bất chợt một ngày cảm thấy bị hụt hẩng vì cảm giác như mình bị phản bội - đồng thời mơ hồ mình có thể bị bỏ rơi vào lúc nào đó.

20 năm sau, với những nỗ lực không ngừng từ phía Mỹ, Việt Nam đã có những cuộc phối hợp đầu tiên giữa quân đội hai nước. Mặc dù đó chỉ là khởi đầu các hoạt động cứu trợ nhân đạo và cứu trợ thảm hoạ trong khuôn khổ chương trình Thiên thần Thái Bình Dương.

Vào tháng 8/2015, hải quân Việt Nam dè dặt bước vào cộng tác trong chương trình Đối tác Thái Bình Dương, là bước đi gấp rút sau sự kiện giàn khoan dầu HD 981 của Trung Quốc tiến vào vùng của Việt Nam trong năm 2014. Vai trò của một cựu thù lúc này ở VN thật đầy tính "ấm áp".

Đến thời điểm đó, rất nhiều người già đã bỏ một đời đi theo lý tưởng cộng sản mà tôi gặp lại, đều thay đổi. "Trung Quốc mới chính là kẻ thù", tôi nghe những câu nói như vậy thường xuyên và lớn giọng hơn. Thậm chí, có những người đã cùng tham gia xuống đường chống Trung Quốc rồi bị đánh đập hay tù đày.

Hơn vậy, tôi nghe khắp trên các con đường mình đi qua, từ Nam chí Bắc, là những lời bàn không chỉ về kẻ thù của Việt Nam mà còn bàn về những kẻ sẵn sàng bán mình cho kẻ thù của Việt Nam. Nghe như một cuộc chuyển mình rầm rộ mà thinh lặng.

Hôm nay, hàng không mẫu hạm của Mỹ nói sẽ ghé vào Cam Ranh với cuộc "bảo trì" đầy ý nghĩa, nhất là sau khi Bắc Kinh ép Hà Nội phải ngừng khoan dầu trên biển, và Bộ trưởng Quốc phòng Ngô Xuân Lịch vừa sang Mỹ. Tôi lại nhớ về ông bí thư đảng ủy đó.

Lịch sử đang đổi thay. Con người cũng đang đổi thay. Thậm chí con cái các quan chức cấp cao đã rùng rùng chọn học, sống và mua nhà ở Mỹ cũng như ở các nước phương Tây "thù địch". Nhiều gia đình quan chức chỉ quyết chọn đến định cư ở những nước mà lý tưởng cộng sản được sách giáo khoa nơi đó dạy rằng, là tội ác của nhân loại. Bất chấp trong đất nước này, các đại học VN vẫn ép sinh viên phải lèn chặt chủ nghĩa Marx-Lenin như công cụ tư tưởng sống còn của chế độ.

Hôm nay, chỉ còn lại rơi rớt những lời ngợi ca Trung Quốc bạn vàng công khai từ một ít tướng lĩnh, hay luận điệu hằn học được huấn luyện của lớp thanh niên bị nhồi sọ phục vụ. Nhưng mỗi lúc, những âm thanh đó càng ngày càng tẻ nhạt và vô ích. Đôi khi, có thể đó là thành phần phải bị hy sinh để giữ lại thể diện hữu nghị trước những khúc quanh lịch sử khó lường sẽ đến.

Vài năm sau nữa, lớp người rơi rớt ấy có đập bàn hằn học cho số phận của mình, như ông bí thư đảng ủy mà tôi nhìn thấy không?

Tất cả như một sân khấu vĩ đại. Mà nhân dân là khán giả xuyên suốt. Sân khấu lúc có tiếng súng và nhà tù, lúc có hoan hô và đả đảo. Trò diễn cứ liên hồi, nỗi niềm rồi chỉ còn lại nhân dân im lặng cảm nhận.

Khanh Nguyen

https://www.facebook.com/khanhtuanng/posts/10154869394638181

clip_image002

Tàu sân bay USS George Washington tại Hàn Quốc năm 2013. Tàu từng đón nhiều đoàn VN tham quan.

Lần đầu tiên một tàu sân bay Mỹ sẽ thăm Việt Nam vào năm tới, theo thông báo của Ngũ Giác Đài hôm 8/8. Đây là tín hiệu mới nhất về mối quan hệ gia tăng giữa hai cựu thù từng có chiến tranh với nhau từ 1965 đến 1973.

Thông báo được đưa ra sau khi Bộ trưởng Quốc phòng Mỹ Jim Mattis tiếp người đồng cấp Việt Nam Ngô Xuân Lịch cùng ngày 8/8.

Ngũ Giác Đài nói hai ông đồng ý mở rộng hợp tác hải quân và chia sẻ thông tin. Trên bình diện rộng hơn, hai bộ trưởng thảo luận các bước đi xa hơn trong quan hệ quốc phòng và các thách thức an ninh khu vực.

Thỏa thuận giữa lãnh đạo Bộ Quốc phòng hai nước về tàu sân bay Mỹ cập cảng Việt Nam là sự cụ thể hóa thảo luận giữa Tổng thống Trump và Thủ tướng Phúc tại Tòa Bạch Ốc hồi tháng 5 về khả năng thực hiện chuyến thăm như vậy.

Thông báo của Ngũ Giác Đài không nói rõ tàu sân bay mang tên gì sẽ thực hiện chuyến thăm.

Trong các năm từ 2009 đến 2012, các tàu sân bay USS George Washington và USS John C. Stennis từng đón các đoàn quan chức Việt Nam lên thăm khi các tàu này hoạt động ở Biển Đông, ngoài khơi Việt Nam.

Một nguồn tin từng làm việc lâu năm trong phái bộ ngoại giao Mỹ ở Việt Nam cho VOA biết phía Mỹ thường mời các quan chức cao cấp thuộc Quốc hội, chính phủ, Bộ Quốc phòng và Bộ Ngoại giao Việt Nam thăm các tàu đó.

Nhưng theo nguồn tin, trên thực tế Việt Nam thường cử các đoàn “liên ngành” cấp địa phương đi thăm, dường như e ngại phát đi tín hiệu rằng Việt Nam “thắt chặt quan hệ hải quân với Mỹ” trong bối cảnh có những tranh chấp trên Biển Đông với Trung Quốc.

Đấy là phải có sự thay đổi tư duy. Và sự hợp tác này cho thấy là quan hệ an ninh và quân sự giữa Mỹ và Việt Nam đã trưởng thành lên một bước có ý nghĩa. Việt Nam và Mỹ có những quan điểm gặp nhau trong vấn đề Biển Đông. Khác với các lần trước, lần này là [tàu sân bay] đến cập cảng, và điều này là một thông điệp nói lên sự cam kết của Mỹ can dự vào vấn đề Biển Đông. Ở đây phải có quan điểm phù hợp nhau.

Tiến sĩ Nguyễn Ngọc Trường

Giờ đây, các cuộc thăm tàu sân bay không chỉ ở ngoài khơi mà sẽ diễn ra ngay tại cảng của Việt Nam. Điều này thể hiện “một sự phát triển mới và đáng khích lệ” trong quan hệ quốc phòng giữa hai nước, theo một nhà nghiên cứu ở Hà Nội.

Tiến sĩ Nguyễn Ngọc Trường, Chủ tịch Trung tâm Nghiên cứu Chiến lược và Phát triển Quan hệ Quốc tế, nói với VOA:

“Đấy là phải có sự thay đổi tư duy. Và sự hợp tác này cho thấy là quan hệ an ninh và quân sự giữa Mỹ và Việt Nam đã trưởng thành lên một bước có ý nghĩa. Việt Nam và Mỹ có những quan điểm gặp nhau trong vấn đề Biển Đông. Khác với các lần trước, lần này là [tàu sân bay] đến cập cảng, và điều này là một thông điệp nói lên sự cam kết của Mỹ can dự vào vấn đề Biển Đông. Ở đây phải có quan điểm phù hợp nhau [giữa Mỹ và Việt Nam]”.

clip_image004

Tàu USS John C. Stennis (ảnh) và tàu USS George Washington từng đón nhiều đoàn quan chức Việt Nam tham quan ngoài khơi Biển Đông

Trong cuộc gặp ở Washington hôm 8/8, Bộ trưởng Quốc phòng Mỹ Mattis nói với ông Lịch, người đồng nhiệm phía Việt Nam, rằng một mối quan hệ quốc phòng vững mạnh có nền móng là những lợi ích chung, trong đó bao gồm tự do hàng hải và hàng không ở Biển Đông.

Vùng biển này chứng kiến những tuyên bố chủ quyền đối chọi nhau giữa các bên gồm Việt Nam, Trung Quốc, Philippines, Đài Loan, Malaysia và Brunei.

Trung Quốc đòi chủ quyền về gần như toàn bộ vùng biển dù vấp phải phản đối mạnh mẽ từ Việt Nam và một số nước khác. Với nguồn lực của nền kinh tế lớn thứ hai thế giới, Trung Quốc đã xây dựng và quân sự hóa một số đảo nhân tạo, cũng như đòi có thẩm quyền tài phán từ việc nắm giữ các đảo đó.

Mỹ không phải là một bên tuyên bố chủ quyền song luôn khẳng định có lợi ích trong việc bảo đảm tự do hàng hải và hàng không ở Biển Đông. Washington đã thách thức các tuyên bố quá đáng của Bắc Kinh bằng cách điều các tàu hải quân đi vào vùng 12 hải lý quanh một số đảo nhân tạo hay bãi cạn do Trung Quốc kiểm soát.

Dù bối cảnh là như vậy, tiến sĩ Trường khẳng định việc Việt Nam đồng ý đón tàu sân Mỹ thăm cảng là “không phải là hành động khiêu khích ai cả”. Ông nói:

“Vấn đề này phải đặt trong trạng thái bình thường của quan hệ hai nước thôi, của quan hệ quân sự giữa Mỹ với các nước trong khu vực thôi. Nó cũng không có gì nhiều. Mỹ cũng thường cử tàu sân bay vào các nước ở khu vực Đông Á này. Lần này vào thăm Việt Nam ta cũng phải thấy cái này là bình thường hóa đi”.

Còn theo nhà phân tích chính trị Hà Hoàng Hợp, được Reuters trích lời trong một bản tin, thỏa thuận này nhất quán với chiến lược ngoại giao của Việt Nam là làm bạn với tất cả các nước. Ông Hợp cũng nói với Reuters rằng Việt Nam sẽ không thỏa hiệp về vấn đề chủ quyền và có những sự chuẩn bị của riêng mình.

Nguồn: https://www.voatiengviet.com/a/tau-san-bay-my-tham-cang-vn-la-thay-doi-tu-duy-cua-ha-noi/3978613.html


          Biển Đông: ASEAN không ra được thông cáo chung cứng rắn với Bắc Kinh        

Tú Anh

Lâm vào tình thế khó xử này, không biết ĐCS Việt Nam – mà ngài Ngoại trưởng Phạm Bình Minh là đại diện trong Hội nghị ASEAN – có hối tiếc chút nào khi nhớ đến lời căn dặn sau đây trong câu tục ngữ cổ Ả-rập: “Hãy dè chừng con hổ hơn là con sư tử, và với một con lừa giở chứng thì nên dè chừng hơn cả con hổ” – Méfie-toi du tigre plus que du lion, et d'un âne méchant plus que du tigre.

Bauxite Việt Nam

clip_image002Ngoại trưởng Philippines Alan Peter Cayetano chào đón bộ trưởng Ngoại giao Phạm Bình Minh tại Hội nghị Ngoại trưởng ASEAN lần thứ 50 Manila, Philippines, ngày 05/08/2017. Reuters

Cam Bốt quyết liệt bảo vệ lập trường của Trung Quốc tại Hội Nghị Ngoại trưởng ASEAN. Cho đến trưa Chủ nhật 06/08/2017, các nước Đông Nam Á họp tại Manila vẫn không tìm được một thái độ chung trước chính sách bá quyền của Trung Quốc ở Biển Đông.

Các nguồn tin ngoại giao xác nhận với AFP là 10 Ngoại trưởng ASEAN không thể công bố một bản thông báo chung như dự kiến sau cuộc họp ngày thứ Bảy 05/08/2017. Cuộc đàm phán vào sáng Chủ nhật cũng không đả thông được tình trạng bế tắc và chia rẽ nội bộ.

Trong khi Bắc Kinh tranh đoạt hơn 80% diện tích Biển Đông lấn sâu đến tận duyên hải của bốn nước Việt Nam, Philippines, Malaysia và Brunei, thì một lần nữa thành viên ASEAN Cam Bốt bênh vực Trung Quốc, cản trở các nước nạn nhân lên tiếng phản đối.

Theo các nguồn tin này, bản thân Việt Nam «không dám kích động», nước chủ nhà Philippines cố tìm “ thỏa hiệp”, còn Cam Bốt của thủ tướng Hun Sen thì tận lực «đạp thắng chân lẫn kéo thắng tay».

Cũng theo AFP, quan chức cao cấp của các phái đoàn ASEAN tiếp tục thảo luận về hồ sơ Biển Đông vào trưa hôm nay (06/08) trong khi các Ngoại trưởng tham gia một loạt cuộc tiếp xúc với các đồng cấp Mỹ, Trung Quốc và các quốc gia Châu Á - Thái Bình Dương.

Tiếp theo sẽ là Diễn đàn An ninh Khu Vực ASEAN (ARF) với sự tham dự của nhiều nước trong đó đặc biệt có Mỹ, Trung Quốc, Nga và Bắc Triều Tiên. Nhiều vấn đề quốc tế và khu vực như căng thẳng trên bán đảo Triều Tiên, tình hình Biển Đông và cuộc chiến chống khủng bố sẽ được đưa ra bàn luận.

Còn theo Reuters, trong cuộc họp báo, Ngoại trưởng Trung Quốc Vương Nghị tuyên bố tình hình «biển Nam Hải có tiến triển» và 10 nước ASEAN cùng Trung Quốc sẽ bắt đầu tiến trình «thương lượng một bản quy tắc giao thông hàng hải ngay từ năm nay».

T.A.

Nguồn: http://vi.rfi.fr/chau-a/20170806-bien-dong-asean-khong-ra-duoc-thong-cao-chung-cung-ran-voi-bac-kinh-0


          Tok Ku Paloh Al-Aidrus         

Tok Ku Paloh Al-Aidrus pejuang Islam dan bangsa Melayu

Oleh Wan Mohd. Shaghir Abdullah


(http://www.utusan.com.my/utusan/archive.asp?y=2006&dt=0918&pub=utusan_malaysia&sec=bicara%5Fagama&pg=ba_01.htm&arc=hive)
Pahlawan Datuk Bahaman pernah meminta perlindungan daripada Tok Ku Paloh Al-Aidrus.


DALAM halaman Agama Utusan Malaysia keluaran Isnin lalu, nama Tok Ku Paloh ada disebutkan. Peranan penting ayah beliau, Saiyid Muhammad bin Saiyid Zainal Abidin al-Aidrus atau Tok Ku Tuan Besar di Terengganu, dilanjutkan pula oleh Tok Ku Paloh.

Beberapa riwayat tulisan yang terdahulu daripada ini, termasuk percakapan lisan, ada memperkatakan tentang sumbangan tersebut. Bagaimanapun, saya menemui beberapa dokumen yang menunjukkan Tok Ku Paloh bukan berpengaruh di Terengganu saja, tetapi juga di Patani.

Hubungan beliau sangat erat dengan Haji Wan Ismail bin Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani, iaitu Kadi Jambu. Walau bagaimanapun, Haji Wan Ismail al-Fathani (lahir 2 Jamadilawal 1304 H/27 Januari 1887 M) dari segi perbandingan umur adalah peringkat cucu kepada Tok Ku Paloh (lahir 1233 H/1818 M).

Tahun lahir Tok Ku Paloh itu sama dengan tahun lahir Syeikh Wan Muhammad Zain al-Fathani (lahir 1233 H/1817 M). Beliau ini ialah datuk kepada Haji Wan Ismail al-Fathani. Hubungan antara Haji Wan Ismail al-Fathani, Kadi Jambu, dengan Tok Ku Paloh hanyalah kesinambungan hubungan yang terjalin sejak zaman datuknya itu, dan meneruskan hubungan antara Tok Ku Paloh dengan ayah beliau, iaitu Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani.

Darah perjuangan Tok Ku Paloh dalam memperjuangkan Islam dan bangsa Melayu tidak dapat dinafikan mempunyai kesan tersendiri dalam tubuh Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani. Isu kemaslahatan Islam dan bangsa Melayu yang menghadapi pelbagai masalah penjajah pada zaman itu perlu dilihat dalam konteks hubungan antara Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani, Tok Ku Paloh dan Sultan Zainal Abidin III, Terengganu.

Tok Ku Paloh dirahmati berumur panjang. Beliau meninggal dunia pada bulan Zulhijjah 1335 H/September 1917 M. Bererti ketika meninggal dunia Tok Ku Paloh berusia sekitar 102 tahun menurut perhitungan tahun hijrah atau 100 tahun menurut tahun masihi.

Nama penuh beliau ialah Saiyid Abdur Rahman bin Saiyid Muhammad bin Saiyid Zainal Abidin al-Aidrus. Saiyid Abdur Rahman al-Aidrus mempunyai beberapa nama gelaran, yang paling popular ialah Tok Ku Paloh. Gelaran lain ialah Engku Saiyid Paloh, Engku Cik, Tuan Cik dan Syaikh al-Islam Terengganu. Tok Ku Paloh mempunyai beberapa orang adik-beradik. Ada yang seibu sebapa dan ada juga yang berlainan ibu. Adik-beradik kandung Tok Ku Paloh ialah Saiyid Zainal Abidin al-Aidrus yang digelar dengan Engku Saiyid Seri Perdana, Saiyid Ahmad al-Aidrus digelar Tok Ku Tuan Ngah Seberang Baruh dan Saiyid Mustafa al-Aidrus yang digelar Tok Ku Tuan Dalam.

Beliau ialah seorang ulama dan Ahli Majlis Mesyuarat Negeri semasa pemerintahan Sultan Zainal Abidin III. Adik-beradiknya selain yang disebut itu ialah Tuan Embung Abu Bakar atau digelar dengan nama Tuan Embung Solok atau Tok Ku Tuan Kecik, Tuan Nik (Senik). Antara nama-nama tersebut, ramai yang memegang peranan penting dalam Kerajaan Terengganu tetapi nama yang paling masyhur ialah Tok Ku Paloh.

Pendidikan

Saiyid Abdur Rahman al-Aidrus atau Tok Ku Paloh berketurunan ‘Saiyid’. Oleh itu sudah menjadi tradisi keturunan itu untuk lebih mengutamakan usaha mempelajari ilmu-ilmu daripada orang yang terdekat dengan mereka. Ayah beliau, Saiyid Muhammad al-Aidrus atau Tok Ku Tuan Besar, pula merupakan seorang ulama besar yang mempunyai kedudukan tertinggi dalam urusan Islam di Terengganu. Dapat dipastikan Saiyid Abdur Rahman al-Aidrus telah belajar pelbagai bidang ilmu daripada orang tuanya sendiri.

Hampir semua orang yang menjadi ulama di Terengganu pada zaman itu memperoleh ilmu melalui jalur daripada ulama-ulama yang berasal dari Patani. Saiyid Abdur Rahman al-Aidrus, selain belajar daripada ayahnya, juga berguru dengan Syeikh Wan Abdullah bin Muhammad Amin al-Fathani atau Tok Syeikh Duyung (lihat Utusan Malaysia, Isnin, 6 Mac 2006).

Saiyid Muhammad al-Aidrus atau Tok Ku Tuan Besar dan Tok Syeikh Duyung bersahabat baik dan sama-sama belajar daripada Syeikh Abdul Qadir bin Abdur Rahim al-Fathani di Bukit Bayas, Terengganu. Mereka juga sama-sama belajar dengan Syeikh Daud bin Abdullah al-Fathani di Mekah.

Dalam artikel ini saya terpaksa menjawab satu e-mel dari Brunei Darussalam yang bertanyakan apakah Syeikh Daud bin Abdullah al-Fathani berketurunan Nabi Muhammad s.a.w.? Sepanjang dokumen yang ditemui ada tulisan meletakkan nama ‘Wan’ pada awal nama beliau. Ada saudara pupu saya di Mekah memberi maklumat bahawa beliau menemui satu catatan Syeikh Ismail al-Fathani (Pak De ‘El al-Fathani) bahawa ulama Patani itu juga berketurunan marga ‘al-Aidrus’.

Sejak dulu saya mengetahui ada catatan lain menyebut hal yang sama bahawa Syeikh Daud bin Abdullah al-Fathani dan Syeikh Abdul Qadir bin Abdur Rahim al-Fathani di Bukit Bayas, Terengganu juga termasuk marga ‘al-Aidrus’. Dengan keterangan ini bererti antara ulama Patani dengan ulama Terengganu yang diriwayatkan ini selain ada hubungan keilmuan mereka juga ada perhubungan nasab.

Perjuangan

Saiyid Abdur Rahman al-Aidrus (Tok Ku Paloh) melanjutkan pelajarannya di Mekah. Di sana beliau bersahabat dengan Syeikh Muhammad Zain bin Mustafa al-Fathani, Syeikh Abdul Qadir bin Abdur Rahman al-Fathani, Syeikh Nawawi al-Bantani, Syeikh Nik Mat Kecik al-Fathani (kelahiran Sungai Duyung Kecil, Terengganu) dan ramai lagi. Antara orang yang menjadi guru mereka di Mekah ialah Saiyid Ahmad bin Zaini Dahlan dan Syeikh Muhammad bin Sulaiman Hasbullah al-Makki.

Saiyid Abdur Rahman al-Aidrus setelah pulang dari Mekah memusatkan aktivitinya di Kampung Paloh, Terengganu. Menurut Muhammad Abu Bakar, Kampung Paloh didatangi orang daripada pelbagai jurusan, bukan saja dari sekitar Kuala Terengganu, tetapi juga dari Kelantan, Pahang dan Patani (Ulama Terengganu, hlm. 181). Diriwayatkan bahawa salah seorang murid Tok Ku Paloh ialah Sultan Zainal Abidin III. Riwayat lain pula mengatakan antara muridnya yang terkenal dan menjadi pejuang antipenjajah ialah Haji Abdur Rahman Limbung dan Tok Janggut.

Tok Ku Paloh ialah ulama yang tidak takut menanggung risiko tinggi dalam perjuangan demi mempertahankan Islam dan bangsa Melayu. Beliau melindungi pejuang-pejuang Islam dan Melayu yang bermusuh dengan penjajah Inggeris pada zaman itu. Semangat jihadnya sungguh indah, menarik dan ada hembusan segar seperti yang diriwayatkan oleh Muhammad Abu Bakar.

Katanya: “Dalam Perang Pahang, penentang-penentang British yang dipimpin oleh Datuk Bahaman, Tok Gajah dan Mat Kilau hampir-hampir menyerah diri setelah mengalami tekanan daripada kerajaan.

“ Pada Mei 1894, mereka menghubungi Tok Ku Paloh, dan mendapat simpati daripada ulama tersebut. Ini bukan sahaja memberi nafas baru kepada perjuangan mereka, tetapi mereka juga diberi perlindungan di Paloh serta diajar ilmu untuk menentang musuh mereka di Pahang. Hugh Clifford dalam pemerhatiannya mengatakan Tok Ku Paloh telah menyeru pahlawan-pahlawan itu melancarkan perang jihad.

“Hasil semangat baru yang diperoleh daripada Tok Ku Paloh, serta penambahan kekuatan, pasukan pahlawan menjadi lebih besar dan tersusun.” (Ulama Terengganu, hlm. 184)

Daripada riwayat ini, kita dapat mengambil iktibar berdasarkan peristiwa dunia terkini bahawa ramai tokoh Islam menjadi pejuang Islam dan bangsanya, dan ramai pula yang menjadi pengkhianat. Afghanistan, Iraq, Palestin dan Lebanon menjadi sasaran bom yang dilancarkan oleh bangsa-bangsa bukan Islam. Ada ramai pejuang Islam di sana. Pengkhianat pun banyak. Bangsa kita, bangsa Melayu yang beragama Islam, patut mencontohi perjuangan bijak Tok Ku Paloh. Janganlah ada manusia Melayu yang khianat terhadap agama Islam dan bangsanya.

Tok Ku Paloh sangat berpengaruh terhadap murid dan saudara ipar beliau iaitu Sultan Zainal Abidin III. Beberapa pandangan dan nasihat Tok Ku Paloh kepada Sultan Zainal Abidin III tentang pentadbiran kerajaan banyak persamaan dengan surat-surat dan puisi Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani kepada Sultan Terengganu itu. Semasa Tok Ku Paloh dan Sultan Zainal Abidin III masih hidup, Inggeris tidak berhasil mencampuri pentadbiran negeri Terengganu.

Tok Ku Paloh wafat pada bulan Zulhijjah 1335 H/September 1917 M dan Sultan Zainal Abidin III mangkat pada 22 Safar 1337 H/26 November 1918 M. Sesudah itu, tepat pada 24 Mei 1919 M barulah Inggeris dapat mencampuri kerajaan Terengganu.

Penulisan

Ahli sejarah, Datuk Misbaha ada menyebut bahawa risalah ‘Uqud ad-Durratain adalah karya Tok Ku Tuan Besar, berdasarkan cetakan tahun 1950 oleh ahli-ahli Al-Khair dan cetakan pada tahun 1978 oleh Yayasan Islam Terengganu (Pesaka, hlm. 91). Tetapi pada cetakan yang jauh lebih awal berupa selembaran dalam ukuran besar yang diberi judul Dhiya’ ‘Uqud ad-Durratain, ia merupakan karya Tok Ku Paloh. Tertulis pada cetakan itu, “Telah mengeluar dan mengecapkan terjemah ini oleh kita as-Saiyid Abdur Rahman bin Muhammad bin Zain bin Husein bin Mustafa al-Aidrus….”

Di bawah doa dalam risalah itu dinyatakan kalimat, “Tiada dibenarkan sekali-kali siapa-siapa mengecapkan terjemah ini melainkan dengan izin Muallifnya dan Multazimnya Ismail Fathani. Tercap kepada 22 Ramadan sanah 1335 (bersamaan dengan 11 Julai 1917 M).”

Yang dimaksudkan Ismail Fathani pada kalimat ini ialah Kadi Haji Wan Ismail bin Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani. Risalah cetakan ini saya terima daripada salah seorang murid Haji Wan Ismail Fathani.

Beliau menjelaskan bahawa risalah itu diajarkan di Jambu, Patani secara hafalan. Orang yang menyerahkan risalah itu bernama Nik Wan Halimah yang berusia lebih kurang 78 tahun (Oktober 2000). Ketika beliau menyerahkan risalah itu kepada saya, beliau masih hafal apa yang termaktub dalam risalah itu.

Kemuncak penulisan Tok Ku Paloh yang sering diperkatakan orang ialah kitab yang diberi judul Ma’arij al-Lahfan. Sungguhpun kitab ini sangat terkenal dalam kalangan masyarakat sufi sekitar Terengganu, Kelantan dan Pahang namun ia belum dijumpai dalam bentuk cetakan.

Saya hanya sempat membaca tiga buah salinan manuskrip kitab itu. Ilmu yang terkandung di dalamnya adalah mengenai tasawuf.

Sebagaimana telah disebutkan, Tok Ku Paloh ialah seorang pejuang Islam dan bangsa. Beliau ialah penganut Thariqat Naqsyabandiyah.

Antara anak Tokku Paloh ialah Saiyid Aqil bin Saiyid Abdur Rahman al-Aidrus. Beliau inilah yang bertanggungjawab mentashhih dan menerbitkan kitab nazam Kanz al-Ula karya datuknya, Tok Ku Tuan Besar, terbitan Mathba’ah al-Ahliyah Terengganu, 1347 H.

sumber : http://khazanahnasional.wordpress.com/

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Syahadat Tokku




Merupakan perincian maksud Dua Kalimah Shahadat

Selaku pembawa amalan Tareqat Naqsyabandiah, Tukku Paloh terkenal sebagai orang yang kuat mengamalkan zikir2 yang disusun oleh Syeikh Bahauddin, Syeikhul Tareqat Naqsyabandiah yang susur galurnya sampai kepada Sayidina Abu Bakar As Siddiq [makam Syeikh Bahauddin terdapat di Uzbekistan]. Begitu pula dengan amalan ibadah yang asas seperti sembahyang, puasa dan membaca Al Quran dan lain2 amalan sunat. Dengan kata lain Tukku Paloh sangat warak dan berhalus dalam beribadah.Selain mengamalkan zikir Tareqat Naqsyabandiah secara istiqamah, Tukku Paloh juga mengamalkan dan mengembangkan amalan yang disusun oleh ayahnya iaitu ‘Syahadat Tukku’. Amalan ini terus popular dan hingga kini masih diamalkan di banyak tempat di negeri Terengganu secara berjemaah dan bersendirian.Syahadat Tukku ini diwariskan kepada murid2nya. Pengikut kanan beliau Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong mengembangkan amalan ini kepada murid2 dan anak cucunya pula. Ini diakui oleh Pak Cik Ali Haji Yusof, cicit Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong. Beliau berkata, “Saya dapat mengamalkan syahadat ini semasa datuk [menantu Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong] dan ayah saya lagi.”Menurut beliau, amalan itu masih kekal sebagaimana dilakukan pada zaman Haji Abdul Rahman Limbong iaitu bermula dengan ratib Al Hadad dan diakhiri dengan Syahadat Tukku, sekali-sekala disusuli dengan burdah pula.
Syahadat Tukku dituduh SESAT!

Amalan Syahadat Tukku ini pernah menjadi kontroversi apabila salah seorang pembawa amalan ini dihadapkan ke mahkamah kerana dituduh sesat. Peristiwa ini berlaku kepada Tuan Hj. Hussein Hj. Mat yang mengembangkan amalan ini di Kampung Gong Ubi Keling, Besut di mana dalam masa yang singkat saja sudah meriah dengan ramai pengikut.Tuan Hj. Hussein tidak menolak kemungkinan tidakan yang dikenakan ke atas dirinya itu didorong oleh iri hati dan hasad dengki orang2 tertentu kerana surau yang baru beliau bangunkan lebih meriah berbanding dengan surau2 lain. Mereka mendesak pihak berkuasa mengambil tindakan ke atas beliau atas alasan yang batil dan fitnah.Mengenang peristiwa pahit yang berlaku pada sekitar tahun1950 itu, Hj. Hussein bercerita :“Hampir seribu orang yang berada di Mahkamah Kadhi Besut untuk mendengar keputusan perbicaraan saya yang dituduh sesat kerana mengamalkan Syahadat Tukku ini.”Orang ramai nampak cemas kerana peristiwa ini besar dan kali pertama berlaku di Besut. Menurut Hj. Hussein sewaktu perbicaraan, beliau disuruh membaca segala amalan yang diamalkannya selama ini. “Saya pun membaca habis satu persatu bermula dengan ratib Al Hadad, Burdah dan akhirnya Syahadat Tukku. Selesai saya membaca semuanya, Hakim Cik Awing yang juga Kadhi Besut itu berkata ; ‘Apa yang Tuan Hj. baca itu ada pada saya.’“Rupa2nya Tuan Hakim Cik Awing juga mengamalkan ratib Al Hadad dan Syahadat Tukku.“Kemudian saya dibebaskan tanpa sebarang tindakan yang dikenakan malah nampaknya tuan hakim itu pula yang seolah2nya mengalakkan amalan ini diteruskan. Mendengarkan keputusan yang benar itu maka orang ramai di luar mahkamah turut bersyukur dan ada yang menitiskan air mata gembira,” cerita Hj. Hussein lagi.Sehingga kini Hj. Hussein terus mengamalkan Syahadat Tukku bersama2 sahabat2nya, amalan pada setengah orang jahil dikatakan ‘syhadat tambahan’.Syahadat Tukku yang disusun oleh wali Allah itu terus popular di kalangan orang yang arif di banyak tempat dalam negeri Terengganu. Amalan yang menjelaskan unsur2 tauhid dan pembersihan hati yang amat diperlukan oleh seorang hamba terhadap Tuhannya, ALLAH SWT.
          Sweet Escape Brunei Darussalam Part 6 - Universiti Brunei Darussalam        
BISMILLAHIRRAHMANIRRAHIM



SEKITAR BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN, BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

PART 1 : Bandar Seri Begawan
PART 2 : Masjid Jame' Asr Hassanil Bolkiah
PART 3 : Masjid Omar 'Ali Saifuddien
PART 4 : Kampong Ayer Brunei
PART 5 : Istana Nurul Iman


Assalamualaikum...

Cherita Brunei Darussalam diteruskan lagi... Kali ini lawatan ke Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD) yang terletak di Bandar Seri Begawan...

Simpang masuk ke universiti...

Untuk pengetahuan, terdapat hanya dua buah universiti di Brunei Darussalam. Selain UBD, sebuah lagi ialah Institut Teknologi Brunei.

UBD merupakan universiti terbesar negara tersebut dari segi pendaftaran pelajar dan kurikulum yang ditawarkan.

Main entrance... Pengawal keselamatan di sini pada masa foto ini diambil, sangat baik dan peramah.

Daripada pemerhatian saya semasa lawatan ke universiti ini, universiti ini tidaklah sebesar mana. Susun atur bangunannya juga tidak terlalu padat.

Owh teringat seorang sahabat pernah berkata kepada saya, "Rakyat Brunei ni, mana pakai kereta Malaysia walaupun kita ni berjiran dengan mereka. Paling busuk pun pakai Honda City..."

Ermmmm, mungkin ada kebenarannya. Semasa lawatan ke Bandar Seri Begawan hari tu, memang saya langsung tidak melihat sebijik pun kereta Malaysia.

Silap la sebab tak tangkap gambar kereta guard masa bergambar kat signboard di atas ni. Musti anda semua tak percaya punya, tak pernah saya tengok guard kat Malaysia ni pakai kereta quite mewah begitu. Lupa dah kereta jenis apa, tapi memang agak jugak lah mewah kereta tu. Orang Brunei kayo-kayo belaka kot... :P

Dewan Canselor Universiti Brunei Darussalam



Maaf, tidak banyak gambar yang mampu dikongsi untuk entri UBD ini. Segan nak posing sana posing sini masa lawatan tu sebab pelajar-pelajar (mungkin ada lecturer jugak) asyik memerhatikan gelagat kami. Ketara sangat yang kami ni bukan pelajar atau staff di sini kerana pakaian yang kami pakai masa ni. Mostly, pakaian pelajar-pelajar perempuan di sini, memakai baju kurung pesen yang sama. Mungkin baju kurung Brunei kot?! Pelajar lelakinya pula berpakaian formal. Itu pasal la segan nak posing lelebih.

Dapat tangkap gambar sikit-sikit, dah la. Bila pelajar-pelajar tu duk memerhatikan kami, kerana ke'segan'an, maka kami pun berambus segera dari situ. Hikhikhik...

          Sweet Escape Brunei Darussalam Part 5 - Istana Nurul Iman (Istana Terbesar di Dunia)        
BISMILLAHIRRAHMANIRRAHIM


SEKITAR BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN, BRUNEI DARUSSALAM

PART 1 : Bandar Seri Begawan
PART 2 : Masjid Jame' Asr Hassanil Bolkiah
PART 3 : Masjid Omar 'Ali Saifuddien
PART 4 : Kampong Ayer Brunei
PART 6 : Universiti Brunei Darussalam


Assalamualaikum... This entry should be posted long long long time ago... But since time constraints, maka hari ini saya sambung posting about my holiday to Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam... Seperti tajuk di atas, posting ni akan berkisar tentang Istana Nurul Iman saja...

Main entrance... Pokok bunga itu sepatutnya di'trim'kan sikit. Tidaklah ia menutupi tulisan Istana Nurul Iman itu...

Adakah anda tahu tentang fakta ini?! Istana Nurul Iman memegang rekod sebagai Istana Kediaman Terbesar di Dunia (Largest Residential Palace) menurut Guinness World Record.

Dari kejauhan... Istana Nurul Iman yang boleh dilihat dari Persiaran Damuan

Untuk rekod, istana ini siap sepenuhnya pada tahun 1984 (tahun kelahiran saya pulak tu!) dengan kos sekitar USD $1.4 billion (nilai pada tahun 1984). Secara keseluruhan, Istana Nurul Iman mempunyai ruang lantai seluas 2,152,782 kaki persegi (200,000 m²). Susah nak bayangkan keluasannya?! Ianya menyamai keluasan 28 buah padang bola sepak okeh!

Istana ini mempunyai 1,788 buah bilik, 257 buah bilik mandi serta sebuah dewan jamuan yang boleh menampung seramai 5,000 orang dan masjidnya sendiri yang boleh memuatkan seramai 1,500 jemaah pada satu-satu masa. Di istana ini juga terdapat 110 buah garaj kereta, kandang kuda berhawa dingin yang menempatkan 200 ekor anak kuda polo milik Sultan serta 5 buah kolam renang.  Disebabkan saiz istana ini yang sangat besar, maka terdapat 564 lampu candelier, 51,000 mentol lampu, 44 tangga dan 18 lif di situ. (Sumber: Wikipedia)




Menakjubkan bukan?! Bayangkan jika anda adalah orang yang bertuah yang mendiami tempat seperti itu?! Walau dah duduk bertahun pun, mungkin masih ada tempat dalam istana tu yang belum kamu jejakkan kaki. Hahahaha...

Nak masuk melawat atau jalan-jalan dalam Istana ni?! Takyah mimpi la... Istana ini hanya dibuka kepada umum pada masa sambutan rumah terbuka Hari Raya Aidilfitri yang berlangsung selama 3 hari, yang mana istana ini akan menerima kunjungan kira-kira 110,00 pengunjung yang terdiri daripada penduduk tempatan dan juga pelancong asing. Istana ini juga dibuka kepada umat Islam sepanjang 10 hari dalam bulan Ramadhan untuk tujuan bertadarus.

Tu yang kami amik gambar kat pagar istana ni je... Kesian kan?! Nak parking pun, takde ruang parkir yang disediakan buat pengunjung di sekitar istana ni (pada lawatan kami tempoh hari). Tapi nasib baiklah guard dia baik hati bagi kami parking sikijap masa tu untuk tangkap gambar jap. Posing la puas-puas depan main entrance istana ni sambil diperhatikan oleh guard2 tu... Nak over posing pun, jadi segan dibuatnya... Hahahha...

          After 5 Years... Hari Untuk Meraikannya Akhirnya Tiba!        
BISMILLAHIRRAHMANIRRAHIM

Assalamualaikum...



Sudah habis baca?!

4 tahun... 4 tahun... 4 tahun... 4 tahun weihhhhh... 4 tahun yang dipenuhi dengan segala macam warna-warni kehidupan. Suka duka, susah senang, pahit manis, tawa tangis, selama bergelar pelajar pascasiswazah di sini, Allah saja yang Maha Mengetahuinya...

Bermula dengan pendaftaran pada Januari 2008, kemudian fasa literature search and review, masuk fasa bertapa dalam makmal melakukan kerja-kerja penyelidikan (dah terperasan macam dalam drama CSI tu pun ada,  hahaha), sampai ada kalanya terpaksa bekerja berseorangan sampai ke subuh... Bila dirasakan perlu untuk menambah duit poket (untuk shopping, kehkehkeh), harus berkorban masa buat part time job pulak...

Ohw sudah tentu tidak akan dilupa juga saat-saat terindah seperti semasa menerima panggilan temuduga MOSTI NSF yang akhirnya ditakdirnya menjadi rezeki saya (tak pernah seumur hidup aku terima duit sedebuk RM24k dalam akaun bank aku bila MOSTI bayar lumpsum duit biasiswa tu, kayo kojap den!), bergumbira dengan rakan-rakan seperjuangan, ada masanya apabila perlu travel sama ada untuk melakukan kerja-kerja penyelidikan di luar kampus, atau menghadiri conference, yang mana masa tu bolehlah sambil menyelam sambil minum air! Sambil menghadiri conference, sambil jalan-jalan carik pasal! Sampai ke Brunei Darussalam aku carik pasal masa attend conference kat Miri! Hahahaha... Best! Best! Sebab travel free!

Sometime bila bosan/tension duduk dalam lab dari terbit matahari sampai terbit matahari keesokan paginya (see, doplohempatjam aku terperap dalam makmal), antara cara yang paling mustajab untuk menghilangkannya adalah dengan menikmati udara petang di sekitar kampus. Atau keluar makan mee kari bersama teman. Atau ada kalanya, keluar ke bandar Kuantan untuk shopping (kalau masa tu terasa macam nak mengabihkan duit, hahaha...), tidak pun mengunjungi rumah sahabat-sahabat di sekitar Kuantan dan Kemaman untuk bermesra dengan baby mereka, paling tidak pun, balik Sabah jer... Kompom hilang tension! Terbaikkk!!!

Selain perkara-perkara indah di atas, tentu tidak akan dilupa perkara pahit/menyedihkan/menyayat hati/ralat dan yang sewaktu dengannya yang pernah berlaku dalam tempoh 4 tahun itu, antaranya adalah semasa sedang outstation ke Seremban. On the way ke Seremban, singgah bersarapan di R&R Seremban, kereta kena pecah kat parking lot! Mau kerugian RM10,000 jugak masa tu. Pasal rugi tu, takdelah ralat sangat, yang bikin hati hancur luluh, my laptop containing all my research work, my thesis, my report, all things related to my Master, gone in a blink! Urghhhhhh....

Selain itu, sepanjang tempoh 4 tahun tu jugak, dah tak terkira berapa banyak kali asyik keluar masuk klinik/hospital. Ade saje sakitnya... Demam selsema la, jangkitan kuman la, sakit tekak la, chicken pox la (time aku busy dengan master aku  ni jugak la dia datang), abih duit PruBSN duk bayar kos perubatan saya. Huhuhu. Jugak tidak mungkin dilupakan tragedi yang hampir meragut nyawa pun ade jugak!

Masuk tahun 2011, setelah 6 bulan melangut selepas penyerahan draf tesis akhirnya dipanggil untuk viva voce, diakhiri dengan penyerahan tesis lengkap! Fiuhhhhhhhh... Rasa macam nak berguling-guling je meraikan saat itu! Setelah berhempas pulas tertunggang langgang tertonggeng terbalik menjalani kehidupan master selama 4 tahun, habis jugak kau akhirnya!

Dan setelah hampir setahun berlalu, masa untuk meraikan saat indah itu akan tiba dalam masa 2 minggu lagi...

Alhamdulillah... Alhamdulillah... Alhamdulillah...

Thanks to Allah, thanks to my family, my friends, my supervisor, yang menjadi tulang belakang saya, serta mereka yang terlibat sama ada secara langsung atau tidak dalam menjayakan pencapaian ini. Next mission adalah PhD! Ya Allah, beri aku kekuatan untuk melalui semua dugaan dan cabaran yang bakal aku tempuhi dalam mengejar gelaran 'Doktor' ini... Amin.

Orang bilang, bila kita perolehi sesuatu dengan segala usaha keras susah payah perit jerih kita sendiri, kepuasan akan benar-benar dirasai semasa kita dah berjaya mendapatkannya. Kepuasan yang tidak mungkin dapat dibeli dengan duit kau yang bertimbun itu. Hehehe... Just bear in mind, never ever ever ever ever ever give up! Sebab ada masanya anda mungkin mau berputus asa saja di pertengahan jalan. Sebab saya sendiri pernah melalui. So good luck for those yang sedang berjuang, tidak  kira apa jenis perjuangan yang sedang anda lalui sekarang. Barulah ku sedar maksud di sebalik kata-kata pujangga ini, "BERSUSAH SUSAH DAHULU, BERSENANG SENANG KEMUDIAN."


10 Tips Menjadi Orang Yang Positif
  1. Ambil masa memulakan pagi anda dengan bersyukur dengan kehidupan anda. Bagi yang muslim, sudah tentunya solat subuh. Ia akan mewujudkan minda  yang subur untuk bersedia kepada kejayaan.
  2. Ubah kepayahan kepada kejayaan dengan memutuskan bahawa perubahan bukanlah musuh sebaliknya sahabat kamu.
  3. Membawa perubahan kepada kehidupan orang lain.
  4. Jangan buang tenaga berharga kamu terhadap gosip, isu yang sudah berlalu, pemikiran negatif atau perkara yang diluar kawalan kamu. Sebaliknya, labur tenaga kamu dalam perkara terkini yang positif.
  5. Hidup dengan penuh bertenaga, bersemangat dan memahami orang lain.
  6. Ingat!!! Tiada pengganti untuk kerja keras!
  7. Daripada asyik merungut, lebih baik fokus kepada penyelesaian. Ia adalah kunci kepada inovasi.
  8. Baca lebih banyak buku.
  9. Lebihkan senyuman. Ia merupakan anti-stress semulajadi.
  10. Nikmati perjalanan kamu. Kamu mempunyai satu perjalanan melalui kehidupan, maka jadikan ianya yang terbaik, dan nikmatilah ia.

          European Commission issues "black list" of 30 "tax havens"        


Action Plan on Corporate Taxation

On 17 June 2015, the Commission adopted an Action Planpdf Choose translations of the previous link for fair and efficient corporate taxation in the EU.
The Action Plan sets to reform the corporate tax framework in the EU, in order to tackle tax abuse, ensure sustainable revenues and support a better business environment in the Single Market.
See the timelinepdf. 

5 Key Areas for Action have been identified:

1. Re-launching the Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB)
2. Ensuring fair taxation where profits are generated
3. Creating a better business environment
4. Increasing transparency
5. Improving EU coordination 
map of non-cooperative tax jurisdictions has also been published, in a move to reinforce the EU's response to external threats to Member States' tax bases.
The Commission also adopted a decision to prolong the Platform on Tax Good Governance, and revise its scope and working methods.
For further information


The map was drawn up on the basis of work done by the Platform for Tax Good Governance and the information provided by EU Member States.

Top 30 listed countries: Andorra, Liechtenstein, Guernsey, Monaco, Mauritius, Liberia, Seychelles, Brunei, Hong Kong, Maldives, Cook Islands, Nauru, Niue, Marshall Islands, Vanuatu, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Grenada, Montserrat, Panama, St Vincent and the Grenadines, St Kitts and Nevis, Turks and Caicos, US Virgin Islands.

Panama is listed by Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain.

Full text in the European Commission website http://ec.europa.eu/





          Genetic Failure        
Rasanya baru kemarin tanganku menggenggam tangan kecilnya, 
rindu yg teramat dalam, Ale.

Aryo, I am pregnant.
Seriously?
Yeah, I think its more than 6 weeks.

Medya.. well I am just regular girl who loves to travel a lot. I was lucky, very lucky to have family who had travel a lot. My mum said about our first family travel to Thailand, she said Papa was held a short study conference there for 3 weeks, he brought whole family to enjoy the elephant country.

Sebut saja Africa, Sydney, Turkey, Singapore, South East Asia so many travelled countries. Keberuntunganku bertambah saat saya menikah dg Aryo, a blog traveller who has travel agent in West Jakarta, what a serendipity luck.

1.5 years marriage conquered 11 cities in all over the world until my 5th ultrasonogram doctor examination said.

Bu Medya dan Pak Aryo, saya sangat bersedih, mohon untuk tabah, namun kandungan ibu ada kelainan janin, banyak kebocoran jantung dan organ dalam lainnya yg tdk pada seharusnya, namanya Patau Syndrom, salah satu kelainan genetik. Saya menyarankan ibu dan bapak untuk mencari second opinion dr obgyn lainnya secepatnya dalam 2-3 hari.

Dokter nya ngomong apa sih hon.

Waktu itu aku masih seperti fly, jet lag, setengah arwahku seperti berada di awang-awang.
Kita pulang yuk-Aryo, sepanjang perjalananku bengong seperti orang bego, apa sih patau sindrom, untuk memegang hp dan meng gugel nya pun aku tak berani.

Jam menunjukkan pukul 09.30 malam, Aryo tak berani berbicara, aku langsung menuju kamar dan terlelap dan bermimpi menggendong bayi lelaki yg sangat sempurna, ganteng seperti kakeknya, aku menyusuinya di kamar nursery di kursi goyang yg dibelikan oma.

Seperti ditampar pelan sejumlah ratusan kali, apa yg terjadi. Keberuntunganku sepertinya terhenti disini. To be honest, I have rich family, I used to have a close friend when in was college back then at Fak Ilmu Budaya Univ Indonesia jurusan Bahasa Inggris, namanya Fara, dia selalu bilang..

Med lu mah enak bisa halan-halan *liburan* tiap bulan sama bokap lu nyokap kakak atau nenek..lah gue kudu gawe buat nambahin uang semesteran heheh tp gpp gue seneng py temen kaya elu dapet banyak oleh-oleh.

I only have one big sister, my dad was a head division at Telkom Japati Bandung, my mom is a successfully working mom at Bank of America. We are perfectly potrait family who just blessed abudantly, aku juga menjalani sekolah dengan sempurna, sd swasta islam, smp sma negeri, kuliah di UI, lulus dg predikat cum laude, bekerja 2 th di media online. My life was never getting in any trouble hingga saat ku melahirkan Ale.

Bu harus diinduksi yah, mulesnya gak nambah.

Aryo terus menggenggam tanganku, dia tdk melepaskan sedikit pun sejak aku msk ugd kemarin sore.

My water just broke I think ay, we should go to Medistra right away, dont forget to get baby blue bag.

Iya bu dorong yah, rasanya ku tak sanggup, aku lelah namun badan kecil itu terus ingin mendorong dr tubuhku.

Is it done?

Aryo emang udah yah, mana suara bayi nya, kok gak nangis sih, aku berasa udah ngeden gede barusan.

He kissed me on my forehead.

Bentar hon saya liat dulu.

Then I cried a lot and really tired and fell a sleep sambil sayup terdengar suster.

Bayinya biru, gak nangis, langsung masuk ventilator yah kemudian book NICU agar lebih mudah perawatannya.

Secara fisik normal tapi harus di cek DSA untuk organ dalamnya, ronsen.

Maaf ibu bapak, anaknya siapa namanya? Ale?

Ale mengalami patau syndrome atau trisomi 13 yaitu kelainan genetik, kalau kasus umum yg sering kita dengar mungkin ibu bapak tau adalah down syndrome atau keterbelakangan mental kalau ini namanya trisomi 13, maaf Ale sewaktu pembentukan genetik tidak sempurna kelebihan kromosom yg hrsnya sepasang sehingga berpengaruh pada organ dalam yg tdk sempurna.

Untuk kasus Ale, jantungnya banyak sekali kebocoran sehingga jika siap setelah kita observasi harus dioperasi, ginjal dan lambung juga kurang berfungsi dengan baik, ada juga pneumonia dan dandywalker. Secara fisik Ale sempurna, tdk ada sumbing, jari lengkap tdk lebih, namun memang muka seperti bengkak karena ada kelainan otak juga dimana cairan otak yg tdk terpakai seharusnya terbuang di salurannya, cairan ini malah kembali dan menumpuk di otak.

Kami juga harus membuat lubang trakea agar Ale bisa bernapas sempurna, bedah trakeostomi agar bisa dimasukkan tabung utk bernapas. Nanti CoAs Dokter saya akan memberikan copy article mengenai sindrom ini ya ibu bapak bisa baca sedikit.

I just got headache, and suddenly I remember our trip to Cape Town Africa when our honeymoon. The scenery was great, the life there was pathetic, terutama di desa, air sedikit, anak anak kekurangan gizi, cuaca panas ekstrem. Banyak penyakit dimana mana.

Aku kembali teringat saat konsul ke 4 spog lainnya di Jakarta, medistra, pondok indah, rs kemang dan cipto. Satu dokter malah memberikan pendapat ini, maaf ibu kalau misal mau delivery early bisa diusahakan, karena janin dengan kondisi ini life rate nya kemungkinan hanya 40%, kalaupun bertahan akan ada keterbelakangan mental.

Is that even a legal thing? What about my responsibility to God, God trusted my kid to me and I just gave it away.

Med, sorry to say, tapi kalau ada opsi digugurin? maaf banget gue bukan seorang ibu tapi sodara gue down syndrome keluarganya hilang banyak secara finansial dan ibunya harus terapi psikiater seminggu dua kali. This is all your family choice beib but you have thinking future ahead. My best friend said that.

Aku seperti orang gila kehilangan arah selama 2 minggu hanya diam tdk melakukan aktivitas apapun.

Africa where all the scary disease growing up fast, diarrhea, rubella, polio, toxoplasma. I got pregant there, is that even relevant.

Aryo gue gak bisa kaya gini lagi, harusnya gue pilih delivery early yg dibilang dokter weni, shes right this is so hard.

Are you freakin kidding right, kita sudah survive di 4 bulan kehamilan kamu kemarin, Ale sudah hampir 2 bulan, kalau kamu pesimis kasian Ale, mostly babies with trisomi 13 died right after delivery.

Somehow he survived.

Belum pernah Aryo semarah itu, kami berpacaran 4 tahun, we are college sweetheart, loves travel, back then travel is the most important, now I blame all of those travellings. Aryo sering marah namun diam kemudian dia meminta maaf dan kami seperti biasa kembali, he such a sweetheart, he would put an effort for me. Suatu waktu saya sangat membutuhkan  novel lord of the ring, i need the books not the soft copy, I was in kupang accompany my mother. This crazy dosen put me on hard proposal and Kupang doesnt have gramedia and I still have to be here for the next 5 days. Voila Aryo sent me in 2 days, bukan buku baru dan proposal saya dinilai A+ by that crazy dosen.

6 months after we get married, my ankle was hurt because of that stupid trip to brunei. Like usual Aryo order go food everyday and go clean for cleaning, taking leave to take care, meski dia owner dia bukan direktur, dia malah ingin menjadi konsultan saja research for tourism city in the world, he would put big effort for me. I just have to get bed rest.
And now I have to put big effort for Ale for him.

Mela, "Baby, kalau kamu mau take a break boleh loh, I will be Ale all the time, I mean trip is your thing right, kamu bisa ketemu Ale kemudian ke Bandara, bsk nya kamu bisa bernafas sebentar, recharge, thinking, and the day after you could see Ale again. We can have video call now, not to forget for a while cos youre a mom just go, yg deket aja Med, Bali Sing atau Belitung sounds good.

Mela is my 2 y big sis, dia memang belum menikah tapi urusan keibuan dia selalu menang, taun lalu dia mengadopsi anak panti komplek secara edukasi saja sih, membiayai semua urusan sekolah dan keperluannya, she is successfull carrier thing like mom and always take care of me.

Mela is right, after I diagnosed genetic failure baby, I never went on trip again, it just all wrong padahal trip dan travel adalah selalu menjadi kebutuhanku. Bahkan aku menjadi jurnalis travel di salah satu media online terbesar di Jakarta, like I said my life was just perfect after that stupid diagnose.

Usia ku masih 27 tahun tapi secara mental sangat lelah, hari ini Ale akan operasi otak untuk dandy walker syndrome, sebuah prosedur bedah yang disebut shunt diperlukan untuk mengalirkan kelebihan cairan dari dalam otak yg berfungsi untuk mengurangi tekanan intrakranial dan membantu mengontrol pembengkakan otak dan kepala. Terkadang terlintas untuk menyudahi semua ini, bisakah yg Kuasa memanggilnya, semua tubuhnya terpasang kabel selang pada ventilator, air mataku sudah kering atau malah entah dirasuki sesuatu yg membuatku dingin sedingin es batu.

Ruangan perinatologi khusus untuk perawatan bayi sudah tidak menyeramkan seperti sebelumnya, aku menyusui bayiku disana, bayi bayi lain menangis mencari kehangatan ibunya. Aku tidak pernah suka rumah sakit entah kenapa, beberapa kali dirawat karena tipes, db, dan dehidrasi cairan namun tdk pernah terbiasa dengan keadaan dan bau alkohol rumah sakit yg begitu menyengat.

Saat aku hamil 7 bulan aku baru mencari tau lebih dalam apa itu patau sindrome,

https://www.vemale.com/topik/kehamilan/29942-sindrom-patau-trisomi-13.html 

Ada beberapa kelainan yang bisa menjangkit bayi dalam kandungan. Kelainan tersebut dapat menyebabkan cacat pada bayi. Salah satu kelainan yang dapat menjangkit bayi dalam kandungan adalah kelainan yang disebabkan kromosom. Salah satu dari kelainan ini adalah trisomi 13.

Trisomi 13 atau biasa dikenal dengan sindrom Patau merupakan kelainan kromosom yang ditandai dengan cacat intelektual dan kelainan pada tubuh di beberapa bagian tubuh. Bayi yang terjangkit sindrom ini biasanya mempunyai kelainan pada jantung, kelainan saraf otak dan tulang belakang.
Menurut ghr.nlm.nih.gov, trisomi 13 atau sindrom patau dapat terjadi pada 1 dari 16.000 kelahiran. Sindrom ini dapat terjadi pada semua wanita, tetapi wanita yang hamil pada usia tua mempunyai resiko yang lebih tinggi terjangkit sindrom ini.
Bayi yang terjangkit sindrom ini biasanya hanya mampu bertahan satu sampai tujuh hari setelah dilahirkan. Hanya 5%-10% yangdapat bertahan, itu pun hanya akan bertahan sampai 1 bulan. Sindrom Patau ini merupakan kelainan genetik yang terjadi pada bayi yang memiliki kelebihan kromosom pada kromosom 13. Oleh karena itu, sindrom ini biasa disebut trisomi 13.
Setiap untaian kromosom membawa informasi genetik yang dapat menentukan proses perkembangan dan pertumbun janin. Untuk itu, kelainan pada kromosom akan berakibat fatal bagi janin. Cacat yang dialami karena kelainan pada kromosom tidak dapat diatasi namun dapat di diteksi dengan melakukan pengecekan pada usia kandungan 10-12 minggu.
Oleh: Ratna Komala Dewi

Kami setuju dengan salah satu Obgyn bahwa kami akan meneruskan kehamilan apapun yg terjadi dgn baby A, jika memang terjadi komplikasi serius yang dapat menyebabkan kematian dari kami berdua, kami akan mengambil opsi termination atau early delivery namun jika tidak ada apa2, aku ingin melahirkan secara normal. Ada beberapa kasus bayi trisomi yang dapat hidup dengan sewajarnya tentu dengan treatment yang banyak bahkan operasi yang harus dijalani, insyallah kami siap untuk baby A.

Saat lahir biasanya bayi trisomi hanya bertahan bbrp jam saja di NiCu namun Ale bisa sampai 61 hari lamanya.

He is a strong baby

I had a very big contraction on my way to hospital, and I feel blank what should I do we do after the baby delivery.

Hon are you ok?

Dalam hatiku yang sangat egois mengatakan jangan sampai operasi caesar, I have to deliver defect one with big pain scar, please God No.

Tetapi masih sangat menyakitkan, jahitan, induksi, butir peluh, tenaga yg sudah habis, aku tidak akan pernah melupakan itu.

He made it ay, 6 hours, tapi msh di ventilator NiCu. Kata dokter ini jarang biasanya 2-3 jam -Aryo-
Jadi mau dikasih nama Ale.

Terserah kamu.

Can he just he died, I cried a lot when Aryo is seeing Ale at night. Dear God, he is my responsibilty to you but that little hand connecting to all cable.

Ibu maaf, bayinya harus disusui setiap 3 jam di ruang perina, jam 6 dan 9 pagi, jam 12 3 siang, jam 6 sore, jam 9 12 malam dan jam 3 dini hari. Jangan lupa ya bu bisa dibantu bapaknya dan pasang alarm. Suster berkata seperti itu.

Jam 1 ini telat sejam, yuk kuantar

Masih terasa ngilu jahitan itu. Aku berjalan melintasi lorong bangsal, tidak menyeramkan namun terasa menyesakkan. Bayi bayi lain ada yg menangis.

Yang ini kenapa ya sus?

Bocor jantung juga bu udah sebulan malah disini.

Tangisan itu terasa pilu.

Kalau kata orang tua jaman dulu, mungkin nenek saya bisa berkata seperti ini

Bayi cacat biasanya ada yg salah sama ibu bapaknya atau mungkin melakukan suatu dosa yg menyebabkan karma.

Is that true, lalu kemudian untuk apa kita menganut suatu agama tertentu, untuk apa kita menghadap Tuhan dan bertobat atas dosa yg kita lakukan.

Medya tentunya gadis baik-baik, perawan, sehat wal afiat, kaya raya, keluarga baik idealnya melakukan vaksin lengkap saat masa pertumbuhannya.

Saya tdk pernah terlibat narkoba, saya pernah meminum beberapa champagne dan anggur namun tidak hingga mabuk.

Saya benci sushi jadi tidak ada cacing bakteri aneh dalam tubuh saya. Saya pernah dirawat karena patah kaki jatuh dari motor. Saya tidak pernah main perempuan, saya mencium 3 orang wanita but I dont play the boy.

Saya tentunya tidak memiliki hubungan darah dan keluarga dengan Medya, if you are related there will be a genetic crash.

Lalu mari kita bicara dosa, saya jujur pernah membully adik kelas, push up dan joget di acara angkatan kelas.

Itukah dosa nya sehingga ada Ale saat ini.

Logic says, its all genetic failure. Happen in 1:1.000 embrio, Ale adalah satu chance dari 1.000 pembuahan yg terjadi, kromosom nya lebih satu, hanya lebih satu dari yg seharusnya.

Mungkin ini hanya keberuntungan yg terhenti sementara atau mungkin Ale adalah keberuntungan kami berdua yg baru. Mungkin saja.

Sus maaf kalau pak Satria suka jenguk kemari gak ya?

Pak Satria?

Hmm ayah saya kakeknya Ale

Ooh kayanya gak ada deh bu lagipula klo ruang perina yg boleh jenguk hanya bapak dan ibu kandung nya saja.

Seorang pak Satria yg notabene sangat humble bahkan istri ob nya aja lahiran ditengokin, dia terkenal sangat care dengan anak buahnya namun tampaknya tidak pada cucunya sendiri. Hanya satu kali jengukan saat aku melahirkan Ale, selebihnya tidak ada kabar. Lain dengan ibu, beliau selalu menyempatkan diri menjenguk Ale setidaknya setiap minggu entah di hari weekend atau lainnya.

Ibu selalu bilang beliau sedang banyak handle project di Sumatera, but I know she lied.

Beliau seperti menyalahkan putri nya ini akan kelahiran Ale yg tdk sempurna hingga Aryo bilang its not our sins nor family that Ale had genetic failure. It just God put this us I dont know to build our strenght.

It just takdir you know hon.

Bu Medya, sudah siap untuk melihat Ale.

Dokter mungkin mengatakan itu karena sejak Ale lahir, aku didera post partum syndrome dan tentunya baby blues yang sangat parah. Tidak banyak bicara, kebanyakan melamun bahkan untuk makan saja perlu diingatkan suster. Aryo bahkan berkata seperti ini..

Sus kalau jam makan tolong ditepuk ibu nya, sampai dia bilang iya, piringnya tolong diletakan dekat kasur, jangan sampai lupa ya karena kalau tidak gitu dia tidak akan makan. Maaf merepotkan sebelumnya.

Karena esok nya setelah melahirkan Ale, aku tidak menyentuh makan siang yg biasanya menjadi komponen penting dalam hidupku.

Ale saat ini berada di ventilator, nah ibu kita harus observasi setidaknya hingga 14 hari baru kemudian operasi jantung yang akan pertama kami lakukan..
Penyakit jantung bawaan pada bayi bermacam-macam penyebabnya, maka dari itu pengobatannya pun berbeda-beda. Jenis-jenis kelainan jantung bawaan antara lain defek septum atrium, defek septum ventrikel, defek kanal atrioventrikular, foramen ovale persisten, duktus arteriosus persisten, tetralogi Fallot, transposisi arteri besar, dan lain sebagainya


Nah ibu untuk ke depannya karena bayi dengan kasus Trisomi 13 itu butuh perawatan di ventilator mungkin ibu harus menyewa bahkan membeli mesinnya. Tapi itu nanti setelah full observasi yg kami akan lakukan.

Maaf ibu yang penting ibu fokus saja menyusui dan pompa asi nya, kami menyediakan pompa asi di bagian divisi ibu dan anak, mungkin di waktu tertentu Ale perlu menyusui dari botol susu. Kalaupun asi nya seret bisa dibantu formula tapi itu pilihan kedua ya bu.

Hm, aku mau balik kamar ya Yo.

Sayup terdengar,
Maaf dok itu biaya operasi nya kira kira berapa ya saya ingin mempersiapkan diri terlebih dahulu, oh ya dan juga mesin ventilatornya?

Mungkin 250 juta tapi bapak bisa ke bagian administrasi rumah sakit ya.

link source

Dokter kemudian menjelaskan "Untuk menutup lubangnya ada 2 pilihan, pertama melalui kateterisasi jantung. Nanti dimasukkan selang kecil melalui pembuluh darah ke arah jantung. Setelah itu, ada alat seperti payung yang namanya Amplatzer Septal Occluder (ASO) yang akan ditempatkan di tempat yang bocor dan dikembangkan sehingga lubangnya tertutup. Jika setelah pemeriksaan echo ternyata kelainannya tidak memungkinkan untuk dipasang ASO, maka operasinya akan dilakukan dengan pembedahan."
Med, hmm saya mau daftar BPJS dulu ya, kamu gak apa apa kan sendirian, hon.
Iya
Keluarga kaya harusnya gak usah pake bpjs yah, kan banyak duitnya, harusnya pemerintah memprioritaskan masyarakat yg tdk mampu dulu.
Ibu-ibu di ruang tunggu pasien berbicara seperti itu, rasanya seperti dikomentarin habis-habisan yah, ah sudahlah aku search ventilator bayi 17 juta, sepertinya bisa aku sale abis-abisan koleksi fossil dan kate spade ku, my close friends will definitely help me, they are willing to buy my stuff.
Sepertinya aku harus garage sale kak, bisa bantu arrange soalnya belum boleh pulang dari RS nih.
Tapi dugaan ku salah, Aryo bilang mesin ventilatornya khusus yang harganya hingga 500 juta rupiah. 

Our life was just perfect. It was like struk lightning. I still remember that day, we had a trip to Cape Town 2 weeks before.

Meskipun kami adalah travel freak yg menjadikan hobby sebagai pekerjaan namun saat tidak melakukan trip kami juga ngantor di weekday. I am travel writer, he has travel agent and love doing survey and research. Travelnya dia unik, kita bisa provide trip kemana saja di seluruh dunia selain negara konflik tentunya dengan budget yg bisa disesuaikan, you mention, even there was a milyuner who went gone to Alaska, ya seriously.

Aku ingat hari itu hujan, hanya gerimis tepat pukul 06.30 di hari Sabtu aku bangun tidur, Aryo sudah tidak di tempat tidur, belakangan ini dia punya hobi baru merawat tanaman hidroponik nya, ada bayam kangkung strawberry. Aku melihat jendela, Jakarta pagi ini cukup segar karena gerimis. Tidak ada pikiran apa-apa, kuakui weekday adalah hari yg tepat utk bangun lebih siang sedikit. Apalagi 2 minggu yg lalu kami baru pulang dari Africa, rasanya badan ini masih butuh sedikit lagi istirahat.

Med, kalau udah trimester tiga sebaiknya jangan melakukan perjalanan lagi ya kata Mama, apalagi ke yg jauh2.

Aku nurut saja namun trip yg kmrn memang sudah ada kontrak dengan salah satu aplikasi pencari tiket yg baru dr setahun sebelumnya, tak mungkin kutolak apalagi Aryo bisa ikut.

Aku berjejak dari kasur.

Aryo kamu udah makan?

Tadi baru roti sedikit.

Oh ya nanti kubuatkan nasi goreng yah.

Gak usah lah hon nanti kita makan di RS aja sambil nunggu.

Hari itu 15 Mei 2016, jadwal kontrol kandungan bulanan. Aku baru tau saat hamil bahwa kontrol kandungan itu cukup sebulan sekali nanti bulan ke 8 baru 2 minggu dan bulan ke 9 baru seminggu sekali.

Kami bergegas ke rumah sakit, you know how long queque for obgyn. Sudah banyak deretan ibu hamil, pasangan muda bahkan yg baru melahirkan krn salah satu dr mereka menggendong bayi merahnya, yg mengantri dokter kandungan.

Sudah kebagian nomor 17 aja nih. Makan dulu yuk laper.

Tidak ada firasat apapun, hingga saat dokter menempelkan alatnya di perutku terasa lebih lama dari biasanya. Kalau bbrp bulan kemarin si pak dokter langsung cerewet bicara soal air ketuban, menunjukkan mana kepala, mendengarkan denyut jantung namun hari itu beliau bolak balik mengkerenyitkan dahi di balik kacamatanya.

Hingga beliau membicarakan Patau Sindrom.

***

I woke up and still pregnant. Tak lama Aryo melihat ke kamar.

Med mama mau bicara.

As in my mother in law, she is very sweet.

Ya ma.

Med kata bapak kamu USG 4 dimensi ya di Kemang, kebetulan ada kenalan dokter kandungan yg bagus dan sudsh dibuatkan janji hari ini pukul 11 yah.

Oh ya baik ma.

Aryo pasti sudah cerita banyak.

Kamu mau mandi dulu, makan, aku buatkan sarapan atau mau beli nasi uduk di depan.

Ini jam 9 yah, ke Kemang biasanya macet, aku makan sandwich aja.

Aku gorengkan sosis yah.

Bapak dan Ibu, usia kandungannya 28 weeks yah, sejauh ini tidak ada cacat secara fisik semua sempurna, tidak ada bibir sumbing. Namun saya masih tidak tau untuk organ penglihatan, pendengarannya apa berfungsi dengan baik. Yang parah adalah organ dalam terutama kebocoran jantung. Bayi bapak ibu dapat dilahirkan hingga masuk term nya. Namun pasti akan banyak perawatan di perinatologi dan masuk ventilator. Itu yang bisa saya katakan sejauh ini. Untuk ended pregnancy sudah tidak disarankan.

Malam itu kondisi Ale kritis, padahal ia sudah pulang ke rumah dengan ventilator barunya. Usianya besok tepat 91 hari sejak dilahirkan lalu.

Suara sirine mendampingiku dan Ale ke rumah sakit saat itu.

Ale langsung dioperasi jantung malam itu juga.

Bayiku kritis sudah 3 hari.

Ibu Medya dan Bapak Aryo, diagnosis terakhir adalah brain dead.

Tubuh kecilnya kembali dipenuhi kabel-kabel itu.

Sungguh ku sudah tidak tahan lagi.

210 hari sudah kulewati, lampu-lampu di mesin mesin itu sudah tidak berkedip lagi.
 
***
*cerita ini hanya cerita fiksi terinspirasi oleh beberapa kejadian di instagram ditulis oleh newbie yg tdk tahu mengenai dunia kedokteran atau kesehatan dan melakukan google search utk bahan referensi*

          Wikidata, WikiCite, and the "bibliography of life"        

3hhZSGOn 400x400Last week I was at WikiCite 2017, a fascinating three day event in Vienna. Wikicite is "a proposal to build a bibliographic database in Wikidata to serve all Wikimedia projects", and is attracting increasing attention from academics, librarians, publishers, data geeks, and others. You can get a sense of the project by following @WikiCite on Twitter.

I went to the meeting in part to learn more about WikiCite, and also to spend some time hacking on Wikispecies. I'd been to only one Wiki event before (a Wiki Science Conference) so I'm still finding my way around this community. I spent the first two days listening to talks while coding away (more on this below), but on Wednesday put my own coding aside to join a bunch of people hacking the CrossRef event API in a great session led by Joe Wass. I've put some notes and code in GitHub. The event API tracks what people do with DOIs, including adding them to Wikipedia pages when citing a source in support of an assertion. A significant fraction of DOI resolutions are from Wikipedia pages, which is one reason why CrossRef was present at WikiCite.

Wikidata

In practice WikiCite's goal of building a bibliographic database to serve all Wikimedia projects means that articles, books, and other bibliographic items that are cited by Wikimedia projects will each be added to Wikidata. For example, the ZooKeys paper "Diversity of manota williston (Diptera, mycetophilidae) in ulu temburong national park, brunei" is item Q21188431 in Wikidata. Wikidata stores the key bibliographic metadata, including identifiers such as the DOI (which many at the WikiCite meeting pronounced "doy" much to my initial confusion). Screenshot 2017 05 31 12 46 43

This article was published in ZooKeys, which itself has a Wikidata item (Q219980), so in Wikidata the article is linked to the journal (i.e., "ZooKeys" isn't just a dumb string but a link to another Wikidata item). The article is also linked to two articles that it cites, and each of these is also a Wikidata item.

These citation links are one reason people are interested in WikiCite - it could be the basis of a free and open citation graph (for the benefits of such a graph see this piece by David Shotton doi:10.1038/502295a, a participant at the meeting in Vienna). Already some cool tools are being built on top of citation data in Wikidata, such as Scholia by Finn Årup Nielsen, Daniel Mietchen and Egon Willighagen. Here, for example, is my academic profile based on information in Wikidata. It's woefully incomplete, but intriguing. For a more complete example view Egon Willighagen's profile.

To some extent the utility of tools like Scholia will depend on how complete Wikidata's coverage is of the academic literature, which in turn raises the inevitable question of scope. Does Wikicite want to include just the literature cited in the various Wikimedia projects, or does it want to expand to include the total sum of academic literature?

Wikispecies, Wikidata and the bibliography of life

Wikispecies is one of the Wikimedia projects, and the only one that is topic-specific (the others are typically global in scope but have content in different languages, or host different data types such as images, scanned books, or structured data). As I've sketched out in an earlier post (Thoughts on Wikipedia, Wikidata, and the Biodiversity Heritage Library) I think Wikicite and Wikidata are potentially very important to projects such as BHL and the "bibliography of life". Much of our knowledge about the world's biodiversity is contained in the academic literature, and much of this is poorly known with no central database where we can find it, and much of it is still not digitised. It is tempting to think that Wikidata might be a platform around which the biodiversity community could focus its efforts on assembling a global database of biodiversity literature. Already major taxonomic journals such as ZooKeys are being fed into Wikidata, so it has a significant corpus of biodiversity literature already.

One way to grow this corpus is to focus on Wikispecies. In a post before the Wikicite meeting (Notes for WikiCite 2017: Wikispecies reference parsing) I elaborated on this idea. There are two stumbing blocks, one specific to Wikispecies, one a more general Wikidata issue.

The first issue is that Wikispecies bibliographic data is relatively unstructured, which makes converting it into structured data something of a challenge. I spent much of Wikicite hacking some code to do this on Glitch (more on Glitch later), you can see the results here: https://acoustic-bandana.glitch.me. This web site takes a Wikispecies reference and tries to convert it into CSL-JSON. Still very much a work in progress, but I've started building tools that use this web site as a service and process larger numbers of Wikispecies citations.

The second issue is how you get data into Wikidata, and this is something that's never been entirely clear to me. There are tools for adding an article using its DOI (sourcemd) but this isn't scalable, and doesn't handle the case of articles that don't have DOIs. This is still a "How do you Snapchat? You just Snapchat" moment. Wikidata desparately needs tools and a clear procedure whereby people like me with lots of bibliographic data can contribute.

Wikispecies

Another reason for my interest in Wikispecies (and other sources of bibliographic data such as the listed of cited literature being made available by CrossRef, see The Initiative for Open Citations) is that this data can be fed into BHL to locate more articles in that archive. Once these articles have been located they are stored in BioStor and BHL itself, but it makes sense to have them more accessible, and Wikidata looks to be an obvious candidate. Given that Wikispecies is essentially a crowd-source taxonomic database there is considerable overlap in content between Wikispecies and BHL. The Wikidata data model also allows for some of things that taxonomists care about, such as linking dates of publication to evidence relative to those dates (in older publications determining the publication date often requires quite extensive research).

Summary

Leaving aside the specific issues about how to get bibliographic data into Wikidata, I guess the question to ask is whether it makes sense to be developing large databases of bibliographic data without either using Wikidata as the platform to hold that data, or at least linking to Wikidata. Projects such as Gene Wiki are migrating from Wikipedia to Wikidata (see "Wikidata as a semantic framework for the Gene Wiki initiative" doi:10.1093/database/baw015), perhaps those of us interested in biodiversity literature could use projects like Gene Wiki as role models for how we could both contribute and benefit from Wikidata and Wikicite.

I've barely scratched the surface of what was discussed at Wikicite, for more details see the program. It is a very different sort of meeting in that the participants come from pretty diverse backgrounds, which helps shake up your own assumptions about what matters and how things should be done. It's also great that it's a meeting at which people write code or otherwise hack stuff together, so things actually get done. I've come away with lots to think about, and renewed enthusiasm about the role Wikimedia is playing in structuring our knowledge about the world.


          China Buka Pawagam Tercanggih Di Pulau L/C/Selatan Buktikan Kuasanya..        

Hasil carian imej untuk China buka pawagam di Laut China Selatan
HALAMAN HIBURAN

BEIJING – China membuka pawagam di sebuah pulau tuntutan bertindih di Laut China Selatan dalam usaha berterusan Beijing untuk membina infrastruktur awam dan mengukuhkan kedaulatannya, lapor agensi berita Xinhua.
Menurut Xinhua pada Ahad lalu, panggung wa­yang dilengkapi peralatan paling canggih itu dibuka di Pulau Woody, dalam Kepulauan Paracel yang turut dituntut oleh Vietnam dan Taiwan.
“Pembukaan pawagam ini merupakan sebahagian daripada rancangan pihak berkuasa kebudayaan tempatan untuk mewujudkan perkhidmatan masyarakat di pulau-pulau di bawah pentadbiran Sansha,” kata Xinhua.
Pulau Woody menempatkan bandar Sansha yang menjadi pusat pentadbiran China di Laut China Selatan.
Hasil carian imej untuk China buka pawagam di Laut China Selatan
China menguasai kepulauan Paracel dalam tahun 1974 selepas bertempur de­ngan Vietnam.
Walaupun China meng­gelarnya sebagai bandar, penduduk tetap di Sansha hanyalah beberapa ribu orang, manakala banyak pulau kecil dan terumbu di sekitarnya tidak berpenghuni.
China menuntut 90 peratus daripada keseluruhan Laut China Selatan dengan Brunei, Malaysia, Filipina, Vietnam dan Taiwan turut membuat tuntutan bertindih di perairan itu. – Reuters
IKLAN IH
Hasil carian imej untuk tukang gunting rambut lelaki
Dikehendaki Segera!! Tukang Gunting Rambut Lelaki 
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          Benarkah Bapok Tidak Dibenarkan Masuk Brunei?        

BERITA ini mula menarik perhatian ramai apabila seorang pengguna Facebook bernama Pak Usop meninggalkan komen pada kenalannya bertanyakan adakah benar pihak berkuasa Brunei enggan memberikan kebenaran kepada Sajat, seorang bapok untuk memasuki negara tersebut.
“Betul ke dia (Sajat) pergi Brunei hari ini (tapi) tak lepas masuk?” soal Pak Usop kepada rakannya yang bertugas sebagai wartawan di salah sebuah portal online,semalam.
Hasil carian imej untuk bapok
Hasil carian imej untuk bapok
Bagaimanapun, berita tersebut tidak dapat disahkan kebenarannya dan tuan empunya badan juga belum memberikan sebarang komen terhadap isu itu.
Pada 1 Mei 2014, Sultan Brunei, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah mengumumkan penguatkuasaan hukum hudud di negara itu termasuk melaksanakan hukuman potong pergelangan tangan ke atas pencuri dan rejam terhadap kesalahan zina.
Selain itu, bagi fasa kedua pelaksanaan hukuman itu, hukuman berat akan dikenakan kepada golongan homoseksual serta yang menghina Al-Quran dan Rasulullah S.A.W.
Undang-undang yang dikenali sebagai Kod Penal Syariah itu diwartakan selepas beberapa tahun dibawah penelitian dan kajian oleh pihak berkaitan di sana. Demikian saringan dari berita MYNEWSHUB.CC.
Tahniah kepada kerajaan Brunei yang berani menyahut seruan dan hukum Allah SWT. Bukan seperti kerajaan Malaysia yang takut hendak melaksanakan hukum Allah dan berani memaksa manusia Islam di negara ini menganut hukum manusia. 
Kepad bapok, kembalilah ke dunia fitrah, bukan menyelam di dualam..(IH)
IKLAN IH
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          Pondok dan ulama di Kedah        


Maksud pondok di sini ialah pusat pengajian agama melalui satu sistem pendidikan di kalangan orang-orang Melayu yang pernah wujud setelah mereka menerima agama Islam. Di Kedah, Islam menjadi agama rasmi dalam tahun 531 Hijrah bersamaan tahun 1136 Masihi. Syeikh Abdullah al Yamani mengajarkan dua kalimah syahadat kepada Raja Kedah, Phra Ong Maha Wangsa atau Raja Derbar Raja dan menukarkan nama baginda menjadi Sultan Muzaffar Syah.
Agama Islam diperkembangkan oleh guru-guru agama Islam yang dikenali sebagai makhdum, maulana, syeikh atau lebai di segenap pelosok negeri. Orang Kedah masih menggambarkan zaman awal perkembangan agama ini sebagai zaman "dum makdum" maksudnya zaman yang ramai dengan makhdum - iaitu pendakwah dari Iran. Zaman dum 'makdum' maksudnya zaman yang amat lama berlalu.
Di zaman awal Islam, penganut-penganutnya diajar membaca al-Quran di rumah sendiri, di rumah guru, di surau atau di masjid, di Langgar atau di 'madrasah'. Selain dari membaca dan menghafaz ayat-ayat al - Quran, penganut Islam didedahkan juga dengan pengajaran-pengajaran atau hukum-hukum asas yang fardhu dan asas-asas ilmu tauhid, tafsir dan hadith.
Peluang untuk mendalami ilmu agama bagi yang berminat dan berkebolehan tidak disekat atau dihalang - maka terdapatlah orang-orang Melayu yang mendalami ilmu tarikat dan tasawuf. Orang-orang yang menjadi ahli tasawuf amat dihormati oleh masyarakat. Syeikh-syeikh atau maulana tarikat ini mengajar bagaimana beratib, berzikir dan bersuluk.
Seseorang penganut Islam tidak merasai lengkap Islamnya jika tidak menunaikan fardhu haji. Jadi, seseorang Islam berasa perlu mengetahui dan menyedari wujudnya umat Islam di muka bumi ini selain dari orang-orang Islam di tempatnya sahaja.
Orang-orang Melayu yang berangkat ke Makkah ramai pula yang tinggal "menahun" bertahun-tahun di sana kerana menuntut ilmu agama dan meningkatkan diri menjadi ulama supaya boleh menjadi guru apabila pulang ke tanah air kelak. Ada pula yang melanjutkan agama ke Kaherah, Damsyik dan Baghdad. Biasanya orang-orang Melayu dahulu akan membentuk diri mereka menjadi 'lebai' sebelum menjadi haji atau ulama.
Asalnya perkataan 'lebai' ini ialah nama suatu kaum di India Selatan. Kaum "Labbai" ini beragama Islam dan bertalian darah dengan orang Arab. Orangnya kuat beribadat dan pandai berniaga. Sebilangan kecil dari mereka telah datang ke Kepulauan Melayu dan bercampur -baur dengan orang-orang tempatan. "Labbai" itu dilekatkan pada nama mereka umpamanya Ahmad Labbai bin Sultan Labbai. Sesiapa sahaja yang alim dengan ilmu agama tetapi belum menunaikan fardhu haji di Makkah, semuanya digelarkan 'lebai' oleh orang-orang Melayu. Orang-orang yang menerima pendidikan di pondok-pondok semuanya digelar "Lebai"
Untuk menjadi "lebai" seseorang hendaklah belajar ilmu agama bersungguh-sungguh dari guru yang alim. Memangnya tidak ada catatan di manakah mulanya tempat belajar agama di Kedah ini sungguhpun terdengar ramai nama-nama ulama disebut orang.
Pada tahun 1821 Negeri Kedah telah diserang oleh Thai dan Thai menjajah negeri ini sehingga 1842. Apabila Kedah dibebaskan semula dari belenggu Thai pada 1842, sebahagian dari Wilayahnya telah direpis untuk membentuk beberapa buah negeri kecil dan di antaranya ialah negeri Kubang Pasu.
Raja Thai menabalkan Tunku Anum menjadi Raja di Kubang Pasu sejak 1839 dan Tunku Anum berusaha memperolehi seorang mufti membantunya memerintah Kubang Pasu tersebut. Tunku Anum dapati sebuah pusat pengajian agama secara pondok masih bernafas di sebuah kampung di Kubang Pasu juga iaitu di Kampung Malau dan meminta tuan gurunya yang bernama Haji Wan Ishak bin Wan Muhammad Hashim bin Wan Abdul Baqi menjadi mufti Kubang Pasu Darul Qiam.
Sebahagian pondok yang diasaskan oleh Hj. Sulong bin Hj. CHik di Jeniang yang masih kukuh.
Setakat yang diketahui dengan pasti pondok atau pusat pengajian Tuan Guru Haji Wan Ishak di Kampung Malau ialah pusat pengajian Islam sistem pondok yang paling tua di negeri Kedah. Pondok itu dibukanya dalam tahun 1806. Pondoknya terpaksa dihentikan apabila beliau dilantik menjadi mufti di Kubang Pasu. Bagaimanapun sebagai mufti beliau membuka pula pondok di ibu negeri Kubang Pasu iaitu di Pulau Pisang pada tahun 1845. Pondok di Pulau Pisang masih segar bugar sekarang sebagai sebuah pusat pengajian Islam yang terulung.
Haji Wan Ishak lahir pada tahun 1771 di Malau, berhampiran pekan Jitra. Bapanya Wan Muhammad Hashim bin Haji Abdul Baqi merantau ke Kedah dari kampungnya di Cherang, Patani.
Wan Muhammad Hashim membawa diri ke Kedah bersama orang-orang lain dari Patani kerana Thai sentiasa menindas orang-orang Islam yang tinggal di sana. Wan Muhammad Hashim berkahwin dengan seorang wanita di Kampung Malau, Cik Maryam, dan tinggal menetap di Kedah. Haji Wan Ishak belajar agama di kampungnya kemudian berangkat ke Makkah melanjutkan pelajarannya di sana selama 20 tahun. Beliau balik ke Kedah pada tahun 1806, berumur 35 tahun dan membuka pondok di Kampung Malau tersebut.
Kampung Malau agak terpencil ke timur dan terselamat dari serangan Thai yang menyerang ibu negeri Kedah di Kota Kuala Kedah pada bulan November 1821. Bagaimanapun Malau dan tempat-tempat lain di sebelah timur ini jauh dari laut dan hampir dengan sempadan negeri Patani. Selepas 1815 penduduk-penduduk negeri Patani bertambah ramai membuat penghijrahan ke Kedah kerana Thai dari Bangkok membuat serangan secara besar-besaran ke atas kerajaan Islam Patani pada tahun itu.
Haji Wan Ishak menulis banyak kitab-kitab agama tetapi sayang karyanya tidak lagi ditemui sekarang ini. Pondoknya telah dua kali menerima kebakaran besar. Pada zaman ini, bukan sahaja kitab-kitab agama disalin oleh tiap-tiap orang yang belajar di pondok tetapi al-Quran al-Karim pun terpaksa disalin huruf demi huruf dengan tangan.
Tunku Anum mangkat pada 1853 dan Haji Wan Ishak masih menjadi mufti dan tuan guru DiRaja di bawah pemerintahan Tunku Ishak cucunda Tunku Anum sebagai Raja Kubang Pasu yang kedua. Tunku Ishak mangkat pada 1863 tanpa waris. Kubang Pasu dicantumkan semula dengan negeri Kedah.
Haji Wan Ishak meninggal pada tahun 1871 dan disemadikan di perkuburan Pulau Pisang. Bibit-bibit persekolahan pondok dari Patani disemai di negeri ini.
Di antara anak muridnya yang terkenal sebagai ulama besar ialah cucundanya sendiri Haji Muhammad Saleh bin Haji Muhammad Hashim iaitu anak kepada anakandanya Hajjah Fatimah. Haji Muhammad Saleh ini menyambung usaha Haji Ishak menghidupkan pondok Pulau Pisang sebagai sebuah pusat pengajian Islam yang terkenal. Seorang lagi bekas murid Haji Wan Ishak ialah Tuan Guru Haji Muhammad Noor bin Haji Abu Bakar yang membuka Pondok Tasak, di Langgar, Kedah dan dianggap sebagai seorang keramat. Anak Haji Wan Ishak bernama Haji Musa juga dianggap keramat oleh penduduk-penduduk tempatan Pulau Pisang.
Di antara pondok-pondok yang wujud dalam pertengahan KM 19 di Kedah ialah pondok-pondok yang didirikan oleh Tuan-tuan Guru seperti :-
  1. Tuan Haji Wan Ishak bin Haji Wan Hashim, Pulau Pisang
  2. Tuan Haji Muhammad Tamim, Anak Bukit
  3. Tuan Haji Muhammad Diah bin Muhammad, Tualang
  4. Tuan Haji Abdul Rashid, Pulau Bidan, meninggal 1821
  5. Tuan Haji Abu Bakar bin Syeikh Abdul Kadir Kadi, Alor Star.
Dalam zaman pemerintahan Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah (1854-1879) didapati banyak lagi pondok-pondok yang dibuka oleh ulama-ulama di Kedah. Di antara Guru-guru Pondok yang terbesar ialah :-
  1. Tuan Muhammad Taib al-Mas'ud al-Banjari, Titi Gajah, Mufti 1870
  2. Tuan Haji Muhammad Noor bin Haji Abu Abu Bakar, Pondok Tasak, Langgar
  3. Tuan Haji Saleh Penaga, Limbung Kapal, Alor Star
  4. Tuan Syeikh Moneh, Padang Pusing, Pendang
  5. Tuan Haji Muhammad Aji, Pumpong Alor Star
  6. Tuan Syeikh Wak Sa, Kota Kuala Muda
  7. Tuan Haji Muhammada Rejab, Kanchut, Alor Star
  8. Tuan Haji Muhammad Salleh bin Ishak, Kelonghoi, Kuala Kedah,1888
  9. Tuan Haji Ahmad Tampung bin Haji Osman, Merbuk, Kedah, 1893
  10. Tuan Haji Saleh, Pedu
  11. Tuan Haji Saleh bin Muhammad Hashim, Pulau Pisang
  12. Tuan Haji Muhammad Alim, Sungai Nonang, Yan
  13. Tuan Haji Muhammad bin Umar,Tok Haji Muhammad Tua, Alor Star,Langgar
  14. Tuan Haji Shaari bin Haji Taha, Pondok Tasak , Langgar
  15. Tuan Haji Ismail bin Haji Mustaffa Cik Dol, Gajah Mati, Pendang
  16. Tok Faqih, Sungai Limau
  17. Tuan Haji Ahmad Lalang bin Haji Ali, Yan
  18. Tuan Haji Saleh bin Abdul Samad, Pondok Tasak, Langgar
  19. Tuan Haji Abdul Rahman, Pondok Tasak, Langgar
Kadi yang bertugas di Kedah pada masa ini ialah Tuan Haji Muhammad Zain bin Haji Mas'ud, Kadi 1870 ketika kandanya Haji Muhammad Taib menjadi Mufti, Kadi negeri yang tunggal ini dibantu oleh Tuan Haji Muhammad Jaafar bin Haji Muhammad Saad Imam Besar Masjid Raja di Alor Star, Tuan Syed Ali dan Tuan Haji Muhammad Yusuf. Seorang ulama lagi yang berdamping dengan Sultan ialah Tuan Syed Abdullah al-Maghribi al-Jafri. Tuan Haji Muhammad Daim menjadi kadi pada 1900. Kadi ditugaskan mengajar agama terutamanya di masjid-masjid tetapi tiada membuka pondok. Pada masa ini Tuan Haji Idris Keramat giat berdakwah di Tualang, tetapi beliau juga tidak membuka pondok
Sistem persekolahan pondok bukan sahaja menjadi pusat pengajian ilmu tetapi juga menjadi pusat kepada pelbagai aktiviti kehidupan orang-orang Melayu di Kedah. Persekolahan pondok pada masa ini ialah pusat kehidupan orang Melayu. Maju mundurnya sesuatu pondok itu berkaitan rapat dengan maju mundurnya pendidikan dan penghidupan di sesuatu daerah. Persekolahan pondok kadang-kadangnya terdiri di tengah-tengah pusat pentadbiran dan mempengaruhi persekitarannya, kadang-kadang wujud berasingan membentuk persekitarannya sendiri.
Madrasah Pokok Sena yang dibuka oleh Tuan Hussain Kedah serta dikelilingi lebih seratus buah pondok.
Di pondok, murid-muridnya bukan sahaja diajar pelajaran agama, tetapi juga pelajaran menulis, membaca dan mengira dalam bahasa Melayu. Orang-orang pondok pandai membaca syair, hikayat, menulis surat dan menyalin kitab-kitab yang dikaji kerana tidak ada perusahaan cap-mengecap kitab atau buku seperti sekarang. Di pondok juga orang belajar bersilat dan belajar menjadi dukun atau bomoh. Di pondok juga pelajar-pelajar atau penghuninya digalakkan membantu kerja-kerja di sawah di sekitar pondok, berniaga secara kecil-kecilan dan bertukang.
Pondok-pondok di Kedah menerima pelajar-pelajar bukan sahaja dari Kedah sendiri tetapi juga dari luar negeri iaitu dari Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Perlis, Melaka, Johor, Perlis, Pahang dan lain-lain tetapi juga dari luar negara seperti dari Indonesia, Thailand, Singapura dan Brunei.
Pondok dibuka kepada pelajar-pelajar lelaki dan perempuan, tua dan muda, dan pelajarnya dibolehkan memilih matapelajaran-matapelajran yang disukai dan diminatinya dan memilih sendiri peringkat ilmu yang sesuai dengan keupayaan dan kemampuan masing-masing. Sesetengahnya mengumpul ilmu pengetahuan melalui bahasa Arab, sedangkan keseluruhannya mengumpul ilmu pengetahuan melalui bahasa Jawi atau bahasa Melayu. Pelajar-pelajarnya tidak dikehendaki membayar sebarang yuran : Diajar dan belajar kerana Allah semata-mata.
Sistem persekolahan pondok zaman dahulu amatlah berbeza dengan sistem pendidikan sekolah atau madrasah. Sekolah atau madrasah mempunyai sistem yang tersusun dari segi sukatan pelajaran, dan cara menaiki kelas dan perubahan saban tahun. Pelajar di pondok diberi peluang untuk mengulang beberapa tahun kerana mendalami sesuatu ilmu atau sesuatu aspek ilmu. Seseorang itu boleh tinggal lebih lama di pondok jika difikirnya dia perlu mendalami ilmunya dari seseorang tuan guru. Masa tidak terhad. Tuan Guru hanya mengubah atau menghabiskan sebuah kitab untuk mengkaji isi kitab lain.
Pendeknya pelajar-pelajar yang datang ke persekolahan pondok tidak dihadkan umur atau jantina. Mereka diletakkan di pondok-pondok yang berasingan dari pondok-pondok kelamin.
Pondok tidak menentukan pelajar-pelajarnya mengambil peperiksaan atau sebarang ujian. Kebolehan mereka dinilai oleh guru sendiri dan akuan guru merupakan sijil atau syahadah yang diterima dan tidak ditolak oleh mana-mana pihak pun.
Pelajar-pelajar dikehendaki membuktikan yang mereka berilmu dengan cara membuat seberapa banyak amalan yang selari dengan muatan ilmu yang mereka punyai : Bukan sijil atau syahadah, tetapi amalan mereka sehari-hari yang menjadi ukuran.
Jadi, pondok tidak mempunyai konsep mengejar gred atau point dan tidak ada konsep keciciran seperti yang didapati di dalam sistem pendidikan sekular moden.
Jadual waktu perharian di pondok bermula dengan sembahyang subuh berjemaah di balai (surau) diikuti dengan kuliah subuh sejam atau dua jam. Selepas itu pelajar bebas membuat kerja masing-masing. Ada yang mengambil kesempatan mentelaah kitab atau mengulangkaji isi kitab dengan rakan-rakan di bawah pimpinan seorang 'kepa tela' ah' yang dilantik oleh Tuan Guru. Kadang-kadang diadakan pula kuliah pagi dari pukul 9.00 hingga pukul 11.00 pada hari-hari tertentu dalam seminggu itu untuk para pelajar pondok dan juga untuk orang-orang kampung atau orang-orang luar.
Sembahyang Zohor dan Asar hendaklah dilakukan secara berjemaah seberapa yang boleh. Kuliah dimulakan pula selepas sembahyang Maghrib hingga masuk waktu Isyak. Sembahyang Maghrib, Isyak dan Subuh adalah dimestikan berjemaah di balai.
Aktiviti-aktiviti sosial dan agama seperti sembahyang jenazah, sembahyang tarawih, kenduri kendara, perayaan Maulid, sah khatam Quran dan lain-lain diberi keutamaan. Cuti penggal persekolahan pondok berlangsung di dalam bulan puasa, musim menuai padi atau masa-masa ketiadaan Tuan Guru kerana menziarahi saudara maranya atau kerana berangkat ke Makkah tanpa menunjukkan pengganti sementara.
Dalam persekolahan pondok tersirat ciri-ciri "pendidikan seterusnya". Ciri-ciri ini hanya terdapat di persekolahan pondok dan tidak mudah dilihat di pusat-pusat pengajian sistem yang lain. Inilah ciri-ciri yang diidamkan oleh orang-orang barat sebagai "prinsip-prinsip universal" yang mereka belum berjaya mencapainya.
Pondok Pak Chu Him di Gajah Mati, Pendang.
Persekolahan pondok biasanya ditegakkan oleh ahli-ahli dalam masyarakat setempat secara membiayai dan membantu penghayatan pondok itu melalui seseorang tuan guru yang disanjung oleh masyarakat tersebut. Tuan guru yang membuka pondok itu boleh merupakan seorang anak tempatan atau anak dari tempat lain ataupun seorang yang alim dari Patani atau dari Indonesia.
Guru-guru mencurahkan khidmat untuk mengajar, mengarah, mentadbir pondok, menentukan sukatan pelajaran dan jenis kitab yang hendak dibuat kajian serta mengurus kehidupannya secara berdikari dan berdakwah fi sabil Allah secara percuma dengan ikhlas dan rela tanpa gaji atau sebarang ganjaran. Tuan-tuan guru biasanya memperolehi bantuan dan kerjasama pelajar-pelajar yang tertua bagi melicinkan penghayatan dan aktiviti pondok khususnya di balai atau surau tempat belajar.
Persekolahan pondok boleh bergerak sebagai suatu pusat penghidupan baru di satu-satu daerah atau mengukuhkan penghidupan yang sedia ada. Dengan itu, penghulu, ketua kampung, hartawan, dermawan, ibu bapa pelajar-pelajar di pondok, ahli-ahli kerabat DiRaja atau pembesar memberi sokongan kuat kepada persekolahan pondok supaya maju hidupnya dan terus berjasa.
Kemajuan sesebuah persekolahan pondok pada zaman dahulu bergantung kepada kehebatan seseorang Tuan Guru yang menerajui perjalanan sesebuah pondok di sesuatu tempat itu


Sekolah pondok Madrasah Sa'adatud-Darain yang diasaskan oleh Haji Ahmad Tampong.
Kadang-kadang ulama pondok menjadi pakar runding atau pakar rujuk kepada sultan dan pembesar-pembesar yang memerintah. Begitulah yang terjadi kepada Tuan Guru Haji Wan Ishak di Pulau Pisang yang menjadi pakar runding dan pakar rujuk malahan menjadi Pemangku Raja kepada Tunku Anum bin Tunku Abdul Rahman di Kubang Pasu. Tuan Guru Haji Muhammad Taib (Tok Titi Gajah), Haji Saleh Penaga dan Tuan Haji Tajuddin Mukarram Syah (1854-1879).
Perkataan 'pondok' asalnya dari perkataan Arab "funduk" yang bererti rumah tumpangan atau rumah perhentian sementara. Ini menggambarkan sistem persekolahan yang mana pelajar-pelajarnya mendirikan rumah-rumah kecil sebagai tempat tinggal sementara sambil belajar. Biasanya rumah-rumah kecil ini didirikan oleh ibu bapa atau waris setiap pelajar berhimpit-himpit mengelilingi rumah tuan guru di sesuatu pondok itu. Di Jawa pusat pengajian begini dipanggil "Pesantren' dan di Sumatera sebagai "Rengkum".
"Funduk" yang bererti tempat tinggal sementara itu sekarang difahamkan juga di Timur Tengah sebagai "hotel". Sistem pondok seperti yang terdapat di Nusantara tidak wujud di Timur Tengah.
Terdapat beberapa faktor yang menyebabkan ramainya alim ulama yang menjadi tuan-tuan guru di persekolahan pondok di Negeri Kedah. Salah satunya ialah kerana menjadi penghijrahan orang-orang Melayu Patani di Thailand Selatan yang telah lama mengamalkan persekolahan agama secara pondok di sana. Ulama-ulama yang ditindas atau disekat kebebasan berdakwah di sana oleh pemerintah Thai merasai perlu berhijrah ke Kedah, Kelantan, Terengganu dan ke Pulau Pinang, malahan ada sesetengahnya yang berhijrah ke Makkah di Arab Saudi atau ke Timur Tengah. Ulama-ulama Patani membawa pengaruh baru ke Kedah khususnya ke atas rupa dan corak pendidikan agama di Negeri Kedah.
Penghijrahan orang-orang Patani ke Kedah berlaku sepanjang masa sejak tumbangnya Kerajaan Ayutthaya pada 1778 lagi. Tetapi penghijrahan yang besar hanya berlaku di antara 1815 dengan 1833 iaitu ketika Kerajaan Thai di Bangkok menyerang kesultanan Patani habis-habisan.
Pengaruh dari Aceh tidak ada di Kedah selain dari beberapa buah kitab agama yang dikarang oleh beberapa ulama Aceh dan dibuat bahan kajian di pondok-pondok di sini. Ulama-ulama Aceh yang membuka persekolahan pondok di Yan itu semuanya untuk orang-orang Aceh yang tinggal di Yan itu sahaja dan bukan untuk orang-orang Kedah yang tidak memahami Bahasa Aceh.
Di antara ulama Aceh yang terkenal datang membuka pusat pengajian di Yan, Kedah pada 1900 ialah Tengku Mohamad Arshad yang dikenali sebagai Tengku di balai kemudiannya disusuli oleh Tunku Haji Musa, Tengku Lam Surau dan Tuan Syeikh Umar. Tengku Lam Uu pada tahun 1910. Kemudian tiba pula Tengku Haji Muhamad Dahan al-Hafiz pada 1920. Ulama Aceh ini berbakti hanya kepada orang-orang Aceh yang tinggal di Yan sahaja dan tidak kepada seluruh penduduk Kedah.
Bekas sekolah pondok yan dibuka oleh Haji Omar dan dikenali dengan nama Madrasah Bukit Haji Omar.
Pengaruh Patani yang dikatakan bertanggungjawab membawa budaya pondok ke Kedah ini dapat dirasai juga di Kelantan, Terengganu dan di Pulau Pinang serta Perlis dan juga di Makka-tul-Mukarramah. Kemajuan pendidikan agama yang di capai oleh Patani Darus-Salam dan perkembangan pemikiran ulama-ulamanya telah mempengaruhi semua ulama-ulama di Kedah dan membanyakkan ulama-ulama kitab,cerdik pandai agama dan pemuka gerakan Islam yang berjasa.
Selain dari melakukan penghijrahan ke Kedah dan membuka pusat-pusat pengajian di sini, ramai pula orang-orang Kedah yang merantau ke Patani menyambung pelajaran agama mereka di pondok-pondok di Patani. Kerana pengaruh Patani turut dirasai di Kelantan dan di Terengganu serta di Makkah, maka apabila orang-orang dari Kedah menyambung pelajaran agama mereka ke Kelantan atau ke Terengganu atau ke Makkah, masing-masingnya tidak terlepas dari pengaruh ulama-ulama Patani.
Walau bagaimanapun pusat pengajian yang paling dihormati ialah di Masjidil Haram di Makkatul Mukarramah iaitu tempat ulama seluruh dunia Islam berkumpul bersama ahli ilmu sufi, ahli falsafah, ahli bahasa Arab dan sejarawan Islam menukar maklumat dan pendapat.
Ulama-ulama Patani memanjangkan pengaruh mereka ke Kedah dan juga ke merata-rata tempat di Nusantara melalui kitab-kitab agama yang mereka karang atau terjemahkan ke bahasa Melayu dari kitab-kitab ulama Arab. Kitab-kitab mereka amat popular di pondok-pondok.
Di antara kitab-kitab ulama Patani itu ialah seperti karya Syeikh Daud bin Abdullah al-Fatani dan Tuan Guru Wan Ahmad bin Wan Muhammad Zaid bin Mustaffa al Fatani serta lain-lain. Nama-nama kitab yang menjadi buah mulut ialah seperti" Kifayat al-Muhtaj, Bulugh al Maram, Al Durr al-Thamin, Kasyf al Ghummah, Minhaj al 'Abidin, munyat al Musalli, Furu'al Masail Bughyat al Tullab dan lain-lain karya Syeikh Daud al Fatani di samping Bisyarat al-Amilin, Hadiqatul Azhar, Kitab Wirid dan Doa serta lain-lain lagi karya Tuan Guru Wan Ahmad Muhammad Zain al Fatani dan juga karya-karya ulama Patani lain.
Faktor kedua yang menyebabkan banyaknya persekolahan dibuka di sini mungkin kerana Kedah ialah salah sebuah negeri yang mempunyai kawasan sawah padi yang luas.
Sungguhpun Kedah menghasilkan padi sejak zaman Empayar Melaka lagi tetapi penumpuan kepada kerja-kerja bersawah dan menentukan padi menjadi hasil negeri yang utama ialah di dalam zaman Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin yang memilih bandar Alor Star menjadi ibu negeri dalam tahun 1736. Sejak itu, Alor Star muncul di tengah-tengah sawah yang jauh lebih luas dari zaman-zaman sebelumnya.
Pelajar-palajar yang menumpang di pondok-pondok mengelilingi pusat-pusat pengajian agama diberi peluang membantu petani-petani di sawah ketika tenaga mereka diperlukan sambil mengumpul pendapatan membantu persekolahan mereka di pondok-pondok mereka. Kebanyakan pondok-pondok mengambil cuti panjang di musim-musim menuai sebagai memberi peluang kepada pelajar-pelajar untuk bekerja di sawah-sawah. Selain dari menerima upah dan ganjaran, mereka pula diberikan zakat dan sedekah oleh tuan-tuan punya sawah.
Mukim Langgar dekat Alor Star yang menjadi pusat persawahan yang amat luas menjamin pertumbuhan sembilan buah persekolahan pondok di sekitarnya. Persekolahan Pondok yang paling awal di Mukim Langgar ialah Pondok Tasak di bawah Tuan Guru Haji Muhammad Noor bin Abu Bakar (Tuan Mad Nor Keramat), dan disambung pula oleh Tuan Guru Haji Shaari bin Haji Taha. Keduanya ialah Pondok Tuan Haji Ahmad Tua di Alor Setol dan disambung hayatnya oleh Tuan Guru Haji Nawawi bin Haji Saleh. Ketiganya ialah Pondok Tuan Guru Haji Abu di Alor Keladi.
Kemudian terdapat pula Pondok Tuan Haji Ahmad bin Haji Yassin (Tok Janggut) di Langgar Satu, Pondok Tuan Haji Husin bin Haji Saleh berhampirannya, Pondok Tuan Syeikh Abdullah Masri di Tanjung Inggeris dan Pondok Tuan Haji Abdullah bin Haji Yusof (Haji Abdullah Kechik) berhampirannya, kemudian terdapat pula Pondok Tuan Haji Dahlan di Jalan Makam dan Pondok Tuan Haji Muhammad Marzuki bin Muhammad Amin di persimpangan Jalan Makam itu. Seperti biasa, setengah dari pondok-pondok ini menjadi tempat perlindungan orang tua-tua yang belajar di pondok-pondok ini sehingga mereka meninggal dunia di situ

Keadaan yang sama seperti di Langgar berlaku juga di Mukim Pendang, dua puluh batu dari Alor Star. Di sana terdapat sekurang-kurangnya sembilan buah persekolahan pondok juga didirikan hampir bersebelah menyebelah. Pondok Tuan Haji Ismail bin Haji Mustaffa, Tok Ayah Cik Dol, didirikan di Kampung Gajah Mati, Pendang dikira paling awal yang kemudiannya diikuti pula oleh pondok-pondok lain dibukai oleh:
  1. Tuan Haji Munah di Padang Pusing, Pendang
  2. Tuan Haji Muhammad di Padang Pusing, Pendang
  3. Tuan Haji Ahmad Rabat, Kampung Chegar, Pendang
  4. Tuan Haji Ibrahim, Paya Sena
  5. Tuan Haji Muhammad Ariff bin Ishak, di Ayer Putih, Pendang
  6. Tuan Haji Wan Ibrahim (Pak Chu Hin), Chegar menantu Tok Ayah Che Dol
  7. Tuan Haji Husin, Seberang Pendang, Pendang
  8. Tuan Haji Abdul Aziz bin Haji Ibrahim, berhampiran Pekan Pendang.
Faktor ketiga yang menyebabkan banyaknya persekolahan pondok dibuka di Negeri Kedah ialah kerana peranan Sultan dan pembesar-pembesar memberi galakan dan perlindungan kepada perkembangan pendidikan agama di kalangan anak negeri. Hanya melalui pendidikan di pondok itulah sahaja anak-anak negeri berpeluang belajar menulis dan membaca. Sultan dan pembesar juga amat memerlukan bantuan alim ulama untuk mentadbirkan negeri dan menjalankan undang-undang syariah di dalam negeri.
Madrasah Al-Hamidiah yang ditubuhkan oleh Hj. Wan Sulaiman Wan Sidek.
Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Syah yang mewarisi singgahsana Kerajaan Negeri Kedah dari kekandanya Sultan Zainal Rashid Muazzam Syah pada 1882 merupakan peneroka Kedah moden. Baginda bukan sahaja memodenkan Kedah pada segi pembangunan materialnya seperti bangunan dan sistem pentadbiran tetapi juga pada segi rohaniahnya seperti membangunkan sekolah-sekolah dan meningkatkan ilmu pengetahuan rakyat keseluruhannya.
Dalam zaman Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Syah pondok-pondok tidak lagi menjadi pusat pengajian seratus peratusnya untuk mencernakan manusia bertamaddun sekolah-sekolah Melayu telah mengambil alih tugas itu. Pondok-pondok tidak lagi meyediakan tempat untuk pengajaran dan pembelajaran tulis menulis, baca membaca, kira mengira dan mengenali undang-undang negeri dan tatasusila berkehidupan di dalam kampung. Pelajaran membaca Quran dan ilmu tajwid pun sudah diajar di sekolah-sekolah. Quran tidak lagi disalin tangan. Masa ini sudah ada percetakan dan kitab-kitab boleh dibeli di kedai-kedai kitab.
Dalam zaman Sultan Abdul Hamid, pondok hanya menumpukan pengajaran ilmu agama kepada pelajar-pelajar dewasa lepasan sekolah-sekolah Melayu mendalami ilmu-ilmu seperti:
  • Tauhid, Fiqah, Tasawuf, Mantiq, Usuluddin
  • Pembacaan Quran dan tafsir
  • Hadith dan sirah nabi
  • Nahu dan saraf
  • Bahasa Arab dan Balaghah
  • Ceramah, Muzakarah
  • Soal jawab dan perbincangan
  • Penghafalan do'a dan wirid,
Bagaimanapun tidaklah dapat disangkal terdapat pondok-pondok yang mengajar kanak-kanak membaca dan menulis serta mengira kerana letaknya terpencil dan jauh dari sekolah Melayu. Setengah-setengah pondok masih mempunyai tuan-tuan guru yang tidak dapat memisahkan diri dari cara-cara menghayati pondok yang dipusakainya dari tuan-tuan guru yang lama sebelumnya.
Pelajar-pelajar di pondok diberi peluang memilih mana-mana mata pelajaran yang hendak dipelajari, kemudian memilih pula dengan sendiri mana-mana yang hendak didalami - bukanlah dipaksa mempelajari semua mata pelajaran tersenarai di atas.
Pondok-pondok paling banyak sekali didirikan ialah di zaman Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Syah. Di antara yang wujud antara 1900 hingga 1935 ialah:
  1. Tuan Husin Muhammad Nasir al-Mas'udi al-Banjari, 1900 di Bohor;(1863-1936)
  2. Tuan Haji Wan Sulaiman bin Wan Sidik, 1906 di Kanchut, Alor Star(1874-1935)
  3. Tuan Haji Idris bin Haji Wan Jamal,Tok Syeikh Jarum,1900 di Derga(1840-1911)
  4. Tuan Haji Muhammad Ariff bin Haji Ishak, Sungai Nonang, Yan, 1901
  5. Tuan Haji Husain bin Muhammad Hassan, Titi Besi,1900 (1852-1932)
  6. Tuan Haji Yaakub bin Haji Ahmad,Pedu; 1900 di Batu Menunggul Pendang
  7. Tuan Haji Muhammad Lin,Yan; (1913)
  8. Tuan Syeikh Abdul Kadir, Guar Kepayang
  9. Tuan Haji Abu Bakar bin Haji Abdullah, Penyarum, Tobiar (1879-1843)
  10. Tuan Haji Yunus Perlis, Bukit Besar
  11. Tuan Haji Abdul Hamid, Tobiar; meninggal 1940
  12. Tuan Haji Yaakub bin Haji Abdul Rahman, Sik
  13. Tuan Umar bin Muhammad Zain, Titi Gajah, Kota Star
  14. Tuan Haji Idris (Jawa), Ayer Hitam, Jitra
  15. Tuan Haji Ibrahim, Paya Sena, Pendang
  16. Tuan Haji Ismail, Teluk Ara, Jitra
  17. Tuan Haji Muhammad Salleh bin Idris, Lubuk Kawah 1920, Jitra
  18. Tuan Haji Muhammad Saman, Kubang Siam, Kota Star
  19. Tuan Haji Ahmad Robat, Cegar, Pendang
  20. Tuan Haji Ismail, Gunung Keriang, Kota Star
  21. Tuan Haji Saad, Kubang Bongor, Kota Star
  22. Tuan Haji Saleh Masri bin Haji Abdullah, Kuala Kedah
  23. Tuan Haji Ahmad Umar, Tanjung Musang, Langgar, Kedah
  24. Tuan Haji Abdullah Tanjung Musang, Langgar, Kedah
  25. Tuan Haji Yassin, Selarung Lalang, Alor Star
  26. Tuan Haji Yassin, Jabi, Kota Star
  27. Tuan Haji Yassin, Alor Ibus, Kota Star
  28. Tuan Haji Muhammad Saman Serban Hijau, Yan
  29. Tuan Haji Muhammad Arshad, Teluk Bagan, Alor Star
  30. Tuan Haji Muhammad Nur bin Haji Abdul Salam, Si Putih, Kubang Pasu
  31. Tuan Haji Abdul Rahman, Tualang
  32. Tuan Haji Ismail bin Che' Abu, Bujang, Merbuk, Kedah
  33. Tuan Haji Awang Hamzah, Kubang Siam, Kota Star
  34. Tuan Haji Harun bin Muhammad Zain, Alor Merah, Alor Star
  35. Tuan Haji Umar, Merbuk
  36. Tuan Haji Yahya bin Haji Taha, Kupang, Baling
  37. Tuan Haji Wan Sulung bin Wan Chik, Jeniang
  38. Tuan Haji Ahmad bin Haji Yassin Tok Janggut, Langgar
  39. Tuan Syaikh Abdullah Masri bin Ibrahim, Langgar
  40. Tuan Haji Abu, Alor Keladi, Langgar
  41. Tuan Haji Abdul Rahman, Kubang Rotan, Kota Star
  42. Tuan Haji Awang, Sungai Limau, Yan
  43. Tuan Haji Muhammad bin Haji Awang, Padang Pusing, Pendang
  44. Tuan Haji Abdul Latif, Pulau Kerengga, Kota Star
  45. Tuan Haji Harun, Bukit Tinggi, Naga, Sungai Baru, Bukit Pinang
  46. Tuan Haji Ahmad, Paya Nedam, Sik
  47. Tuan Haji Muhammad Zain, Kubang Siam, Kota Star
  48. Tuan Haji Endut, Titi Besi, Kubang Pasu
  49. Dato' Haji Abdul Rahman bin Abdullah, Merbuk
  50. Tuan Haji Abdul Ghani bin Haji Awang, Kadi, Kota Star
  51. Tuan Haji Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abdul Latif, Jitra, Kadi Besar
  52. Tuan Haji Ahmad, Kupang, Baling
  53. Tuan Haji Abdul Mutalib bin Abdul Rahman, Simpang Empat, Kota Star
  54. Tuan Haji Muhammad Nuh, Kulim
  55. Tuan Haji Hussain bin Haji Saleh, Langgar
  56. Tuan Haji Wan Abdul Samad bin Wan Nik, Pokok Sena, Kedah
  57. Tuan Haji Wan Ibrahim bin Wan Abdul Kadir, Pak Chu Him, Chegar, Pendang
  58. Tuan Haji Othman, Alor Gonchar,Gunung, Kota Star
  59. Tuan Haji Itam, Tanjung Bedil, Kota Star
  60. Tuan Haji Abdullah bin Haji Awang, Chegar, Anak Bukit Kota Star
  61. Tuan Haji Hassan al-Fatani, Bukit Besar, Yan
  62. Tuan Haji Abdul Majid, Guar Cempedak
  63. Tuan Haji Hussain bin Che' Dol, Guar Cempedak
  64. Tuan Haji Hamzah, Mergong, Alor Star
  65. Tuan Haji Ismail bin Sulaiman (Kelantan), Merbuk
  66. Tuan Haji Ahmad Kota bin Lebai Ibrahim, Kota Rentang, Bukit Pinang
  67. Tuan Haji Zawawi bin Abdul Rahman, Alor Ibus dan Yan (1898-1968)
  68. Tuan Haji Mahmud bin Abdullah, Bukit Besar, Yan
  69. Tuan Haji Kassim bin Haji Saleh, Pulau Pisang, Jitra
  70. Tuan Haji Othman Melaka, Sanglang, Kodiang, Kubang Pasu
  71. Tuan Haji Abdul Rahman, Sungai Baru Ilir, Kota Star
  72. Tuan Haji Ahmad 'Sekor', Junjung, Kulim
  73. Tuan Haji Idris bin Abdul Rahman, Alor Mengkudu, Alor Star
  74. Tuan Haji Abu Bakar Palestin, Ayer Hitam, Jitra
  75. Tuan Haji Hamzah, Seberang Chegar, Anak Bukit
  76. Tuan Haji Ahmad Lala bin Abbas, Jeneri, Sik
  77. Tuan Haji Dahlan, Langgar
  78. Tuan Haji Muhammad Marzuki bin Muhammad Amin, Langgar
  79. Tuan Haji Ismail bin Ibrahim, Seberang Nyonya, Kuala Kedah
  80. Tuan Haji bin Haji Saleh, Kubang Lembu, Jitra
  81. Tuan Haji Umar bin Haji Saleh, Kubang Lembu Jitra
  82. Tuan Haji Rashidi, Kampung Gelugur, Baling
  83. Tuan Haji Wan Sulung bin Wan Dali, Pokok Asam, Pendang
  84. Tuan Haji Saleh (Wara), Sik
  85. Tuan Haji Abdul Aziz bin Haji Ibrahim, Pendang
  86. Tuan Haji Hussein, Pendang
  87. Tuan Haji Muhammad Saad bin Awang, Merogoi, Bukit Payung, Pendang
  88. Tuan Haji Husin bin Haji Abdul Rahman, Telok Kechai, Kota Star
  89. Tuan Haji Zakaria Bin Abdul Rahman, Kubang Rotan, Kota Star
  90. Tuan Haji Zakaria bin Haji Ismail, Pondok Ampang, Kampung Parit, Sik
  91. Tuan Haji Salleh (Muda), Pekan, Sik
  92. Tuan Haji Ismail bin Musa (Kelantan), Selengkoh, Kota Sarang Semut, Yan
  93. Tuan Haji Abdul Rahman bin Haji Kechik, Kubang Siam, Kota Star
Pondok Darul-sa'adah Titi Besi, Kepala Batas, Jitra.
Seseorang tuan guru mungkin membuka lebih dari sebuah pusat pengajian pondok kerana terpaksa berpindah-randah mencari tapak yang lebih strategik. Bagaimanapun jumlah pondok-pondok atau pusat-pusat pengajian ini adalah jauh lebih kecil dari jumlah tuan guru atau jumlah alim ulama yang wujud di dalam negeri.
Di antara Tuan-tuan Guru yang berpindah-randah tempat membuka lebih dari satu pusat pengajian pondok seperti :-
  1. Tuan Husin (Tuan Haji Husin bin Muhammad Nasir bin Haji Muhammad Taib al-Mas'udi al-Banjari) membuka sebanyak lapan buah pondok iaitu di Alor Ganu, Kota Star (1887-1890), di Bohor Karang, Kota Star, (1890-1912), di Bagan Ulu (Pantai Merdeka, Kuala Muda, (1912-1920), di Selengkoh, Daerah Yan, (1920-1924), di Padang lumat, Batu 16, Yan (1924-1929) dan berpindah keluar dari Kedah ke Pokok Sena di Pulau Pinang pada 1929 hingga meninggal pada 1935.
  2. Tuan Haji Muhammad Ariff bin Ishak (Tuan Mat Arif) membuka pondoknya di Sungai Nonang, Yan, (1901), kemudian di Ayer Putih Pendang, (1915), di Titi Serong, Yan (1930) dan akhirnya di Pekan Atap, Gurun (1934-1941).
  3. Tuan Guru Haji Salleh Masri bin Haji Abdullah membuka pondoknya di Teluk Kechai Kota Star, pada 1923 dan membuka pula di Padang Lumat Yan dari 1932 hingga 1936. Kemudian membuka pula pondoknya di Kuala Kedah pada 1940.
  4. Tuan Haji Yaakub bin Haji Ahmad (Tuan Haji Yaakub Putih) membuka pondoknya di Batu Menunggol, di Pendang, di Kampung Bendang, Kuala Nerang (1940-1942), dan di Kampung Bukit Gedung, Padang Terap (1942-1943).
  5. Tuan Guru Haji Talib bin Abdul Rahman membuka pondok di Asun, Kubang Pasu dan di Kampung Kunluang, Kubang Pasu sebelum membuka pondoknya di Simpang Empat Kota Star.
  6. Tuan Haji Harun membuka pondoknya di Bukit Tinggi, Kubang Pasu, di Naga, Kubang Pasu, di Sungai Baru, Kota Star dan di Bukit Pinang, Kota Star.
Jumlah orang alim atau ulama adalah jauh lebih ramai dari jumlah pondok dalam negeri kerana ramai pula ulama yang terdiri daripada para pengajar yang berkhidmat di pondok-pondok. Demikian juga masih ramai para ulama dari kalangan kadi, guru dan ustaz, serta khalifah-khalifah tariqat dan imam-iman tinggal di seluruh negeri.
Antara ulama-ulama yang terkenal di zaman Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Syah ialah seperti :-
  1. Tuan Haji Wan Ismail bin Wan Mohd Taib, Kadi Besar, 1900
  2. Syeikh Ahmad Dahlan, Syeikh-ul Islam
  3. Syeikh Abdullah Muhammad Khayat, Syaik-ul Islam 1909-1918
  4. Tuan Haji Muhammad Said, Kerian, Kadi dan Pentafsir al-Quran
  5. Tuan Haji Syafie bin Muhammad Saleh, Telok Bagan, Guru di Masjidil Haram, meninggal 1953
  6. Syeikh Ismail bin Haji Muhammad Saleh, Syeikh-ul-Islam, 1935-1945
  7. Tuan Haji Muhammad Nuh, Kadi
  8. Syeikh Mahmud bin Haji Muhammad Nuh, Kadi Besar (Bekas guru di Masjidil Haram)
  9. Syeikh Muhammad Amin bin Haji Saleh al-Azhari, Kadi
  10. Tuan Haji Zainal bin Haji Muhammad Amin, Telok Bagan, guru di Masjidil Haram
  11. Tuan Haji Zulqarnain bin Haji Muhammad Saleh, Padang Pueliang, Pendang
  12. Tuan Haji Muhammad bin Muhammad Saleh, Seberang Perak
  13. Tuan Haji Ahmad Bahar bin Sulaiman, Alor Merah
  14. Tuan Haji Muhammad Noor bin Muhammad Yaqin, Naga, Kubang Pasu
  15. Tuan Haji Din bin Ibrahim, Haji Kudung, Kota Kuala Muda
  16. Tuan Haji Muhammad Taib bin Haji Idris, Jitra
  17. Tuan Haji Mahmud bin Shafie, Sanglang
  18. Tuan Haji Abu Yazid, Yan.
Apabila Syeikh-ul Islam Kedah Tuan Haji Wan Sulaiman bin Wan Sidik mendirikan sebuah sekolah agama moden di Limbung Kapal, Alor Star, dalam tahun 1920 dinamakan madrasah itu 'Madrasatul Hamidiyyah' mengambil sempena nama Almarhum Yamtuan Sultan Abdul Hamid Halim Syah (1882-1943) yang amat gemar kepada kerja-kerja penyibaran dan pemantapan ajaran-ajaran Islam. Maka guru-guru di sekolah tersebut semuanya dianggap ulama yang radikal dan bertanggungjawab membawa perubahan besar kepada masyarakat Islam di Kedah. Diantara mereka ialah:-
  1. Tuan Haji Yassin bin Muhammad Tahir, Guru Besar, Pertama
  2. Syeikh Abdullah bin Ibrahim (Syeikh Abdullah Pak Him)
  3. Syeikh Muhammad Saleh syamsuddin
  4. Tuan Syed Muhammad bin Yahaya
  5. Ustaz Husin
  6. Syeikh Ibrahim Yusuf al-Ibyari (Guru Pelendit Pembacaan Al-Quran)
  7. Tuan Haji Ku Ariffin bin Ku……….
Kemudian apabila Madrasatul-Hamidiyyah dipindahkan ke tapak baru dengan premis yang lebih moden di Simpang Kuala pada 1936 dan mengambil sempena nama Pemangku Sultan ketika itu, Duli YTM Tunku Mahmud, maka "Al-Ma'ahad al-Mahmud" mempunyai guru-guru yang lebih progresif menaburkan jasa besar kepada negeri ini. Diantara mereka ialah :-
  1. Dato' Syeikh Abdul Halim bin Othman
  2. Dato' Syeikh Abdul Majid bin Muhammad Noor
  3. Syeikh Abu Bakar Kassim
  4. Syeikh Adnan Muhammad Hashim
  5. Syeikh Othman Yusof
  6. Syeikh Saad bin Said, Guru dan Kadi
  7. Tuan Haji Muhammad Darus bin Endut, Guru dan Kadi
  8. Shaikh Ismail bin Haji Said
  9. Syeikh Abdul Aziz Awang Besar
  10. Syeikh Ghazalli Abdul Rahman
  11. Syeikh Ismail bin Mahmud
  12. Syeikh Muhammad Nur bin Yunus
  13. Syeikh Abu Bakar Awang al-Baghdadi
  14. Syeikh Ibrahim Said
  15. Syeikh Zainal bin Embon
  16. Syeikh Ali bin Haji Ahmad
  17. Syeikh Niamat bin Yusoff
  18. Tuan Azizan bin Aroff dan lain-lain.
Terdapat juga ulama yang membuka pondok dan menjadi Tuan Guru yang popular dengan taital "lebai" sahaja. Ulama-ulama ini mengumpul ilmu agama di tanah air sahaja dan tidak pernah ke Makkah walaupun untuk menunaikan fardu haji di antara ulama-ulama begitu ialah:-
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1. SERANGAN bersenjata Parti Komunis Malaya (PKM) ke atas Balai Polis Bukit Kepong, 35 kilometer dari Muar, jam 4.30 pagi pada 25 Februari 1950, adalah sangat berkesan dalam sejarah negara.

2. Serangan itu memperlihatkan kegigihan dan kecekalan anggota polis yang begitu kecil jumlahnya iaitu 20 orang bersama enam Pengawal Kampung (Home Guards) mempertahankan maruah sebuah institusi yang melambangkan keselamatan dan kedaulatan negara dan masyarakat. Mereka memang menjadi sasaran Parti Komunis Malaya yang meletakkan Rejimen 3 dan 4 untuk bergerak dan menguasai Johor. Serangan yang melibatkan 180-200 orang anggota Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA), PKM itu telah diketuai oleh Mat Indera. Dalam serangan itu Sarjan Jamil Mohd Noh, Ketua Balai telah mengetuai anak buahnya untuk mempertahankan Balai Polis Bukit Kepong, Balai Penghulu dan Berek Kelamin Polis daripada ditawan oleh komunis. Mereka tidak mahu menyerah kalah walaupun dipujuk oleh Mat Indera melalui isteri seorang anggota polis yang dapat ditangkapnya di berek kelamin.

3. Mereka tidak berganjak daripada lubang-lubang kubu pertahanan mereka walaupun seorang demi seorang anggota polis itu tercedera dan tertewas oleh peluru komunis yang datang seperti hujan menimpa bumi. Mereka berjuang selama enam jam tanpa mengira keselamatan nyawa mereka. Ada juga isteri-isteri polis yang cuba melawan membela kematian suami mereka. Namun, kudrat mereka tidak seberapa. Kekejaman komunis mengatasi segala-galanya. Mereka bukan sahaja membakar kompleks balai polis itu menjadi debu, tetapi sanggup membaling seorang anggota polis yang cedera ke dalam api yang sedang membara. Tiga orang isteri polis juga dihumban ke dalam api tanpa belas kasihan. Ada yang terpaksa berpelukan ketakutan menunggu kematian yang menyeksakan itu. Seorang kanak-kanak juga menjadi mangsa kekejaman komunis. Mereka rentong seperti arang. Hanya Yusof Rono, seorang anggota polis yang cedera parah dapat melepaskan diri untuk meminta bantuan. Dato’ Onn Ja’afar, Menteri Besar Johor dan Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Keselamatan Negeri, yang telah melawat kawasan itu menyifatkan pertahanan anggota-anggota Balai Polis itu adalah sebagai sesuatu tindakan yang sangat `determined and heroic’. Seramai 25 orang yang terkorban mempertahankan Balai Polis itu; 19 orang anggota polis dan 6 orang pengawal kampuong. Bagi Mat Indera dan PKM, ini adalah satu kejayaan besar. Mat Indera tidak rasa bersalah walaupun mereka yang dibunuh dan dibakar hidup-hidup adalah sebangsa dan seagama dengannya.

4. Mengapa Mat Indera berada dalam PKM dan terlibat dalam Peristiwa Bukit Kepong? Jika disusuri sejarah politik negara, PKM telah menjalankan satu dasar Malayan United Front iaitu satu dasar yang telah diputuskan sebelum 1948 lagi. Dalam dasar ini, PKM akan cuba menyebarkan pengaruh dan ideologi komunis kepada semua bangsa di Tanah Melayu. PKM yang ditubuhkan pada 1927/1930, selama ini hanya mendapat sokongan daripada satu bangsa sahaja sedangkan orang India dan Melayu terutamanya tidak ramai menjadi anggotanya.

5. Untuk mencapai tujuan ini, anggota PKM telah meresap masuk dan menubuhkan kesatuan sekerja, parti-parti politik serta badan-badan masyarakat yang lain. Malah mereka juga menyamar dengan nama orang Melayu dan menggelarkan dirinya sebagai Haji seperti Cheng Nan yang menyamar sebagai Haji Hashim dan bergaul dengan masyarakat Melayu di Pahang. Malah untuk menunjukkan imej kerjasama bangsa itu, Musa Ahmad, seorang kelulusan sekolah agama rakyat telah dilantik sebagai Pengerusi PKM. Beliau kemudian digantikan oleh Abdullah C.D. apabila Musa bermastautin di China. Namun, mereka adalah boneka kerana Chin Peng adalah pemegang dasar PKM.

6. Mat Indera dan ramai orang Melayu pada masa itu terpengaruh dengan dasar ini. PKM telah membakar semangat mereka dengan perasaan anti–kolonial dan anti-kuasa Barat. British yang menguasai Persekutuan Tanah Melayu dilihat sebagai penjajah yang mengeksploitasi ekonomi negara. Manakala Raja-Raja Melayu dan pembesar Melayu yang memimpin UMNO dilihat sebagai penyokong British. Ini kerana PKM telah gagal untuk mendapat perhatian British selepas Persekutuan Tanah Melayu ditubuhkan pada 1948. Sebelum itu PKM telah bekerjasama dengan British untuk menentang pihak Jepun di antara tahun 1942-1945. Ramai anggota Komunis telah diberi penghargaan oleh British. Chin Peng diberi gelaran Sir oleh British. PKM juga menyokong rancangan Malayan Union yang diperkenalkan oleh British pada April 1946. Ini kerana Malayan Union bersifat kesatuan dan republik serta menjadi tanah jajahan takluk British. Kerakyatan juga terbuka kepada sesiapa sahaja yang lahir di tanah jajahan takluk British. Rancangan Malayan Union ini dianggap progresif kerana tamadun Melayu yang terbina sejak 1273 atau 1400 dengan Kesultanan Melaka dan kerajaan-kerajaan Melayu yang lain akan terhapus. Seluruh Tanah Melayu akan dikenal sebagai Malayan Union dan diperintah oleh Gabenor yang dilantik oleh Raja England dan Wales. Ketuanan Melayu yang berpaksikan Raja Melayu akan termusnah sama sekali.

7. Ini dibantah oleh Raja-Raja Melayu dan orang Melayu yang menyatukan diri mereka dalam kongres Melayu 1946 yang menubuhkan United Malays National Organization (UMNO) atau Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (PEKEMBAR). Raja-Raja Melayu dan UMNO berunding selama dua tahun sebelum British bersetuju menarik Malayan Union dan menggantikannya dengan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu pada 1 Februari 1948. British menolak Perlembagaan Rakyat cadangan PKM dan sekutunya. Inilah puncanya PKM berdendam dengan British dan memeranginya pada 1948. Orang Melayu iaitu Raja-Raja Melayu dan UMNO menjadi musuhnya. Mereka dilihat sebagai penyokong British yang melangsungkan penjajahan dan tidak memberi kemerdekaan. Walaupun pada masa itu British telah mula memberi semula kuasa pentadbiran negeri kepada Menteri Besar dan ketua-ketua jabatan kerajaan yang dilantik oleh Sultan negeri masing-masing. British hanya berjawatan sebagai Penasihat British sahaja.

8. Orang Melayu memang menolak PKM kerana serik dengan kekejaman yang dilakukannya selama 13 hari semasa mengisi kekosongan pemerintahan Tanah Melayu selepas Jepun menyerah kalah. Kekosongan itu telah membolehkan PKM keluar daripada hutan dan menguasai balai polis dan bandar-bandar serta menunjukkan kekuasaannya. Dengan senjata yang canggih, Bintang Tiga PKM menghukum penduduk kampung yang dikatakan bersubahat dengan Jepun atau melakukan kesalahan kepada mereka. Ramai Tok Guru, imam, bekas-bekas pekerja pejabat Jepun dan orang biasa yang telah ditangkap dan dibunuh. Banyak rumah yang dibakar diwaktu malam ketika penghuninya tidur nyenyak di dalamnya. Masjid-masjid juga dicemari dan al-Quran dijadikan pengesat najisnya. Ada orang Melayu yang dikurung dalam bakul keranjang mengangkat babi. Mereka di seksa, ditikam dan dikelar serta disepak seperti bola. Ada yang ditanam hidup-hidup dengan kepalanya di atas tanah untuk disepak seperti bola. Ada yang dibawa masuk ke hutan tanpa berita sehingga kini. Kekejaman komunis itu memang tidak terperikan. Ini menyebabkan kebangkitan beberapa pemimpin Melayu yang membalasnya seperti Kiai Salleh di Batu Pahat dan Cikgu Latif di Negeri Sembilan. Pergaduhan orang Melayu dengan PKM juga berlaku di Perak dan Pahang.

9. Namun, bukan semua orang Melayu melihat kekejaman KOmunis. Mereka yang inginkan kuasa politik tetap bersekongkol dengan PKM. Golongan ini menolak Fiudalisme dan mahukan kemerdekaan seperti kebanyakan negara-negara Asia Tenggara, terutamanya Indonesia yang telah mendapat kemerdekaan dengan menentang Belanda pada 1945. Pengaruh Indonesia ke atas orang Melayu di dalam bidang persuratan dan politik memang tidak dapat dinafikan. Malah ada yang telah menubuhkan cawangan parti politik Indonesia di Tanah Melayu seperti Ibrahim Haji Yaakob, yang mendakwa telah menubuhkan cawangan Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI) di Maktab Perguruan Sultan Idris (MPSI), semasa beliau belajar di sana. Malah beliau telah bekerjasama dengan Presiden Sukarno untuk merdeka bersama Indonesia pada 15 Ogos 1945 di bawah tajaan politik berkuasa tentera Jepun. Beliau telah menubuhkan Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM) dan kemudiannya Kesatuan Rakyat Istimewa Semenanjung (KRIS) untuk menunjukkan minatnya untuk merdeka dalam Indonesia Raya atau dipanggilnya Melayu Raya. Beliau kemudian mendapat perlindungan politik dan menjadi orang penting di Indonesia di bawah pemerintahan Presiden Sukarno. Beliau kemudian bersama-sama terlibat untuk mengganyang Malaysia di bawah pemerintahan Presiden itu pada tahun 1963.

10. PKM melihat ada ruang untuk membawa orang Melayu bersamanya menentang British. Mengikut Ahmad Boestamam sendiri dalam bukunya, bahawa PKM telah datang berjumpa dengannya untuk memberi bantuan modal bagi menjadikan akhbar Suara Rakyat itu sebagai bahan propaganda menentang British. Beberapa ketika kemudian PKM telah meminta Ahmad Boestamam menubuhkan sebuah parti sosialis khas untuk orang Melayu; namun Ahmad Boestamam mencadangkan parti tu dinamakan Partai Kebangsaan Melayu Malaya (PKMM) supaya ia mudah diterima oleh orang Melayu. Parti itu ditubuhkan sempena sambutan genap setahun kemerdekaan Indonesia dicapai. Bendera Indonesia 'Sang Saka Merah Putih' dan lagu Indonesia Raya menjadi jata rasminya. Parti itu dipimpin oleh Mokhtaruddin Lasso, seorang anggota Parti KOmunis Indomesia (PKI).

11. Ahmad Boestamam kemudian menubuhkan Angkatan Pemuda Insaf (API) yang menggunakan slogan "Merdeka Dengan Darah". SEbuah bahagian wanita ditubuhkan dengan nama Angkatan Wanita Sedar (AWAS) yang dipimpin oleh Shamsiah Fakeh, isteri Ahmad Boestamam. Barisan Tani Malaya (BATAS) dan Barisan Buruh Malaya juga ditubuhkan. Ke semua ini kemudian bergabung dalam Pusat Tenaga Rakyat (PUTERA). Mereka bekerjasama rapat dengan PKM (1946-1948) untuk menentang British dan UMNO yang sedang berunding untuk menubuhkan sebuah Persekutuan Tanah Melayu bagi mendapatkan semula negeri dan kedudukan politik seperti sebelum 1941. Kalau dahulu Ibrahim Yaakob bekerjasama dengan Jepun untuk merdeka bersama Indonesia, tetapi kini sebilangan kecil orang Melayu yang masih memperjuangkan Melayu Raya/ Indonesia Raya, bekerjasama dengan Parti Komunis Malaya untuk mendapat kedudukan dan kuasa politik.

12. Mat Indera termasuk dalam kumpulan ini. Beliau percaya bahawa British itu penjajah. Beliau dengan itu menjadi anggota API dan sama-sama bergerak di bawah payung PUTERA dan PKM. Apabila British mengisytiharkan Darurat pada JUn 1948, semua parti itu terharam. Anggota PKMM, API, AWAS, BATAS dan Barisan Buruh Malaya yang menjadi anggota PUTERA, dengan itu memilih untuk ikut sama berjuang dengan PKM secara gerila di dalam hutan. PKM menubuhkan Rejimen 10 Khas untuk orang Melayu yang bergerak bersamanya. Abdullah C.D. menjadi ketuanya dan pusat gerakannya di Temerloh, Pahang. Di anggarkan seramai 300 orang termasuk wanita menjadi anggotanya. Ini termasuklah Manap Jepun, Wan Ali, Wahi Annuar, Shamsiah Fakeh, Ibrahim Chik dan ramai lagi. Ahmad Boestamam telah ditahan lebih awal manakala DR. Burhanuddin bergerak di Singapura. Pada bulan Disember 1950, Dr. Burhanuddin terlibat dalam kes Natrah dan dipenjarakan selama beberapa tahun di Singapura oleh British. Ternyata Mat Indera dan kumpulannya telah menjadi anggota dan penyokong PKM yang mengangkat senjata untuk menegakkan ideologi komunisme. Mereka menjadi kuda tunggangan KOmunis.

13. Kebangkitan sejata PKM itu telah ditentang oleh tenaga-tenaga muda anak-anak kampung yang bekerja sebagai POlis, Polis Khas (Special Constable) dan Polis Simpanan. Mereka menyahut seruan untuk menjaga keselamatan dan keamanan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu. Mereka sanggup menggadai nyawa untuk memburu pengganas komunis di hutan belantara walaupun gaji yang diterima sangat kecil. Seramai 161, 281 orang anggota Polis yang terlibat dalam penentangan terhadap pengganas komunis itu. Asakar Melayu juga memainkan peranan yang penting dalam usaha mengatasi ancaman komunis itu. Tiga Batalion telah ditubuhkan untuk menentang komunis dalam Darurat 1948-1960. Bersama-sama dengan pasukan anggota KOmanwel yang lain (British, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Gurkha dan Afrika), Askar Melayu dan pasukan Polis tempatan telah menentang sejumlah 12,500 pengganas komunis yang mengangkat senjata itu. Operasi ketenteraan British dan orang tempatan itu di samping tindakan-tindakan lain, telah berjaya memburu komunis sehingga akhirnya mereka terpaksa beroperasi kebanyakannya di sempadan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu dan Thailand pada 1953, menandakan kekuatan PKM dan penyokong-penyokongnya (Rejimen 10) telah dapat di atasi. Mat Indera kemudian dapat ditumpaskan oleh Askar Gurkha.

14. Pada tahun 1963/1967, PKM bangkit bagi kali kedua. Parti itu bekerjasama dengan PKI untuk mengganyang Malaysia. Di dalam negara pula, PAS pimpinan DR. Burhanuddin dan Parti Rakyat Malaya pimpinan Ahmad Boestamam sama-sama menentang penubuhan Malaysia di atas dasar Malaysia adalah neo-kolonialisme dan agenda blok Barat. Revolusi Brunei di bawah A.M. Azahari telah diadakan bagi menentang penubuhan Malaysia. Bagaimanapun, Malaysia terus dibina dan PKM dan PKI gagal untuk mendapat kuasa politik. Dalam Peristiwa 13 Mei 1969 sekali lagi menunjukkan campurtangan PKM melalui kerjasamanya dalam parti-parti politk ekstrim yang membangkitkan isu-isu perkauman dan sensitif. Ia mengambil peluang untuk mendapatkan kuasa politik secara kekerasan. Persitiwa 13 Mei telah menyaksikan pertumpahan darah antara kaum di Kuala Lumpur; beratus-ratus orang awam terkorban akibat rasa marah yang tidak terkawal. Pihak tentera dan polis serta komando sekali lagi bertugas menjaga keamanan negara.

15. INi bermakna PKM dan para penyokongnya termasuk Mat Indera tidak berhenti-henti cuba menegakkan ideologinya, dengan menggunakan kekerasan senjata untuk mendapat kuasa politik. Mereka yang mempertahankan keamanan itu adalah anggota polis dan tentera yang bekerja keras bergadai nyawa untuk kesejahteraan masyarakat terbanyak. Dengan kegigihan mereka memburu komunis di hutan belantara, maka ancaman pengganas komunis itu dapat diatasi. Kedaulatan dan kemerdekaan negara dapat dipertahankan. Apakah mereka pembelot bangsa.? Adakah patut Mat Indera dianggap pejuang apabila dia sanggup bersekongkol dengan komunis dan membiarkan bangsanya dan agamanya dimusnahkan? Mengapa pula orang seperti Mat Sabu sanggup mengagungkan penjenayah dan tidak berterima kasih kepada mereka yang telah berjuang menegakkan keamanan sehingga beliau mampu untuk menjadi wakil rakyat pada hari ini? Janganlah memesongkan sejarah dan menghina bangsa demi kepentingan politik peribadi..


Oleh,

Prof Datuk DR. Ramlah Adam

Dekan Fakulti Sains Pentadbiran dan Pengajian Polisi

Universiti Teknologi MARA


          Velozity Journey 2017 siap menuju Sarawak Malaysia – Brunei        
Melanjutkan seri-seri Velozity Journey yang di mulai sejak tahun 2014 , Velozity telah mempersiapkan Journey yang lebih menantang pada tahun 2017 sekaligus memperingati hari kemerdekaan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia pada bulan Agustus nanti.  kali ini terdiri dari 12 Peserta dan menggunakan 4 unit kendaraan Toyota Avanza Veloz akan menempuh perjalanan hingga 3.000 kilometer dari Pontianak […]
          TYCI Helat Touring “Jelajah Negeri 3 Serumpun”        
Pecinta Toyota Yaris yang tergabung dalam Toyota Yaris Club Indonesia (TYCI) untuk pertama kalinya akan menggelar touring antar bangsa bertajuk “Jelajah 3 Negeri Serumpun”. Touring melintasi 3 negara yakni Indonesia, Malaysia, dan Brunei Darussalam ini akan dimulai dari Kota Pontianak – Sibu Malaysia – Brunei Darussalam pada tanggal 12 – 20 Agustus 2017 mendatang. Touring […]
          1928 Judul Skripsi/Tugas Akhir        
Teknik Informatika, Manajemen Informatika, Sistem Informasi, Teknik Komputer, Teknik Elektro

Bagi kawan-kawan sesama mahasiswa terutama jurusan Teknik Informatika, Manajemen Informatika, Sistem Informasi, Teknik Komputer, Teknik Elektro maupun jurusan-jurusan lain yang pendalaman minatnya mengarah ke dunia teknologi informasi / IT kadang untuk mendapatkan ide judul skripsi yang relevan dengan jurusan minatnya tersebut mungkin mengalami kesulitan. Apalagi bagi kawan-kawan mahasiswa yang masih blank belum kepikiran untuk mengambil skripsi wkwkwkwk… Bagi yang sering mondar-mandir ke perpustakaan kampus sih kadang agak terbuka wawasannya dengan melihat-lihat judul skripsi para kakak kelas. Paling tidak jika bagi mahasiswa yang belum waktunya untuk mengambil skripsi maka sebaiknya sudah punya ancang-ancang judul skripsi apakah yang akan digunakan nanti. Berikut ini ada beberapa judul-judul skripsi jurusan Teknik Informatika, Manajemen Informatika, Sistem Informasi dll yang bisa kawan-kawan jadikan sebagai acuan untuk menentukan judul skripsi/tugas akhir nanti. Hehehehe… siapa tau dari sekian banyak judul skripsi ini ada yang bisa dijadikan inspirasi untuk judul skripsi kalian.
1. Aplikasi Pemesanan Rental Mobil Hafa Yogyakarta Dengan Layanan Web dan WAP
2. Analisis dan Perancangan Sistem Informasi Pemasaran dan Persediaan Barang PT. Nycomed Amersham
3. Perancangan Perangkat Lunak Tender untuk Jasa Konsultan
4. SET Analisa dan Perancangan Sistem Informasi Sumber Daya Manusia (SDM) PT. LEN
5. Deteksi Muka Depan Manusia dari Sebuah Citra Berwarna dengan Template Matching
6. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Pegawai PT. Stannia Bineka Jasa
7. Perangkat Lunak Pemenuhan Kebutuhan Gizi pada Orang Sakit
8. Analisa & Perancangan Sistem Monitoring Inventaris Barang PT. LEN
9. Implementasi SMS gateway dengan menggunakan bahasa alami dalam sistem informasi perdagangan (Studi Kasus Toko Amanna)
10. Studi dan Implementasi Konsep Business to Costumer dengan Teknologi M-Commerce berbasis WAP
11. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Berbasis Web pada Perpustakaan Umum Daerah di Singaraja
12. Sistem Aplikasi Try Out SPMB dan EBTANAS Berbasis Web Menggunakan PHP MySQL
13. Aplikasi Logika Fuzzy untuk Prediksi Penyakit dengan Metode Criteria Decision Making
14. Sistem Informasi Eksekutif untuk Perencanaan Tata Letak Anak Cabang Perusahaan (Studi Kasus Bank PD. BPR Bapas 69 Magelang)
15. Membangun Aplikasi Pustaka (Pusat Data Informatika) Berbasis Web
16. Aplikasi Algoritma Minimax pada Permainan Checkers
17. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Penentuan Porsi Dana Investasi Portofolio dengan Model Indeks Tunggal
18. Rancang Bangun Multiplayer Game Real Time Strategy Berbasis Macromedia Flash MX
19. Menentukan Volume Produksi dengan Menggunakan Metode Sugeno
20. Sistem Informasi dan Analisa Akuntansi di PT. Prima Cipta Informatika Yogyakarta
21. Penentuan Lokasi Optimal untuk Distribusi Unit Pelayanan Kesehatan (Puskesmas) dengan Sistem Informasi Geografis di Kabupaten Sleman, DIY
22. Rancang Bangun Sistem Informasi Geografis Daerah Pariwisata Propinsi Bali Berbasis Web
23. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi SMS Alert untuk Job Seeker (Studi Kasus di Alumni Career Center UII)
24. Membangun Sistem Perangkat Lunak untuk Efisiensi Biaya Proyek Pembangunan dengan Memanfaatkan FLOAT pada Metode Analisis Jaringan Kerja
25. Pemanfaatan Fuzzy Linguistic Hedge sebagai Pengecek Tata Bahasa (Grammar) pada Kalimat yang Berbahasa Inggris
26. Permainan Minesweeper dengan Komputer sebagai Pemainnya Menggunakan Metode Heuristik
27. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Mobile untuk Pembayaran Listrik, Air, dan Telepon dengan Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME)
28. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Game Perang Pesawat dengan Menggunakan Macromedia Flash MX
29. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Game Merapikan Kamar Menggunakan Bahasa Action Script pada Macromedia Flash MX
30. Pengkelasan Bentuk Kromosom dengan Menggunakan Metode Fuzzy Membership-Roster
31. Aplikasi untuk Knowledge Management pada Perusahaan Pelayanan Kesehatan Berbasis Web menggunakan PHP
32. Sistem Informasi Perusahaan Terpadu Berbasis Web
33. Rancang Bangun Sistem Informasi Eksekutif (SIE) Studi Kasus pada Koperasi Unit Desa (KUD) Sri Makmur, Desa Keras Wetan, Kec. Geneng, Kab. Ngawi, Jawa Timur
34. Aplikasi Sistem Pakar untuk Diagnosa Penyakit Kulit dan Pengobatannya dengan Basis Pengetahuan yang Dinamis
35. Pengembangan e-Catalogue dengan Metode Pengembangan Berorientasi Objek
36. Membangun Aplikasi Multimedia Edukatif-Games sebagai Alat Bantu Belajar
37. Rancang Bangun Alat Bantu Ajar Matematika untuk Anak-Anak dengan Macromedia Flash MX
38. Rancang Bangun Aplikasi Action and Strategy Games Pasukan Anti Teroris Menggunakan Teknologi J2ME
39. Aplikasi Data Mining dengan Menggunakan Metode Decision Tree untuk Prediksi Penentuan Resiko Kredit
40. Simulasi dan Visualisasi Penyelesaian Job-Shop Model dengan Menggunakan Borland Delphi
41. Estimasi Biaya Empiris Menggunakan Constructive Cost Model
42. Analisis dan Perancangan Sistem Informasi Material Requirement Planning di PT. Dehatex
43. Perancangan Perangkat Lunak Perkuliahan PDP STT Telkom Bandung
44. Perancangan Database Equipment Stock Total Indonesia Balikpapan Berbasis Web
45. Implementasi Sistem Kompetensi Karyawan Berbasis Web di Lingkungan Divre III PT. Telkom
46. Perancangan Perangkat Lunak Perencanaan Anggaran Pengajaran di PDP STT Telkom
47. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Pelaksanaan Praktikum Jurusan Teknik Elektro
48. Aplikasi Pemesanan Tiket Biro Perjalanan Marala Tour Berbasis Web
49. Perancangan dan Implementasi Jaringan Komputer Sistem Diskless-Terminal
50. Pembuatan Aplikasi Validasi Sebagai Pendukung Integritas Data Warehouse
51. Sistem Informasi Parkir King’s Shopping Centre
52. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Pelayanan Perijinan Departemen Perindrustrian dan Perdagangan Republik Indonesia
53. Pusat Informasi Narkotik dan Obat-Obatan (Narkoba) Berbasis Web
54. Perangkat Lunak Pemenuhan Gizi Bagi Ibu Hamil
55. Pembuatan Aplikasi Manajemen Pelaporan Error dalam Pembangunan Corporate Portal Software di PT. Ebdesk Indonesia
56. Pembuatan Aplikasi Distance Learning Mengenai Activity Based Costing Basic
57. Implementasi Sistem Edutainment Berbasis Web
58. Eka Purwanti 613970025 Implementasi Sistem Edutainment Berbasis Web
59. Pemetaan Hierarki Pemanggilan Operasi Source Code Kernel Linux
60. Perancangan Sistem Pelatihan Pengoperasian Video Conference Berbasis Web
61. Perancangan Software Frontdesk Server Assistant (Fosa)
62. Perangkat Lunak Pendukung Peningkatan Audit Mutu Internal SMM ISO 9000 di PT. Forest Citra Sejahtera
63. Perangkat Lunak Tes Akademik On Line Berbasis Web
64. Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Administrasi Jurusan Teknik Imformatika Berbasis Web
65. Aplikasi Sistem Kepegawaian Rumah Sakit dr Slamet
66. Analisa & Perancangan Sistem Informasi Perpustakaan PT. Omedata Electronics Bandung
67. Analisis Dan Perancangan Sistem Informasi Perpustakaan STT Telkom Berbasis Web
68. Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Penjualan Properti Berbasis Web
69. Visualisasi Perencanaan Sel pada Sistem Komunikasi Bergerak Seluler Digital GSM Berbasis Web
70. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Lowongan Kerja Berbasis Web
71. Perangkat Lunak Berbasis Web Registrasi Gladi
72. Sistem Simulasi Perdagangan Berjangka Berbasis Online
73. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Perdagangan Komoditi Berjangka di PT. Nusatrade Media Graha
74. Infrakstruktur Kompilasi dalam Lingkungan Linux
75. Pembangunan Prospektus STT Telkom Interaktif Berbasis Multimedia
76. Pembangunan Sistem Informasi Pelanggan PT. PLN Bandung Berbasis Web
77. Perangkat Lunak Pemasaran Perumahan Panorama Jatinangor
78. Implementasi Perdagangan On Line pada Pemilihan Obat-Obat Paten di PT. Kimia Farma
79. Perangkat Lunak Pendukung Pengelolaan Administrasi & Keuangan PDP STT Telkom Bandung
80. Perancangan & Pembuatan Aplikasi Pemantauan (Monitoring) Kondisi Memory Data Base Studi Kasus pada Data Base Kepegawaian PT. Vistalindo Global Solusi
81. Aplikasi Lelang Berbasis Web
82. Sistem Registrasi Ujian Negara STT Telkom
83. Perancangan Dan Implementasi Data Warehouse Query Report Berbasis Web
84. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Pakar Untuk Mengidentifikasi Kerusakan Pada Mobil Toyota Kijang
85. Sistem Informasi Keuangan CV.Epsilon Group
86. Perancangan dan Implementasi Portal Muslimah sebagai Sarana Pencarian Berbasis Web
87. Aplikasi Portal Formula I
88. Perancangan Aplikasi Forum Diskusi dengan Metoda Synchonour
89. Perangkat Lunak Monitoring Laboratorium Teknik Informatika STT Telkom Berbasis Web
90. Sistem Informasi Berbasis Web untuk Layanan Purna Jual Pelatihan Divlat PT. Telkom
91. Perangkat Lunak Otomasi Pengelolaan APDB
92. Perancangan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Layanan Data Keuangan Investor di Bursa Berjangka
93. Sistem Informasi Non Operator
94. Sistem Komputer Akutansi Koperasi Karyawan PT. Pintex
95. Perangkat Lunak Bantu Perhitungan Sewa Lahan untuk Kabel
96. Searching dan Kodefikasi Pengaksesan Dokumen Lumbung Warta Berbasis Web di Divisi Risti
97. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Pendaftaran Siswa Baru untuk Mendukung Proses Penyeleksian dan Penerimaan Siswa Baru di SMUN 1 Sumedang
98. Perangkat Ajar Berhitung dengan Sempoa Sistem 1-4 untuk Mewujudkan Mental Aritmetika
99. Aplikasi Pengelolaan Medical Record Pasien pada Klinik PT. LEN Indrustri Bandung Berbasis Web
100. Sistem Informasi Laboratorium Teknik Elektro STT Telkom Berbasis Web
101. Perangkat Pengidentifikasi Jenis Dan Akibat Narkotika & Obat Berbahaya
102. Pembangunan Web Site Intranet Kandatel Bekasi
103. Inventory dan Penelusuran Buku dan CD Berbasis Web Perpustakaan Virtual Procces Lab Divisi Risti
104. Analisa dan Implementasi Linux Clustering dengan menggunakan PVM
105. Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Perijinan Pengelolaan Wartel pada Distel Solo
106. Aplikasi Tutorial Berbasis Web Mata Pelajaran Biologi tentang Anatomi Tubuh Manusia
107. Aplikasi Bandung Tour Online
108. Sistem Bimbingan Belajar UMPTN Berbasis Web
109. Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Administrasi Jurusan Teknik Elektro STT Telkom Berbasis Web
110. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Sumber Daya Manusia di Gereja Kristen Pasundan
111. Warung On Line Kopegtel Divisi Risti
112. Perancangan Sistem Penggajian Pegawai PT. Wahana Makmur Sejahtera
113. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Inventararisasi Sim Card dan Voucher pada PT. Satelit Palapa Indonesia (Satelindo) Bandung
114. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Surat Ijin Usaha Perdagangan pada Dinas Perindustrian dan Perdagangan Kabupaten Sumbawa
115. Perangkat Lunak Pembantu Pembuatan Perangkat Bantu Ajar Tutorial Berbasis Komputer
116. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Inventari Hotel Berbasis Web (Studi Kasus Hotel Yehezkiel Bandung)
117. Sistem Informasi Pariwisata Berbasis Web Propinsi Bengkulu
118. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Penyeleksian Calon Siswa SMU Negeri 3 Bandung
119. Aplikasi Pengelolaan Transaksi Penjualan dan Pemesanan Berbasis Web pada Toko Gonzo
120. Sistem Pengelolaan Sumber Informasi dan Pengetahuan Berbasis Web
121. Sistem Informasi Administrasi KK-KTP pada Dinas Catatan Sipil PEMDA Kab. Bangli
122. Aplikasi Pengelolaan Data Pelanggan Telkom Vision di PT. INTI Berbasis Web
123. Perangkat Lunak Penjualan Komputer di Toko Media Tama Jaya Plaza
124. Monitoring Prestasi Akademik dan Aktivitas Siswa Sekolah Menengah Umum Berbasis Web (Studi Kasus SMUN 3 Bandung)
125. Desain dan Implementasi Aplikasi Pelaporan Gangguan Sistem Scada (LGS) pada PT. PLN APD Bandung
126. Sistem Informasi Penjualan Barang Bekas
127. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Inventori Buku di Toko Al-Huda Bandung
128. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Pelaporan Performansi Top Ten Indikator Berbasis Web untuk Kancatel Cikajang Kabupaten Garut
129. Perangkat Lunak Bantu Pengajaran Komputer Grafik dengan Pemograman Open GL Berbasis Web
130. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Komersial Distributor Buku CV,Adipura D.I Yogyakarta Berbasis Web
131. Mobile Registration STT Telkom Bandung
132. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Untuk Persediaan Hasil Hutan pada PT. Perhutani (Persero) Unit III Jawa Barat KPH Sukabumi
133. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Pengajuan Peminatan Atas Tender pada Dinas Pekerjaan Umum Kabupaten Sidoarjo Berbasis Web
134. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Penjualan Suku Cadang Mobil
135. Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi Pemesanan Kado Online (Studi Kasus di Toko Altari)
136. Sistem Informasi Mahasiswa Berbasis Web di Lembaga Pusat Tutorial dan Pelayanan Mahasiswa (LPTPM) Universitas Terbuka Unit Bandung Utara
137. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Keuangan BMT Bina Dhuafa Beringharjo Yogyakarta
138. Sistem Informasi Penggajian Yayasan Sandhykara Putra Telkom
139. Aplikasi Pemesanan Pementasan Seni Wayang Golek Giriharja 3 Basis Web
140. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Rekrutasi Calon Karyawan Bank BNI Padang
141. Sistem HRM (Human Resource Management) Terpusat Dengan Menggunakan Jaringan Internet Untuk Multi Holding
142. Perancangan Perangkat Lunak Rapat Online
143. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Monitoring Dakwah di PUSDAI Jawa Barat
144. Aplikasi Penjadwalan Pengajaran Menggunakan Algoritma Genetika (Contoh Kasus SMU 14 Bandung)
145. Sistem Informasi Kost di Bandung Berbasis Web
146. Perangkat Lunak Pengontrolan Trafik pada Perangkat Sentral EWSD
147. Aplikasi Penilaian Prestasi Kerja Karyawan di Kandatel Garut
148. Perangkat Lunak Visualisasi Pengerjaan Intruksi Mesin 8088 untuk Pengajaran BPTR
149. Aplikasi Bantu Pentarifan Dasar Payroll dalam Implementasi SAP/R3 pada PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk
150. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Penyeleksian Pemberian Kredit Bagi Distributor Lokal Area Lumbung Dolog Jombang
151. Sistem Pelayanan Informasi Olah Raga Berbasis Short Message Service (SMS) Di Radio Paramuda Fm
152. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Jasa Travel Pariwisata
153. Perancangan Aplikasi Bimbingan Tugas Akhir Secara Online
154. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Administrasi Test Toefl Lab. Bahasa STT Telkom
155. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Inventory Control PT. Fdk Indonesia
156. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Akademik STT Telkom Berbasis Web
157. Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Departement Front Office Di Hotel Kharisma Cirebon Berbasis Web
158. Aplikasi Tutorial Cara Cepat Belajar Membaca Al Qur’an pada Anak Berbasis Multimedia
159. Perangkat Lunak Pemodelan 3d Dengan Menggunakan Metode Nurbs
160. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Pemilihan SLTA Untuk Usms Di STT Telkom
161. Sistem Informasi Keuangan Pada Unit Simpan Pinjam Di Pusat Koperasi Karyawan Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
162. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Di Penerbit Buku Sinar Baru Pada Bagian Pemasaran Berbasis Web
163. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Seleksi Penerima Beras untuk Keluarga Miskin (Raskin) Studi Kasus : Kelurahan Bandarharjo Kodya Semarang
164. Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) Pemantauan Status Gizi Balita Kab. Bandung
165. Sistem Informasi E-Commerce PT. Mqs Daarut Tauhid
166. Aplikasi MSALES dengan Menggunakan MIDLET pada Perangkat CLDC
167. Simulasi Bisnis Manufaktur dengan Fuzzy Logic Metode Hoxley
168. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Pelayanan Purna Jual Produk Cpe (Costumer Premise Equipment) Pt,Inti
169. Aplikasi Perangkat Lunak Pendokumentasian Arsip
170. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Hotel Papandayan Jakarta
171. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Divisi Perkapalan Di Pt,Pelayaran Korindo Berbasis Web
172. Penggambaran Obyek-obyek 3D dengan Metode Koleksi Obyek
173. Sistem Pakar Untuk Konsultasi Kesehatan
174. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Toko Online
175. Aplikasi Bursa Kerja Bidang Teknologi Informasi Berbasis Web
176. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Administrasi Akademik netMaster Institute
177. Sistem Informasi Administrasi Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan Berbasis Web di Kantor Dinas Pelayanan Pajak Bumi dan Bangunan Bandung Satu
178. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Administrai Persewaan Gedung Di Taman Budaya
179. Sistem Informasi Administrasi Dan Perawatan Pelayanan Tahanan Dan Narapidana
180. Tes Online Berbasis Text Mode Menggunakan Unix Shell Programming
181. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Asuransi Mobil Berbasis Web di PT. Asuransi Raksa Pratikara
182. Perangkat Lunak Administrasi Keanggotaan Berbasis Web di Koperasi Mahasiswa STTTekom Bandung
183. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Pengelolaan Keuangan
184. Sistem Informasi Akademik TPB STT Telkom Berbasis Web
185. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Berbasis Web Tempat Rehabilitasi Pecandu Narkoba Di Jawa Barat
186. Perangkat Lunak Ensiklopedi Pesawat Tempur Bermesin Jet Produksi Amerika Berbasiskan Multimedia
187. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Pemeliharaan Lokomotif Di PT. Kereta Api
188. Pengelolaan Data Saham Anggota Usaha Bersama (UB) Sumber Rejeki
189. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Administrasi Hak-hak Atas Tanah untuk Notariat
190. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Penjualan Dan Inventarisasi Suku Cadang Mobil Di Toko Bangkit Jaya Motor Karangampel Berbasis Web
191. Perangkat Lunak Logistik di POLWIL Priangan Garut
192. Aplikasi Komunitas Buku Berbasis Web
193. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Manajemen pada Agen Koran dan Majalah (Contoh Kasus Rajab Agency Bandung)
194. Sistem Informasi Kemahasiswaan untuk Unit Kegiatan Mahasiswa STT Telkom Berbasis Web
195. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Inventaris Kendaraan Bermotor Berbasis Web Di PT. Telkom Area Pelayanan Jambi
196. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Rekam Medis Rs Santo Yusup Berbasis Web
197. Perangkat Lunak Aplikasi Sistem Informasi Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Yayasan Penyantun Wiyata Guna
198. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Pemilihan Mahasiswa Melalui Jalur USMS Di STT Telkom
199. Aplikasi Riset Pasar Dalam Bidang Telekomunikasi Di PT. Inti
200. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Pengelolaan Suku Cadang Krl Di PT. Kereta Api Bandung
201. Sistem Informasi Penjualan Perhiasan (Studi Kasus : Damai Jaya)
202. Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) Pemantauan Tingkat Kerawanan Aktivitas Gunung Berapi Propinsi Jawa Barat
203. Perancangan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Inventarisasi pada PT. PINDAD Persero
204. Career Development Centre Online
205. Sistem Informasi Kemahasiswaan untuk Himpunan Mahasiswa STT Telkom
206. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Pengelolaan Pengalokasian Dan Penyaluran Dana Dan Dompet Dhuafa Replubika Bandung Berbasis Web
207. Aplikasi Bank Darah Berbasis Web (Studi Kasus Pmi Cab Kotamadya Bandung)
208. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Seleksi Calon Mahasiswa Akper Muhammadiyah
209. Sistem Informasi Pemesanan Dan Pembayaran Hotel Berbasis Web
210. Sistem Informasi Pengelolaan Dokumen Technical Publication di Bagian Konfigurasi dan Data management SBU-Helicopter PT. Dirgantara Indonesia
211. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Pemesanan dan Penjualan Koperasi Pegawai Telkom Bogor Berbasis Web
212. Sistem Informasi Kegiatan Pembangunan Pemerintah Daerah (Studi Kasus pada Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat II Demak)
213. Aplikasi Pendukung Sistem Informasi Keuangan Regina Cafe & Restaurant
214. Sistem Informasi Pemasaran Berbasis Web PT. Pertamina (Persero) UPMS I Cabang Pemasaran Pekan Baru
215. Aplikasi Penyusunan Neraca Produksi Pemerintah Propinsi Jawa Barat untuk Perhitungan PDB/PDRB (Produk Domestik Bruto/Produk Domestik Regional Bruto)
216. Aplikasi Pendukung Sistem Informasi Penjualan dan Pergudangan pada Toko Koperasi Obor Bima
217. Aplikasi Layanan Pasca Proyek pada PT. Samudra Aplikasi Indonesia (SAI)
218. Perangkat Lunak Administrasi Kredit di Bank Jabar Cabang Sukabuni
219. Sistem Informasi Pelayanan Wisma Remaja GKPRI Jawa Barat
220. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Yield Management di Hotel Ibis Tamarin
221. Aplikasi Penjualan dan Pengadaan Barang di Griya Wanita Boutique
222. Sistem Informasi Manajemen Arsip Kendaraan Bermotor
223. Aplikasi Perangkat Lunak Penjurusan untuk Siswa SMU
224. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Penjualan dan Pengadaan Barang di Gudang (Studi Kasus pada Hemart Retail Indonesia)
225. Perangkat Lunak Administrasi Pembedahan di Instalasi Bedah Sentral RSUD Saiful Anwar malang
226. Sistem Informasi Pasar Komoditi Pertanian Berbasis Web
227. Perangkat Lunak Distribusi Gas Elpiji dan Air Mineral pada U.D. Karya Jaya
228. Sistem Informasi Penanganan Persoalan Perempuan Korban Kekerasan Berbasis Web (Studi Kasus di Institut Perempuan Bandung)
229. Aplikasi Pengaturan Antrian dan Pemanggilan Pasien pada Unit Pelayanan Pasien Rawat Jalan RSUD Muragan Yogyakarta
230. Aplikasi Administrasi dan Distribusi Penjualan Koran pada Harian Umum Pikiran Rakyat
231. Perangkat Lunak Pelayanan Rawat Inap RS Al Islam
232. Sistem Informasi Inventory Control Gudang ATK Perusahaan Surat Kabar Pikiran Rakyat Bandung
233. Aplikasi Penjualan Barang dan Simpan Pinjam KPN Bahtera Kencana BKKBN Kabupaten Tulungagung Berbasis Web
234. Sistem Controlling Informasi Running Text Melalui Aplikasi WAP
235. Pembangunan Shell Sistem Pakar Klasifikasi dengan Representasi Decision Tree
236. Aplikasi Pendukung Sistem Informasi Keuangan CV. Evy Beatrec
237. Sistem Informasi Asset Alat Produksi Sentral di Bidang Umum Telkom Divre II Jakarta Berbasis Web
238. Perangkat Lunak Absensi Mesin Smart Card dilingkungan Intranet PT. Indosat Gedung Wismantara Berbasis Web
239. Perangkat Lunak Pembantu Penggunaan Komputer Bagi Tuna Netra
240. Sistem Informasi Pengiriman Barang DFA Express Bandung Berbasis Web
241. Aplikasi Pengingat Jadwal Periksa Medis Berbasis Short Message Service (SMS) di Klinik Pramita Laboratorium
242. Pembuatan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Persewaan Barang pada PD. Kharizma Baru
243. Aplikasi Monitoring Pelaksanaan Proyek di CV. Samudra Aplikasi Indonesia (SAI)
244. Perangkat Lunak Administrasi Akademik di Lembaga Pendidikan Mulya Mitra College Divisi Komputer
245. Monitoring Order Perbaika Divisi Maintenance Service Center (MSC) PT. Telkom Berbasis Web
246. Perangkat Lunak Penjualan dan Pengadaan Barang di AA Motor
247. Pembuatan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Penyediaan Barang dan Penjualan PD. Setiadi Jaya Rubber Bandung
248. Aplikasi Perancangan Jaringan dengan Standard UMTS di Bandung
249. Sistem Informasi Pergudangan di Kantor Dirjen Bea Cukai Semarang
250. Perangkat Lunak Kepenghunian Asrama di Lingkungan Intranet STT Telkom
251. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Pemantau Fungsionalitas Elemen Jaringan di MSC PT. Telkomsel Regional IV Bandung
252. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Reminder Surat Dinas di PT. Telkom
253. Aplikasi Penjualan Buku di Toko Buku Perdana
254. Perangkat Lunak Pemasaran Percetak PT. Karya Kita Bandung
255. Sistem Informasi Panti Asuhan Yatim Piatu Taman Harapan Muhammadiyah Berbasis Web di Buah Batu
256. Aplikasi Administrasi dan Pembelajaran Lembaga Bimbingan Belajar Nurul Fikri Bandung Berbasis Web
257. Perangkat Lunak Administrasi Instalasi Gawat Darurat Rumah Sakit Al Islam
258. Aplikasi Sistem Pakar Pemilihan Printer dan Monitor Bagi Customer di HEXA COMPUTER
259. Perangkat Lunak Administrasi dan Tes Penempatan Siswa di LBPP LIA Berbasis Web
260. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Manajemen Proyek (Software Project Management) Berbasis Web
261. Perangkat Lunak Pemasangan Iklan Majalah dan Surat Kabar Secara Online pada CV Citama Advertising Yogyakarta
262. Aplikasi Mobile Shop (Toko Bergerak) Berbasis WAP dengan Studi Kasus Cellular Shop
263. Track Reporting Software
264. Aplikasi Pengadaaan dan Penjualan Komputer & Asesoris Berbasis Web
265. Perangkat Lunak Lembar Informasi Ketenagakerjaan Propinsi jawa Barat Berbasis Web
266. Aplikasi Penyedia Layanan Pemesanan Perjalanan dan Konsultasi Haji dan Umroh pada PT. Rama Tour & Travel Berbasis Web
267. Aplikasi Pendukung Pembayaran Pajak Penghasilan Berbasis WAP pada Kantor Pelayanan Pajak di Bandung
268. Sistem Keamanan Pengiriman Short Message Service (SMS) Berbasis Java pada Telepon Seluler
269. Aplikasi Bimbingan Belajar Jarak Jauh Berbasis Web
270. Aplikasi Web Pendukung Manajemen SDM Berbasiskan Kompetensi di Bank Mandiri Jakarta
271. Sistem Pakar Akupressure
272. Aplikasi Tes Toefl On Line pad Laboratorium Bahasa STT Telkom Berbasis Web
273. Pembangunan Aplikasi Try Out Online SPMB
274. Aplikasi Pelaporan Manajemen Berbasis Web Studi Kasus : Sub Direktorat Telecommunication and MIDI Marketing PT. Indosat
275. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Obat dan Alat Kesehatan di Apotik Mega Farma Singkawang
276. Perangkat Ajar Dreadlocks Hairstyle
277. Aplikasi Katalog Islam Dinamis Berbasis Web
278. Sistem Informasi Pengolahan Transaksi Asuransi Jiwa Berbasis Web pada AJB Bumiputera 1912
279. Aplikasi Hasil Psikotest Mahasiswa STT Telkom Bandung
280. Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Data Peserta Uji Ketrampilan pada Subdinas Peningkatan Kualitas Tenaga Kerja dan Purna Kerja Berbasis Web (Studi Kasus di Dinas Tenaga Kerja & Transmigrasi Jawa Barat)
281. Aplikasi Penghitungan Kredit Poin untuk Pengajuan Kenaikan Pangkat Guru (Studi Kasus di Dinas Pendidikan Daerah Kot Solok)
282. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Administrasi Poli Mata di Instalasi Rawat Jalan RSUD Dr. Haryoto Lumajang
283. Aplikasi Pendukung Hasil Survei Khusus Pemotongan Ternak Propinsi Jawa Barat
284. Aplikasi Short Message Service (SMS) untuk Mendukung Layanan Informasi Tagihan Listrik Studi Kasus PT. PLN Persero Bandung
285. Perangkat Lunak Bantu Belajar (Studi Kasus Pelajaran Fisika SLTP)
286. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Medical Checkup RS ST. Borromeus Bandung
287. Perangkat Lunak Wajib Lapor Ketenagakerjaan Berbasis Web pada Dinas Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi
288. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Subbagian Kepegawaian Dinas Perhubungan Propinsi Jabar
289. Perangkat Lunak Pengolahan Anggaran Keuangan Dinas Pendidikan Kecamatan Pengasih
290. Sistem Informasi Pendayagunaan Aset Setjen Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Berbasis Web
291. Sistem Pembuat Janji Dosen dan Mahasiswa dengan Teknologi Web dan WAP
292. Aplikasi Pengiriman Medical Report ke Short Message Service (SMS) dan Email di Laboratorium Klinik Prodia
293. Aplikasi Perpanjangan Izin Kerja Tenaga Asing (IKTA) Berbasis Web
294. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Informasi SPMB STTTelkom Berbasis Computer Telephony Integration
295. Informasi Tagihan Listrik Berbasis WAP Studi Kasus di PT. PLN (Persero) Bandung Selatan
296. Sistem Layanan Pelanggan Orlen Car Wash PT. Orlen Prima Sejahtera
297. Buku Elektronik Berbasis Web Pelajaran Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Kelas 6 Sekolah Dasar Bab Makhluk Hidup
298. Aplikasi Pemesanan Tiket Bioskop 21 Cineplex Bandung Berbasis WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
299. Aplikasi Kemitraan Inti Plasma pada Koperasi Peternakan Unggas Berbasis Web
300. Aplikasi Pemesanan dan Pengingat Jadwal Kunjungan Klinik Perawatan Wajah Natasha Skin Care Bandung Menggunakan Layanan SMS
301. Aplikasi IQ Test Berbasis WAP
302. Aplikasi Pendukung Keamanan Hasil Pemeriksaan (Studi Kasus : Laboratorium Klinik Sigma Galatika Indonesia)
303. Perangkat Lunak Tuntunan Shalat Wajib untuk Remaja Berbasis Multimedia
304. Perangkat Lunak Pengawasan Panjar dan Tagihan (Waspat) Berbasis Web untuk Divisi Keuangan pada PT. Telkom Bogor
305. Aplikasi Pelayanan Information Jadwal, Nilai dan Registrasi Berbasis WAP
306. Reservasi Tiket Mobile Garuda Indonesia Citilink
307. Pembangunan Aplikasi Pemesanan Food and Drink On Line di Pizza Hut Bandung dengan WAP
308. Aplikasi Informasi Beasiswa Berbasis Web dan Via SMS
309. Aplikasi Pendukung Survei Indikator Ekonomi Propinsi Jawa Barat
310. Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Data Sentra Produksi Sayuran di Dinas Pertanian dan Tanaman Pangan Jawa Barat (Studi Kasus di Dinas Pertanian dan Tanaman Pangan Daerah Jawa Barat)
311. Aplikasi Pendukung Sistem Informasi Inventory Control System (ICS) Bagian Buku di Alifa Moslem’s Shopping Center
312. Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Data Dana SPP SMU Negeri 1 Bandung Berbasis Web
313. Aplikasi Short Message Service (SMS) Informasi Pemutaran Film dan Pemesanan Tiket Bioskop
314. Aplikasi Pengolahan Hasil Pemeriksaan Laboratorium Mikrobiologi R.S. DR M Djamil Padang
315. Aplikasi Pengelolaan Data Pegawai PT. Asean Aceh Fertilizer Berbasis Web
316. Aplikasi Inventori Barang Kebutuhan Produksi di Departemen Logistik PT. Asean Aceh Fertilizer Berbasis Web
317. Aplikasi Administrasi Markom (Marketing dan Komunikasi) Studi Kasus di Rumah Zakat DSUQ Bandung
318. Aplikasi Perhitungan Pajak Kendaraan Bermotor pada Kantor Samsat UPTD Pajak Daerah Wilayah III Propinsi Lampung di Kotabumi Lampung Utara
319. Aplikasi untuk Pelayanan Informasi dan Pengingat Peserta Qurban Berbasis Short Message Service (SMS) Studi Kasus di Divisi Qurban Rumah Zakat Indonesia DSUQ Pusat Bandung
320. Web Service Penyedia Layanan Validasi Pengajuan Kartu Kredit
321. Aplikasi Administrasi Perpustakaan Berbasis Web SMU Negeri 1 Bandung
322. Aplikasi Sistem Penggajian Studi Kasus di CV. Delta Jaya Surabaya
323. Aplikasi Pengelolaan Beasiswa Divisi Pendidikan di Rumah Zakat Indonesia DSUQ Berbasis Web
324. Perancangan dan Implementasi Aplikasi Keuangan Kopma STT Telkom
325. Perangkat Lunak Untuk Mendukung Sistem Informasi Curanmor Polres Cimahi Berbasis Web
326. Perancangan dan Implementasi Aplikasi Layanan Delivery Service Pemesanan Makanan Berbasis J2ME Studi Kasus di Hoka - Hoka Bento
327. Penggunaan E-Commerce pada Aplikasi Penjualan Adidas
328. Perangkat Lunak Sistem Informasi Akademik S2 STT Telkom Berbasis Web
329. Sistem Pakar untuk Diagnosis Penderita HIV/AIDS
330. Perangkat Lunak Monitoring Pertumbuhan Penduduk di Kecamatan Polokarto
331. Aplikasi Pentarifan Biaya Pengiriman Barang pada Perusahaan Cargo Royal Brunei di Denpasar Bali
332. Aplikasi Berlangganan Koran Menggunakan Layanan SMS (Studi Kasus di Mitra Bisnis (Group Pikiran Rakyat))
333. Perancangan dan Implementasi Aplikasi Layanan Telkom Info Berbasis Teknologi WAP Studi Kasus di PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia Divre III STO Dago
334. Aplikasi Layanan Informasi Jadwal Keberangkatan dan Pemesanan Tiket di PT. Pahala Kencana Bandung Berbasis SMS
335. Sistem Pemesanan Taksi dengan Menggunakan SMS
336. Perangkat Lunak Monitoring Pengiriman Paket Pad CV. Bandung Express
337. Aplikasi Administrasi Pajak Penghasilan Studi Kasus Kantor Pelayanan Pajak Tasikmalaya
338. Sistem Informasi Gerakan Kakak Asuh BMT Al Amin STT Telkom
339. Aplikasi Pendaftaran Periksa Medis di Rumah Sakit Petrokimia Gresik Menggunakan Layanan SMS
340. Perangkat Lunak Operasional dan Keuangan di Look Design
341. Aplikasi Manajemen SPPD (Surat Perintah Perjalanan Dinas) Studi Kasus PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia Divre V Kandatel Madiun
342. Aplikasi Pengelolaan Meeting Room di Grand Hotel Preanger
343. Alat Bantu Pembuatan Buku Raport Siswa yang Dilengkapi Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Pengurutan Ranking di SD Negeri Cijoho II Kuningan
344. Aplikasi Administrasi ZISWAF (Zakat, Infaq, Wakaf) Studi Kasus Rumah Zakat DSUQ Bandung
345. Aplikasi Pendistribusian Rokok Berbasis Web di PT. Panamas Malang
346. Aplikasi Pendaftaran Penduduk dan Pencetakan Dokumen Kependudukan Berbasis Web
347. Perangkat Lunak Administrasi Peminjaman dan Penjualan Barang di Koperasi Karyawan RS Bayukarta (Kopkar RSB)
348. Aplikasi SMS untuk Mendukung Layanan Informasi Nilai dan Jadwal Kuliah di Fakultas MIPA UNESA
349. Aplikasi Pengelolaan Transaksi di Theodore.co Bandung
350. Aplikasi Penentuan Kenaikan Kelas dan Jurusan Siswa SMAN 1 Bandung
351. Aplikasi Layanan Informasi Perawatan dan Perbaikan Body serta Aksesoris Mobil di Wahana Auto Care Berbasis Web
352. Sistem Pemesanan Tiket Kereta Api Eksekutif Turangga dan Argo Willis Berbasis SMS di Stasiun Hall Bandung
353. Sistem Pengelolaan Inventaris Kendaraan Bermotor PT. Telkom Kandatel Bandung
354. Aplikasi Pemesanan Rental Mobil Hafa Yogyakarta dengan Layanan Web dan WAP
355. Aplikasi Perangkat Lunak untuk Pengelolaan Data Keanggotaan dan Inventarisasi Unit Kerja Mahasiswa Racana Soedirman
356. Aplikasi Pengolahan Data Keuangan Usaha Toko Badan Keuangan Muslim (BKM) STT Telkom Berbasis Web
357. Sistem Pengelolaan Data Nilai SLTPN 1 Tulungagung Berbasiskan Web dan SMS
358. Aplikasi Penerimaan Mahasiswa Baru STT Telkom Via WAP
359. Perangkat Lunak Bantu Pembayaran Klaim Asuransi Kendaraan Bermotor PT. Asuransi Berdikari Bandung
360. Aplikasi Bantu Penjadwalan Order Distribusi Produk di PT. Sampoerna Transport Nusantara Berbasis Web
361. Aplikasi Penghitungan Zakat pada Perangkat Mobile dengan Menggunakan J2ME
362. Perangkat Lunak Pendataan Penduduk pada Badan Pusat Statistik Jawa Barat
363. Pemesanan Tiket Pesawat Terbang via SMS
364. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Kelompok Pemilihan Mahasiswa Berprestasi di STT Telkom dengan Metode Promethee
365. Aplikasi Administrasi Data Perkebunan Tebu Pabrik Gula Tersana Baru
366. UKM Band STT Telkom Community Web
367. Aplikasi Web Portal Pondok Pesantren Shiddiqiyyah Jombang
368. Sistem Monitoring Realisasi Anggaran dan Performansi Kerja dalam Program Rehap PT. Telkom Kandatel Jakarta Timur
369. Aplikasi Web Penunjang Perkuliahan (Studi Kasus D3 Jurusan Teknik Informatika STT Telkom)
370. Aplikasi Pencarian Jarak Terdekat Obyek Wisata yang Berada Disekitar User Berbasis WAP (Studi Kasus : Daerah Kunjungan Wisata di Bandung)
371. Sistem Informasi Geografis (SIG) Pariwisata Jawa Barat
372. Payment Gateway Via SMS
373. Perangkat Ajar Pembelajaran Bermain Gitar Berbasis Multimedia
374. Pemetaan Jaringan Pipa Air Bersih PDAM Kota Bandung Wilayah Bojonegara Studi Kasus pada Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum Kota Bandung
375. Aplikasi Tel69 Berbasis Web (Studi Kasus di Kancatel Blitar)
376. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Administrasi Geladi STT Telkom Berbasis WAP
377. Perangkat Lunak Bantu Pengadministrasian Data Warkom Berbasis Web Studi Kasus PT. Telkom Jakarta Pusat
378. Perangkat Lunak Reservasi Hotel Shangri La Berbasis WAP
379. Aplikasi Bisnis Kemitraan UFO (BKB UFO) Berbasis Web
380. Perangkat Lunak Case Tool Skema Normalisasi
381. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Penentuan Prioritas Kriteria Kualitas Perguruan Tinggi Swasta
382. Perancangan Dan Implementasi Sistem Perpustakaan Pada Media Handphone Berbasis J2ME Menggunakan Simple Object Access Protocol(SOAP)
383. Sistem Navigasi Kota Dengan Menggunakan GPS
384. Manajemen Pengetahuan Tugas Akhir Mahasiswa Berbasis Ontologi dan Semantik (2005-on Progress)
385. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Perencanaan Strategi Promosi Pemasaran SLJJ
386. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Pemberian Bantuan Dana Bagi Organisasi Kemahasiswaan di STT Telkom
387. Perbandingan Perfomansi SOAP dan XML-RPC sebagai Message Interchange pada Teknologi Web Service
388. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Peserta Co-op di PT. Telkom
389. Internal Control Online Proses Bisnis SOA 302 & 404 PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia, Tbk (2005-on Progres)
390. Pemfilteran Email Spam Menggunakan Metode Pembeda Markov
391. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Undangan Saringan Masuk STT Telkom (USMS) dengan
392. Metode Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS)
393. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Untuk Analisis Pergerakan Harga Saham
394. Analisa Perbandingan E-Commerce Dengan Kolaborasi Antara E-Commerce Dan Epinion (Studi Kasus : IDC Nusantara INTI)
395. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Penentuan Prioritas Pengembangnan Industri Kecil Menengah di Kabupaten Bangkalan Madura
396. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Pengukuran Kinerja Sdm Dengan Pendekatan Hr Scorecard (Studi Kasus : PT. AQS JAWA BARAT)
397. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Penentuan Prioritas Daerah Tujuan Transmigrasi Bagi Calon Transmigran Dari Propinsi Jawa Barat
398. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Pengukuran Kinerja Proyek Non Fisik Menggunakan Metode Control Project Management Dan Ahp Di Disnakertrans Jawa Barat
399. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Seleksi Pengangkatan Calon Kepala Sekolah Smp/Sma Negeri Pada Dinas Pendidikan Dan Olahraga Daerah
400. Aplikasi Business Plan Online Dengan Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Untuk Tracking Dan Peningkatan Performansi Perusahaan
401. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Persetujuan Pemeriksaan Pajak Rutin
402. (Studi Kasus Direktorat Jenderal Pajak Kantor Wilayah Jawa Bagian Barat II)
403. Implementasi Sistem Pendiagnosa Interoperabilitas Pada Web Services
404. Implementasi Web Service Untuk Menambah dan Mengurangi Service Pada Web Service Lain
405. Implementasi Metode Implicit Rating Untuk Menentukan User Interest Terhadap Informasi Pada Web Page
406. Sistem Pendidikan SMU Terintegrasi dengan pengenalan sidik jari dan sms gateway (2005)
407. Aplikasi Pencatatan Kehadiran Mahasiswa Menggunakan Sidik Jari Studi Kasus STT Telkom
408. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Pengukuran Kontribusi Teknologi Voip PT. Telkom Dengan Model Teknometrik (Study Kasus: Divisi Multimedia Subdivisi Voip)
409. Detection Cells Capacity Problem
410. Pembangunan Jaringan Dokumen Menggunakan Query-Dependent PageRank {2005-on Progress}
411. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Penentuan Prioritas Implementasi Sistem Informasi Pada Disnaker Kabupaten/Kota (Study Kasus : Disnakertrans Jawa Barat)
412. Analisis dan Implementasi Aplikasi Bursa Kerja di Propinsi Jawa Barat Berbasis Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan (SPPK) (Studi Kasus Kota Bandung)
413. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Penentuan Pembiayaan Usaha Mikro dengan Prinsip Syariah
414. Sistem pendukung pengambilan keputusan pengukuran kepuasan terhadap mutu SLTP menggunakan metode Smart dan Maut (Studi Kasus : Kandepdiknas Manado)
415. Implementasi Perangkat Lunak Manajemen Supply Chain pada Poultry Shop. Studi Kasus: PT. Satwa Unggul PS
416. Implementasi dan Analisis Keamanan Data Pada XML Web Services Dengan Enkripsi SOAP
417. Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Kualitas Dan Pengendalian Pencemaran Air Sungai Dengan Metode Storet Dan Indeks Pencemaran (Studi Kasus : Bplhd Propinsi DKI Jakarta)
418. Perancangan dan Implementasi Perangkat Lunak Pengkonversi Not Balok Kunci G dengan Menggunakan Metode Statistik
419. Pembaca Quick Response Code Menggunakan Perangkat Mobile Berbasis Sistem Operasi Symbian
420. Analisis dan Implementasi Aplikasi Survey Data Pelanggan PLN Menggunakan PDA dan GPS
421. Sistem Informasi Pendayagunaan Aset Setjen Departemen Pendidikan Nasional Berbasis Web
422. Sistem Pengelolaan Data Nilai SLTPN 1 Tulungagung Berbasis Web Dan Sms
423. Jaringan Pipa Pelanggan Air Bersih PDAM Kota Bandung
424. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Perencanaan Strategi Telkom Risti Bandung
425. Aplikasi Penyusunan Neraca Produksi Pemerintah Propinsi Jawa Barat untuk Perhitungan PDB/PDRB
426. (Produk Domestik Bruto/Produk Domestik Regional Bruto)
427. Aplikasi Katalog Islam Dinamis Berbasis Web
428. Aplikasi Penghitungan Kredit Poin untuk Pengajuan Kenaikan Pangkat Guru (Studi Kasus di Dinas Pendidikan Daerah Kota Solok)
429. Aplikasi Pendukung Hasil Survei Khusus Pemotongan Ternak Propinsi Jawa Barat
430. Perangkat Lunak Bantu Belajar (Studi Kasus Pelajaran Fisika SLTP)
431. Perangkat Lunak Wajib Lapor Ketenagakerjaan Berbasis Web pada Dinas Tenaga Kerja dan Transmigrasi
432. Aplikasi Pendukung Survei Indikator Ekonomi Propinsi Jawa Barat
433. Sistem Informasi Inventory Control Gudang ATK Perusahaan Surat Kabar Pikiran Rakyat Bandung
434. Analisis dan Simulasi Channel Switching Pada Mobile Live Multi-Channel TV Streaming
435. Business Process Improvement Sistem Penjadwalan Produksi PT. Samindo Electronics
436. Business Process Reengineering Sistem Pengadaan Kebutuhan Material Untuk Perencanaan dan Pengendalian Produksi
437. Sistem Pakar Anamnesa Keterlambatan Perkembangan Anak
438. Desain Dan Implementasi Sistem Pakar Virtual Psychologist Dalam Mengatasi Stress
439. Visualisasi SSL (Secure Socket Layer) Pada Aplikasi Ecommerce
440. Rancangan Jaringan Komputer Baru Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Telkom dengan Menggunakan Teknologi Virtual LAN
441. Analisa Perbandingan Koneksi Host to Host Menggunakan Metoda Telnet dan Metoda Messaging Pada Sistem Pembayaran Online di PT. Telkomsel
442. Perangkat Lunak E-Mail Client pada Telepon Genggam Berbasiskan Teknologi J2ME
443. Perancangan dan implementasi sistem citra steganography menggunakan metode transformasi dudex
444. Pembangunan Aplikasi Perhitungan Beban Tugas Dosen Berbasis Web
445. Perancangan dan Implementasi sistem Antrian Bank Pada Transaksi Multiteller berbasis jaringan
446. Pembangunan Sistem Reservasi ASI Tiket kereta dan pesawat menggunakan Wirelles Aplication Protocol (WAP) Service Pada Media Handphone WAP
447. Implementasi Teori Fraktal Pada Kompresi Citra Dengan System Fungsi Iterasi Terpartisi
448. Pengendalian Jarak Jauh Berbasis Short Message Service Sebagai Alat Bantu Pada Sistem Pengendalian Sentral Telepon NEAX
449. Perancangan dan Implementasi Aplikasi Pengoperasian dan Pemeliharaan Sentral Telepon NEAX Berbasis TCP/IP
450. Pembangunan Prototipe Siastem Arbiterasi Mata Uang dengan menggunakan Algoritma Genetika
451. Perangkat Lunak Dokumentasi Desain Terstruktur
452. Implementasi Edge Detection Filtering pada Citra Digital dengan Metode Prewitt Operator dan Sobel Operator
453. Penerapan Elektronik Mail Pada Mobile Phone dengan Menggunakan Wireless Application Protocol
454. Perancangan dan Implementasi Teknik Watermarking pada citra Digital menggunakan Blowfish dan Message Digest 5
455. Aplikasi Algoritma SKIPJACK Terhadap Penyandian Data
456. Penajaman Sisi Citra Menggunakan Metode Fourier Phase Only Synthesis dengan pembetulan Fase
457. Implementasi CORBA Pada Aplikasi Client - Server Berbasis Web
458. Studi dan Implementasi Algoritma Kriptografi Twofish untuk Penyandian Data
459. Analisa Pemanfaatan Protokol TCP Melalui Media Satelit dan Implementasi Perangkat Lunak Simulasinya
460. Studi dan Implementasi Algoritma Semijoin pada Pemrosesan Query Terdistribusi
461. Implementasi transformasi wavelet pada analisa tekstur untuk identifikasi osteoporosis berdasarkan metode indeks singh
462. Analisa Perbandingan Koneksi Host to Host Menggunakan Metoda Telnet dan Metoda Corba Pada Sistem Pembayaran Online Di PT. Telkomsel
463. Deteksi Sudut Multiskala Dengan Menggunakan Transformasi Wavelet
464. Pendeteksian Sisi menggunakan Isotropic Operator dengan Proses Awal Pemuliaan Citra menggunakan Teknik Manipulasi Histogram
465. Perbandingan Metode Hybrid HMM/MLP dan Metode HMM dalam Proses Pengenalan Ucapan Berbahasa Indonesia.
466. Pendeteksian Wajah Berbasis Jaringan Syaraf Tiruan
467. Pencarian Jalur Teroptimal Dengan Algoritma A* Dan Metoda Akses R+ Tree Dalam Pemrosesan Queri Spasial
468. Pembangunan Aplikasi Online Trading Perusahaan Efek Dalam Bursa Efek Jakarta Berbasis Wireless Application Protocol (Studi Kasus Pada PT. Dinar Sekuritas)
469. Metode Peningkatan Performansi Pada Pengambilan Informasi Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI)
470. Perancangan dan Implementasi Perangkat Lunak Pengkonversi Teks ke Suara dengan Primitif Satuan Bunyi
471. Implementasi Sistim Informasi Geografi untuk Jalur Transportasi Darat Di Wilayah Kodya Bandung
472. Aplikasi Knowledge Management On Line di PDAM Ka. Bandung
473. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Jaringan Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Telkom Bandung
474. Perangkat Lunak Pengelolaan Warposnet Dengan Menggunakan Metodologi Analisis Dan Perancangan Sistem Terstruktur
475. Segmentasi Citra Digital Menggunakan Algoritma Region Merging dan Representasi Quadtree
476. Analisa Study Topology Jaringan Ring & Mesh Kota Metropolitan dengan Study Kasus Kota Surabaya
477. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Sistem Loket Pembayaran Online Dengan Studi Kasus Pembayaran Tagihan PT. Telkomsel
478. Analisa Performansi Filtering Citra Digital Menggunakan Metoda Two-Dimensional Median Filter Dan Multilevel Median Filter
479. Plane Cover Multiple Acces : Pendekatan untuk Memaksimalkan Kapasitas Sistem Selular
480. Simulasi Perbandingan Metode Restorasi Link dan Path Pada Jaringan WDM Bertopologi Mesh
481. Simulasi Pengendalian KA menggunakan Infrastruktur Jaringan GSM
482. Perancangan Dan Implementasi Teknik Watermarking Pada Citra Digital Dengan Metode Fractal
483. Pengembangan sistem Keamanan pada Dial UP Networking Melalui Jalur Telepon Menggunakan Smart Card
484. Desain dan Implementasi Mesin Query Untuk XML
485. Study dan Implementasi Algoritma Kriptografi Misty Untuk Penyandian Data
486. Analisa Forecasting Demand Menggunakan Jaringan Syaraf Tiruan Adaptive Resonance Theory : Studi Kasus Demand Sambungan Telepon Seluler
487. Analisa Algoritma Conflation pada Kata atau Kalimat Bahasa Indonesia
488. Pembuatan Alat Bantu Data Cleansing Pada Komponen Akuisisi Data Warehouse
489. Pengembangan Layanan WAP untuk Sistem Informasi Rute Jalan Raya Menggunakan Algoritma Modified Bi -directional A*
490. Studi Metode Terstruktur Dalam Rekayasa Perangkat Lunak
491. Penerapan Algoritma Genetik Dalam Pendeteksian Multiuser Pada Sistem Komunikasi CDMA
492. Aplikasi Mail Box Dalam Layanan Intranet Berbasis WAP
493. Sistem Pendukung Keputusan Dalam Pengendalian dan Perencanaan Kebutuhan Material Study Kasus Produk Tas Rapino
494. Implementasi Transformasi Karhunen Loeve dan Wavelet dalam Aplikasi Kompresi Citra Multispektral
495. Implementasi Algoritma Kriptograpi MARS untuk Penyandian Data
496. Implementasi M- Commerce Menggunakan WAP Studi Kasus Pemesanan Tiket Bioskop Online
497. Penempatan Kapasitas pada Survivable WDM Network Berdasarkan Skema Partial Path
498. Teknik Kompresi Citra Fraktal Berbasis Metode Two Level Image Partition
499. Data Mining Dengan Algoritma Apriori Pada RDBMS Oracle
500. Media Interaktif Pembelajaran Matematika Untuk Sekolah Dasar Kelas Dua Pada SD Laboratorium Universitas Negeri Malang
501. Aplikasi Sistem Akreditasi Dosen berbasis Web
502. Analisis Unjuk Kerja Network adress Port translator (NAPT) pada Jaringan TCP/IP
503. Analisa dan Implementasi Sintesa Awan dengan Metode Fractal dan Metode Solid Modelling
504. Perancangan dan Implementasi Perankat Lunak sebagai alat bantu Management Proyek
505. Simulasi Query Optimizer
506. Optimasi Concurency Locking
507. Implementasi Kamus Diphone Pada Aplikasi Text To Speech Bahasa Indonesia Dengan Unit Speech Diphone
508. Study dan Implementasi Algoritma Kriptografi RC 6 Untuk Penyandian Data
509. Enkripsi Data Dengan Algoritma Kriptografi Kunci Simetris Menggunakan Metode LOKI 97
510. Analisa Dan Implementasi Manajemen Pengetahuan ( knowledge management ) Pada Sistem Syaraf Digital ( Digital Nervous System)
511. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Translator File Midi Menjadi Notasi Musik
512. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Contextual Memory Test Sebagai Alat Bantu Dalam Bidang Psikologi
513. Optimasi LZ78 Pada Kompresi Data
514. Perancangan Perangkat Lunak Perhitungan Kebutuhan Bandwidth VoIP untuk Pembangunan Link Antar Kota
515. Perancangan Perangkat Lunak Bank Data Pemerintahan Daerah Berbasis Data Dimensional Secara Online ( Studi Kasus Pada Pemda DKI Jakarta )
516. Aplikasi Layanan Informasi Billing Dan Customer Service Berbasis Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)
517. Algoritma Genetika Untuk Penyusunan Jadwal Kuliah di STT Telkom
518. Pembangunan Perangkat Lunak Untuk Perencanaan Jaringan CCS No. 7 Di Divisi Risti PT. Telkom
519. Analisa Implementasi Mekanisme Recovery Pada DBMS Oracle
520. Perancangan dan implementasi sistem informasi jalan raya menggunakan algoritma BI-Directional A+
521. Implementasi Algoritma Kompresi Hybrid LZ77 Dan RLE Menggunakan Elias Gama Code
522. Algoritma Diffie - Hellman Sebagai Salah Satu Pendukung Kriptografi Kunci Publik
523. Implementasi Penelusuran Balik dari Data View Ke Data Tabel Pada Lingkungan Data Warehousing
524. Implementasi Algoritma DSA Dalam Pembuatan Tanda Tangan Digital
525. Aplikasi Sistem Keamanan Gedung Berbasis SMS
526. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Keamanan Web Dinamis Berbasiskan Penanganan Cookies Sebagai Kunci Enkripsi
527. Pembangunan Prototype Sistem Pembelian KArtu Isi Ulang Melalui Telepon Genggam Berbasis WAP
528. Text To Speech Pada Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) : Kasus Sistem Navigasi
529. Metode Akses Spasial Bersarang Pada Citra Dua Dimensi ( The NR-Tree: A spatial Access Method For Two-Dimensional Image)
530. Analisa Implementasi Run Length Encoding dan Arithmetic Encoding Orde - o pada Kompresi data Berbasis Transformasi Burrow Wheeler
531. Penanganan Asynchronous Read dan Write Data dengan menggunakan Bi-Directional Bounded Buffer pada Aplikasi Multithreading
532. Analisa dan Implementasi Pemecahan Data
533. Ekstraksi Kata Kunci Dokumen Bahasa Indonesia dengan Menggunakan Algoritma Genetika
534. Analisis Pembagian Bandwidth yang Merata Pada Jaringan ATM ABR Dengan Algoritma Switching Erica+
535. Implementasi Modul Pendaftaran Pelatihan Di Intranet PT. Telkom Dengan Menggunakan Teknik Aliran Pekerjaan
536. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Pengembangan Jaringan Usaha untuk Teknik Pemasaran Networking Marketing
537. Analisis Perbandingan Unjuk Kerja ATM CLS- Reassembly Mode Dengan ATM CLS- Streaming Mode Menggunakan Propotional Rate Control
538. Studi dan Implementasi Algoritma Kriptografi SERPENT Untuk Penyandian Data
539. Interpolasi Citra Digital Menggunakan Jaringan Syaraf Tiruan Metoda Radial Basis Function (RBF)
540. Implementasi Linguistic Analysis pada Text to Speech Bahasa Indonesia dengan unit Ucapan Diphone
541. Website Content Displayer Pada Telepon Seluler dengan Wireless Application Protocol
542. Implementasi Kompresi Citra Warna Fractal Berbasis Recurrent Iterated Function Systems (RIFSs)
543. Simulasi Implementasi Algoritma Ruting Virtual Path pada jaringan ATM berdasarkan konsep eqiuvalent bandwidth
544. Analisis Transaksi SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) untuk IP Telephony dengan menggunakan Proxy Server dan Redirect Server
545. Analisa Interoperabilitas Pemprograman Objek Terdistribusi dengan Menggunakan Arsitektur CORBA
546. Peningkatan Performansi Penggunaan Fasilitas Short Message Service (SMS) lintas Operator dalam jaringan GSM
547. Analisa Implementasi Fuzzy Controller Untuk Mengendalikan Aliran Trafik ABR Pada Jaringan ATM
548. Aplikasi Chatting Berbasis Client/Server Pada Sistem Operasi Linux
549. Perancangan dan Implmentasi Perangkat Lunak Visualisasi Objek Tiga Dimensi dengan Metode Perspektive Projection
550. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Menentukan Faktor Penyebab Kegagalan Terbesar Mahasiswa, dalam Pengambilan Mata Kuliah Aljabar Linear dengan Metode Analysis Hierarchy Proses
551. Pendeteksian Wajah dengan Pengekstraksian Area Wajah yang Memanfaatkan Ruang Warna LHS
552. Pengukuran Kemampuan Dengan Sistem Manajemen Pembelajaran Menggunakan Metode Asynchronous Learning Networks (ALN)
553. Enkripsi XML ( Menggunakan Algoritma Triple Data Encryption Standard (3 DES) )
554. Simulasi Pembayaran Three Party Dengan Pengamanan Bertingkat Pada E-Commerce
555. Perancangan dan Implementasi Aplikasi Smartcard untuk Sistem Registrasi di STT Telkom
556. Peningkatan Keamanan Jaringan dengan Intrusion Detection System Berbasis Distributed System
557. Implementasi Teknik Data Hiding pada Pembangkitan Citra Fractal dengan Metode Pemfilteran Fourier
558. Perangkat Lunak Visualisasi Objek 3D ‘Landscape’ Dengan Fractal
559. Peningkatan QoS Voice over IP dengan mengimplementasikan FRF -12 pada Frame Relay
560. Implementasi Data Mining untuk Penggalian Kaidah Asosiasi Menggunakan Metode Bottom Up Algoritma Eclat
561. Pengenalan Pola Transaksi Pada Database Transaksi Menggunakan Data Mining Sequential Pattern
562. Desain dan Implementasi Manajemen Jaringan Berbasis Web untuk Jaringan IP (Internet Protocol)
563. Kompresi Citra Berwarna Menggunakan Metode Adaptive Huffman
564. Pembangunan RPC (Remote Procedure Call) Pada UMS (Unified Messaging System)
565. Sistem Realokasi Bandwidth pada XNMS
566. Implementasi Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem pada Program Enkripsi - Dekripsi
567. Implementasi dan Analisa Penggunaan Voice XML dan SOAP pada Aplikasi Pengaksesann Web dan Basis Data Berbasis Voice
568. Routing Bebas Deadlock Dan Bebas Livelock Dengan Algoritma Prefix Routing Pada Jaringan Tak Teratur
569. Analisis Terhadap Kemampuan Pendekatan Berorientasi Objek dalam Mengakomodasi Perubahan Kebutuhan pada Pengembangan Perangkat Lunak
570. Implementasi BPCS- Steganography pada citra digital menggunakan metode Complexity Based Region Segmentation
571. Penciptaan Pengguna Anonim dalam E-Commerce dengan Bantuan Sistem Pihak Ketiga
572. Pemeriksaan Tata Bahasa dalam Kalimat Bahasa Inggris Menggunakan Algoritma Left Corner Parsing
573. Analisa Quality Of Service Jaringan Paket Data GPRS Berdasarkan Mekanisme Retransmisi Selective Repeat
574. Penentuan Posisi Benda Berdasarkan Intensitas Cahaya
575. Pembangunan Prototype Kuis Interaktif Menggunakan Fasilitas Interactive Voice Response (IVR) dengan Studi Kasus di PT. Telkomsel
576. Implementasi, Analisa dan Perbandingan Kompresi Audio MPEG-1 Layer 3, MPEG-2 Advanced Audio Coding dan Wavelet Packet Audio Coding
577. Implementasi Autentikasi Citra Digital menggunakan Watermarks Berupa Has Citra dengan Transformasi Fourier
578. Aplikasi Messaging Agent dengan Menggunakan User Preferences
579. Implementasi Merchant Payment Gateway dan Certificate Authority Pada Transaksi E-Commerce yang Berbasis Smart Card
580. Perancangan dan Implementasi Perangkat Lunak Network Management Berbasis Web untuk jaringan Internet Protokol (IP) dengan menggunakan SOAP dan XML
581. Desain dan Implementasi Text Mining untuk Optimisasi Hasil Query Dengan Teknik Collaborative Filtering
582. Implementasi Honeypot sebagai Alat Bantu Deteksi pada Keamanan Jaringan
583. Perancangan Web Viewer pada PDA ( Personal Digital Assistance ) Berbasis Windows CE
584. Aplikasi Intrusion Prevention System Berbasis Loadable Kernel Module Pada Sistem Operasi Linux
585. Perancangan dan Implementasi Java Applet Decompiler
586. Pengembangan Layanan Monitoring dan Reporting Akses Web Site Berbasis Web dan WAP
587. Implementasi Sistem Basis Data Deductive dengan Intelligent Database Interface
588. Analisa Perbandingan Aplikasi Transformasi Fourier dan Transformasi Wavelet pada Proses Kompresi Citra Digital
589. Implementasi Digital Signature Pada Sistem Keamanan Mobile Banking
590. Analisis Algoritma Duplicate Hash Routing pada Sistem Web Cache Terdistribusi
591. Sistem Informasi Unit Telesales di Citybank
592. Perancangan dan Implementasi Perangkat Lunak Visualisasi Obyek Tiga Dimensi Dengan Metode Hierarchical B-Spline
593. Pemrosesan Bahasa Alamiah Secara Kontekstual
594. Implementasi Algoritma Genetika Klasik Untuk Menyelesaikan Masalah Transportasi Linier Pada Sistem Manufaktur Dengan Menggunakan Algoritma A* Sebagai Masukan Jarak/Cost
595. Implementasi Basis Data Terdistribusi Dengan Fasilitas Recovery Pada Aplikasi Otomasi Perhitungan Fund Managament Di PT. (Persero) Asuransi Kesehatan Indonesia Jakarta
596. Pengenalan Sidik Jari dengan Metoda Circular Sampling
597. Optimasi Proses Packing List dengan Menggunakan Algoritma Genetika
598. Implementasi Sistem Cluster Untuk Optimalisasi Metode Ray Casting
599. Kompresi Citra Warna Lossless dan Near- Lossless dengan Metode Edge Adaptive Quantization
600. Sistem Penjadwalan Perawatan Mesin pada Industri Manufaktur
601. Analisa Perbandingan Performansi IP- Over -ATM dan -IP-Over SONET pada Backbone Internet
602. Intellegent Recommender System Untuk Pemilihan Film Menggunakan Collaborative Filtering Dan Content Based Filtering
603. Aplikasi Pengaturan Trafik Kereta Api Berbasis Intelejensia Buatan Dengan Penjadwalan Design To Criteria Serta Bantuan Komunikasi Melalui SMS
604. Simulasi Kontrol Perangkat Elektronik dengan Bluetooth Menggunakan J2ME
605. Perancangan dan Realisasi SMS Gateway untuk Reservasi
606. Pembuatan Aplikasi Operator Pesan Suara Pada Virtual Phone ( VIPO ) (Studi Kasus Div RisTI PT. Telekomunikasi Indonesia)
607. Deteksi Wajah Menggunakan Filter Gabor Wavelet dan Algoritma Genetik
608. Kompresi Citra menggunakan Metode Statistical Coding
609. Analisa perbandingan Perfomansi Binary Exponential Backoff dan Binary logarithmic Arbitration Method pada teknologi ethernet ( IEEE 802.3 )
610. Implementasi Transformasi Wavelet Pada Kompresi Citra Digital Menggunakan Teknik Pengkodean Recursive Splitting Huffman
611. Analisa Multipoint Relaying pada Optimized Link State Routing Protocol untuk Mobile Ad Hoc Network
612. Studi dan Implementasi Single Sign On Menggunakan LDAP
613. Analisa Perbandingan Performansi Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vektor Routing dan Adhoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing Pada Adhoc Network
614. Implementasi Transformasi Burrows Wheeler Pada Kompresi Data Dengan Menggunakan Teknik Pengkodean Run Length
615. Simulasi Location Based Service Menggunakan SMS
616. Analisis Data Confidentiality dengan Menggunakan Teknik chaffing and Winnowing
617. Implementasi Elliptic Curves Cryptosystem pada Pembuatan Digital Signature
618. Analisa Implementasi Fuzzy Based Rate Control Pada Real-Time MPEG Video Di Jaringan ATM
619. Perancangan Aplikasi Voice Converence Menggunakan Protokol RTP Pada Jaringan Intranet
620. Pembentukan Panorama dengan Image Mosaicing
621. Analisa Pemilihan Lintasan Pada QOS- Routing dengan Algoritma A*
622. Studi Dan Implementasi Watermarking Untuk Penyimpanan Index Data Pada Gambar Menggunakan Transformasi Wavelet
623. Manajemen Buffer dengan Fuzzy Control Priority pada Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
624. Analisis Kualitas Layanan Jaringan Internet Melalui Sistem Rekayasa Trafik dengan Mekanisme MPLS
625. Studi Unjuk Kerja Usage Parameter Control (UPC) Pada Jaringan ATM dengan Mekanisme Leaky Bucket
626. Pembuatan Database terpusat dengan Pemodelan Object Relational
627. Perancangan Sistem Pelayanan Rawat Jalan Rumah Sakit Berbasis Smart Card
628. Implementasi Metode Kompresi LZ77 dengan Algoritma Two-Level Hashing
629. Perancangan dan Implementasi Aplikasi Monitoring System Global Area Pada Oracle 8i Untuk Peningkatan Performansi Dengan Tuning Memori
630. Penggunaan Tanda Tangan Digital pada File
631. Pemanfaatan Teknologi Telemetri untuk Informasi Peringatan Dini Banjir
632. Sistem Pendukung Pengambilan Keputusan Menentukan Faktor Kesuksesan Kerja Divisi Pelatihan Telkom (Studi Kasus : Divlat Telkom)
633. Analisis dan Desain Sistem Informasi Apotek Kentungan Yogyakarta
634. Simulasi Virtual Time CSMA/CD Pada Jaringan Broadeast Kanal Tunggal Dengan Menggunakan Sistem Waktu Nyata
635. Perencanaan Tata Guna Lahan dengan Algoritma Genetika
636. Implementasi Remote Network Management pada Router dan Network Interface Card dengan Simple Network Management Protocol
637. Aplikasi Yellow Pages dengan Menggunakan Teknologi J2ME untuk Mobile Devices
638. Implementasi Algoritma BHRA pada Jaringan ATM PNNI Berdasarkan Quality of Service
639. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Perpustakaan pada Media Handphone Berbasis J2ME Menggunakan Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
640. Representasi Data Obyek Tiga Dimensi Berdasarkan Metode Akses R+Tree Dengan Pendekatan Teknik Similarity
641. Repository Partitur Musik Klasik
642. Perangkat Lunak Konfigurasi Packet Filtering Menggunakan Ipchains Dan Iptables Pada Kernel 2.4
643. Simulasi Soft Handoff pada Komunikasi Bergerak dengan Logika Fuzzy
644. Morphing Berbasis Vektor pada Objek Dua Dimensi Berdasarkan Model Extended Circular Image (ECI)
645. Simulation Algoritma Greedy pada Multicast Routing yang Dinamis dalam Jaringan ATM
646. Implementasi Help Desk dengan Instant Messaging Studi Kasus Penanganan Gangguan Komputer di STT Telkom
647. Implementasi dan Analisa RSVP pada Jaringan IP Integrated Service
648. Perancangan Sistem Informasi Geogerfis (SIG) Kependudukan Dan Sosial Ekonomi Pada Daerah Perkotaan Studi Kasus Masalah Daerah Pemukiman Kumuh Di Kota Bandung
649. Aplikasi Mailing List Dan Guess Word Pada Short Message Service
650. Model Pengembangan Teknologi Handset untuk Layanan Teletext
651. Algoritma ANTNET untuk Pencarian Rute Secara Dinamis pada Jaringan Connectionless
652. Kajian Implementasi Konsep Himpunan dan Keanggotaan Fuzzy untuk Pengklasifikasian Objek pada Relational Database Management System
653. Manajemen Sejarah Kerusakan Perangkat Berbasis SNMP
654. Perangkat Lunak Bantu Pendokumentasian Object Basis Data Oracle
655. Editor Visual Pemrograman Berorientasi Objek Berbasis UML
656. Pemodelan Dan Simulasi Sistem Tranportasi Cerdas Pada Peta Jalan Kota Bandung Dengan Pencarian Jalur Optimal Secara Dinamis
657. Studi dan Implementasi Migrator antar - RDBMS
658. Optimasi Sistem Operasi Linux Mini untuk Aplikasi Sistem Embedded
659. Penggunaan Transformasi Wavelet untuk Pendeteksian Mikrokalsifikasi pada Citra Mammogram
660. Perangkat Lunak Untuk Konfigurasi Switch Berbasis Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
661. Sistem Pengaksesan Nilai Perkuliahan Menggunakan Mobile Phone denganTeknologi J2ME (Studi Kasus : Jurusan Teknik Informatika STT Telkom)
662. Deteksi Kemiripan Wajah Menggunakan Logika Samar dan Metode Berbasis Proyeksi
663. Perangkat Lunak untuk Memproteksi File Berekstensi Exe
664. Penentuan Posisi Obyek Secara Kinematik Berdasarkan Format Input Global Positioning System
665. Prediksi Kebutuhan Bandwidth Di Virtual Path Jaringan ATM Menggunakan Algoritma Genetika
666. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Registrasi Kuliah Berbasis SMS di STT Telkom
667. Analisis Perbandingan Packet Scheduling untuk Fair sevice antar Koneksi pada Internet
668. Implementasi Sistem Keamanan Web Services Terpusat Menggunakan XML Signature dan XML Encryption
669. Pengajaran Bahasa Berbasis Komputer untuk Tata Bahasa Inggris (Computer Assisted Language Learning/Call for English Grammar)
670. Prototype Sistem Berbasis WAP dan GPS untuk Reservasi Taksi
671. Analisis Perbandingan Pemrosesan File XML dengan Pendekatan Simple Api for XML (SAX) dan Document Object Model (DOM)
672. Implementasi Algoritma Ant Colony pada Pemecahan Travelling Salesman Problem
673. Penyediaan Layanan pada Perangkat Bergerak Menggunakan Jini
674. Penerapan Algoritma Ant Colony dalam Pemecahan Asymmetric Travelling Sales Problem (Studi Kasus Penentuan Rute pada Antaran Surat Kotak Pos di KP II Bandung)
675. Perancangan Data Warehouse pada Basis Data Nilai Akademik STT Telkom Menggunakan Model Data Star Schema
676. Pembangunan Aplikasi Pengelompokkan Dokumen dengan Metode Suffix Tree Clustering pada kumpulan hasil dari Mesin Pencarian
677. Implementasi Pengawasan Performansi Jaringan Ethernet dengan Menggunakan Remote Network Monitoring Management I
          Komentar di Mengenang Syekh Yasin al-Fadani oleh Jannatul Husna bin Ali Nuar @ Anuar        
Salam sahabat, Sedikit cerita tentang Allahyarham Syekh Yasin Padang atau yang dipanggil oleh orang kampung ayahnya dengan "Haji Makkah". Beliau mempunyai murid yang ramai, tersebar di pelbagai negara. Selain yang telah disebut-sebut oleh banyak penulis, seperti Syekh 'Ali Jum'ah, Kyai Sahal Mahfuz dan lain-lain, beliau juga "mewariskan" ilmu kepada murid-muridnya di Malaysia. Saya mahu menyebutkan beberapa nama seperti Tan Sri Hassan Azhari (Qari yang melaungkan azan waktu Malaysia Merdeka, 1957), Dato' Syekh Abdul Halim Abd Kadir (Yang Dipertua Persatuan Ulama Malaysia atau Ketua Umum MUI kalau di Indonesia), Dato Paduka Dr Muhammad Nur Lubis (Pegawai Istinbat Kanan/Senior di Jabatan Mufti Kerajaan Brunei), Profesor Muhibuddin Wali (Ulama Acheh yang pernah menjadi Guru Besar di Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia), dan masih banyak lagi yang lain. Di masa hidupnya, "Si Haji Makkah" berkawan akrab dengan Syekh Muda Wali (Ulama Minang yang berkhidmat di Acheh Darussalam) dan Syekh Ali Hasan Ahmad al-Dari (Profesor di IAIN Sumatera Utara). Demikian, sekilas info dari saya semoga bermanfaat. Salam, Jannatul Husna bin Ali Nuar @ Anuar Penulis Tesis MA di Universiti Malaya dan Ph.D di Universiti Brunei Darussalam tentang Syekh Yasin Padang
          Aku Sebungkus Nasi Katok        
Aku tiada nama. Aku cuma tahu aku adalah sebungkus nasi katok. Nasi katok tu mcm nasi lemak orang Brunei. Kalau tak silap penulis crita ini.
Aku sedap. Aku yakin aku sedap. Bakal tuan aku dari jauh lagi sudah memesan kepada kawan beliau yang bernama Kawan Saya utk mendapatkan aku d pasaran.
Bakal tuan aku agak lapar. Tiada masa untuk makan. Dia cikgu. Masa makan memang sesuka hati dia.
Jadi Kawan Saya telah membeli aku. Bye bye kawan seperjuangan lain. Tak lama lagi aku akan dikunyah dengan nikmatnya dan dicernakan dan jadilah aku monomer yang paling halus untuk diserap ke dalam badan tuan aku nanti.
Begitulah riwayat hidup nasi katok.
Tapi aku special case.
Kawan Saya dgn amanahnya meletakkan aku di boot belakang kereta tuan aku seperti yg beliau ingini. Oh wow. Lain sungguh tuan aku ini. Sibuk kah dia untuk mengambil aku dari Kawan Saya? Siapakah gerangan tuan aku ini.
Tiba-tiba, datang seorang manusia. Dia housemate tuan aku rupenyerr. Dia masuk kreta, start engine dan terus gostan (reverse).
Kedebuk
Aku jatuh atas jalan tar. Mana dapat aku mengawal keseimbangan badan aku sebagai sebungkus nasi katok.
Bungkusan kertas yang menutupi aku dah senget dan aku sudah terdedah kepada mikroorganisma.
Kedepopp. Homaigoshh. Aku mati kah. Belum lagi. Tayar kreta tuan aku menggilis botol kosong ntah apa d tepi itu.
Lama juga aku terbiar di atas jalan. Beberapa budak kecil tengah bermain dan tak menghiraukan aku.
Kemudian aku nampak tuan aku menjenguk nun d atas sana tingkat 3. Jauhnya dia. Patut la tak turun amik aku tadi.
Muka tuan aku undefined emotion nya. Mcm ketawa mcm sedih tengok keadaan aku tersadai di atas jalan raya.
Baru saja tuan aku terdetik hati ingin mengutip aku di sini, datang sebuah kereta melimpasi aku. Oh gas karbon monoksida mencemarkan aku. Limpas atas aku lagi. Memang beribu-ribu mikroorganisma sudah hinggap pada badan aku.
Aku lemah.
Aku tak dpt melawan arus dunia.
Aku tak dapat diselamatkan.
Aku kotor dan penyek sedikit.
Aku tak dapat dimakan oleh tuan aku.
Sudah lah. Abis cerita.
Tamatlah riwayat aku, sebungkus nasi katok.
P.s. tuan aku tak makan lagi, dia sibuk mkn henpon.




          Los países MAS RICOS del MUNDO.        

















Se dice que los países son ricos si las personas que viven allí ganan lo suficiente para mantenerse ellos mismos. Hay dos métodos estándar para medir la riqueza de los países, y qué tan ricos o pobres son susHABITANTES. La medida usada más a menudo es el Producto Interno Bruto[^] o (PIB), el cual representa el tamaño de la economía de un país.
Un refinamiento de éste, es el PIB per cápita, el cual es una medida del bienestar promedio, y la riqueza o pobreza de los residentes de un país — Sin embargo, la medida que la mayoría de los economistas en el mundo prefieren es el PIB basado en la Paridad del Poder Adquisitivo[^] o (PPA). Esta es la lista de los 10 países más ricos del mundo basada en la Paridad del Poder Adquisitivo (PPA) per cápita:
#10. Kuwait
PIB (PPA): $43,773 [€32,386.72]
Región: Medio Oriente
Los Diez Países Más Ricos Del Mundo 2013Kuwait es uno de los países más prósperos en el Medio Oriente. Como los otros, depende enormemente del petróleo para sus ingresos. El crudo representa la mayoría de sus exportaciones. Cuenta con una población de 2.8 millones. Su ingreso per cápita lo convierte en uno de los países más ricos del mundo.

#9. Suiza
PIB (PPA): $44,015 [€32,565.83]
Región: Europa
Los Diez Países Más Ricos Del Mundo 2013Situada en el continente europeo, Suiza cuenta con una economía bien diversa, además de ser una de las economías más estables del mundo. La economía de este rico país depende de laBANCA, el turismo, industrias y agricultura. Suiza es también líder mundial en la exportación de relojes de alta gama. Es uno de los paraísos financieros para aquellos quienes buscan esconder su dinero.

#8. Emiratos Árabes Unidos
PIB (PPA): $48,434 [€35,819.13]
Región: Medio Oriente
Los Diez Países Más Ricos Del Mundo 2013Otro de los países más ricos del Medio Oriente, los Emiratos Arabes Unidos (EAU) consisten en siete Emiratos independientes los cuales se rigen por sus propios monarcas. Es el segundo país árabe más rico. Su PIB es el tercero más grande en el Medio Oriente, después de Arabia Saudita e Irán.
Genera riqueza de sus exportaciones de petróleo y gas natural, junto con pescado seco y dátiles. Con el agotamiento de sus reservas de petróleo, los Emiratos han empezado a diversificar sus negocios. Este rico país planea ahora convertirse en un gran destino turístico y líder mundial del mercado financiero.

#7. Estados Unidos
PIB (PPA): $49,601 [€36,698.30]
Región: América
Los Diez Países Más Ricos Del Mundo 2013Estados Unidos, el país más poderoso del mundo y la economía más poderosa del mundo, lidera al mundo en ciencia y tecnología y en casi todos los campos de la investigación que se pueda imaginar. Es el exportador más grande de armas y también de otros bienes y servicios.
Este rico país cuenta con un PIB de alrededor $15 billones (€11 billones) lo que lo convierte en la economía más rica y grande del mundo. Estados Unidos también es el fabricante más grande del mundo y la nación financiera líder.

#6. Brunéi
PIB (PPA): $50,440 [€37,318.76]
Región: Asia
Los Diez Países Más Ricos Del Mundo 2013Situado en el Sudeste de Asia, Brunei genera sus ingresos de exportaciones de petróleo crudo y gas natural. Las ganancias del petróleo contribuyen alrededor de un 90% a su PIB. Con una población pequeña de menos de medio millón, Brunei es uno de los países menos densamente poblados del mundo. Su sultán es una de las personas más ricas del mundo.

#5. Hong Kong
PIB (PPA): $50,716 [€37,523.05]
Región: Asia
Los Diez Países Más Ricos Del Mundo 2013Situado en la costa sur de China, Hong Kong es el quinto país más rico basado en los ingresos per cápita. Cuenta con un alto PIB, y es un destino financiero líder en el mundo, así como en Asia. Es una región especialmente administrada con su propia moneda, pero con servicios de defensa de China.

#4. Noruega
PIB (PPA): $54,479 [€40,289.23]
Región: Europa
Los Diez Países Más Ricos Del Mundo 2013Con cerca de 5 millones de personas, Noruega, con un alto PIB y una población relativamente baja, es uno de los países más ricos de la Tierra. La economía de esta rica nación depende de las reservas de petróleo y gas natural encontradas alrededor del país.

#3. Singapur
PIB (PPA): $61,046.96 [€45,146.42]
Región: Asia
Los Diez Países Más Ricos Del Mundo 2013Localizado en el Sudeste de Asia y compuesto de 63 islas, Singapur es un país isla completo. Es uno de los centros financieros más grandes del mundo, y junto a Taiwan, Hong Kong y Corea del Sur, forman los Cuatro Tigres de Asia. Tiene una población de alrededor de 5.5 millones de personas.

#2. Luxemburgo
PIB (PPA): $79,649.49 [€58,929.79]
Región: Europa
Los Diez Países Más Ricos Del Mundo 2013Es el segundo país más rico del mundo y mantiene el título como “país más rico de Europa”. Luxemburgo es más famoso por ser un paraíso fiscal. Multimillonarios de alrededor del mundo viven es este país para salvarse de impuestos en sus países natales.
Liderado por un Gran Duque, con una población de alrededor de medio millón, el país cuenta con un fuerte contraste de verdes pastos junto con una ciudad mega industrializada. LaBANCA, industria de acero y las telecomunicaciones contribuyen fuertemente a su riqueza.

#1. Qatar
PIB (PPA): $106,283.96 [€78,635.68]
Región: Medio Oriente
Los Diez Países Más Ricos Del Mundo 2013Con una población de alrededor de 1.9 millones y un PIB equivalente a $182 mil millones (€134.6 mil millones), Qatar es el país más rico del mundo. Está situado en el Golfo Pérsico y es una península.
La economía de este rico país depende enteramente del petróleo, ya que éste contribuye casi un 85% en sus ganancias de exportaciones. La banca y el turismo son otras áreas con las que QatarGENERA DINERO.

          Extraña criatura vista en Brunei        

Un lector me envía un vídeo que circula estos días por la red, en el que se ve a un extraño ser, con dientes de cocodrilo y colmillos de jabalí nadando en un río de Brunei.

Como suele ocurrir, el vídeo no es nuevo. El original es del 19 de diciembre de 2014, y fue publicado en un canal llamado “Unidentified Creature“. Es el único vídeo que tiene publicado este usuario, lo que da tufo a trola. Os muestro la versión original, en vez de la que circula estos días, porque tiene sonido el real, en vez de una banda sonora.…


          ....And another question.....        
So, we've answered the big question- what is the NBN. Anyone who would like some more detail, please feel free to comment and I'll try to answer any questions, or, there are some great websites out there that will give you some detailed looks into the technology involved in the NBN. The main government site, NBN.gov is quite good in the information it delivers. Although as usual when dealing with governments, the information is delivered in quite a syrupy rhetoric and is relatively simple in its' nature. NBN Co's website is also relatively basic and its' overview is skewed more towards information about the company and its' goals as well as the actual rollout of the NBN. There are some interesting "Case Study" sections which look at how the NBN will affect individuals, schools and businesses on a one-by-one basis. Obviously, these are overwhelmingly positive, as one would expect of any company trying to hock their own goods and services. But it at least gives an idea of what individuals can do with their new connection. There is also an older site (not updated now) that gives a few good analyses of the NBN here.

This is a link to the National Broadband Network Implementation Study, done by the government just before the rollout of the NBN began on a trial basis. This is the study that brought about alot of political contention as to whether it was an achievable goal to have an FTTH NBN that reached over 90% of premises. The study was, of course, paid for by the Labor Federal Government, commissioned by then PM Kevin Rudd and done by McKinsey & Company and KPMG. One interesting point of note on this study, if we look at the overview page, is the last 2 points (quoted directly from the site):


1- NBN Co can build a strong and financially viable business case with the Study estimating it will be earnings positive by year six and able to pay significant distributions on its equity following completion of the rollout; and


2- The Government can expect a return on its equity investment sufficient to fully cover its cost of funds


This is interesting to note, as the vast majority of infrastructure a government builds and maintains is either fiscally neutral or a tax payer burden. In this case, the money NBN Co. receives will be funnelled back to the Federal Government once costs and maintenance have been taken out and the profits will, presumably (although this is, of course, up to the Government of the day) be used to pay back the debt borrowed to build the NBN. This leads me to my next question:


Is the NBN worth the money?


People might say this is an inherently subjective question. But in real monetary terms, IS the NBN worth what it is giving Australia?

It's estimated the NBN will have a final cost around $37 Billion, down from the originally, and much debated, $43 Billion. This includes $27.5 Billion invested (and borrowed) directly by the Government. The remainder will be paid for by private investment (shares in NBN Co.). So, the direct government cost will be $27.5 Billion, assuming, of course, NBN Co. can actually raise the $10-13 Billion odd of private investment; this seems likely, as such a large project, once underway, would limit the high risk of investment. $27.5 Billion is alot of money, no matter where you're from (unless you're Apple, who seems to sneeze and have that much money). But it is not, by any means, an insurmountable, nor particularly large single amount of money for a Government of Australia's size and economic standing. Obviously, some explanation is needed.....I'm afraid this will be quite dry.....

Australia's current GDP (PPP adjusted- read up) is hovering at just under the $1 Trillion mark, around $925 Billion (US). Now, GDP is not ACTUALLY a particularly useful measure in todays economics as it is only a measure of a countries goods and services produced WITHIN a country. In a globalised world, this does not take into account companies that are international, both owned BY Australians and by other countries working IN Australia. Mining companies are a good example. It is only a measure of all companies and services inside of a country. It is also NOT a measure of living standards or income. However, it IS used to determine an economies health, as a general rule. The idea being, a healthy growth in GDP (usually 2%) shows an increase in trade overall and therefore a corresponding increase in income, wealth and capital. For this reason, it is usually also used as a measure of debt.

International debt has been in the spotlight since the 2008 GFC. More recently, the European debt crisis has shown how sovereign debt (that is debt of a government, not private debt, as in the GFC) can destabilise not only the country who owns the debt, but also its' trading partners. A country MUST have room to move fiscally. A government needs borrowing power for the adjustments of budget, building and essential maintenance of infrastructure and the general running of the country. Governments usually borrow money for infrastructure by issuing Government bonds. These are bonds that are issued with a specified annual return interest at a specified maturity date in the future, that other countries governments and private companies can buy as investments. The higher risk the investment in the country (ie. the more unstable the economy) the higher the interest rate for the bonds usually are. There comes a point where the risk is such that other governments and companies refuse to buy the bonds and the issuing government runs into trouble as they cannot borrow enough money. This is the position countries such as Italy and Greece have found themselves in. This is, of course, a generalisation, as there are MANY variables and also other ways governments borrow money. But for our purposes, it is good enough.

The level of national debt a country has is usually measured as a percentage of GDP (hence using GDP as an economic measure). The lowest levels of debt in the world (using IMF statistics) are countries like Estonia, Saudi Arabia, Chile and Brunei. These countries do not necessarily have good, healthy economies, they simply do not borrow heavily internationally. Partly because they may not want to (in the case of North Korea, which doesn't even rank) or because they can't (Estonia, Chile) as other countries consider them too big an investment risk due to instability. There are countries that have healthy economies in this bunch though too, such as Saudi Arabia, Brunei and Luxembourg. Australia, if you look in terms of healthy economies, is just above Luxembourg for ranking in highest debt, about 1/5 of the way up and just below the United Arab Emirates. We have a %GDP debt of 20%. But once you take into account all sorts of corrections like net debt, PPP etc, in monetary terms, this means we have a debt of around $100 Billion dollars. The US has a %GDP debt of 94%, UK 75%, Europe 80% and Italy and Greece, 119% and 142% respectively. Of course, all these are significantly different MONETARY amounts. The US GDP is $14.6 Trillion (US). So it's monetary debt is nearly $14 Trillion. But the US also produces much more, and therefore has greater cash flow, so, technically better ability to pay back. I won't get into the nitty gritty, but suffice to say, lower levels of %GDP debt for a healthy economy are better. But, while no debt is excellent, it is rarely possible, nor likely. So low levels are considered normal and healthy.

It varies widely what IS considered "healthy" debt, but in general anything under 50% is considered reasonable and healthy, depending on the economy. Here is a global map of %GDP debt (reference).


This map will be slightly different to one made from the %GDP debt I was quoting as it is made from rankings done by the CIA not the IMF. But the principle is illustrated.

Australia's debt, at 20% is considered very healthy and is among the lowest in the Western world. Our government does not live beyond its' means, although it has done in the past and will probably do so in the future, should our economy be mismanaged at some point again. To give an example of dubious relevance, but easy to understand, Australia's income is $100 000 a year. We want to buy a block of land that costs $20 000. It would not be difficult to get financing for said land, nor would it be inadvisable to do so, assuming the land will appreciate (which it almost certainly will). It is a reasonable investment. This is an example of our current debt in one lump sum.

When it comes (finally) to the NBN, we want to build a national network that will cover the country (or 93% of it fixed line) with fast, reliable, cheap (I'll get to this in a following post) and essential communications. The NBN will cost the government $28 Billion dollars, which it will borrow;

Note- this does NOT come from the budget as some media outlets have reported. This is government debt (or government capital debt) and only the interest is paid from the budget. Obviously interest, even at an average 3.5% (Bloomberg) on $28 Billion dollars is significant, but this is only accumulated until NBN Co. begins to turn revenue and pays back to the Government.  Bond maturities (interest payouts) are calculated and taken into account in the National budget. They are planned, as each bond can have a different maturity time, and contingencies are in place for early terminations of maturity. See here for an interesting article about the politics surrounding these issues.

So the $28 Billion the Government ponies up for the NBN is approximately 25% of our current debt or 5% of %GDP debt. All that JUST to explain that single sentence?? Well yes, and it is even more complex than that (here's an interesting piece on CBA or Cost Benefit Analysis of the NBN usually done on infrastructure and how difficult and often useless they are). We haven't yet taken into account the monetary return the NBN will provide for the Government (NBN Co. are predicting 7% returns by 2020) the ongoing returns from revenue and cash flow and the possibility (hopefully not in my opinion) of the sellout of the NBN after it is complete and a lump sum return. And THAT doesn't even include the actual, tangible economic growth gain the NBN will provide! There is a great Blog article by Google Australia which shows how much the Internet contributes to the Australian economy.  It's estimated it will "boost GDP by $27 Billion in 2011." So the Internet, at its' current demand, will boost the Australian economy by almost the same amount estimated the Government will spend on the NBN.....and that's BEFORE we take into account the increased economic activity the NBN will provide once built.

Now some might say this is a narrow view, "blinkered" if you like, by a love of technology and all cats playing the piano videos on youTube.  But the fact is, there is measurable, quantifiable data that shows the Internet is, quite literally, revolutionising the way we live. There is anecdotal evidence, such as the verb "to Google" something being entered in the Oxford Dictionary. There is the observable consumer evidence which shows Australia has the 2nd fastest uptake of smartphones in the world (behind only Singapore) and more than 50% of us are now using them. There is personal evidence; when was the last time you looked up an address in the Yellow Pages? Or even a phone number for that matter? And if you did, was it in the paper book, or online? Did you REALLY get that idea to see The Hunger Games from TV, or was it on an Ad next to your email? Businesses like JB HiFi, Harvey Norman and Myer have been realising in the past 2 years they've been late getting on the band wagon of online and their plummeting revenues reflect this. Why would your average consumer pay $100 for something from Harvey Norman, when they can buy the same from an Australian selling on eBay for $75 including postage if they know what they want?

The fact is, we have only been living with the commercial Internet for around 20 years (and that's being optimistic, global information traffic on the Internet was around 1% in 1993) and we are only beginning to see the potential it has. Currently, Australian demand bandwidth is at between 10 and 20Mbps. By 2016 it is predicted to be close to 100Mbps and by 2025 to be close to 1 Gbps. Even if Telstra were to roll out HFC in massive quantities, it would not be able to afford to do it to even half the country by 2021, around the time the NBN is due for completion. The Internet is ever expanding and ever consuming. The only way for Australia to grow, both nationally and internationally, is to keep pace with growing Internet demand. The NBN is a golden opportunity to allow and encourage this growth. It is large national infrastructure. But, considering the growth of Australia since the late 1940's (7.5 Million) compared to now (~23 Million), it is not much more expensive than building the original CAN (Customer Access Network) that we still have now for the increased population (£42 Million- or $10 Billion in todays money). And this is not counting the life of the network, pegged at 50 years in its current form, but with upgrades to the hardware, but not the lines, well beyond that.

And if we were to cancel it now? Cut our losses and go with the cheaper option (explained next!) Well, I won't go into detail, many people have done that already. Suffice to say, it'll save us.....about $1 Billion. Sounds like alot. What would that get us? Well, in the 2011 budget, $1.1 Billion was saved with "Public service efficiency." It is also about 1/8 of the budget of Community Services and Culture, our lowest budget category. Or 1/120 of Welfare, our highest budget spender. $28 Billion is about twice the current yearly infrastructure budget. That's BUDGETED infrastructure, such as upgrades of major highways and motorways like the M5 and Pacific Highway. So for twice the annual budget we spend on infrastructure, we have an almost entirely new network of cables in the ground and hardware to run them at current speeds of 100Mbps, rising to 1 Gbps in 10 years......now if that's not bad, tell me what isn't?



          Expertos brindan capacitación sobre tecnologías educativas a funcionarios del MINEDU        
Como parte de las actividades preparatorias para la Cumbre de países miembros del Foro de Cooperación Económica Asia-Pacífico (APEC) que se realizará en Perú en el año 2016, representantes de instituciones adscritas a esa organización desarrollaron en Lima un taller de tecnologías educativas a favor de funcionarios del Ministerio de Educación (MINEDU)

La capacitación estuvo a cargo del presidente del Instituto de Colaboración Educativa (IACE), Dongsun Park, así como del investigador Jisang Yu y el doctor Young Hwan Kim de la Universidad Nacional de Pusan (Corea del Sur), integrante de la Red de Constructores de Comunidades de Aprendizaje (ALCoB).

Al término del taller realizado la semana pasada, el presidente del IACE destacó la participación del Perú en el APEC señalando que su presencia fortalece a ese foro económico en Latinoamérica. Señaló que se tiene prevista la difusión de la experiencia peruana en el campo de la formación vía virtual, mediante la revista de ALCoB. 

Por su parte, la jefa de la Oficina de Cooperación Internacional del MINEDU, Carmen Beltrán Vargas agradeció la capacitación y destacó que el intercambio de conocimientos –a través de IACE y AlCoB)-- contribuye al crecimiento social y económico sostenible del Perú y de los otros países miembros del APEC.

“El Foro de Cooperación Económica Asia-Pacífico APEC ofrece grandes ventajas para el intercambio de experiencias, buenas prácticas educativas y cooperación global mediante una red de docentes, estudiantes, empresarios y gestores educativos”, afirmó la funcionaria.

Explicó que desde el año 2014 el MINEDU viene fortaleciendo sus relaciones bilaterales con Corea, país miembro de la APEC con grandes avances en innovación de tecnologías educativas. 

Durante el “Taller de voluntarios de internet de la comunidad de constructores del conocimiento” se abordaron temas como los retos educativos del APEC, la conectividad persona a persona, el Programa de Intercambio de Entretenimiento Educativo ALCoB, el proyecto de cooperación en educación y el concepto “Edutainment”.

Dentro del marco del taller, los representantes de ALCoB, IACE y el MINEDU intercambiaron ideas sobre futuros posibles acuerdos orientados al intercambio de conocimiento. Como parte de ello, se evaluó establecer un trabajo conjunto entre escuelas de Corea, Filipinas y Perú, siendo este líder de proyectos de colaboración junto a México y Chile. 

Se planteó igualmente la creación de una secretaría de la Red AlCoB en Perú, para lo cual se necesitaría contar con el soporte de universidades peruanas, instituciones públicas y privadas, entre otros.

APEC está formado por 21 economías de Asia y la Cuenca del Pacífico, tales como Australia, Filipinas, Papúa Nueva Guinea, Brunei, China Hong Kong, Canadá, Indonesia, Rusia, Chile, Japón, Singapur, China, Malasia, Tailandia, Corea del Sur, México, China Taipei, Estados Unidos, Nueva Zelanda, Vietnam y Perú.

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          Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87        

Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87 : Photo Gallery

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

boss of Emporium Holdings

Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Chinese dissident Fang Lizhi

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' dream boss

The Straits Times
The Straits Times

The Straits Times

The Straits Times

Emporium Holdings' dream boss

Solomon's words for the wise: 4/17/11 - 4/
Solomon's words for the wise: 4/17/11 - 4/

Solomon's words for the wise: 4/17/11 - 4/

Solomon's words for the wise: 4/17/11 - 4/

Percy L. House, 87,

UrbanSurvival.com Daily News Update
UrbanSurvival.com Daily News Update

UrbanSurvival.com Daily News Update

UrbanSurvival.com Daily News Update

One "demonstrator dies and 87

20120408.113925_apr0812_ballpythontn.jpg
20120408.113925_apr0812_ballpythontn.jpg

20120408.113925_apr0812_ballpythontn.jpg

20120408.113925_apr0812_ballpythontn.jpg

Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87 · Facelift for Pan Pacific hotel to cost

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87 - Page 4 - www.
Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87 - Page 4 - www.

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87 - Page 4 - www.

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87 - Page 4 - www.

Emporium Holdings' dream boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87
Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87

Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87

The former boss of Emporium Holdings Group passed away on Saturday morning at the age of 87. Mr Lim Tow Yong, who returned to Singapore from Brunei just last month, died of heart failure. He was recommended to undergo surgery last November, ...

Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87 : Videos

Tanya Roberts Outrageous Love & Friendship Sam Botta-Live Fearless-Chris Shining,Executive Producer
Tanya Roberts Outrageous Love & Friendship Sam Botta-Live Fearless-Chris Shining,Executive Producer

Tanya Roberts Outrageous Love & Friendship Sam Botta-Live Fearless-Chris Shining,Executive Producer

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Lylat Wars - Aquas Boss

Lylat Wars - Aquas Boss

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Birdman aka Baby of Cash Money Records spends nearly €60 000 on the Louis Vuitton store in Paris!
Birdman aka Baby of Cash Money Records spends nearly €60 000 on the Louis Vuitton store in Paris!

Birdman aka Baby of Cash Money Records spends nearly €60 000 on the Louis Vuitton store in Paris!

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Guys Day Out: Spring Shooting 2011

Guys Day Out: Spring Shooting 2011

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Milk Production: "Triple Goodness" 1948 Foremost Dairies 23min

Milk Production: "Triple Goodness" 1948 Foremost Dairies 23min

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The Take
The Take

The Take

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» Roul - Pk Video [I] «
» Roul - Pk Video [I] «

» Roul - Pk Video [I] «

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Quincy native ties the knot again at 75

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P!nk - Leave Me Alone(Im Lonely) (DC Drum Cover)

P!nk - Leave Me Alone(Im Lonely) (DC Drum Cover)

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Group 1 Crew- "Keys To The Kingdom"

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RULE OF MAN (CHRISTIAN MUSIC VIDEO) by NEW INDIE ARTIST BRANDT MORAIN (song is best in top HD audio)

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Michael Lerner Sam Botta Atlas Shrugged April 15 Movie Release Oscars

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Emporium Holdings' boss dies at 87 : Latest News, Information, Answers and Websites

Emporium Holdings dream boss dies at 87

At the age of 72, he was declared a bankrupt. At the age of 82, Mr Lim Tow Yong became a millionaire all over again. For that, the former boss of Emporium Holdings Group always credited his former employees for spurring him on. Just last month ...

Sanford C. Sigoloff, Corporate Turnaround Expert, Dies at 80 |

... on behalf of Wickes retailers like Builders Emporium ... turn around, and most of its department store holdings ... Pioneering Lawyer in Mergers and Acquisitions, Dies at 87 →

          PAS pemangkin kegemilangan pendidikan Islam        
Oleh Wartawan Buletin

http://www.buletinonline.net/images/stories/berita46/makanmalamulamak.jpgKUALA TERENGGANU - Usaha yang diambil oleh PAS Terengganu menubuhkan sekolah rendah dan sekolah menengah Islam merupakan pemangkin dalam perkembangan institusi pendidikan Islam.

PAS Pusat berharap usaha tersebut akan dapat meneruskan kegemilangan pendidikan Islam untuk masyarakat dan masa depan Islam.

Timbalan Presiden PAS, Ustaz Nasharuddin Mat Isa berkata demikian dalam Majlis Makan Malam Untuk Dana Pendidikan yang dianjurkan oleh Dewan Ulamak PAS Negeri Terengganu di sebuah hotel, disini, Jumaat, 29 April.

"Usaha yang dilakukan di negeri Terengganu (oleh PAS) dengan penubuhan beberapa buah sekolah di peringkat rendah dan menengah, menjadi pemangkin kepada terus berkembangannya institusi pendidikan Islam,

"dengan kurikulumnya, matapelajarannya, dengan suasana biah yang diwujudkan, dapat kita meneruskan kegemilangan pendidikan Islam demi untuk masa masyarakiat kita dan masa depan agama kita,"ujarnya

Sebelum itu, menurutnya, industri instistusi pendidikan Islam di Malaysia mempunyai pasaran dan permintaan yang luas terutamanya dari kalangan umat Islam Asia Tenggara.

Ia adalah kerana, katanya, harapan mereka kepada pendidikan Islam di Malaysia adalah cuikup tinggi berbanding di negara mereka.

http://www.buletinonline.net/images/stories/berita46/makanmalamulamak1.jpg"Ramai rakan-rakan kita daripada Singapura, daripada Brunei, malah daripada Indonesia, yang hantar anak mereka belajar di Malaysia,

"kawan-kawan kita di Singapura, harapan mereka kepada pendidikan Islam di Malaysia cukup tinggi,"tegasnya.

Beliau juga memberitahu seramai lebih 450 orang hadirin dalam majlis tersebut, walaupun banyak sekolah-sekolah antarabangsa yang dibuka di Kuala Lumpur, namun tidak ada satu pun daripadanya merupakan sekolah berpendidikan Islam.

Justeru, katanya, ia menjadi cabaran kepada umat Islam, khususnya PAS bagi membuka sebuah sekolah seumpama itu.

Turut hadir dalam majlis tersebut adalah Ketua Dewan Ulamak PAS Pusat merangkap Pesuruhjaya PAS Terengganu, Dato' Ustaz Harun Taib dan Ketua Dewan Ulamak PAS Terengganu Dato' Ustaz Hussin Awang.


          The Sentimental Luddite        
Is sentimentality over-rated?

If you've chanced by the article about a tomboyish girl and her 11 year old pink scissors given by her mum (which she hated) and now cherish in memory [in Starmag today, 3rd of October, TheStar.] it might trigger your thoughts a little.

My dad had a watch, given by his dad, which he used for more than 45 years. He couldn't part with it even when it breathed its last (despite innumerable fixes and CPRs). And I believe he's still keeping it somewhere safe, laying in the midst of his black hole of a Cabinet

Then there's this guy in ?japan ?UK who has been using the same Gillete Razor for 75 years.
I bet if you're Gillette, he'd be The MOST LOYAL customer ever, that you wouldn't want, LOL. Coz his first purchase, is his last purchase..

Do you have something in your keeping that you know will practically be useless, even as a decorative piece? I know I have plenty....

Nowadays, there's a Gadget-Grabbing Techno Rage that surrounds us, Iphone 4 being the recent case in point.

IPhone 4


With radio deejays, blog posts humming the Apple's Tune, there's really been a craze over it...

but, as I've said in my facebook wall-post,

Going out for dinner that day, we saw how many parents gave their childrens gadgets; initially it could have started with a mobile phone java game- parents passing the phone to child who claims they are bored in order to shut them up so that parents can do their shopping in peace.

Now we have dad, mom, and child playing with gadgets during dinner, with grandma looking forlorn at the food because no one is talking at a meal.

I believe children who you shut up with gadgets, will really no longer talk to you when they are adolescents, being absorbed by the fancy tech, and the relationship will just turn worse into adulthood.

So I'm a luddite; until we can really plan, and educate them about using it responsibily. I've seen People who get caught up with gadgets, often turning into otakus, becoming less adventurous, reliant on their GPS, lose their natural instincts for adventure... bla bla bla..

Coz I really pity the grandma... and discussion with my colleagues on it. 3 out of 4 of them recommend that they should buy grandma a gadget.

It's really Sweat inducing, their mentality...

Technology should improve communication, not stifle it. Especially within families.

---
That said, everyone is entitled to their own opinion, as they are entitled to the autonomy over their own cash. But maybe you'd like to hear me out...?

Although often situations make me hail 3 times to the person who espoused
"Nature is awesome, adventure is wholesome, Human Beings, plain troublesome"

I'm actually sentimental with human relationships as well. And striking up conversation with strangers on my trips and forging unique relationships has always been a part of me, and has always enlivened my adventures everywhere. 或许我贵人运不错?

My latest trip to Brunei alone has two such people touch my lives. One who is a resort manager,

Swell Guy
(the guy in blue, that's my saviour!)

who went out of his way to help secure a stay for me at a rival lodge because I'm a student who couldn't afford his accommodation. This swell guy actually called two other tour operators and even concocted the story of me being an exchange student to help me secure a stay in Ulu Temburong, without which
these pictures would never have been taken.

Another is a poor little ol lady who has no friends, cheated by her husband in relationship, and of money by the hubby's little vixen, and ostracized by her own family because of her subsequent depression- who was my tour guide, personal transporter and story-teller in and out of Bander Seri Bagawan.

Sabah- where the resort operator for Halleluyah hill resort gave us a whole apartment to ourselves when we paid the amount for a room, invited ruhui for hot showers in their own home, and dished out finger licking meals fro a paltry RM5, just a stone's throw away from Mount Kinabalu. Their numerous pets entertained us, as much as their owners did!

Over in Terengganu,
there's this extremely tasty yummy juice drink that's almost 100% real, thick, fruit puree sold in a little shop for RM3.00, and I would return to the stall like a homing pigeon everyday after cycling through KT.


pure fruit juice


I chatted with the lady during my 1st visit, on my second visit, she offered us free keropok lekor,
Keropok lekor

and on my 3rd visit, we enjoyed a coconut mango, straight from her garden!... It's a stall I vow to return to if and when I go there..

then there's also this gentleman who runs a bubble milk tea stall opposite Ping Anchorage, where I was staying...

had a short chat with him... then on my second visit, he invited me to play badminton with his pals, and even prepared badminton shoes in addition to the racquets for me because he knew I wouldn't be well prepared.




So on the last day before I left terengganu, I had a great game with uncles and aunties in terengganu, haha...

That,
Friend, and friends of said friend while in UK, Cheery lil lady Yumi while in Hong Kong, ... another lady who gave me a discount because I didn't have enough cash with me, no questions asked while in terengganu; marvelous people who I would not have met or